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Sample records for nonequilibrium electron-phonon system

  1. The Electron-Phonon Interaction in Strongly Correlated Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellani, C.; Grilli, M.

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the effect of strong electron-electron repulsion on the electron-phonon interaction from a Fermi-liquid point of view and show that the electron-electron interaction is responsible for vertex corrections, which generically lead to a strong suppression of the electron-phonon coupling in the v F q/ω >>1 region, while such effect is not present when v F q/ω F is the Fermi velocity and q and ω are the transferred momentum and frequency respectively. In particular the e-ph scattering is suppressed in transport properties which are dominated by low-energy-high-momentum processes. On the other hand, analyzing the stability criterion for the compressibility, which involves the effective interactions in the dynamical limit, we show that a sizable electron-phonon interaction can push the system towards a phase-separation instability. Finally a detailed analysis of these ideas is carried out using a slave-boson approach for the infinite-U three-band Hubbard model in the presence of a coupling between the local hole density and a dispersionless optical phonon. (author)

  2. Quasiparticle properties of a coupled quantum-wire electron-phonon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hwang, E. H.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Sarma, S. Das

    1996-01-01

    We study leading-order many-body effects of longitudinal-optical phonons on electronic properties of one-dimensional quantum-wire systems. We calculate the quasiparticle properties of a weakly polar one-dimensional electron gas in the presence of both electron-phonon and electron-electron interac...

  3. Anharmonic vibrational properties in periodic systems: energy, electron-phonon coupling, and stress

    OpenAIRE

    Monserrat, Bartomeu; Drummond, N. D.; Needs, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    A unified approach is used to study vibrational properties of periodic systems with first-principles methods and including anharmonic effects. Our approach provides a theoretical basis for the determination of phonon-dependent quantities at finite temperatures. The low-energy portion of the Born-Oppenheimer energy surface is mapped and used to calculate the total vibrational energy including anharmonic effects, electron-phonon coupling, and the vibrational contribution to the stress tensor. W...

  4. Conductivity of strongly pumped superconductors. An electron-phonon system far from equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krull, Holger

    2015-01-29

    The study of nonequilibrium physics is of great interest, because one can capture novel phenomena and properties which are hidden at equilibrium, e.g., one can study relaxation processes. A common way to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a sample is a pump-probe experiment. In a pump probe experiment an intense laser pulse, the so called pump pulse, excites the sample and takes it out of equilibrium. After a certain delay time a second pulse, the probe pulse, measures the actual state of the sample. In this thesis, we theoretically study the pump-probe response of superconductors. On the one hand we are interest in the effect of a pump pulse and on the other hand we want to provide the pump-probe response, such that experimental measurement can be easily interpreted. In order to do this, we use the density matrix formalism to compute the pump-probe response of the system. In the density matrix formalism equations of motion are set up for expectation values of interest. In order to study the dynamics induced by a pump pulse, we compute the temporal evolution of the quasiparticle densities and the mean phonon amplitude. We find that the induced dynamics of the system depends on characteristics of the pump pulse. For short pulses, the system is pushed into the nonadiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pump pulse and shows a 1/(√(t))-decaying oscillation afterwards. In addition, coherent phonons are generated, which is resonantly enhanced if the frequency of the order parameter oscillation is equal to the phonon frequency. For long pulses, the system is pushed into the adiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pulse and remains almost constant afterwards. Further, there is almost no generation of coherent phonons. For the pump-probe response we compute the conductivity induced by the probe pulse. The conductivity is a typical observable in real pump-probe experiments. Hence, it is possible to

  5. Conductivity of strongly pumped superconductors. An electron-phonon system far from equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krull, Holger

    2015-01-01

    The study of nonequilibrium physics is of great interest, because one can capture novel phenomena and properties which are hidden at equilibrium, e.g., one can study relaxation processes. A common way to study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a sample is a pump-probe experiment. In a pump probe experiment an intense laser pulse, the so called pump pulse, excites the sample and takes it out of equilibrium. After a certain delay time a second pulse, the probe pulse, measures the actual state of the sample. In this thesis, we theoretically study the pump-probe response of superconductors. On the one hand we are interest in the effect of a pump pulse and on the other hand we want to provide the pump-probe response, such that experimental measurement can be easily interpreted. In order to do this, we use the density matrix formalism to compute the pump-probe response of the system. In the density matrix formalism equations of motion are set up for expectation values of interest. In order to study the dynamics induced by a pump pulse, we compute the temporal evolution of the quasiparticle densities and the mean phonon amplitude. We find that the induced dynamics of the system depends on characteristics of the pump pulse. For short pulses, the system is pushed into the nonadiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pump pulse and shows a 1/(√(t))-decaying oscillation afterwards. In addition, coherent phonons are generated, which is resonantly enhanced if the frequency of the order parameter oscillation is equal to the phonon frequency. For long pulses, the system is pushed into the adiabatic regime. In this regime, the order parameter is lowered during the pulse and remains almost constant afterwards. Further, there is almost no generation of coherent phonons. For the pump-probe response we compute the conductivity induced by the probe pulse. The conductivity is a typical observable in real pump-probe experiments. Hence, it is possible to

  6. Theory of parametrically amplified electron-phonon superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babadi, Mehrtash; Knap, Michael; Martin, Ivar; Refael, Gil; Demler, Eugene

    2017-07-01

    Ultrafast optical manipulation of ordered phases in strongly correlated materials is a topic of significant theoretical, experimental, and technological interest. Inspired by a recent experiment on light-induced superconductivity in fullerenes [M. Mitrano et al., Nature (London) 530, 461 (2016), 10.1038/nature16522], we develop a comprehensive theory of light-induced superconductivity in driven electron-phonon systems with lattice nonlinearities. In analogy with the operation of parametric amplifiers, we show how the interplay between the external drive and lattice nonlinearities lead to significantly enhanced effective electron-phonon couplings. We provide a detailed and unbiased study of the nonequilibrium dynamics of the driven system using the real-time Green's function technique. To this end, we develop a Floquet generalization of the Migdal-Eliashberg theory and derive a numerically tractable set of quantum Floquet-Boltzmann kinetic equations for the coupled electron-phonon system. We study the role of parametric phonon generation and electronic heating in destroying the transient superconducting state. Finally, we predict the transient formation of electronic Floquet bands in time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy experiments as a consequence of the proposed mechanism.

  7. New method of accurate estimation of the electron-phonon coupling constants in fractionally charged incommensurate electronic states in molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Takashi

    2011-07-14

    The electron-phonon interactions in the fractionally positively charged incommensurate tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) molecular systems are investigated. In particular, since there are fractionally positive charges per TTF molecule, it is very difficult to estimate the vibronic and electron-phonon coupling constants, and thus there have been no reports of the exact calculations in the electron-phonon coupling constants in such fractionally positively charged incommensurate systems. Therefore, in this paper, we suggest new method of accurate estimation of the electron-phonon coupling constants in the fractionally positively charged systems. Total electron-phonon coupling constants for the monocation (l(+100)) of TTF is compared with that for the monoanion (l(-100)) of tetracyanoquinodimethanide (TCNQ). Furthermore, logarithmically averaged phonon frequency for the monocation (ν(ln , +1.00)) of TTF is compared with that for the monoanion (ν(ln , -1.00)) of TCNQ. The C-C and C-S stretching mode of 1599 cm(-1) and the C-S-C and C-C-S bending mode of 472 cm(-1) strongly couple to the b(3)u highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) in TTF molecule. The l(+100) value for TTF molecule is estimated to be 0.274 eV, and the ν(ln , +1.00) value for TTF molecule is estimated to be 926 cm(-1). The density of states at the Fermi level (N(NM, crystal)(ε(F))(+0.59, +0.59)) values for TTF(0.59+), which are essential physical values in order to investigate the mechanisms of the non-Ohmic current-voltage characteristics excellently suggested by Cohen and Heeger et al., are also estimated. By comparing the N(NM, crystal)(ε(F))(+0.59, +0.59) values estimated by us with those estimated from the experimental results of the Pauli susceptibility and the current-voltage characteristics in TTF(0.59+) suggested by Cohen and Heeger et al., and from the band calculations, we show that the l(+0.59), ν(ln , +1.00), RE(+0.59), and N(NM, crystal)(ε(F))(+0.59, +0.59) values estimated by our

  8. Non-markovian model of photon-assisted dephasing by electron-phonon interactions in a coupled quantum-dot-cavity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Lodahl, Peter

    2010-01-01

    treatments. A pronounced consequence is the emergence of a phonon induced spectral asymmetry when detuning the cavity from the quantum-dot resonance. The asymmetry can only be explained when considering the polaritonic quasiparticle nature of the quantum-dot-cavity system. Furthermore, a temperature induced......We investigate the influence of electron-phonon interactions on the dynamical properties of a quantum-dot-cavity QED system. We show that non-Markovian effects in the phonon reservoir lead to strong changes in the dynamics, arising from photon-assisted dephasing processes, not present in Markovian...

  9. Electron-phonon interactions from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustino, Feliciano

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the theory of electron-phonon interactions in solids from the point of view of ab initio calculations. While the electron-phonon interaction has been studied for almost a century, predictive nonempirical calculations have become feasible only during the past two decades. Today it is possible to calculate from first principles many materials properties related to the electron-phonon interaction, including the critical temperature of conventional superconductors, the carrier mobility in semiconductors, the temperature dependence of optical spectra in direct and indirect-gap semiconductors, the relaxation rates of photoexcited carriers, the electron mass renormalization in angle-resolved photoelectron spectra, and the nonadiabatic corrections to phonon dispersion relations. In this article a review of the theoretical and computational framework underlying modern electron-phonon calculations from first principles as well as landmark investigations of the electron-phonon interaction in real materials is given. The first part of the article summarizes the elementary theory of electron-phonon interactions and their calculations based on density-functional theory. The second part discusses a general field-theoretic formulation of the electron-phonon problem and establishes the connection with practical first-principles calculations. The third part reviews a number of recent investigations of electron-phonon interactions in the areas of vibrational spectroscopy, photoelectron spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, transport, and superconductivity.

  10. Resonant supercollisions and electron-phonon heat transfer in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, K. S.; Gornyi, I. V.; Kachorovskii, V. Yu.; Mirlin, A. D.

    2018-02-01

    We study the effects of strong impurities on heat transfer in a coupled electron-phonon system in disordered graphene. A detailed analysis of the electron-phonon heat exchange assisted by such an impurity through the "resonant supercollision" mechanism is presented. We further explore the local modification of heat transfer in a weakly disordered graphene due to a resonant scatterer and determine spatial profiles of the phonon and electron temperature around the scatterer under electrical driving. Our results are consistent with recent experimental findings on imaging resonant dissipation from individual atomic defects.

  11. Experimental evidence of excited electron number density and temperature effects on electron-phonon coupling in gold films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, Ashutosh; Gaskins, John T.; Foley, Brian M.; Cheaito, Ramez; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-01-01

    The electronic transport properties of metals with weak electron-phonon coupling can be influenced by non-thermal electrons. Relaxation processes involving non-thermal electrons competing with the thermalized electron system have led to inconsistencies in the understanding of how electrons scatter and relax with the less energetic lattice. Recent theoretical and computational works have shown that the rate of energy relaxation with the metallic lattice will change depending on the thermalization state of the electrons. Even though 20 years of experimental works have focused on understanding and isolating these electronic relaxation mechanisms with short pulsed irradiation, discrepancies between these existing works have not clearly answered the fundamental question of the competing effects between non-thermal and thermal electrons losing energy to the lattice. In this work, we demonstrate the ability to measure the electron relaxation for varying degrees of both electron-electron and electron-phonon thermalization. This series of measurements of electronic relaxation over a predicted effective electron temperature range up to ∼3500 K and minimum lattice temperatures of 77 K validate recent computational and theoretical works that theorize how a nonequilibrium distribution of electrons transfers energy to the lattice. Utilizing this wide temperature range during pump-probe measurements of electron-phonon relaxation, we explain discrepancies in the past two decades of literature of electronic relaxation rates. We experimentally demonstrate that the electron-phonon coupling factor in gold increases with increasing lattice temperature and laser fluences. Specifically, we show that at low laser fluences corresponding to small electron perturbations, energy relaxation between electrons and phonons is mainly governed by non-thermal electrons, while at higher laser fluences, non-thermal electron scattering with the lattice is less influential on the energy relaxation

  12. Electron-phonon coupling in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, M.; Baldea, I.

    1981-08-01

    The Ward identity is derived for the electron-phonon coupling in one dimension and the spectrum of elementary excitations is calculated by assuming that the Fermi distribution is not strongly distorted by interaction. The electron-phonon vertex is renormalized in the case of the forward scattering and Migdal's theorem is discussed. A model is proposed for the giant Kohn anomaly. The dip in the phonon spectrum is obtained and found to be in agreement with the experimental data for KCP. (author)

  13. Enhanced Electron-Phonon Coupling at Metal Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plummer, Ward E.

    2010-08-04

    The Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA) decouples electronic from nuclear motion, providing a focal point for most quantum mechanics textbooks. However, a multitude of important chemical, physical and biological phenomena are driven by violations of this approximation. Vibronic interactions are a necessary ingredient in any process that makes or breaks a covalent bond, for example, conventional catalysis or enzymatically delivered biological reactions. Metastable phenomena associated with defects and dopants in semiconductors, oxides, and glasses entail violation of the BOA. Charge exchange in inorganic polymers, organic slats and biological systems involves charge- induced distortions of the local structure. A classic example is conventional superconductivity, which is driven by the electron-lattice interaction. High-resolution angle-resolved photoemission experiments are yielding new insight into the microscopic origin of electron-phonon coupling (EPC) in anisotropic two-dimensional systems. Our recent surface phonon measurement on the surface of a high-Tc material clearly indicates an important momentum dependent EPC in these materials. In the last few years we have shifted our research focus from solely looking at electron phonon coupling to examining the structure/functionality relationship at the surface of complex transition metal compounds. The investigation on electron phonon coupling has allowed us to move to systems where there is coupling between the lattice, the electrons and the spin.

  14. Review of the theoretical description of time-resolved angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy in electron-phonon mediated superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, A.F. [Department of Physics, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sentef, M.A. [Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Center for Free Electron Laser Science, Hamburg (Germany); Moritz, B. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Devereaux, T.P. [Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Sciences (SIMES), SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Freericks, J.K. [Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-09-15

    We review recent work on the theory for pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy of electron-phonon mediated superconductors in both the normal and the superconducting states. We describe the formal developments that allow one to solve the Migdal-Eliashberg theory in nonequilibrium for an ultrashort laser pumping field, and explore the solutions which illustrate the relaxation as energy is transferred from electrons to phonons. We focus on exact results emanating from sum rules and approximate numerical results which describe rules of thumb for relaxation processes. In addition, in the superconducting state, we describe how Anderson-Higgs oscillations can be excited due to the nonlinear coupling with the electric field and describe mechanisms where pumping the system enhances superconductivity. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Nonequilibrium Green's functions approach to inhomogeneous systems

    CERN Document Server

    Balzer, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a self-contained introduction to non-equilibrium quantum particle dynamics for inhomogeneous systems, including a survey of recent breakthroughs pioneered by the authors and others. The approach is based on real-time Green's functions.

  16. Electron-phonon relaxation and excited electron distribution in gallium nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, V. P. [Institute of Solid State Chemistry, Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Pervomayskaya st. 91, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Tyuterev, V. G., E-mail: valtyut00@mail.ru [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Kievskaya st. 60, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, Lenin st. 36, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Chulkov, E. V. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Tomsk State University, Lenin st. 36, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Qumicas, UPV/EHU and Centro de Fisica de Materiales CFM-MPC and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apdo. 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain); Echenique, P. M. [Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), P. Manuel de Lardizabal 4, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Ciencias Qumicas, UPV/EHU and Centro de Fisica de Materiales CFM-MPC and Centro Mixto CSIC-UPV/EHU, Apdo. 1072, 20080 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2016-08-28

    We develop a theory of energy relaxation in semiconductors and insulators highly excited by the long-acting external irradiation. We derive the equation for the non-equilibrium distribution function of excited electrons. The solution for this function breaks up into the sum of two contributions. The low-energy contribution is concentrated in a narrow range near the bottom of the conduction band. It has the typical form of a Fermi distribution with an effective temperature and chemical potential. The effective temperature and chemical potential in this low-energy term are determined by the intensity of carriers' generation, the speed of electron-phonon relaxation, rates of inter-band recombination, and electron capture on the defects. In addition, there is a substantial high-energy correction. This high-energy “tail” largely covers the conduction band. The shape of the high-energy “tail” strongly depends on the rate of electron-phonon relaxation but does not depend on the rates of recombination and trapping. We apply the theory to the calculation of a non-equilibrium distribution of electrons in an irradiated GaN. Probabilities of optical excitations from the valence to conduction band and electron-phonon coupling probabilities in GaN were calculated by the density functional perturbation theory. Our calculation of both parts of distribution function in gallium nitride shows that when the speed of the electron-phonon scattering is comparable with the rate of recombination and trapping then the contribution of the non-Fermi “tail” is comparable with that of the low-energy Fermi-like component. So the high-energy contribution can essentially affect the charge transport in the irradiated and highly doped semiconductors.

  17. Coupled electron-phonon transport from molecular dynamics with quantum baths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Wang, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Based on generalized quantum Langevin equations for the tight-binding wavefunction amplitudes and lattice displacements, electron and phonon quantum transport are obtained exactly using molecular dynamics (MD) in the ballistic regime. The electron-phonon interactions can be handled with a quasi......-classical approximation. Both charge and energy transport and their interplay can be studied. We compare the MD results with those of a fully quantum mechanical nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach for the electron currents. We find a ballistic to diffusive transition of the electron conduction in one...

  18. Electron-phonon coupling in the rare-earth metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Hans Lomholt; Mertig, I.

    1990-01-01

    We have estimated the strength of the mass enhancement of the conduction electrons due to electron-phonon interaction in the rare metals Sc, Y, and La–Lu. The underlying self-consistent energy bands were obtained by means of the scalar relativistic linear-muffin-tin-orbital method, and the electron......-phonon parameters were calculated within the Gaspari-Gyorffy formulation. For the heavier rare earths Gd–Tm spin polarization was included both in the band-structure calculations and in the treatment of the electron-phonon coupling to take into account the spin splitting of the conduction electrons induced by the 4...

  19. The Electron-Phonon Interaction as Studied by Photoelectron Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, D.W.

    2004-01-01

    With recent advances in energy and angle resolution, the effects of electron-phonon interactions are manifest in many valence-band photoelectron spectra (PES) for states near the Fermi level in metals

  20. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium behaviour of surfactant systems

    OpenAIRE

    Reissig, Louisa

    2010-01-01

    In binary systems, surfactant molecules can self-assemble into a large variety of structures depending on their chemical structure, concentration and temperature. The properties and stability of the phases, their coexistence regions and the formation of metastable structures is of great importance not only for fundamental understanding, but also for applications in many fields including industry and medicine. This thesis presents studies of the equilibrium and non-equilibrium b...

  1. A step closer to visualizing the electron___phonon interplay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.L.; Lee, W.S.; Shen, Z.X.; /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC, PULSE

    2011-01-04

    The origin of the very high superconducting transition temperature (Tc) in ceramic copper oxide superconductors is one of the greatest mysteries in modern physics. In the superconducting state, electrons form pairs (known as Cooper pairs) and condense into the superfluid state to conduct electric current with zero resistance. For conventional superconductors, it is well established that the 2 electrons in a Cooper pair are 'bonded' by lattice vibrations (phonons), whereas in high-Tc superconductors, the 'glue' for the Cooper pairs is still under intense discussion. Although the high transition temperature and the unconventional pairing symmetry (d-wave symmetry) have led many researchers to believe that the pairing mechanism results from electron-electron interaction, increasing evidence shows that electron-phonon coupling also significantly influences the low-energy electronic structures and hence may also play an important role in high-Tc superconductivity. In a recent issue of PNAS, Carbone et al. use ultrafast electron diffraction, a recently developed experimental technique, to attack this problem from a new angle, the dynamics of the electronic relaxation process involving phonons. Their results provide fresh evidence for the strong interplay between electronic and atomic degrees of freedom in high-Tc superconductivity. In general, ultrafast spectroscopy makes use of the pump-probe method to study the dynamic process in material. In such experiments, one first shoots an ultrafast (typically 10-100 fs) 'pumping' pulse at the sample to drive its electronic system out of the equilibrium state. Then after a brief time delay ({Delta}t) of typically tens of femtoseconds to tens of picoseconds, a 'probing' pulse of either photons or electrons is sent in to probe the sample's transient state. By varying {Delta}t, one can study the process by which the system relaxes back to the equilibrium state, thus acquiring the related

  2. Universality in Nonequilibrium Lattice Systems Theoretical Foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Ódor, Géza

    2008-01-01

    Universal scaling behavior is an attractive feature in statistical physics because a wide range of models can be classified purely in terms of their collective behavior due to a diverging correlation length. This book provides a comprehensive overview of dynamical universality classes occurring in nonequilibrium systems defined on regular lattices. The factors determining these diverse universality classes have yet to be fully understood, but the book attempts to summarize our present knowledge, taking them into account systematically.The book helps the reader to navigate in the zoo of basic m

  3. Electron-phonon coupling of the actinide metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H. L.; Mertig, I.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have estimated the strength of the electron-phonon coupling in Fr and Ra plus the light actinides Ac through Pu. The underlying self-consistent band-structure calculations were performed by the scalar relativistic linear-muffin-tin-orbital method including l quantum numbers s through g......, and the electron-phonon parameters were obtained within the rigid-atomic-sphere approximation. The electron-phonon coupling in Fr through Th is found to be dominated by pd and df scattering and in Pa through Pu by pd and fg scattering. At the equilibrium volumes and as a function of atomic number, the electron...... be related to the changeover from an s-to- d to an s-to-f electronic transition and a related change in the topology of the Fermi surface...

  4. Electron-phonon coupling in graphene placed between magnetic Li and Si layers on cobalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usachov, Dmitry Yu.; Fedorov, Alexander V.; Vilkov, Oleg Yu.; Ogorodnikov, Ilya I.; Kuznetsov, Mikhail V.; Grüneis, Alexander; Laubschat, Clemens; Vyalikh, Denis V.

    2018-02-01

    Using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we study the electronic structure and electron-phonon coupling in a Li-doped graphene monolayer decoupled from the Co(0001) substrate by intercalation of silicon. Based on the photoelectron diffraction measurements, we disclose the structural properties of the Si/Co interface. Our density functional theory calculations demonstrate that in the studied Li/graphene/Si/Co system the magnetism of Co substrate induces notable magnetic moments on Li and Si atoms. At the same time graphene remains almost nonmagnetic and clamped between two magnetically active atomic layers with antiparallel magnetizations. ARPES maps of the graphene Fermi surface reveal strong electron doping, which may lead to superconductivity mediated by electron-phonon coupling (EPC). Analysis of the spectral function of photoelectrons reveals apparent anisotropy of EPC in the k space. These properties make the studied system tempting for studying the relation between superconductivity and magnetism in two-dimensional materials.

  5. Nonequilibrium work relation in a macroscopic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sughiyama, Yuki; Ohzeki, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider a well-known relationship between the fluctuation theorem and the second law of thermodynamics by evaluating stochastic evolution of the density field (probability measure valued process). In order to establish a bridge between microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, we must take the thermodynamic limit of a stochastic dynamical system following the standard procedure in statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic path characterizing a dynamical behavior in the macroscopic scale can be formulated as an infimum of the action functional for the stochastic evolution of the density field. In our formulation, the second law of thermodynamics can be derived only by symmetry of the action functional without recourse to the Jarzynski equality. Our formulation leads to a nontrivial nonequilibrium work relation for metastable (quasi-stationary) states, which are peculiar in the macroscopic system. We propose a prescription for computing the free energy for metastable states based on the resultant work relation. (paper)

  6. Nonlocal electron-phonon coupling in the pentacene crystal: Beyond the Γ-point approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Yuanping

    2012-01-01

    There is currently increasing interest in understanding the impact of the nonlocal (Peierls-type) electron-phonon mechanism on charge transport in organic molecular semiconductors. Most estimates of the non-local coupling constants reported in the literature are based on the Γ-point phonon modes. Here, the influence of phonon modes spanning the entire Brillouin zone (phonon dispersion) on the nonlocal electron-phonon couplings is investigated for the pentacene crystal. The phonon modes are obtained by using a supercell approach. The results underline that the overall nonlocal couplings are substantially underestimated by calculations taking sole account of the phonons at the Γ point of the unit cell. The variance of the transfer integrals based on Γ-point normal-mode calculations at room temperature is underestimated in some cases by 40% for herringbone-type dimers and by over 80% for cofacial dimers. Our calculations show that the overall coupling is somewhat larger for holes than for electrons. The results also suggest that the interactions of charge carriers (both electrons and holes) with acoustic and optical phonons are comparable. Therefore, an adequate description of the charge-transport properties in pentacene and similar systems requires that these two electron-phonon coupling mechanisms be treated on the same footing. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Understanding the effect of inelastic electron-phonon scattering and channel inhomogeneities on a nanowire FET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Niladri

    2018-02-01

    Using self-consistent Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism, the effect of the inelastic scattering due to electron-phonon interaction on the transfer and output characteristics of a coaxially gated generic nanowire field effect transistor has been studied in detail. The scattering strength Do is varied from 0.003 eV2 to 0.3 eV2. There is change in the threshold voltage and suppression of channel current with increasing scattering strength. We also studied the effect of channel inhomogeneities on electron energy. The channel inhomogeneities are invoked by introducing potential step inside the channel. We study the energy relaxation due to inelastic scattering and channel inhomogeneities by comparing the normalized terminal current per energy for the source and drain terminals.

  8. Non-dissipative effects in nonequilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Maes, Christian

    2018-01-01

    This book introduces and discusses both the fundamental aspects and the measurability of applications of time-symmetric kinetic quantities, outlining the features that constitute the non-dissipative branch of non-equilibrium physics. These specific features of non-equilibrium dynamics have largely been ignored in standard statistical mechanics texts. This introductory-level book offers novel material that does not take the traditional line of extending standard thermodynamics to the irreversible domain. It shows that although stationary dissipation is essentially equivalent with steady non-equilibrium and ubiquitous in complex phenomena, non-equilibrium is not determined solely by the time-antisymmetric sector of energy-entropy considerations. While this should not be very surprising, this book provides timely, simple reminders of the role of time-symmetric and kinetic aspects in the construction of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics.

  9. On nonequilibrium many-body systems. 1: The nonequilibrium statistical operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarte, A.C.S.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Luzzi, R.; Sampaio, A.J.C.

    1985-01-01

    The theoretical aspects involved in the treatment of many-body systems strongly departed from equilibrium are discussed. The nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method is considered in detail. Using Jaynes' maximum entropy formalism complemented with an ad hoc hypothesis a nonequilibrium statistical operator is obtained. This approach introduces irreversibility from the outset and we recover statistical operators like those of Green-Mori and Zubarev as particular cases. The connection with Generalized Thermodynamics and the construction of nonlinear transport equations are briefly described. (Author) [pt

  10. Electron-phonon scattering from Green’s function transport combined with molecular dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Palsgaard, Mattias Lau Nøhr; Stradi, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    approach by comparing to mobilities and conductivities obtained by the Boltzmann transport equation for different bulk and one-dimensional systems. For bulk silicon and gold we compare against experimental values. We discuss limitations and advantages of each of the computational approaches.......We present a conceptually simple method for treating electron-phonon scattering and phonon limited mobilities. By combining Green’s function based transport calculations and molecular dynamics, we obtain a temperature dependent transmission from which we evaluate the mobility. We validate our...

  11. Low temperature behavior of nonequilibrium multilevel systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel; O'Kelly de Galway, W.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2014), "035002-1"-"035002-11" ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nonequilibrium state state * low temperature Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.583, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/1751-8121/47/3/035002?fromSearchPage=true

  12. Electron-phonon coupling of the actinide metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, H. L.; Mertig, I.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have estimated the strength of the electron-phonon coupling in Fr and Ra plus the light actinides Ac through Pu. The underlying self-consistent band-structure calculations were performed by the scalar relativistic linear-muffin-tin-orbital method including l quantum numbers s through g......-phonon parameter λ is found to attain its maximum value in Ac, and they predict a transition temperature of 9K for this metal. In the light actinides Th through Pu, λ is found to be of order 0.4 and within a factor of 2 of experiments which is also the accuracy found in studies of the transition metals...

  13. Electron-phonon interaction in high temperature superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khosroabadi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   We explore the important role of the strong electron-phonon interaction in high temperature superconductivity through the study of the results of some important experiments, such as inelastic neutron and X-ray scattering, angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy, and isotope effects. We also present our computational results of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Ag Raman modes, and the ionic displacement dependence of the electronic band structure by density functional theory. It is clearly evident that the role of phonons in the mechanism behind the high-temperature superconducting state should be seriously considered.

  14. Electron-phonon coupling in quasi free-standing graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christian Johannsen, Jens; Ulstrup, Søren; Bianchi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Quasi free-standing monolayer graphene can be produced by intercalating species like oxygen or hydrogen between epitaxial graphene and the substrate crystal. If the graphene is indeed decoupled from the substrate, one would expect the observation of a similar electronic dispersion and many......-body effects, irrespective of the substrate and the material used to achieve the decoupling. Here we investigate the electron-phonon coupling in two different types of quasi free-standing monolayer graphene: decoupled from SiC via hydrogen intercalation and decoupled from Ir via oxygen intercalation. Both...

  15. Unraveling the acoustic electron-phonon interaction in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaasbjerg, Kristen; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2012-01-01

    Using a first-principles approach we calculate the electron-phonon couplings in graphene for the transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons. Analytic forms of the coupling matrix elements valid in the long-wavelength limit are found to give an almost quantitative description of the first...... that the intrinsic effective acoustic deformation potential of graphene is Ξeff=6.8 eV and that the temperature dependence of the mobility μ~T-α in the Bloch-Gru¨neisen regime increases beyond an α=4 dependence even in the absence of screening when the true coupling matrix elements are considered. The α>4...

  16. Angle-Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy on Electronic Structure and Electron-Phonon Coupling in Cuprate Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, X.J.

    2010-04-30

    thought possible only a decade ago. This revolution of the ARPES technique and its scientific impact result from dramatic advances in four essential components: instrumental resolution and efficiency, sample manipulation, high quality samples and well-matched scientific issues. The purpose of this treatise is to go through the prominent results obtained from ARPES on cuprate superconductors. Because there have been a number of recent reviews on the electronic structures of high-T{sub c} materials, we will mainly present the latest results not covered previously, with a special attention given on the electron-phonon interaction in cuprate superconductors. What has emerged is rich information about the anomalous electron-phonon interaction well beyond the traditional views of the subject. It exhibits strong doping, momentum and phonon symmetry dependence, and shows complex interplay with the strong electron-electron interaction in these materials. ARPES experiments have been instrumental in identifying the electronic structure, observing and detailing the electron-phonon mode coupling behavior, and mapping the doping evolution of the high-T{sub c} cuprates. The spectra evolve from the strongly coupled, polaronic spectra seen in underdoped cuprates to the Migdal-Eliashberg like spectra seen in the optimally and overdoped cuprates. In addition to the marked doping dependence, the cuprates exhibit pronounced anisotropy with direction in the Brillouin zone: sharp quasiparticles along the nodal direction that broaden significantly in the anti-nodal region of the underdoped cuprates, an anisotropic electron-phonon coupling vertex for particular modes identified in the optimal and overdoped compounds, and preferential scattering across the two parallel pieces of Fermi surface in the antinodal region for all doping levels. This also contributes to the pseudogap effect. To the extent that the Migdal-Eliashberg picture applies, the spectra of the cuprates bear resemblance to that

  17. Electron-phonon coupling of light-actinides. Effect of spin-orbit coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Castelazo, Paola; Pena-Seaman, Omar de la [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (BUAP), Institute of Physics (IFUAP) (Mexico); Heid, Rolf; Bohnen, Klaus-Peter [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik (IFP) (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The physics of actinide metals is quite complex and rich due to the behavior of 5f electrons in the valence region: it goes from itinerant on the early stages of the actinide series to highly localized for the elements with a higher number of 5f electrons involved. In addition, in this systems should be mandatory the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). However, only in few cases on electronic and lattice dynamical properties the SOC has been taking into account, while for the electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling such analysis has not been performed so far. Thus, as a first approach we have systematically studied the SOC influence on the full-phonon dispersion and the e-ph coupling for the simplest light-actinide metals: Ac and Th. These elements have been studied within the framework of density functional perturbation theory, using a mixed-basis pseudopotential method. The full-phonon dispersion as well as the Eliashberg spectral function and the electron-phonon coupling parameter have been calculated with and without SOC. The observed effects of SOC in the full-phonon dispersion and Eliashberg function are discussed in detail, together with an analysis of the differences on the electronic properties due to the SOC inclusion in the calculations.

  18. Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For systems in contact with two reservoirs at different densities or with two thermostats at different temperatures, the large deviation function of the density gives a possible way of extending the notion of free energy to non-equilibrium systems. This large deviation function of the density can be calculated explicitly for ...

  19. Confinement of acoustical modes due to the electron-phonon interaction within 2D-electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochelap, V.A.; Gulseren, O.

    1992-09-01

    We study the confinement of acoustical modes within 2DEG due only to the electron-phonon interaction. The confined modes split out from the bulk phonons even at uniform lattice parameters, when the 2DEG is created by means of modulation doping. The effect is more pronounced when the wave vector q of the modes increases and is maximum at q = 2 k F (k F is the Fermi wave vector). In the case of several electron sheets the additional features of the confinement effect appear. In the limit of the strong electron-phonon coupling and high surface concentration of the electrons the considered system can suffer Peierls-type phase transition. In this case periodical deformation of the lattice and charge density wave are confined within the electron sheet. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs

  20. Thermodynamics of Nonequilibrium Systems with Feedback Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagawa, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    In modern nonequilibrium physics, ``Maxwell's demon'' has attracted renewed attentions in both terms of theory and experiment. The demon plays a key role to unify thermodynamics and information theory, which can extract the useful work from a heat bath by using the obtained information via feedback control. In this talk, I will talk about the recent development of thermodynamics of information. In particular, I will focus on the generalizations of the second law of thermodynamics and the Jarzynski equality in the presence of feedback control, where information contents and thermodynamic quantities are treated on an equal footing. I will also discuss recent experimental results that realized Maxwell's demon by colloidal particles and single electrons.

  1. Signature of electron-phonon interaction in high temperature superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Ashokan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The theory of thermal conductivity of high temperature superconductors (HTS based on electron and phonon line width (life times formulation is developed with Quantum dynamical approach of Green's function. The frequency line width is observed as an extremely sensitive quantity in the transport phenomena of HTS as a collection of large number of scattering processes. The role of resonance scattering and electron-phonon interaction processes is found to be most prominent near critical temperature. The theory successfully explains the spectacular behaviour of high Tc superconductors in the vicinity of transition temperature. A successful agreement between theory and experiment has been obtained by analyzing the thermal conductivity data for the sample La1.8Sr0.2CuO4 in the temperature range 0 − 200K. The theory is equally and successfully applicable to all other high Tc superconductors.

  2. Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a possible way of extending the notion of free energy to non-equilibrium systems. This large deviation function of the density can be calculated explicitly for exclusion models in one dimension with open boundary conditions. For these models, one can also obtain the distribution of the current of particles flowing through the ...

  3. Nonequilibrium Enhances Adaptation Efficiency of Stochastic Biochemical Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    Full Text Available Adaptation is a crucial biological function possessed by many sensory systems. Early work has shown that some influential equilibrium models can achieve accurate adaptation. However, recent studies indicate that there are close relationships between adaptation and nonequilibrium. In this paper, we provide an explanation of these two seemingly contradictory results based on Markov models with relatively simple networks. We show that as the nonequilibrium driving becomes stronger, the system under consideration will undergo a phase transition along a fixed direction: from non-adaptation to simple adaptation then to oscillatory adaptation, while the transition in the opposite direction is forbidden. This indicates that although adaptation may be observed in equilibrium systems, it tends to occur in systems far away from equilibrium. In addition, we find that nonequilibrium will improve the performance of adaptation by enhancing the adaptation efficiency. All these results provide a deeper insight into the connection between adaptation and nonequilibrium. Finally, we use a more complicated network model of bacterial chemotaxis to validate the main results of this paper.

  4. Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    systems. Keywords. Non-equilibrium systems; large deviations; current fluctuations. PACS Nos 02.50.-r; 05.40.-a; 05.70.Ln; 82.20.-w. 1. Introduction. The goal of this .... The model is defined as a one-dimensional lattice of L sites with open bound- .... In [2] a perturbation theory was developed to calculate µ(λ) in powers of λ.

  5. Phase transitions, scaling and renormalisation in nonequilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hanney, T E

    2002-01-01

    critical fixed point. Extensions to include disorder, to higher dimensions, and to other models are all possible using the method. Using the mapping between the Master equation and the Schroedinger equation in imaginary time, this scaling procedure is rephrased as a new blocking for quantum-spin systems. Existing methods of real space renormalisation for quantum-spin systems are applied to a variety of previously unconsidered exclusion models. In particular, it is shown how such techniques can be applied to models whose dynamics conserve particle number. Finally, by applying a Trotter decomposition to the quantum-spin Hamiltonian, it is shown how a nonequilibrium exclusion model can be written in terms of a classical Hamiltonian for Ising spin variables in one higher dimension. This mapping admits the possibility rescaling time and length scales separately, and with reference to a specific update mechanism. Nonequilibrium phase transitions and critical phenomena in simple lattice-based interacting particle mo...

  6. On nonequilibrium many-body systems III: nonlinear transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzzi, R.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Algarte, A.C.S.

    1986-01-01

    A nonlinear transport theory for many-body systems arbitrarily away from equilibrium, based on the nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO) method, is presented. Nonlinear transport equations for a basis set of dynamical quantities are derived using two equivalent treatments that may be considered far reaching generalizations of the Hilbert-Chapman-Enskog method and Mori's generalized Langevin equations method. The first case is considered in some detail and the general characteristics of the theory are discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. Phonovoltaic. III. Electron-phonon coupling and figure of merit of graphene:BN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Corey; Kaviany, Massoud

    2016-12-01

    The phonovoltaic cell harvests optical phonons like a photovoltaic harvests photons, that is, a nonequilibrium (hot) population of optical phonons (at temperature Tp ,O) more energetic than the band gap produces electron-hole pairs in a p -n junction, which separates these pairs to produce power. A phonovoltaic material requires an optical phonon mode more energetic than its band gap and much more energetic than the thermal energy (Ep ,O>Δ Ee ,g≫kBT ), which relaxes by generating electrons and power (at rate γ˙e -p) rather than acoustic phonons and heat (at rate γ˙p -p). Graphene (h-C) is the most promising material candidate: when its band gap is tuned to its optical phonon energy without greatly reducing the electron-phonon (e -p ) coupling, it reaches a substantial figure of merit [ZpV=Δ Ee ,gγ˙e -p/Ep ,O(γ˙e -p+γ˙p -p) ≈0.8 ] . A simple tight-binding (TB) model presented here predicts that lifting the sublattice symmetry of graphene in order to open a band gap proscribes the e -p interaction at the band edge, such that γ˙e -p→0 as Δ Ee ,g→Ep ,O . However, ab initio (DFT-LDA) simulations of layered h-C/BN and substitutional h-C:BN show that the e -p coupling remains substantial in these asymmetric crystals. Indeed, h-C:BN achieves a high figure of merit (ZpV≈0.6 ). At 300 K and for a Carnot limit of 0.5 (Tp ,O=600 K) , a h-C:BN phonovoltaic can reach an efficiency of ηpV≈0.2 , double the thermoelectric efficiency (Z T ≈1 ) under similar conditions.

  8. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and stochastic thermodynamics of small systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu Zhanchun

    2014-01-01

    Thermodynamics is an old subject. The research objects in conventional thermodynamics are macroscopic systems with huge number of particles. In recent 30 years, thermodynamics of small systems is a frontier topic in physics. Here we introduce nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and stochastic thermodynamics of small systems. As a case study, we construct a Canot-like cycle of a stochastic heat engine with a single particle controlled by a time-dependent harmonic potential. We find that the efficiency at maximum power is 1 - √T c /T h , where Tc and Th are the temperatures of cold bath and hot bath, respectively. (author)

  9. Potential landscape and flux field theory for turbulence and nonequilibrium fluid systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Jin

    2018-02-01

    Turbulence is a paradigm for far-from-equilibrium systems without time reversal symmetry. To capture the nonequilibrium irreversible nature of turbulence and investigate its implications, we develop a potential landscape and flux field theory for turbulent flow and more general nonequilibrium fluid systems governed by stochastic Navier-Stokes equations. We find that equilibrium fluid systems with time reversibility are characterized by a detailed balance constraint that quantifies the detailed balance condition. In nonequilibrium fluid systems with nonequilibrium steady states, detailed balance breaking leads directly to a pair of interconnected consequences, namely, the non-Gaussian potential landscape and the irreversible probability flux, forming a 'nonequilibrium trinity'. The nonequilibrium trinity characterizes the nonequilibrium irreversible essence of fluid systems with intrinsic time irreversibility and is manifested in various aspects of these systems. The nonequilibrium stochastic dynamics of fluid systems including turbulence with detailed balance breaking is shown to be driven by both the non-Gaussian potential landscape gradient and the irreversible probability flux, together with the reversible convective force and the stochastic stirring force. We reveal an underlying connection of the energy flux essential for turbulence energy cascade to the irreversible probability flux and the non-Gaussian potential landscape generated by detailed balance breaking. Using the energy flux as a center of connection, we demonstrate that the four-fifths law in fully developed turbulence is a consequence and reflection of the nonequilibrium trinity. We also show how the nonequilibrium trinity can affect the scaling laws in turbulence.

  10. The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.

    2012-09-01

    Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.

  11. Structural characterization of lipidic systems under nonequilibrium conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yaghmur, Anan; Rappolt, Michael

    2012-01-01

    manipulation techniques including, for instance, stop-flow mixing or rapid temperature-jump perturbation is given. Second, our recent synchrotron SAXS findings on the dynamic structural response of gold nanoparticle-loaded vesicles upon exposure to an ultraviolet light source, the impact of rapidly mixing...... and the possible formation of intermediate states in the millisecond to second range. The need for investigating self-assembled systems, mainly stimuli-responsive drug nanocarriers, under nonequilibrium conditions is discussed. For pharmaceutically relevant applications, it is essential to combine...

  12. Nonequilibrium Microscopic Distribution of Thermal Current in Particle Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yukawa, Satoshi

    2009-02-15

    A nonequilibrium distribution function of microscopic thermal current is studied by a direct numerical simulation in a thermal conducting steady state of particle systems. Two characteristic temperatures of the thermal current are investigated on the basis of the distribution. It is confirmed that the temperature depends on the current direction; Parallel temperature to the heat-flux is higher than antiparallel one. The difference between the parallel temperature and the antiparallel one is proportional to a macroscopic temperature gradient. ©2009 The Physical Society of Japan.

  13. Nonequilibrium transport in the pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng-Zhen; Xu, Hong-Ya; Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Recently, solid state materials hosting pseudospin-1 quasiparticles have attracted a great deal of attention. In these materials, the energy band contains a pair of Dirac cones and a flatband through the connecting point of the cones. As the "caging" of carriers with a zero group velocity, the flatband itself has zero conductivity. However, in a nonequilibrium situation where a constant electric field is suddenly switched on, the flatband can enhance the resulting current in both the linear and nonlinear response regimes through distinct physical mechanisms. Using the (2 +1 )-dimensional pseudospin-1 Dirac-Weyl system as a concrete setting, we demonstrate that, in the weak field regime, the interband current is about twice larger than that for pseudospin-1/2 system due to the interplay between the flatband and the negative band, with the scaling behavior determined by the Kubo formula. In the strong field regime, the intraband current is √{2 } times larger than that in the pseudospin-1/2 system, due to the additional contribution from particles residing in the flatband. In this case, the current and field follow the scaling law associated with Landau-Zener tunneling. These results provide a better understanding of the role of the flatband in nonequilibrium transport and are experimentally testable using electronic or photonic systems.

  14. Variational discretization of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Yoshimura, Hiroaki

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop variational integrators for the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of simple closed systems. These integrators are obtained by a discretization of the Lagrangian variational formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics developed in (Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017a J. Geom. Phys. part I 111 169–93 Gay-Balmaz and Yoshimura 2017b J. Geom. Phys. part II 111 194–212) and thus extend the variational integrators of Lagrangian mechanics, to include irreversible processes. In the continuous setting, we derive the structure preserving property of the flow of such systems. This property is an extension of the symplectic property of the flow of the Euler–Lagrange equations. In the discrete setting, we show that the discrete flow solution of our numerical scheme verifies a discrete version of this property. We also present the regularity conditions which ensure the existence of the discrete flow. We finally illustrate our discrete variational schemes with the implementation of an example of a simple and closed system.

  15. Lattice dynamics and electron-phonon coupling on Mn1-xFexSi: effect of magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Castelazo, Paola; de La Peã+/-A Seaman, Omar; Heid, Rolf; Bohnen, Klaus-Peter

    We have studied the electronic, lattice dynamics, and electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling properties of the Mn1-xFexSi alloy. This system have been analyzed within the framework of density functional perturbation theory, using a mixed-basis pseudopotential method and the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) for modeling the alloy. In particular, the electronic density of states (DOS), the full-phonon dispersion, as well as the electron-phonon coupling (λ) and the phonon linewidth (γ) have been calculated with and without the inclusion of spin polarization. While for FeSi is very well known that the effects of magnetism on the lattice dynamics are observed trough the phonon linewidths for specific regions on the zone boundary, on MnSi such detail analysis has not been addressed so far. Thus, the evolution of phonon frequencies and linewidths as a function of Fe-content are presented and discussed in detail, paying special attention the effect of spin-polarization on such properties for the magnetic region on the phase diagram x Conacyt-México under project No. CB2013-221807-F.

  16. In-situ Raman Spectroscopy of the Graphene / Water Interface of a Solution-Gated Field Effect Transistor: Electron-Phonon Coupling and Spectroelectrochemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, J.; Urban, J. M.; Stepniewski, R.; Strupinski, W.; Wysmolek, A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel measurement approach which combines the electrical characterization of solution-gated field effect transistors based on epitaxial bilayer graphene on 4H-SiC (0001) with simultaneous Raman spectroscopy. By changing the gate voltage, we observed Raman signatures related to the resonant electron-phonon coupling. An analysis of these Raman bands enabled the extraction of the geometrical capacitance of the system and an accurate calculation of the Fermi levels for bilayer graphe...

  17. Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, P.; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Nordblad, P.

    2000-01-01

    Nonequilibrium dynamics in an interacting Fe-C nanoparticle sample, exhibiting a low-temperature spin-glass-like phase, has been studied by low-frequency ac susceptibility and magnetic relaxation experiments. The nonequilibrium behavior shows characteristic spin-glass features, but some qualitative...

  18. Sampling rare events in nonequilibrium and nonstationary systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Joshua T; Schilling, Tanja

    2010-12-28

    Although many computational methods for rare event sampling exist, this type of calculation is not usually practical for general nonequilibrium conditions, with macroscopically irreversible dynamics and away from both stationary and metastable states. A novel method for calculating the time-series of the probability of a rare event is presented which is designed for these conditions. The method is validated for the cases of the Glauber-Ising model under time-varying shear flow, the Kawasaki-Ising model after a quench into the region between nucleation dominated and spinodal decomposition dominated phase change dynamics, and the parallel open asymmetric exclusion process. The method requires a subdivision of the phase space of the system: it is benchmarked and found to scale well for increasingly fine subdivisions, meaning that it can be applied without detailed foreknowledge of the physically important reaction pathways.

  19. On the definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Akimoto, Takuma

    2008-01-01

    We propose a definition of equilibrium and non-equilibrium states in dynamical systems on the basis of the time average. We show numerically that there exists a non-equilibrium non-stationary state in the coupled modified Bernoulli map lattice.

  20. Correlation between phonon anomaly along [211] and the Fermi surface nesting features with associated electron-phonon interactions in Ni2FeGa: A first principles study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabungbam, Satyananda; Sahariah, Munima B.

    2015-01-01

    First principles calculation reaffirms the presence of phonon anomaly along [211] direction in Ni 2 FeGa shape memory alloy supporting the experimental findings of J. Q. Li et al. Fermi surface scans have been performed in both austenite and martensite phase to see the possible Fermi nesting features in this alloy. The magnitude of observed Fermi surface nesting vectors in (211) plane exactly match the phonon anomaly wavevectors along [211] direction. Electron-phonon calculation in the austenite phase shows that there is significant electron-phonon coupling in this alloy which might arise out of the lattice coupling between lower acoustic modes and higher optical modes combined with the observed strong Fermi nesting features in the system. - Highlights: • Transverse acoustic (TA 2 ) modes show anomaly along [211] direction in Ni 2 FeGa. • The phonon anomaly wavevector has been correlated with the Fermi nesting vectors. • Electron-phonon coupling calculation shows significant coupling in this system. • Max. el-ph coupling occurs in transition frequencies from acoustic to optical modes

  1. Geometry and symmetry in non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnino, Giorgio

    2017-06-01

    The ultimate aim of this series of works is to establish the closure equations, valid for thermodynamic systems out from the Onsager region, and to describe the geometry and symmetry in thermodynamic systems far from equilibrium. Geometry of a non-equilibrium thermodynamic system is constructed by taking into account the second law of thermodynamics and by imposing the validity of the Glansdorff-Prigogine Universal Criterion of Evolution. These two constraints allow introducing the metrics and the affine connection of the Space of the Thermodynamic Forces, respectively. The Lie group associated to the nonlinear Thermodynamic Coordinate Transformations (TCT) leaving invariant both the entropy production σ and the Glansdorff-Prigogine dissipative quantity P, is also described. The invariance under TCT leads to the formulation of the Thermodynamic Covariance Principle (TCP): The nonlinear closure equations, i.e. the flux-force relations, must be covariant under TCT. In other terms, the fundamental laws of thermodynamics should be manifestly covariant under transformations between the admissible thermodynamic forces (i.e. under TCT). The symmetry properties of a physical system are intimately related to the conservation laws characterizing the thermodynamic system. Noether's theorem gives a precise description of this relation. The macroscopic theory for closure relations, based on this geometrical description and subject to the TCP, is referred to as the Thermodynamic Field Theory (TFT). This theory ensures the validity of the fundamental theorems for systems far from equilibrium.

  2. Electrical resistivity due to electron-phonon scattering in thin gadolinium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbaniak-Kucharczyk, A.

    1988-01-01

    The contribution to the electrical resistivity due to the electron-phonon scattering for the special case of h.c.p. structure is derived. The numerical results obtained for the case of polycrystalline gadolinum films show the resistivity dependence on the film thickness and the surface properties. (author)

  3. Influence of the electron-phonon iinteraction on phonon heat conduction in a molecular nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galović Slobodanka P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A model for phonon heat conduction in a molecular nanowire is developed. The calculation takes into account modification of the acoustic phonon dispersion relation due to the electron-phonon interaction. The results obtained are compared with models based upon a simpler, Callaway formula.

  4. Ranges and limits of the electron-phonon coupling constant of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simplified study of the effect of including self energy and vertex corrections to the BCS critical temperature Tc expression is carried out her to identify the possible ranges and limits of the electron-phonon coupling constant λ in superconductivity. The results show that the inclusion of the self energy will reduce the BCS Tc to ...

  5. Wave-vector-dependent electron-phonon coupling and the charge-density-wave transition in TbT e3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschek, M.; Rosenkranz, S.; Heid, R.; Said, A. H.; Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Fisher, I. R.; Weber, F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a high-energy-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering investigation of the soft phonon mode in the charge-density-wave (CDW) system TbT e3 . We analyze our data based on lattice dynamical calculations using density-functional-perturbation theory and find clear evidence that strongly momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling defines the periodicity of the CDW superstructure: Our experiment reveals strong phonon softening and increased phonon linewidths over a large part in reciprocal space adjacent to the CDW ordering vector qCDW=(0 ,0 ,0.3 ) . Further, qCDW is clearly offset from the wave vector of (weak) Fermi surface nesting qFS=(0 ,0 ,0.25 ) , and our detailed analysis indicates that electron-phonon coupling is responsible for this shift. Hence, we can add TbT e3 , which was previously considered as a canonical CDW compound following the Peierls scenario, to the list of distinct charge-density-wave materials characterized by momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling.

  6. Nonequilibrium Contribution to the Rate of Reaction. III. Isothermal Multicomponent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizgal, B.; Karplus, M.

    1970-10-01

    The nonequilibrium contribution to the reaction rate of an isothermal multicomponent system is obtained by solution of the appropriate Chapman-Enskog equation; the system is composed of reactive species in contact with a heat bath of inert atoms M.

  7. Nonequilibrium phase transition in a system with chaotic dynamics. The ABCDE model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, R.; Haken, H.

    1992-04-01

    For the ABCDE model, a low-dimensional dynamical system devised to study the generation of magnetic fields by convective fluid motions, we examine a nonequilibrium phase transition in a system with chaotic dynamics.

  8. Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.

  9. A calculational scheme for nonequilibrium quantum field system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A new calculational scheme is presented for interacting nonequi-librium time dependent quantum field systems within the framework of thermo field dynamics (TFD), taking account of the fact that the thermal vacuum should go through many inequivalent state vector spaces. A para-meter parametrizing various state vector spaces has to be introduced and plays a role of new time-variable. Thus we have double-time TFD. The 2 requirements in this double-time TFD are imposed to establish a quasi-particle picture to get an attainable scheme of perturbative calculation : the existence of the spectral representation for the full propagator and the diagonalization of the quasi-particle Hamiltonian. The 1st condition turns out to amount to the existence of local-time tempera-ture. The 2nd condition leads to the master equation for the number density. This formalism is applied to high-energy heavy ion collision process. The very fundamental question is then how the thermodynamical properties such as heat and temperature appear in such an isolated system. This double-time TFD, suitable for isolated thermal systems of quantum fields, can handle the situation from the beginning of the process. (author). 24 refs.; 1 fig

  10. A theory of nonequilibrium steady states in quantum chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei

    2017-09-01

    Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is a quasistationary state, in which exist currents that continuously produce entropy, but the local observables are stationary everywhere. We propose a theory of NESS under the framework of quantum chaos. In an isolated quantum system whose density matrix follows a unitary evolution, there exist initial states for which the thermodynamic limit and the long-time limit are noncommutative. The density matrix \\hat ρ of these states displays a universal structure. Suppose that \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketα and \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketβ are different eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with energies E_α and E_β , respectively. \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ behaves as a random number which has zero mean. In thermodynamic limit, the variance of \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ is a smooth function of ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert , scaling as 1/≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert 2 in the limit ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert \\to 0 . If and only if this scaling law is obeyed, the initial state evolves into NESS in the long time limit. We present numerical evidence of our hypothesis in a few chaotic models. Furthermore, we find that our hypothesis indicates the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for current operators in a bipartite system.

  11. Bibliography on Small Systems: Nonequilibrium Phenomena and Anomalous Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    LIU, Fei; Lamberto, Rondoni; TANG, Lei-Han; ZHOU, Hai-Jun; WANG, Yan-Ting

    2014-10-01

    The workshop and satellite conference held in July 2013 at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) brought together experts of a variety of different fields, and constituted a unique opportunity to share ideas and breed new ones in a strongly interdisciplinary fashion. At the same time, the breadth of the scope of these two meetings was so wide that the need for a collection of reference books and papers was pointed out, in order to help the interested professionals, as well as graduate students, both to tackle the technically advanced issues and to bridge the gaps, necessarily present in each other's background. Therefore, we invited some of the participants to produce a bibliography containing the most relevant works in their own fields, and to complement this bibliography with a short explanation of the content of those books and papers. We are thus very grateful to Igor Goychuk, David Lacoste, Annick Lesne, Andrea Puglisi, Hong Qian and Hugo Touchette for having accepted our invitation and for having produced what we consider a very useful tool for all those who want to learn or to understand more deeply the current theories concerning small and nonequilibrium systems.

  12. Electron-phonon heat exchange in quasi-two-dimensional nanolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Dragos-Victor; Cojocaru, Sergiu

    2017-12-01

    We study the heat power P transferred between electrons and phonons in thin metallic films deposited on free-standing dielectric membranes. The temperature range is typically below 1 K, such that the wavelengths of the excited phonon modes in the system is large enough so that the picture of a quasi-two-dimensional phonon gas is applicable. Moreover, due to the quantization of the components of the electron wavevectors perpendicular to the metal film's surface, the electrons spectrum forms also quasi two-dimensional sub-bands, as in a quantum well (QW). We describe in detail the contribution to the electron-phonon energy exchange of different electron scattering channels, as well as of different types of phonon modes. We find that heat flux oscillates strongly with thickness of the film d while having a much smoother variation with temperature (Te for the electrons temperature and Tph for the phonons temperature), so that one obtains a ridge-like landscape in the two coordinates, (d, Te) or (d, Tph), with crests and valleys aligned roughly parallel to the temperature axis. For the valley regions we find P ∝ Te3.5 - Tph3.5. From valley to crest, P increases by more than one order of magnitude and on the crests P cannot be represented by a simple power law. The strong dependence of P on d is indicative of the formation of the QW state and can be useful in controlling the heat transfer between electrons and crystal lattice in nano-electronic devices. Nevertheless, due to the small value of the Fermi wavelength in metals, the surface imperfections of the metallic films can reduce the magnitude of the oscillations of P vs. d, so this effect might be easier to observe experimentally in doped semiconductors.

  13. Zubarev's Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator Method in the Generalized Statistics of Multiparticle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushak, P. A.; Markiv, B. B.; Tokarchuk, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    We present a generalization of Zubarev's nonequilibrium statistical operator method based on the principle of maximum Renyi entropy. In the framework of this approach, we obtain transport equations for the basic set of parameters of the reduced description of nonequilibrium processes in a classical system of interacting particles using Liouville equations with fractional derivatives. For a classical systems of particles in a medium with a fractal structure, we obtain a non-Markovian diffusion equation with fractional spatial derivatives. For a concrete model of the frequency dependence of a memory function, we obtain generalized Kettano-type diffusion equation with the spatial and temporal fractality taken into account. We present a generalization of nonequilibrium thermofield dynamics in Zubarev's nonequilibrium statistical operator method in the framework of Renyi statistics.

  14. Electron-phonon interactions and the phonon anomaly in β-phase NiTi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, G.L.; Harmon, B.N.

    1993-01-01

    The electronic structure of β-phase NiTi has been calculated using a first-principles linear-combination-of-atomic-orbitals method. The resulting band structure was fitted with a nonorthogonal tight-binding Hamiltonian from which electron-phonon matrix elements were evaluated. The soft phonon near Q 0 =(2/3, 2) / (3 ,0)π/a, which is responsible for the premartensitic phase transition in β-phase NiTi, is found to arise from the strong electron-phonon coupling of nested electronic states on the Fermi surface. Thermal vibrations and changes in electronic occupation cause a smearing of the nested features, which in turn cause a hardening of the phonon anomaly

  15. Microwave Detection of Electron-Phonon Interactions in a Cavity-Coupled Double Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartke, T. R.; Liu, Y.-Y.; Gullans, M. J.; Petta, J. R.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum confinement leads to the formation of discrete electronic states in quantum dots. Here we probe electron-phonon interactions in a suspended InAs nanowire double quantum dot (DQD) that is electric-dipole coupled to a microwave cavity. We apply a finite bias across the wire to drive a steady state population in the DQD excited state, enabling a direct measurement of the electron-phonon coupling strength at the DQD transition energy. The amplitude and phase response of the cavity field exhibit oscillations that are periodic in the DQD energy level detuning due to the phonon modes of the nanowire. The observed cavity phase shift is consistent with theory that predicts a renormalization of the cavity center frequency by coupling to phonons.

  16. Electron systems out of equilibrium: nonequilibrium Green's function approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špička, Václav; Velický, Bedřich; Kalvová, Anděla

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 23 (2014), "1430013-1"-"1430013-103" ISSN 0217-9792 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP204/12/0897 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nonequilibrium statistical physics * transients * quantum transport theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.937, year: 2014

  17. Coherent dynamics of singlet fission controlled by nonlocal electron-phonon coupling

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Frenkel-charge transfer (CT) mixing model of singlet fission (SF), we incorporate both the local and nonlocal phonon baths in the Hamiltonian and adopt the algorithm of time-dependent density matrix renormalization group to simulate the fission process in tetracene. The endergonic SF is found to be facilitated by the robust quantum coherence, which concurrently gives rise to a notable quantum beating effect. Controlled by the nonlocal electron-phonon coupling, the density of trip...

  18. Phase diagram of the layered oxide SnO: GW and electron-phonon studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng-Jen; Jeng, Horng-Tay

    2015-11-01

    First-principles calculations are performed to study the electronic properties and the electron-phonon interactions of the layered oxide semiconductor SnO. In addition to the high hole mobility that makes SnO a promising material in electronics, it has recently been reported that the semimetallic phase under pressure is superconducting. The superconducting Tc curve exhibits a dome-like feature under pressure and reaches the maximum of 1.4 K at p = 9.2 GPa. Both its crystal structure and the dome-like Tc curve are reminiscent of the Fe-based superconductor FeSe. Motivated by this observation, we investigate the electronic, phonon, and their interactions in SnO using first-principles schemes. GW approximation is adopted to correct the underestimated band gaps, including real and continuous band gaps in the semiconducting and semimetallic phases. The phase diagram showing the semiconductor-to-semimetal transition and the Tc curve has been successfully reproduced. Detailed analysis of the electron-phonon interactions demonstrate the importance of the out-of-plane motions of O atoms and the Sn-s lone pairs for the superconductivity to occur. Our method combining GW and e-ph calculations can be further extended to the study of other materials that undergo insulator-to-superconductor phase transition.

  19. Electron-phonon scattering effect on the lattice thermal conductivity of silicon nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Bo; Tang, Guihua; Li, Yifei

    2017-11-01

    Nanostructuring technology has been widely employed to reduce the thermal conductivity of thermoelectric materials because of the strong phonon-boundary scattering. Optimizing the carrier concentration can not only improve the electrical properties, but also affect the lattice thermal conductivity significantly due to the electron-phonon scattering. The lattice thermal conductivity of silicon nanostructures considering electron-phonon scattering is investigated for comparing the lattice thermal conductivity reductions resulting from nanostructuring technology and the carrier concentration optimization. We performed frequency-dependent simulations of thermal transport systematically in nanowires, solid thin films and nanoporous thin films by solving the phonon Boltzmann transport equation using the discrete ordinate method. All the phonon properties are based on the first-principles calculations. The results show that the lattice thermal conductivity reduction due to the electron-phonon scattering decreases as the feature size of nanostructures goes down and could be ignored at low feature sizes (50 nm for n-type nanowires and 20 nm for p-type nanowires and n-type solid thin films) or a high porosity (0.6 for n-type 500 nm-thick nanoporous thin films) even when the carrier concentration is as high as 10 21 cm -3 . Similarly, the size effect due to the phonon-boundary scattering also becomes less significant with the increase of carrier concentration. The findings provide a fundamental understanding of electron and phonon transports in nanostructures, which is important for the optimization of nanostructured thermoelectric materials.

  20. Non-equilibrium statistical physics with application to disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cáceres, Manuel Osvaldo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook is the result of the enhancement of several courses on non-equilibrium statistics, stochastic processes, stochastic differential equations, anomalous diffusion and disorder. The target audience includes students of physics, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and engineering at undergraduate and graduate level with a grasp of the basic elements of mathematics and physics of the fourth year of a typical undergraduate course. The little-known physical and mathematical concepts are described in sections and specific exercises throughout the text, as well as in appendices. Physical-mathematical motivation is the main driving force for the development of this text. It presents the academic topics of probability theory and stochastic processes as well as new educational aspects in the presentation of non-equilibrium statistical theory and stochastic differential equations.. In particular it discusses the problem of irreversibility in that context and the dynamics of Fokker-Planck. An introduction on fluc...

  1. Ward identity for non-equilibrium Fermi systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla; Špička, Václav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 4 (2008), 041201/1-041201/4 ISSN 1098-0121 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : non-equilibrium * Green’s functions * quantum transport equations * Ward identity Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.322, year: 2008

  2. Computation of current cumulants for small nonequilibrium systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baiesi, M.; Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 1 (2009), s. 57-75 ISSN 0022-4715 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : fluctuations * nonequilibrium * cumulant expansion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.390, year: 2009 http://www.springerlink.com/content/a632834h10008034/?p=a341f2e536d34c989ac8e057ea4f72a7π=2

  3. The Effects of Different Electron-Phonon Couplings on the Spectral and Transport Properties of Small Molecule Single-Crystal Organic Semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmine Antonio Perroni

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spectral and transport properties of small molecule single-crystal organic semiconductors have been theoretically analyzed focusing on oligoacenes, in particular on the series from naphthalene to rubrene and pentacene, aiming to show that the inclusion of different electron-phonon couplings is of paramount importance to interpret accurately the properties of prototype organic semiconductors. While in the case of rubrene, the coupling between charge carriers and low frequency inter-molecular modes is sufficient for a satisfactory description of spectral and transport properties, the inclusion of electron coupling to both low-frequency inter-molecular and high-frequency intra-molecular vibrational modes is needed to account for the temperature dependence of transport properties in smaller oligoacenes. For rubrene, a very accurate analysis in the relevant experimental configuration has allowed for the clarification of the origin of the temperature-dependent mobility observed in these organic semiconductors. With increasing temperature, the chemical potential moves into the tail of the density of states corresponding to localized states, but this is not enough to drive the system into an insulating state. The mobility along different crystallographic directions has been calculated, including vertex corrections that give rise to a transport lifetime one order of magnitude smaller than the spectral lifetime of the states involved in the transport mechanism. The mobility always exhibits a power-law behavior as a function of temperature, in agreement with experiments in rubrene. In systems gated with polarizable dielectrics, the electron coupling to interface vibrational modes of the gate has to be included in addition to the intrinsic electron-phonon interaction. While the intrinsic bulk electron-phonon interaction affects the behavior of mobility in the coherent regime below room temperature, the coupling with interface modes is dominant for the

  4. Nonequilibrium statistical physics of small systems: fluctuation relations and beyond (annual reviews of nonlinear dynamics and complexity (vch))

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive picture of nonequilibrium phenomena in nanoscale systems. Written by internationally recognized experts in the field, this book strikes a balance between theory and experiment, and includes in-depth introductions to nonequilibrium fluctuation relations, nonlinear dynamics and transport, single molecule experiments, and molecular diffusion in nanopores. The authors explore the application of these concepts to nano- and biosystems by cross-linking key methods and ideas from nonequilibrium statistical physics, thermodynamics, stochastic theory, and dynamical s

  5. Features of electron-phonon interactions in nanotubes with chiral symmetry in magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Kibis, O V

    2001-01-01

    Interaction of the electrons with acoustic phonons in the nanotube with chiral symmetry by availability of the magnetic field, parallel to the nanotube axis, is considered. It is shown that the electron energy spectrum is asymmetric relative to the electron wave vector inversion and for that reason the electron-phonon interaction appears to be different for similar phonons with mutually contrary directions of the wave vector. This phenomenon leads to origination of the electromotive force by the spatially uniform electron gas heating and to appearance of the quadrupole component in the nanotube volt-ampere characteristics

  6. Coherent dynamics of singlet fission controlled by nonlocal electron-phonon coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao

    2016-03-01

    Based on the Frenkel and charge transfer mixing model of singlet fission (SF), we incorporate both the local and nonlocal phonon baths into the Hamiltonian and adopt the algorithm of the time-dependent density matrix renormalization group to simulate the SF process in tetracene and pentacene. The endergonic SF is found to be facilitated by the robust quantum coherence, which concurrently gives rise to a notable quantum beating effect. Being controlled by the nonlocal electron-phonon coupling, the SF process is accelerated and the triplet yield manifests a nonlinear relationship with the singlet density.

  7. Mobility and bulk electron-phonon interaction in two-dimensional materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunst, Tue; Brandbyge, Mads; Markussen, Troels

    2015-01-01

    -of-plane modes. However, we find that graphene only has a slightly higher mobility compared to silicene. For MoS2 we obtain several orders of magnitude lower mobilities and in agreement with other recent theoretical results. The simulations illustrate the predictive capabilities of the newly implemented......We present calculations of the phonon-limited mobility in intrinsic n-type monolayer graphene, silicene and MoS2. The material properties, including the electron-phonon interaction, are calculated from first principles. Unlike graphene, the carriers in silicene show strong interaction with the out...

  8. Electromagnetic microwaves in metal films with electron-phonon interaction and a dc magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselberg, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    A quantum-mechanical treatment of electromagnetic microwaves is performed for a metal film. The directions of the exterior ac and dc fields are taken to be arbitrary and boundary conditions for the electrons are assumed to be specular. The relation between the current and the electromagnetic field...... in the transmission spectrum can perhaps be obtained by assuming a finite Debye temperature and specular reflections of the electrons at the boundary surfaces. A sharp peak entirely caused by the finite electron-phonon interaction is also discussed....

  9. Trapped ion system for sympathetic cooling and non-equilibrium dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doret, Charlie; Jubin, Sierra; Stevenson, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Atomic systems are superbly suited to the study of non-equilibrium dynamics. These systems' exquisite isolation from environmental perturbations leads to long relaxation times that enable exploration of far-from-equilibrium phenomena. We present progress towards trapping chains of multiple co-trapped calcium isotopes geared towards measuring thermal equilibration and sympathetic cooling rates. We also discuss plans for future experiments in non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, including exploration of the quantum-to-classical crossover between ballistic transport and diffusive, Fourier's Law conduction. This work is supported by Cottrell College Science Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement and by Williams College.

  10. Beyond the second law entropy production and non-equilibrium systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lineweaver, Charles; Niven, Robert; Regenauer-Lieb, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The Second Law, a cornerstone of thermodynamics, governs the average direction of dissipative, non-equilibrium processes. But it says nothing about their actual rates or the probability of fluctuations about the average. This interdisciplinary book, written and peer-reviewed by international experts, presents recent advances in the search for new non-equilibrium principles beyond the Second Law, and their applications to a wide range of systems across physics, chemistry and biology. Beyond The Second Law brings together traditionally isolated areas of non-equilibrium research and highlights potentially fruitful connections between them, with entropy production playing the unifying role. Key theoretical concepts include the Maximum Entropy Production principle, the Fluctuation Theorem, and the Maximum Entropy method of statistical inference. Applications of these principles are illustrated in such diverse fields as climatology, cosmology, crystal growth morphology, Earth system science, environmental physics, ...

  11. Phase transitions, nonequilibrium dynamics, and critical behavior of strongly interacting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mottola, E.; Bhattacharya, T.; Cooper, F. [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In this effort, large-scale simulations of strongly interacting systems were performed and a variety of approaches to the nonequilibrium dynamics of phase transitions and critical behavior were investigated. Focus areas included (1) the finite-temperature quantum chromodynamics phase transition and nonequilibrium dynamics of a new phase of matter (the quark-gluon plasma) above the critical temperature, (2) nonequilibrium dynamics of a quantum fields using mean field theory, and (3) stochastic classical field theoretic models with applications to spinodal decomposition and structural phase transitions in a variety of systems, such as spin chains and shape memory alloys.

  12. Hyperbolic heat conduction, effective temperature, and third law for nonequilibrium systems with heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, S. L.

    2018-02-01

    Some analogies between different nonequilibrium heat conduction models, particularly random walk, the discrete variable model, and the Boltzmann transport equation with the single relaxation time approximation, have been discussed. We show that, under an assumption of a finite value of the heat carrier velocity, these models lead to the hyperbolic heat conduction equation and the modified Fourier law with relaxation term. Corresponding effective temperature and entropy have been introduced and analyzed. It has been demonstrated that the effective temperature, defined as a geometric mean of the kinetic temperatures of the heat carriers moving in opposite directions, acts as a criterion for thermalization and is a nonlinear function of the kinetic temperature and heat flux. It is shown that, under highly nonequilibrium conditions when the heat flux tends to its maximum possible value, the effective temperature, heat capacity, and local entropy go to zero even at a nonzero equilibrium temperature. This provides a possible generalization of the third law to nonequilibrium situations. Analogies and differences between the proposed effective temperature and some other definitions of a temperature in nonequilibrium state, particularly for active systems, disordered semiconductors under electric field, and adiabatic gas flow, have been shown and discussed. Illustrative examples of the behavior of the effective temperature and entropy during nonequilibrium heat conduction in a monatomic gas and a strong shockwave have been analyzed.

  13. Vibronic Coupling and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Molecules and Crystals: XXIII International Symposium on the Jahn-Teller Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    ForewordThis issue of J. Phys. Conf. Series contains the proceedings of the 23"r"d International Symposium on the Jahn-Teller Effect with the main title “Vibronic coupling and electron-phonon interaction in molecules and crystals”, which took place in Tartu (Estonia), August 27-September 1, 2016, bringing together over 70 participants from various fields of physics and chemistry. More information on the symposium program can be found at https://ttl.ut.ee/jt16/.The series of mostly biannual Jahn-Teller symposia started in 1976. It addresses topics involving the coupling between electronic and nuclear motions in molecules and solids in conditions of electronic degeneracy and pseudodegeneracy. The Jahn-Teller effect, pseudo Jahn-Teller effect, and related vibronic coupling and electron-phonon interactions are responsible for structural instabilities and non-trivial dynamics in polyatomic systems, including pseudo-rotations and non-adiabatic effects around conical intersections and seams, and play a key role in the explanation of seemingly diverse phenomena, such as spontaneous symmetry breakings, structural phase transitions, colossal magnetoresistance, exotic molecular magnetism, superconductivity in fullerides, giant permittivity and flexoelectricity, and chemical reactions after thermo- or photoexcitation. The meeting brings together theoreticians and experimentalists working in molecular physics and chemistry with researches working in solid state physics.A characteristic of these symposia is that they are devoted to discussion of a wide range of physical and chemical phenomena which, at first sight, are different in scope and nature, but in fact they are strongly entangled by vibronic coupling, and their joint presentation and discussion is deemed to mutually enrich the presenters from different fields with stimulating novel ideas.The 23"r"d Symposium included the following topics:• Fundamental theory, computation, and experimental observation of vibronic

  14. Nonequilibrium Distribution of the Microscopic Thermal Current in Steady Thermal Transport Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Yukawa, Satoshi

    2010-01-01

    Nonequilibrium distribution of the microscopic thermal current is investigated by direct molecular dynamics simulations. The microscopic thermal current in this study is defined by a flow of kinetic energy carried by a single particle. Asymptotic parallel and antiparallel tails of the nonequilibrium distribution to an average thermal current are identical to ones of equilibrium distribution with different temperatures. These temperatures characterizing the tails are dependent on a characteristic length in which a memory of dynamics is completely erased by several particle collisions. This property of the tails of nonequilibrium distribution is confirmed in other thermal transport systems. In addition, statistical properties of a particle trapped by a harmonic potential in a steady thermal conducting state are also studied. This particle feels a finite force parallel to the average thermal current as a consequence of the skewness of the distribution of the current. This force is interpreted as the microscopic origin of thermophoresis.

  15. Direct measurement of the electron-phonon relaxation rate in thin copper films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taskinen, L.J.; Karvonen, J.T.; Maasilta, I.J. [NanoScience Center, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kivioja, J.M. [Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 2200, 02015 HUT Helsinki (Finland)

    2004-11-01

    We have used normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) tunnel junction pairs, known as SINIS structures, for ultrasensitive thermometry at sub-Kelvin temperatures. With the help of these thermometers, we have developed an ac-technique to measure the electron-phonon (e-p) scattering rate directly, without any other material or geometry dependent parameters, based on overheating the electron gas. The technique is based on Joule heating the electrons in the frequency range DC-10 MHz, and measuring the electron temperature in DC. Because of the nonlinearity of the electron-phonon coupling with respect to temperature, even the DC response will be affected, when the heating frequency reaches the natural cut-off determined by the e-p scattering rate. Results on thin Cu films show a T{sup 4} behavior for the scattering rate, in agreement with indirect measurement of similar samples and numerical modeling of the non-linear response. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Direct measurement of the electron-phonon relaxation rate in thin metal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maasilta, Ilari; Kivioja, Jani

    2005-03-01

    We have used normal metal-insulator-superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions for ultrasensitive thermometry at sub-Kelvin temperatures. With the help of these thermometers, we have developed an ac-technique to measure the electron-phonon (e-p) scattering rate directly, without any other material or geometry dependent parameters, based on overheating the electron gas. The technique is based on Joule heating the electrons in the frequency range DC-10 MHz, and measuring the electron temperature in DC. Because of the nonlinearity of the electron-phonon coupling with respect to temperature, even the DC response will be affected, when the heating frequency reaches the natural cut-off determined by the e-p scattering rate. Results on thin Cu films show a T^4 behavior for the scattering rate, in agreement with indirect measurement of similar samples and numerical modeling of the non-linear response.ootnotetextL. J. Taskinen, J. M. Kivioja, J. T. Karvonen, and I. J. Maasilta, phys. stat. sol. (c) 1, 2856 (2004). ,ootnotetextJ. T. Karvonen, L. J. Taskinen, I. J. Maasilta, phys. stat. sol. (c) 1, 2799 (2004).

  17. Through a Lattice Darkly: Shedding Light on Electron-Phonon Coupling in the High Tc Cuprates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With its central role in conventional BCS superconductivity, electron-phonon coupling appears to play a more subtle role in the phase diagram of the high-temperature superconducting cuprates. Their added complexity due to potentially numerous competing phases, including charge, spin, orbital, and lattice ordering, makes teasing out any unique phenomena challenging. In this review, we present our work using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES exploring the role of the lattice on the valence band electronic structure of the cuprates. We introduce the ARPES technique and its unique ability to the probe the effect of bosonic renormalization (or “kink” on near-EF band structure. Our survey begins with the establishment of the ubiquitous nodal cuprate kink leading to how isotope substitution has shed a critical new perspective on the role and strength of electron-phonon coupling. We continue with recently published work connecting the phonon dispersion seen with inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS to the location of the kink observed by ARPES near the nodal point. Finally, we present very recent and ongoing ARPES work examining how induced strain through chemical pressure provides a potentially promising avenue for understanding the broader role of the lattice to the superconducting phase and larger cuprate phase diagram.

  18. Modelling non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems from the speed-gradient principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantuleva, Tatiana A; Shalymov, Dmitry S

    2017-03-06

    The application of the speed-gradient (SG) principle to the non-equilibrium distribution systems far away from thermodynamic equilibrium is investigated. The options for applying the SG principle to describe the non-equilibrium transport processes in real-world environments are discussed. Investigation of a non-equilibrium system's evolution at different scale levels via the SG principle allows for a fresh look at the thermodynamics problems associated with the behaviour of the system entropy. Generalized dynamic equations for finite and infinite number of constraints are proposed. It is shown that the stationary solution to the equations, resulting from the SG principle, entirely coincides with the locally equilibrium distribution function obtained by Zubarev. A new approach to describe time evolution of systems far from equilibrium is proposed based on application of the SG principle at the intermediate scale level of the system's internal structure. The problem of the high-rate shear flow of viscous fluid near the rigid plane plate is discussed. It is shown that the SG principle allows closed mathematical models of non-equilibrium processes to be constructed.This article is part of the themed issue 'Horizons of cybernetical physics'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. The Laser ablation of a metal foam: The role of electron-phonon coupling and electronic heat diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosandi, Yudi; Grossi, Joás; Bringa, Eduardo M.; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2018-01-01

    The incidence of energetic laser pulses on a metal foam may lead to foam ablation. The processes occurring in the foam may differ strongly from those in a bulk metal: The absorption of laser light, energy transfer to the atomic system, heat conduction, and finally, the atomistic processes—such as melting or evaporation—may be different. In addition, novel phenomena take place, such as a reorganization of the ligament network in the foam. We study all these processes in an Au foam of average porosity 79% and an average ligament diameter of 2.5 nm, using molecular dynamics simulation. The coupling of the electronic system to the atomic system is modeled by using the electron-phonon coupling, g, and the electronic heat diffusivity, κe, as model parameters, since their actual values for foams are unknown. We show that the foam coarsens under laser irradiation. While κe governs the homogeneity of the processes, g mainly determines their time scale. The final porosity reached is independent of the value of g.

  20. First principles study of the electron-phonon coupling on the light-actinides Ac-Th alloy: effect of spin-orbit coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Peña Seaman, Omar; de Coss-Martinez, Romeo; Gonzalez-Castelazo, Paola; Heid, Rolf; Bohnen, Klaus-Peter

    We have studied the electronic, lattice dynamics, and electron-phonon (e-ph) properties of the Ac1-xThx actinide alloy. This system have been studied within the framework of density functional perturbation theory, using a mixed-basis pseudopotential method and the virtual crystal approximation (VCA) for modeling the alloy. The electronic density of states (DOS), the full-phonon dispersion as well as the Eliashberg spectral function (α2 F (ω)) and the electron-phonon coupling (λ) parameter have been calculated with and without the inclusion of spin-orbit coupling (SOC). For Ac the observed effects of SOC on α2 F (ω) are very minor. However, as Th-content increases on the alloy the SOC influence is more important. Such evolution has its roots on a continuous increase of density of states at the Fermi level (N (EF)) difference between schemes, as well as a steady hardening of the SOC full phonon dispersion. The evolution of λ as a function of Th-content for both schemes is presented and discussed on the light of SOC effects on the electronic and vibrational properties. This research was supported by Conacyt-México under Project No. 221807.

  1. Orbital dependent Rashba splitting and electron-phonon coupling of 2D Bi phase on Cu(100) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiani, Pierluigi; Lisi, Simone; Betti, Maria Grazia [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza,” Piazzale A. Moro 5, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Ibrahimi, Amina Taleb; Bertran, François; Le Fèvre, Patrick [Synchrotron SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin-BP 48, F-91192 Gif sur Yvette (France); Chiodo, Letizia [Center for Life Nano Science - Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia and European Theoretical Spectroscopy Facility (ETSF), Viale Regina Elena 291, I-00161, Roma (Italy)

    2013-11-14

    A monolayer of bismuth deposited on the Cu(100) surface forms a highly ordered c(2×2) reconstructed phase. The low energy single particle excitations of the c(2×2) Bi/Cu(100) present Bi-induced states with a parabolic dispersion in the energy region close to the Fermi level, as observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The electronic state dispersion, the charge density localization, and the spin-orbit coupling have been investigated combining photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory, unraveling a two-dimensional Bi phase with charge density well localized at the interface. The Bi-induced states present a Rashba splitting, when the charge density is strongly localized in the Bi plane. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the spectral density close to the Fermi level has been evaluated. Dispersive electronic states offer a large number of decay channels for transitions coupled to phonons and the strength of the electron-phonon coupling for the Bi/Cu(100) system is shown to be stronger than for Bi surfaces and to depend on the electronic state symmetry and localization.

  2. Analytical approach to phonons and electron-phonon interactions in single-walled zigzag carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandemir, B S; Keskin, M [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Ankara University, 06100 Tandogan, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-08-13

    In this paper, exact analytical expressions for the entire phonon spectra in single-walled carbon nanotubes with zigzag geometry are presented by using a new approach, originally developed by Kandemir and Altanhan. This approach is based on the concept of construction of a classical lattice Hamiltonian of single-walled carbon nanotubes, wherein the nearest and next nearest neighbor and bond bending interactions are all included, then its quantization and finally diagonalization of the resulting second quantized Hamiltonian. Furthermore, within this context, explicit analytical expressions for the relevant electron-phonon interaction coefficients are also investigated for single-walled carbon nanotubes having this geometry, by the phonon modulation of the hopping interaction.

  3. Analytical approach to phonons and electron-phonon interactions in single-walled zigzag carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandemir, B S; Keskin, M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, exact analytical expressions for the entire phonon spectra in single-walled carbon nanotubes with zigzag geometry are presented by using a new approach, originally developed by Kandemir and Altanhan. This approach is based on the concept of construction of a classical lattice Hamiltonian of single-walled carbon nanotubes, wherein the nearest and next nearest neighbor and bond bending interactions are all included, then its quantization and finally diagonalization of the resulting second quantized Hamiltonian. Furthermore, within this context, explicit analytical expressions for the relevant electron-phonon interaction coefficients are also investigated for single-walled carbon nanotubes having this geometry, by the phonon modulation of the hopping interaction

  4. First-principles method for electron-phonon coupling and electron mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunst, Tue; Markussen, Troels; Stokbro, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    of the problem and, importantly, it keeps the anisotropy information stored in the coupling as well as the band structure. In addition, we perform calculations of the low-field mobility and its dependence on carrier density and temperature to obtain a better understanding of transport in graphene, silicene......, clamping, or similar). If the out-of-plane interaction is not actively reduced, the mobility of silicene will essentially be zero. For MoS2, we obtain several orders of magnitude lower mobilities compared to graphene in agreement with other recent theoretical results. The simulations illustrate......We present density functional theory calculations of the phonon-limited mobility in n-type monolayer graphene, silicene, and MoS2. The material properties, including the electron-phonon interaction, are calculated from first principles. We provide a detailed description of the normalized full...

  5. Strong electron-phonon interaction in the high-Tc superconductors: Evidence from the infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timusk, T.; Porter, C.D.; Tanner, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    We show that low-frequency structure in the infrared reflectance of the high-temperature superconductor YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 results from the electron-phonon interaction. Characteristic antiresonant line shapes are seen in the phonon region of the spectrum and the frequency-dependent scattering rate of the mid-infrared electronic continuum has peaks at 150 cm -1 (19 meV) and at 360 cm -1 (45 meV) in good agreement with phonon density-of-states peaks in neutron time-of-flight spectra that develop in superconducting samples. The interaction between the phonons and the charge carriers can be understood in terms of a charged-phonon model

  6. Electronic structure and electron-phonon coupling in layered copper oxide superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, W.E.; Cohen, R.E.; Krakauer, H.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental data on the layered Cu-O superconductors seem more and more to reflect normal Fermi-liquid behavior and substantial correspondence with band structure predictions. Recent self-consistent, microscopic band theoretic calculations of the electronic structure, lattice instabilities, phonon frequencies, and electron-phonon coupling characteristics and strength for La 2 CuO 4 and YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 are reviewed. A dominant feature of the coupling is a novel Madelung-like contribution which would be screened out in high density of states superconductors but survives in cuprates because of weak screening. Local density functional theory correctly predicts the instability of (La, Ba) 2 CuO 4 to both the low-temperature orthorhombic phase (below room temperature) and the lower-temperature tetragonal phase (below 50 K). (orig.)

  7. The lattice dynamical studies of rare earth compounds: electron-phonon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Prafulla K.; Sanyal, Sankar P.; Singh, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    During the last two decades chalcogenides and pnictides of rare earth (RE) atoms have drawn considerable attention of the solid state physicists because of their peculiar electronic, magnetic, optical and phonon properties. Some of these compounds e.g. sulphides and selenides of cerium (Ce), samarium (Sm), yttrium (Y), ytterbium (Yb), europium (Eu) and thulium (Tm) and their alloys show nonintegral valence (between 2 and 3), arising due to f-d electron hybridization at ambient temperature and pressure. The rare earth mixed valence compounds (MVC) reviewed in this article crystallize in simple cubic structure. Most of these compounds show the existence of strong electron-phonon coupling at half way to the zone boundary. This fact manifests itself through softening of the longitudinal acoustic mode, negative value of elastic constant C 12 etc. The purpose of this contribution is to review some of the recent activities in the fields of lattice dynamics and allied properties of rare earth compounds. The present article is primarily devoted to review the effect of electron-phonon interactions on the dynamical properties of rare earth compounds by using the lattice dynamical model theories based on charged density deformations and long-range many body forces. While the long range charge transfer effect arises due to f-d hybridization of nearly degenerate 4f-5d bands of rare earth ions, the density deformation comes into the picture of breathing motion of electron shells. These effects of charge transfer and charge density deformation when considered in the lattice dynamical models namely the three body force rigid ion model (TRM) and breathing shell model (BSM) are quite successful in explaining the phonon anomalies in these compounds and undoubtedly unraveled many important physical process governing the phonon anomalies in rare earth compounds

  8. Memory Effects and Nonequilibrium Correlations in the Dynamics of Open Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, V. G.

    2018-01-01

    We propose a systematic approach to the dynamics of open quantum systems in the framework of Zubarev's nonequilibrium statistical operator method. The approach is based on the relation between ensemble means of the Hubbard operators and the matrix elements of the reduced statistical operator of an open quantum system. This key relation allows deriving master equations for open systems following a scheme conceptually identical to the scheme used to derive kinetic equations for distribution functions. The advantage of the proposed formalism is that some relevant dynamical correlations between an open system and its environment can be taken into account. To illustrate the method, we derive a non-Markovian master equation containing the contribution of nonequilibrium correlations associated with energy conservation.

  9. Potential and flux field landscape theory. I. Global stability and dynamics of spatially dependent non-equilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2013-09-28

    We established a potential and flux field landscape theory to quantify the global stability and dynamics of general spatially dependent non-equilibrium deterministic and stochastic systems. We extended our potential and flux landscape theory for spatially independent non-equilibrium stochastic systems described by Fokker-Planck equations to spatially dependent stochastic systems governed by general functional Fokker-Planck equations as well as functional Kramers-Moyal equations derived from master equations. Our general theory is applied to reaction-diffusion systems. For equilibrium spatially dependent systems with detailed balance, the potential field landscape alone, defined in terms of the steady state probability distribution functional, determines the global stability and dynamics of the system. The global stability of the system is closely related to the topography of the potential field landscape in terms of the basins of attraction and barrier heights in the field configuration state space. The effective driving force of the system is generated by the functional gradient of the potential field alone. For non-equilibrium spatially dependent systems, the curl probability flux field is indispensable in breaking detailed balance and creating non-equilibrium condition for the system. A complete characterization of the non-equilibrium dynamics of the spatially dependent system requires both the potential field and the curl probability flux field. While the non-equilibrium potential field landscape attracts the system down along the functional gradient similar to an electron moving in an electric field, the non-equilibrium flux field drives the system in a curly way similar to an electron moving in a magnetic field. In the small fluctuation limit, the intrinsic potential field as the small fluctuation limit of the potential field for spatially dependent non-equilibrium systems, which is closely related to the steady state probability distribution functional, is

  10. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics transport and rate processes in physical, chemical and biological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yasar

    2014-01-01

    Natural phenomena consist of simultaneously occurring transport processes and chemical reactions. These processes may interact with each other and may lead to self-organized structures, fluctuations, instabilities, and evolutionary systems. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics, 3rd edition emphasizes the unifying role of thermodynamics in analyzing the natural phenomena. This third edition updates and expands on the first and second editions by focusing on the general balance equations for coupled processes of physical, chemical, and biological systems. The new edition contains a new chapte

  11. An approximate method for calculating electron-phonon matrix element of a disordered transition metal and relevant comments on superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, L.

    1981-08-01

    A method based on the tight-binding approximation is developed to calculate the electron-phonon matrix element for the disordered transition metals. With the method as a basis the experimental Tsub(c) data of the amorphous transition metal superconductors are re-analysed. Some comments on the superconductivity of the disordered materials are given

  12. Many-body Green’s function theory for electron-phonon interactions: Ground state properties of the Holstein dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Säkkinen, Niko; Leeuwen, Robert van; Peng, Yang; Appel, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    We study ground-state properties of a two-site, two-electron Holstein model describing two molecules coupled indirectly via electron-phonon interaction by using both exact diagonalization and self-consistent diagrammatic many-body perturbation theory. The Hartree and self-consistent Born approximations used in the present work are studied at different levels of self-consistency. The governing equations are shown to exhibit multiple solutions when the electron-phonon interaction is sufficiently strong, whereas at smaller interactions, only a single solution is found. The additional solutions at larger electron-phonon couplings correspond to symmetry-broken states with inhomogeneous electron densities. A comparison to exact results indicates that this symmetry breaking is strongly correlated with the formation of a bipolaron state in which the two electrons prefer to reside on the same molecule. The results further show that the Hartree and partially self-consistent Born solutions obtained by enforcing symmetry do not compare well with exact energetics, while the fully self-consistent Born approximation improves the qualitative and quantitative agreement with exact results in the same symmetric case. This together with a presented natural occupation number analysis supports the conclusion that the fully self-consistent approximation describes partially the bipolaron crossover. These results contribute to better understanding how these approximations cope with the strong localizing effect of the electron-phonon interaction

  13. Wave-vector-dependent electron-phonon coupling and the charge-density-wave transition in TbTe3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschek, M.; Rosenkranz, S.; Heid, R.; Said, A. H.; Giraldo-Gallo, P.; Fisher, I. R.; Weber, F.

    2015-06-01

    We present a high-energy-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering investigation of the soft phonon mode in the charge-density-wave (CDW) system TbTe3. We analyze our data based on lattice dynamical calculations using density-functional-perturbation theory and find clear evidence that strongly momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling defines the periodicity of the CDW superstructure: Our experiment reveals strong phonon softening and increased phonon linewidths over a large part in reciprocal space adjacent to the CDW ordering vector q(CDW) = (0,0,0.3). Further, q(CDW) is clearly offset from the wave vector of (weak) Fermi surface nesting q(FS) = (0,0,0.25), and our detailed analysis indicates that electron-phonon coupling is responsible for this shift. Hence, we can add TbTe3, which was previously considered as a canonical CDW compound following the Peierls scenario, to the list of distinct charge-density-wave materials characterized by momentum-dependent electron-phonon coupling.

  14. Broken detailed balance and non-equilibrium dynamics in living systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnesotto, Federico; Mura, Federica; Gladrow, Jannes; Broedersz, Chase

    2018-03-05

    Living systems operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium. Enzymatic activity can induce broken detailed balance at the molecular scale. This molecular scale breaking of detailed balance is crucial to achieve biological functions such as high-fidelity transcription and translation, sensing, adaptation, biochemical patterning, and force generation. While biological systems such as motor enzymes violate detailed balance at the molecular scale, it remains unclear how non-equilibrium dynamics manifests at the mesoscale in systems that are driven through the collective activity of many motors. Indeed, in several cellular systems the presence of non-equilibrium dynamics is not always evident at large scales. For example, in the cytoskeleton or in chromosomes one can observe stationary stochastic processes that appear at first glance thermally driven. This raises the question how non-equilibrium fluctuations can be discerned from thermal noise. We discuss approaches that have recently been developed to address this question, including methods based on measuring the extent to which the system violates the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. We also review applications of this approach to reconstituted cytoskeletal networks, the cytoplasm of living cells, and cell membranes. Furthermore, we discuss a more recent approach to detect actively driven dynamics, which is based on inferring broken detailed balance. This constitutes a non-invasive method that uses time-lapse microscopy data, and can be applied to a broad range of systems in cells and tissue. We discuss the ideas underlying this method and its application to several examples including flagella, primary cilia, and cytoskeletal networks. Finally, we briefly discuss recent developments in stochastic thermodynamics and non-equilibrium statistical mechanics, which offer new perspectives to understand the physics of living systems. . © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Calculation of diffusion coefficients for carbon dioxide + solute system near the critical conditions by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Higashi, Hidenori; Oda, Tsuyoshi; Iwai, Yoshio; Arai, Yasuhiko

    2004-01-01

    A non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation was adopted to calculate the diffusion coefficients for a pseudo-binary system of carbon dioxide and for a carbon dioxide + solute system at 308.2 and 318.2K. The calculated results were compared with the self- and tracer diffusion coefficients calculated by an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. The simulated results for the pseudo-binary system of carbon dioxide by the non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation are in good agreement ...

  16. Nonequilibrium mode-coupling theory for dense active systems of self-propelled particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Saroj Kumar; Gov, Nir S

    2017-10-25

    The physics of active systems of self-propelled particles, in the regime of a dense liquid state, is an open puzzle of great current interest, both for statistical physics and because such systems appear in many biological contexts. We develop a nonequilibrium mode-coupling theory (MCT) for such systems, where activity is included as a colored noise with the particles having a self-propulsion force f 0 and a persistence time τ p . Using the extended MCT and a generalized fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we calculate the effective temperature T eff of the active fluid. The nonequilibrium nature of the systems is manifested through a time-dependent T eff that approaches a constant in the long-time limit, which depends on the activity parameters f 0 and τ p . We find, phenomenologically, that this long-time limit is captured by the potential energy of a single, trapped active particle (STAP). Through a scaling analysis close to the MCT glass transition point, we show that τ α , the α-relaxation time, behaves as τ α ∼ f 0 -2γ , where γ = 1.74 is the MCT exponent for the passive system. τ α may increase or decrease as a function of τ p depending on the type of active force correlations, but the behavior is always governed by the same value of the exponent γ. Comparison with the numerical solution of the nonequilibrium MCT and simulation results give excellent agreement with scaling analysis.

  17. Non-equilibrium thermodynamical description of rhythmic motion patterns of active systems: a canonical-dissipative approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotov, D G; Kim, S; Frank, T D

    2015-02-01

    We derive explicit expressions for the non-equilibrium thermodynamical variables of a canonical-dissipative limit cycle oscillator describing rhythmic motion patterns of active systems. These variables are statistical entropy, non-equilibrium internal energy, and non-equilibrium free energy. In particular, the expression for the non-equilibrium free energy is derived as a function of a suitable control parameter. The control parameter determines the Hopf bifurcation point of the deterministic active system and describes the effective pumping of the oscillator. In analogy to the equilibrium free energy of the Landau theory, it is shown that the non-equilibrium free energy decays as a function of the control parameter. In doing so, a similarity between certain equilibrium and non-equilibrium phase transitions is pointed out. Data from an experiment on human rhythmic movements is presented. Estimates for pumping intensity as well as the thermodynamical variables are reported. It is shown that in the experiment the non-equilibrium free energy decayed when pumping intensity was increased, which is consistent with the theory. Moreover, pumping intensities close to zero could be observed at relatively slow intended rhythmic movements. In view of the Hopf bifurcation underlying the limit cycle oscillator model, this observation suggests that the intended limit cycle movements were actually more similar to trajectories of a randomly perturbed stable focus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nonequilibrium Green's functions in the study of heat transport of driven nanomechanical systems

    OpenAIRE

    Arrachea, L.; Rizzo, B.

    2013-01-01

    We review a recent theoretical development based on non-equilibrium Green's function formalism to study heat transport in nanomechanical devices modeled by phononic systems of coupled quantum oscillators driven by ac forces and connected to phononic reservoirs. We present the relevant equations to calculate the heat currents flowing along different regions of the setup, as well as the power developed by the time-dependent forces. We also present different strategies to evaluate the Green's fu...

  19. Electrical Conductivity of Charged Particle Systems and Zubarev's Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röpke, G.

    2018-01-01

    One of the fundamental problems in physics that are not yet rigorously solved is the statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium processes. An important contribution to describing irreversible behavior starting from reversible Hamiltonian dynamics was given by D. N. Zubarev, who invented the method of the nonequilibrium statistical operator. We discuss this approach, in particular, the extended von Neumann equation, and as an example consider the electrical conductivity of a system of charged particles. We consider the selection of the set of relevant observables. We show the relation between kinetic theory and linear response theory. Using thermodynamic Green's functions, we present a systematic treatment of correlation functions, but the convergence needs investigation. We compare different expressions for the conductivity and list open questions.

  20. A Numerical Study on Phonon Spectral Contributions to Thermal Conduction in Silicon-on-Insulator Transistor Using Electron-Phonon Interaction Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyung-sun; Koh, Young Ha; Jin, Jae Sik [Chosun College of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study is to understand the phonon transfer characteristics of a silicon thin film transistor. For this purpose, the Joule heating mechanism was considered through the electron-phonon interaction model whose validation has been done. The phonon transport characteristics were investigated in terms of phonon mean free path for the variations in the device power and silicon layer thickness from 41 nm to 177 nm. The results may be used for developing the thermal design strategy for achieving reliability and efficiency of the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) transistor, further, they will increase the understanding of heat conduction in SOI systems, which are very important in the semiconductor industry and the nano-fabrication technology.

  1. Coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulations of non-equilibrium systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Crocker, John C; Sinno, Talid

    2013-06-28

    We extend the scope of a recent method for generating coarse-grained lattice Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations [X. Liu, W. D. Seider, and T. Sinno, Phys. Rev. E 86, 026708 (2012); and J. Chem. Phys. 138, 114104 (2013)] from continuous interaction potentials to non-equilibrium situations. The original method has been shown to satisfy detailed balance at the coarse scale and to provide a good representation of various equilibrium properties in both atomic and molecular systems. However, we show here that the original method is inconsistent with non-equilibrium trajectories generated by full-resolution Monte Carlo simulations, which, under certain conditions, have been shown to correspond to Langevin dynamics. The modified coarse-grained method is generated by simultaneously biasing the forward and backward transition probability for every possible move, thereby preserving the detailed balance of the original method. The resulting coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulations are shown to provide trajectories that are consistent with overdamped Langevin (Smoluchowski) dynamics using a sequence of simple non-equilibrium examples. We first consider the purely diffusional spreading of a Gaussian pulse of ideal-gas particles and then include an external potential to study the influence of drift. Finally, we validate the method using a more general situation in which the particles interact via a Lennard-Jones interparticle potential.

  2. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, maximum entropy production and Earth-system evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2010-01-13

    The present-day atmosphere is in a unique state far from thermodynamic equilibrium. This uniqueness is for instance reflected in the high concentration of molecular oxygen and the low relative humidity in the atmosphere. Given that the concentration of atmospheric oxygen has likely increased throughout Earth-system history, we can ask whether this trend can be generalized to a trend of Earth-system evolution that is directed away from thermodynamic equilibrium, why we would expect such a trend to take place and what it would imply for Earth-system evolution as a whole. The justification for such a trend could be found in the proposed general principle of maximum entropy production (MEP), which states that non-equilibrium thermodynamic systems maintain steady states at which entropy production is maximized. Here, I justify and demonstrate this application of MEP to the Earth at the planetary scale. I first describe the non-equilibrium thermodynamic nature of Earth-system processes and distinguish processes that drive the system's state away from equilibrium from those that are directed towards equilibrium. I formulate the interactions among these processes from a thermodynamic perspective and then connect them to a holistic view of the planetary thermodynamic state of the Earth system. In conclusion, non-equilibrium thermodynamics and MEP have the potential to provide a simple and holistic theory of Earth-system functioning. This theory can be used to derive overall evolutionary trends of the Earth's past, identify the role that life plays in driving thermodynamic states far from equilibrium, identify habitability in other planetary environments and evaluate human impacts on Earth-system functioning. This journal is © 2010 The Royal Society

  3. Mathematical theory of nonequilibrium steady states on the frontier of probability and dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Da-Quan; Qian, Min-Ping

    2004-01-01

    This volume provides a systematic mathematical exposition of the conceptual problems of nonequilibrium statistical physics, such as entropy production, irreversibility, and ordered phenomena. Markov chains, diffusion processes, and hyperbolic dynamical systems are used as mathematical models of physical systems. A measure-theoretic definition of entropy production rate and its formulae in various cases are given. It vanishes if and only if the stationary system is reversible and in equilibrium. Moreover, in the cases of Markov chains and diffusion processes on manifolds, it can be expressed in terms of circulations on directed cycles. Regarding entropy production fluctuations, the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem is rigorously proved.

  4. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and maximum entropy production in the Earth system: applications and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleidon, Axel

    2009-06-01

    The Earth system is maintained in a unique state far from thermodynamic equilibrium, as, for instance, reflected in the high concentration of reactive oxygen in the atmosphere. The myriad of processes that transform energy, that result in the motion of mass in the atmosphere, in oceans, and on land, processes that drive the global water, carbon, and other biogeochemical cycles, all have in common that they are irreversible in their nature. Entropy production is a general consequence of these processes and measures their degree of irreversibility. The proposed principle of maximum entropy production (MEP) states that systems are driven to steady states in which they produce entropy at the maximum possible rate given the prevailing constraints. In this review, the basics of nonequilibrium thermodynamics are described, as well as how these apply to Earth system processes. Applications of the MEP principle are discussed, ranging from the strength of the atmospheric circulation, the hydrological cycle, and biogeochemical cycles to the role that life plays in these processes. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and the MEP principle have potentially wide-ranging implications for our understanding of Earth system functioning, how it has evolved in the past, and why it is habitable. Entropy production allows us to quantify an objective direction of Earth system change (closer to vs further away from thermodynamic equilibrium, or, equivalently, towards a state of MEP). When a maximum in entropy production is reached, MEP implies that the Earth system reacts to perturbations primarily with negative feedbacks. In conclusion, this nonequilibrium thermodynamic view of the Earth system shows great promise to establish a holistic description of the Earth as one system. This perspective is likely to allow us to better understand and predict its function as one entity, how it has evolved in the past, and how it is modified by human activities in the future.

  5. Quantitative approach to small-scale nonequilibrium systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob K; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Oddershede, Lene B

    2006-01-01

    In a nano-scale system out of thermodynamic equilibrium, it is important to account for thermal fluctuations. Typically, the thermal noise contributes fluctuations, e.g., of distances that are substantial in comparison to the size of the system and typical distances measured. If the thermal...... propose an approximate but quantitative way of dealing with such an out-of-equilibrium system. The limits of this approximate description of the escape process are determined through optical tweezers experiments and comparison to simulations. Also, this serves as a recipe for how to use the proposed...... method to obtain knowledge about the underlying energy landscape from a set of experimental measurements. Finally, we perform estimates of the error made if thermal fluctuations are ignored....

  6. Topologically distinct Feynman diagrams for mass operator in electron-phonon interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.C. Tovstyuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new method for designing topologically distinct Feynman diagrams for electron's mass operator in electron-phonon interaction is developed using the permutation group theory. The carried out classification of DPs allows to choose the classes, corresponding to disconnected diagrams, to singly connected diagrams, direct ("tadpole" diagrams, to diagrams corresponding to phonon Green functions. After this classification the set of considered double permutations is reduced to one class since only these are relevant to mass operator. We derive analytical expressions which allow to identify the DP, and to choose the phonon components, which are not accepted in every type. To avoid repetition of asymmetric diagrams, which correspond to the same analytical expression, we introduce the procedure of inversion in phonon component, and identify symmetric as well as a pair of asymmetric phonon components. For every type of DP (denoted by its digital encoding, taking into account its symmetry, we perform a set of transformations on this DP, list all DPs of the type and all the corresponding Feynman diagrams of mass operator automatically. It is clear that no more expressions (diagrams for the relevant order of perturbation theory for mass operator can be designed.

  7. Anisotropic Electron-Photon and Electron-Phonon Interactions in Black Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Huang, Shengxi; Hasdeo, Eddwi H; Liang, Liangbo; Parkin, William M; Tatsumi, Yuki; Nugraha, Ahmad R T; Puretzky, Alexander A; Das, Paul Masih; Sumpter, Bobby G; Geohegan, David B; Kong, Jing; Saito, Riichiro; Drndic, Marija; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2016-04-13

    Orthorhombic black phosphorus (BP) and other layered materials, such as gallium telluride (GaTe) and tin selenide (SnSe), stand out among two-dimensional (2D) materials owing to their anisotropic in-plane structure. This anisotropy adds a new dimension to the properties of 2D materials and stimulates the development of angle-resolved photonics and electronics. However, understanding the effect of anisotropy has remained unsatisfactory to date, as shown by a number of inconsistencies in the recent literature. We use angle-resolved absorption and Raman spectroscopies to investigate the role of anisotropy on the electron-photon and electron-phonon interactions in BP. We highlight, both experimentally and theoretically, a nontrivial dependence between anisotropy and flake thickness and photon and phonon energies. We show that once understood, the anisotropic optical absorption appears to be a reliable and simple way to identify the crystalline orientation of BP, which cannot be determined from Raman spectroscopy without the explicit consideration of excitation wavelength and flake thickness, as commonly used previously.

  8. Electron-phonon interaction and nonlinear transport phenomena in solid Hg point-contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khotkevych, V V [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, BA2 7AY Bath (United Kingdom); Khotkevych, N V [Department of Physics, Karazin National University, 61077 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Morlok, S V [National Technical University, 61002, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Konopatskyi, B L; Khotkevych, A V [B.Verkin Institute for Low Temperature Physics and Engineering, 61103 Kharkiv (Ukraine)], E-mail: V.Khotkevych@bath.ac.uk

    2009-02-01

    At cryogenic temperatures the conductivity of Hg point-contacts was studied in both the superconducting and normal state. An original method of fabricating the Hg-based point-contacts directly in liquid {sup 4}He was proposed, which guaranteed creation of small-size high-purity ballistic contacts. The resistance of the contacts as well as the current-voltage characteristics along with the voltage dependence of their first and second derivatives were experimentally investigated at 1.5 K. We analyze such characteristics of the contacts as Josephson critical current, excess current, energy gap and the nonlinear part of conductivity caused by electron-phonon interaction (EPI). The point-contact EPI function g{sub pc}({omega}) for Hg was reconstructed and integral parameters of EPI were calculated. The g{sub pc}({omega}) was then used as an approximation to the phonon density of states for estimations of the thermodynamic characteristics in Hg. Finally we discuss the results of our calculations of non-linear conductivity caused by manifestation of the frequency dependence of the energy gap function in the elastic current component through the contact.

  9. Quantum thermodynamics from the nonequilibrium dynamics of open systems: Energy, heat capacity, and the third law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, J.-T.; Chou, C. H.; Subaşı, Y.; Hu, B. L.

    2018-01-01

    In a series of papers, we intend to take the perspective of open quantum systems and examine from their nonequilibrium dynamics the conditions when the physical quantities, their relations, and the laws of thermodynamics become well defined and viable for quantum many-body systems. We first describe how an open-system nonequilibrium dynamics (ONEq) approach is different from the closed combined system + environment in a global thermal state (CGTs) setup. Only after the open system equilibrates will it be amenable to conventional thermodynamics descriptions, thus quantum thermodynamics (QTD) comes at the end rather than assumed in the beginning. The linkage between the two comes from the reduced density matrix of ONEq in that stage having the same form as that of the system in the CGTs. We see the open-system approach having the advantage of dealing with nonequilibrium processes as many experiments in the near future will call for. Because it spells out the conditions of QTD's existence, it can also aid us in addressing the basic issues in quantum thermodynamics from first principles in a systematic way. We then study one broad class of open quantum systems where the full nonequilibrium dynamics can be solved exactly, that of the quantum Brownian motion of N strongly coupled harmonic oscillators, interacting strongly with a scalar-field environment. In this paper, we focus on the internal energy, heat capacity, and the third law. We show for this class of physical models, amongst other findings, the extensive property of the internal energy, the positivity of the heat capacity, and the validity of the third law from the perspective of the behavior of the heat capacity toward zero temperature. These conclusions obtained from exact solutions and quantitative analysis clearly disprove claims of negative specific heat in such systems and dispel allegations that in such systems the validity of the third law of thermodynamics relies on quantum entanglement. They are

  10. A Generalized Evolution Criterion in Nonequilibrium Convective Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyanagi, Masakazu; Nisizima, Kunisuke

    1989-04-01

    A general evolution criterion, applicable to transport processes such as the conduction of heat and mass diffusion, is obtained as a direct version of the Le Chatelier-Braun principle for stationary states. The present theory is not based on any radical departure from the conventional one. The generalized theory is made determinate by proposing the balance equations for extensive thermodynamic variables which will reflect the character of convective systems under the assumption of local equilibrium. As a consequence of the introduction of source terms in the balance equations, there appear additional terms in the expression of the local entropy production, which are bilinear in terms of the intensive variables and the sources. In the present paper, we show that we can construct a dissipation function for such general cases, in which the premises of the Glansdorff-Prigogine theory are accumulated. The new dissipation function permits us to formulate a generalized evolution criterion for convective systems.

  11. Dynamics of mesoscopic systems: Non-equilibrium Green's functions approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špička, Václav; Kalvová, Anděla; Velický, B.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 3 (2010), s. 525-538 ISSN 1386-9477 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : mesoscopic systems * NGF * initial condition * correlations * Ward identities * transients Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.304, year: 2010

  12. The critical roles of information and nonequilibrium thermodynamics in evolution of living systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Robert A; Frieden, B Roy

    2013-04-01

    Living cells are spatially bounded, low entropy systems that, although far from thermodynamic equilibrium, have persisted for billions of years. Schrödinger, Prigogine, and others explored the physical principles of living systems primarily in terms of the thermodynamics of order, energy, and entropy. This provided valuable insights, but not a comprehensive model. We propose the first principles of living systems must include: (1) Information dynamics, which permits conversion of energy to order through synthesis of specific and reproducible, structurally-ordered components; and (2) Nonequilibrium thermodynamics, which generate Darwinian forces that optimize the system.Living systems are fundamentally unstable because they exist far from thermodynamic equilibrium, but this apparently precarious state allows critical response that includes: (1) Feedback so that loss of order due to environmental perturbations generate information that initiates a corresponding response to restore baseline state. (2) Death due to a return to thermodynamic equilibrium to rapidly eliminate systems that cannot maintain order in local conditions. (3) Mitosis that rewards very successful systems, even when they attain order that is too high to be sustainable by environmental energy, by dividing so that each daughter cell has a much smaller energy requirement. Thus, nonequilibrium thermodynamics are ultimately responsible for Darwinian forces that optimize system dynamics, conferring robustness sufficient to allow continuous existence of living systems over billions of years.

  13. Potential and flux field landscape theory. II. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of spatially inhomogeneous stochastic dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, Jin

    2014-01-01

    We have established a general non-equilibrium thermodynamic formalism consistently applicable to both spatially homogeneous and, more importantly, spatially inhomogeneous systems, governed by the Langevin and Fokker-Planck stochastic dynamics with multiple state transition mechanisms, using the potential-flux landscape framework as a bridge connecting stochastic dynamics with non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A set of non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations, quantifying the relations of the non-equilibrium entropy, entropy flow, entropy production, and other thermodynamic quantities, together with their specific expressions, is constructed from a set of dynamical decomposition equations associated with the potential-flux landscape framework. The flux velocity plays a pivotal role on both the dynamic and thermodynamic levels. On the dynamic level, it represents a dynamic force breaking detailed balance, entailing the dynamical decomposition equations. On the thermodynamic level, it represents a thermodynamic force generating entropy production, manifested in the non-equilibrium thermodynamic equations. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process and more specific examples, the spatial stochastic neuronal model, in particular, are studied to test and illustrate the general theory. This theoretical framework is particularly suitable to study the non-equilibrium (thermo)dynamics of spatially inhomogeneous systems abundant in nature. This paper is the second of a series

  14. Correlation between the electron-phonon coupling and rectifying performance for poly(3-hexylthiophene)/n-type Si devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yow-Jon; Chin, Yi-Min

    2014-01-01

    A correlation between the electron-phonon coupling and rectifying performance is identified for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/n-type Si devices and an analysis using the temperature-dependent Hall-effect characteristics is presented. The carrier mobility in the P3HT film exhibits strong temperature dependence, indicating the dominance of tunneling. However, the incorporation of titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles into P3HT leads to the dominance of hopping. The results demonstrate that the incorporation of TiO 2 nanoparticles into P3HT influences the electrical property of P3HT/n-type Si devices by the electron-phonon coupling modification and the increased spacing between molecules that serve to enhance the carrier mobility in P3HT

  15. ATA and the electron phonon coupling constant in calculating TA of super conducting alloys [Paper No. : V-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, P.; Chatterjee, S.

    1978-01-01

    The theoretical formula of McMillan has been very successful in explaining the superconducting transition temperature. In this theory the electron-phonon coupling constant was very difficult to calculate from a purely theoretical stand point until Gyorffy and Gaspari gave a theoretical formulation from the multiple scattering point of view. This theory has been very successful in explaining Tsub(c) of many superconducting elements and compounds. For the disordered solid, such as substitution alloys, this theory fails because of the breakdown of the translational symmetry used in the multiple scattering theory of Gyorffy and Gaspari. This problem can however be solved if we average the Green's function in random phase approximation (ATA). In this work we have reformulated Gyorffy and Gaspari's expression of the electron phonon coupling constant in the random phase approximation. This theory has been utilised to alloys of Nb and Mo with different concentrations. The agreement between theory and experiment appears to be very good. (author)

  16. Electron-phonon coupling in BaFe2As2: A possible origin of nematic phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Anmin; Ji, Jianting; Xia, Tianlong; Zhao, Guihua; Tian, Yong; Jin, Feng; Zhang, Qingming

    2015-12-01

    Iron-based superconductors have the second-highest superconducting transition temperature next to cuprate superconductors. There are many electronic phases such as superconducting, antiferromagnetic and nematic phases, coexisting in the family of iron pnictides. The charge/spin orders are the key factors for understanding the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity. In this paper we have performed a Raman scattering study of parent compound BaFe2As2. A relatively strong electron-phonon coupling is observed for B1g phonon mode and is weakened after the structural transition at ∼140 K. Through a careful symmetry analysis, we revealed the possibility that B1g mode can be effectively coupled with dxz and dyz orbits. The coupling can remove the degeneracy of the two orbits and further cause the fluctuations of electronic nematic phases. The study suggests that electron-phonon coupling can be a possible origin of nematic phase.

  17. Spin-dependent electron-phonon coupling in the valence band of single-layer WS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinsche, Nicki Frank; Ngankeu, Arlette S.; Guilloy, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The absence of inversion symmetry leads to a strong spin-orbit splitting of the upper valence band of semiconducting single-layer transition-metal dichalchogenides such as MoS2 or WS2. This permits a direct comparison of the electron-phonon coupling strength in states that only differ by their spin....... Here, the electron-phonon coupling in the valence band maximum of single-layer WS2 is studied by first-principles calculations and angle-resolved photoemission. The coupling strength is found to be drastically different for the two spin-split branches, with calculated values of λK=0.0021 and 0.......40 for the upper and lower spin-split valence band of the freestanding layer, respectively. This difference is somewhat reduced when including scattering processes involving the Au(111) substrate present in the experiment but it remains significant, in good agreement with the experimental results....

  18. Computational study of patterns in simple nonequilibrium systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barach, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    We present computational studies of a two component reaction diffusion system of the Grey and Scott type. The calculation involves a discrete treatment of the diffusion equation and some details of that problem are explained. As the simulation calculation runs over a 200x200 square spatial field ridge like patterns develop if one diffusion coefficient is about twice the size of the other and if the rate parameters are in a narrow range. Pattern development is faster when the reaction rates are larger, within this range. It is shown that for an advancing wave, the lead component has a wider front than the other although in steady state the two components obey a ridge/valley or valley/ridge equilibrium. We investigate ways in which a more complex time dependence could be introduced to the system and display one example of such a possible expansion of the study. A correlation coefficient study shows a modest but distinct difference between our pattern development and a random field. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Nonequilibrium steady states and resonant tunneling in time-periodically driven systems with interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tao; Hofstetter, Walter

    2018-03-01

    Time-periodically driven systems are a versatile toolbox for realizing interesting effective Hamiltonians. Heating, caused by excitations to high-energy states, is a challenge for experiments. While most setups so far address the relatively weakly interacting regime, it is of general interest to study heating in strongly correlated systems. Using Floquet dynamical mean-field theory, we study nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) in the Falicov-Kimball model, with time-periodically driven kinetic energy or interaction. We systematically investigate the nonequilibrium properties of the NESS. For a driven kinetic energy, we show that resonant tunneling, where the interaction is an integer multiple of the driving frequency, plays an important role in the heating. In the strongly correlated regime, we show that this can be well understood using Fermi's golden rule and the Schrieffer-Wolff transformation for a time-periodically driven system. We furthermore demonstrate that resonant tunneling can be used to control the population of Floquet states to achieve "photodoping." For driven interactions introduced by an oscillating magnetic field near a widely adopted Feshbach resonance, we find that the double occupancy is strongly modulated. Our calculations apply to shaken ultracold-atom systems and to solid-state systems in a spatially uniform but time-dependent electric field. They are also closely related to lattice modulation spectroscopy. Our calculations are helpful to understand the latest experiments on strongly correlated Floquet systems.

  20. Electron-phonon scattering in indium from r.f. size effect measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoff, A.B.M.

    1977-01-01

    The anisotropy of the electron-phonon collison frequency on the second and third zone Fermi surfaces of indium has been determined from the temperature dependence of radiofrequency size effect (R.F.S.E.) line amplitudes. The orbitally-averaged scattering rates turn out to vary with temperature T according to a T 3 -dependence over the entire Fermi surface, except for orbits on the hole surface close to the (100) and (001) symmetry planes. The anomalous temperatue dependences found in the experiments could be attributed to the special circumstances under which the R.F.S.E. was observed. The influences of both the scattering effectiveness and the multiple turns of the electrons on the observed temperature dependence are discussed extensively. For a large number of extreme orbits on the second and third zone Fermi surfaces, the average scattering rates were measured. In order to obtain a functional expression for the local collision frequency over the entire Fermi surface, an inversion technique was used. As a result, it was found that the anisotropy of the collision frequency over the second zone surface is quite high (1:20) whereas the anisotropy over the third zone surface is rather small (<20%). Further, the variation of the scattering rate round the [111]-point on the hole surface could be confirmed by the results of limiting point measurements. The experimental scattering rates at several points on the Fermi surface were compared with theoretical values obtained from a simple two-OPW model calculation. The calculated anisotropy agrees roughly with the experimental one, although locally the actual values can differ by a factor of 2 or more

  1. Dispersion, mode-mixing and the electron-phonon interaction in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, A.; Ridley, B. K.

    2018-03-01

    The electron-phonon interaction with polar optical modes in nanostructures is re-examined in the light of phonon dispersion relations and the role of the Fuchs-Kliewer (FK) mode. At an interface between adjacent polar materials the frequencies of the FK mode are drawn from the dielectric constants of the adjacent materials and are significantly smaller than the corresponding frequencies of the longitudinal optic (LO) modes at the zone centre. The requirement that all polar modes satisfy mechanical and electrical boundary conditions forces the modes to become hybrids. For a hybrid to have both FK and LO components the LO mode must have the FK frequency, which can only come about through the reduction associated with phonon dispersion relations. We illustrate the effect of phonon dispersion relations on the Fröhlich interaction by considering a simple linear-chain model of the zincblende lattice. Optical and acoustic modes become mixed towards short wavelengths in both optical and acoustic branches. A study of GaAs, InP and cubic GaN and AlN shows that the polarity of the optical branch and the acousticity of the acoustic branch are reduced by dispersion in equal measures, but the effect is relatively weak. Coupling coefficients quantifying the strengths of the interaction with electrons for optical and acoustic components of mixed modes in the optical branch show that, in most cases, the polar interaction dominates the acoustic interaction, and it is reduced from the long-wavelength result towards the zone boundary by only a few percent. The effect on the lower-frequency FK mode can be large.

  2. Non-equilibrium phase transitions in a driven-dissipative system of interacting bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeremy T.; Foss-Feig, Michael; Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Maghrebi, Mohammad F.

    2017-04-01

    Atomic, molecular, and optical systems provide unique opportunities to study simple models of driven-dissipative many-body quantum systems. Typically, one is interested in the resultant steady state, but the non-equilibrium nature of the physics involved presents several problems in understanding its behavior theoretically. Recently, it has been shown that in many of these models, it is possible to map the steady-state phase transitions onto classical equilibrium phase transitions. In the language of Keldysh field theory, this relation typically only becomes apparent after integrating out massive fields near the critical point, leaving behind a single massless field undergoing near-equilibrium dynamics. In this talk, we study a driven-dissipative XXZ bosonic model and discover critical points at which two fields become gapless. Each critical point separates three different possible phases: a uniform phase, an anti-ferromagnetic phase, and a limit cycle phase. Furthermore, a description in terms of an equilibrium phase transition does not seem possible, so the associated phase transitions appear to be inherently non-equilibrium.

  3. High-precision work distributions for extreme nonequilibrium processes in large systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Alexander K

    2014-05-01

    The distributions of work for strongly nonequilibrium processes are studied using a very general form of a large-deviation approach, which allows one to study distributions down to extremely small probabilities of almost arbitrary quantities of interest for equilibrium, nonequilibrium stationary, and even nonstationary processes. The method is applied to quickly vary the external field in a wide range B = 3 ↔ 0 for a critical (T = 2.269) two-dimensional Ising system of size L × L = 128 × 128. To obtain free-energy differences from the work distributions, they must be studied in ranges where the probabilities are as small as 10^{-240}, which is not possible using direct simulation approaches. By comparison with the exact free energies, which are available for this model for the zero-field case, one sees that the present approach allows one to obtain the free energy with a very high relative precision of 10^{-4}. This works well also for a nonzero field, i.e., for a case where standard umbrella-sampling methods are not efficient to calculate free energies. Furthermore, for the present case it is verified that the resulting distributions of work for forward and backward processes fulfill Crooks theorem with high precision. Finally, the free energy for the Ising magnet as a function of the field strength is obtained.

  4. Mechanochemically driven nonequilibrium processes in MNH2-CaH2 systems (M = Li or Na)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolotko, Oleksandr; Zhang Haiqiao; Li Sa; Jena, Puru; Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2010-01-01

    Mechanochemical transformations of lithium and sodium amides with calcium hydride have been investigated using gas volumetric analysis, X-ray powder diffraction, and residual gas analysis. The overall mechanochemical transformations are equimolar, and they proceed as the following solid state reaction: MNH 2 + CaH 2 → CaNH + MH + H 2 , where M = Li or Na. The transformation kinetics of the lithium containing system is markedly faster compared to the system with sodium. The difference in the rates of solid state transformations, and therefore, in hydrogen release kinetics can be explained by difference in mobility of lithium and sodium atoms. Total energies and enthalpies of formation for different reaction products during the dehydrogenation of CaH 2 -MNH 2 mixtures were calculated using density functional theory. Compared to thermochemical transformations, which proceed in accordance with thermodynamic equilibrium, reactions induced by mechanical energy drive the MNH 2 -CaH 2 systems to nonequilibrium configurations with different final products.

  5. Information Geometry of Non-Equilibrium Processes in a Bistable System with a Cubic Damping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Hollerbach

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A probabilistic description is essential for understanding the dynamics of stochastic systems far from equilibrium, given uncertainty inherent in the systems. To compare different Probability Density Functions (PDFs, it is extremely useful to quantify the difference among different PDFs by assigning an appropriate metric to probability such that the distance increases with the difference between the two PDFs. This metric structure then provides a key link between stochastic systems and information geometry. For a non-equilibrium process, we define an infinitesimal distance at any time by comparing two PDFs at times infinitesimally apart and sum these distances in time. The total distance along the trajectory of the system quantifies the total number of different states that the system undergoes in time and is called the information length. By using this concept, we investigate the information geometry of non-equilibrium processes involved in disorder-order transitions between the critical and subcritical states in a bistable system. Specifically, we compute time-dependent PDFs, information length, the rate of change in information length, entropy change and Fisher information in disorder-to-order and order-to-disorder transitions and discuss similarities and disparities between the two transitions. In particular, we show that the total information length in order-to-disorder transition is much larger than that in disorder-to-order transition and elucidate the link to the drastically different evolution of entropy in both transitions. We also provide the comparison of the results with those in the case of the transition between the subcritical and supercritical states and discuss implications for fitness.

  6. NON-EQUILIBRIUM DYNAMICS OF MANY-BODY QUANTUM SYSTEMS: FUNDAMENTALS AND NEW FRONTIER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMille, David; LeHur, Karyn

    2013-11-27

    Rapid progress in nanotechnology and naofabrication techniques has ushered in a new era of quantum transport experiments. This has in turn heightened the interest in theoretical understanding of nonequilibrium dynamics of strongly correlated quantum systems. This project has advanced the frontiers of understanding in this area along several fronts. For example, we showed that under certain conditions, quantum impurities out of equilibrium can be reformulated in terms of an effective equilibrium theory; this makes it possible to use the gamut of tools available for quantum systems in equilibrium. On a different front, we demonstrated that the elastic power of a transmitted microwave photon in circuit QED systems can exhibit a many-body Kondo resonance. We also showed that under many circumstances, bipartite fluctuations of particle number provide an effective tool for studying many-body physics—particularly the entanglement properties of a many-body system. This implies that it should be possible to measure many-body entanglement in relatively simple and tractable quantum systems. In addition, we studied charge relaxation in quantum RC circuits with a large number of conducting channels, and elucidated its relation to Kondo models in various regimes. We also extended our earlier work on the dynamics of driven and dissipative quantum spin-boson impurity systems, deriving a new formalism that makes it possible to compute the full spin density matrix and spin-spin correlation functions beyond the weak coupling limit. Finally, we provided a comprehensive analysis of the nonequilibrium transport near a quantum phase transition in the case of a spinless dissipative resonant-level model. This project supported the research of two Ph.D. students and two postdoctoral researchers, whose training will allow them to further advance the field in coming years.

  7. Quantum entanglement at high temperatures? Bosonic systems in nonequilibrium steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai 200433 (China); Hu, B.L. [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai 200433 (China); Joint Quantum Institute and Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures T{sub 1}>T{sub 2}. For constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.7642. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal baths has a temperature higher than the critical temperature T{sub c}, defined as the temperature above which quantum entanglement vanishes. With the Langevin equations derived we give a full display of how entanglement dynamics in this system depends on T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, the inter-oscillator coupling and the system-bath coupling strengths. For weak oscillator-bath coupling the critical temperature T{sub c} is about the order of the inverse oscillator frequency, but for strong oscillator-bath coupling it will depend on the bath cutoff frequency. We conclude that in most realistic circumstances, for bosonic systems in NESS with constant bilinear coupling, ‘hot entanglement’ is largely a fiction.

  8. Quantum entanglement at high temperatures? Bosonic systems in nonequilibrium steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Hu, B. L.

    2015-11-01

    This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures T 1 > T 2. For constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting [1]. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal baths has a temperature higher than the critical temperature T c, defined as the temperature above which quantum entanglement vanishes. With the Langevin equations derived we give a full display of how entanglement dynamics in this system depends on T 1, T 2, the inter-oscillator coupling and the system-bath coupling strengths. For weak oscillator-bath coupling the critical temperature T c is about the order of the inverse oscillator frequency, but for strong oscillator-bath coupling it will depend on the bath cutoff frequency. We conclude that in most realistic circumstances, for bosonic systems in NESS with constant bilinear coupling, `hot entanglement' is largely a fiction.

  9. Proposed Empirical Entropy and Gibbs Energy Based on Observations of Scale Invariance in Open Nonequilibrium Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Adrian F

    2017-09-07

    There is no widely agreed definition of entropy, and consequently Gibbs energy, in open systems far from equilibrium. One recent approach has sought to formulate an entropy and Gibbs energy based on observed scale invariances in geophysical variables, particularly in atmospheric quantities, including the molecules constituting stratospheric chemistry. The Hamiltonian flux dynamics of energy in macroscopic open nonequilibrium systems maps to energy in equilibrium statistical thermodynamics, and corresponding equivalences of scale invariant variables with other relevant statistical mechanical variables such as entropy, Gibbs energy, and 1/(k Boltzmann T), are not just formally analogous but are also mappings. Three proof-of-concept representative examples from available adequate stratospheric chemistry observations-temperature, wind speed and ozone-are calculated, with the aim of applying these mappings and equivalences. Potential applications of the approach to scale invariant observations from the literature, involving scales from molecular through laboratory to astronomical, are considered. Theoretical support for the approach from the literature is discussed.

  10. Stability of the Bi2Se3(111) topological state: Electron-phonon and electron-defect scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Richard Cannon; Bianchi, Marco; Guan, Dandan

    2011-01-01

    by introducing a small concentration of surface defects via ion bombardment. It is found that, in contrast to the bulk states, the topological state can no longer be observed in the photoemission spectra, and this cannot merely be attributed to surface defect-induced momentum broadening....... is possible. The electron-phonon coupling constant is found to be λ = 0.25(5), more than an order of magnitude higher than the corresponding value for intraband scattering in the noble-metal surface states. The stability of the topological state with respect to surface irregularities was also tested...

  11. Superoperator nonequilibrium Green's function theory of many-body systems; applications to charge transfer and transport in open junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbola, U.; Mukamel, S.

    2008-01-01

    Nonequilibrium Green's functions provide a powerful tool for computing the dynamical response and particle exchange statistics of coupled quantum systems. We formulate the theory in terms of the density matrix in Liouville space and introduce superoperator algebra that greatly simplifies the derivation and the physical interpretation of all quantities. Expressions for various observables are derived directly in real time in terms of superoperator nonequilibrium Green's functions (SNGF), rather than the artificial time-loop required in Schwinger's Hilbert-space formulation. Applications for computing interaction energies, charge densities, average currents, current induced fluorescence, electroluminescence and current fluctuation (electron counting) statistics are discussed

  12. Nonequilibrium Quantum Phase Transition in a Hybrid Atom-Optomechanical System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Niklas; Bakhtiari, M Reza; Pelster, Axel; Thorwart, Michael

    2018-02-09

    We consider a hybrid quantum many-body system formed by a vibrational mode of a nanomembrane, which interacts optomechanically with light in a cavity, and an ultracold atom gas in the optical lattice of the out-coupled light. The adiabatic elimination of the light field yields an effective Hamiltonian which reveals a competition between the force localizing the atoms and the membrane displacement. At a critical atom-membrane interaction, we find a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition from a localized symmetric state of the atom cloud to a shifted symmetry-broken state, the energy of the lowest collective excitation vanishes, and a strong atom-membrane entanglement arises. The effect occurs when the atoms and the membrane are nonresonantly coupled.

  13. Nonequilibrium Green's functions in the study of heat transport of driven nanomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrachea, Liliana; Rizzo, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    We review a recent theoretical development based on non-equilibrium Green's function formalism to study heat transport in nanomechanical devices modeled by phononic systems of coupled quantum oscillators driven by ac forces and connected to phononic reservoirs. We present the relevant equations to calculate the heat currents flowing along different regions of the setup, as well as the power developed by the time-dependent forces. We also present different strategies to evaluate the Green's functions exactly or approximately within the weak driving regime. We finally discuss the different mechanisms in which the ac driving forces deliver the energy. We show that, besides generating heat, the forces may operate exchanging energy as a quantum engine.

  14. Nonequilibrium Quantum Phase Transition in a Hybrid Atom-Optomechanical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Niklas; Bakhtiari, M. Reza; Pelster, Axel; Thorwart, Michael

    2018-02-01

    We consider a hybrid quantum many-body system formed by a vibrational mode of a nanomembrane, which interacts optomechanically with light in a cavity, and an ultracold atom gas in the optical lattice of the out-coupled light. The adiabatic elimination of the light field yields an effective Hamiltonian which reveals a competition between the force localizing the atoms and the membrane displacement. At a critical atom-membrane interaction, we find a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition from a localized symmetric state of the atom cloud to a shifted symmetry-broken state, the energy of the lowest collective excitation vanishes, and a strong atom-membrane entanglement arises. The effect occurs when the atoms and the membrane are nonresonantly coupled.

  15. Effect of doping on lattice dynamics and electron-phonon coupling of the actinides Ac-Th alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coss-Martínez, R; González-Castelazo, P; De la Peña-Seaman, O; Heid, R; Bohnen, K-P

    2017-09-06

    We have studied the electronic, lattice dynamical, and electron-phonon properties of the actinides [Formula: see text]Th x alloy within the framework of density functional perturbation theory. The self-consistent virtual crystal approximation is used for the alloy modeling, and spin-orbit coupling is included in the calculation of all relevant quantities. An overall decrease of the electron-phonon coupling (λ) by [Formula: see text] from Ac to Th was observed. However, its dependence on x shows a non-linear behavior. λ reduces just 6% from Ac to a Th content of [Formula: see text], then drops drastically (∼[Formula: see text]) from there until [Formula: see text]. The large decrease of λ for [Formula: see text] is due to the reduction of the density of states at the Fermi level ([Formula: see text]), combined with a general phonon hardening. On contrast, the behavior for [Formula: see text] is the result of a subtle balance between an enhancement of phase space and the above mentioned effects on [Formula: see text] and the phonons. The phase-space enhancement is related to the appearance of Kohn anomalies, which fade away as the Th concentration increases.

  16. Statistical mechanics of nonequilibrium liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Denis J; Craig, D P; McWeeny, R

    1990-01-01

    Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids deals with theoretical rheology. The book discusses nonlinear response of systems and outlines the statistical mechanical theory. In discussing the framework of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, the book explains the derivation of a nonequilibrium analogue of the Gibbsian basis for equilibrium statistical mechanics. The book reviews the linear irreversible thermodynamics, the Liouville equation, and the Irving-Kirkwood procedure. The text then explains the Green-Kubo relations used in linear transport coefficients, the linear response theory,

  17. The crossover between organized and disorganized states in some non-equilibrium systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Diego Luis; Téllez, Gabriel

    2009-05-01

    We study numerically the crossover between organized and disorganized states of three non-equilibrium systems: the Poisson/coalesce random walk (PCRW), a one-dimensional spin system and a quasi one-dimensional lattice gas. In all cases, we describe this crossover in terms of the average spacing between particles/domain borders langS(t)rang and the spacing distribution functions p(n)(s). The nature of the crossover is not the same for all systems; however, we found that for all systems the nearest neighbor distribution p(0)(s) is well fitted by the Berry-Robnik model. The destruction of the level repulsion in the crossover between organized and disorganized states is present in all systems. Additionally, we found that the correlations between domains in the gas and spin systems are not strong and can be neglected in a first approximation, but for the PCRW the correlations between particles must be taken into account. To find p(n)(s) with n > 1, we propose two different analytical models based on the Berry-Robnik model. Our models give us a good approximation for the statistical behavior of these systems at their crossover and allow us to quantify the degree of order/disorder of the system.

  18. Aspects of electron-phonon interactions with strong forward scattering in FeSe Thin Films on SrTiO3 substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Nakatsukasa, K.; Rademaker, L.; Berlijn, T.; Johnston, S.

    2016-05-01

    Mono- and multilayer FeSe thin films grown on SrTiO3 and BiTiO3 substrates exhibit a greatly enhanced superconductivity over that found in bulk FeSe. A number of proposals have been advanced for the mechanism of this enhancement. One possibility is the introduction of a cross-interface electron-phonon (e-ph) interaction between the FeSe electrons and oxygen phonons in the substrates that is peaked in the forward scattering (small {q}) direction due to the two-dimensional nature of the interface system. Motivated by this, we explore the consequences of such an interaction on the superconducting state and electronic structure of a two-dimensional system using Migdal-Eliashberg (ME) theory. This interaction produces not only deviations from the expectations of conventional phonon-mediated pairing but also replica structures in the spectral function and density of states, as probed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy, and quasiparticle interference imaging. We also discuss the applicability of ME theory for a situation where the e-ph interaction is peaked at small momentum transfer and in the FeSe/STO system.

  19. Colored thermal noise driven dynamical system in the presence and absence of non-equilibrium constraint: time dependence of information entropy flux and entropy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Gurupada; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2005-06-01

    We have studied the relaxation of non-Markovian and thermodynamically closed system both in the absence and presence of non-equilibrium constraint in terms of the information entropy flux and entropy production based on the Fokker-Planck and the entropy balance equations. Our calculation shows how the relaxation time depends on noise correlation time. It also considers how the non-equilibrium constraint is affected by system parameters such as noise correlation time, strength of dissipation and frequency of dynamical system. The interplay of non-equilibrium constraint, frictional memory kernel, noise correlation time and frequency of dynamical system reveals the extremum nature of the entropy production.

  20. Colored thermal noise driven dynamical system in the presence and absence of non-equilibrium constraint: time dependence of information entropy flux and entropy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goswami, Gurupada; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Bag, Bidhan Chandra

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the relaxation of non-Markovian and thermodynamically closed system both in the absence and presence of non-equilibrium constraint in terms of the information entropy flux and entropy production based on the Fokker-Planck and the entropy balance equations. Our calculation shows how the relaxation time depends on noise correlation time. It also considers how the non-equilibrium constraint is affected by system parameters such as noise correlation time, strength of dissipation and frequency of dynamical system. The interplay of non-equilibrium constraint, frictional memory kernel, noise correlation time and frequency of dynamical system reveals the extremum nature of the entropy production

  1. Lindblad formalism based on fermion-to-qubit mapping for nonequilibrium open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Fabrício M.; Sanz, L.

    2017-11-01

    We present an alternative form of master equation, applicable to the analysis of nonequilibrium dynamics of fermionic open quantum systems. The formalism considers a general scenario, composed by a multipartite quantum system in contact with several reservoirs, each one with a specific chemical potential and in thermal equilibrium. With the help of Jordan-Wigner transformation, we perform a fermion-to-qubit mapping to derive a set of Lindblad superoperators that can be straightforwardly used on a wide range of physical setups. To illustrate our approach, we explore the effect of a charge sensor, acting as a probe, over the dynamics of electrons on coupled quantum molecules. The probe consists of a quantum dot attached to source and drain leads, that allows a current flow. The dynamics of populations, entanglement degree, and purity show how the probe is behind the sudden deaths and rebirths of entanglement, at short times. Then, the evolution leads the system to an asymptotic state being a statistical mixture. Those are signatures that the probe induces dephasing, a process that destroys the coherence of the quantum system.

  2. Non-equilibrium dynamics of open systems and fluctuation-dissipation theorems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špička, Václav; Velický, B.; Kalvová, Anděla

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 65, 6-8 (2017), s. 1-23, č. článku 1700032. ISSN 0015-8208 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : non-equilibrium * fluctuation-dissipation theorems * non-equilibrium Greens function * transient and steady state magnetic current * molecular bridge Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 2.434, year: 2016

  3. Generalized Langevin equation: An efficient approach to nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of open systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, L.; Lorenz, C. D.; Kantorovich, L.

    2014-04-01

    The generalized Langevin equation (GLE) has been recently suggested to simulate the time evolution of classical solid and molecular systems when considering general nonequilibrium processes. In this approach, a part of the whole system (an open system), which interacts and exchanges energy with its dissipative environment, is studied. Because the GLE is derived by projecting out exactly the harmonic environment, the coupling to it is realistic, while the equations of motion are non-Markovian. Although the GLE formalism has already found promising applications, e.g., in nanotribology and as a powerful thermostat for equilibration in classical molecular dynamics simulations, efficient algorithms to solve the GLE for realistic memory kernels are highly nontrivial, especially if the memory kernels decay nonexponentially. This is due to the fact that one has to generate a colored noise and take account of the memory effects in a consistent manner. In this paper, we present a simple, yet efficient, algorithm for solving the GLE for practical memory kernels and we demonstrate its capability for the exactly solvable case of a harmonic oscillator coupled to a Debye bath.

  4. Non-equilibrium study of spin wave interference in systems with both Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kuo-Chin; Su, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Ray; Chen, Son-Hsien

    2014-01-01

    We study the electron spin transport in two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system with both Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) spin-orbital coupling (SOC). We assume spatial behavior of spin precession in the non-equilibrium transport regime, and study also quantum interference induced by non-Abelian spin-orbit gauge field. The method we adopt in this article is the non-equilibrium Green's function within a tight binding framework. We consider one ferromagnetic lead which injects spin polarized electron to a system with equal strength of Rashba and Dresselhaus (001) SOC, and we observe the persistent spin helix property. We also consider two ferromagnetic leads injecting spin polarized electrons into a pure Dresselhaus SOC system, and we observe the resultant spin wave interference pattern

  5. Generalized hydrodynamics and non-equilibrium steady states in integrable many-body quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Romain; Bulchandani, Vir; Karrasch, Christoph; Moore, Joel

    The long-time dynamics of thermalizing many-body quantum systems can typically be described in terms of a conventional hydrodynamics picture that results from the decay of all but a few slow modes associated with standard conservation laws (such as particle number, energy, or momentum). However, hydrodynamics is expected to fail for integrable systems that are characterized by an infinite number of conservation laws, leading to unconventional transport properties and to complex non-equilibrium states beyond the traditional dogma of statistical mechanics. In this talk, I will describe recent attempts to understand such stationary states far from equilibrium using a generalized hydrodynamics picture. I will discuss the consistency of ``Bethe-Boltzmann'' kinetic equations with linear response Drude weights and with density-matrix renormalization group calculations. This work was supported by the Department of Energy through the Quantum Materials program (R. V.), NSF DMR-1206515, AFOSR MURI and a Simons Investigatorship (J. E. M.), DFG through the Emmy Noether program KA 3360/2-1 (C. K.).

  6. Spontaneous ordering against an external field in non-equilibrium systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Avella, J C; Eguiluz, V M; San Miguel, M [IFISC (CSIC-UIB), Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos, Campus Universitat Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Cosenza, M G [Centro de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida, Merida 5251 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: juancarlos@ifisc.uib-csic.es

    2010-01-15

    We study the collective behavior of non-equilibrium systems subjected to an external field with a dynamics characterized by the existence of non-interacting states. Aiming at exploring the generality of the results, we consider two types of model according to the nature of their state variables: (i) a vector model, where interactions are proportional to the overlap between the states, and (ii) a scalar model, where interactions depend on the distance between states. The phase space is numerically characterized for each model in a fully connected network and in random and scale-free networks. For both models, the system displays three phases: two ordered phases, one parallel to the field and another orthogonal to the field, and one disordered phase. By placing the particles on a small-world network, we show that an ordered phase in a state different from the one imposed by the field is possible because of the long-range interactions that exist in fully connected, random and scale-free networks. This phase does not exist in a regular lattice and emerges when long-range interactions are included in a small-world network.

  7. Plasmon-enhanced electron-phonon coupling in Dirac surface states of the thin-film topological insulator Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glinka, Yuri D., E-mail: ydglinka@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Institute of Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Babakiray, Sercan; Lederman, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States)

    2015-10-07

    Raman measurements of a Fano-type surface phonon mode associated with Dirac surface states (SS) in Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} topological insulator thin films allowed an unambiguous determination of the electron-phonon coupling strength in Dirac SS as a function of film thickness ranging from 2 to 40 nm. A non-monotonic enhancement of the electron-phonon coupling strength with maximum for the 8–10 nm thick films was observed. The non-monotonicity is suggested to originate from plasmon-phonon coupling which enhances electron-phonon coupling when free carrier density in Dirac SS increases with decreasing film thickness and becomes suppressed for thinnest films when anharmonic coupling between in-plane and out-of-plane phonon modes occurs. The observed about four-fold enhancement of electron-phonon coupling in Dirac SS of the 8–10 nm thick Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} films with respect to the bulk samples may provide new insights into the origin of superconductivity in this-type materials and their applications.

  8. The potential and flux landscape, Lyapunov function and non-equilibrium thermodynamics for dynamic systems and networks with an application to signal-induced Ca2+ oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Li; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    In this review, we summarize our recent efforts in exploring the non-equilibrium potential and flux landscape for dynamical systems and networks. The driving force of non-equilibrium dynamics can be decomposed into the gradient of the non-equilibrium potential and the divergent free probability flux divided by the steady-state probability distribution. The potential landscape is linked to the probability distribution of the steady state. We found that the intrinsic potential landscape in the zero noise limit is a Lyapunov function. We have defined and quantified the entropy, energy and free energy of the non-equilibrium systems. These can be used for formulating the first law of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The free energy of the non-equilibrium system is also a Lyapunov function. Therefore, we can use both the intrinsic potential landscape and the free energy to quantify the robustness and global stability of the system. The Lyapunov property provides the formulation for the second law of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The non-zero probability flux breaks the detailed balance. The two driving forces from the gradient of intrinsic potential landscape and the probability flux are perpendicular to each other under the zero noise limit. We investigate the dynamics of a new biological example of signal-induced Ca 2+ oscillation. We explored the underlying potential landscape which shows a Mexican hat shape attracting the system down to the oscillation ring and the flux which provides the driving force on the ring for coherent and stable oscillation. We explored how the landscape and flux topography change with respect to the system parameters and the relationship to the period of oscillations and how the non-equilibrium free energy changes with respect to different dynamic phases and phase transitions when the system parameters vary. These explain how the system becomes robust and stable under different conditions and can help guide the experiment. (invited article)

  9. Intelligent system for statistically significant expertise knowledge on the basis of the model of self-organizing nonequilibrium dissipative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Tatokchin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of the modern educational technologies caused by broad introduction of comput-er testing and development of distant forms of education does necessary revision of methods of an examination of pupils. In work it was shown, need transition to mathematical criteria, exami-nations of knowledge which are deprived of subjectivity. In article the review of the problems arising at realization of this task and are offered approaches for its decision. The greatest atten-tion is paid to discussion of a problem of objective transformation of rated estimates of the ex-pert on to the scale estimates of the student. In general, the discussion this question is was con-cluded that the solution to this problem lies in the creation of specialized intellectual systems. The basis for constructing intelligent system laid the mathematical model of self-organizing nonequilibrium dissipative system, which is a group of students. This article assumes that the dissipative system is provided by the constant influx of new test items of the expert and non-equilibrium – individual psychological characteristics of students in the group. As a result, the system must self-organize themselves into stable patterns. This patern will allow for, relying on large amounts of data, get a statistically significant assessment of student. To justify the pro-posed approach in the work presents the data of the statistical analysis of the results of testing a large sample of students (> 90. Conclusions from this statistical analysis allowed to develop intelligent system statistically significant examination of student performance. It is based on data clustering algorithm (k-mean for the three key parameters. It is shown that this approach allows you to create of the dynamics and objective expertise evaluation.

  10. Assessing the Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics in a Quenched Quantum Many-Body System via Single Projective Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, L.; Pigeon, S.; Apollaro, T. J. G.; Xuereb, A.; Mazzola, L.; Campisi, M.; Ferraro, A.; Paternostro, M.; De Chiara, G.

    2014-07-01

    We analyze the nature of the statistics of the work done on or by a quantum many-body system brought out of equilibrium. We show that, for the sudden quench and for an initial state that commutes with the initial Hamiltonian, it is possible to retrieve the whole nonequilibrium thermodynamics via single projective measurements of observables. We highlight, in a physically clear way, the qualitative implications for the statistics of work coming from considering processes described by operators that either commute or do not commute with the unperturbed Hamiltonian of a given system. We consider a quantum many-body system and derive an expression that allows us to give a physical interpretation, for a thermal initial state, to all of the cumulants of the work in the case of quenched operators commuting with the unperturbed Hamiltonian. In the commuting case, the observables that we need to measure have an intuitive physical meaning. Conversely, in the noncommuting case, we show that, although it is possible to operate fully within the single-measurement framework irrespectively of the size of the quench, some difficulties are faced in providing a clear-cut physical interpretation to the cumulants. This circumstance makes the study of the physics of the system nontrivial and highlights the nonintuitive phenomenology of the emergence of thermodynamics from the fully quantum microscopic description. We illustrate our ideas with the example of the Ising model in a transverse field showing the interesting behavior of the high-order statistical moments of the work distribution for a generic thermal state and linking them to the critical nature of the model itself.

  11. Nonequilibrium spin transport through a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dot system with noncollinear magnetization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Minjie; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Tan, Seng Gee

    2013-01-01

    The spin-dependent transport through a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum dot (QD) which is coupled via magnetic tunnel junctions to two ferromagnetic leads is studied theoretically. A noncollinear system is considered, where the QD is magnetized at an arbitrary angle with respect to the leads’ magnetization. The tunneling current is calculated in the coherent regime via the Keldysh nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) formalism, incorporating the electron–electron interaction in the QD. We provide the first analytical solution for the Green’s function of the noncollinear DMS quantum dot system, solved via the equation of motion method under Hartree–Fock approximation. The transport characteristics (charge and spin currents, and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR)) are evaluated for different voltage regimes. The interplay between spin-dependent tunneling and single-charge effects results in three distinct voltage regimes in the spin and charge current characteristics. The voltage range in which the QD is singly occupied corresponds to the maximum spin current and greatest sensitivity of the spin current to the QD magnetization orientation. The QD device also shows transport features suitable for sensor applications, i.e., a large charge current coupled with a high TMR ratio. - Highlights: ► The spin polarized transport through a diluted magnetic quantum dot is studied. ► The model is based on the Green’s function and the equation of motion method.► The charge and spin currents and tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) are investigated. ► The system is suitable for current-induced spin-transfer torque application. ► A large tunneling current and a high TMR are possible for sensor application.

  12. Quantum theory for the dynamic structure factor in correlated two-component systems in nonequilibrium: Application to x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberger, J.; Chapman, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    We present a quantum theory for the dynamic structure factors in nonequilibrium, correlated, two-component systems such as plasmas or warm dense matter. The polarization function, which is needed as the input for the calculation of the structure factors, is calculated in nonequilibrium based on a perturbation expansion in the interaction strength. To make our theory applicable for x-ray scattering, a generalized Chihara decomposition for the total electron structure factor in nonequilibrium is derived. Examples are given and the influence of correlations and exchange on the structure and the x-ray-scattering spectrum are discussed for a model nonequilibrium distribution, as often encountered during laser heating of materials, as well as for two-temperature systems.

  13. Quantum theory for the dynamic structure factor in correlated two-component systems in nonequilibrium: Application to x-ray scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorberger, J; Chapman, D A

    2018-01-01

    We present a quantum theory for the dynamic structure factors in nonequilibrium, correlated, two-component systems such as plasmas or warm dense matter. The polarization function, which is needed as the input for the calculation of the structure factors, is calculated in nonequilibrium based on a perturbation expansion in the interaction strength. To make our theory applicable for x-ray scattering, a generalized Chihara decomposition for the total electron structure factor in nonequilibrium is derived. Examples are given and the influence of correlations and exchange on the structure and the x-ray-scattering spectrum are discussed for a model nonequilibrium distribution, as often encountered during laser heating of materials, as well as for two-temperature systems.

  14. Landscape, kinetics, paths and statistics of curl flux, coherence, entanglement and energy transfer in non-equilibrium quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhedong; Wang, Jin

    2015-01-01

    We develop a population and flux landscape theory for general non-equilibrium quantum systems. We illustrate our theory by modelling the quantum transport of donor-acceptor energy transfer. We find two driving forces for the non-equilibrium quantum dynamics. The symmetric part of the driving force corresponds to the population landscape contribution which mainly governs the equilibrium part of dynamics while the anti-symmetric part of the driving force generates the non-equilibrium curl quantum flux which leads to the detailed-balance-breaking and time-irreversibility. The multi-loop structure of the flux emerges forms the flux-landscape. We study the trend of changes in population and flux-landscape with respect to the voltage (temperature difference induced by environments) and electronic coupling. Improving the voltage and electronic coupling in general facilitates the quantum transport by reducing the population landscape barriers between major states and increasing the mean value of the flux. A limit-cycle mode emerges when the underlying flux-landscape becomes funnelled with a significant gap between the largest flux loop and the rest of them. On the kinetic level, we find that multiple kinetic paths between quantum states emerge and illustrate the interference effects. The degree of interference is determined by the landscape and flux. Furthermore, we quantify kinetic rate which strongly correlates with the population landscape and flux. For quantum transport, we demonstrate that as the coherence or the quantum entanglement is enhanced, the flux and energy transfer efficiency are increased. Finally it is surprising that the non-equilibriumness quantified by voltage has a non-trivial contribution on strengthening the entanglement, which is attributed to the non-local feature of the quantum curl flux. (paper)

  15. Quantum speed limits of a qubit system interacting with a nonequilibrium environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhi; Yao, Chun-Mei; Li, Li; Wang, Qiong

    2016-08-01

    The speed of evolution of a qubit undergoing a nonequilibrium environment with spectral density of general ohmic form is investigated. First we reveal non-Markovianity of the model, and find that the non-Markovianity quantified by information backflow of Breuer et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 210401 (2009)] displays a nonmonotonic behavior for different values of the ohmicity parameter s in fixed other parameters and the maximal non-Markovianity can be achieved at a specified value s. We also find that the non-Markovianity displays a nonmonotonic behavior with the change of a phase control parameter. Then we further discuss the relationship between quantum speed limit (QSL) time and non-Markovianity of the open-qubit system for any initial states including pure and mixed states. By investigation, we find that the QSL time of a qubit with any initial states can be expressed by a simple factorization law: the QSL time of a qubit with any qubit-initial states are equal to the product of the coherence of the initial state and the QSL time of maximally coherent states, where the QSL time of the maximally coherent states are jointly determined by the non-Markovianity, decoherence factor and a given driving time. Moreover, we also find that the speed of quantum evolution can be obviously accelerated in the wide range of the ohmicity parameter, i.e., from sub-Ohmic to Ohmic and super-Ohmic cases, which is different from the thermal equilibrium environment case. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 61505053 and 61475045), the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China(Grant No. 2015JJ3092), the School Foundation from the Hunan University of Arts and Science (Grant No. 14ZD01), the Fund from the Key Laboratory of Photoelectric Information Integration and Optical Manufacturing Technology of Hunan Province, China, and the Construction Program of the Key Discipline in Hunan University of Arts and Science (Optics).

  16. Electron-phonon interaction and transport properties of metallic bulk and monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide TaS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsche, Nicki Frank; Sommer Thygesen, Kristian

    2018-01-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenides have recently emerged as promising two-dimensional materials with intriguing electronic properties. Existing calculations of intrinsic phonon-limited electronic transport so far have concentrated on the semicondcucting members of this family. In this paper we extend these studies by investigating the influence of electron-phonon coupling on the electronic transport properties and band renormalization of prototype inherent metallic bulk and monolayer TaS2. Based on density functional perturbation theory and semi-classical Boltzmann transport calculations, promising room temperature mobilities and sheet conductances are found, which can compete with other established 2D materials, leaving TaS2 as promising material candidate for transparent conductors or as atomically thin interconnects. Throughout the paper, the electronic and transport properties of TaS2 are compared to those of its isoelectronic counterpart TaSe2 and additional informations to the latter are given. We furthermore comment on the conventional superconductivity in TaS2, where no phonon-mediated enhancement of T C in the monolayer compared to the bulk state was found.

  17. Nonequilibrium steady states in correlated electron systems - Photoinduced insulator-metal transition and optical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Naoto; Oka, Takashi; Aoki, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    To reveal the nature of the photoinduced insulator-metal transition, we show that an exact analysis of the Falicov-Kimball model subject to external ac electric fields becomes possible with Floquet's method combined with the nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory. The nonequilibrium steady state that appears during irradiation of a pump light is shown to be determined if the dissipation in a certain heat-bath model is introduced. This has enabled us to predict that novel features characteristic of the photoexcited steady states, i.e., negative weight (gain) in the low-energy region and dip structures around the photon energy of the pump light, should be observed in the optical conductivity. Special emphasis is put on the role of dissipation, for which we elaborate the dependence of the steady state on the strength of dissipation and the temperature of the heat bath.

  18. Observing non-equilibrium state of transport through graphene channel at the nano-second time-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Abhishek; Meersha, Adil; Raghavan, Srinivasan; Shrivastava, Mayank

    2017-12-01

    Electrical performance of a graphene FET is drastically affected by electron-phonon inelastic scattering. At high electric fields, the out-of-equilibrium population of optical phonons equilibrates by emitting acoustic phonons, which dissipate the energy to heat sinks. The equilibration time of the process is governed by thermal diffusion time, which is few nano-seconds for a typical graphene FET. The nano-second time-scale of the process keeps it elusive to conventional steady-state or DC measurement systems. Here, we employ a time-domain reflectometry-based technique to electrically probe the device for few nano-seconds and investigate the non-equilibrium state. For the first time, the transient nature of electrical transport through graphene FET is revealed. A maximum change of 35% in current and 50% in contact resistance is recorded over a time span of 8 ns, while operating graphene FET at a current density of 1 mA/μm. The study highlights the role of intrinsic heating (scattering) in deciding metal-graphene contact resistance and transport through the graphene channel.

  19. Nonequilibrium self-energy functional theory. Accessing the real-time dynamics of strongly correlated fermionic lattice systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Felix

    2016-07-05

    The self-energy functional theory (SFT) is extended to the nonequilibrium case and applied to the real-time dynamics of strongly correlated lattice-fermions. Exploiting the basic structure of the well established equilibrium theory the entire formalism is reformulated in the language of Keldysh-Matsubara Green's functions. To this end, a functional of general nonequilibrium self-energies is constructed which is stationary at the physical point where it moreover yields the physical grand potential of the initial thermal state. Nonperturbative approximations to the full self-energy can be constructed by reducing the original lattice problem to smaller reference systems and varying the functional on the space of the respective trial self-energies, which are parametrized by the reference system's one-particle parameters. Approximations constructed in this way can be shown to respect the macroscopic conservation laws related to the underlying symmetries of the original lattice model. Assuming thermal equilibrium, the original SFT is recovered from the extended formalism. However, in the general case, the nonequilibrium variational principle comprises functional derivatives off the physical parameter space. These can be carried out analytically to derive inherently causal conditional equations for the optimal physical parameters of the reference system and a computationally realizable propagation scheme is set up. As a benchmark for the numerical implementation the variational cluster approach is applied to the dynamics of a dimerized Hubbard model after fast ramps of its hopping parameters. Finally, the time-evolution of a homogeneous Hubbard model after sudden quenches and ramps of the interaction parameter is studied by means of a dynamical impurity approximation with a single bath site. Sharply separated by a critical interaction at which fast relaxation to a thermal final state is observed, two differing response regimes can be distinguished, where the

  20. Interface optical phonons and their electron-phonon interactions in ZnS/CdS multi-shell spherical quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen Deng; Bao, Li Fu; Ren, Ya Jie; Yuan, Zhao Lin

    2018-04-01

    The properties of interface optical phonons and their electron-phonon interactions in ZnS/CdS multi-shell spherical quantum dots are studied by adopting dielectric continuum model. The dispersion curves and electron-phonon coupling strengths for interface optical phonons in ZnS/CdS multi-shell dots are calculated and analyzed in detail. It is shown that the number of interface optical phonon branches increase with the increase of layers of multi-shell quantum dots. The number of interface optical phonons increase two branches for increasing one layer material. The dispersions of interface optical phonon with low quantum number l are weak. The electron-interface optical phonon interactions are mainly localized at hetero-interfaces. The interface optical phonons with low quantum number l have important contribution to electron-interface optical phonon interactions.

  1. Non-equilibrium reversible dynamics of work production in four-spin system in a magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Ivanchenko

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A closed system of the equations for the local Bloch vectors and spin correlation functions is obtained by decomplexification of the Liouville-von Neumann equation for 4 magnetic particles with the exchange interaction that takes place in an arbitrary time-dependent external magnetic field. The analytical and numerical analysis of the quantum thermodynamic variables is carried out depending on separable mixed initial state and the magnetic field modulation. Under unitary evolution, non-equilibrium reversible dynamics of power production in the finite environment is investigated.

  2. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z. D.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy

  3. Nonequilibrium transition and pattern formation in a linear reaction-diffusion system with self-regulated kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Shibashis; Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2018-02-01

    We consider a reaction-diffusion system with linear, stochastic activator-inhibitor kinetics where the time evolution of concentration of a species at any spatial location depends on the relative average concentration of its neighbors. This self-regulating nature of kinetics brings in spatial correlation between the activator and the inhibitor. An interplay of this correlation in kinetics and disparity of diffusivities of the two species leads to symmetry breaking non-equilibrium transition resulting in stationary pattern formation. The role of initial noise strength and the linear reaction terms has been analyzed for pattern selection.

  4. Metal/dielectric thermal interfacial transport considering cross-interface electron-phonon coupling: Theory, two-temperature molecular dynamics, and thermal circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zexi; Wang, Yan; Ruan, Xiulin

    2016-02-01

    The standard two-temperature equations for electron-phonon coupled thermal transport across metal/nonmetal interfaces are modified to include the possible coupling between metal electrons with substrate phonons. The previous two-temperature molecular dynamics (TT-MD) approach is then extended to solve these equations numerically at the atomic scale, and the method is demonstrated using Cu/Si interface as an example. A key parameter in TT-MD is the nonlocal coupling distance of metal electrons and nonmetal phonons, and here we use two different approximations. The first is based on Overhauser's "joint-modes" concept, while we use an interfacial reconstruction region as the length scale of joint region rather than the phonon mean-free path as in Overhauser's original model. In this region, the metal electrons can couple to the joint phonon modes. The second approximation is the "phonon wavelength" concept where electrons couple to phonons nonlocally within the range of one phonon wavelength. Compared with the original TT-MD, including the cross-interface electron-phonon coupling can slightly reduce the total thermal boundary resistance. Whether the electron-phonon coupling within the metal block is nonlocal or not does not make an obvious difference in the heat transfer process. Based on the temperature profiles from TT-MD, we construct a new mixed series-parallel thermal circuit. We show that such a thermal circuit is essential for understanding metal/nonmetal interfacial transport, while calculating a single resistance without solving temperature profiles as done in most previous studies is generally incomplete. As a comparison, the simple series circuit that neglects the cross-interface electron-phonon coupling could overestimate the interfacial resistance, while the simple parallel circuit in the original Overhauser's model underestimates the total interfacial resistance.

  5. Mechanical measurement of hydrogen bonded host-guest systems under non-equilibrium, near-physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Teresa; Cerrón, Fernando; Nieto-Ortega, Belén; Latorre, Alfonso; Somoza, Álvaro; Ibarra, Borja; Pérez, Emilio M

    2017-09-01

    Decades after the birth of supramolecular chemistry, there are many techniques to measure noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, under equilibrium conditions. As ensembles of molecules rapidly lose coherence, we cannot extrapolate bulk data to single-molecule events under non-equilibrium conditions, more relevant to the dynamics of biological systems. We present a new method that exploits the high force resolution of optical tweezers to measure at the single molecule level the mechanical strength of a hydrogen bonded host-guest pair out of equilibrium and under near-physiological conditions. We utilize a DNA reporter to unambiguously isolate single binding events. The Hamilton receptor-cyanuric acid host-guest system is used as a test bed. The force required to dissociate the host-guest system is ∼17 pN and increases with the pulling rate as expected for a system under non-equilibrium conditions. Blocking one of the hydrogen bonding sites results in a significant decrease of the force-to-break by 1-2 pN, pointing out the ability of the method to resolve subtle changes in the mechanical strength of the binding due to the individual H-bonding components. We believe the method will prove to be a versatile tool to address important questions in supramolecular chemistry.

  6. Modulation of Electron-Phonon Coupling in One-Dimensionally Nanorippled Graphene on a Macrofacet of 6H-SiC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ienaga, Koichiro; Iimori, Takushi; Yaji, Koichiro; Miyamachi, Toshio; Nakashima, Shuhei; Takahashi, Yukio; Fukuma, Kohei; Hayashi, Shingo; Kajiwara, Takashi; Visikovskiy, Anton; Mase, Kazuhiko; Nakatsuji, Kan; Tanaka, Satoru; Komori, Fumio

    2017-06-14

    Local electron-phonon coupling of a one-dimensionally nanorippled graphene is studied on a SiC(0001) vicinal substrate. We have characterized local atomic and electronic structures of a periodically nanorippled graphene (3.4 nm period) prepared on a macrofacet of the 6H-SiC crystal using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/STS) and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES). The rippled graphene on the macrofacets distributes homogeneously over the 6H-SiC substrate in a millimeter scale, and thus replica bands are detected by the macroscopic ARPES. The STM/STS results indicate the strength of electron-phonon coupling to the out-of-plane phonon at the K̅ points of graphene is periodically modified in accordance with the ripple structure. We propose an interface carbon nanostructure with graphene nanoribbons between the surface rippled graphene and the substrate SiC that periodically modifies the electron-phonon coupling in the surface graphene.

  7. Experimental CC stretching phonon dispersion curves and electron phonon coupling in polyene derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, A.; Del Zoppo, M.; Zerbi, G.

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the infrared and Raman spectra (both experimentally and with the aid of quantum chemical calculations) of a series of polyenals which provide us with the fortunate case of a set of polyene chains with one of the end groups consisting of a C=O group which not only does take part in the conjugation but also pulls electrons from the chain making the whole system highly polar, thus affecting the vibrational transition moments. In the following we show, for the first time, that it is possible to derive experimental phonon dispersion curves and these prove to be different for each chain length. We support our experimental findings with Density Functional Theory quantum chemical calculations which reproduce with sufficient accuracy the IR and Raman spectral pattern and at the same time help in disentangling the assignment of the fine structure observed in the experimental spectra.

  8. A Nonequilibrium Rate Formula for Collective Motions of Complex Molecular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanao, Tomohiro; Koon, Wang Sang; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2010-09-01

    We propose a compact reaction rate formula that accounts for a non-equilibrium distribution of residence times of complex molecules, based on a detailed study of the coarse-grained phase space of a reaction coordinate. We take the structural transition dynamics of a six-atom Morse cluster between two isomers as a prototype of multi-dimensional molecular reactions. Residence time distribution of one of the isomers shows an exponential decay, while that of the other isomer deviates largely from the exponential form and has multiple peaks. Our rate formula explains such equilibrium and non-equilibrium distributions of residence times in terms of the rates of diffusions of energy and the phase of the oscillations of the reaction coordinate. Rapid diffusions of energy and the phase generally give rise to the exponential decay of residence time distribution, while slow diffusions give rise to a non-exponential decay with multiple peaks. We finally make a conjecture about a general relationship between the rates of the diffusions and the symmetry of molecular mass distributions.

  9. Revisiting the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo method for Hubbard and electron-phonon models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyl, Stefan; Goth, Florian; Assaad, Fakher F.

    2018-02-01

    A unique feature of the hybrid quantum Monte Carlo (HQMC) method is the potential to simulate negative sign free lattice fermion models with subcubic scaling in system size. Here we will revisit the algorithm for various models. We will show that for the Hubbard model the HQMC suffers from ergodicity issues and unbounded forces in the effective action. Solutions to these issues can be found in terms of a complexification of the auxiliary fields. This implementation of the HQMC that does not attempt to regularize the fermionic matrix so as to circumvent the aforementioned singularities does not outperform single spin flip determinantal methods with cubic scaling. On the other hand we will argue that there is a set of models for which the HQMC is very efficient. This class is characterized by effective actions free of singularities. Using the Majorana representation, we show that models such as the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger Hamiltonian at half filling and on a bipartite lattice belong to this class. For this specific model subcubic scaling is achieved.

  10. Thermodynamic versus non-equilibrium stability of palmitic acid monolayers in calcium-enriched sea spray aerosol proxy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen Rudd, Bethany A; Vidalis, Andrew S; Allen, Heather C

    2018-04-16

    Of the major cations in seawater (Na+, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+), Ca2+ is found to be the most enriched in fine sea spray aerosols (SSA). In this work, we investigate the binding of Ca2+ to the carboxylic acid headgroup of palmitic acid (PA), a marine-abundant fatty acid, and the impact such binding has on the stability of PA monolayers in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium systems. A range of Ca2+ conditions from 10 μM to 300 mM was utilized to represent the relative concentration of Ca2+ in high and low relative humidity aerosol environments. The CO2- stretching modes of PA detected by surface-sensitive infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) reveal ionic binding motifs of the Ca2+ ion to the carboxylate group with varying degrees of hydration. Surface tensiometry was used to determine the thermodynamic equilibrium spreading pressure (ESP) of PA on the various aqueous CaCl2 subphases. Up to concentrations of 1 mM Ca2+, each system reached equilibrium, and Ca2+:PA surface complexation gave rise to a lower energy state revealed by elevated surface pressures relative to water. We show that PA films are not thermodynamically stable at marine aerosol-relevant Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+] ≥ 10 mM). IRRAS and vibrational sum frequency generation (VSFG) spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface presence of PA on high concentration Ca2+ aqueous subphases. Non-equilibrium relaxation (NER) experiments were also conducted and monitored by Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) to determine the effect of the Ca2+ ions on PA stability. At high surface pressures, the relaxation mechanisms of PA varied among the systems and were dependent on Ca2+ concentration.

  11. Nonequilibrium steady state and induced currents of a mesoscopically glassy system: interplay of resistor-network theory and Sinai physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurowitz, Daniel; Rahav, Saar; Cohen, Doron

    2013-12-01

    We introduce an explicit solution for the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of a ring that is coupled to a thermal bath, and is driven by an external hot source with log-wide distribution of couplings. Having time scales that stretch over several decades is similar to glassy systems. Consequently there is a wide range of driving intensities where the NESS is like that of a random walker in a biased Brownian landscape. We investigate the resulting statistics of the induced current I. For a single ring we discuss how sign of I fluctuates as the intensity of the driving is increased, while for an ensemble of rings we highlight the fingerprints of Sinai physics on the distribution of the absolute value of I.

  12. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Wm.G.Hoover; C.G.Hoover

    2005-01-01

    Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics is a powerful simulation tool. Like its equilibrium cousin, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is based on time-reversible equations of motion. But unlike conventional mechanics, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics provides a consistent microscopic basis for the irreversible macroscopic Second Law of Thermodynamics. We recall here how fast computers led to the development of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics from the statistical mechanics of the 1950s. Computer-...

  13. Quantifying electron-phonon coupling in CdTe{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} nanocrystals via coherent phonon manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spann, B. T.; Xu, X., E-mail: xxu@purdue.edu [School of Mechanical Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-08-25

    We employ ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy with temporal pulse shaping to manipulate coherent phonon excitation and quantify the strength of electron-phonon coupling in CdTe{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} nanocrystals (NCs). Raman active CdSe and CdTe longitudinal optical phonon (LO) modes are excited and probed in the time domain. By temporally controlling pump pulse pairs to coherently excite and cancel coherent phonons in the CdTe{sub 1−x}Se{sub x} NCs, we estimate the relative amount of optical energy that is coupled to the coherent CdSe LO mode.

  14. Photoinduced Change in the Charge Order Pattern in the Quarter-Filled Organic Conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6 with a Strong Electron-Phonon Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onda, Ken; Ogihara, Sho; Yonemitsu, Kenji; Maeshima, Nobuya; Ishikawa, Tadahiko; Okimoto, Yoichi; Shao, Xiangfeng; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Koshihara, Shin-Ya

    2008-08-01

    The quasistable state in the photoinduced phase transition for the quasi-one-dimensional quarter-filled organic conductor (EDO-TTF)2PF6 has been examined by ultrafast reflective measurements and time-dependent model calculations incorporating both electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions. The transient optical conductivity spectrum over a wide probe photon-energy range revealed that photoexcitation induced a new type of charge-disproportionate state. Additionally, coherent and incoherent oscillations dependent on probe photon energies were found, as predicted by the calculation.

  15. Energy repartition in the nonequilibrium steady state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Peng; Bauer, G.E.; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2017-01-01

    The concept of temperature in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is an outstanding theoretical issue. We propose an energy repartition principle that leads to a spectral (mode-dependent) temperature in steady-state nonequilibrium systems. The general concepts are illustrated by analytic solutions of

  16. The nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1992-03-01

    MOLECULAR DYNAMICS has been generalized in order to simulate a variety of NONEQUILIBRIUM systems. This generalization has been achieved by adopting microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress. Some of the problems already treated include rapid plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, strong shockwaves simulation, and far-from-equilibrium phase transformations. Continuing advances in technique and in the modeling of interatomic forces, coupled with qualitative improvements in computer hardware, are enabling such simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments

  17. Non-equilibrium phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, Malte; Lübeck, Sven

    2009-01-01

    This book describes two main classes of non-equilibrium phase-transitions: (a) static and dynamics of transitions into an absorbing state, and (b) dynamical scaling in far-from-equilibrium relaxation behaviour and ageing. The first volume begins with an introductory chapter which recalls the main concepts of phase-transitions, set for the convenience of the reader in an equilibrium context. The extension to non-equilibrium systems is made by using directed percolation as the main paradigm of absorbing phase transitions and in view of the richness of the known results an entire chapter is devoted to it, including a discussion of recent experimental results. Scaling theories and a large set of both numerical and analytical methods for the study of non-equilibrium phase transitions are thoroughly discussed. The techniques used for directed percolation are then extended to other universality classes and many important results on model parameters are provided for easy reference.

  18. Phase diagrams of a nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system in an oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Polat, Yasin

    2009-01-01

    The phase diagrams of the nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on square lattice under a time-dependent external magnetic field are presented by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins σ=3/2 and S=2, and we take only nearest-neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at absolute temperature T abs and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip of the Glauber dynamics. First, we investigate the time variations of average order parameters to find the phases in the system and then the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) phase transitions. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p), ferrimagnetic (i 1 , i 2 , i 3 ) phases, and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely i 1 +p, i 2 +p and i 3 +p mixed phases that strongly depend on interaction parameters.

  19. Phase diagrams of a nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising system in an oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Polat, Yasin [Institutes of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    The phase diagrams of the nonequilibrium mixed spin-3/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on square lattice under a time-dependent external magnetic field are presented by using the Glauber-type stochastic dynamics. The model system consists of two interpenetrating sublattices of spins {sigma}=3/2 and S=2, and we take only nearest-neighbor interactions between pairs of spins. The system is in contact with a heat bath at absolute temperature T{sub abs} and the exchange of energy with the heat bath occurs via one-spin flip of the Glauber dynamics. First, we investigate the time variations of average order parameters to find the phases in the system and then the thermal behavior of the dynamic order parameters to obtain the dynamic phase transition (DPT) points as well as to characterize the nature (first- or second-order) phase transitions. The dynamic phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p), ferrimagnetic (i{sub 1}, i{sub 2}, i{sub 3}) phases, and three coexistence or mixed phase regions, namely i{sub 1}+p, i{sub 2}+p and i{sub 3}+p mixed phases that strongly depend on interaction parameters.

  20. Computer simulation of nonequilibrium processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.; Moran, B.; Holian, B.L.; Posch, H.A.; Bestiale, S.

    1987-01-01

    Recent atomistic simulations of irreversible macroscopic hydrodynamic flows are illustrated. An extension of Nose's reversible atomistic mechanics makes it possible to simulate such non-equilibrium systems with completely reversible equations of motion. The new techniques show that macroscopic irreversibility is a natural inevitable consequence of time-reversible Lyapunov-unstable microscopic equations of motion

  1. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wm.G.Hoover

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics is a powerful simulation tool. Like its equilibrium cousin, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is based on time-reversible equations of motion. But unlike conventional mechanics, nonequilibrium molecular dynamics provides a consistent microscopic basis for the irreversible macroscopic Second Law of Thermodynamics. We recall here how fast computers led to the development of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics from the statistical mechanics of the 1950s. Computer-based theories facilitated revolutionary breakthroughs in understanding during the 1970s and 1980s. The new idea key to the nonequilibrium development was the replacement of the external thermodynamic environment by internal control variables. The new variables can control temperature, or pressure, or energy, or stress, or heat flux. These thermostat, barostat, ergostat, ... variables can control and maintain nonequilibrium states. We illustrate the methods with a simple example well-suited to student exploration, a thermostatted harmonic oscillator exposed to a temperature gradient.

  2. Plasma wave instabilities in nonequilibrium graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Chinta M.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2016-01-01

    We study two-stream instabilities in a nonequilibrium system in which a stream of electrons is injected into doped graphene. As with equivalent nonequilibrium parabolic band systems, we find that the graphene systems can support unstable charge-density waves whose amplitudes grow with time. We...... of the injected electrons that maximizes the growth rate increases with increasing | q |. We compare the range and strength of the instability in graphene to that of two- and three-dimensional parabolic band systems....

  3. Non-equilibrium supramolecular polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Markvoort, Albert J; de Greef, Tom F A; Hermans, Thomas M

    2017-09-18

    Supramolecular polymerization has been traditionally focused on the thermodynamic equilibrium state, where one-dimensional assemblies reside at the global minimum of the Gibbs free energy. The pathway and rate to reach the equilibrium state are irrelevant, and the resulting assemblies remain unchanged over time. In the past decade, the focus has shifted to kinetically trapped (non-dissipative non-equilibrium) structures that heavily depend on the method of preparation (i.e., pathway complexity), and where the assembly rates are of key importance. Kinetic models have greatly improved our understanding of competing pathways, and shown how to steer supramolecular polymerization in the desired direction (i.e., pathway selection). The most recent innovation in the field relies on energy or mass input that is dissipated to keep the system away from the thermodynamic equilibrium (or from other non-dissipative states). This tutorial review aims to provide the reader with a set of tools to identify different types of self-assembled states that have been explored so far. In particular, we aim to clarify the often unclear use of the term "non-equilibrium self-assembly" by subdividing systems into dissipative, and non-dissipative non-equilibrium states. Examples are given for each of the states, with a focus on non-dissipative non-equilibrium states found in one-dimensional supramolecular polymerization.

  4. A novel four-wing non-equilibrium chaotic system and its circuit ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we construct a novel, 4D smooth autonomous system. Compared to the existing chaotic systems, the most attractive point is that this system does not display any equilib- ria, but can still exhibit four-wing chaotic attractors. The proposed system is investigated through numerical simulations and ...

  5. Changes in electron-phonon coupling across a bulk phase transition in copolymer films of vinylidene fluoride (70%) with trifluoroethylene (30%).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borca, C. N.; Adenwalla, S.; Choi, J.; Robertson, L.; You, H.; Fridkin, V. M.; Palto, S. P.; Petukhova, N.; Ducharme, S.; Dowben, P. A.

    2000-11-08

    We present evidence for a change in electron--phonon coupling across a bulk phase transition. Below the lattice stiffening transition at around 160 K, there is a change in the diffracted peak width observed by neutron and X-ray scattering techniques. Also, the electronic band structure of the copolymer is shifting in binding energy below 160 K, decreasing the density of states near the Fermi level. The value of the effective Debye temperature above the transition temperature is approximately 50 K, while below 160 K, the value of the Debye parameter is 245 K. We postulate that the coupling between electrons and phonons results in a static distortion of the lattice (below 160 K), and this distortion ''melts'' above 160 K.

  6. Rheology via nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1982-10-01

    The equilibrium molecular dynamics formulated by Newton, Lagrange, and Hamilton has been modified in order to simulate rheologial molecular flows with fast computers. This modified Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics (NEMD) has been applied to fluid and solid deformations, under both homogeneous and shock conditions, as well as to the transport of heat. The irreversible heating associated with dissipation could be controlled by carrying out isothermal NEMD calculations. The new isothermal NEMD equations of motion are consistent with Gauss' 1829 Least-Constraint principle as well as certain microscopic equilibrium and nonequilibrium statistical formulations due to Gibbs and Boltzmann. Application of isothermal NEMD revealed high-frequency and high-strain-rate behavior for simple fluids which resembled the behavior of polymer solutions and melts at lower frequencies and strain rates. For solids NEMD produces plastic flows consistent with experimental observations at much lower strain rates. The new nonequilibrium methods also suggest novel formulations of thermodynamics in nonequilibrium systems and shed light on the failure of the Principle of Material Frame Indifference

  7. Nonequilibrium emergent phenomena in organic molecular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrano, Matteo

    2015-07-15

    vibrational excitations, we then show the possibility of driving a superconducting phase transition by transiently perturbing those degrees of freedom that mediate the pairing interaction. We select the molecular solid K{sub 3}C{sub 60}, a well characterized superconductor at relatively high temperatures (T{sub c}=19.8 K) in which high-energy intramolecular vibrations are considered as key for the Cooper pairing. When driven with strong midinfrared fields resonantly tuned to infrared active intramolecular vibrations, we induce a short-lived transient state with striking superconducting-like optical properties above the equilibrium transition temperature and up to 100 K, five times the equilibrium T{sub c}. We explain the appearance of this superconducting-like behavior in terms of light-induced structural distortions capable to induce changes in the onsite Coulomb correlation and in the electron-phonon coupling.

  8. A novel four-wing non-equilibrium chaotic system and its circuit ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Compared to the existing chaotic systems, the most attractive point is that this system does not display any equilibria, but can still exhibit four-wing chaotic attractors. The proposed system is investigated through numerical simulations and analyses including time phase portraits, Lyapunov exponents, bifurcation diagram, ...

  9. Thermodynamic description of non-Markovian information flux of nonequilibrium open quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Bin; Chen, Guang-Yin; Chen, Yueh-Nan

    2017-12-01

    One of the fundamental issues in the field of open quantum systems is the classification and quantification of non-Markovianity. In the contest of quantity-based measures of non-Markovianity, the intuition of non-Markovianity in terms of information backflow is widely discussed. However, it is not easy to characterize the information flux for a given system state and show its connection to non-Markovianity. Here, by using the concepts from thermodynamics and information theory, we discuss a potential definition of information flux of an open quantum system, valid for static environments. We present a simple protocol to show how a system attempts to share information with its environment and how it builds up system-environment correlations. We also show that the information returned from the correlations characterizes the non-Markovianity and a hierarchy of indivisibility of the system dynamics.

  10. The thermodynamic meaning of local temperature of nonequilibrium open quantum systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, LvZhou; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the local temperature of nanoscale systems out of equilibrium has emerged as a new tool to study local heating effects and other local thermal properties of systems driven by external fields. Although various experimental protocols and theoretical definitions have been proposed to determine the local temperature, the thermodynamic meaning of the measured or defined quantities remains unclear. By performing analytical and numerical analysis of bias-driven quantum dot systems both in ...

  11. Solvent-assisted multistage nonequilibrium electron transfer in rigid supramolecular systems: Diabatic free energy surfaces and algorithms for numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feskov, Serguei V.; Ivanov, Anatoly I.

    2018-03-01

    An approach to the construction of diabatic free energy surfaces (FESs) for ultrafast electron transfer (ET) in a supramolecule with an arbitrary number of electron localization centers (redox sites) is developed, supposing that the reorganization energies for the charge transfers and shifts between all these centers are known. Dimensionality of the coordinate space required for the description of multistage ET in this supramolecular system is shown to be equal to N - 1, where N is the number of the molecular centers involved in the reaction. The proposed algorithm of FES construction employs metric properties of the coordinate space, namely, relation between the solvent reorganization energy and the distance between the two FES minima. In this space, the ET reaction coordinate zn n' associated with electron transfer between the nth and n'th centers is calculated through the projection to the direction, connecting the FES minima. The energy-gap reaction coordinates zn n' corresponding to different ET processes are not in general orthogonal so that ET between two molecular centers can create nonequilibrium distribution, not only along its own reaction coordinate but along other reaction coordinates too. This results in the influence of the preceding ET steps on the kinetics of the ensuing ET. It is important for the ensuing reaction to be ultrafast to proceed in parallel with relaxation along the ET reaction coordinates. Efficient algorithms for numerical simulation of multistage ET within the stochastic point-transition model are developed. The algorithms are based on the Brownian simulation technique with the recrossing-event detection procedure. The main advantages of the numerical method are (i) its computational complexity is linear with respect to the number of electronic states involved and (ii) calculations can be naturally parallelized up to the level of individual trajectories. The efficiency of the proposed approach is demonstrated for a model

  12. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics: The first 25 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, W.G.

    1992-08-01

    Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics has been generalized to simulate Nonequilibrium systems by adding sources of thermodynamic heat and work. This generalization incorporates microscopic mechanical definitions of macroscopic thermodynamic and hydrodynamic variables, such as temperature and stress, and augments atomistic forces with special boundary, constraint, and driving forces capable of doing work on, and exchanging heat with, an otherwise Newtonian system. The underlying Lyapunov instability of these nonequilibrium equations of motion links microscopic time-reversible deterministic trajectories to macroscopic time-irreversible hydrodynamic behavior as described by the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Green-Kubo linear-response theory has been checked. Nonlinear plastic deformation, intense heat conduction, shockwave propagation, and nonequilibrium phase transformation have all been simulated. The nonequilibrium techniques, coupled with qualitative improvements in parallel computer hardware, are enabling simulations to approximate real-world microscale and nanoscale experiments

  13. Persistent nonequilibrium dynamics of the thermal energies in the spin and phonon systems of an antiferromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. von Reppert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a temperature and fluence dependent Ultrafast X-Ray Diffraction study of a laser-heated antiferromagnetic dysprosium thin film. The loss of antiferromagnetic order is evidenced by a pronounced lattice contraction. We devise a method to determine the energy flow between the phonon and spin system from calibrated Bragg peak positions in thermal equilibrium. Reestablishing the magnetic order is much slower than the cooling of the lattice, especially around the Néel temperature. Despite the pronounced magnetostriction, the transfer of energy from the spin system to the phonons in Dy is slow after the spin-order is lost.

  14. The problem of ecological scaling in spatially complex, nonequilibrium ecological systems [chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Jeremy Littell; Kevin McGarigal

    2010-01-01

    In the previous chapter we reviewed the challenges posed by spatial complexity and temporal disequilibrium to efforts to understand and predict the structure and dynamics of ecological systems. The central theme was that spatial variability in the environment and population processes fundamentally alters the interactions between species and their environments, largely...

  15. Dynamics of multiphase systems with complex microstructure. I. Development of the governing equations through nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.; Öttinger, H.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a general model for the dynamic behavior of multiphase systems in which the bulk phases and interfaces have a complex microstructure (for example, immiscible polymer blends with added compatibilizers, or polymer stabilized emulsions with thickening agents dispersed in the

  16. Dissipative Time Evolution of Observables in Non-equilibrium Statistical Quantum Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Nachbagauer, Herbert

    1998-01-01

    We discuss differential-- versus integral--equation based methods describing out--of thermal equilibrium systems and emphasize the importance of a well defined reduction to statistical observables. Applying the projection operator approach, we investigate on the time evolution of expectation values of linear and quadratic polynomials in position and momentum for a statistical anharmonic oscillator with quartic potential. Based on the exact integro-differential equations of motion, we study th...

  17. Identifying apparent local stable isotope equilibrium in a complex non-equilibrium system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuyang; Cao, Xiaobin; Wang, Jianwei; Bao, Huiming

    2018-02-28

    Although being out of equilibrium, biomolecules in organisms have the potential to approach isotope equilibrium locally because enzymatic reactions are intrinsically reversible. A rigorous approach that can describe isotope distribution among biomolecules and their apparent deviation from equilibrium state is lacking, however. Applying the concept of distance matrix in graph theory, we propose that apparent local isotope equilibrium among a subset of biomolecules can be assessed using an apparent fractionation difference (|Δα|) matrix, in which the differences between the observed isotope composition (δ') and the calculated equilibrium fractionation factor (1000lnβ) can be more rigorously evaluated than by using a previous approach for multiple biomolecules. We tested our |Δα| matrix approach by re-analyzing published data of different amino acids (AAs) in potato and in green alga. Our re-analysis shows that biosynthesis pathways could be the reason for an apparently close-to-equilibrium relationship inside AA families in potato leaves. Different biosynthesis/degradation pathways in tubers may have led to the observed isotope distribution difference between potato leaves and tubers. The analysis of data from green algae does not support the conclusion that AAs are further from equilibrium in glucose-cultured green algae than in the autotrophic ones. Application of the |Δα| matrix can help us to locate potential reversible reactions or reaction networks in a complex system such as a metabolic system. The same approach can be broadly applied to all complex systems that have multiple components, e.g. geochemical or atmospheric systems of early Earth or other planets. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Nonequilibrium quantum fluctuations of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A E

    2014-09-01

    The concept of work is basic for statistical thermodynamics. To gain a fuller understanding of work and its (quantum) features, it needs to be represented as an average of a fluctuating quantity. Here I focus on the work done between two moments of time for a thermally isolated quantum system driven by a time-dependent Hamiltonian. I formulate two natural conditions needed for the fluctuating work to be physically meaningful for a system that starts its evolution from a nonequilibrium state. The existing definitions do not satisfy these conditions due to issues that are traced back to noncommutativity. I propose a definition of fluctuating work that is free of previous drawbacks and that applies for a wide class of nonequilibrium initial states. It allows the deduction of a generalized work-fluctuation theorem that applies for an arbitrary (out-of-equilibrium) initial state.

  19. Computer simulation of nonequilibrium processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, D.C.

    1985-07-01

    The underlying concepts of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics, and of irreversible thermodynamics, will be described. The question at hand is then, how are these concepts to be realize in computer simulations of many-particle systems. The answer will be given for dissipative deformation processes in solids, on three hierarchical levels: heterogeneous plastic flow, dislocation dynamics, an molecular dynamics. Aplication to the shock process will be discussed.

  20. Dissipative time evolution of observables in non-equilibrium statistical quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachbagauer, H.

    1999-03-01

    We discuss differential versus integral equation based methods describing out of thermal equilibrium systems and emphasize the importance of a well defined reduction to statistical observables. Applying the projection operator approach, we investigate on the time evolution of expectation values of linear and quadratic polynomials in position and momentum for a statistical anharmonic oscillator with quartic potential. Based on the exact integro-differential equations of motion, we study the first and naive second order approximation which breaks down at secular time-scales. A method is proposed to improve the expansion by a non perturbative resummation of all quadratic operator correlators consistent with energy conservation for all times. Motion cannot be described by an effective Hamiltonian local in time reflecting non-unitarity of the dissipative entropy generating evolution. We numerically integrate the consistently improved equations of motion for large times. We relate entropy to the uncertainty product, both being expressible in terms of the observables under consideration.

  1. Non-equilibrium correlations and entanglement in a semiconductor hybrid circuit-QED system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Pulido, L D; Emary, C; Brandes, T; Aguado, Ramón

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of a hybrid circuit-quantum electrodynamics system composed of two semiconducting charge-qubits confined in a microwave resonator. The qubits are defined in terms of the charge states of two spatially separated double quantum dots (DQDs) which are coupled to the same photon mode in the microwave resonator. We analyse a transport setup where each DQD is attached to electronic reservoirs and biased out-of-equilibrium by a large voltage, and study how electron transport across each DQD is modified by the coupling to the common resonator. In particular, we show that the inelastic current through each DQD reflects an indirect qubit–qubit interaction mediated by off-resonant photons in the microwave resonator. As a result of this interaction, both charge qubits stay entangled in the steady (dissipative) state. Finite shot noise cross-correlations between currents across distant DQDs are another manifestation of this nontrivial steady-state entanglement. (paper)

  2. Crossover physics in the nonequilibrium dynamics of quenched quantum impurity systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasseur, Romain; Trinh, Kien; Haas, Stephan; Saleur, Hubert

    2013-06-14

    A general framework is proposed to tackle analytically local quantum quenches in integrable impurity systems, combining a mapping onto a boundary problem with the form factor approach to boundary-condition-changing operators introduced by Lesage and Saleur [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4370 (1998)]. We discuss how to compute exactly the following two central quantities of interest: the Loschmidt echo and the distribution of the work done during the quantum quench. Our results display an interesting crossover physics characterized by the energy scale T(b) of the impurity corresponding to the Kondo temperature. We discuss in detail the noninteracting case as a paradigm and benchmark for more complicated integrable impurity models and check our results using numerical methods.

  3. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, W.G. (California Univ., Davis, CA (USA). Dept. of Applied Science Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The development of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics is described, with emphasis on massively-parallel simulations involving the motion of millions, soon to be billions, of atoms. Corresponding continuum simulations are also discussed. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Nonequilibrium Statistical Operator Method and Generalized Kinetic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzemsky, A. L.

    2018-01-01

    We consider some principal problems of nonequilibrium statistical thermodynamics in the framework of the Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator approach. We present a brief comparative analysis of some approaches to describing irreversible processes based on the concept of nonequilibrium Gibbs ensembles and their applicability to describing nonequilibrium processes. We discuss the derivation of generalized kinetic equations for a system in a heat bath. We obtain and analyze a damped Schrödinger-type equation for a dynamical system in a heat bath. We study the dynamical behavior of a particle in a medium taking the dissipation effects into account. We consider the scattering problem for neutrons in a nonequilibrium medium and derive a generalized Van Hove formula. We show that the nonequilibrium statistical operator method is an effective, convenient tool for describing irreversible processes in condensed matter.

  5. The representation of non-equilibrium soil types in earth system models and its impact on carbon cycle projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugelius, G.; Ahlström, A.; Canadell, J.; Koven, C. D.; Jackson, R. B.; Luo, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Soils hold the largest reactive pool of carbon (C) on earth. Global soil organic C stocks (0-200 cm depth plus full peatland depth) are estimated to 2200 Pg C (adapted from Hugelius et al., 2014, Köchy et al., 2015 and Batjes, 2016). Soil C stocks in Earth system models (ESMs) can be generated by running the model over a longer time period until soil C pools are in or near steady-state. Inherent in this concept is the idea that soil C stocks are in (quasi)equilibrium as determined by the balance of net ecosystem input to soil organic matter and its turnover. The rate of turnover is sometimes subdivided into several pools and the rates are affected by various environmental factors. Here we break down the empirically based estimates of global soil C pools into equilibrium-type soils which current (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, phase 5; CMIP5) generation ESMs are set-up to represent and non-equilibrium type soils which are generally not represented in current ESMs. We define equilibrium soils as those where pedogenesis (and associated soil C formation) is not significantly limited by the environmental factors perennial soil freezing, waterlogging/anoxia or limited unconsolidated soil substrate. This is essentially all permafrost-free mineral soils that are not in a wetland or alpine setting. On the other hand, non-equlibrium soils are defined as permafrost soils, peatlands and alpine soils with a limited fine-soil matrix. Based on geospatial analyses of state-of-the-art datasets on soil C stocks, we estimate that the global soil C pool is divided roughly equally between equilibrium and non-equlibrium type soils. We discuss the ways in which this result affects C cycling in ESMs and projections of soil C sensitivity under a changing climate. ReferencesBatjes N.H. (2016) Geoderma, 269, 61-68, doi: 10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.01.034 Hugelius G. et al. (2014) Biogeosciences, 11, 6573-6593, doi:10.5194/bg-11-6573-2014 Köchy M. et al. (2015) Soil 1, 351-365. DOI: doi

  6. Aerospace Applications of Non-Equilibrium Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankson, Isaiah M.

    2016-01-01

    Nonequilibrium plasma/non-thermal plasma/cold plasmas are being used in a wide range of new applications in aeronautics, active flow control, heat transfer reduction, plasma-assisted ignition and combustion, noise suppression, and power generation. Industrial applications may be found in pollution control, materials surface treatment, and water purification. In order for these plasma processes to become practical, efficient means of ionization are necessary. A primary challenge for these applications is to create a desired non-equilibrium plasma in air by preventing the discharge from transitioning into an arc. Of particular interest is the impact on simulations and experimental data with and without detailed consideration of non-equilibrium effects, and the consequences of neglecting non-equilibrium. This presentation will provide an assessment of the presence and influence of non-equilibrium phenomena for various aerospace needs and applications. Specific examples to be considered will include the forward energy deposition of laser-induced non-equilibrium plasmoids for sonic boom mitigation, weakly ionized flows obtained from pulsed nanosecond discharges for an annular Hall type MHD generator duct for turbojet energy bypass, and fundamental mechanisms affecting the design and operation of novel plasma-assisted reactive systems in dielectric liquids (water purification, in-pipe modification of fuels, etc.).

  7. Nonequilibrium topological phase transitions in two-dimensional optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masaya; Kawakami, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Recently, concepts of topological phases of matter are extended to nonequilibrium systems, especially periodically driven systems. In this paper, we construct an example which shows nonequilibrium topological phase transitions using ultracold fermions in optical lattices. We show that the Rabi oscillation has the possibility to induce nonequilibrium topological phases which are classified into time-reversal-invariant topological insulators for a two-orbital model of alkaline-earth-metal atoms. Furthermore, we study the nonequilibrium topological phases using time-dependent Schrieffer-Wolff-type perturbation theory, and we obtain an analytical expression to describe the topological phase transitions from a high-frequency limit of external driving fields.

  8. Electron-phonon coupling in solubilized LHC II complexes of green plants investigated by line-narrowing and temperature-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Pieper, J K; Renger, G; Schödel, R; Voigt, J

    2001-01-01

    Line-narrowed and temperature-dependent fluorescence spectra are reported for the solubilized trimeric light-harvesting complex of Photosystem II (LHC II). Special attention has been paid to eliminate effects owing to reabsorption and to ensure that the line-narrowed fluorescence spectra are virtually unaffected by hole burning or scattering artifacts. Analysis of line-narrowed fluorescence spectra at 4.2 K indicates that the lowest Q//y-state of LHC II is characterized by weak electron-phonon coupling with a Huang-Rhys factor of similar to 0.9 and a broad and strongly asymmetric one- phonon profile with a peak frequency omega//m of 15 cm**-**1 and a width of Gamma = 105 cm**-**1. The 4.2 K fluorescence data are further consistent with the assignment of the lowest Q//y-state at similar to 680.0 nm and an inhomogeneous width of similar to 80 cm**- **1 gathered from a recent hole-burning study (Pieper et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 1999, 103, 2412). The temperature dependence of the fluorescence spectra of LHC II is s...

  9. Anisotropic nonequilibrium hydrodynamic attractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael; Noronha, Jorge; Denicol, Gabriel S.

    2018-02-01

    We determine the dynamical attractors associated with anisotropic hydrodynamics (aHydro) and the DNMR equations for a 0 +1 d conformal system using kinetic theory in the relaxation time approximation. We compare our results to the nonequilibrium attractor obtained from the exact solution of the 0 +1 d conformal Boltzmann equation, the Navier-Stokes theory, and the second-order Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. We demonstrate that the aHydro attractor equation resums an infinite number of terms in the inverse Reynolds number. The resulting resummed aHydro attractor possesses a positive longitudinal-to-transverse pressure ratio and is virtually indistinguishable from the exact attractor. This suggests that an optimized hydrodynamic treatment of kinetic theory involves a resummation not only in gradients (Knudsen number) but also in the inverse Reynolds number. We also demonstrate that the DNMR result provides a better approximation of the exact kinetic theory attractor than the Mueller-Israel-Stewart theory. Finally, we introduce a new method for obtaining approximate aHydro equations which relies solely on an expansion in the inverse Reynolds number. We then carry this expansion out to the third order, and compare these third-order results to the exact kinetic theory solution.

  10. Inviscid flux-splitting algorithms for real gases with non-equilibrium chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuen, Jian-Shun; Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram

    1990-01-01

    Formulations of inviscid flux splitting algorithms for chemical nonequilibrium gases are presented. A chemical system for air dissociation and recombination is described. Numerical results for one-dimensional shock tube and nozzle flows of air in chemical nonequilibrium are examined.

  11. Equilibrium sampling by reweighting nonequilibrium simulation trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Wan, Biao; Xu, Shun; Wang, Yanting; Zhou, Xin

    2016-03-01

    Based on equilibrium molecular simulations, it is usually difficult to efficiently visit the whole conformational space of complex systems, which are separated into some metastable regions by high free energy barriers. Nonequilibrium simulations could enhance transitions among these metastable regions and then be applied to sample equilibrium distributions in complex systems, since the associated nonequilibrium effects can be removed by employing the Jarzynski equality (JE). Here we present such a systematical method, named reweighted nonequilibrium ensemble dynamics (RNED), to efficiently sample equilibrium conformations. The RNED is a combination of the JE and our previous reweighted ensemble dynamics (RED) method. The original JE reproduces equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium trajectories but requires that the initial distribution of these trajectories is equilibrium. The RED reweights many equilibrium trajectories from an arbitrary initial distribution to get the equilibrium distribution, whereas the RNED has both advantages of the two methods, reproducing equilibrium from lots of nonequilibrium simulation trajectories with an arbitrary initial conformational distribution. We illustrated the application of the RNED in a toy model and in a Lennard-Jones fluid to detect its liquid-solid phase coexistence. The results indicate that the RNED sufficiently extends the application of both the original JE and the RED in equilibrium sampling of complex systems.

  12. Nonequilibrium statistical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Röpke, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    Authored by one of the top theoretical physicists in Germany, and a well-known authority in the field, this is the only coherent presentation of the subject suitable for masters and PhD students, as well as postdocs in physics and related disciplines.Starting from a general discussion of the nonequilibrium state, different standard approaches such as master equations, and kinetic and linear response theory, are derived after special assumptions. This allows for an insight into the problems of nonequilibrium physics, a discussion of the limits, and suggestions for improvements. Applications

  13. Dynamical electron-phonon coupling, G W self-consistency, and vertex effect on the electronic band gap of ice and liquid water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Vafa; Bredow, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    We study the impact of dynamical electron-phonon (el-ph) effects on the electronic band gap of ice and liquid water by accounting for frequency-dependent Fan contributions in the el-ph mediated self-energy within the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT). We find that the dynamical el-ph coupling effects greatly reduce the static el-ph band-gap correction of the hydrogen-rich molecular ice crystal from-2.46 to -0.23 eV in great contrast to the result of Monserrat et al. [Phys. Rev. B 92, 140302 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevB.92.140302]. This is of particular importance as otherwise the static el-ph gap correction would considerably reduce the electronic band gap, leading to considerable underestimation of the intense peaks of optical absorption spectra of ice which would be in great disagreement to experimental references. By contrast, the static el-ph gap correction of liquid water is very moderate (-0.32 eV), and inclusion of dynamical effects slightly reduces the gap correction to -0.19 eV. Further, we determine the diverse sensitivity of ice and liquid water to the G W self-consistency and show that the energy-only self-consistent approach (GnWn ) exhibits large implicit vertex character in comparison to the quasiparticle self-consistent approach, for which an explicit calculation of vertex corrections is necessary for good agreement with experiment.

  14. High-Resolution Faraday Rotation and Electron-Phonon Coupling in Surface States of the Bulk-Insulating Topological Insulator Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Tse, Wang-Kong; Brahlek, M; Morris, C M; Aguilar, R Valdés; Koirala, N; Oh, S; Armitage, N P

    2015-11-20

    We have utilized time-domain magnetoterahertz spectroscopy to investigate the low-frequency optical response of the topological insulator Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} and Bi_{2}Se_{3} films. With both field and frequency dependence, such experiments give sufficient information to measure the mobility and carrier density of multiple conduction channels simultaneously. We observe sharp cyclotron resonances (CRs) in both materials. The small amount of Cu incorporated into the Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} induces a true bulk insulator with only a single type of conduction with a total sheet carrier density of ~4.9×10^{12}/cm^{2} and mobility as high as 4000 cm^{2}/V·s. This is consistent with conduction from two virtually identical topological surface states (TSSs) on the top and bottom of the film with a chemical potential ~145 meV above the Dirac point and in the bulk gap. The CR broadens at high fields, an effect that we attribute to an electron-phonon interaction. This assignment is supported by an extended Drude model analysis of the zero-field Drude conductance. In contrast, in normal Bi_{2}Se_{3} films, two conduction channels were observed, and we developed a self-consistent analysis method to distinguish the dominant TSSs and coexisting trivial bulk or two-dimensional electron gas states. Our high-resolution Faraday rotation spectroscopy on Cu_{0.02}Bi_{2}Se_{3} paves the way for the observation of quantized Faraday rotation under experimentally achievable conditions to push the chemical potential in the lowest Landau level.

  15. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweizer, M.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach to nucleation processes based on the GENERIC framework (general equation for the nonequilibrium reversible-irreversible coupling). Solely based on the GENERIC structure of time-evolution equations and thermodynamic consistency arguments of exchange processes between a

  16. Manipulating nonequilibrium magnetism through superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giazotto, Francesco; Taddei, Fabio; Fazio, Rosario; Beltram, Fabio

    2005-08-05

    Electrostatic control of the magnetization of a normal mesoscopic conductor is analyzed in a hybrid superconductor-normal-conductor-superconductor system. This effect stems from the interplay between the nonequilibrium condition in the normal region and the Zeeman splitting of the quasi-particle density of states of the superconductor subjected to a static in-plane magnetic field. Unexpected spin-dependent effects such as magnetization suppression, diamagnetic-like response of the susceptibility, as well as spin-polarized current generation are the most remarkable features presented. The impact of scattering events is evaluated and lets us show that this effect is compatible with realistic material properties and fabrication techniques.

  17. Nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merzhanov, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    The nonequilibrium theory of flame propagation is considered as applied to the following three processes of wave propagation: the combustion waves of the second kind, the combustion waves with broad reaction zones, and the combustion waves with chemical stages. Kinetic and combustion wave parameters are presented for different in composition mixtures of boron and transition metals, such as Zr, Hf, Ti, Nb, Ta, Mo, as well as for the Ta-N, Zr-C-H, Nb-B-O systems to illustrate specific features of the above-mentioned processes [ru

  18. Phase diagrams of a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, M.; Canko, O.; Gueldal, S.

    2009-01-01

    We present phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice in the presence of a time dependent oscillating external magnetic field. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. The time variation of the average magnetizations and the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated, extensively. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the transitions is characterized by studying the thermal behaviors of the dynamic magnetizations. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p) and ferrimagnetic (i) phases, and one coexistence or mixed phase region, namely the i+p, that strongly depend on interaction parameters. The system exhibits the dynamic tricritical point and the reentrant behaviors.

  19. Phase diagrams of a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system under a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, M., E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.t [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Canko, O. [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Gueldal, S. [Institute of Science, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-12-14

    We present phase diagrams for a nonequilibrium mixed spin-1/2 and spin-2 Ising ferrimagnetic system on a square lattice in the presence of a time dependent oscillating external magnetic field. We employ the Glauber transition rates to construct the mean-field dynamical equations. The time variation of the average magnetizations and the thermal behavior of the dynamic magnetizations are investigated, extensively. The nature (continuous or discontinuous) of the transitions is characterized by studying the thermal behaviors of the dynamic magnetizations. The dynamic phase transition points are obtained and the phase diagrams are presented in two different planes. Phase diagrams contain paramagnetic (p) and ferrimagnetic (i) phases, and one coexistence or mixed phase region, namely the i+p, that strongly depend on interaction parameters. The system exhibits the dynamic tricritical point and the reentrant behaviors.

  20. Steady-state nonequilibrium temperature gradients in hydrogen gas-metal systems: challenging the second law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, D. P.; Garamella, J. T.; Mallin, D. J.; Sheehan, W. F.

    2012-11-01

    Differences in gas reaction rates between disparate surfaces have been proposed as a means to achieve steady-state pressure and temperature gradients within a single blackbody cavity, thereby challenging the second law of thermodynamics (Sheehan 1998 Phys. Rev. E 57 6660; Sheehan 2001 Phys. Lett. A 280 185; Capek and Sheehan 2005 Challenges to the Second Law of Thermodynamics (Theory and Experiment) (Fundamental Theories of Physics Series vol 146) (Dordrecht: Springer)). This paper reports on laboratory tests of this hypothesis; specifically, molecular hydrogen is found to dissociate preferentially on rhenium surfaces versus tungsten at identical elevated temperatures and reduced pressures (T ⩽ 2100 K {\\cal P} \\leqslant 30\\,{ {Torr}} ). Steady-state nonequilibrium H/H2 ratios over the surfaces suggest that temperature gradients could be maintained under blackbody cavity conditions. Preliminary results from bimetallic blackbody cavity experiments are discussed.

  1. Nonequilibrium fluctuations in a resistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, N; Ciliberto, S

    2005-06-01

    In small systems where relevant energies are comparable to thermal agitation, fluctuations are of the order of average values. In systems in thermodynamical equilibrium, the variance of these fluctuations can be related to the dissipation constant in the system, exploiting the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. In nonequilibrium steady systems, fluctuations theorems (FT) additionally describe symmetry properties of the probability density functions (PDFs) of the fluctuations of injected and dissipated energies. We experimentally probe a model system: an electrical dipole driven out of equilibrium by a small constant current I, and show that FT are experimentally accessible and valid. Furthermore, we stress that FT can be used to measure the dissipated power P = R I2 in the system by just studying the PDFs' symmetries.

  2. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of restricted Boltzmann machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Domingos S. P.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we analyze the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a class of neural networks known as restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs) in the context of unsupervised learning. We show how the network is described as a discrete Markov process and how the detailed balance condition and the Maxwell-Boltzmann equilibrium distribution are sufficient conditions for a complete thermodynamics description, including nonequilibrium fluctuation theorems. Numerical simulations in a fully trained RBM are performed and the heat exchange fluctuation theorem is verified with excellent agreement to the theory. We observe how the contrastive divergence functional, mostly used in unsupervised learning of RBMs, is closely related to nonequilibrium thermodynamic quantities. We also use the framework to interpret the estimation of the partition function of RBMs with the annealed importance sampling method from a thermodynamics standpoint. Finally, we argue that unsupervised learning of RBMs is equivalent to a work protocol in a system driven by the laws of thermodynamics in the absence of labeled data.

  3. Nonequilibrium statistical physics a modern perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Livi, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Statistical mechanics has been proven to be successful at describing physical systems at thermodynamic equilibrium. Since most natural phenomena occur in nonequilibrium conditions, the present challenge is to find suitable physical approaches for such conditions: this book provides a pedagogical pathway that explores various perspectives. The use of clear language, and explanatory figures and diagrams to describe models, simulations and experimental findings makes the book a valuable resource for undergraduate and graduate students, and also for lecturers organizing teaching at varying levels of experience in the field. Written in three parts, it covers basic and traditional concepts of nonequilibrium physics, modern aspects concerning nonequilibrium phase transitions, and application-orientated topics from a modern perspective. A broad range of topics is covered, including Langevin equations, Levy processes, directed percolation, kinetic roughening and pattern formation.

  4. On the problem of neutron spectroscopy of parametrically non-equilibrium quasiparticles in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo Khong An'.

    1981-01-01

    A suitable for numerical estimations formula for coherent neutron inelastic scattering cross sections on the plasmon-phonon mixed modes of electron-phonon systems in the parametric resonance conditions is obtained from the analytical one presented in the previous work using some relations of the general parametric excitation theory. The cross sections of neutron scattering on the high-frequency plasmon-like and the low-frequency longitudinal optical phonon-like modes in InSb crystals are calculated as functions of the driving laser field intensity, which show an increase in values by about two orders of magnitude as the field intensity approaches the parametric excitation threshold

  5. Modeling interfacial dynamics using nonequilibrium thermodynamics frameworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sagis, L.M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several nonequilibrium thermodynamic frameworks have been developed capable of describing the dynamics of multiphase systems with complex microstructured interfaces. In this paper we present an overview of these frameworks. We will discuss interfacial dynamics in the context of the

  6. Expansivity and heat capacity data for Lu and Sc crystals from 1 to 300 K: Spin-fluctuation and electron-phonon effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, C.A.

    1996-01-01

    Linear thermal expansivity (α) measurements from 1 to 300 K and heat capacity (C p ) measurements from 1 to 110 K are reported for single crystals of the hexagonal scandium and lutetium metals; the C p data were combined with previous data to obtain smooth representations to 305 K for Lu and 350 K for Sc. The Θ 0 close-quote s (352 and 190 K, respectively, for Sc and Lu) and γ close-quote s (10.38 and 8.30 mJ/molK 2 , respectively for Sc and Lu) are in reasonable agreement with previous data of various kinds. Electronic contributions are much larger for the α close-quote s than for the C p close-quote s, with the large anisotropies of the α close-quote s primarily electronic in origin. The equivalent Debye Θ close-quote s for the lattice C p close-quote s and the Grueneisen parameters Γ for the lattice α close-quote s both show an unexpected T dependence at open-quote open-quote high close-quote close-quote T (T approx-gt Θ 0 /2), which can be associated with the disappearance of spin-fluctuation and electron-phonon enhancements to the electronic properties; this effect has been reported previously for Sc C ν close-quote s by Pleschiutschnig et al. [Phys. Rev. B 44, 6794 (1991)]. While the resulting high-temperature open-quote open-quote bare close-quote close-quote or open-quote open-quote density of states close-quote close-quote γ for Sc, γ b =5.75(25) mJ/molK 2 , is slightly larger than that calculated recently by Goetz and Winter [J. Phys. Condens. Matter 5, 1721 (1993)], the magnitude of the sum (γ spin +γep) agrees well. For Lu, for which no recent calculations exist, γ b =5.50(25) mJ/molK 2 . (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Expansivity and heat capacity data for Lu and Sc crystals from 1 to 300 K: Spin-fluctuation and electron-phonon effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, C.A. [Ames Laboratory and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Linear thermal expansivity ({alpha}) measurements from 1 to 300 K and heat capacity ({ital C}{sub {ital p}}) measurements from 1 to 110 K are reported for single crystals of the hexagonal scandium and lutetium metals; the {ital C}{sub {ital p}} data were combined with previous data to obtain smooth representations to 305 K for Lu and 350 K for Sc. The {Theta}{sub 0}{close_quote}s (352 and 190 K, respectively, for Sc and Lu) and {gamma}{close_quote}s (10.38 and 8.30 mJ/molK{sup 2}, respectively for Sc and Lu) are in reasonable agreement with previous data of various kinds. Electronic contributions are much larger for the {alpha}{close_quote}s than for the {ital C}{sub {ital p}}{close_quote}s, with the large anisotropies of the {alpha}{close_quote}s primarily electronic in origin. The equivalent Debye {Theta}{close_quote}s for the lattice {ital C}{sub {ital p}}{close_quote}s and the Gr{umlt u}neisen parameters {Gamma} for the lattice {alpha}{close_quote}s both show an unexpected {ital T} dependence at {open_quote}{open_quote}high{close_quote}{close_quote} {ital T} ({ital T}{approx_gt}{Theta}{sub 0}/2), which can be associated with the disappearance of spin-fluctuation and electron-phonon enhancements to the electronic properties; this effect has been reported previously for Sc {ital C}{sub {nu}}{close_quote}s by Pleschiutschnig {ital et} {ital al}. [Phys. Rev. B {bold 44}, 6794 (1991)]. While the resulting high-temperature {open_quote}{open_quote}bare{close_quote}{close_quote} or {open_quote}{open_quote}density of states{close_quote}{close_quote} {gamma} for Sc, {gamma}{sub {ital b}}=5.75(25) mJ/molK{sup 2}, is slightly larger than that calculated recently by G{umlt o}tz and Winter [J. Phys. Condens. Matter {bold 5}, 1721 (1993)], the magnitude of the sum ({gamma}{sub spin}+{gamma}{ital ep}) agrees well. For Lu, for which no recent calculations exist, {gamma}{sub {ital b}}=5.50(25) mJ/molK{sup 2}. (Abstract Truncated)

  8. Simultaneous spectral and temporal analyses of kinetic energies in nonequilibrium systems: theory and application to vibrational relaxation of O-D stretch mode of HOD in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jonggu; Lim, Joon Hyung; Kim, Seongheun; Kim, Heejae; Cho, Minhaeng

    2015-05-28

    A time series of kinetic energies (KE) from classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation contains fundamental information on system dynamics. It can also be analyzed in the frequency domain through Fourier transformation (FT) of velocity correlation functions, providing energy content of different spectral regions. By limiting the FT time span, we have previously shown that spectral resolution of KE evolution is possible in the nonequilibrium situations [Jeon and Cho, J. Chem. Phys. 2011, 135, 214504]. In this paper, we refine the method by employing the concept of instantaneous power spectra, extending it to reflect an instantaneous time-correlation of velocities with those in the future as well as with those in the past, and present a new method to obtain the instantaneous spectral density of KE (iKESD). This approach enables the simultaneous spectral and temporal resolution of KE with unlimited time precision. We discuss the formal and novel properties of the new iKESD approaches and how to optimize computational methods and determine parameters for practical applications. The method is specifically applied to the nonequilibrium MD simulation of vibrational relaxation of the OD stretch mode in a hydrated HOD molecule by employing a hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) potential. We directly compare the computational results with the OD band population relaxation time profiles extracted from the IR pump-probe measurements for 5% HOD in water. The calculated iKESD yields the OD bond relaxation time scale ∼30% larger than the experimental value, and this decay is largely frequency-independent if the classical anharmonicity is accounted for. From the integrated iKESD over intra- and intermolecular bands, the major energy transfer pathways were found to involve the HOD bending mode in the subps range, then the internal modes of the solvent until 5 ps after excitation, and eventually the solvent intermolecular modes. Also, strong hydrogen

  9. Photoinduced dynamics and nonequilibrium characteristics in quasi-one-dimensional effectron systems: Mott insulators vs band insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemitsu, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    Effectron-effectron interactions play an important role in nonequilibrium properties of molecular materials. First, we show differences between photoinduced ionic-to-neutral and neutral-to-ionic transitions in quasi-one-dimensional extended Peierls Hubbard models with alternating potentials. Cooperative dynamics lead to nonlinear ionicity in the former, while uncooperative dynamics lead to quite linear ionicity in the latter, as a function of the energy supplied from the oscillating effectric field. Interchain effectron-effectron interactions bring about initial competition among metastable and stable domains in neighboring chains, slowing down the phase transition. Interchain elastic couplings are necessary to form a ferroeffectric long-range order. Second, we show differences between field-effect characteristics of Mott insulators and those of band insulators in one-dimensional Hubbard models, to which tight-binding models are attached for metallic effectrodes and scalar potentials are added for interfacial barriers. Ambipolar characteristics are found in the former, while unipolar characteristics generally appear in the latter. In the former, charge transport is cooperative so that the drain current is insensitive to the difference between the work function of the channel and that of the effectrodes, and thus insensitive to the polarity of the gate bias.

  10. Non-equilibrium synergistic effects in atmospheric pressure plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Zhang, Xiao-Ning; Chen, Jian; Li, He-Ping; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2018-03-19

    Non-equilibrium is one of the important features of an atmospheric gas discharge plasma. It involves complicated physical-chemical processes and plays a key role in various actual plasma processing. In this report, a novel complete non-equilibrium model is developed to reveal the non-equilibrium synergistic effects for the atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasmas (AP-LTPs). It combines a thermal-chemical non-equilibrium fluid model for the quasi-neutral plasma region and a simplified sheath model for the electrode sheath region. The free-burning argon arc is selected as a model system because both the electrical-thermal-chemical equilibrium and non-equilibrium regions are involved simultaneously in this arc plasma system. The modeling results indicate for the first time that it is the strong and synergistic interactions among the mass, momentum and energy transfer processes that determine the self-consistent non-equilibrium characteristics of the AP-LTPs. An energy transfer process related to the non-uniform spatial distributions of the electron-to-heavy-particle temperature ratio has also been discovered for the first time. It has a significant influence for self-consistently predicting the transition region between the "hot" and "cold" equilibrium regions of an AP-LTP system. The modeling results would provide an instructive guidance for predicting and possibly controlling the non-equilibrium particle-energy transportation process in various AP-LTPs in future.

  11. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    De Groot, Sybren Ruurds

    1984-01-01

    The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn

  12. High-T{sub c} superconductivity in monolayer FeSe on SrTiO{sub 3} via interface-induced small-q electron-phonon coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aperis, Alexandros; Oppeneer, Peter M. [Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    A monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} becomes superconducting at temperatures that exceed T{sub c}=100 K, as compared to a bulk T{sub c} of 8 K. Recent ARPES measurements have provided strong evidence that an interfaced-induced electron-phonon interaction between FeSe electrons and SrTiO{sub 3} phonons plays a decisive role in this phenomenon. However, the mechanism that drives this tantalizing high-T{sub c} boost is still unclear. Here, we examine the recent experimental findings using fully anisotropic, full bandwidth multiband Eliashberg calculations focusing on the superconducting state of FeSe/STO. We use a realistic ten band tight-binding band structure for the electrons of monolayer FeSe and study how the suggested interface-induced small-q electron-phonon interaction mediates superconductivity. Our calculations produce a high-T{sub c} s-wave superconducting state with the experimentally resolved momentum dependence. Further, we calculate the normal metal/insulator/superconductor tunneling spectrum and identify fingerprints of the interface-induced phonon mechanism.

  13. Quantum nonequilibrium equalities with absolute irreversibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funo, Ken; Murashita, Yûto; Ueda, Masahito

    2015-07-01

    We derive quantum nonequilibrium equalities in absolutely irreversible processes. Here by absolute irreversibility we mean that in the backward process the density matrix does not return to the subspace spanned by those eigenvectors that have nonzero weight in the initial density matrix. Since the initial state of a memory and the postmeasurement state of the system are usually restricted to a subspace, absolute irreversibility occurs during the measurement and feedback processes. An additional entropy produced in absolutely irreversible processes needs to be taken into account to derive nonequilibrium equalities. We discuss a model of a feedback control on a qubit system to illustrate the obtained equalities. By introducing N heat baths each composed of a qubit and letting them interact with the system, we show how the entropy reduction via feedback control can be converted into work. An explicit form of extractable work in the presence of absolute irreversibility is given.

  14. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Self-Replicating Protocells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold; Corominas-Murtra, Bernat; Hansen, Per Lyngs

    2018-01-01

    We provide a non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of the life-cycle of a droplet based, chemically feasible, system of protocells. By coupling the protocells metabolic kinetics with its thermodynamics, we demonstrate how the system can be driven out of equilibrium to ensure protocell growth...... and replication. This coupling allows us to derive the equations of evolution and to rigorously demonstrate how growth and replication life-cycle can be understood as a non-equilibrium thermodynamic cycle. The process does not appeal to genetic information or inheritance, and is based only on non......-equilibrium physics considerations. Our non-equilibrium thermodynamic description of simple, yet realistic, processes of protocell growth and replication, represents an advance in our physical understanding of a central biological phenomenon both in connection to the origin of life and for modern biology....

  15. Non-equilibrium Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.

  16. DURIP 98-99 Visible/Near-IR Optical Parametric Oscillator System for Kinetic Studies of Nonequilibrium Air Plasma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kruger, Charles

    1999-01-01

    .... This system comprises a Powerlite 8000 Nd:Yag laser system, a DS-1 temperature stabilized second and third harmonic generator and output, a SL-500 injection seeder, and a Sunlite2 visible OPO/Amplifier...

  17. Nonequilibrium phonon effects in midinfrared quantum cascade lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Y. B., E-mail: yshi9@wisc.edu; Knezevic, I., E-mail: knezevic@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1691 (United States)

    2014-09-28

    We investigate the effects of nonequilibrium phonon dynamics on the operation of a GaAs-based midinfrared quantum cascade laser over a range of temperatures (77–300 K) via a coupled ensemble Monte Carlo simulation of electron and optical-phonon systems. Nonequilibrium phonon effects are shown to be important below 200 K. At low temperatures, nonequilibrium phonons enhance injection selectivity and efficiency by drastically increasing the rate of interstage electron scattering from the lowest injector state to the next-stage upper lasing level via optical-phonon absorption. As a result, the current density and modal gain at a given field are higher and the threshold current density lower and considerably closer to experiment than results obtained with thermal phonons. By amplifying phonon absorption, nonequilibrium phonons also hinder electron energy relaxation and lead to elevated electronic temperatures.

  18. Inflation and nonequilibrium renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanella, Juan; Calzetta, Esteban

    2007-01-01

    We study the spectrum of primordial fluctuations and the scale dependence of the inflaton spectral index due to self-interactions of the field. We compute the spectrum of fluctuations by applying nonequilibrium renormalization group techniques

  19. Non-equilibrium dynamics from RPMD and CMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Ralph; Song, Kai; Shi, Qiang; Althorpe, Stuart C; Miller, Thomas F

    2016-11-28

    We investigate the calculation of approximate non-equilibrium quantum time correlation functions (TCFs) using two popular path-integral-based molecular dynamics methods, ring-polymer molecular dynamics (RPMD) and centroid molecular dynamics (CMD). It is shown that for the cases of a sudden vertical excitation and an initial momentum impulse, both RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs for linear operators that are exact for high temperatures, in the t = 0 limit, and for harmonic potentials; the subset of these conditions that are preserved for non-equilibrium TCFs of non-linear operators is also discussed. Furthermore, it is shown that for these non-equilibrium initial conditions, both methods retain the connection to Matsubara dynamics that has previously been established for equilibrium initial conditions. Comparison of non-equilibrium TCFs from RPMD and CMD to Matsubara dynamics at short times reveals the orders in time to which the methods agree. Specifically, for the position-autocorrelation function associated with sudden vertical excitation, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 4 ) and O(t 1 ), respectively; for the position-autocorrelation function associated with an initial momentum impulse, RPMD and CMD agree with Matsubara dynamics up to O(t 5 ) and O(t 2 ), respectively. Numerical tests using model potentials for a wide range of non-equilibrium initial conditions show that RPMD and CMD yield non-equilibrium TCFs with an accuracy that is comparable to that for equilibrium TCFs. RPMD is also used to investigate excited-state proton transfer in a system-bath model, and it is compared to numerically exact calculations performed using a recently developed version of the Liouville space hierarchical equation of motion approach; again, similar accuracy is observed for non-equilibrium and equilibrium initial conditions.

  20. Non-equilibrium chemistry in the solar nebula and early solar system: Implications for the chemistry of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical models of solar nebula and early solar system chemistry which take into account the interplay between chemical, physical, and dynamical processes have great utility for deciphering the origin and evolution of the abundant chemically reactive volatiles (H, O, C, N, S) observed in comets. In particular, such models are essential for attempting to distinguish between presolar and solar nebula products and for quantifying the nature and duration of nebular and early solar system processing to which the volatile constituents of comets have been subjected. The diverse processes and energy sources responsible for chemical processing in the solar nebula and early solar system are discussed. The processes considered include homogeneous and heterogeneous thermochemical and photochemical reactions, and disequilibration resulting from fluid transport, condensation, and cooling whenever they occur on timescales shorter than those for chemical reactions.

  1. Fluctuation Theorem, Nonequilibrium Steady States and MacLennan-Zubarev Ensembles of $L^1$-Asymptotic Abelian C$^*$ Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tasaki, S

    2002-01-01

    For an infinitely extended system divisable into a finite subsystem and several reservoirs, the time evolution of initial states, where the reservoirs are in equilibrium with different temperatures and chemical potentials, is studied. Under the assumption that the time evolution is $L^1$-asymptotic abelian, (i) \\ the existence of the steady states, (ii) \\ the division independence of the steady states and their relative entropy production, and (iii) \\ the stability of steady states against local perturbations are shown. The explicit expression of the relative entropy production and a KMS characterization of the steady states are given. Without the $L^1$-asymptotic abelian property, a noncommutative analog to the fluctuation theorem is derived as well.

  2. Simple models of equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebowitz, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    This volume consists of two chapters of particular interest to researchers in the field of statistical mechanics. The first chapter is based on the premise that the best way to understand the qualitative properties that characterize many-body (i.e. macroscopic) systems is to study 'a number of the more significant model systems which, at least in principle are susceptible of complete analysis'. The second chapter deals exclusively with nonequilibrium phenomena. It reviews the theory of fluctuations in open systems to which they have made important contributions. Simple but interesting model examples are emphasised

  3. Work fluctuation and total entropy production in nonequilibrium processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funo, Ken; Shitara, Tomohiro; Ueda, Masahito

    2016-12-01

    Work fluctuation and total entropy production play crucial roles in small thermodynamic systems subject to large thermal fluctuations. We investigate a trade-off relation between them in a nonequilibrium situation in which a system starts from an arbitrary nonequilibrium state. We apply a variational method to study this problem and find a stationary solution against variations over protocols that describe the time dependence of the Hamiltonian of the system. Using the stationary solution, we find the minimum of the total entropy production for a given amount of work fluctuation. An explicit protocol that achieves this is constructed from an adiabatic process followed by a quasistatic process. The obtained results suggest how one can control the nonequilibrium dynamics of the system while suppressing its work fluctuation and total entropy production.

  4. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of an interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marco; Öttinger, Hans Christian; Savin, Thierry

    2016-05-01

    Interfacial thermodynamics has deep ramifications in understanding the boundary conditions of transport theories. We present a formulation of local equilibrium for interfaces that extends the thermodynamics of the "dividing surface," as introduced by Gibbs, to nonequilibrium settings such as evaporation or condensation. By identifying the precise position of the dividing surface in the interfacial region with a gauge degree of freedom, we exploit gauge-invariance requirements to consistently define the intensive variables for the interface. The model is verified under stringent conditions by employing high-precision nonequilibrium molecular-dynamics simulations of a coexisting vapor-liquid Lennard-Jones fluid. We conclude that the interfacial temperature is determined using the surface tension as a "thermometer," and it can be significantly different from the temperatures of the adjacent phases. Our findings lay foundations for nonequilibrium interfacial thermodynamics.

  5. Mesoscopic spin-flip transport through a hybrid system with a single molecular dot system applied with ac magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Qiao, E-mail: cqhy1127@yahoo.com.c [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China); Liu Jin [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang Zhiyong [School of Optoelectronic Information, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing 400054 (China)

    2011-01-17

    We have investigated the current for the system of vibrating quantum dot irradiated with a rotating magnetic field and an oscillating magnetic field by nonequilibrium Green's function. The rotating magnetic field rotates with the angular frequency {omega}{sub r} around the z-axis with the tilt angle {theta}, and the time-oscillating magnetic field is located in the z-axis with the angular frequency {omega}. Different behaviors have been shown in the presence of electron-phonon interaction (EPI) which plays a significant role in the transport. The current displays asymmetric behavior as the source-drain bias eV=0, novel side peaks or shoulders can be found due to the phonon absorption and emission procedure, and the negative differential resistance becomes stronger as the parameter g increases. Furthermore, the strong EPI also destroys the quasiperiodic oscillations of current in the region {mu}{sub 0}B{sub 1}>2.5{Delta}. The electron transport properties are also significantly influenced by the linewidth function {Gamma}.

  6. Open problems in non-equilibrium physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusnezov, D.

    1997-09-22

    The report contains viewgraphs on the following: approaches to non-equilibrium statistical mechanics; classical and quantum processes in chaotic environments; classical fields in non-equilibrium situations: real time dynamics at finite temperature; and phase transitions in non-equilibrium conditions.

  7. Nontrivial nonequilibrium critical relaxation in cluster algorithms and universal nonequilibrium-to-equilibrium scaling procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonomura, Yoshihiko; Tomita, Yusuke

    2015-03-01

    Recently we have found that the nonequilibrium relaxation from the perfectly-ordered state of the 2D and 3D Ising models in cluster algorithms shows nontrivial stretched-exponential decay at the transition temperature. Similar nontrivial nonequilibrium critical relaxation is also observed in the 2D XY, 3D XY and 3D Heisenberg models; simple exponential decay in these cases. In order to confirm these behaviors and evaluate the scaling form precisely and robustly, we have proposed a universal scaling procedure to connect nonequilibrium and equilibrium behaviors continuously. For example, when the critical relaxation of the average magnetization of a system with linear size L is observed in local-update algorithms, this quantity decays in a power law in the early-stage relaxation with ~t - β / (zν) and converges to the critical magnetization mc (L) ~L - β / ν in equilibrium. Then, when L β / ν is plotted versus tL-z , data for various system sizes are scaled on a single curve in the whole parameter region. This procedure also holds for the cases with cluster algorithms.

  8. Nonequilibrium transport through molecular junctions in the quantum regime

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koch, T.; Loos, Jan; Alvermann, A.; Fehske, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 12 (2011), 125131/1-125131/16 ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : theory of electronic transport * scattering mechanisms * polarons and electron-phonon interactions * quantum dots Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.691, year: 2011

  9. Nonequilibrium Energetics of Single Molecule Motor, Kinesin-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariga, Takayuki; Tomishige, Michio; Mizuno, Daisuke

    2018-02-01

    Molecular motors are nonequilibrium open systems that convert chemical energy to mechanical work. Here we investigate the nonequilibrium energetics of a single molecule kinesin by measuring the motion of an attached probe particle and its response to external forces with optical tweezers. The sum of the heat dissipation estimated from the violation of the fluctuation-response relation and the output power was inconsistent with the input free energy rate, implying that internal dissipation is dominant. By using a two-state Markov model, we discuss the energy flow of the kinesin motor.

  10. Generalization of the second law for a nonequilibrium initial state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.-H., E-mail: hhh@mx.ibaraki.ac.j [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Ishikawa, J.; Takara, K. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Driebe, D.J. [Division of Math, Science and Technology, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33314 (United States)

    2010-02-08

    We generalize the second law of thermodynamics in its maximum work formulation for a nonequilibrium initial distribution. It is found that in an isothermal process, the Boltzmann relative entropy (H-function) is not just a Lyapunov function but also tells us the maximum work that may be gained from a nonequilibrium initial state. The generalized second law also gives a fundamental relation between work and information. It is valid even for a small Hamiltonian system not in contact with a heat reservoir but with an effective temperature determined by the isentropic condition. Our relation can be tested in the Szilard engine, which will be realized in the laboratory.

  11. Limiting processes in non-equilibrium classical statistical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancel, R.

    1983-01-01

    After a recall of the basic principles of the statistical mechanics, the results of ergodic theory, the transient at the thermodynamic limit and his link with the transport theory near the equilibrium are analyzed. The fundamental problems put by the description of non-equilibrium macroscopic systems are investigated and the kinetic methods are stated. The problems of the non-equilibrium statistical mechanics are analyzed: irreversibility and coarse-graining, macroscopic variables and kinetic description, autonomous reduced descriptions, limit processes, BBGKY hierarchy, limit theorems [fr

  12. Imaginary-time formulation of strongly correlated nonequilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heary, Ryan Joseph

    Strongly correlated nanostructures and lattices of electrons are studied when these systems reside in a steady-state nonequilibrium. Much of the work done to date has made use of the nonequilibrium real-time Keldysh Green function technique. These methods include: the Keldysh Green function perturbation theory, time-dependent numerical renormalization group, density matrix renormalization group, and diagrammatic quantum Monte Carlo. In the special case of steady-state nonequilibrium we construct an imaginary-time theory. The motivation to do this is simple: there exist an abundant number of well-established strongly correlated computational solvers for imaginary-time theory and perturbation theory on the imaginary-time contour is much more straightforward than that of the real-time contour. The first model system we focus on is a strongly interacting quantum dot situated between source and drain electron reservoirs. The steady-state nonequilibrium boundary condition is established by applying a voltage bias phi across the reservoirs, in turn modifying the chemical potentials of the leads. For a symmetric voltage drop we have mu source = phi/2 and mudrain = -phi/2. The dynamics of the electrons are governed by the Hamiltonian Ĥ which is inherently independent of the imbalance in the source and drain chemical potentials. The statistics though are determined by the operator Ĥ-Ŷ , where Ŷ imposes the nonequilibrium boundary condition. We show that it is possible to construct a single effective Hamiltonian K̂ able to describe both the dynamics and statistics of the system. Upon formulating the theory we explicitly show that it is consistent with the real-time Keldysh theory both formally and through an example using perturbation theory. In these systems there exists a strong interplay between the interactions and nonequilibrium leading to novel nonperturbative phenomena. Therefore, we combine our theory with the Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo algorithm to study

  13. Nonequilibrium work energy relation for non-Hamiltonian dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Dibyendu; DeWeese, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    Recent years have witnessed major advances in our understanding of nonequilibrium processes. The Jarzynski equality, for example, provides a link between equilibrium free energy differences and finite-time nonequilibrium dynamics. We propose a generalization of this relation to non-Hamiltonian dynamics, relevant for active matter systems, continuous feedback, and computer simulation. Surprisingly, this relation allows us to calculate the free energy difference between the desired initial and final equilibrium states using arbitrary dynamics. As a practical matter, this dissociation between the dynamics and the initial and final states promises to facilitate a range of techniques for free energy estimation in a single universal expression.

  14. Systems biology and the origins of life? part II. Are biochemical networks possible ancestors of living systems? networks of catalysed chemical reactions: non-equilibrium, self-organization and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricard, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    The present article discusses the possibility that catalysed chemical networks can evolve. Even simple enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions can display this property. The example studied is that of a two-substrate proteinoid, or enzyme, reaction displaying random binding of its substrates A and B. The fundamental property of such a system is to display either emergence or integration depending on the respective values of the probabilities that the enzyme has bound one of its substrate regardless it has bound the other substrate, or, specifically, after it has bound the other substrate. There is emergence of information if p(A)>p(AB) and p(B)>p(BA). Conversely, if p(A)equilibrium. Moreover, in such systems, emergence results in an increase of the energy level of the ternary EAB complex that becomes closer to the transition state of the reaction, thus leading to the enhancement of catalysis. Hence a drift from quasi-equilibrium is, to a large extent, responsible for the production of information and enhancement of catalysis. Non-equilibrium of these simple systems must be an important aspect that leads to both self-organization and evolutionary processes. These conclusions can be extended to networks of catalysed chemical reactions. Such networks are, in fact, networks of networks, viz. meta-networks. In this formal representation, nodes are chemical reactions catalysed by poorly specific proteinoids, and links can be identified to the transport of metabolites from proteinoid to proteinoid. The concepts of integration and emergence can be applied to such situations and can be used to define the identity of these networks and therefore their evolution. Defined as open non-equilibrium structures, such biochemical networks possess two remarkable properties: (1) the probability of occurrence of their nodes is dependant upon the input and output of matter in, and from, the system and (2) the probability of occurrence of the nodes is strictly linked to their degree of

  15. Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruschke, Jens

    2010-06-16

    The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio

  16. Nonequilibrium relaxation method – An alternative simulation strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the results to infinite system. This equilibrium method traces over the standard theory of the thermal statistical mechanics, and over the idea of the thermodynamic limit. Recently, an alternative simulation strategy has been developed, which analyzes the nonequilibrium relaxation (NER) process. It is called the NER method.

  17. Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...

  18. Fluctuation theorems and orbital magnetism in nonequilibrium state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluctuation theorem; Jarzynski equality; orbital magnetism. PACS Nos 05.70.Ln; 05.40.Jc; 05.40.-a; 05.40.Ca. 1. Introduction. Recent developments in nonequilibrium statistical mechanics has led to the discov- ery of several rigorous theorems for systems far away from equilibrium [1–10]. The fluctuation theorems describe ...

  19. On the forces and fluxes in non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitahara, Kazuo

    1986-01-01

    A formulation of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of continuum systems based on local equilibrium assumption is reported. Thermodynamic forces are defined from a generalized local entropy and irreversible fluxes are defined as non-advective parts of fluxes of conservative quantities. The validity of the general evolution criterion and its generalization is discussed. (author)

  20. Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckstein, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)

  1. Nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Martin

    2009-12-21

    The aim of this thesis is the investigation of strongly interacting quantum many-particle systems in nonequilibrium by means of the dynamical mean-field theory (DMFT). An efficient numerical implementation of the nonequilibrium DMFT equations within the Keldysh formalism is provided, as well a discussion of several approaches to solve effective single-site problem to which lattice models such as the Hubbard-model are mapped within DMFT. DMFT is then used to study the relaxation of the thermodynamic state after a sudden increase of the interaction parameter in two different models: the Hubbard model and the Falicov-Kimball model. In the latter case an exact solution can be given, which shows that the state does not even thermalize after infinite waiting times. For a slow change of the interaction, a transition to adiabatic behavior is found. The Hubbard model, on the other hand, shows a very sensitive dependence of the relaxation on the interaction, which may be called a dynamical phase transition. Rapid thermalization only occurs at the interaction parameter which corresponds to this transition. (orig.)

  2. Decoherence in semiconductor cavity QED systems due to phonon couplings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the effect of electron-phonon interactions on the coherence properties of single photons emitted from a semiconductor cavity QED (quantum electrodynamics) system, i.e., a quantum dot embedded in an optical cavity. The degree of indistinguishability, governing the quantum mechanical...... diagonalization approach. We find that for large cavity decay rates the perturbation theory may break down....

  3. Nonequilibrium and irreversibility

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This book concentrates on the properties of the stationary states in chaotic systems of particles or fluids, leaving aside the theory of the way they can be reached. The stationary states of particles or of fluids (understood as probability distributions on microscopic configurations or on the fields describing continua) have received important new ideas and data from numerical simulations and reviews are needed. The starting point is to find out which time invariant distributions come into play in physics. A special feature of this book is the historical approach. To identify the problems the author analyzes the papers of the founding fathers Boltzmann, Clausius and Maxwell including translations of the relevant (parts of ) historical documents. He also establishes a close link between treatment of irreversible phenomena in statistical mechanics and the theory of chaotic systems at and beyond the onset of turbulence as developed by Sinai, Ruelle, Bowen (SRB) and others: the author gives arguments intending t...

  4. Coherence enhanced quantum metrology in a nonequilibrium optical molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhihai; Wu, Wei; Cui, Guodong; Wang, Jin

    2018-03-01

    We explore the quantum metrology in an optical molecular system coupled to two environments with different temperatures, using a quantum master equation beyond secular approximation. We discover that the steady-state coherence originating from and sustained by the nonequilibrium condition can enhance quantum metrology. We also study the quantitative measures of the nonequilibrium condition in terms of the curl flux, heat current and entropy production at the steady state. They are found to grow with temperature difference. However, an apparent paradox arises considering the contrary behaviors of the steady-state coherence and the nonequilibrium measures in relation to the inter-cavity coupling strength. This paradox is resolved by decomposing the heat current into a population part and a coherence part. Only the latter, the coherence part of the heat current, is tightly connected to the steady-state coherence and behaves similarly with respect to the inter-cavity coupling strength. Interestingly, the coherence part of the heat current flows from the low-temperature reservoir to the high-temperature reservoir, opposite to the direction of the population heat current. Our work offers a viable way to enhance quantum metrology for open quantum systems through steady-state coherence sustained by the nonequilibrium condition, which can be controlled and manipulated to maximize its utility. The potential applications go beyond quantum metrology and extend to areas such as device designing, quantum computation and quantum technology in general.

  5. Observation of cyclotron resonance and electron-phonon coupling in surface states of the bulk-insulating topological insulator Cu0.02Bi2Se3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Liang [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). The Inst. of Quantum Matter; Tse, Wang-Kong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morris, C. M. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). The Inst. of Quantum Matter; Brahlek, M. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Koirala, N. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Oh, S. [Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Armitage, N. P. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). The Inst. of Quantum Matter

    2015-02-05

    We have utilized magneto-optical time-domain spectroscopy to investigate the low frequency optical response of topological insulator Cu0.02Bi2Se3 and Bi2Se3 films. With both field and frequency depedence, such experiments give sufficient information to measure the mobility and carrier density of multiple conduction channels simultaneously. We observe sharp cyclotron resonances (CRs) in both samples. The small amount of Cu substitution into the Cu0.02Bi2Se3 induces a true bulk insulator with only a single conduction channel with total sheet carrier density 4.9 x 1012/cm2 and mobility as large as 4000 cm2/V s. This is consistent with pure topological surface state (TSSs) conduction with a chemical potential 150 meV above the Dirac point. Hence, a true topological insulator with an insulating bulk is realized. The CR broadens at high fields, an e ect that we attribute to an electron-phonon interaction. This assignment is supported by an extended Drude model analysis on the zero field data. In contrast to Cu0.02Bi2Se3, two charge channels were observed in normal Bi2Se3 films. We demonstrate a method to distinguish between the dominant TSSs and trivial bulk/2DEG states. The dominant channel exhibits a CR with a carrier density of ~2.0 x 1013/cm2 and mobility ~3200 cm2/V s, consistent with TSSs with a chemical potential ~350meV above the Dirac point.

  6. Shortcuts to isothermality and nonequilibrium work relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng; Quan, H T; Tu, Z C

    2017-07-01

    In conventional thermodynamics, it is widely acknowledged that the realization of an isothermal process for a system requires a quasistatic controlling protocol. Here we propose and design a strategy to realize a finite-rate isothermal transition from an equilibrium state to another one at the same temperature, which is named the "shortcut to isothermality." By using shortcuts to isothermality, we derive three nonequilibrium work relations, including an identity between the free-energy difference and the mean work due to the potential of the original system, a Jarzynski-like equality, and the inverse relationship between the dissipated work and the total driving time. We numerically test these three relations by considering the motion of a Brownian particle trapped in a harmonic potential and dragged by a time-dependent force.

  7. Phonon linewidth due to electron-phonon interactions with strong forward scattering in FeSe thin films on oxide substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Rademaker, Louk [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Dagotto, Elbio R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnston, Steven [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2017-08-18

    Here, the discovery of an enhanced superconducting transition temperature Tc in monolayers of FeSe grown on several oxide substrates has opened a new route to high-Tc superconductivity through interface engineering. One proposal for the origin of the observed enhancement is an electronphonon (e-ph) interaction across the interface that peaked at small momentum transfers. In this paper, we examine the implications of such a coupling on the phononic properties of the system. We show that a strong forward scattering leads to a sizable broadening of phonon lineshape, which may result in charge instabilities at long-wavelengths. However, we further find that the inclusion of Coulombic screening significantly reduces the phonon broadening. Our results show that one might not expect anomalously broad phonon linewidths in the FeSe interface systems, despite the fact that the e-ph interaction has a strong peak in the forward scattering (small \\bfq ) direction.

  8. Non-equilibrium lattice dynamics of one-dimensional In chains on Si(111 upon ultrafast optical excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Frigge

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The photoinduced structural dynamics of the atomic wire system on the Si(111-In surface has been studied by ultrafast electron diffraction in reflection geometry. Upon intense fs-laser excitation, this system can be driven in around 1 ps from the insulating (8×2 reconstructed low temperature phase to a metastable metallic (4×1 reconstructed high temperature phase. Subsequent to the structural transition, the surface heats up on a 6 times slower timescale as determined from a transient Debye-Waller analysis of the diffraction spots. From a comparison with the structural response of the high temperature (4×1 phase, we conclude that electron-phonon coupling is responsible for the slow energy transfer from the excited electron system to the lattice. The significant difference in timescales is evidence that the photoinduced structural transition is non-thermally driven.

  9. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of radiation-induced processes in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurov, V.M.; Eshchanov, A.N.; Kuketaev, A.T.; Sidorenya, Yu.S.

    2005-01-01

    In the paper an item about a defect system response in solids on external action (temperature, pressure, light, etc.) from the point of view of non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics is considered

  10. Magnetic polarons in a nonequilibrium polariton condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietki, Paweł; Matuszewski, Michał

    2017-09-01

    We consider a condensate of exciton polaritons in a diluted magnetic semiconductor microcavity. Such a system may exhibit magnetic self-trapping in the case of sufficiently strong coupling between polaritons and magnetic ions embedded in the semiconductor. We investigate the effect of the nonequilibrium nature of exciton polaritons on the physics of the resulting self-trapped magnetic polarons. We find that multiple polarons can exist at the same time, and we derive a critical condition for self-trapping that is different from the one predicted previously in the equilibrium case. Using the Bogoliubov-de Gennes approximation, we calculate the excitation spectrum and provide a physical explanation in terms of the effective magnetic attraction between polaritons, mediated by the ion subsystem.

  11. Effect of nonequilibrium degree on separation factor in carbon isotope separation by CO2 microwave discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaaki Suzuki; Shinsuke Mori; Noritaka Matsumoto; Hiroshi Akatsuka

    1999-01-01

    The local separation factor and the local nonequilibrium degree just behind the plasma region were obtained. The plasma gas compositions measured by the enthalpy probe system were substantially thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions, when the input energy was 4 J/cm 3 . The measured maximum value of the separation factor was 1.01, although it changed locally. The measured separation factor and its nonequilibrium condition were discussed. Anyway, the only small value obtained in this experiments is similar to the recent data obtained by Kurchatov group and is less than published data, which is measured spectroscopically [ru

  12. Black hole evaporation in a heat bath as a nonequilibrium process and its final fate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi

    2007-01-01

    We consider a black hole in a heat bath, and the whole system which consists of the black hole and the heat bath is isolated from outside environments. When the black hole evaporates, the Hawking radiation causes an energy flow from the black hole to the heat bath. Therefore, since no energy flow arises in an equilibrium state, the thermodynamic state of the whole system is not in equilibrium. That is, in a region around the black hole, the matter field of Hawking radiation and that of heat bath should be in a nonequilibrium state due to the energy flow. Using a simple model which reflects the nonequilibrium nature of energy flow, we find the nonequilibrium effect on a black hole evaporation as follows: if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is not so large, the evaporation time scale of a black hole in a heat bath becomes longer than that in an empty space (a situation without heat bath), because of the incoming energy flow from the heat bath to the black hole. However, if the nonequilibrium region around a black hole is sufficiently large, the evaporation time scale in a heat bath becomes shorter than that in an empty space, because a nonequilibrium effect of the temperature difference between the black hole and heat bath appears as a strong energy extraction from the black hole by the heat bath. Further, a specific nonequilibrium phenomenon is found: a quasi-equilibrium evaporation stage under the nonequilibrium effect proceeds abruptly to a quantum evaporation stage at a semi-classical level (at black hole radius R g > Planck length) within a very short time scale with a strong burst of energy. (Contrarily, when the nonequilibrium effect is not taken into account, a quasi-equilibrium stage proceeds smoothly to a quantum stage at R g < Planck length without so strong an energy burst.) That is, the nonequilibrium effect of energy flow tends to make a black hole evaporation process more dynamical and to accelerate that process. Finally, on the final fate

  13. Optimal control of transitions between nonequilibrium steady states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R Zulkowski

    Full Text Available Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines.

  14. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2009-07-01

    This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early

  15. Magnetic topology, nonequilibrium, and dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1985-01-01

    Static equilibrium of a magnetic field throughout a large volume of highly conducting fluid requires a degree of topological symmetry that is generally lacking in nature. The dynamical nonequilibrium of the magnetic topologies in the real world forms current sheets across which there is active reconnection of the field, dissipating the energy of the magnetic strains and reducing the fields toward simpler forms. The magnetic fields in astronomical settings are generally subject to continual straining by the convection within their parent body. The work done on the field by the convection appears in the energy of the small-scale strains, and is soon dissipated by the reconnection. The intense heating of the tenuous outer atmosphere of stars by this mechanism appears to be responsible for most of the X-ray emission of ordinary stars

  16. Statistical thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes

    CERN Document Server

    Keizer, Joel

    1987-01-01

    The structure of the theory ofthermodynamics has changed enormously since its inception in the middle of the nineteenth century. Shortly after Thomson and Clausius enunciated their versions of the Second Law, Clausius, Maxwell, and Boltzmann began actively pursuing the molecular basis of thermo­ dynamics, work that culminated in the Boltzmann equation and the theory of transport processes in dilute gases. Much later, Onsager undertook the elucidation of the symmetry oftransport coefficients and, thereby, established himself as the father of the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. Com­ bining the statistical ideas of Gibbs and Langevin with the phenomenological transport equations, Onsager and others went on to develop a consistent statistical theory of irreversible processes. The power of that theory is in its ability to relate measurable quantities, such as transport coefficients and thermodynamic derivatives, to the results of experimental measurements. As powerful as that theory is, it is linear and...

  17. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Raz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  18. Density-functional method for nonequilibrium electron transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Mozos, J.L.; Ordejon, P.

    2002-01-01

    We describe an ab initio method for calculating the electronic structure, electronic transport, and forces acting on the atoms, for atomic scale systems connected to semi-infinite electrodes and with an applied voltage bias. Our method is based on the density-functional theory (DFT) as implemented...... in the well tested SIESTA approach (which uses nonlocal norm-conserving pseudopotentials to describe the effect of the core electrons, and linear combination of finite-range numerical atomic orbitals to describe the valence states). We fully deal with the atomistic structure of the whole system, treating both...... the contact and the electrodes on the same footing. The effect of the finite bias (including self-consistency and the solution of the electrostatic problem) is taken into account using nonequilibrium Green's functions. We relate the nonequilibrium Green's function expressions to the more transparent scheme...

  19. The behavior of matter under nonequilibrium conditions: Fundamental aspects and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prigogine, I.

    1989-10-01

    As in the previous period, our work has been concerned with the study of the properties of nonequilibrium systems and especially with the mechanism of self-organization. As is well-known, the study of self-organization began with the investigation of hydrodynamical or chemical instabilities studied from the point of view of macroscopic physics. The main outcome is that nonequilibrium generates spatial correlations of macroscopic physics. The main outcome is that nonequilibrium generates spatial correlations of macroscopic range whose characteristics length is an intrinsic property and whose amplitude is determined by nonequilibrium constraints. A survey of the macroscopic approach to nonequilibrium states is given in the paper ''Nonequilibrium States and Long Range Correlations in Chemical Dynamics,'' by G. Nicolis et al. However, over the last few years important progress has been made in the simulation of nonequilibrium situations using mainly molecular dynamics. It appears now that processes corresponding to self-organization as well as the appearance of long-range correlations can be obtained in this way starting from a program involving Newtonian dynamics (generally the laws of interaction correspond to hard spheres or hard disks). Examples of such types of studies leading to Benard instabilities, to chemical clocks, or to spatial structure formation are given in this report. As a result, we may now view self-organization as a direct expression of an appropriate microscopic dynamics. This is the reason why we have devoted much work to the study of large Poincare systems (LPS) involving continuous sets of resonances. These systems have been shown to lead, according to the constraints, either to equilibrium situations or to nonequilibrium states involving long range correlations. We discuss LPS in the frame of classical mechanics

  20. Nonequilibrium Energetics of a Single F1-ATPase Molecule

    OpenAIRE

    Toyabe, Shoichi; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Okamoto, Tetsuaki; Kudo, Seishi; Muneyuki, Eiro

    2010-01-01

    Molecular motors drive mechanical motions utilizing the free energy liberated from chemical reactions such as ATP hydrolysis. Although it is essential to know the efficiency of this free energy transduction, it has been a challenge due to the system's microscopic scale. Here, we evaluate the single-molecule energetics of a rotary molecular motor, F1-ATPase, by applying a recently derived nonequilibrium equality together with an electrorotation method. We show that the sum of the heat flow thr...

  1. Crossover from Nonequilibrium Fractal Growth to Equilibrium Compact Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik Schwartz; Fogedby, Hans C.; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1988-01-01

    Solidification controlled by vacancy diffusion is studied by Monte Carlo simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model defined by a Hamiltonian which models a thermally driven fluid-solid phase transition. The nonequilibrium morphology of the growing solid is studied as a function of time as the s...... as the system relaxes into equilibrium described by a temperature. At low temperatures the model exhibits fractal growth at early times and crossover to compact solidification as equilibrium is approached....

  2. Non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations in binary liquids with realistic boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz de Zárate, J M; Kirkpatrick, T R; Sengers, J V

    2015-09-01

    Because of the spatially long-ranged nature of spontaneous fluctuations in thermal non-equilibrium systems, they are affected by boundary conditions for the fluctuating hydrodynamic variables. In this paper we consider a liquid mixture between two rigid and impervious plates with a stationary concentration gradient resulting from a temperature gradient through the Soret effect. For liquid mixtures with large Lewis and Schmidt numbers, we are able to obtain explicit analytical expressions for the intensity of the non-equilibrium concentration fluctuations as a function of the frequency ω and the wave number q of the fluctuations. In addition we elucidate the spatial dependence of the intensity of the non-equilibrium fluctuations responsible for a non-equilibrium Casimir effect.

  3. Non-equilibrium Green's function analysis of cross section and channel length dependence of phonon scattering and its impact on the performance of Si nanowire field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldegunde, M.; Martinez, A.; Asenov, A.

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we study the effect of phonon scattering in silicon nanowire field effect transistors (NWFET) using a Non-equilibrium Green's function formalism in the effective mass approximation. The effect of electron-phonon scattering on the current voltage characteristics at high and low drain bias is investigated in detail. A wide range of cross-sections (from 2.2 × 2.2 to 6.2 × 6.2 nm2) and channel lengths (from 6 to 40 nm) are considered. The impact of phonon scattering on the electron current in different regions of the device characteristics is studied. Simulations including scattering in the whole transistor are compared with corresponding simulations in which scattering is only in the channel. Phonon limited mobility dependence on the NWFET cross-section and channel length is studied. The ballisticity coefficient, as a function of the channel length and gate voltage, is also computed for various channel cross-sections and lengths at high drain bias. The paper demonstrates that tunneling plays an important role in understanding the effect of phonon scattering at short channel lengths.

  4. Referesher Course on Contemporary Non-Equilibrium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Referesher Course on Contemporary Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics. Information and Announcements Volume 15 Issue 7 July 2010 pp 678-678 ...

  5. Non-equilibrium dog-flea model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Bruce J.

    2017-11-01

    We develop the open dog-flea model to serve as a check of proposed non-equilibrium theories of statistical mechanics. The model is developed in detail. Then it is applied to four recent models for non-equilibrium statistical mechanics. Comparison of the dog-flea solution with these different models allows checking claims and giving a concrete example of the theoretical models.

  6. On Equivalence of Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic and Statistical Entropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purushottam D. Gujrati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We review the concept of nonequilibrium thermodynamic entropy and observables and internal variables as state variables, introduced recently by us, and provide a simple first principle derivation of additive statistical entropy, applicable to all nonequilibrium states by treating thermodynamics as an experimental science. We establish their numerical equivalence in several cases, which includes the most important case when the thermodynamic entropy is a state function. We discuss various interesting aspects of the two entropies and show that the number of microstates in the Boltzmann entropy includes all possible microstates of non-zero probabilities even if the system is trapped in a disjoint component of the microstate space. We show that negative thermodynamic entropy can appear from nonnegative statistical entropy.

  7. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Ion Flux through Membrane Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Pan Hsieh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion flux through membrane channels is passively driven by the electrochemical potential differences across the cell membrane. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics has been successful in explaining transport mechanisms, including the ion transport phenomenon. However, physiologists may not be familiar with biophysical concepts based on the view of entropy production. In this paper, I have reviewed the physical meanings and connections between nonequilibrium thermodynamics and the expressions commonly used in describing ion fluxes in membrane physiology. The fluctuation theorem can be applied to interpret the flux ratio in the small molecular systems. The multi-ion single-file feature of the ion channel facilitates the utilization of the natural tendency of electrochemical driving force to couple specific biophysical processes and biochemical reactions on the membrane.

  8. Non-equilibrium Microwave Plasma for Efficient High Temperature Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bekerom, Dirk; den Harder, Niek; Minea, Teofil; Gatti, Nicola; Linares, Jose Palomares; Bongers, Waldo; van de Sanden, Richard; van Rooij, Gerard

    2017-08-01

    A flowing microwave plasma based methodology for converting electric energy into internal and/or translational modes of stable molecules with the purpose of efficiently driving non-equilibrium chemistry is discussed. The advantage of a flowing plasma reactor is that continuous chemical processes can be driven with the flexibility of startup times in the seconds timescale. The plasma approach is generically suitable for conversion/activation of stable molecules such as CO2, N2 and CH4. Here the reduction of CO2 to CO is used as a model system: the complementary diagnostics illustrate how a baseline thermodynamic equilibrium conversion can be exceeded by the intrinsic non-equilibrium from high vibrational excitation. Laser (Rayleigh) scattering is used to measure the reactor temperature and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) to characterize in situ internal (vibrational) excitation as well as the effluent composition to monitor conversion and selectivity.

  9. Nonequilibrium quantum meson gas: Dimensional reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Estrada, R. F.

    2009-07-01

    A nonequilibrium quantum gas of interacting relativistic effective mesons, ressembling qualitatively those produced in a heavy-ion collision, is described by a scalar φ^{{4}}_{} quantum field in (1 + 3) -dimensional Minkowski space. For high temperature and large temporal and spatial scales, we justify that classical statistical mechanics including quantum renormalization effects describe approximately the gas: nonequilibrium dimensional reduction (NEDR). As a source of hints, we treat the gas at equilibrium in real-time formalism and obtain simplifications for high temperature and large spatial scales, thereby extending a useful equilibrium dimensional reduction known for the imaginary-time formalism. By assumption, the nonequilibrium initial state of the gas, not far from thermal equilibrium, includes interactions and inhomogeneities. We use nonequilibrium real-time generating functionals and correlators at nonzero temperature. In the NEDR regime, our arguments yield: 1) renormalized correlators simplify, 2) the perturbative series for those simplified correlators can be resummed into a new nonequilibrium generating functional, Z’ r, dr , which is super-renormalizable and includes renormalization effects (large position-dependent thermal self-energies and effective couplings). Z’ r, dr could enable to study nonperturbatively changes in the phase structures of the field, by proceeding from the nonequilibrium quantum regime to the NEDR one.

  10. Non-equilibrium assembly of microtubules: from molecules to autonomous chemical robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, H; Ross, Jennifer L

    2017-09-18

    Biological systems have evolved to harness non-equilibrium processes from the molecular to the macro scale. It is currently a grand challenge of chemistry, materials science, and engineering to understand and mimic biological systems that have the ability to autonomously sense stimuli, process these inputs, and respond by performing mechanical work. New chemical systems are responding to the challenge and form the basis for future responsive, adaptive, and active materials. In this article, we describe a particular biochemical-biomechanical network based on the microtubule cytoskeletal filament - itself a non-equilibrium chemical system. We trace the non-equilibrium aspects of the system from molecules to networks and describe how the cell uses this system to perform active work in essential processes. Finally, we discuss how microtubule-based engineered systems can serve as testbeds for autonomous chemical robots composed of biological and synthetic components.

  11. Complex Dynamics in Nonequilibrium Economics and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kehong

    Complex dynamics provides a new approach in dealing with economic complexity. We study interactively the empirical and theoretical aspects of business cycles. The way of exploring complexity is similar to that in the study of an oscillatory chemical system (BZ system)--a model for modeling complex behavior. We contribute in simulating qualitatively the complex periodic patterns observed from the controlled BZ experiments to narrow the gap between modeling and experiment. The gap between theory and reality is much wider in economics, which involves studies of human expectations and decisions, the essential difference from natural sciences. Our empirical and theoretical studies make substantial progress in closing this gap. With the help from the new development in nonequilibrium physics, i.e., the complex spectral theory, we advance our technique in detecting characteristic time scales from empirical economic data. We obtain correlation resonances, which give oscillating modes with decays for correlation decomposition, from different time series including S&P 500, M2, crude oil spot prices, and GNP. The time scales found are strikingly compatible with business experiences and other studies in business cycles. They reveal the non-Markovian nature of coherent markets. The resonances enhance the evidence of economic chaos obtained by using other tests. The evolving multi-humped distributions produced by the moving-time -window technique reveal the nonequilibrium nature of economic behavior. They reproduce the American economic history of booms and busts. The studies seem to provide a way out of the debate on chaos versus noise and unify the cyclical and stochastic approaches in explaining business fluctuations. Based on these findings and new expectation formulation, we construct a business cycle model which gives qualitatively compatible patterns to those found empirically. The soft-bouncing oscillator model provides a better alternative than the harmonic oscillator

  12. Gibbsian Stationary Non-equilibrium States

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Carlo, Leonardo; Gabrielli, Davide

    2017-09-01

    We study the structure of stationary non-equilibrium states for interacting particle systems from a microscopic viewpoint. In particular we discuss two different discrete geometric constructions. We apply both of them to determine non reversible transition rates corresponding to a fixed invariant measure. The first one uses the equivalence of this problem with the construction of divergence free flows on the transition graph. Since divergence free flows are characterized by cyclic decompositions we can generate families of models from elementary cycles on the configuration space. The second construction is a functional discrete Hodge decomposition for translational covariant discrete vector fields. According to this, for example, the instantaneous current of any interacting particle system on a finite torus can be canonically decomposed in a gradient part, a circulation term and an harmonic component. All the three components are associated with functions on the configuration space. This decomposition is unique and constructive. The stationary condition can be interpreted as an orthogonality condition with respect to an harmonic discrete vector field and we use this decomposition to construct models having a fixed invariant measure.

  13. States of Water in Non-Equilibrium Glassy Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Eric; Elabd, Yossef

    2013-03-01

    For many applications (e.g., packaging, medical devices) a deeper fundamental understanding of the molecular nature of water in glassy polymer coatings is of significant interest. In this study, the sorption and diffusion of water in two glassy polymers, poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene) (PS), were measured with both quartz crystal microbalance (QSM) and time-resolved Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (FTIR-ATR) spectroscopy. Non-Fickian diffusion was observed in both PMMA and PS using both experimental techniques due to the non-equilibrium state of the polymers. The specific states of water were observed with FTIR-ATR spectroscopy, where dimers exist in PMMA below a critical concentration and larger clusters were observed above this concentration. Contrastingly, water only exists in PS as larger clusters over the entire sorption isotherm. A correlation between the states of water and the diffusive activation energy of water was observed. Additionally, the pseudo-equilibrium water sorption isotherms in PMMA and PS were accurately predicted with the non-equilibrium statistical associating fluid theory (NE-SAFT). We predict that the combination of time-resolved FTIR-ATR spectroscopy and NE-SAFT can be used on other water-glassy polymer systems to provide a molecular understanding of non-equilibrium sorption and diffusion.

  14. Replacing leads by self-energies using non-equilibrium Green's functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Fredrick; Johnson, M.D.

    2003-01-01

    Open quantum systems consist of semi-infinite leads which transport electrons to and from the device of interest. We show here that within the non-equilibrium Green's function technique for continuum systems, the leads can be replaced by simple c-number self-energies. Our starting point is an approach for continuum systems developed by Feuchtwang. The reformulation developed here is simpler to understand and carry out than the somewhat unwieldly manipulations typical in the Feuchtwang method. The self-energies turn out to have a limited variability: the retarded self-energy Σ r depends on the arbitrary choice of internal boundary conditions, but the non-equilibrium self-energy or scattering function Σ which determines transport is invariant for a broad class of boundary conditions. Expressed in terms of these self-energies, continuum non-equilibrium transport calculations take a particularly simple form similar to that developed for discrete systems

  15. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Billy D

    2017-01-01

    Written by two specialists with over twenty-five years of experience in the field, this valuable text presents a wide range of topics within the growing field of nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD). It introduces theories which are fundamental to the field - namely, nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and nonequilibrium thermodynamics - and provides state-of-the-art algorithms and advice for designing reliable NEMD code, as well as examining applications for both atomic and molecular fluids. It discusses homogenous and inhomogenous flows and pays considerable attention to highly confined fluids, such as nanofluidics. In addition to statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, the book covers the themes of temperature and thermodynamic fluxes and their computation, the theory and algorithms for homogenous shear and elongational flows, response theory and its applications, heat and mass transport algorithms, applications in molecular rheology, highly confined fluids (nanofluidics), the phenomenon of slip and...

  16. Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics in Multiphase Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Non-equilibrium thermodynamics is a general framework that allows the macroscopic description of irreversible processes. This book introduces non-equilibrium thermodynamics and its applications to the rheology of multiphase flows. The subject is relevant to graduate students in chemical and mechanical engineering, physics and material science. This book is divided into two parts. The first part presents the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics, reviewing its essential features and showing, when possible, some applications. The second part of this book deals with how the general theory can be applied to model multiphase flows and, in particular, how to determine their constitutive relations. Each chapter contains problems at the end, the solutions of which are given at the end of the book. No prior knowledge of statistical mechanics is required; the necessary prerequisites are elements of transport phenomena and on thermodynamics. “The style of the book is mathematical, but nonetheless it remains very re...

  17. Cumulants in perturbation expansions for non-equilibrium field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauser, R.

    1995-11-01

    The formulation of perturbation expansions for a quantum field theory of strongly interacting systems in a general non-equilibrium state is discussed. Non-vanishing initial correlations are included in the formulation of the perturbation expansion in terms of cumulants. The cumulants are shown to be the suitable candidate for summing up the perturbation expansion. Also a linked-cluster theorem for the perturbation series with cumulants is presented. Finally a generating functional of the perturbation series with initial correlations is studied. We apply the methods to a simple model of a fermion-boson system. (orig.)

  18. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhasan, Razieh [Science Institute, University of Iceland,Dunhaga 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2016-02-01

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P=P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  19. Non-equilibrium and band tailing in organic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Non-equilibrium due to coupling between applied energy and free electrons can be responsible for the exponential relaxation from non-equilibrium to equilibrium. Keywords. Band tailing; organic conductors; IR spectra; electrical resistivity.

  20. Experimental studies in non-equilibrium physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, John Robert, Jr.

    This work is a collection of three experiments aimed at studying different facets of non-equilibrium dynamics. Chapter I concerns strongly compressible turbulence, which turns out to be very different from incompressible turbulence. The focus is on the dispersion of contaminants in such a flow. This type of turbulence can be studied, at very low mach number, by measuring the velocity fields of particles that float on a turbulently stirred body of water. It turns out that in the absence of incompressibility, the turbulence causes particles to cluster rather than to disperse. The implications of the observations are far reaching and include the transport of pollutants on the oceans surface, phytoplankton growth, as well as industrial applications. Chapter II deals with the effects of polymer additives on drag reduction and turbulent suppression, a well-known phenomenon that is not yet understood. In an attempt to simplify the problem, the effects of a polymer additive were investigated in a vortex street formed in a flowing soap film. Measurements suggest that an increase in elongational viscosity is responsible for a substantial reduction in periodic velocity fluctuations. This study also helps to illuminate the mechanism responsible for vortex separation in the wake of a bluff body. Chapter III describes an experiment designed to test a theoretical approach aimed at generalizing the classical fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT). This theorem applies to systems driven only slightly away from thermal equilibrium, whereas ours, a liquid crystal under-going electroconvection, is so strongly driven, that the FDT does not apply. Both theory and experiment focus on the flux in global power fluctuations. Physical limitations did not permit a direct test of the theory, however it was possible to establish several interesting characteristics of the system: the source of the fluctuations is the transient defect structures that are generated when the system is driven hard

  1. Thermodynamic model of nonequilibrium phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyushev, L M; Konovalov, M S

    2011-07-01

    Within the scope of a thermodynamic description using the maximum entropy production principle, transitions from one nonequilibrium (kinetic) regime to another are considered. It is shown that in the case when power-law dependencies of thermodynamic flux on force are similar for two regimes, only a transition accompanied by a positive jump of thermodynamic flux is possible between them. It is found that the difference in powers of the dependencies of thermodynamic fluxes on forces results in a number of interesting nonequilibrium transitions between kinetic regimes, including the reentrant one with a negative jump of thermodynamic flux.

  2. Canonical operator formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrafarin, M.

    1992-09-01

    A novel formulation of nonequilibrium thermodynamics is proposed which emphasises the fundamental role played by the Boltzmann constant k in fluctuations. The equivalence of this and the stochastic formulation is demonstrated. The k → 0 limit of this theory yields the classical deterministic description of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The new formulation possesses unique features which bear two important results namely the thermodynamic uncertainty principle and the quantisation of entropy production rate. Such a theory becomes indispensable whenever fluctuations play a significant role. (author). 7 refs

  3. Nonideal plasmas as non-equilibrium media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I V; Norman, G E; Valuev, A A; Valuev, I A

    2003-01-01

    Various aspects of the collective behaviour of non-equilibrium nonideal plasmas are studied. The relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics (MD) method for two-component non-degenerate strongly non-equilibrium plasmas. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration and the subsequent exponential stage of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of ion charge, nonideality parameter and ion mass. A simulation model of the nonideal plasma excited by an electron beam is proposed. An approach is developed to calculate the dynamic structure factor in non-stationary conditions. Instability increment is obtained from MD simulations

  4. On the excess energy of nonequilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2012-01-01

    The energy that can be released in plasma due to the onset of instability (the excess plasma energy) is estimated. Three potentially unstable plasma states are considered, namely, plasma with an anisotropic Maxwellian velocity distribution of plasma particles, plasma with a two-beam velocity distribution, and an inhomogeneous plasma in a magnetic field with a local Maxwellian velocity distribution. The excess energy can serve as a measure of the degree to which plasma is nonequilibrium. In particular, this quantity can be used to compare plasmas in different nonequilibrium states.

  5. Nonequilibrium Green function theory for excitation and transport in atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlen, Nils Erik; Stan, Adrian; Leeuwen, Robert van

    2006-01-01

    In this work we discuss the application of nonequilibrium Green functions theory to atomic and molecular systems with the aim to study charge and energy transport in these systems. We apply the Kadanoff-Baym equations to atoms and diatomic molecules initially in the ground state. The results obtained for the correlated initial states are used to analyze variational energy functionals of the Green function which are shown to perform very well. We further show an application of the Kadanoff-Baym equations to a molecule exposed to an external laser field. Finally we discuss the connection between nonequilibrium Green function theory and time-dependent density-functional theory with the aim to develop better density functionals in order to treat larger systems than those attainable with the nonequilibrium Green function method

  6. Depinning and nonequilibrium dynamic phases of particle assemblies driven over random and ordered substrates: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichhardt, C.; Olson Reichhardt, C. J.

    2017-02-01

    We review the depinning and nonequilibrium phases of collectively interacting particle systems driven over random or periodic substrates. This type of system is relevant to vortices in type-II superconductors, sliding charge density waves, electron crystals, colloids, stripe and pattern forming systems, and skyrmions, and could also have connections to jamming, glassy behaviors, and active matter. These systems are also ideal for exploring the broader issues of characterizing transient and steady state nonequilibrium flow phases as well as nonequilibrium phase transitions between distinct dynamical phases, analogous to phase transitions between different equilibrium states. We discuss the differences between elastic and plastic depinning on random substrates and the different types of nonequilibrium phases which are associated with specific features in the velocity-force curves, fluctuation spectra, scaling relations, and local or global particle ordering. We describe how these quantities can change depending on the dimension, anisotropy, disorder strength, and the presence of hysteresis. Within the moving phase we discuss how there can be a transition from a liquid-like state to dynamically ordered moving crystal, smectic, or nematic states. Systems with periodic or quasiperiodic substrates can have multiple nonequilibrium second or first order transitions in the moving state between chaotic and coherent phases, and can exhibit hysteresis. We also discuss systems with competing repulsive and attractive interactions, which undergo dynamical transitions into stripes and other complex morphologies when driven over random substrates. Throughout this work we highlight open issues and future directions such as absorbing phase transitions, nonequilibrium work relations, inertia, the role of non-dissipative dynamics such as Magnus effects, and how these results could be extended to the broader issues of plasticity in crystals, amorphous solids, and jamming phenomena.

  7. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and physical kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Bikkin, Halid

    2014-01-01

    This graduate textbook covers contemporary directions of non-equilibrium statistical mechanics as well as classical methods of kinetics. With one of the main propositions being to avoid terms such as "obviously" and "it is easy to show", this treatise is an easy-to-read introduction into this traditional, yet vibrant field.

  8. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R

    1997-01-01

    There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase

  9. Evolution and non-equilibrium physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becker, Nikolaj; Sibani, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We argue that the stochastic dynamics of interacting agents which replicate, mutate and die constitutes a non-equilibrium physical process akin to aging in complex materials. Specifically, our study uses extensive computer simulations of the Tangled Nature Model (TNM) of biological evolution...

  10. Extended irreversible thermodynamics and non-equilibrium temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casas-Vazquez, Jose'

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available We briefly review the concept of non-equilibrium temperature from the perspectives of extended irreversible thermodynamics, fluctuation theory, and statistical mechanics. The relations between different proposals are explicitly examined in two especially simple systems: an ideal gas in steady shear flow and a forced harmonic oscillator in a thermal bath. We examine with special detail temperatures related to the average molecular kinetic energy along different spatial directions, to the average configurational energy, to the derivative of the entropy with respect to internal energy, to fluctuation-dissipation relation and discuss their measurement.

  11. Nonequilibrium effects on shock-layer radiometry during earth entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. O.; Whiting, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    Radiative enhancement factors for the CN violet and N2(+) first negative band systems caused by nonequilibrium thermochemistry in the shock layer of a blunt-nosed vehicle during earth entry are reported. The results are based on radiometric measurements obtained with the aid of a combustion-driven shock tube. The technique of converting the shock-tube measurements into predictions of the enhancement factors for the blunt-body case is described, showing it to be useful for similar applications of other shock-tube measurements.

  12. Memory effects and virial corrections in nonequilibrium dense nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.; Roepke, G.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to close the gap between a kinetic approach including memory and the description of correlated states. It is shown that the first order retardation effects in the kinetic equation leads to the same expression for the correlated density or energy in equilibrium, which is known from the quantum Beth-Uhlenbeck approach. We link the approaches of equilibrium to the kinetic level of description and generalize it by this way to nonequilibrium situations found in finite systems. (orig.)

  13. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium solvation and solute electronic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.J.; Hynes, J.T.

    1990-01-01

    When a molecular solute is immersed in a polar and polarizable solvent, the electronic wave function of the solute system is altered compared to its vacuum value; the solute electronic structure is thus solvent-dependent. Further, the wave function will be altered depending upon whether the polarization of the solvent is or is not in equilibrium with the solute charge distribution. More precisely, while the solvent electronic polarization should be in equilibrium with the solute electronic wave function, the much more sluggish solvent orientational polarization need not be. We call this last situation non-equilibrium solvation. We outline a nonlinear Schroedinger equation approach to these issues

  14. Nonequilibrium Green function theory for excitation and transport in atoms and molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahlen, Nils Erik; Stan, Adrian; Bonitz, M; Filinov, A

    2006-01-01

    In this work we discuss the application of nonequilibrium Green functions theory to atomic and molecular systems with the aim to study charge and energy transport in these systems. We apply the Kadanoff-Baym equations to atoms and diatomic molecules initially in the ground state. The results

  15. Ab initio nonequilibrium quantum transport and forces with the real-space projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian S.; Jacobsen, Karsten W.

    2012-01-01

    over k points and real space makes the code highly efficient and applicable to systems containing several hundreds of atoms. The method is applied to a number of different systems, demonstrating the effects of bias and gate voltages, multiterminal setups, nonequilibrium forces, and spin transport....

  16. Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics in One Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privman, Vladimir

    2005-08-01

    Part I. Reaction-Diffusion Systems and Models of Catalysis; 1. Scaling theories of diffusion-controlled and ballistically-controlled bimolecular reactions S. Redner; 2. The coalescence process, A+A->A, and the method of interparticle distribution functions D. ben-Avraham; 3. Critical phenomena at absorbing states R. Dickman; Part II. Kinetic Ising Models; 4. Kinetic ising models with competing dynamics: mappings, correlations, steady states, and phase transitions Z. Racz; 5. Glauber dynamics of the ising model N. Ito; 6. 1D Kinetic ising models at low temperatures - critical dynamics, domain growth, and freezing S. Cornell; Part III. Ordering, Coagulation, Phase Separation; 7. Phase-ordering dynamics in one dimension A. J. Bray; 8. Phase separation, cluster growth, and reaction kinetics in models with synchronous dynamics V. Privman; 9. Stochastic models of aggregation with injection H. Takayasu and M. Takayasu; Part IV. Random Sequential Adsorption and Relaxation Processes; 10. Random and cooperative sequential adsorption: exactly solvable problems on 1D lattices, continuum limits, and 2D extensions J. W. Evans; 11. Lattice models of irreversible adsorption and diffusion P. Nielaba; 12. Deposition-evaporation dynamics: jamming, conservation laws and dynamical diversity M. Barma; Part V. Fluctuations In Particle and Surface Systems; 13. Microscopic models of macroscopic shocks S. A. Janowsky and J. L. Lebowitz; 14. The asymmetric exclusion model: exact results through a matrix approach B. Derrida and M. R. Evans; 15. Nonequilibrium surface dynamics with volume conservation J. Krug; 16. Directed walks models of polymers and wetting J. Yeomans; Part VI. Diffusion and Transport In One Dimension; 17. Some recent exact solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation H. L. Frisch; 18. Random walks, resonance, and ratchets C. R. Doering and T. C. Elston; 19. One-dimensional random walks in random environment K. Ziegler; Part VII. Experimental Results; 20. Diffusion

  17. Nonequilibrium Equation of State in Suspensions of Active Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ginot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active colloids constitute a novel class of materials composed of colloidal-scale particles locally converting chemical energy into motility, mimicking micro-organisms. Evolving far from equilibrium, these systems display structural organizations and dynamical properties distinct from thermalized colloidal assemblies. Harvesting the potential of this new class of systems requires the development of a conceptual framework to describe these intrinsically nonequilibrium systems. We use sedimentation experiments to probe the nonequilibrium equation of state of a bidimensional assembly of active Janus microspheres and conduct computer simulations of a model of self-propelled hard disks. Self-propulsion profoundly affects the equation of state, but these changes can be rationalized using equilibrium concepts. We show that active colloids behave, in the dilute limit, as an ideal gas with an activity-dependent effective temperature. At finite density, increasing the activity is similar to increasing adhesion between equilibrium particles. We quantify this effective adhesion and obtain a unique scaling law relating activity and effective adhesion in both experiments and simulations. Our results provide a new and efficient way to understand the emergence of novel phases of matter in active colloidal suspensions.

  18. On the Nonequilibrium Interface Kinetics of Rapid Coupled Eutectic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, H.; Chen, Y. Z.; Shan, G. B.; Zhang, Z. R.; Liu, F.

    2017-08-01

    Nonequilibrium interface kinetics (NEIK) is expected to play an important role in coupled growth of eutectic alloys, when solidification velocity is high and intermetallic compound or topologically complex phases form in the crystallized product. In order to quantitatively evaluate the effect of NEIK on the rapid coupled eutectic growth, in this work, two nonequilibrium interface kinetic effects, i.e., atom attachment and solute trapping at the solid-liquid interface, were incorporated into the analyses of the coupled eutectic growth under the rapid solidification condition. First, a coupled growth model incorporating the preceding two nonequilibrium kinetic effects was derived. On this basis, an expression of kinetic undercooling (Δ T k), which is used to characterize the NEIK, was defined. The calculations based on the as-derived couple growth model show good agreement with the reported experimental results achieved in rapidly solidified eutectic Al-Sm alloys consisting of a solid solution phase ( α-Al) and an intermetallic compound phase (Al11Sm3). In terms of the definition of Δ T k defined in this work, the role of NEIK in the coupled growth of the Al-Sm eutectic system was analyzed. The results show that with increasing the coupled growth velocity, Δ T k increases continuously, and its ratio to the total undercooling reaches 0.32 at the maximum growth velocity for coupled eutectic growth. Parametric analyses on two key alloy parameters that influence Δ T k, i.e., interface kinetic parameter ( μ i ) and solute distribution coefficient ( k e ), indicate that both μ i and k e influence the NEIK significantly and the decrease of either these two parameters enhances the NEIK effect.

  19. Nonequilibrium solvent effects in Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics for ground and excited electronic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorgaard, J. A., E-mail: jbjorgaard@lanl.gov [Center for Nonlinear Studies, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Velizhanin, K. A. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Tretiak, S., E-mail: serg@lanl.gov [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Center for Nonlinear Studies, and Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-04-21

    The effects of solvent on molecular processes such as excited state relaxation and photochemical reaction often occurs in a nonequilibrium regime. Dynamic processes such as these can be simulated using excited state molecular dynamics. In this work, we describe methods of simulating nonequilibrium solvent effects in excited state molecular dynamics using linear-response time-dependent density functional theory and apparent surface charge methods. These developments include a propagation method for solvent degrees of freedom and analytical energy gradients for the calculation of forces. Molecular dynamics of acetaldehyde in water or acetonitrile are demonstrated where the solute-solvent system is out of equilibrium due to photoexcitation and emission.

  20. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics and energy efficiency in weight loss diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fine Eugene J

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Carbohydrate restriction as a strategy for control of obesity is based on two effects: a behavioral effect, spontaneous reduction in caloric intake and a metabolic effect, an apparent reduction in energy efficiency, greater weight loss per calorie consumed. Variable energy efficiency is established in many contexts (hormonal imbalance, weight regain and knock-out experiments in animal models, but in the area of the effect of macronutrient composition on weight loss, controversy remains. Resistance to the idea comes from a perception that variable weight loss on isocaloric diets would somehow violate the laws of thermodynamics, that is, only caloric intake is important ("a calorie is a calorie". Previous explanations of how the phenomenon occurs, based on equilibrium thermodynamics, emphasized the inefficiencies introduced by substrate cycling and requirements for increased gluconeogenesis. Living systems, however, are maintained far from equilibrium, and metabolism is controlled by the regulation of the rates of enzymatic reactions. The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics which emphasize kinetic fluxes as well as thermodynamic forces should therefore also be considered. Here we review the principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and provide an approach to the problem of maintenance and change in body mass by recasting the problem of TAG accumulation and breakdown in the adipocyte in the language of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We describe adipocyte physiology in terms of cycling between an efficient storage mode and a dissipative mode. Experimentally, this is measured in the rate of fatty acid flux and fatty acid oxidation. Hormonal levels controlled by changes in dietary carbohydrate regulate the relative contributions of the efficient and dissipative parts of the cycle. While no experiment exists that measures all relevant variables, the model is supported by evidence in the literature that 1 dietary carbohydrate, via its

  1. Stochastic pumping of non-equilibrium steady-states: how molecules adapt to a fluctuating environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astumian, R D

    2018-01-11

    In the absence of input energy, a chemical reaction in a closed system ineluctably relaxes toward an equilibrium state governed by a Boltzmann distribution. The addition of a catalyst to the system provides a way for more rapid equilibration toward this distribution, but the catalyst can never, in and of itself, drive the system away from equilibrium. In the presence of external fluctuations, however, a macromolecular catalyst (e.g., an enzyme) can absorb energy and drive the formation of a steady state between reactant and product that is not determined solely by their relative energies. Due to the ubiquity of non-equilibrium steady states in living systems, the development of a theory for the effects of external fluctuations on chemical systems has been a longstanding focus of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. The theory of stochastic pumping has provided insight into how a non-equilibrium steady-state can be formed and maintained in the presence of dissipation and kinetic asymmetry. This effort has been greatly enhanced by a confluence of experimental and theoretical work on synthetic molecular machines designed explicitly to harness external energy to drive non-equilibrium transport and self-assembly.

  2. Mechanical measurement of hydrogen bonded host–guest systems under non-equilibrium, near-physiological conditions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthetic and theoretical details as well as figures are available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc03044d Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Teresa; Cerrón, Fernando; Nieto-Ortega, Belén; Latorre, Alfonso; Somoza, Álvaro

    2017-01-01

    Decades after the birth of supramolecular chemistry, there are many techniques to measure noncovalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonding, under equilibrium conditions. As ensembles of molecules rapidly lose coherence, we cannot extrapolate bulk data to single-molecule events under non-equilibrium conditions, more relevant to the dynamics of biological systems. We present a new method that exploits the high force resolution of optical tweezers to measure at the single molecule level the mechanical strength of a hydrogen bonded host–guest pair out of equilibrium and under near-physiological conditions. We utilize a DNA reporter to unambiguously isolate single binding events. The Hamilton receptor–cyanuric acid host–guest system is used as a test bed. The force required to dissociate the host–guest system is ∼17 pN and increases with the pulling rate as expected for a system under non-equilibrium conditions. Blocking one of the hydrogen bonding sites results in a significant decrease of the force-to-break by 1–2 pN, pointing out the ability of the method to resolve subtle changes in the mechanical strength of the binding due to the individual H-bonding components. We believe the method will prove to be a versatile tool to address important questions in supramolecular chemistry. PMID:28989633

  3. Lattice Boltzmann approach for complex nonequilibrium flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montessori, A; Prestininzi, P; La Rocca, M; Succi, S

    2015-10-01

    We present a lattice Boltzmann realization of Grad's extended hydrodynamic approach to nonequilibrium flows. This is achieved by using higher-order isotropic lattices coupled with a higher-order regularization procedure. The method is assessed for flow across parallel plates and three-dimensional flows in porous media, showing excellent agreement of the mass flow with analytical and numerical solutions of the Boltzmann equation across the full range of Knudsen numbers, from the hydrodynamic regime to ballistic motion.

  4. Improvements to a nonequilibrium algebraic turbulence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. A.; Coakley, T. J.

    1990-01-01

    It has been noted that while the nonequilibrium turbulence model of Johnson and King (1985, 1987) performed significantly better than alternative methods, differences between predicted and observed shock locations for certain weak interactions are produced due to a defficiency in the model's inner eddy viscosity formulation. A novel formulation for the model is presented which removes this deficiency, while satisfying the law of the wall for adverse pressure-gradient conditions better than either the original formulation or mixing-length theory.

  5. Stationary Distribution and Thermodynamic Relation in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    KAUST Repository

    Komatsu, Teruhisa S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe our recent attempts toward statistical mechanics and thermodynamics for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) realized, e.g., in a heat conducting system. Our first result is a simple expression of the probability distribution (of microscopic states) of a NESS. Our second result is a natural extension of the thermodynamic Clausius relation and a definition of an accompanying entropy in NESS. This entropy coincides with the normalization constant appearing in the above mentioned microscopic expression of NESS, and has an expression similar to the Shannon entropy (with a further symmetrization). The NESS entropy proposed here is a clearly defined measurable quantity even in a system with a large degrees of freedom. We numerically measure the NESS entropy in hardsphere fluid systems with a heat current, by observing energy exchange between the system and the heat baths when the temperatures of the baths are changed according to specified protocols.

  6. Nonequilibrium functional bosonization of quantum wire networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Dinh, Stephane, E-mail: stephane.ngodinh@kit.edu [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bagrets, Dmitry A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Mirlin, Alexander D. [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Institut fuer Nanotechnologie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); DFG Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-11-15

    We develop a general approach to nonequilibrium nanostructures formed by one-dimensional channels coupled by tunnel junctions and/or by impurity scattering. The formalism is based on nonequilibrium version of functional bosonization. A central role in this approach is played by the Keldysh action that has a form reminiscent of the theory of full counting statistics. To proceed with evaluation of physical observables, we assume the weak-tunneling regime and develop a real-time instanton method. A detailed exposition of the formalism is supplemented by two important applications: (i) tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity, and (ii) quantum Hall Fabry-Perot interferometry. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonequilibrium functional bosonization framework for quantum wire networks is developed Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For the study of observables in the weak tunneling regime a real-time instanton method is elaborated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We consider tunneling into a biased Luttinger liquid with an impurity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer quantum Hall regime.

  7. A non-equilibrium phase transition in a dissipative forest model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messer, Joachim A.

    2009-01-01

    The shape of the biostress force for a stressed Lotka-Volterra network is for the first time derived from Lindblad's dissipative dynamics. Numerical solutions for stressed prey-predator systems with limited resources show a threshold. A non-equilibrium phase transition to a phase with ecosystem dying after a few enforced oscillations (waldsterben phase) occurs.

  8. Lyapunov Functions, Stationary Distributions, and Non-equilibrium Potential for Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, David F; Craciun, Gheorghe; Gopalkrishnan, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    We consider the relationship between stationary distributions for stochastic models of reaction systems and Lyapunov functions for their deterministic counterparts. Specifically, we derive the well-known Lyapunov function of reaction network theory as a scaling limit of the non-equilibrium potent...

  9. Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator method in Renyi statistics. Reaction-diffusion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kostrobij

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Zubarev nonequilibrium statistical operator (NSO method in Renyi statistics is discussed. The solution of q-parametrized Liouville equation within the NSO method is obtained. A statistical approach for a consistent description of reaction-diffusion processes in "gas-adsorbate-metal" system is proposed using the NSO method in Renyi statistics.

  10. Non-equilibrium theory of arrested spinodal decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olais-Govea, José Manuel; López-Flores, Leticia; Medina-Noyola, Magdaleno [Instituto de Física “Manuel Sandoval Vallarta,” Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí, Álvaro Obregón 64, 78000 San Luis Potosí, SLP (Mexico)

    2015-11-07

    The non-equilibrium self-consistent generalized Langevin equation theory of irreversible relaxation [P. E. Ramŕez-González and M. Medina-Noyola, Phys. Rev. E 82, 061503 (2010); 82, 061504 (2010)] is applied to the description of the non-equilibrium processes involved in the spinodal decomposition of suddenly and deeply quenched simple liquids. For model liquids with hard-sphere plus attractive (Yukawa or square well) pair potential, the theory predicts that the spinodal curve, besides being the threshold of the thermodynamic stability of homogeneous states, is also the borderline between the regions of ergodic and non-ergodic homogeneous states. It also predicts that the high-density liquid-glass transition line, whose high-temperature limit corresponds to the well-known hard-sphere glass transition, at lower temperature intersects the spinodal curve and continues inside the spinodal region as a glass-glass transition line. Within the region bounded from below by this low-temperature glass-glass transition and from above by the spinodal dynamic arrest line, we can recognize two distinct domains with qualitatively different temperature dependence of various physical properties. We interpret these two domains as corresponding to full gas-liquid phase separation conditions and to the formation of physical gels by arrested spinodal decomposition. The resulting theoretical scenario is consistent with the corresponding experimental observations in a specific colloidal model system.

  11. Homogeneous non-equilibrium two-phase critical flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, J.J.; Vuxuan, N.

    1987-01-01

    An important aspect of nuclear and chemical reactor safety is the ability to predict the maximum or critical mass flow rate from a break or leak in a pipe system. At the beginning of such a blowdown, if the stagnation condition of the fluid is subcooled or slightly saturated thermodynamic non-equilibrium exists in the downstream, e.g. the fluid becomes superheated to a degree determined by the liquid pressure. A simplified non-equilibrium model, explained in this report, is valid for rapidly decreasing pressure along the flow path. It presumes that fluid has to be superheated by an amount governed by physical principles before it starts to flash into steam. The flow is assumed to be homogeneous, i.e. the steam and liquid velocities are equal. An adiabatic flow calculation mode (Fanno lines) is employed to evaluate the critical flow rate for long pipes. The model is found to satisfactorily describe critical flow tests. Good agreement is obtained with the large scale Marviken tests as well as with small scale experiments. (orig.)

  12. Investigation on phonon scattering in a GaAs nanowire field effect transistor using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, A., E-mail: A.C.PRICE.625036@swansea.ac.uk; Martinez, A. [College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-28

    Using quantum transport simulations, the impact of electron-phonon scattering on the transfer characteristic of a gate-all-around nanowire (GaAs) field effect transistor (NWFET) has been thoroughly investigated. The Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism in the effective mass approximation using a decoupled mode decomposition has been deployed. NWFETs of different dimensions have been considered, and scattering mechanisms including acoustic, optical and polar optical phonons have been included. The effective masses were extracted from tight binding simulations. High and low drain bias have been considered. We found substantial source to drain tunnelling current and significant impact of phonon scattering on the performance of the NWFET. At low drain bias, for a 2.2 × 2.2 nm{sup 2} cross-section transistor, scattering caused a 72%, 77%, and 81% decrease in the on-current for a 6 nm, 10 nm, and 20 nm channel length, respectively. This reduction in the current due to scattering is influenced by the increase in the tunnelling current. We include the percentage tunnelling for each valley at low and high drain bias. It was also found that the strong quantisation caused the relative position of the valleys to vary with the cross-section. This had a large effect on the overall tunnelling current. The phonon-limited mobility was also calculated, finding a mobility of 950 cm{sup 2}/V s at an inversion charge density of 10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2} for a 4.2 × 4.2 nm{sup 2} cross-section device.

  13. Investigation on phonon scattering in a GaAs nanowire field effect transistor using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A.; Martinez, A.

    2015-04-01

    Using quantum transport simulations, the impact of electron-phonon scattering on the transfer characteristic of a gate-all-around nanowire (GaAs) field effect transistor (NWFET) has been thoroughly investigated. The Non-Equilibrium Green's Function formalism in the effective mass approximation using a decoupled mode decomposition has been deployed. NWFETs of different dimensions have been considered, and scattering mechanisms including acoustic, optical and polar optical phonons have been included. The effective masses were extracted from tight binding simulations. High and low drain bias have been considered. We found substantial source to drain tunnelling current and significant impact of phonon scattering on the performance of the NWFET. At low drain bias, for a 2.2 × 2.2 nm2 cross-section transistor, scattering caused a 72%, 77%, and 81% decrease in the on-current for a 6 nm, 10 nm, and 20 nm channel length, respectively. This reduction in the current due to scattering is influenced by the increase in the tunnelling current. We include the percentage tunnelling for each valley at low and high drain bias. It was also found that the strong quantisation caused the relative position of the valleys to vary with the cross-section. This had a large effect on the overall tunnelling current. The phonon-limited mobility was also calculated, finding a mobility of 950 cm2/V s at an inversion charge density of 1012 cm-2 for a 4.2 × 4.2 nm2 cross-section device.

  14. Nonequilibrium candidate Monte Carlo is an efficient tool for equilibrium simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilmeier, J. P.; Crooks, G. E.; Minh, D. D. L.; Chodera, J. D.

    2011-10-24

    Metropolis Monte Carlo simulation is a powerful tool for studying the equilibrium properties of matter. In complex condensed-phase systems, however, it is difficult to design Monte Carlo moves with high acceptance probabilities that also rapidly sample uncorrelated configurations. Here, we introduce a new class of moves based on nonequilibrium dynamics: candidate configurations are generated through a finite-time process in which a system is actively driven out of equilibrium, and accepted with criteria that preserve the equilibrium distribution. The acceptance rule is similar to the Metropolis acceptance probability, but related to the nonequilibrium work rather than the instantaneous energy difference. Our method is applicable to sampling from both a single thermodynamic state or a mixture of thermodynamic states, and allows both coordinates and thermodynamic parameters to be driven in nonequilibrium proposals. While generating finite-time switching trajectories incurs an additional cost, driving some degrees of freedom while allowing others to evolve naturally can lead to large enhancements in acceptance probabilities, greatly reducing structural correlation times. Using nonequilibrium driven processes vastly expands the repertoire of useful Monte Carlo proposals in simulations of dense solvated systems.

  15. Nonequilibrium Phase Chemistry in High Temperature Structure Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.

    1991-01-01

    Titanium and nickel aluminides of nonequilibrium microstructures and in thin gauge thickness were identified, characterized and produced for potential high temperature applications. A high rate sputter deposition technique for rapid surveillance of the microstructures and nonequilibrium phase is demonstrated. Alloys with specific compositions were synthesized with extended solid solutions, stable dispersoids, and specific phase boundaries associated with different heat treatments. Phase stability and mechanical behavior of these nonequilibrium alloys were investigated and compared.

  16. Continuum model of non-equilibrium solvation and solvent effect on ultra-fast processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangyuan; Fu Kexiang; Zhu Quan

    2006-01-01

    In the past 50 years, non-equilibrium solvation theory for ultra-fast processes such as electron transfer and light absorption/emission has attracted particular interest. A great deal of research efforts was made in this area and various models which give reasonable qualitative descriptions for such as solvent reorganization energy in electron transfer and spectral shift in solution, were developed within the framework of continuous medium theory. In a series of publications by the authors, we clarified that the expression of the non-equilibrium electrostatic free energy that is at the dominant position of non-equilibrium solvation and serves as the basis of various models, however, was incorrectly formulated. In this work, the authors argue that reversible charging work integration was inappropriately applied in the past to an irreversible path linking the equilibrium or the non-equilibrium state. Because the step from the equilibrium state to the nonequilibrium state is factually thermodynamically irreversible, the conventional expression for non-equilibrium free energy that was deduced in different ways is unreasonable. Here the authors derive the non-equilibrium free energy to a quite different form according to Jackson integral formula. Such a difference throws doubts to the models including the famous Marcus two-sphere model for solvent reorganization energy of electron transfer and the Lippert-Mataga equation for spectral shift. By introducing the concept of 'spring energy' arising from medium polarizations, the energy constitution of the non-equilibrium state is highlighted. For a solute-solvent system, the authors separate the total electrostatic energy into different components: the self-energies of solute charge and polarized charge, the interaction energy between them and the 'spring energy' of the solvent polarization. With detailed reasoning and derivation, our formula for non-equilibrium free energy can be reached through different ways. Based on the

  17. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium dynamics of soft sphere fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yajun; Mittal, Jeetain

    2015-07-14

    We use computer simulations to test the freezing-point scaling relationship between equilibrium transport coefficients (self-diffusivity, viscosity) and thermodynamic parameters for soft sphere fluids. The fluid particles interact via the inverse-power potential (IPP), and the particle softness is changed by modifying the exponent of the distance-dependent potential term. In the case of IPP fluids, density and temperature are not independent variables and can be combined to obtain a coupling parameter to define the thermodynamic state of the system. We find that the rescaled coupling parameter, based on its value at the freezing point, can approximately collapse the diffusivity and viscosity data for IPP fluids over a wide range of particle softness. Even though the collapse is far from perfect, the freezing-point scaling relationship provides a convenient and effective way to compare the structure and dynamics of fluid systems with different particle softness. We further show that an alternate scaling relationship based on two-body excess entropy can provide an almost perfect collapse of the diffusivity and viscosity data below the freezing transition. Next, we perform nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to calculate the shear-dependent viscosity and to identify the distinct role of particle softness in underlying structural changes associated with rheological properties. Qualitatively, we find a similar shear-thinning behavior for IPP fluids with different particle softness, though softer particles exhibit stronger shear-thinning tendency. By investigating the distance and angle-dependent pair correlation functions in these systems, we find different structural features in the case of IPP fluids with hard-sphere like and softer particle interactions. Interestingly, shear-thinning in hard-sphere like fluids is accompanied by enhanced translational order, whereas softer fluids exhibit loss of order with shear. Our results provide a systematic evaluation

  18. Exploring Chemical and Thermal Non-equilibrium in Nitrogen Arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorui, S; Das, A K

    2012-01-01

    Plasma torches operating with nitrogen are of special importance as they can operate with usual tungsten based refractory electrodes and offer radical rich non-oxidizing high temperature environment for plasma chemistry. Strong gradients in temperature as well as species densities and huge convective fluxes lead to varying degrees of chemical non-equilibrium in associated regions. An axi-symmetric two-temperature chemical non-equilibrium model of a nitrogen plasma torch has been developed to understand the effects of thermal and chemical non-equilibrium in arcs. A 2-D finite volume CFD code in association with a non-equilibrium property routine enabled extraction of steady state self-consistent distributions of various plasma quantities inside the torch under various thermal and chemical non-equilibrium conditions. Chemical non-equilibrium has been incorporated through computation of diffusive and convective fluxes in each finite volume cell in every iteration and associating corresponding thermodynamic and transport properties through the scheme of 'chemical non-equilibrium parameter' introduced by Ghorui et. al. Recombination coefficient data from Nahar et. al. and radiation data from Krey and Morris have been used in the simulation. Results are presented for distributions of temperature, pressure, velocity, current density, electric potential, species densities and chemical non-equilibrium effects. Obtained results are compared with similar results under LTE.

  19. Majorana fermion modulated nonequilibrium transport through double quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Ming-Xun; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Ai, Bao-Quan; Yang, Mou; Hu, Liang-Bin; Zhong, Qing-Hu; Wang, Guang-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Nonequilibrium electronic transports through a double-QD-Majorana coupling system are studied with a purpose to extract the information to identify Majorana bound states (MBSs). It is found that MBSs can help form various transport processes, including the nonlocal crossed Andreev reflection, local resonant Andreev reflection, and cotunneling, depending on the relative position of two dot levels. These processes enrich the signature of average currents and noise correlations to probe the nature of MBSs. We further demonstrate the switching between the current peaks of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling, which is closely related to the nonlocal nature of Majorana fermions. We also propose effective physical pictures to understand these Majorana-assisted transports. - Highlights: • Majorana fermions are characterized in the signature of currents and noises. • Three types of tunneling mechanisms are realized separately. • The switching of crossed Andreev reflection and cotunneling is realized. • Concrete physical pictures are proposed to understand Majorana-assisted transports

  20. Nonequilibrium chiral fluid dynamics including dissipation and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahrgang, Marlene; Herold, Christoph; Bleicher, Marcus; Leupold, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    We present a consistent theoretical approach for the study of nonequilibrium effects in chiral fluid dynamics within the framework of the linear σ model with constituent quarks. Treating the quarks as an equilibrated heat bath, we use the influence functional formalism to obtain a Langevin equation for the σ field. This allows us to calculate the explicit form of the damping coefficient and the noise correlators. For a self-consistent derivation of both the dynamics of the σ field and the quark fluid, we have to employ the 2PI (two-particle irreducible) effective action formalism. The energy dissipation from the field to the fluid is treated in the exact formalism of the 2PI effective action where a conserved energy-momentum tensor can be constructed. We derive its form and comment on approximations generating additional terms in the energy-momentum balance of the entire system.

  1. Exactly solvable nonequilibrium Langevin relaxation of a trapped nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Domingos S P; Lira, Sérgio A

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we study the nonequilibrium statistical properties of the relaxation dynamics of a nanoparticle trapped in a harmonic potential. We report an exact time-dependent analytical solution to the Langevin dynamics that arises from the stochastic differential equation of our system’s energy in the underdamped regime. By utilizing this stochastic thermodynamics approach, we are able to completely describe the heat exchange process between the nanoparticle and the surrounding environment. As an important consequence of our results, we observe the validity of the heat exchange fluctuation theorem in our setup, which holds for systems arbitrarily far from equilibrium conditions. By extending our results for the case of N noninterating nanoparticles, we perform analytical asymptotic limits and direct numerical simulations that corroborate our analytical predictions. (paper)

  2. Non-equilibrium steady states in supramolecular polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Sato, Akihiro; Hermans, Thomas M.

    2017-06-01

    Living systems use fuel-driven supramolecular polymers such as actin to control important cell functions. Fuel molecules like ATP are used to control when and where such polymers should assemble and disassemble. The cell supplies fresh ATP to the cytosol and removes waste products to sustain steady states. Artificial fuel-driven polymers have been developed recently, but keeping them in sustained non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) has proven challenging. Here we show a supramolecular polymer that can be kept in NESS, inside a membrane reactor where ATP is added and waste removed continuously. Assembly and disassembly of our polymer is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. Waste products lead to inhibition, causing the reaction cycle to stop. Inside the membrane reactor, however, waste can be removed leading to long-lived NESS conditions. We anticipate that our approach to obtain NESS can be applied to other stimuli-responsive materials to achieve more life-like behaviour.

  3. Quantum gases finite temperature and non-equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Szymanska, Marzena; Davis, Matthew; Gardiner, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The 1995 observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of ed...

  4. Biological Implications of Dynamical Phases in Non-equilibrium Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Arvind; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan

    2016-03-01

    Biology achieves novel functions like error correction, ultra-sensitivity and accurate concentration measurement at the expense of free energy through Maxwell Demon-like mechanisms. The design principles and free energy trade-offs have been studied for a variety of such mechanisms. In this review, we emphasize a perspective based on dynamical phases that can explain commonalities shared by these mechanisms. Dynamical phases are defined by typical trajectories executed by non-equilibrium systems in the space of internal states. We find that coexistence of dynamical phases can have dramatic consequences for function vs free energy cost trade-offs. Dynamical phases can also provide an intuitive picture of the design principles behind such biological Maxwell Demons.

  5. Nonlinear Peltier effect and the nonequilibrium Jonson-Mahan theorem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.K.Freericks

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the many-body formalism for the Peltier effect to the nonlinear/nonequilibrium regime corresponding to large amplitude (spatially uniform but time-dependent electric fields. We find a relationship between the expectation values for the charge current and for the part of the heat current that reduces to the Jonson-Mahan theorem in the linear-response regime. The nonlinear-response Peltier effect has an extra term in the heat current that is related to Joule heating (we are unable to fully analyze this term. The formalism holds in all dimensions and for arbitrary many-body systems that have local interactions. We illustrate it for the Falicov-Kimball, Hubbard, and periodic Anderson models.

  6. Dynamical Symmetries and Causality in Non-Equilibrium Phase Transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Henkel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dynamical symmetries are of considerable importance in elucidating the complex behaviour of strongly interacting systems with many degrees of freedom. Paradigmatic examples are cooperative phenomena as they arise in phase transitions, where conformal invariance has led to enormous progress in equilibrium phase transitions, especially in two dimensions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can arise in much larger portions of the parameter space than equilibrium phase transitions. The state of the art of recent attempts to generalise conformal invariance to a new generic symmetry, taking into account the different scaling behaviour of space and time, will be reviewed. Particular attention will be given to the causality properties as they follow for co-variant n-point functions. These are important for the physical identification of n-point functions as responses or correlators.

  7. Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

  8. Non-equilibrium many body dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.

    1997-09-22

    This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop.

  9. Non-equilibrium many body dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.; Gyulassy, M.

    1997-01-01

    This Riken BNL Research Center Symposium on Non-Equilibrium Many Body Physics was held on September 23-25, 1997 as part of the official opening ceremony of the Center at Brookhaven National Lab. A major objective of theoretical work at the center is to elaborate on the full spectrum of strong interaction physics based on QCD, including the physics of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking, the parton structure of hadrons and nuclei, and the phenomenology of ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions related to the up-coming experiments at RHIC. The opportunities and challenges of nuclear and particle physics in this area naturally involve aspects of the many body problem common to many other fields. The aim of this symposium was to find common theoretical threads in the area of non-equilibrium physics and modern transport theories. The program consisted of invited talks on a variety topics from the fields of atomic, condensed matter, plasma, astrophysics, cosmology, and chemistry, in addition to nuclear and particle physics. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the database for contributions to this workshop

  10. An Exact Solution for the Assessment of Nonequilibrium Sorption of Radionuclides in the Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, R. L.; Chen, J-S.

    2002-02-26

    In a report on model evaluation, the authors ran the HYDRUS Code, among other transport codes, to evaluate the impacts of nonequilibrium sorption sites on the time-evolution of 99Tc and 90Sr through the vadose zone. Since our evaluation was based on a rather low, annual recharge rate, many of the numerical results derived from HYDRUS indicated that the nonequilibrium sorption sites, in essence, acted as equilibrium sorption sites. To help explain these results, we considered a ''stripped-down'' version of the HYDRUS system. This ''stripped-down'' version possesses two dependent variables, one for the radionuclides in solution and the other for the radionuclides adsorbed to the nonequilibrium sites; and it possesses constant physical parameters. The resultant governing equation for the radionuclides in solution is a linear, advection-dispersion-reaction (i.e., radioactive decay) partial differential equation containing a history integral term accounting for the nonequilibrium sorption sites. It is this ''stripped-down'' version, which is the subject of this paper. We found an exact solution to this new version of the model. The exact solution is given in terms of a single definite integral of terms involving elementary functions of the independent variables and the system parameters. This integral possesses adequate convergence properties and is easy to evaluate, both in a quantitative matter and in a qualitative manner. The parameters that are considered in the system are as follows: the radionuclide's equilibrium partition coefficient between water and soil, the bulk density of the soil, the fractions of equilibrium/nonequilibrium sorption sites, the volumetric water content, the first order equilibrium adsorption rate constant, the first order radioactive decay rate constant, the liquid water soil tortuosity factor, the molecular diffusion coefficient in water, the longitudinal dispersivity factor

  11. Non-equilibrium stochastic dynamics in continuum: The free case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.Kondratiev

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the problem of identification of a proper state-space for the stochastic dynamics of free particles in continuum, with their possible birth and death. In this dynamics, the motion of each separate particle is described by a fixed Markov process M on a Riemannian manifold X. The main problem arising here is a possible collapse of the system, in the sense that, though the initial configuration of particles is locally finite, there could exist a compact set in X such that, with probability one, infinitely many particles will arrive at this set at some time t>0. We assume that X has infinite volume and, for each α���1, we consider the set Θα of all infinite configurations in X for which the number of particles in a compact set is bounded by a constant times the α-th power of the volume of the set. We find quite general conditions on the process M which guarantee that the corresponding infinite particle process can start at each configuration from Θα, will never leave Θα, and has cadlag (or, even, continuous sample paths in the vague topology. We consider the following examples of applications of our results: Brownian motion on the configuration space, free Glauber dynamics on the configuration space (or a birth-and-death process in X, and free Kawasaki dynamics on the configuration space. We also show that if X=Rd, then for a wide class of starting distributions, the (non-equilibrium free Glauber dynamics is a scaling limit of (non-equilibrium free Kawasaki dynamics.

  12. Modeling Inflation Using a Non-Equilibrium Equation of Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Inflation is a change in the prices of goods that takes place without changes in the actual values of those goods. The Equation of Exchange, formulated clearly in a seminal paper by Irving Fisher in 1911, establishes an equilibrium relationship between the price index P (also known as "inflation"), the economy's aggregate output Q (also known as "the real gross domestic product"), the amount of money available for spending M (also known as "the money supply"), and the rate at which money is reused V (also known as "the velocity of circulation of money"). This paper offers first a qualitative discussion of what can cause these factors to change and how those causes might be controlled, then develops a quantitative model of inflation based on a non-equilibrium version of the Equation of Exchange. Causal relationships are different from equations in that the effects of changes in the causal variables take time to play out-often significant amounts of time. In the model described here, wages track prices, but only after a distributed lag. Prices change whenever the money supply, aggregate output, or the velocity of circulation of money change, but only after a distributed lag. Similarly, the money supply depends on the supplies of domestic and foreign money, which depend on the monetary base and a variety of foreign transactions, respectively. The spreading of delays mitigates the shocks of sudden changes to important inputs, but the most important aspect of this model is that delays, which often have dramatic consequences in dynamic systems, are explicitly incorporated.macroeconomics, inflation, equation of exchange, non-equilibrium, Athena Project

  13. Nonequilibrium 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid monolayers: effect of electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendrum, Conrad D; Ingham, Bridget; Lin, Binhua; Meron, Mati; Toney, Michael F; McGrath, Kathryn M

    2011-04-19

    2-Hydroxyacids display complex monolayer phase behavior due to the additional hydrogen bonding afforded by the presence of the second hydroxy group. The placement of this group at the position α to the carboxylic acid functionality also introduces the possibility of chelation, a utility important in crystallization including biomineralization. Biomineralization, like many biological processes, is inherently a nonequilibrium process. The nonequilibrium monolayer phase behavior of 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic acid was investigated on each of pure water, calcium chloride, sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate crystallizing subphases as a precursor study to a model calcium carbonate biomineralizing system, each at a pH of ∼6. The role of the bicarbonate co-ion in manipulating the monolayer structure was determined by comparison with monolayer phase behavior on a sodium chloride subphase. Monolayer phase behavior was probed using surface pressure/area isotherms, surface potential, Brewster angle microscopy, and synchrotron-based grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity. Complex phase behavior was observed for all but the sodium chloride subphase with hydrogen bonding, electrostatic and steric effects defining the symmetry of the monolayer. On a pure water subphase hydrogen bonding dominates with three phases coexisting at low pressures. Introduction of calcium ions into the aqueous subphase ensures strong cation binding to the surfactant head groups through chelation. The monolayer becomes very unstable in the presence of bicarbonate ions within the subphase due to short-range hydrogen bonding interactions between the monolayer and bicarbonate ions facilitated by the sodium cation enhancing surfactant solubility. The combined effects of electrostatics and hydrogen bonding are observed on the calcium carbonate crystallizing subphase. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Nonequilibrium forces following quenches in active and thermal matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Christian M.; Solon, Alexandre; Kardar, Mehran; Krüger, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    Nonequilibrium systems with conserved quantities like density or momentum are known to exhibit long-ranged correlations. This, in turn, leads to long-ranged fluctuation-induced (Casimir) forces, predicted to arise in a variety of nonequilibrium settings. Here, we study such forces, which arise transiently between parallel plates or compact inclusions in a gas of particles, following a change ("quench") in temperature or activity of the medium. Analytical calculations, as well as numerical simulations of passive or active Brownian particles, indicate two distinct forces: (i) The immediate effect of the quench is adsorption or desorption of particles of the medium to the immersed objects, which in turn initiates a front of relaxing (mean) density. This leads to time-dependent density-induced forces. (ii) A long-term effect of the quench is that density fluctuations are modified, manifested as transient (long-ranged) (pair-)correlations that relax diffusively to their (short-ranged) steady-state limit. As a result, transient fluctuation-induced forces emerge. We discuss the properties of fluctuation-induced and density-induced forces as regards universality, relaxation as a function of time, and scaling with distance between objects. Their distinct signatures allow us to distinguish the two types of forces in simulation data. Our simulations also show that a quench of the effective temperature of an active medium gives rise to qualitatively similar effects to a temperature quench in a passive medium. Based on this insight, we propose several scenarios for the experimental observation of the forces described here.

  15. Non-equilibrium in flowing atmospheric plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, J.C.M. de.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aspects of two different plasmas applied in technological processes. The first one is the cesium seeded argon plasma in a closed cycle Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, the second is the thermal argon plasma in a cascade arc with an imposed flow. In Chapter 2 the influence of non-equilibrium on the mass and energy balances of a plasma is worked out. The general theory presented there can be applied to both the plasma in an MHD generator and to the cascade arc with imposed flow. Introductions to these plasmas are given in the Chapters 3 and 6 respectively. These chapters are both followed by two chapters which treat the theoretical and the experimental investigations. The results are summarized in Chapter 9. (Auth.)

  16. Non-equilibrium effects in the plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfeld, D.

    1975-01-01

    Radial dependences of non-equilibrium effects of a He plasma were studied in a wall-stabilized short-time discharge. The electron density (nsub(e) = 2.5 x 10 22 m -3 ), the electron temperature and the equilibrium shift were determined by calculations of the continuum beam density and the beam densities of one He-I and one He-II line, respectively. In the discharge axis, the overpopulation factors of the ground state of He-I and He-II are about 75. As the distance to the axis increases, they increase for He-I and decrease for He-II. Except for the usual errors of measurement, the overpopulation factors found here correspond to those calculated from the balance equations (Drawin). (orig./AK) [de

  17. Nanoscale hotspots due to nonequilibrium thermal transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sanjiv; Goodson, Kenneth E.

    2004-01-01

    Recent experimental and modeling efforts have been directed towards the issue of temperature localization and hotspot formation in the vicinity of nanoscale heat generating devices. The nonequilibrium transport conditions which develop around these nanoscale devices results in elevated temperatures near the heat source which can not be predicted by continuum diffusion theory. Efforts to determine the severity of this temperature localization phenomena in silicon devices near and above room temperature are of technological importance to the development of microelectronics and other nanotechnologies. In this work, we have developed a new modeling tool in order to explore the magnitude of the additional thermal resistance which forms around nanoscale hotspots from temperatures of 100-1000K. The models are based on a two fluid approximation in which thermal energy is transferred between ''stationary'' optical phonons and fast propagating acoustic phonon modes. The results of the model have shown excellent agreement with experimental results of localized hotspots in silicon at lower temperatures. The model predicts that the effect of added thermal resistance due to the nonequilibrium phonon distribution is greatest at lower temperatures, but is maintained out to temperatures of 1000K. The resistance predicted by the numerical code can be easily integrated with continuum models in order to predict the temperature distribution around nanoscale heat sources with improved accuracy. Additional research efforts also focused on the measurements of the thermal resistance of silicon thin films at higher temperatures, with a focus on polycrystalline silicon. This work was intended to provide much needed experimental data on the thermal transport properties for micro and nanoscale devices built with this material. Initial experiments have shown that the exposure of polycrystalline silicon to high temperatures may induce recrystallization and radically increase the thermal

  18. Nonequilibrium Green's function method for quantum thermal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Sheng; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Li, Huanan; Thingna, Juzar

    2014-12-01

    This review deals with the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) method applied to the problems of energy transport due to atomic vibrations (phonons), primarily for small junction systems. We present a pedagogical introduction to the subject, deriving some of the well-known results such as the Laudauer-like formula for heat current in ballistic systems. The main aim of the review is to build the machinery of the method so that it can be applied to other situations, which are not directly treated here. In addition to the above, we consider a number of applications of NEGF, not in routine model system calculations, but in a few new aspects showing the power and usefulness of the formalism. In particular, we discuss the problems of multiple leads, coupled left-right-lead system, and system without a center. We also apply the method to the problem of full counting statistics. In the case of nonlinear systems, we make general comments on the thermal expansion effect, phonon relaxation time, and a certain class of mean-field approximations. Lastly, we examine the relationship between NEGF, reduced density matrix, and master equation approaches to thermal transport.

  19. On the use of stochastic differential geometry for non-equilibrium thermodynamic modeling and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

    2013-07-01

    We discuss the relevance of geometric concepts in the theory of stochastic differential equations for applications to the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of small systems. In particular, we show how the Eells-Elworthy-Malliavin covariant construction of the Wiener process on a Riemann manifold provides a physically transparent formulation of optimal control problems of finite-time thermodynamic transitions. Based on this formulation, we turn to an evaluative discussion of recent results on optimal thermodynamic control and their interpretation.

  20. "Non-equilibrium" block copolymer micelles with glassy cores: a predictive approach based on theory of equilibrium micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Ramanathan

    2015-07-01

    Micelles generated in water from most amphiphilic block copolymers are widely recognized to be non-equilibrium structures. Typically, the micelles are prepared by a kinetic process, first allowing molecular scale dissolution of the block copolymer in a common solvent that likes both the blocks and then gradually replacing the common solvent by water to promote the hydrophobic blocks to aggregate and create the micelles. The non-equilibrium nature of the micelle originates from the fact that dynamic exchange between the block copolymer molecules in the micelle and the singly dispersed block copolymer molecules in water is suppressed, because of the glassy nature of the core forming polymer block and/or its very large hydrophobicity. Although most amphiphilic block copolymers generate such non-equilibrium micelles, no theoretical approach to a priori predict the micelle characteristics currently exists. In this work, we propose a predictive approach for non-equilibrium micelles with glassy cores by applying the equilibrium theory of micelles in two steps. In the first, we calculate the properties of micelles formed in the mixed solvent while true equilibrium prevails, until the micelle core becomes glassy. In the second step, we freeze the micelle aggregation number at this glassy state and calculate the corona dimension from the equilibrium theory of micelles. The condition when the micelle core becomes glassy is independently determined from a statistical thermodynamic treatment of diluent effect on polymer glass transition temperature. The predictions based on this "non-equilibrium" model compare reasonably well with experimental data for polystyrene-polyethylene oxide diblock copolymer, which is the most extensively studied system in the literature. In contrast, the application of the equilibrium model to describe such a system significantly overpredicts the micelle core and corona dimensions and the aggregation number. The non-equilibrium model suggests ways to

  1. Nonequilibrium electron transport through quantum dots in the Kondo regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wölfle, Peter; Paaske, Jens; Rosch, Achim

    2005-01-01

    Electron transport at large bias voltage through quantum dots in the Kondo regime is described within the perturbative renormalization group extended to nonequilibrium. The conductance, local magnetization, dynamical spin susceptibility and local spectral function are calculated. We show how the ...

  2. Nonequilibrium structure of colloidal dumbbells under oscillatory shear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heptner, Nils; Chu, Fangfang; Lu, Yan; Lindner, Peter; Ballauff, Matthias; Dzubiella, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium behavior of dense, plastic-crystalline suspensions of mildly anisotropic colloidal hard dumbbells under the action of an oscillatory shear field by employing Brownian dynamics computer simulations. In particular, we extend previous investigations, where we uncovered nonequilibrium phase transitions, to other aspect ratios and to a larger nonequilibrium parameter space, that is, a wider range of strains and shear frequencies. We compare and discuss selected results in the context of scattering and rheological experiments. Both simulations and experiments demonstrate that the previously found transitions from the plastic crystal phase with increasing shear strain also occur at other aspect ratios. We explore the transition behavior in the strain-frequency phase and summarize it in a nonequilibrium phase diagram. Additionally, the experimental rheology results hint at a slowing down of the colloidal dynamics with higher aspect ratio.

  3. Electrolytes: transport properties and non-equilibrium thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.G.

    1980-12-01

    This paper presents a review on the application of non-equilibrium thermodynamics to transport in electrolyte solutions, and some recent experimental work and results for mutual diffusion in electrolyte solutions

  4. Nonequilibrium flow calculations for the hydrogen constricted arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. K.; Incropera, F. P.

    1973-01-01

    A nonequilibrium flow model has been formulated and solved numerically for conditions in an atomic hydrogen cascade arc. Solutions show that although thermal nonequilibrium effects are minor, the departure from chemical equilibrium is significant. Comparisons with results obtained from an equilibrium flow model reveal the deficiencies associated with such a model and parametric calculations reveal the effect of current, pressure, and radius on arc behavior.

  5. Nonequilibrium phase coexistence and criticality near the second explosion limit of hydrogen combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Lucas B; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Green, Jason R

    2017-07-21

    While hydrogen is a promising source of clean energy, the safety and optimization of hydrogen technologies rely on controlling ignition through explosion limits: pressure-temperature boundaries separating explosive behavior from comparatively slow burning. Here, we show that the emergent nonequilibrium chemistry of combustible mixtures can exhibit the quantitative features of a phase transition. With stochastic simulations of the chemical kinetics for a model mechanism of hydrogen combustion, we show that the boundaries marking explosive domains of kinetic behavior are nonequilibrium critical points. Near the pressure of the second explosion limit, these critical points terminate the transient coexistence of dynamical phases-one that autoignites and another that progresses slowly. Below the critical point temperature, the chemistry of these phases is indistinguishable. In the large system limit, the pseudo-critical temperature converges to the temperature of the second explosion limit derived from mass-action kinetics.

  6. Non-equilibrium effects on the two-phase flow critical phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, the choking criterion for nonhomogeneous nonequilibrium two phase flow is obtained by solving the two-fluid model conservation equations. The method of characteristics is employed to predict the critical flow conditions. Critical flow is established after the magnitude of the characteristic slopes (velocities). Critical flow conditions are reached when the smallest characteristic slope becomes equal to zero. Several expression are developed to determine the nonequilibrium mass and heat exchanges in terms of the system dependent parameters derivatives. In addition, comprehensive transition flow regime maps are employed in the calculation of interfacial heat and momentum transfer rates. Numerical results reveal that the proposed model reliably predicts the critical two-phase flow phenomenon under different inlet conditions and compares well with other existing models

  7. Shear Viscosity of Benzene, Toluene, and p-Xylene by Non-equilibrium Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Song Hi

    2004-01-01

    Green and Kubo showed that the phenomenological coefficients describing many transport processes and time dependent phenomena in general could be written as integrals over a certain type of function called a time correlation function. The Green-Kubo formulas are the formal expressions for hydrodynamic field variables and some of the thermodynamic properties in terms of the microscopic variables of an N-particle system. The identification of microscopic expressions for macroscopic variables is made by a process of comparison of the conservation equations of hydrodynamics with the microscopic equations of change for conserved densities. The importance of these formulas is three-fold: they provide an obvious method for calculating transport coefficients using computer simulation, a convenient starting point for constructing analytic theories for non-equilibrium processes, and an essential information for designing non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) algorithm.

  8. Dynamics of unstable sound waves in a non-equilibrium medium at the nonlinear stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrapov, Sergey; Khoperskov, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    A new dispersion equation is obtained for a non-equilibrium medium with an exponential relaxation model of a vibrationally excited gas. We have researched the dependencies of the pump source and the heat removal on the medium thermodynamic parameters. The boundaries of sound waves stability regions in a non-equilibrium gas have been determined. The nonlinear stage of sound waves instability development in a vibrationally excited gas has been investigated within CSPH-TVD and MUSCL numerical schemes using parallel technologies OpenMP-CUDA. We have obtained a good agreement of numerical simulation results with the linear perturbations dynamics at the initial stage of the sound waves growth caused by instability. At the nonlinear stage, the sound waves amplitude reaches the maximum value that leads to the formation of shock waves system.

  9. Unbiased free energy estimates in fast nonequilibrium transformations using Gaussian mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procacci, Piero

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an improved method for obtaining unbiased estimates of the free energy difference between two thermodynamic states using the work distribution measured in nonequilibrium driven experiments connecting these states. The method is based on the assumption that any observed work distribution is given by a mixture of Gaussian distributions, whose normal components are identical in either direction of the nonequilibrium process, with weights regulated by the Crooks theorem. Using the prototypical example for the driven unfolding/folding of deca-alanine, we show that the predicted behavior of the forward and reverse work distributions, assuming a combination of only two Gaussian components with Crooks derived weights, explains surprisingly well the striking asymmetry in the observed distributions at fast pulling speeds. The proposed methodology opens the way for a perfectly parallel implementation of Jarzynski-based free energy calculations in complex systems

  10. Calculation of the mutual diffusion coefficient by equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erpenbeck, J.J.; Kincaid, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    A nonequilibrium molecular dynamics method for the calculation of the mutual diffusion coefficient for a mixture of hard spheres is described. The method is applied to a 50-50 mixture of equidiameter particles having a mass ratio of 0.1 for the two species, at a volume of three times close-packing. By extrapolating the results to the limit of vanishing concentration gradient and infinite system size, we obtain a value in statistical agreement with the result obtained using a Green-Kubo molecular dynamics procedure which is also described. The nonequilibrium calculation yields a mutual diffusion coefficient which decreases slightly with increasing concentration gradient. The Green-Kubo time correlation function for mutual diffusion displays a slow decay with time, qualitatively similar to the long-time tail which has been predicted by the hydrodynamic theory of Pomeau

  11. Nonequilibrium gas-liquid transition in the driven-dissipative photonic lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Matteo; Blatter, Gianni; Türeci, Hakan E.; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    We study the nonequilibrium steady state of the driven-dissipative Bose-Hubbard model with Kerr nonlinearity. Employing a mean-field decoupling for the intercavity hopping J , we find that the steep crossover between low and high photon-density states inherited from the single cavity transforms into a gas-liquid bistability at large cavity-coupling J . We formulate a van der Waals-like gas-liquid phenomenology for this nonequilibrium setting and determine the relevant phase diagrams, including a new type of diagram where a lobe-shaped boundary separates smooth crossovers from sharp, hysteretic transitions. Calculating quantum trajectories for a one-dimensional system, we provide insights into the microscopic origin of the bistability.

  12. Achieving Radiation Tolerance through Non-Equilibrium Grain Boundary Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetterick, Gregory A; Gruber, Jacob; Suri, Pranav K; Baldwin, Jon K; Kirk, Marquis A; Baldo, Pete; Wang, Yong Q; Misra, Amit; Tucker, Garritt J; Taheri, Mitra L

    2017-09-25

    Many methods used to produce nanocrystalline (NC) materials leave behind non-equilibrium grain boundaries (GBs) containing excess free volume and higher energy than their equilibrium counterparts with identical 5 degrees of freedom. Since non-equilibrium GBs have increased amounts of both strain and free volume, these boundaries may act as more efficient sinks for the excess interstitials and vacancies produced in a material under irradiation as compared to equilibrium GBs. The relative sink strengths of equilibrium and non-equilibrium GBs were explored by comparing the behavior of annealed (equilibrium) and as-deposited (non-equilibrium) NC iron films on irradiation. These results were coupled with atomistic simulations to better reveal the underlying processes occurring on timescales too short to capture using in situ TEM. After irradiation, NC iron with non-equilibrium GBs contains both a smaller number density of defect clusters and a smaller average defect cluster size. Simulations showed that excess free volume contribute to a decreased survival rate of point defects in cascades occurring adjacent to the GB and that these boundaries undergo less dramatic changes in structure upon irradiation. These results suggest that non-equilibrium GBs act as more efficient sinks for defects and could be utilized to create more radiation tolerant materials in future.

  13. Role of Sink Density in Nonequilibrium Chemical Redistribution in Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Enrique; Senninger, Oriane; Caro, Alfredo; Soisson, Frédéric; Nastar, Maylise; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2018-03-01

    Nonequilibrium chemical redistribution in open systems submitted to external forces, such as particle irradiation, leads to changes in the structural properties of the material, potentially driving the system to failure. Such redistribution is controlled by the complex interplay between the production of point defects, atomic transport rates, and the sink character of the microstructure. In this work, we analyze this interplay by means of a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) framework with an underlying atomistic model for the Fe-Cr model alloy to study the effect of ideal defect sinks on Cr concentration profiles, with a particular focus on the role of interface density. We observe that the amount of segregation decreases linearly with decreasing interface spacing. Within the framework of the thermodynamics of irreversible processes, a general analytical model is derived and assessed against the KMC simulations to elucidate the structure-property relationship of this system. Interestingly, in the kinetic regime where elimination of point defects at sinks is dominant over bulk recombination, the solute segregation does not directly depend on the dose rate but only on the density of sinks. This model provides new insight into the design of microstructures that mitigate chemical redistribution and improve radiation tolerance.

  14. Nonequilibrium forces between atoms and dielectrics mediated by a quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behunin, Ryan O.; Hu, Bei-Lok

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we give a first principles microphysics derivation of the nonequilibrium forces between an atom, treated as a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator, and a bulk dielectric medium modeled as a continuous lattice of oscillators coupled to a reservoir. We assume no direct interaction between the atom and the medium but there exist mutual influences transmitted via a common electromagnetic field. By employing concepts and techniques of open quantum systems we introduce coarse-graining to the physical variables--the medium, the quantum field, and the atom's internal degrees of freedom, in that order--to extract their averaged effects from the lowest tier progressively to the top tier. The first tier of coarse-graining provides the averaged effect of the medium upon the field, quantified by a complex permittivity (in the frequency domain) describing the response of the dielectric to the field in addition to its back action on the field through a stochastic forcing term. The last tier of coarse-graining over the atom's internal degrees of freedom results in an equation of motion for the atom's center of mass from which we can derive the force on the atom. Our nonequilibrium formulation provides a fully dynamical description of the atom's motion including back-action effects from all other relevant variables concerned. In the long-time limit we recover the known results for the atom-dielectric force when the combined system is in equilibrium or in a nonequilibrium stationary state.

  15. Constant-pH Hybrid Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics–Monte Carlo Simulation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A computational method is developed to carry out explicit solvent simulations of complex molecular systems under conditions of constant pH. In constant-pH simulations, preidentified ionizable sites are allowed to spontaneously protonate and deprotonate as a function of time in response to the environment and the imposed pH. The method, based on a hybrid scheme originally proposed by H. A. Stern (J. Chem. Phys.2007, 126, 164112), consists of carrying out short nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (neMD) switching trajectories to generate physically plausible configurations with changed protonation states that are subsequently accepted or rejected according to a Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) criterion. To ensure microscopic detailed balance arising from such nonequilibrium switches, the atomic momenta are altered according to the symmetric two-ends momentum reversal prescription. To achieve higher efficiency, the original neMD–MC scheme is separated into two steps, reducing the need for generating a large number of unproductive and costly nonequilibrium trajectories. In the first step, the protonation state of a site is randomly attributed via a Metropolis MC process on the basis of an intrinsic pKa; an attempted nonequilibrium switch is generated only if this change in protonation state is accepted. This hybrid two-step inherent pKa neMD–MC simulation method is tested with single amino acids in solution (Asp, Glu, and His) and then applied to turkey ovomucoid third domain and hen egg-white lysozyme. Because of the simple linear increase in the computational cost relative to the number of titratable sites, the present method is naturally able to treat extremely large systems. PMID:26300709

  16. Constant-pH Hybrid Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics-Monte Carlo Simulation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunjie; Roux, Benoît

    2015-08-11

    A computational method is developed to carry out explicit solvent simulations of complex molecular systems under conditions of constant pH. In constant-pH simulations, preidentified ionizable sites are allowed to spontaneously protonate and deprotonate as a function of time in response to the environment and the imposed pH. The method, based on a hybrid scheme originally proposed by H. A. Stern (J. Chem. Phys. 2007, 126, 164112), consists of carrying out short nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (neMD) switching trajectories to generate physically plausible configurations with changed protonation states that are subsequently accepted or rejected according to a Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) criterion. To ensure microscopic detailed balance arising from such nonequilibrium switches, the atomic momenta are altered according to the symmetric two-ends momentum reversal prescription. To achieve higher efficiency, the original neMD-MC scheme is separated into two steps, reducing the need for generating a large number of unproductive and costly nonequilibrium trajectories. In the first step, the protonation state of a site is randomly attributed via a Metropolis MC process on the basis of an intrinsic pKa; an attempted nonequilibrium switch is generated only if this change in protonation state is accepted. This hybrid two-step inherent pKa neMD-MC simulation method is tested with single amino acids in solution (Asp, Glu, and His) and then applied to turkey ovomucoid third domain and hen egg-white lysozyme. Because of the simple linear increase in the computational cost relative to the number of titratable sites, the present method is naturally able to treat extremely large systems.

  17. Nonequilibrium landscape theory of neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Han; Zhao, Lei; Hu, Liang; Wang, Xidi; Wang, Erkang; Wang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    The brain map project aims to map out the neuron connections of the human brain. Even with all of the wirings mapped out, the global and physical understandings of the function and behavior are still challenging. Hopfield quantified the learning and memory process of symmetrically connected neural networks globally through equilibrium energy. The energy basins of attractions represent memories, and the memory retrieval dynamics is determined by the energy gradient. However, the realistic neural networks are asymmetrically connected, and oscillations cannot emerge from symmetric neural networks. Here, we developed a nonequilibrium landscape–flux theory for realistic asymmetrically connected neural networks. We uncovered the underlying potential landscape and the associated Lyapunov function for quantifying the global stability and function. We found the dynamics and oscillations in human brains responsible for cognitive processes and physiological rhythm regulations are determined not only by the landscape gradient but also by the flux. We found that the flux is closely related to the degrees of the asymmetric connections in neural networks and is the origin of the neural oscillations. The neural oscillation landscape shows a closed-ring attractor topology. The landscape gradient attracts the network down to the ring. The flux is responsible for coherent oscillations on the ring. We suggest the flux may provide the driving force for associations among memories. We applied our theory to rapid-eye movement sleep cycle. We identified the key regulation factors for function through global sensitivity analysis of landscape topography against wirings, which are in good agreements with experiments. PMID:24145451

  18. Nonequilibrium in a low power arcjet nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zube, Dieter M.; Myers, Roger M.

    1991-01-01

    Emission spectroscopy measurements were made of the plasma flow inside the nozzle of a 1 kW class arcjet thruster. The thruster propellant was a hydrogen-nitrogen mixture used to simulate fully decomposed hydrazine. The 0.25 mm diameter holes were drilled into the diverging section of the tungsten thruster nozzle to provide optical access to the internal flow. Atomic electron excitation, vibrational, and rotational temperatures were determined for the expanding plasma using relative line intensity techniques. The atomic excitation temperatures decreased from 18,000K at a location 3 mm downstream of the constrictor to 9,000K at a location 9 mm from the constrictor, while the molecular vibrational and rotational temperatures decreased from 6,500K to 2,500K and from 8,000K to 3,000K, respectively, between the same locations. The electron density measured using hydrogen H line Stark broadening decreased from about 10(exp 15) cm(-3) to about 2 times 10(exp 14) cm(-3) during the expansion. The results show that the plasma is highly nonequilibrium throughout the nozzle, with most relaxation times equal or exceeding the particle residence time.

  19. Controlling competing electronic orders via non-equilibrium acoustic phonons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuett, Michael; Orth, Peter; Levchenko, Alex; Fernandes, Rafael

    The interplay between multiple electronic orders is a hallmark of strongly correlated systems displaying unconventional superconductivity. While doping, pressure, and magnetic field are the standard knobs employed to assess these different phases, ultrafast pump-and-probe techniques opened a new window to probe these systems. Recent examples include the ultrafast excitation of coherent optical phonons coupling to electronic states in cuprates and iron pnictides. In this work, we demonstrate theoretically that non-equilibrium acoustic phonons provide a promising framework to manipulate competing electronic phases and favor unconventional superconductivity over other states. In particular, we show that electrons coupled to out-of-equilibrium anisotropic acoustic phonons enter a steady state in which the effective electronic temperature varies around the Fermi surface. Such a momentum-dependent temperature can then be used to selectively heat electronic states that contribute primarily to density-wave instabilities, reducing their competition with superconductivity. We illustrate this phenomenon by computing the microscopic steady-state phase diagram of the iron pnictides, showing that superconductivity is enhanced with respect to the competing antiferromagnetic phase.

  20. Non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics of neutron gas in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayasaka, Hideo

    1977-01-01

    The thermodynamic structures of non-equilibrium steady states of highly rarefied neutron gas in various media are considered for the irreversible processes owing to creative and destructive reactions of neutrons with nuclei of these media and supply from the external sources. Under the so-called clean and cold condition in reactor, the medium is regarded virtually as offering the different chemical potential fields for each subsystem of a steady neutron gas system. The fluctuations around a steady state are considered in a Markovian-Gaussian process. The generalized Einstein relations are derived for stationary neutron gas systems. The forces and flows of neutron gases in a medium are defined upon the general stationary solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. There exist the symmetry of the kinetic coefficients, and the minimum entropy production upon neutron-nuclear reactions. The distribution functions in various media are determined by each corresponding extremum condition under the vanishing of changes of the respective total entropies in the Gibbs equation. (auth.)

  1. The efficiency of driving chemical reactions by a physical non-equilibrium is kinetically controlled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göppel, Tobias; Palyulin, Vladimir V; Gerland, Ulrich

    2016-07-27

    An out-of-equilibrium physical environment can drive chemical reactions into thermodynamically unfavorable regimes. Under prebiotic conditions such a coupling between physical and chemical non-equilibria may have enabled the spontaneous emergence of primitive evolutionary processes. Here, we study the coupling efficiency within a theoretical model that is inspired by recent laboratory experiments, but focuses on generic effects arising whenever reactant and product molecules have different transport coefficients in a flow-through system. In our model, the physical non-equilibrium is represented by a drift-diffusion process, which is a valid coarse-grained description for the interplay between thermophoresis and convection, as well as for many other molecular transport processes. As a simple chemical reaction, we consider a reversible dimerization process, which is coupled to the transport process by different drift velocities for monomers and dimers. Within this minimal model, the coupling efficiency between the non-equilibrium transport process and the chemical reaction can be analyzed in all parameter regimes. The analysis shows that the efficiency depends strongly on the Damköhler number, a parameter that measures the relative timescales associated with the transport and reaction kinetics. Our model and results will be useful for a better understanding of the conditions for which non-equilibrium environments can provide a significant driving force for chemical reactions in a prebiotic setting.

  2. Stochastic theory of nonequilibrium steady states and its applications. Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuejuan; Qian Hong; Qian Min

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of equilibrium and nonequilibrium steady states are introduced in the present review as mathematical concepts associated with stationary Markov processes. For both discrete stochastic systems with master equations and continuous diffusion processes with Fokker–Planck equations, the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is characterized in terms of several key notions which are originated from nonequilibrium physics: time irreversibility, breakdown of detailed balance, free energy dissipation, and positive entropy production rate. After presenting this NESS theory in pedagogically accessible mathematical terms that require only a minimal amount of prerequisites in nonlinear differential equations and the theory of probability, it is applied, in Part I, to two widely studied problems: the stochastic resonance (also known as coherent resonance) and molecular motors (also known as Brownian ratchet). Although both areas have advanced rapidly on their own with a vast amount of literature, the theory of NESS provides them with a unifying mathematical foundation. Part II of this review contains applications of the NESS theory to processes from cellular biochemistry, ranging from enzyme catalyzed reactions, kinetic proofreading, to zeroth-order ultrasensitivity.

  3. Electron-phonon coupling effect on wakefields in piezoelectric semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Salimullah, M; Ghosh, S K; Nitta, H; Hayashi, Y

    2003-01-01

    Using an appropriate dielectric constant for an n-type piezoelectric semiconductor plasma and a moving test particle approach, it is shown that, besides the usual screened potential, there exists a non-Coulombian oscillatory potential or a wakefield behind a moving charged particle due to a strong resonant interaction between the charged particle and the electro-acoustic mode of the host semiconductor. With the concept of the wakefield, a possible lattice formation of colloids resulting from ion implantation in a current-carrying piezoelectric semiconductor has been examined.

  4. X-ray scattering studies of non-equilibrium ordering processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagler, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    We report on the progress of the project entitled ''X-ray Scattering Studies of Non-Equilibrium Ordering Processes.'' The past year has seen continued progress in the study of kinetic effects in metallic binary alloys and polymers. In addition, work has begun on a low dimensional CDW system: blue bronze. A sample chamber has been constructed to perform small angle neutron scattering measurements on a model quantum system with phase separation: solid He3/He4. Work is continuing on magnetic systems. Planned future experiments include an investigation of crystallization in Rubidium

  5. Nonequilibrium atmospheric secondary organic aerosol formation and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraud, Véronique; Bruns, Emily A; Ezell, Michael J; Johnson, Stanley N; Yu, Yong; Alexander, M Lizabeth; Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan; Chang, Wayne L; Dabdub, Donald; Pankow, James F; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2012-02-21

    Airborne particles play critical roles in air quality, health effects, visibility, and climate. Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formed from oxidation of organic gases such as α-pinene account for a significant portion of total airborne particle mass. Current atmospheric models typically incorporate the assumption that SOA mass is a liquid into which semivolatile organic compounds undergo instantaneous equilibrium partitioning to grow the particles into the size range important for light scattering and cloud condensation nuclei activity. We report studies of particles from the oxidation of α-pinene by ozone and NO(3) radicals at room temperature. SOA is primarily formed from low-volatility ozonolysis products, with a small contribution from higher volatility organic nitrates from the NO(3) reaction. Contrary to expectations, the particulate nitrate concentration is not consistent with equilibrium partitioning between the gas phase and a liquid particle. Rather the fraction of organic nitrates in the particles is only explained by irreversible, kinetically determined uptake of the nitrates on existing particles, with an uptake coefficient that is 1.6% of that for the ozonolysis products. If the nonequilibrium particle formation and growth observed in this atmospherically important system is a general phenomenon in the atmosphere, aerosol models may need to be reformulated. The reformulation of aerosol models could impact the predicted evolution of SOA in the atmosphere both outdoors and indoors, its role in heterogeneous chemistry, its projected impacts on air quality, visibility, and climate, and hence the development of reliable control strategies.

  6. Non-Equilibrium Properties from Equilibrium Free Energy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Calculating free energy in computer simulations is of central importance in statistical mechanics of condensed media and its applications to chemistry and biology not only because it is the most comprehensive and informative quantity that characterizes the eqUilibrium state, but also because it often provides an efficient route to access dynamic and kinetic properties of a system. Most of applications of equilibrium free energy calculations to non-equilibrium processes rely on a description in which a molecule or an ion diffuses in the potential of mean force. In general case this description is a simplification, but it might be satisfactorily accurate in many instances of practical interest. This hypothesis has been tested in the example of the electrodiffusion equation . Conductance of model ion channels has been calculated directly through counting the number of ion crossing events observed during long molecular dynamics simulations and has been compared with the conductance obtained from solving the generalized Nernst-Plank equation. It has been shown that under relatively modest conditions the agreement between these two approaches is excellent, thus demonstrating the assumptions underlying the diffusion equation are fulfilled. Under these conditions the electrodiffusion equation provides an efficient approach to calculating the full voltage-current dependence routinely measured in electrophysiological experiments.

  7. Nonequilibrium forces between neutral atoms mediated by a quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behunin, Ryan O.; Hu, Bei-Lok

    2010-01-01

    We study forces between two neutral atoms, modeled as three-dimensional harmonic oscillators, arising from mutual influences mediated by an electromagnetic field but not from their direct interactions. We allow as dynamical variables the center-of-mass motion of the atom, its internal degrees of freedom, and the quantum field treated relativistically. We adopt the method of nonequilibrium quantum field theory which can provide a first-principles, systematic, and unified description including the intrinsic and induced dipole fluctuations. The inclusion of self-consistent back-actions makes possible a fully dynamical description of these forces valid for general atom motion. In thermal equilibrium we recover the known forces--London, van der Waals, and Casimir-Polder--between neutral atoms in the long-time limit. We also reproduce a recently reported force between atoms when the system is out of thermal equilibrium at late times. More noteworthy is the discovery of the existence of a type of (or identification of the source of some known) interatomic force which we call the ''entanglement force,'' originating from the quantum correlations of the internal degrees of freedom of entangled atoms.

  8. Gas-kinetic unified algorithm for hypersonic flows covering various flow regimes solving Boltzmann model equation in nonequilibrium effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhihui; Ma, Qiang; Wu, Junlin; Jiang, Xinyu; Zhang, Hanxin

    2014-01-01

    Based on the Gas-Kinetic Unified Algorithm (GKUA) directly solving the Boltzmann model equation, the effect of rotational non-equilibrium is investigated recurring to the kinetic Rykov model with relaxation property of rotational degrees of freedom. The spin movement of diatomic molecule is described by moment of inertia, and the conservation of total angle momentum is taken as a new Boltzmann collision invariant. The molecular velocity distribution function is integrated by the weight factor on the internal energy, and the closed system of two kinetic controlling equations is obtained with inelastic and elastic collisions. The optimization selection technique of discrete velocity ordinate points and numerical quadrature rules for macroscopic flow variables with dynamic updating evolvement are developed to simulate hypersonic flows, and the gas-kinetic numerical scheme is constructed to capture the time evolution of the discretized velocity distribution functions. The gas-kinetic boundary conditions in thermodynamic non-equilibrium and numerical procedures are studied and implemented by directly acting on the velocity distribution function, and then the unified algorithm of Boltzmann model equation involving non-equilibrium effect is presented for the whole range of flow regimes. The hypersonic flows involving non-equilibrium effect are numerically simulated including the inner flows of shock wave structures in nitrogen with different Mach numbers of 1.5-Ma-25, the planar ramp flow with the whole range of Knudsen numbers of 0.0009-Kn-10 and the three-dimensional re-entering flows around tine double-cone body

  9. Modeling, Measurements, and Fundamental Database Development for Nonequilibrium Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    The design of entry vehicles requires predictions of aerothermal environment during the hypersonic phase of their flight trajectories. These predictions are made using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that often rely on physics and chemistry models of nonequilibrium processes. The primary processes of interest are gas phase chemistry, internal energy relaxation, electronic excitation, nonequilibrium emission and absorption of radiation, and gas-surface interaction leading to surface recession and catalytic recombination. NASAs Hypersonics Project is advancing the state-of-the-art in modeling of nonequilibrium phenomena by making detailed spectroscopic measurements in shock tube and arcjets, using ab-initio quantum mechanical techniques develop fundamental chemistry and spectroscopic databases, making fundamental measurements of finite-rate gas surface interactions, implementing of detailed mechanisms in the state-of-the-art CFD codes, The development of new models is based on validation with relevant experiments. We will present the latest developments and a roadmap for the technical areas mentioned above

  10. Nonequilibrium Dynamical Mean-Field Theory for Bosonic Lattice Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo U. R. Strand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We develop the nonequilibrium extension of bosonic dynamical mean-field theory and a Nambu real-time strong-coupling perturbative impurity solver. In contrast to Gutzwiller mean-field theory and strong-coupling perturbative approaches, nonequilibrium bosonic dynamical mean-field theory captures not only dynamical transitions but also damping and thermalization effects at finite temperature. We apply the formalism to quenches in the Bose-Hubbard model, starting from both the normal and the Bose-condensed phases. Depending on the parameter regime, one observes qualitatively different dynamical properties, such as rapid thermalization, trapping in metastable superfluid or normal states, as well as long-lived or strongly damped amplitude oscillations. We summarize our results in nonequilibrium “phase diagrams” that map out the different dynamical regimes.

  11. Application of a non-equilibrium drift flux model to two-phase blowdown experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, P.G.

    1976-08-01

    A vapor drift-flux model has been applied to the discharge of two-phase mixtures under choked flow conditions, including equilibrium as well as non-equilibrium vapor generation models. The system of four conservation equations is being solved, using the method of characteristics. Closed form expressions have been obtained for the propagation velocities from approximate solutions of the system's characteristic determinant. Treatment of the phase change front as a discontinuity, similar to the treatment of shocks in single phase gas dynamics, permitted very accurate solutions. Good agreement with experimental data is shown

  12. Dissipation, generalized free energy, and a self-consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamics of chemically driven open subsystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2013-06-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of a system situated in a sustained environment with influx and efflux is usually treated as a subsystem in a larger, closed "universe." A question remains with regard to what the minimally required description for the surrounding of such an open driven system is so that its nonequilibrium thermodynamics can be established solely based on the internal stochastic kinetics. We provide a solution to this problem using insights from studies of molecular motors in a chemical nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) with sustained external drive through a regenerating system or in a quasisteady state (QSS) with an excess amount of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and inorganic phosphate (Pi). We introduce the key notion of minimal work that is needed, W(min), for the external regenerating system to sustain a NESS (e.g., maintaining constant concentrations of ATP, ADP and Pi for a molecular motor). Using a Markov (master-equation) description of a motor protein, we illustrate that the NESS and QSS have identical kinetics as well as the second law in terms of the same positive entropy production rate. The heat dissipation of a NESS without mechanical output is exactly the W(min). This provides a justification for introducing an ideal external regenerating system and yields a free-energy balance equation between the net free-energy input F(in) and total dissipation F(dis) in an NESS: F(in) consists of chemical input minus mechanical output; F(dis) consists of dissipative heat, i.e. the amount of useful energy becoming heat, which also equals the NESS entropy production. Furthermore, we show that for nonstationary systems, the F(dis) and F(in) correspond to the entropy production rate and housekeeping heat in stochastic thermodynamics and identify a relative entropy H as a generalized free energy. We reach a new formulation of Markovian nonequilibrium thermodynamics based on only the internal kinetic equation without further

  13. Standing magnetic wave on Ising ferromagnet: Nonequilibrium phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halder, Ajay, E-mail: ajay.rs@presiuniv.ac.in; Acharyya, Muktish, E-mail: muktish.physics@presiuniv.ac.in

    2016-12-15

    The dynamical response of an Ising ferromagnet to a plane polarised standing magnetic field wave is modelled and studied here by Monte Carlo simulation in two dimensions. The amplitude of standing magnetic wave is modulated along the direction x. We have detected two main dynamical phases namely, pinned and oscillating spin clusters. Depending on the value of field amplitude the system is found to undergo a phase transition from oscillating spin cluster to pinned as the system is cooled down. The time averaged magnetisation over a full cycle of magnetic field oscillations is defined as the dynamic order parameter. The transition is detected by studying the temperature dependences of the variance of the dynamic order parameter, the derivative of the dynamic order parameter and the dynamic specific heat. The dependence of the transition temperature on the magnetic field amplitude and on the wavelength of the magnetic field wave is studied at a single frequency. A comprehensive phase boundary is drawn in the plane described by the temperature and field amplitude for two different wavelengths of the magnetic wave. The variation of instantaneous line magnetisation during a period of magnetic field oscillation for standing wave mode is compared to those for the propagating wave mode. Also the probability that a spin at any site, flips, is calculated. The above mentioned variations and the probability of spin flip clearly distinguish between the dynamical phases formed by propagating magnetic wave and by standing magnetic wave in an Ising ferromagnet. - Highlights: • The Ising ferromagnet. • The system is driven by standing magnetic wave. • The low temperature pinned phase is observed • The high temperature oscillating spin bands are observed • The nonequilibrium phase boundary is drawn.

  14. Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation: Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufty, James W.

    2007-01-01

    This is the Final Technical Report for DE-FG02-2ER54677 award 'Time Dependent Hartree Fock Equation - Gateway to Nonequilibrium Plasmas'. Research has focused on the nonequilibrium dynamics of electrons in the presence of ions, both via basic quantum theory and via semi-classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. In addition, fundamental notions of dissipative dynamics have been explored for models of grains and dust, and for scalar fields (temperature) in turbulent edge plasmas. The specific topics addressed were Quantum Kinetic Theory for Metallic Clusters, Semi-classical MD Simulation of Plasmas , and Effects of Dissipative Dynamics.

  15. Convection with local thermal non-equilibrium and microfluidic effects

    CERN Document Server

    Straughan, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This book is one of the first devoted to an account of theories of thermal convection which involve local thermal non-equilibrium effects, including a concentration on microfluidic effects. The text introduces convection with local thermal non-equilibrium effects in extraordinary detail, making it easy for readers newer to the subject area to understand. This book is unique in the fact that it addresses a large number of convection theories and provides many new results which are not available elsewhere. This book will be useful to researchers from engineering, fluid mechanics, and applied mathematics, particularly those interested in microfluidics and porous media.

  16. Some recent developments in non-equilibrium statistical physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for molecular motors and the asymmetric exclusion process which is a basic example of a driven lattice gas. Keywords. Thermodynamics; non-equilibrium mechanics; Brownian motion; molecular motors; Gallavotti–Cohen fluctuation theorem; Jarzynski's work relation. PACS Nos 05.70.Ln; 05.40.-a; 87.16.Nn. 1. Introduction.

  17. Conserving GW scheme for nonequilibrium quantum transport in molecular contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Rubio, Angel

    2008-01-01

    We give a detailed presentation of our recent scheme to include correlation effects in molecular transport calculations using the nonequilibrium Keldysh formalism. The scheme is general and can be used with any quasiparticle self-energy, but for practical reasons, we mainly specialize to the so-c...

  18. Spacecraft Sterilization Using Non-Equilibrium Atmospheric Pressure Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Moogega; Vaze, Nachiket; Anderson, Shawn; Fridman, Gregory; Vasilets, Victor N.; Gutsol, Alexander; Tsapin, Alexander; Fridman, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    As a solution to chemically and thermally destructive sterilization methods currently used for spacecraft, non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasmas are used to treat surfaces inoculated with Bacillus subtilis and Deinococcus radiodurans. Evidence of significant morphological changes and reduction in viability due to plasma exposure will be presented, including a 4-log reduction of B. subtilis after 2 minutes of dielectric barrier discharge treatment.

  19. Canonical structure of dynamical fluctuations in mesoscopic nonequilibrium steady states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2008), 30003/1-30003/6 ISSN 0295-5075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nonequilibrium fluctuations * steady state * Onsager- Machlup theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2008

  20. D.C.-arc plasma generator for nonequilibrium plasmachemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvaltin, J.

    1990-06-01

    The analysis is made of the conditions for generation of nonequilibrium plasma in a plasmachemical reactor, and the design is described of a d.c. arc plasma generator based on the integral criterion. Results of measuring potentials on the plasma column of this generator are presented. (author)

  1. On the theory of non-equilibrium hydrodynamic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peletminskij, S.V.; Plokhov, S.S.; Prikhod'ko, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    Using the method of abbreviated description a microscopic theory of non-equilibrium fluctuations with a great radius of correlations, which permits to study fluctuation kinetics at t>>tausub(r)(tausub(r) is relaxation time) is built. General formula, describing the degree character of approximation to the state of statistical equilibrium of mean values of arbitrary quasilocal operators, are obtained [ru

  2. Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash A. Deshpande

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State. AVINASH A. DESHPANDE. ∗ and N. KUMAR. Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080, India. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: desh@rri.res.in. MS received 25 March 2017; accepted 31 July 2017; published online 12 September ...

  3. Fluctuation theorems and orbital magnetism in nonequilibrium state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study Langevin dynamics of a driven charged particle in the presence as well as in the absence of magnetic field. We discuss the validity of various work fluctuation theorems using different model potentials and external drives. We also show that one can generate an orbital magnetic moment in a nonequilibrium state ...

  4. Simulation and comparison of equilibrium and nonequilibrium stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study, two distinctly different approaches are followed for modelling of reactive distillation column, the equilibrium stage model and the nonequilibrium stage model. These models are simulated with a computer code developed in the present study using MATLAB programming. In the equilibrium stage models, ...

  5. Optical spectroscopy of molecular junctions: Nonequilibrium Green’s functions perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yi; Galperin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We consider optical spectroscopy of molecular junctions from the quantum transport perspective when radiation field is quantized and optical response of the system is simulated as photon flux. Using exact expressions for photon and electronic fluxes derived within the nonequilibrium Green function (NEGF) methodology and utilizing fourth order diagrammatic perturbation theory (PT) in molecular coupling to radiation field, we perform simulations employing realistic parameters. Results of the simulations are compared to the bare PT which is usually employed in studies on nonlinear optical spectroscopy to classify optical processes. We show that the bare PT violates conservation laws, while flux conserving NEGF formulation mixes optical processes.

  6. Multiple scales approach to the Gas-Piston non-equilibrium themodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Chiuchiù, D.; Gubbiotti, G.

    2015-01-01

    The non-equilibrium thermodynamics of a gas inside a piston is a conceptually simple problem where analytic results are rare. For example, it is hard to find in the literature analytic formulas that describe the heat exchanged with the reservoir when the system either relaxes to equilibrium or is compressed over a finite time. In this paper we derive such kind of analytic formulas. To achieve this result, we take the equations derived by Cerino \\textit{et al.} [Phys. Rev. E \\textbf{91}, 03212...

  7. Electron-Impact Excitation Cross Sections for Modeling Non-Equilibrium Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Winifred M.; Liu, Yen; Panesi, Marco; Munafo, Alessandro; Wray, Alan; Carbon, Duane F.

    2015-01-01

    In order to provide a database for modeling hypersonic entry in a partially ionized gas under non-equilibrium, the electron-impact excitation cross sections of atoms have been calculated using perturbation theory. The energy levels covered in the calculation are retrieved from the level list in the HyperRad code. The downstream flow-field is determined by solving a set of continuity equations for each component. The individual structure of each energy level is included. These equations are then complemented by the Euler system of equations. Finally, the radiation field is modeled by solving the radiative transfer equation.

  8. Itineration of the Internet over nonequilibrium stationary states in Tsallis statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Sumiyoshi; Suzuki, Norikazu

    2003-01-01

    The cumulative probability distribution of sparseness time interval in the Internet is studied by the method of data analysis. Round-trip time between a local host and a destination host through ten odd routers is measured using the ping command, i.e., doing an echo experiment. The data are found to be well described by q-exponential distributions, which maximize the Tsallis entropy indexed by q less or larger than unity, showing a scale-invariant feature of the system. The network is observed to itinerate over a series of the nonequilibrium stationary states characterized by Tsallis statistics.

  9. Adiabatic non-equilibrium steady states in the partition free approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Duclos, Pierre; Purice, Radu

    2012-01-01

    Consider a small sample coupled to a finite number of leads and assume that the total (continuous) system is at thermal equilibrium in the remote past. We construct a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS) by adiabatically turning on an electrical bias between the leads. The main mathematical...... challenge is to show that certain adiabatic wave operators exist and to identify their strong limit when the adiabatic parameter tends to zero. Our NESS is different from, though closely related with the NESS provided by the Jakic–Pillet–Ruelle approach. Thus we partly settle a question asked by Caroli et...

  10. Reducing dephasing in coupled quantum dot-cavity systems by engineering the carrier wavefunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nysteen, Anders; Nielsen, Per Kær; Mørk, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically how photon-assisted dephasing by the electron-phonon interaction in a coupled cavity-quantum dot system can be significantly reduced for specific QD-cavity detunings. Our starting point is a recently published theory,1 which considers longitudinal acoustic phonons......, described by a non-Markovian model, interacting with a coupled quantum dot-cavity system. The reduction of phonon-induced dephasing is obtained by placing the cavity-quantum dot system inside an infinite slab, assuming spherical electronic wavefunctions. Based on our calculations, we expect this to have...

  11. Numerical Analysis on Thermal Non-Equilibrium Process of Laser-Supported Detonation Wave in Axisymmetric Nozzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Numerical Analyses on Laser-Supported Plasma (LSP) have been performed for researching the mechanism of laser absorption occurring in the laser propulsion system. Above all, Laser-Supported Detonation (LSD), categorized as one type of LSP, is considered as one of the most important phenomena because it can generate high pressure and high temperature for performing highly effective propulsion. For simulating generation and propagation of LSD wave, I have performed thermal non-equilibrium analyses by Navier-stokes equations, using a CO 2 gasdynamic laser into an inert gas, where the most important laser absorption mechanism for LSD propagation is Inverse Bremsstrahlung. As a numerical method, TVD scheme taken into account of real gas effects and thermal non-equilibrium effects by using a 2-temperature model, is applied. In this study, I analyze a LSD wave propagating through a conical nozzle, where an inner space of an actual laser propulsion system is simplified

  12. Critical dynamics a field theory approach to equilibrium and non-equilibrium scaling behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Täuber, Uwe C

    2014-01-01

    Introducing a unified framework for describing and understanding complex interacting systems common in physics, chemistry, biology, ecology, and the social sciences, this comprehensive overview of dynamic critical phenomena covers the description of systems at thermal equilibrium, quantum systems, and non-equilibrium systems. Powerful mathematical techniques for dealing with complex dynamic systems are carefully introduced, including field-theoretic tools and the perturbative dynamical renormalization group approach, rapidly building up a mathematical toolbox of relevant skills. Heuristic and qualitative arguments outlining the essential theory behind each type of system are introduced at the start of each chapter, alongside real-world numerical and experimental data, firmly linking new mathematical techniques to their practical applications. Each chapter is supported by carefully tailored problems for solution, and comprehensive suggestions for further reading, making this an excellent introduction to critic...

  13. Time-dependent non-equilibrium dielectric response in QM/continuum approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Feizhi; Lingerfelt, David B.; Li, Xiaosong, E-mail: benedetta.mennucci@unipi.it, E-mail: li@chem.washington.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Mennucci, Benedetta, E-mail: benedetta.mennucci@unipi.it, E-mail: li@chem.washington.edu [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-01-21

    The Polarizable Continuum Models (PCMs) are some of the most inexpensive yet successful methods for including the effects of solvation in quantum-mechanical calculations of molecular systems. However, when applied to the electronic excitation process, these methods are restricted to dichotomously assuming either that the solvent has completely equilibrated with the excited solute charge density (infinite-time limit), or that it retains the configuration that was in equilibrium with the solute prior to excitation (zero-time limit). This renders the traditional PCMs inappropriate for resolving time-dependent solvent effects on non-equilibrium solute electron dynamics like those implicated in the instants following photoexcitation of a solvated molecular species. To extend the existing methods to this non-equilibrium regime, we herein derive and apply a new formalism for a general time-dependent continuum embedding method designed to be propagated alongside the solute’s electronic degrees of freedom in the time domain. Given the frequency-dependent dielectric constant of the solvent, an equation of motion for the dielectric polarization is derived within the PCM framework and numerically integrated simultaneously with the time-dependent Hartree fock/density functional theory equations. Results for small molecular systems show the anticipated dipole quenching and electronic state dephasing/relaxation resulting from out-of-phase charge fluctuations in the dielectric and embedded quantum system.

  14. Non-Equilibrium Relations for Bounded Rational Decision-Making in Changing Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Grau-Moya

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms from single cells to humans need to adapt continuously to respond to changes in their environment. The process of behavioural adaptation can be thought of as improving decision-making performance according to some utility function. Here, we consider an abstract model of organisms as decision-makers with limited information-processing resources that trade off between maximization of utility and computational costs measured by a relative entropy, in a similar fashion to thermodynamic systems undergoing isothermal transformations. Such systems minimize the free energy to reach equilibrium states that balance internal energy and entropic cost. When there is a fast change in the environment, these systems evolve in a non-equilibrium fashion because they are unable to follow the path of equilibrium distributions. Here, we apply concepts from non-equilibrium thermodynamics to characterize decision-makers that adapt to changing environments under the assumption that the temporal evolution of the utility function is externally driven and does not depend on the decision-maker’s action. This allows one to quantify performance loss due to imperfect adaptation in a general manner and, additionally, to find relations for decision-making similar to Crooks’ fluctuation theorem and Jarzynski’s equality. We provide simulations of several exemplary decision and inference problems in the discrete and continuous domains to illustrate the new relations.

  15. An allosteric model of the inositol trisphosphate receptor with nonequilibrium binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chen; Jiang, Daquan; Qian, Minping

    2014-10-01

    The inositol trisphosphate receptor (IPR) is a crucial ion channel that regulates the Ca2+ influx from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytoplasm. A thorough study of the IPR channel contributes to a better understanding of calcium oscillations and waves. It has long been observed that the IPR channel is a typical biological system which performs adaptation. However, recent advances on the physical essence of adaptation show that adaptation systems with a negative feedback mechanism, such as the IPR channel, must break detailed balance and always operate out of equilibrium with energy dissipation. Almost all previous IPR models are equilibrium models assuming detailed balance and thus violate the dissipative nature of adaptation. In this article, we constructed a nonequilibrium allosteric model of single IPR channels based on the patch-clamp experimental data obtained from the IPR in the outer membranes of isolated nuclei of the Xenopus oocyte. It turns out that our model reproduces the patch-clamp experimental data reasonably well and produces both the correct steady-state and dynamic properties of the channel. Particularly, our model successfully describes the complicated bimodal [Ca2+] dependence of the mean open duration at high [IP3], a steady-state behavior which fails to be correctly described in previous IPR models. Finally, we used the patch-clamp experimental data to validate that the IPR channel indeed breaks detailed balance and thus is a nonequilibrium system which consumes energy.

  16. Application of the Maximum Entropy Principle in the Analysis of a Non-Equilibrium Chemically Reacting Mixture

    OpenAIRE

    Ugarte, Sergio; Gao, Yue; Metghalchi, Hameed

    2010-01-01

    The Maximum Entropy Principle has been used to model complex chemical reaction processes. The maximum entropy principle has been employed by the Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE) method to determine concentration of different species during non-equilibrium combustion process. In this model, it is assumed that the system evolves through constrained equilibrium states where entropy of the mixture is maximized subject to constraints. Mixture composition is determined by integrating ...

  17. The role of non-equilibrium fluxes in the relaxation processes of the linear chemical master equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana Renata; Bazzani, Armando; Giampieri, Enrico; Castellani, Gastone C

    2014-08-14

    We propose a non-equilibrium thermodynamical description in terms of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) to characterize the dynamics of a chemical cycle chain reaction among m different species. These systems can be closed or open for energy and molecules exchange with the environment, which determines how they relax to the stationary state. Closed systems reach an equilibrium state (characterized by the detailed balance condition (D.B.)), while open systems will reach a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS). The principal difference between D.B. and NESS is due to the presence of chemical fluxes. In the D.B. condition the fluxes are absent while for the NESS case, the chemical fluxes are necessary for the state maintaining. All the biological systems are characterized by their "far from equilibrium behavior," hence the NESS is a good candidate for a realistic description of the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of living organisms. In this work we consider a CME written in terms of a discrete Kolmogorov forward equation, which lead us to write explicitly the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes. For systems in NESS, we show that there is a non-conservative "external vector field" whose is linearly proportional to the chemical fluxes. We also demonstrate that the modulation of these external fields does not change their stationary distributions, which ensure us to study the same system and outline the differences in the system's behavior when it switches from the D.B. regime to NESS. We were interested to see how the non-equilibrium fluxes influence the relaxation process during the reaching of the stationary distribution. By performing analytical and numerical analysis, our central result is that the presence of the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes reduces the characteristic relaxation time with respect to the D.B. condition. Within a biochemical and biological perspective, this result can be related to the "plasticity property" of biological systems and to their

  18. The role of non-equilibrium fluxes in the relaxation processes of the linear chemical master equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciana Renata de; Bazzani, Armando; Giampieri, Enrico; Castellani, Gastone C., E-mail: Gastone.Castellani@unibo.it [Physics and Astronomy Department, Bologna University and INFN Sezione di Bologna (Italy)

    2014-08-14

    We propose a non-equilibrium thermodynamical description in terms of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) to characterize the dynamics of a chemical cycle chain reaction among m different species. These systems can be closed or open for energy and molecules exchange with the environment, which determines how they relax to the stationary state. Closed systems reach an equilibrium state (characterized by the detailed balance condition (D.B.)), while open systems will reach a non-equilibrium steady state (NESS). The principal difference between D.B. and NESS is due to the presence of chemical fluxes. In the D.B. condition the fluxes are absent while for the NESS case, the chemical fluxes are necessary for the state maintaining. All the biological systems are characterized by their “far from equilibrium behavior,” hence the NESS is a good candidate for a realistic description of the dynamical and thermodynamical properties of living organisms. In this work we consider a CME written in terms of a discrete Kolmogorov forward equation, which lead us to write explicitly the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes. For systems in NESS, we show that there is a non-conservative “external vector field” whose is linearly proportional to the chemical fluxes. We also demonstrate that the modulation of these external fields does not change their stationary distributions, which ensure us to study the same system and outline the differences in the system's behavior when it switches from the D.B. regime to NESS. We were interested to see how the non-equilibrium fluxes influence the relaxation process during the reaching of the stationary distribution. By performing analytical and numerical analysis, our central result is that the presence of the non-equilibrium chemical fluxes reduces the characteristic relaxation time with respect to the D.B. condition. Within a biochemical and biological perspective, this result can be related to the “plasticity property” of biological

  19. Kinetics and hybrid kinetic-fluid models for nonequilibrium gas and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouseilles, N.

    2004-12-01

    For a few decades, the application of the physics of plasmas has appeared in different fields like laser-matter interaction, astrophysics or thermonuclear fusion. In this thesis, we are interested in the modeling and the numerical study of nonequilibrium gas and plasmas. To describe such systems, two ways are usually used: the fluid description and the kinetic description. When we study a nonequilibrium system, fluid models are not sufficient and a kinetic description have to be used. However, solving a kinetic model requires the discretization of a large number of variables, which is quite expensive from a numerical point of view. The aim of this work is to propose a hybrid kinetic-fluid model thanks to a domain decomposition method in the velocity space. The derivation of the hybrid model is done in two different contexts: the rarefied gas context and the more complicated plasmas context. The derivation partly relies on Levermore's entropy minimization approach. The so-obtained model is then discretized and validated on various numerical test cases. In a second stage, a numerical study of a fully kinetic model is presented. A collisional plasma constituted of electrons and ions is considered through the Vlasov-Poisson-Fokker-Planck-Landau equation. Then, a numerical scheme which preserves total mass and total energy is presented. This discretization permits in particular a numerical study of the Landau damping. (author)

  20. Chaos and transformation: implications of nonequilibrium theory for social science and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loye, D; Eisler, R

    1987-01-01

    This article deals with all levels of both living (biological, psychological, sociological, and cultural) and nonliving (physical, chemical, and mathematical) systems. The idea of applying the natural scientific self-organizing, evolutionary, and non-equilibrium or "chaos" theory associated with the names of Prigogine and others to world problems of impending social, political, economic, and ecological "chaos" is gaining ground. The leap from natural science to social action, however, is impossible without considerable attention to the main intervening step: the development of "chaos"-equivalent, evolution-, systems-, and action-oriented social theory. Construction of such theory requires understanding by social scientists of natural scientific "chaos" theory as well as their own "chaos" theoretical heritage, of natural scientists of the now seemingly far distant social problem-solving potential of their nonequilibrium and self-organizing theories, and of both natural and social scientists of how advancement at both levels could help gain a peaceful as well as humanistic "order out of chaos" in this troubled world of ours. This paper surveys relevant concepts, problems, theorists, research, and works in progress within a perspective of the challenge of survival at a critical juncture in the evolution of our species.

  1. Non-equilibrium QCD of high-energy multi-gluon dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A non-equilibrium QCD description of multiparticle dynamics in space-time is of both fundamental and phenomenological interest. Here the authors discusses an attempt to derive from first principles, a real-time formalism to study the dynamical interplay of quantum and statistical-kinetic properties of non-equilibrium multi-parton systems produced in high-energy QCD processes. The ultimate goal (from which one is still far away) is to have a practically applicable description of the space-time evolution of a general initial system of gluons and quarks, characterized by some large energy or momentum scale, that expands, diffuses and dissipates according to the self- and mutual-interactions, and eventually converts dynamically into final state hadrons. For example, the evolution of parton showers in the mechanism of parton-hadron conversion in high-energy hadronic collisions, or, the description of formation, evolution and freezeout of a quark-gluon plasma, in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

  2. Entropy production in mesoscopic stochastic thermodynamics: nonequilibrium kinetic cycles driven by chemical potentials, temperatures, and mechanical forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Kjelstrup, Signe; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B; Bedeaux, Dick

    2016-04-20

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics (NET) investigates processes in systems out of global equilibrium. On a mesoscopic level, it provides a statistical dynamic description of various complex phenomena such as chemical reactions, ion transport, diffusion, thermochemical, thermomechanical and mechanochemical fluxes. In the present review, we introduce a mesoscopic stochastic formulation of NET by analyzing entropy production in several simple examples. The fundamental role of nonequilibrium steady-state cycle kinetics is emphasized. The statistical mechanics of Onsager's reciprocal relations in this context is elucidated. Chemomechanical, thermomechanical, and enzyme-catalyzed thermochemical energy transduction processes are discussed. It is argued that mesoscopic stochastic NET in phase space provides a rigorous mathematical basis of fundamental concepts needed for understanding complex processes in chemistry, physics and biology. This theory is also relevant for nanoscale technological advances.

  3. Mean-Field Critical Behavior and Ergodicity Break in a Nonequilibrium One-Dimensional Rsos Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    We investigate the nonequilibrium roughening transition of a one-dimensional restricted solid-on-solid model by directly sampling the stationary probability density of a suitable order parameter as the surface adsorption rate varies. The shapes of the probability density histograms suggest a typical Ginzburg-Landau scenario for the phase transition of the model, and estimates of the "magnetic" exponent seem to confirm its mean-field critical behavior. We also found that the flipping times between the metastable phases of the model scale exponentially with the system size, signaling the breaking of ergodicity in the thermodynamic limit. Incidentally, we discovered that a closely related model not considered before also displays a phase transition with the same critical behavior as the original model. Our results support the usefulness of off-critical histogram techniques in the investigation of nonequilibrium phase transitions. We also briefly discuss in the appendix a good and simple pseudo-random number generator used in our simulations.

  4. Entropy production in mesoscopic stochastic thermodynamics: nonequilibrium kinetic cycles driven by chemical potentials, temperatures, and mechanical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hong; Kjelstrup, Signe; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Bedeaux, Dick

    2016-04-01

    Nonequilibrium thermodynamics (NET) investigates processes in systems out of global equilibrium. On a mesoscopic level, it provides a statistical dynamic description of various complex phenomena such as chemical reactions, ion transport, diffusion, thermochemical, thermomechanical and mechanochemical fluxes. In the present review, we introduce a mesoscopic stochastic formulation of NET by analyzing entropy production in several simple examples. The fundamental role of nonequilibrium steady-state cycle kinetics is emphasized. The statistical mechanics of Onsager’s reciprocal relations in this context is elucidated. Chemomechanical, thermomechanical, and enzyme-catalyzed thermochemical energy transduction processes are discussed. It is argued that mesoscopic stochastic NET in phase space provides a rigorous mathematical basis of fundamental concepts needed for understanding complex processes in chemistry, physics and biology. This theory is also relevant for nanoscale technological advances.

  5. Extreme quantum nonequilibrium, nodes, vorticity, drift and relaxation retarding states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Nicolas G.

    2018-02-01

    Consideration is given to the behaviour of de Broglie trajectories that are separated from the bulk of the Born distribution with a view to describing the quantum relaxation properties of more ‘extreme’ forms of quantum nonequilibrium. For the 2D isotropic harmonic oscillator, through the construction of what is termed the ‘drift field’, a description is given of a general mechanism that causes the relaxation of ‘extreme’ quantum nonequilibrium. Quantum states are found which do not feature this mechanism, so that relaxation may be severely delayed or possibly may not take place at all. A method by which these states may be identified, classified and calculated is given in terms of the properties of the nodes of the state. Properties of the nodes that enable this classification are described for the first time.

  6. Non-equilibrium plasma reactor for natrual gas processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shair, F.H.; Ravimohan, A.L.

    1974-01-01

    A non-equilibrium plasma reactor for natural gas processing into ethane and ethylene comprising means of producing a non-equilibrium chemical plasma wherein selective conversion of the methane in natural gas to desired products of ethane and ethylene at a pre-determined ethane/ethylene ratio in the chemical process may be intimately controlled and optimized at a high electrical power efficiency rate by mixing with a recycling gas inert to the chemical process such as argon, helium, or hydrogen, reducing the residence time of the methane in the chemical plasma, selecting the gas pressure in the chemical plasma from a wide range of pressures, and utilizing pulsed electrical discharge producing the chemical plasma. (author)

  7. Construction of a Non-Equilibrium Thermal Boundary Layer Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biles, Drummond; Ebadi, Alireza; Ma, Allen; White, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    A thermally conductive, electrically heated wall-plate forming the bottom wall of a wind tunnel has been constructed and validation tests have been performed. The wall-plate is a sectioned wall design, where each section is independently heated and controlled. Each section consists of an aluminum 6061 plate, an array of resistive heaters affixed to the bottom of the aluminum plate, and a calcium silicate holder used for thermal isolation. Embedded thermocouples in the aluminum plates are used to monitor the wall temperature and for feedback control of wall heating. The wall-plate is used to investigate thermal transport in both equilibrium and non-equilibrium boundary layers. The non-equilibrium boundary layer flow investigated is oscillatory flow produced by a rotor-stator mechanism placed downstream of the test section of the wind tunnel.

  8. Nonequilibrium 1/f γ noise in conducting films and contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhigal'skii, Gennadii P

    2003-01-01

    Work on nonequilibrium flicker-noise (1/f γ noise or NEFN) in conducting films of various materials and in thin-film contacts is reviewed. Experimental methods for studying nonequilibrium flicker fluctuations by separating NEFN from the total noise are suggested. Published results on NEFN in metal and alloy films, Ni/Cr-film and Ta x N y -film resistors, and contacts are systematized. It is shown that various kinds of NEFN occur in conducting films. Depending on test conditions, external influences, and the film microstructure, both stationary and non-stationary NEFNs are observed. The use of 1/f γ noise measurements for nondestructively controlling the quality of thin-film conductors is substantiated. For most of the passive IC components (thin-film conductors, resistive layers, contacts), NEFN makes a much more informative quality indicator than equilibrium flicker-noise. (reviews of topical problems)

  9. 14th International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Saraniti, M; Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    2006-01-01

    International experts gather every two years at this established conference to discuss recent developments in theory and experiment in non-equilibrium transport phenomena. These developments have been the driving force behind the spectacular advances in semiconductor physics and devices over the last few decades. Originally known as "Hot Carriers in Semiconductors," the 14th conference in the series covered a wide spectrum of traditional topics dealing with non-equilibrium phenomena, ranging from quantum transport to optical phenomena in mesoscopic and nano-scale structures. Particular attention was given this time to emerging areas of this rapidly evolving field, with many sessions covering terahertz devices, high field transport in nitride semiconductors, spintronics, molecular electronics, and bioelectronics applications.

  10. Investigation of Non-Equilibrium Radiation for Earth Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandis, A. M.; Johnston, C. O.; Cruden, B. A.

    2016-01-01

    For Earth re-entry at velocities between 8 and 11.5 km/s, the accuracy of NASA's computational uid dynamic and radiative simulations of non-equilibrium shock layer radiation is assessed through comparisons with measurements. These measurements were obtained in the NASA Ames Research Center's Electric Arc Shock Tube (EAST) facility. The experiments were aimed at measuring the spatially and spectrally resolved radiance at relevant entry conditions for both an approximate Earth atmosphere (79% N2 : 21% O2 by mole) as well as a more accurate composition featuring the trace species Ar and CO2 (78.08% N2 : 20.95% O2 : 0.04% CO2 : 0.93% Ar by mole). The experiments were configured to target a wide range of conditions, of which shots from 8 to 11.5 km/s at 0.2 Torr (26.7 Pa) are examined in this paper. The non-equilibrium component was chosen to be the focus of this study as it can account for a significant percentage of the emitted radiation for Earth re-entry, and more importantly, non-equilibrium has traditionally been assigned a large uncertainty for vehicle design. The main goals of this study are to present the shock tube data in the form of a non-equilibrium metric, evaluate the level of agreement between the experiment and simulations, identify key discrepancies and to examine critical aspects of modeling non-equilibrium radiating flows. Radiance pro les integrated over discreet wavelength regions, ranging from the Vacuum Ultra Violet (VUV) through to the Near Infra-Red (NIR), were compared in order to maximize both the spectral coverage and the number of experiments that could be used in the analysis. A previously defined non-equilibrium metric has been used to allow comparisons with several shots and reveal trends in the data. Overall, LAURA/HARA is shown to under-predict EAST by as much as 40% and over-predict by as much as 12% depending on the shock speed. DPLR/NEQAIR is shown to under-predict EAST by as much as 50% and over-predict by as much as 20% depending

  11. Supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis, nonequilibrium field theory and quantum Boltzmann equations

    CERN Document Server

    Riotto, Antonio

    1998-01-01

    The closed time-path (CPT) formalism is a powerful Green's function formulation to describe nonequilibrium phenomena in field theory and it leads to a complete nonequilibrium quantum kinetic theory. In this paper we make use of the CPT formalism to write down a set of quantum Boltzmann equations describing the local number density asymmetries of the particles involved in supersymmetric electroweak baryogenesis. These diffusion equations automatically and self-consistently incorporate the CP-violating sources which fuel baryogenesis when transport properties allow the CP-violating charges to diffuse in front of the bubble wall separating the broken from the unbroken phase at the electroweak phase transition. This is a significant improvement with respect to recent approaches where the CP-violating sources are inserted by hand into the diffusion equations. Furthermore, the CP-violating sources and the particle number changing interactions manifest ``memory'' effects which are typical of the quantum transp ort t...

  12. Analysis of Atomic Electronic Excitation in Nonequilibrium Air Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xin; Jia Hong-Hui; Yin Hong-Wei; Zhang Hai-Liang; Chang Sheng-Li; Yang Jun-Cai; Dang Wei-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Electronic excitation of atoms is studied in nonequilibrium air plasmas with the electronic temperature between 8000 K and 20000 K. By using the modified Saha—Boltzmann equation, our simplified method takes into account significant radiative processes and strong self-absorption of the vacuum ultraviolet lines. Calculations are carried out at three trajectory points of the Fire II flight experiment. Good agreement with the detailed collisional-radiative model is obtained, and the performance of this method in applications to highly nonequilibrium conditions is better than Park's quasi-steady-state model and Spradian-9.0. A short discussion on the influence of optical thickness of the vacuum ultraviolet radiation is also given. It costs about 2.9 ms on the average to solve one cell of the shock layer on a low cost computer, which shows that the present method is fast and efficient. (physics of gases, plasmas, and electric discharges)

  13. The dynamics of a thermal non-equilibrium anharmonic oscillator

    OpenAIRE

    Nachbagauer, Herbert

    1995-01-01

    We propose an non-standard method to calculate non-equilibrium physical observables. Considering the generic example of an anharmonic quantum oscillator, we take advantage of the fact that the commutator algebra of second order polynomials in creation/annihilation operators closes. We solve the von~Neumann equation for the density-operator exactly in the mean field approximation and study the time evolution of the particle number and the expectation value .

  14. Molecular-Based Optical Diagnostics for Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul; Bathel, Brett; Johansen, Craig; Winter, Michael; O'Byrne, Sean; Cutler, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This presentation package consists of seven different talks rolled up into one. These talks are all invited orals presentations in a special session at the Aviation 2015 conference and represent contributions that were made to a recent AIAA book that will be published entitled 'Hypersonic Nonequilibrium Flows: Fundamentals and Recent Advances'. Slide 5 lists the individual presentations that will be given during the special session.

  15. Non-equilibrium Quasi-Chemical Nucleation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbachev, Yuriy E.

    2018-04-01

    Quasi-chemical model, which is widely used for nucleation description, is revised on the basis of recent results in studying of non-equilibrium effects in reacting gas mixtures (Kolesnichenko and Gorbachev in Appl Math Model 34:3778-3790, 2010; Shock Waves 23:635-648, 2013; Shock Waves 27:333-374, 2017). Non-equilibrium effects in chemical reactions are caused by the chemical reactions themselves and therefore these contributions should be taken into account in the corresponding expressions for reaction rates. Corrections to quasi-equilibrium reaction rates are of two types: (a) spatially homogeneous (caused by physical-chemical processes) and (b) spatially inhomogeneous (caused by gas expansion/compression processes and proportional to the velocity divergency). Both of these processes play an important role during the nucleation and are included into the proposed model. The method developed for solving the generalized Boltzmann equation for chemically reactive gases is applied for solving the set of equations of the revised quasi-chemical model. It is shown that non-equilibrium processes lead to essential deviation of the quasi-stationary distribution and therefore the nucleation rate from its traditional form.

  16. RCM: a new model accounting for the non-linear chloride binding isotherm and the non-equilibrium conditions between the free- and bound-chloride concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiesz, Przemek; Ballari, M.M.; Brouwers, Jos

    2012-01-01

    In this paper a new theoretical model for the Rapid Chloride Migration test is presented. This model accounts for the non-linear chloride binding isotherm and the non-equilibrium conditions between the free- and bound-chloride concentrations in concrete. The new system of equations is solved

  17. Spin-polarized current and shot noise in the presence of spin flip in a quantum dot via nonequilibrium Green's functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Souza, Fabricio; Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Egues, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Using nonequilibrium Green's functions we calculate the spin-polarized current and shot noise in a ferromagnet-quantum-dot-ferromagnet system. Both parallel (P) and antiparallel (AP) magnetic configurations are considered. Coulomb interaction and coherent spin flip (similar to a transverse magnet...

  18. SDE decomposition and A-type stochastic interpretation in nonequilibrium processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ruoshi; Tang, Ying; Ao, Ping

    2017-12-01

    An innovative theoretical framework for stochastic dynamics based on the decomposition of a stochastic differential equation (SDE) into a dissipative component, a detailed-balance-breaking component, and a dual-role potential landscape has been developed, which has fruitful applications in physics, engineering, chemistry, and biology. It introduces the A-type stochastic interpretation of the SDE beyond the traditional Ito or Stratonovich interpretation or even the α-type interpretation for multidimensional systems. The potential landscape serves as a Hamiltonian-like function in nonequilibrium processes without detailed balance, which extends this important concept from equilibrium statistical physics to the nonequilibrium region. A question on the uniqueness of the SDE decomposition was recently raised. Our review of both the mathematical and physical aspects shows that uniqueness is guaranteed. The demonstration leads to a better understanding of the robustness of the novel framework. In addition, we discuss related issues including the limitations of an approach to obtaining the potential function from a steady-state distribution.

  19. Thermal Diffusion in Binary Mixtures: Transient Behavior and Transport Coefficients from Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonella, Sara; Ferrario, Mauro; Ciccotti, Giovanni

    2017-10-24

    Equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are combined to compute the full set of coefficients that appear in the phenomenological equations describing thermal transport in a binary mixture subject to a constant thermal gradient. The Dynamical Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics approach (D-NEMD) is employed to obtain the microscopic time evolution of the density and temperature fields, together with that of the mass and energy fluxes. D-NEMD enables one to study not only the steady state, but also the evolution of the fields during the transient that follows the onset of the thermal gradient, up to the establishment of the steady state. This makes it possible to ensure that the system has indeed reached a stationary condition, and to analyze the transient mechanisms and time scales of the mass and energy transport. A local time averaging procedure is applied to each trajectory contributing to the calculation to improve the signal-to-noise ratio in the estimation of the fluxes and to obtain a clear signal with the, relatively limited, statistics available.

  20. Study of thermochemical nonequilibrium flow in the radiative shock layer of the simulated atmosphere of Titan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koffi-Kpante, Kossi

    1996-01-01

    Inviscid flow of the N 2 -CH 4 -Ar gas mixture in thermochemical nonequilibrium has been studied. We have specially modelled the thermal and the chemical processes, such as vibrational excitation, dissociation, ionization and radiation which can occur in the hypersonic flows. Different vibrational models are tested and the effects of kinetic-vibration coupling modeling are studied on the flow-field properties. Therefore, the intensity of spontaneous emission of CN molecule from B 2 Σ + → X 2 Σ + electronic transition of the violet band, where Δν = 0 is computed. So, comparison is made between experimental and numerical results on: 1) The spontaneous emission of CN, 2) the rotational temperature of CN B state and 3) the vibrational temperature of CN B state. Because of the profiles of the measured intensity and the disagreement between numerical results and measurements, especially on the spontaneous emission and in the thermodynamic size, the inviscid flow and the unsteady boundary layer interaction study is made. Last, the thermal and the chemical processes models described in the first part of this thesis are used to compute the inviscid nonequilibrium flow around the Huygens probe. The equations system has been solved with a finite volume method, in with the fluxes have been split with Van-Leer methods. (author) [fr

  1. Entropy production in photovoltaic-thermoelectric nanodevices from the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Fabienne; Crépieux, Adeline; Beltako, Katawoura

    2017-05-04

    We discuss some thermodynamic aspects of energy conversion in electronic nanosystems able to convert light energy into electrical or/and thermal energy using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. In a first part, we derive the photon energy and particle currents inside a nanosystem interacting with light and in contact with two electron reservoirs at different temperatures. Energy conservation is verified, and radiation laws are discussed from electron non-equilibrium Green's functions. We further use the photon currents to formulate the rate of entropy production for steady-state nanosystems, and we recast this rate in terms of efficiency for specific photovoltaic-thermoelectric nanodevices. In a second part, a quantum dot based nanojunction is closely examined using a two-level model. We show analytically that the rate of entropy production is always positive, but we find numerically that it can reach negative values when the derived particule and energy currents are empirically modified as it is usually done for modeling realistic photovoltaic systems.

  2. Describing nonequilibrium behavior in strongly correlated materials via dynamical mean-field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freericks, James

    2010-03-01

    Dynamical mean-field theory was introduced in 1989 and has become one of the most successful methods for solving models of strongly correlated electrons in equilibrium (it becomes exact in the infinite-dimensional limit). In this talk, I show how to generalize dynamical mean-field theory to nonequilibrium situations. For transient response, one discretizes the Kadanoff-Baym-Keldysh contour then solves the discrete problem directly. For steady-state response, one can formulate a theory directly in the long-time limit for the retarded Green's functions. These techniques are applied to the problem of the quenching of Bloch oscillations due to electron-electron interactions and to the problem of time-resolved pump/probe photoemission spectroscopy of strongly correlated electrons when a system is driven to a nonequilibrium steady state and cannot be described by the quasiequilibrium approximation with an effective temperature. This work was completed in collaboration with Tom Devereaux, Sasha Joura, Hulikal Krishnamurthy, Brian Moritz, Thomas Pruschke, Volodomyr Turkowski, and Velko Zlati'c. Recent references include: J. K. Freericks, V. M. Turkowski, and V. Zlati'c, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 266408 (2006); J. K. Freericks, Phys. Rev. B 77, 075109 (2008); A. V.Joura, J. K. Freericks, and Th. Pruschke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196401 (2008); J. K. Freericks, H. R. Krishnamurthy and Th. Pruschke, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 136401 (2009); and B. Moritz, T. P. Devereaux, and J. K. Freericks, arXiv:0908.1807.

  3. Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Doyon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.

  4. Time-dependent nonequilibrium soft x-ray response during a spin crossover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Veenendaal, Michel

    2018-03-01

    The rapid development of high-brilliance pulsed X-ray sources with femtosecond time resolution has created a need for a better theoretical understanding of the time-dependent soft-X-ray response of dissipative many-body quantum systems. It is demonstrated how soft-X-ray spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at transition-metal L-edges, can provide insight into intersystem crossings, such as a spin crossover. The photoinduced doublet-to-quartet spin crossover on cobalt in Fe-Co Prussian blue analogues is used as an example to demonstrate how the X-ray response is affected by the dissipative nonequilibrium dynamics. The time-dependent soft-X-ray spectra provide a wealth of information that reflect the changes in the nonequilibrium initial state via continuously changing spectral lineshapes that cannot be decomposed into initial photoexcited and final metastable spectra, strong broadenings, a collapse of clear selection rules during the intersystem crossing, strong fluctuations in the isotropic branching ratio in X-ray absorption, and crystal-field collapse/oscillations and strongly time-dependent anti-Stokes processes in RIXS.

  5. Numerical simulations of quantum many-body systems with applications to superfluid-insulator and metal-insulator transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyaz, P.

    1993-01-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo techniques were used to study two quantum many-body systems, the one-dimensional extended boson-Hubbard Hamiltonian, a model of superfluid-insulator quantum phase transitions, and the two-dimensional Holstein Model, a model for electron-phonon interactions. For the extended boson-Hubbard model, the authors studied the ground state properties at commensurate filling (density = 1) and half-integer filling (density = 1/2). At commensurate filling, the system has two possible insulating phases for strong coupling. If the on-site repulsion dominates, the system freezes into an insulating phase where each site is singly occupied. If the intersite repulsion dominates, doubly occupied and empty sites alternate. At weak coupling, the system becomes a superfluid. The authors investigated the order of phase transitions between these different phases. At half-integer filling, the authors found one strong coupling insulating phase, where singly occupied and empty sites alternate, and a weak coupling superfluid phase. The authors also investigated the possibility of a supersolid phase and found no clear evidence of such a new phase. For the electron-phonon (Holstein) model, the authors focused on the finite temperature phase transition from a metallic state to an insulating charge density wave (CDW) state as the temperature is lowered. The authors present the first calculation of the spectral density from Monte Carlo data for this system. The authors also investigated the formation of a CDW state as a function of various parameters characterizing the electron-phonon interactions. Using these numerical results as benchmarks, the authors then investigated different levels of Migdal approximations. The authors found the solutions of a set of gapped Migdal-Eliashberg equations agreed qualitatively with the Monte Carlo results

  6. Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phenomena in inhomogeneous and weakly-coupled superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaikin, A.D.

    1988-01-01

    In this chapter the authors formulate a microscopic theory of the order parameter suppression effect in a superconductor near the N-S-boundary when T c and T -- T c . The Meissner effect in a normal metal layer making contact with the superconductor is investigated. A microscopic theory of the stationary Josephson effect in various types of SNS - junctions is formulated. Nonstationary and nonequilibrium properties of SNS-junctions with direct conductivity are investigated together with the same properties of SNS - junctions containing a dielectric interlayer. A microscopic theory of the nonstationary Josephson effect in such systems is formulated. The enhancement of supercurrent of such systems in an external microwave field is investigated together with a number of some effects. An expression is derived for the spectrum of minor modes in a system of Josephson junctions in granular superconductors that is not accompanied by a deviation of the quasiparticle distribution function from equilibrium

  7. Nonequilibrium absorption in semiconductors and the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1997-01-01

    systems. Modulation above the band gap is weak in the 3D case but considerable fine structure is predicted for 1D and 2D systems. A characteristic feature of the dynamical Franz-Keldysh effect is that the absorption edge will be shifted up by an amount corresponding to the average kinetic energy......We theoretically study free electron light absorption for a sample which is placed in a strong, time-dependent uniform electric field. In the case of static fields one observes the Franz-Keldysh effect: finite absorption for photon energies below the band gap. We refer to this phenomenon...... as the Franz-Keldysh tail. Modulation of the spectra above the band gap is also found. These static effects are observed in both 3D, 2D and 1D systems. Our analysis, based on nonequilibrium Green function techniques, shows that an analogous effect takes place in time-dependent fields: the dynamical Franz...

  8. Ab initio vibrations in nonequilibrium nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Antti-Pekka; Engelund, Mads; Markussen, T

    2010-01-01

    We review recent results on electronic and thermal transport in two different quasi one-dimensional systems: Silicon nanowires (SiNW) and atomic gold chains. For SiNW's we compute the ballistic electronic and thermal transport properties on equal footing, allowing us to make quantitative predicti......We review recent results on electronic and thermal transport in two different quasi one-dimensional systems: Silicon nanowires (SiNW) and atomic gold chains. For SiNW's we compute the ballistic electronic and thermal transport properties on equal footing, allowing us to make quantitative...

  9. Non-equilibrium dynamics of Gaudin models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barmettler, P.; Fioretto, D.; Gritsev, V.

    2013-01-01

    n classical mechanics the theory of non-linear dynamics provides a detailed framework for the distinction between near-integrable and chaotic systems. Quite in opposition, in quantum many-body theory no generic microscopic principle at the origin of complex dynamics is known. Here we show that the

  10. Practical and theoretical considerations on the use of ICCD imaging for the characterization of non-equilibrium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Matteo; Puač, Nevena; Marić, Dragana; Stancampiano, Augusto; Malović, Gordana; Colombo, Vittorio; Petrović, Zoran Lj

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade the use of ICCD cameras as a means for characterizing non-equilibrium plasmas has been steadily increasing. Due to their high sensitivity and high speed gateability, ICCD cameras enable time-resolved studies of the anatomy and, when adopted in conjunction with filters, monochromators, spectrometers or laser systems, time-resolved investigation of physical and chemical properties of non-equilibrium plasma discharges. This paper is meant as an introduction to ICCD technology and its use as a plasma diagnostic technique, discussing the experimental problems typically associated with its use and providing the readers with practical examples and suggestions on how to address them. In particular, the issues of ICCD camera synchronization with the voltage pulse driving the plasma discharge and of investigating small volume discharges are addressed, focusing mainly on the case of non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jets. Finally, a possible way to achieve absolute calibration of plasma discharge emission is presented and discussed. A wide range of data, mostly unpublished, is provided here to illustrate the points.

  11. Generalization of the second law for a transition between nonequilibrium states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, K. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Hasegawa, H.-H., E-mail: hhh@mx.ibaraki.ac.j [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito 310-8512 (Japan); Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Driebe, D.J. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Worldwide, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33309 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The maximum work formulation of the second law of thermodynamics is generalized for a transition between nonequilibrium states. The relative entropy, the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the nonequilibrium states and the canonical distribution, determines the maximum ability to work. The difference between the final and the initial relative entropies with an effective temperature gives the maximum dissipative work for both adiabatic and isothermal processes. Our formulation reduces to both the Vaikuntanathan-Jarzynski relation and the nonequilibrium Clausius relation in certain situations. By applying our formulation to a heat engine the Carnot cycle is generalized to a circulation among nonequilibrium states.

  12. Nonequilibrium Brownian Motion beyond the Effective Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoli, Andrea; Puglisi, Andrea; Sarracino, Alessandro; Vulpiani, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    The condition of thermal equilibrium simplifies the theoretical treatment of fluctuations as found in the celebrated Einstein’s relation between mobility and diffusivity for Brownian motion. Several recent theories relax the hypothesis of thermal equilibrium resulting in at least two main scenarios. With well separated timescales, as in aging glassy systems, equilibrium Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem applies at each scale with its own “effective” temperature. With mixed timescales, as for example in active or granular fluids or in turbulence, temperature is no more well-defined, the dynamical nature of fluctuations fully emerges and a Generalized Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem (GFDT) applies. Here, we study experimentally the mixed timescale regime by studying fluctuations and linear response in the Brownian motion of a rotating intruder immersed in a vibro-fluidized granular medium. Increasing the packing fraction, the system is moved from a dilute single-timescale regime toward a denser multiple-timescale stage. Einstein’s relation holds in the former and is violated in the latter. The violation cannot be explained in terms of effective temperatures, while the GFDT is able to impute it to the emergence of a strong coupling between the intruder and the surrounding fluid. Direct experimental measurements confirm the development of spatial correlations in the system when the density is increased. PMID:24714671

  13. Nonequilibrium Brownian motion beyond the effective temperature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gnoli

    Full Text Available The condition of thermal equilibrium simplifies the theoretical treatment of fluctuations as found in the celebrated Einstein's relation between mobility and diffusivity for Brownian motion. Several recent theories relax the hypothesis of thermal equilibrium resulting in at least two main scenarios. With well separated timescales, as in aging glassy systems, equilibrium Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem applies at each scale with its own "effective" temperature. With mixed timescales, as for example in active or granular fluids or in turbulence, temperature is no more well-defined, the dynamical nature of fluctuations fully emerges and a Generalized Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem (GFDT applies. Here, we study experimentally the mixed timescale regime by studying fluctuations and linear response in the Brownian motion of a rotating intruder immersed in a vibro-fluidized granular medium. Increasing the packing fraction, the system is moved from a dilute single-timescale regime toward a denser multiple-timescale stage. Einstein's relation holds in the former and is violated in the latter. The violation cannot be explained in terms of effective temperatures, while the GFDT is able to impute it to the emergence of a strong coupling between the intruder and the surrounding fluid. Direct experimental measurements confirm the development of spatial correlations in the system when the density is increased.

  14. Diffusion Monte Carlo study on temporal evolution of entropy and free energy in nonequilibrium processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Shigenori

    2016-03-07

    A computational scheme to describe the temporal evolution of thermodynamic functions in stochastic nonequilibrium processes of isothermal classical systems is proposed on the basis of overdamped Langevin equation under given potential and temperature. In this scheme the associated Fokker-Planck-Smoluchowski equation for the probability density function is transformed into the imaginary-time Schrödinger equation with an effective Hamiltonian. The propagator for the time-dependent wave function is expressed in the framework of the path integral formalism, which can thus represent the dynamical behaviors of nonequilibrium molecular systems such as those conformational changes observed in protein folding and ligand docking. The present study then employs the diffusion Monte Carlo method to efficiently simulate the relaxation dynamics of wave function in terms of random walker distribution, which in the long-time limit reduces to the ground-state eigenfunction corresponding to the equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. Utilizing this classical-quantum correspondence, we can describe the relaxation processes of thermodynamic functions as an approach to the equilibrium state with the lowest free energy. Performing illustrative calculations for some prototypical model potentials, the temporal evolutions of enthalpy, entropy, and free energy of the classical systems are explicitly demonstrated. When the walkers initially start from a localized configuration in one- or two-dimensional harmonic or double well potential, the increase of entropy usually dominates the relaxation dynamics toward the equilibrium state. However, when they start from a broadened initial distribution or go into a steep valley of potential, the dynamics are driven by the decrease of enthalpy, thus causing the decrease of entropy associated with the spatial localization. In the cases of one- and two-dimensional asymmetric double well potentials with two minimal points and an energy barrier between them

  15. Simulations of NMR pulse sequences during equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemical exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helgstrand, Magnus; Haerd, Torleif; Allard, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The McConnell equations combine the differential equations for a simple two-state chemical exchange process with the Bloch differential equations for a classical description of the behavior of nuclear spins in a magnetic field. This equation system provides a useful starting point for the analysis of slow, intermediate and fast chemical exchange studied using a variety of NMR experiments. The McConnell equations are in the mathematical form of an inhomogeneous system of first-order differential equations. Here we rewrite the McConnell equations in a homogeneous form in order to facilitate fast and simple numerical calculation of the solution to the equation system. The McConnell equations can only treat equilibrium chemical exchange. We therefore also present a homogeneous equation system that can handle both equilibrium and non-equilibrium chemical processes correctly, as long as the kinetics is of first-order. Finally, the same method of rewriting the inhomogeneous form of the McConnell equations into a homogeneous form is applied to a quantum mechanical treatment of a spin system in chemical exchange. In order to illustrate the homogeneous McConnell equations, we have simulated pulse sequences useful for measuring exchange rates in slow, intermediate and fast chemical exchange processes. A stopped-flow NMR experiment was simulated using the equations for non-equilibrium chemical exchange. The quantum mechanical treatment was tested by the simulation of a sensitivity enhanced 15 N-HSQC with pulsed field gradients during slow chemical exchange and by the simulation of the transfer efficiency of a two-dimensional heteronuclear cross-polarization based experiment as a function of both chemical shift difference and exchange rate constants

  16. Thermal non-equilibrium in heterogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    de Lemos, Marcelo J S

    2016-01-01

    This book presents, in a self-contained fashion, a series of studies on flow and heat transfer in porous media, in which distinct energy balances are considered for the porous matrix and for the permeating fluid. Detailed mathematical modeling is presented considering both volume and time averaging operators simultaneously applied to the governing equations. System involving combustion in the gaseous phase, moving bed and double-diffusion mechanism are analyzed. Numerical results are presented for each case. In the end, this book contains the description of a tool that might benefit engineers in developing and designing more efficient thermal equipment.

  17. Multiple dynamic transitions in nonequilibrium work fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Jae Dong; Kwon, Chulan; Park, Hyunggyu

    2013-09-27

    The time-dependent work probability distribution function P(W) is investigated analytically for a diffusing particle trapped by an anisotropic harmonic potential and driven by a nonconservative drift force in two dimensions. We find that the exponential tail shape of P(W) characterizing rare-event probabilities undergoes a sequence of dynamic transitions in time. These remarkable locking-unlocking type transitions result from an intricate interplay between a rotational mode induced by the nonconservative force and an anisotropic decaying mode due to the conservative attractive force. We expect that most of the high-dimensional dynamical systems should exhibit similar multiple dynamic transitions.

  18. Models of fluidized granular materials: examples of non-equilibrium stationary states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puglisi, Andrea [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique Batiment 210, Universite de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Cecconi, Fabio [INFM Center for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale A Moro 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Vulpiani, Angelo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita ' La Sapienza' , INFM Center for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity (SMC), INFN Sezione di Roma-1 ' La Sapienza' , Piazzale A Moro 2, I-00185, Rome (Italy)

    2005-06-22

    We review some models of granular materials fluidized by means of external forces, such as random homogeneous forcing with damping, vibrating plates, flow in an inclined channel and flow in a double well potential. All these systems show the presence of density correlations and non-Gaussian velocity distributions. These models are useful in understanding the role of a kinetically defined 'temperature' (in this case the so-called granular temperature) in a non-equilibrium stationary state. In the homogeneously randomly driven gas the granular temperature is different from that of the driving bath. Moreover, two different granular materials mixed together may stay in a stationary state with different temperatures. At the same time, the granular temperature determines (as in equilibrium systems) the escape time in a double well potential.

  19. NON-EQUILIBRIUM MOLECULAR DYNAMICS USED TO OBTAIN SORET COEFFICIENTS OF BINARY HYDROCARBON MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Furtado

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe Boundary Driven Non-Equilibrium Molecular Dynamics (BD-NEMD method is employed to evaluate Soret coefficients of binary mixtures. Using a n-decane/n-pentane mixture at 298 K, we study several parameters and conditions of the simulation procedure such as system size, time step size, frequency of perturbation, and the undesired warming up of the system during the simulation. The Soret coefficients obtained here deviated around 20% when comparing with experimental data and with simulated results from the literature. We showed that fluctuations in composition gradients and the consequent deviations of the Soret coefficient may be due to characteristic fluctuations of the composition gradient. Best results were obtained with the smallest time steps and without using a thermostat, which shows that there is room for improvement and/or development of new BD-NEMD algorithms.

  20. Entropy production and thermodynamics of nonequilibrium stationary states: a point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2004-09-01

    Entropy might be a not well defined concept if the system can undergo transformations involving stationary nonequilibria. It might be analogous to the heat content (once called "caloric") in transformations that are not isochoric (i.e., which involve mechanical work): it could be just a quantity that can be transferred or created, like heat in equilibrium. The text first reviews the philosophy behind a recently proposed definition of entropy production in nonequilibrium stationary systems. A detailed technical attempt at defining the entropy of a stationary states via their variational properties follows: the unsatisfactory aspects of the results add arguments in favor of the nonexistence of a function of state to be identified with entropy; at the same time new aspects and properties of the phase space contraction emerge. Copyright 2004 American Institute of Physics

  1. Nonequilibrium Thermodynamics of Hydrate Growth on a Gas-Liquid Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiaojing; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis; Juanes, Ruben

    2018-04-01

    We develop a continuum-scale phase-field model to study gas-liquid-hydrate systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. We design a Gibbs free energy functional for methane-water mixtures that recovers the isobaric temperature-composition phase diagram under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions. The proposed free energy is incorporated into a phase-field model to study the dynamics of hydrate formation on a gas-liquid interface. We elucidate the role of initial aqueous concentration in determining the direction of hydrate growth at the interface, in agreement with experimental observations. Our model also reveals two stages of hydrate growth at an interface—controlled by a crossover in how methane is supplied from the gas and liquid phases—which could explain the persistence of gas conduits in hydrate-bearing sediments and other nonequilibrium phenomena commonly observed in natural methane hydrate systems.

  2. The non-equilibrium Green's function method for nanoscale device simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Pourfath, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    For modeling the transport of carriers in nanoscale devices, a Green-function formalism is the most accurate approach. Due to the complexity of the formalism, one should have a deep understanding of the underlying principles and use smart approximations and numerical methods for solving the kinetic equations at a reasonable computational time. In this book the required concepts from quantum and statistical mechanics and numerical methods for calculating Green functions are presented. The Green function is studied in detail for systems both under equilibrium and under nonequilibrium conditions. Because the formalism enables rigorous modeling of different scattering mechanisms in terms of self-energies, but an exact evaluation of self-energies for realistic systems is not possible, their approximation and inclusion in the quantum kinetic equations of the Green functions are elaborated. All the elements of the kinetic equations, which are the device Hamiltonian, contact self-energies, and scattering self-energie...

  3. Single-Molecule Electronics with Cross- Conjugated Molecules: Quantum Interference, IETS and Non-Equilibrium "Temperatures"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jacob Lykkebo

    Abstract The idea of using single-molecules as components in electronic devices is fas- cinating. For this idea to come into fruition, a number of technical and theo- retical challenges must be overcome. In this PhD thesis, the electron-phonon interaction is studied for a special class of molecules......, which is characterised by destructive quantum interference. The molecules are cross-conjugated, which means that the two parts of the molecules are conjugated to a third part, but not to each other. This gives rise to an anti-resonance in the trans- mission. In the low bias and low temperature regime......-conjugated molecules. We nd that the vibrational modes that would be expected to dominate, following the propensity, rules are very weak. Instead, other modes are found to be the dominant ones. We study this phenomenon for a number of cross-conjugated molecules, and link these ndings to the anti...

  4. Equilibrium & Nonequilibrium Fluctuation Effects in Biopolymer Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachan, Devin Michael

    Fluctuation-induced interactions are an important organizing principle in a variety of soft matter systems. In this dissertation, I explore the role of both thermal and active fluctuations within cross-linked polymer networks. The systems I study are in large part inspired by the amazing physics found within the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. I first predict and verify the existence of a thermal Casimir force between cross-linkers bound to a semi-flexible polymer. The calculation is complicated by the appearance of second order derivatives in the bending Hamiltonian for such polymers, which requires a careful evaluation of the the path integral formulation of the partition function in order to arrive at the physically correct continuum limit and properly address ultraviolet divergences. I find that cross linkers interact along a filament with an attractive logarithmic potential proportional to thermal energy. The proportionality constant depends on whether and how the cross linkers constrain the relative angle between the two filaments to which they are bound. The interaction has important implications for the synthesis of biopolymer bundles within cells. I model the cross-linkers as existing in two phases: bound to the bundle and free in solution. When the cross-linkers are bound, they behave as a one-dimensional gas of particles interacting with the Casimir force, while the free phase is a simple ideal gas. Demanding equilibrium between the two phases, I find a discontinuous transition between a sparsely and a densely bound bundle. This discontinuous condensation transition induced by the long-ranged nature of the Casimir interaction allows for a similarly abrupt structural transition in semiflexible filament networks between a low cross linker density isotropic phase and a higher cross link density bundle network. This work is supported by the results of finite element Brownian dynamics simulations of semiflexible filaments and transient cross-linkers. I

  5. The non-equilibrium nature of culinary evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinouchi, Osame; Diez-Garcia, Rosa W.; Holanda, Adriano J.; Zambianchi, Pedro; Roque, Antonio C.

    2008-07-01

    Food is an essential part of civilization, with a scope that ranges from the biological to the economic and cultural levels. Here, we study the statistics of ingredients and recipes taken from Brazilian, British, French and Medieval cookery books. We find universal distributions with scale invariant behaviour. We propose a copy-mutate process to model culinary evolution that fits our empirical data very well. We find a cultural 'founder effect' produced by the non-equilibrium dynamics of the model. Both the invariant and idiosyncratic aspects of culture are accounted for by our model, which may have applications in other kinds of evolutionary processes.

  6. Effects of vacancies on overshooting in nonequilibrium ordering processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilhøj, Henriette; Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of annealed site dilution on the nonequilibrium ordering process in the two-dimensional Ising model with a nonconserved order parameter have been studied using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the transient development of a local order that is larger than the equilibrium order...... (overshooting), as recently reported in the pure Ising model [H. Gilhoj, C. Jeppesen, and O. G; Mouritsen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 3305 (1995)], persists in the dilute model and is accompanied by a depletion of the vacancies within the ordered domains....

  7. Non-exponential dynamic relaxation in strongly nonequilibrium nonideal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, I V; Norman, G E

    2003-01-01

    Relaxation of kinetic energy to the equilibrium state is simulated by the molecular dynamics method for nonideal two-component non-degenerate plasmas. Three limiting examples of initial states of strongly nonequilibrium plasma are considered: zero electron velocities, zero ion velocities and zero velocities of both electrons and ions. The initial non-exponential stage, its duration τ nB and subsequent exponential stages of the relaxation process are studied for a wide range of the nonideality parameter and the ion mass

  8. A nonequilibrium renormalization group approach to turbulent reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanella, Juan; Calzetta, Esteban

    2007-01-01

    We use nonequilibrium renormalization group (RG) techniques to analyse the thermalization process in quantum field theory, and, by extension, reheating after inflation. Even if at a high scale Λ the theory is described by a non-dissipative λψ 4 theory, and the RG running induces nontrivial noise and dissipation. For long wavelength and slowly varying field configurations, the noise and dissipation are white and ohmic, respectively. The theory will then tend to thermalize to an effective temperature given by the fluctuation-dissipation theorem

  9. External non-white noise and nonequilibrium phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancho, J.M.; San Miguel, M.

    1980-01-01

    Langevin equations with external non-white noise are considered. A Fokker Planck equation valid in general in first order of the correlation time tau of the noise is derived. In some cases its validity can be extended to any value of tau. The effect of a finite tau in the nonequilibrium phase transitions induced by the noise is analyzed, by means of such Fokker Planck equation, in general, for the Verhulst equation under two different kind of fluctuations, and for a genetic model. It is shown that new transitions can appear and that the threshold value of the parameter can be changed. (orig.)

  10. Shape characteristics of equilibrium and non-equilibrium fractal clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Marc L; Douglas, Jack F

    2013-07-28

    It is often difficult in practice to discriminate between equilibrium and non-equilibrium nanoparticle or colloidal-particle clusters that form through aggregation in gas or solution phases. Scattering studies often permit the determination of an apparent fractal dimension, but both equilibrium and non-equilibrium clusters in three dimensions frequently have fractal dimensions near 2, so that it is often not possible to discriminate on the basis of this geometrical property. A survey of the anisotropy of a wide variety of polymeric structures (linear and ring random and self-avoiding random walks, percolation clusters, lattice animals, diffusion-limited aggregates, and Eden clusters) based on the principal components of both the radius of gyration and electric polarizability tensor indicates, perhaps counter-intuitively, that self-similar equilibrium clusters tend to be intrinsically anisotropic at all sizes, while non-equilibrium processes such as diffusion-limited aggregation or Eden growth tend to be isotropic in the large-mass limit, providing a potential means of discriminating these clusters experimentally if anisotropy could be determined along with the fractal dimension. Equilibrium polymer structures, such as flexible polymer chains, are normally self-similar due to the existence of only a single relevant length scale, and are thus anisotropic at all length scales, while non-equilibrium polymer structures that grow irreversibly in time eventually become isotropic if there is no difference in the average growth rates in different directions. There is apparently no proof of these general trends and little theoretical insight into what controls the universal anisotropy in equilibrium polymer structures of various kinds. This is an obvious topic of theoretical investigation, as well as a matter of practical interest. To address this general problem, we consider two experimentally accessible ratios, one between the hydrodynamic and gyration radii, the other

  11. Nonequilibrium formulation of abelian gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, Thorsten

    2013-09-01

    This work is about a formulation of abelian gauge theories out-of-equilibrium. In contrast to thermal equilibrium, systems out-of-equilibrium are not constant in time, and the interesting questions in such systems refer to time evolution problems. After a short introduction to quantum electrodynamics (QED), the two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action is introduced as an essential technique for the study of quantum field theories out-of-equilibrium. The equations of motion (EOMs) for the propagators of the theory are then derived from it. It follows a discussion of the physical degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the theory, in particular with respect to the photons, since in covariant formulations of gauge theories unphysical DOFs are necessarily contained. After that the EOMs for the photon propagator are examined more closely. It turns out that they are structurally complicated, and a reformulation of the equations is presented which for the untruncated theory leads to an essential structural simplification of the EOMs. After providing the initial conditions which are necessary in order to solve the EOMs, the free photon EOMs are solved with the help of the reformulated equations. It turns out that the solutions diverge in time, i.e. they are secular. This is a manifestation of the fact that gauge theories contain unphysical DOFs. It is reasoned that these secularities exist only in the free case and are therefore ''artificial''. It is however emphasized that they may not be a problem in principle, but certainly are in practice, in particular for the numerical solution of the EOMs. Further, the origin of the secularities, for which there exists an illustrative explanation, is discussed in more detail. Another characteristic feature of 2PI formulations of gauge theories is the fact that quantities calculated from approximations of the 2PI effective action, which are gauge invariant in the exact theory as well as in an approximated theory at

  12. Linking Equilibrium and Nonequilibrium Dynamics in Glass-Forming Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mauro, John C.; Guo, Xiaoju; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup

    silicate glasses and computed viscosities for selenium over a wide range of conditions. Since the temperature and composition dependence of liquid viscosity can be predicted using temperature-dependent constraint theory, our work also opens the possibility to improve understanding of the physics...

  13. On nonequilibrium many-body systems V: ultrafast transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freire, V.N.; Vasconcellos, A.R.; Luzzi, R.

    1989-01-01

    The monequilibrium statistical operator method and its accompanying nonlinear quantum transport theory, are used to perform an analytical study of the ultrafast mobility transient of central-valley photoinjected carriers in direct-gap polar semiconductors. Expressions for the time-resolved mobility of the hot carriers are derived. A brief discussion of the carriers' diffusion coefficient is done. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  14. Non-equilibrium chemistry of the early solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinn, Ronald G.

    1994-01-01

    This final report contains a list of publications supported in whole or part by NAG9-108 in the time period 1 May 1985 to 30 April 1994. Also contained is a list of invited papers with abstracts supported in whole or part by this grant in the same time period. A copy of the 1993 paper by Ronald G. Prinn, 'Protostars and Planets III', is attached since it had not previously been sent to NASA.

  15. Preface: Special issue featuring papers from the International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, L.; Bordone, P.; Brunetti, R.

    2004-02-01

    The International Conference on Nonequilibrium Carrier Dynamics in Semiconductors (HCIS-13) celebrates 30 years since it first took place in Modena. Nonequilibrium dynamics of charge carriers, pioneered by the hot-electron concept, is an important issue for understanding electro-optic transport properties in semiconductor materials and structures. In these 30 years several topics have matured, and new ones have emerged thus fertilizing the field with a variety of physical problems and new ideas. The history of the conference is summarized in the opening paper `30 years of HCIS'. The future of the conference seems secure considering the continued lively interest of the participants. The conference addressed eleven major topics which constitute the backbone of the proceedings and are summarized as follows: carrier transport in low dimensional and nanostructure systems, nonequilibrium carriers in superlattices and devices, small devices and related phenomena, carrier dynamics and fluctuations, carrier quantum dynamics, coherent/incoherent carrier dynamics of optical excitations and ultra-fast optical phenomena, nonlinear optical effects, transport in organic matter, semiconductor-based spintronics, coherent dynamics in solid state systems for quantum processing and communication, novel materials and devices. Nanometric space scale and femtosecond time scale represent the ultimate domains of theoretical, experimental and practical interest. Traditional fields such as bulk properties, quantum transport, fluctuations and chaotic phenomena, etc, have received thorough and continuous attention. Emerging fields from previous conferences, such as quantum processing and communication, have been better assessed. New fields, such as spintronics and electron transport in organic matter, have appeared for the first time. One plenary talk, 11 invited talks, 230 submitted abstracts covering all these topics constituted a single-session conference. Following scientific selection

  16. A new algorithm for extended nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of mixed flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunt, T.A.; Hunt, Thomas A.; Bernardi, Stefano; Todd, B.D.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we develop a new algorithm for nonequilibrium molecular dynamics of fluids under planar mixed flow, a linear combination of planar elongational flow and planar Couette flow. To date, the only way of simulating mixed flow using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics techniques was to impose

  17. Non-equilibrium Green function method: theory and application in simulation of nanometer electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Van-Nam

    2014-01-01

    We review fundamental aspects of the non-equilibrium Green function method in the simulation of nanometer electronic devices. The method is implemented into our recently developed computer package OPEDEVS to investigate transport properties of electrons in nano-scale devices and low-dimensional materials. Concretely, we present the definition of the four real-time Green functions, the retarded, advanced, lesser and greater functions. Basic relations among these functions and their equations of motion are also presented in detail as the basis for the performance of analytical and numerical calculations. In particular, we review in detail two recursive algorithms, which are implemented in OPEDEVS to solve the Green functions defined in finite-size opened systems and in the surface layer of semi-infinite homogeneous ones. Operation of the package is then illustrated through the simulation of the transport characteristics of a typical semiconductor device structure, the resonant tunneling diodes. (review)

  18. The influence of exothermic reactions on the nonequilibrium level of discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyak, V.Ya.; Iukhymenko, V.V.; Prysiazhnevych, I.V.; Martysh, Eu.V.

    2013-01-01

    The comparative analysis of plasma parameters of transverse arc and discharge in the gas channel with liquid wall was made for different working gas and liquids (for air, distilled water and for its mixtures with ethanol). Electronic excitation temperatures Te of atoms, vibrational Tv and rotational Tr temperatures of molecules in the generated plasma were determined by optical emission spectroscopy. It was shown that both discharges generate nonequilibrium plasma in the case of working gas air and working liquid-distilled water. Adding a fuel (ethanol) into the plasma system with O 2 leads to the increasing of rotational and vibrational temperatures of molecules, which became equal to each other within the errors. This may indicate that the exothermic reactions reduce the level of nonthermality of the generated plasma as a result of additional energy supply for heavy components in the process of complete combustion of hydrocarbons.

  19. Nonequilibrium current-carrying steady states in the anisotropic X Y spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jarrett L.

    2016-05-01

    Out-of-equilibrium behavior is explored in the one-dimensional anisotropic X Y model. Initially preparing the system in the isotropic X X model with a linearly varying magnetic field to create a domain-wall magnetization profile, dynamics is generated by rapidly changing the exchange interaction anisotropy and external magnetic field. Relaxation to a nonequilibrium steady state is studied analytically at the critical transverse Ising point, where correlation functions may be computed in closed form. For arbitrary values of anisotropy and external field, an effective generalized Gibbs' ensemble is shown to accurately describe observables in the long-time limit. Additionally, we find spatial oscillations in the exponentially decaying, transverse spin-spin correlation functions with wavelength set by the magnetization jump across the initial domain wall. This wavelength depends only weakly on anisotropy and magnetic field in contrast to the current, which is highly dependent on these parameters.

  20. Entropy analysis on non-equilibrium two-phase flow models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karwat, H.; Ruan, Y.Q. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    A method of entropy analysis according to the second law of thermodynamics is proposed for the assessment of a class of practical non-equilibrium two-phase flow models. Entropy conditions are derived directly from a local instantaneous formulation for an arbitrary control volume of a structural two-phase fluid, which are finally expressed in terms of the averaged thermodynamic independent variables and their time derivatives as well as the boundary conditions for the volume. On the basis of a widely used thermal-hydraulic system code it is demonstrated with practical examples that entropy production rates in control volumes can be numerically quantified by using the data from the output data files. Entropy analysis using the proposed method is useful in identifying some potential problems in two-phase flow models and predictions as well as in studying the effects of some free parameters in closure relationships.