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Sample records for nonclassical annonaceous acetogenins

  1. Divergence en Route to Nonclassical Annonaceous Acetogenins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Daniel; Norrby, Per-Ola; Rein, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    Syntheses of the nonclassical annonaceous acetogenins, pyranicin, and pyragonicin from common latestage intermediates are presented. The construction of key elements relies on asymmetric HWE reactions, including the desymmetrization of a meso-dialdehyde and a parallel kinetic resolution of a race...

  2. Six cytotoxic annonaceous acetogenins from Annona squamosa seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Jian-Wei; Wang, Yu; Xu, Sha-Sha; Li, Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) is an edible tropical fruit, and its seeds had been used in south China as a folk medicine to treat "malignant sore" (cancer) and as an insecticide. Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol fraction of custard apple seeds led to the isolation of six new annonaceous acetogenins: annosquacins A-D (1-4), annosquatin A (5) and annosquatin B (6). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-4 are adjacent bistetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins. Compounds 5 and 6 are non-adjacent bistetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins and the first examples in which the tetrahydrofuran ring system is located between C-9 and C-20. The absolute configurations of 1-6 were defined by the application of the Mosher method. Compounds 1-6 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in vitro against five human tumour cell lines. Compounds 5 and 6 showed a high selectivity toward the MCF-7 and A-549 cell line respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 induces cancer cell death via apoptosis inducing factor through a caspase-3-independent mechanism

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Bing; Wang, Tong-Dan; Shen, Shao-Ming; Yu, Yun; Mao, Chan; Yao, Zhu-Jun; Wang, Li-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Background Annonaceous acetogenins are a family of natural products with antitumor activities. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 reportedly inhibits mammalian mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) and induces gastric cancer cell death. However, the mechanisms underlying its cell-death-inducing activity are unclear. Methods We used SW620 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells to study AA005 cytotoxic activity. Cell deaths were determined by Trypan blue assay and flow cytometry, and rel...

  4. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 induces cancer cell death via apoptosis inducing factor through a caspase-3-independent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Wang, Tong-Dan; Shen, Shao-Ming; Yu, Yun; Mao, Chan; Yao, Zhu-Jun; Wang, Li-Shun

    2015-03-18

    Annonaceous acetogenins are a family of natural products with antitumor activities. Annonaceous acetogenin mimic AA005 reportedly inhibits mammalian mitochondrial NADH-ubiquinone reductase (Complex I) and induces gastric cancer cell death. However, the mechanisms underlying its cell-death-inducing activity are unclear. We used SW620 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells to study AA005 cytotoxic activity. Cell deaths were determined by Trypan blue assay and flow cytometry, and related proteins were characterized by western blot. Immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation were used to evaluate AIF nuclear translocation. Reactive oxygen species were assessed by using redox-sensitive dye DCFDA. AA005 induces a unique type of cell death in colorectal adenocarcinoma cells, characterized by lack of caspase-3 activation or apoptotic body formation, sensitivity to poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor Olaparib (AZD2281) but not pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD.fmk, and dependence on apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). AA005 treatment also reduced expression of mitochondrial Complex I components, and leads to accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the early stage. Blocking ROS formation significantly suppresses AA005-induced cell death in SW620 cells. Moreover, blocking activation of RIP-1 by necroptosis inhibitor necrotatin-1 inhibits AIF translocation and partially suppresses AA005-induced cell death in SW620 cells demonstrating that RIP-1 protein may be essential for cell death. AA005 may trigger the cell death via mediated by AIF through caspase-3 independent pathway. Our work provided new mechanisms for AA005-induced cancer cell death and novel clues for cancer treatment via AIF dependent cell death.

  5. Synthesis of dansyl-labeled probe of thiophene analogue of annonaceous acetogenins for visualization of cell distribution and growth inhibitory activity toward human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Naoto; Suga, Yuki; Matsumoto, Takuya; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Akatsuka, Akinobu; Yamori, Takao; Dan, Shingo; Iwasaki, Hiroki; Yamashita, Masayuki

    2015-03-15

    The convergent synthesis of the dansyl-labeled probe of the thiophene-3-carboxamide analogue of annonaceous acetogenins, which shows potent antitumor activity, was accomplished by two asymmetric alkynylations of the 2,5-diformyl THF equivalent with an alkyne having a thiophene moiety and another alkyne tagged with a dansyl group. The growth inhibitory profiles toward 39 human cancer cell lines revealed that the probe retained the biological function of its mother compound, and would be useful for studying cellular activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alkaloids and acetogenins in Annonaceae development: biological considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Rosa González-Esquinca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical studies of the plant family Annonaceae have intensified in the last several decades due to the discovery of annonaceous molecules with medicinal potential (e.g., benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and acetogenins. Approximately 500 alkaloids have been identified in 138 Annonaceae species in 43 genera. In addition, until 2004, 593 annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs had been identified, from 51 species in 13 genera.This suggests that plants from this family allocate important resources to the biosynthesis of these compounds. Despite the diversity of these molecules, their biological roles, including their physiological and/or ecological functions, are not well understood. In this study, it was provided new data describing the variety and distribution of certain alkaloids and ACGs in annonaceous plants in distinct stages of development. The potential relationships among some of these compounds and the seasonally climatic changes occurring in the plant habitat are also discussed. These data will improve our understanding of the secondary metabolism of these pharmacologically important molecules and their expression patterns during development, which will help to determine the optimal growth conditions and harvest times for their production.

  7. Annona muricata (Annonaceae: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  8. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Nikzad, Sonia; Mohan, Gokula; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-07-10

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  9. Structural Characterisation of Acetogenins from Annona muricata by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboureur, Laurent; Bonneau, Natacha; Champy, Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David

    2017-11-01

    Acetogenins are plant polyketides known to be cytotoxic and proposed as antitumor candidates. They are also suspected to be alimentary neurotoxins. Their occurrence as complex mixtures renders their dereplication and structural identification difficult using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and efforts are required to improve the methodology. To develop a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method, involving lithium post-column cationisation, for the structural characterisation of Annonaceous acetogenins in crude extracts. The seeds of Annona muricata L. were extracted with methanol. Supercritical fluid chromatography of the extract, using a 2-ethylpyridine stationary phase column, was monitored using a high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Lithium iodide was added post-column in the make-up solvent. For comparison, the same extract was analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to the same mass spectrometer, with a column based on solid core particles. Sensitivity was similar for both HPLC and SFC approaches. Retention behaviour and fragmentation pathways of three different isomer groups are described. A previously unknown group of acetogenins was also evidenced for the first time. The use of SFC-MS/MS allows the reduction of the time of analysis, of environmental impact and an increase in the chromatographic resolution, compared to liquid chromatography. This new methodology enlightened a new group of acetogenins, isomers of montanacin-D. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Circumvention of tumor multidrug resistance by a new annonaceous acetogenin: atemoyacin-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L W; Pan, Q C; Liang, Y J; Huang, H B

    1999-05-01

    To explore the effect of atemoyacin-B (Ate) on overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR). Bullatacin (Bul) was used as a positive control. Cytotoxic effects of Bul and Ate were studied with cell culture of human MDR breast adenocarcinoma cells, MCF-7/Dox and human KBv200 cells, and their parental sensitive cell lines MCF-7 and KB. Cytotoxicity was determined by tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was examined by Fura 2-AM assay. Cellular accumulation of doxorubicin (Dox) was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. IC50 of Ate for MCF-7/Dox, MCF-7, KBv200, and KB cells were 122, 120, 1.34, and 1.27 nmol.L-1, respectively. IC50 of Bul for MCF-7/Dox, MCF-7, KBv200, and KB cells were 0.60, 0.59, 0.04, and 0.04 nmol.L-1, respectively. The cytotoxicities of Bul and Ate to MDR cells were similar to those to parental sensitive cells. Bul and Ate markedly increased cellular Fura-2 and Dox accumulation in MCF-7/Dox cells, but not in MCF-7 cells. The rates of apoptosis in MDR cells were similar to those in sensitive cells induced by Ate. There was no cross-resistance of P-gp positive MCF-7/Dox and KBv200 cell lines to Bul and Ate as compared with their sensitive P-gp negative MCF-7 and KB cell lines. The mechanism of the circumvention of MDR was associated with the decrease of P-gp function and the increase of cellular drug accumulation in MDR cells.

  11. Quantification of nonclassicality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mraz, Melanie; Sperling, Jan; Vogel, Werner; Hage, Boris [Universitaet Rostock, Institut fuer Physik, Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the discussion on physics beyond the classical regime started. This was the hour of birth of quantum physics and, with Einstein's description of the photoelectric effect, of quantum optics. Even the physicists had problems to understand nonclassical quantum phenomena, because of its non-intuitive properties. So, why further struggling? Nonclassical states have an advantage over classical states for various applications. Only one example is the quantum teleportation which would be unthinkable without nonclassical states. Hence, it is of a fundamental interest to study properties of nonclassical quantum states. It is already possible to say if a state is nonclassical or not, but how can we decide how much nonclassicality is in our system? We propose a degree of nonclassicality being a nonclassicality measure. It is determined by the decomposition of a quantum state into superpositions of coherent states. On the one hand, coherent states resembles the behavior of a classical harmonic oscillator most closely. On the other hand, the more quantum superpositions of coherent states are needed, the more quantum interferences arise. A method for such a decomposition of quantum states is presented and the degree of nonclassicality is determined for different states. We apply our method to typical nonclassical states, such as the compass state and the squeezed vacuum state.

  12. Quantum measure of nonclassical light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Sik

    2003-01-01

    The nonclassical light and its properties are reviewed in the phase space representation. The quantitative measure of nonclassicality for a single-mode case is introduced and its physical significance is discussed in terms of the environmental effects on nonclassicality. The quantitative measure of nonclassical property is defined and used to classify the different nonclassical properties. The nonclassical measure is also extended to the multi-mode case. One of the distinctive features of multi-mode nonclassical light is entanglement, which is not possessed by a single-mode light, and the multi-mode nonclassical measure may reflect the contents of entanglement. The multi-mode nonclassical measure is calculated for the superposition through a beam spitter and compared with the single-mode nonclassical measure.

  13. Inhibitory Activity of Avocado Seed Fatty Acid Derivatives (Acetogenins) Against Listeria Monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas-Salazar, Carmen; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Dariana Graciela; Castillo, Elena Cristina; Navarro-Silva, Jesús Manuel; Pacheco, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    High standards regarding Listeria monocytogenes control and consumer demands for food products without synthetic additives represent a challenge to food industry. We determined the antilisterial properties of an enriched acetogenin extract (EAE) from avocado seed, compared it to two commercial antimicrobials (one enriched in avocado acetogenins), and tested purified molecules. Acetogenin composition in pulp and seed of Hass avocado was quantified. EAE were obtained by two sequential centrifuge partition chromatography separations and molecules purified by preparative chromatography and quantified by HPLC-MS-TOF and HPLC-PDA. Avocado seed extracts which are the following two: 1) EAE and 2) the commercially available antimicrobial Avosafe®, presented similar inhibition zones and chemical profiles. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts and two isolated acetogenins varied between 7.8 and 15.6 mg/L, were effective at 37 and 4 °C, and showed a bactericidal effect probably caused by increased membrane permeability and lytic effects, evidenced by flow cytometry at 10 and 100× MIC. Activity was comparable to Mirenat®. Most potent acetogenins were Persenone C (5) and A (6), and AcO-avocadenyne (1), the latter exclusively present in seed. Common features of bioactive molecules were the acetyl moiety and multiple unsaturations (2 to 3) in the aliphatic chain, some persenones also featured a trans-enone group. Seeds contained 1.6 times higher levels of acetogenins than pulp (5048.1 ± 575.5 and 3107.0 ± 207.2 mg/kg fresh weight, respectively), and total content in pulp was 199 to 398 times higher than MIC values. Therefore, acetogenin levels potentially consumed by humans are higher than inhibitory concentrations. Results document properties of avocado seed acetogenins as natural antilisterial food additives. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Tomography of nonclassical states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    2003-01-01

    A review of the symplectic tomography method is presented. Superpositions of different types of photon states are considered within the framework of the tomography approach. Such nonclassical photon states as even and odd coherent states, crystallized Schrodinger cat states, and other superposition

  15. Avocado fruit maturation and ripening: dynamics of aliphatic acetogenins and lipidomic profiles from mesocarp, idioblasts and seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Carlos Eduardo; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; Treviño, Víctor; Díaz de la Garza, Rocío I

    2017-09-29

    Avocado fruit contains aliphatic acetogenins (oft-acetylated, odd-chain fatty alcohols) with promising bioactivities for both medical and food industries. However, we have scarce knowledge about their metabolism. The present work aimed to study changes in acetogenin profiles from mesocarp, lipid-containing idioblasts, and seeds from 'Hass' cultivar during fruit development, germination, and three harvesting years. An untargeted LC-MS based lipidomic analysis was also conducted to profile the lipidome of avocado fruit in each tissue. The targeted analysis showed that acetogenin profiles and contents remained unchanged in avocado mesocarp during maturation and postharvest ripening, germination, and different harvesting years. However, a shift in the acetogenin profile distribution, accompanied with a sharp increase in concentration, was observed in seed during early maturation. Untargeted lipidomics showed that this shift was accompanied with remodeling of glycerolipids: TAGs and DAGs decreased during fruit growing in seed. Remarkably, the majority of the lipidome in mature seed was composed by acetogenins; we suggest that this tissue is able to synthesize them independently from mesocarp. On the other hand, lipid-containing idioblasts accumulated almost the entire acetogenin pool measured in the whole mesocarp, while only having 4% of the total fatty acids. The lipidome of this cell type changed the most when the fruit was ripening after harvesting, TAGs decreased while odd-chain DAGs increased. Notably, idioblast lipidome was more diverse than that from mesocarp. Evidence shown here suggests that idioblasts are the main site of acetogenin biosynthesis in avocado mesocarp. This work unveiled the prevalence of aliphatic acetogenins in the avocado fruit lipidome and evidenced TAGs as initial donors of the acetogenin backbones in its biosynthesis. It also sets evidence for acetogenins being included in future works aimed at characterizing the avocado seed, as they are

  16. Activity-guided identification of acetogenins as novel lipophilic antioxidants present in avocado pulp (Persea americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Dariana; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rojo, Rocío P; García, Noemí; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; García-Rivas, Gerardo; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen

    2013-12-30

    Avocado fruit is a rich source of health-related lipophilic phytochemicals such as monounsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenes, acetogenins and sterols. However, limited information is available on the contribution of specific phytochemicals to the overall antioxidant capacity (AOC) of the fruit. Centrifugal partition chromatography was used as fractionation tool, guided by an in vitro chemical assay of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Subsequent experiments focused on isolation and characterization of the chemical nature of the main contributors to lipophilic AOC of avocado pulp. ORAC values obtained for acetogenins were contrasted with results from an isolated kidney mitochondria membrane lipid peroxidation bioassay. The present study established that lipophilic AOC of the pulp was significantly higher than its hydrophilic AOC. Our results confirmed the presence of acetogenins in the fractions with highest lipophilic AOC, and for the first time linked them as contributors to lipophilic-ORAC values. Further HPLC-PDA/MS-TOF analysis led to structural elucidation of two novel acetogenins, not previously reported as present in avocado pulp, along with five already known related-compounds. Antioxidant properties observed for avocado pulp acetogenins by the ORAC assay suggested that, in the presence of an emulsifying agent, acetogenins could serve as novel lipophilic antioxidants in a food matrix. Results from isolated mitochondria lipid peroxidation bioassay, indicated that L-ORAC values which may have relevance for food matrix applications, should not be interpreted to have a direct relevance in health-related claims, compounds need to be evaluated considering the complexity of biological systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Feldman Witchel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH due to P450c21 (21-hydroxylase deficiency is a common autosomal recessive disorder. This disorder is due to mutations in the CYP21A2 gene which is located at chromosome 6p21. The clinical features predominantly reflect androgen excess rather than adrenal insufficiency leading to an ascertainment bias favoring diagnosis in females. Treatment goals include normal linear growth velocity and “on-time” puberty in affected children. For adolescent and adult women, treatment goals include regularization of menses, prevention of progression of hirsutism, and fertility. This paper will review key aspects regarding pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of NCAH.

  18. Sesquiterpene and Acetogenin Derivatives from the Marine Red Alga Laurencia okamurai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Gui Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to 13 known compounds, four new bisabolane sesquiterpenes, okamurenes A–D (1–4, a new chamigrane derivative, okamurene E (5, and a new C12-acetogenin, okamuragenin (6, were isolated from the marine red alga Laurencia okamurai. The structures of these compounds were determined through detailed spectroscopic analyses. Of these, okamurenes A and B (1 and 2 are the first examples of bromobisabolane sesquiterpenes possessing a phenyl moiety among Laurencia-derived sesquiterpenes, while okamuragenin (6 was the first acetogenin aldehyde possessing a C12-carbon skeleton. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for the brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethal assay and 7-hydroxylaurene displayed potent lethality with LD50 1.8 μM.

  19. Preface: Nonclassical Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.

    2008-01-01

    Transport phenomena in highly heterogeneous media can be dramatically different from those in homogeneous media and therefore are of great fundamental and practical interest. Anomalous transport occurs in semiconductor physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, biology, and other areas. It plays an especially important role in hydrogeology because it may govern the rate of migration and degree of dispersion of groundwater contaminants from hazardous waste sites. The series of four articles in this special section of Vadose Zone Journal is devoted to transport phenomena in heterogeneous media in the context of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. It contains the results of joint investigations performed at the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The work was supported by the U.S. DOE (under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231). The problems addressed in this research involve a broad range of space and time scales and were approached using modern methods of theoretical and computational physics, such as scaling analysis and diagrammatic techniques used before in critical phenomena theory. Special attention is paid to the asymptotics of concentration behavior (concentration tails). This issue is exceptionally important for the reliability assessments of radioactive waste disposal because, depending on the structure of the tails, concentrations at large distances from the source can differ by many orders of magnitude. In the first paper of this special section, Bolshov et al. (2008b) present an overview of field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior in geologic media. It is recognized that natural fracture networks as a rule have fractal geometry and can be classified as percolation systems. This is one of the main factors giving rise to anomalous transport in geologic media. Another important factor is the presence of contaminant traps provided by

  20. Nonlinearity and nonclassicality in a nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teklu, Berihu [Clermont Universite, Blaise Pascal University, CNRS, PHOTON-N2, Institut Pascal, Aubiere Cedex (France); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); Ferraro, Alessandro; Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    We address quantitatively the relationship between the nonlinearity of a mechanical resonator and the nonclassicality of its ground state. In particular, we analyze the nonclassical properties of the nonlinear Duffing oscillator (being driven or not) as a paradigmatic example of a nonlinear nanomechanical resonator. We first discuss how to quantify the nonlinearity of this system and then show that the nonclassicality of the ground state, as measured by the volume occupied by the negative part of the Wigner function, monotonically increases with the nonlinearity in all the working regimes addressed in our study. Our results show quantitatively that nonlinearity is a resource to create nonclassical states in mechanical systems. (orig.)

  1. Unification of nonclassicality measures in interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao; Zhou, Hongyi; Gu, Mile; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2018-01-01

    From an operational perspective, nonclassicality characterizes the exotic behavior in a physical process which cannot be explained with Newtonian physics. There are several widely used measures of nonclassicality, including coherence, discord, and entanglement, each proven to be essential resources in particular situations. There exists evidence of fundamental connections among the three measures. However, the sources of nonclassicality are still regarded differently and such connections are yet to be elucidated. Here, we introduce a general framework of defining a unified nonclassicality with an operational motivation founded on the capability of interferometry. Nonclassicality appears differently as coherence, discord, and entanglement in different scenarios with local measurement, weak basis-independent measurement, and strong basis-independent measurement, respectively. Our results elaborate how these three measures are related and how they can be transformed from each other. Experimental schemes are proposed to test the results.

  2. Nonclassical correlations in superconducting circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliore, Rosanna [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo (Italy); CNR-INFM, UdR CNISM di Palermo, Palermo (Italy); Scala, Matteo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo (Italy); Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Guccione, Marina; Sanchez-Soto, Luis L. [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo (Italy); Messina, Antonino [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-05-15

    A key step on the road map to solid-state quantum information processing (and to a deeper understanding of many counterintuitive aspects of quantum mechanics) is the generation and manipulation of nonclassical correlations between different quantum systems. Within this framework, we analyze the possibility of generating maximally entangled states in a system of two superconducting flux qubits, as well as the effectof their own environments on the entanglement dynamics. The analysis reported here confirms that the phenomena of sudden birth and sudden death of the entanglement do not depend on the particular measure of the entanglement adopted (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Isolaurenidificin and Bromlaurenidificin, Two New C15-Acetogenins from the Red Alga Laurencia obtusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed O. Bawakid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic fractionation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of the Red Sea red alga Laurencia obtusa gave two new hexahydrofuro[3,2-b]furan-based C15-acetogenins, namely, isolaurenidificin (1 and bromlaurenidificin (2. The chemical structures were elucidated based on extensive analyses of their spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 showed no toxicity (LC50 > 12 mM using Artemia salina as test organism. Both compounds showed weak cytotoxicity against A549, HepG-2, HCT116, MCF-7, and PC-3 cells, however, they exhibited a relatively potent cytotoxic activity against peripheral blood neutrophils. This can be attributed partly to induction of apoptosis.

  4. Halogenated Terpenes and a C15-Acetogenin from the Marine Red Alga Laurencia saitoi

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    Xiao-Ming Li

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Seven parguerane diterpenes: 15-bromo-2,7,19-triacetoxyparguer-9(11-en-16-ol (1, 15-bromo-2,7,16,19-tetraacetoxyparguer-9(11-ene (2, 15-bromo-2,19-diacetoxyparguer-9(11-en-7,16-diol (3, 15-bromo-2,16,19-triacetoxyparguer-9(11-en-7-ol (4, 15-bromo-2,16-diacetoxyparguer-9(11-en-7-ol (5, 15-bromoparguer-9(11-en-16-ol (6, 15-bromoparguer-7-en-16-ol (7, two polyether triterpenes: thyrsiferol (8 and thyrsiferyl 23-acetate (9, and one C15-acetogenin, neolaurallene (10, were isolated from a sample of marine red alga Laurencia saitoi collected off the coast of Yantai. Their structures were established by detailed NMR spectroscopic analysis and comparison with literature data.

  5. Exponential attractors for a nonclassical diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaozhen Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of exponential attractors for a nonclassical diffusion equation in ${H^{2}(Omega}cap{H}^{1}_{0}(Omega$ when the space dimension is less than 4.

  6. Fisher information, nonclassicality and quantum revivals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romera, Elvira [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Santos, Francisco de los, E-mail: dlsantos@onsager.ugr.es [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Física de la Materia, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2013-11-08

    Wave packet revivals and fractional revivals are studied by means of a measure of nonclassicality based on the Fisher information. In particular, we show that the spreading and the regeneration of initially Gaussian wave packets in a quantum bouncer and in the infinite square-well correspond, respectively, to high and low nonclassicality values. This result is in accordance with the physical expectations that at a quantum revival wave packets almost recover their initial shape and the classical motion revives temporarily afterward.

  7. Fisher information, nonclassicality and quantum revivals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romera, Elvira; Santos, Francisco de los

    2013-01-01

    Wave packet revivals and fractional revivals are studied by means of a measure of nonclassicality based on the Fisher information. In particular, we show that the spreading and the regeneration of initially Gaussian wave packets in a quantum bouncer and in the infinite square-well correspond, respectively, to high and low nonclassicality values. This result is in accordance with the physical expectations that at a quantum revival wave packets almost recover their initial shape and the classical motion revives temporarily afterward.

  8. Converting multilevel nonclassicality into genuine multipartite entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regula, Bartosz; Piani, Marco; Cianciaruso, Marco; Bromley, Thomas R.; Streltsov, Alexander; Adesso, Gerardo

    2018-03-01

    Characterizing genuine quantum resources and determining operational rules for their manipulation are crucial steps to appraise possibilities and limitations of quantum technologies. Two such key resources are nonclassicality, manifested as quantum superposition between reference states of a single system, and entanglement, capturing quantum correlations among two or more subsystems. Here we present a general formalism for the conversion of nonclassicality into multipartite entanglement, showing that a faithful reversible transformation between the two resources is always possible within a precise resource-theoretic framework. Specializing to quantum coherence between the levels of a quantum system as an instance of nonclassicality, we introduce explicit protocols for such a mapping. We further show that the conversion relates multilevel coherence and multipartite entanglement not only qualitatively, but also quantitatively, restricting the amount of entanglement achievable in the process and in particular yielding an equality between the two resources when quantified by fidelity-based geometric measures.

  9. Nonclassical Orthogonal Polynomials and Corresponding Quadratures

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, H; Alt, E O; Matveenko, A V

    2004-01-01

    We construct nonclassical orthogonal polynomials and calculate abscissas and weights of Gaussian quadrature for arbitrary weight and interval. The program is written by Mathematica and it works if moment integrals are given analytically. The result is a FORTRAN subroutine ready to utilize the quadrature.

  10. Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.

  11. Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.

  12. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.

    2000-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilisation abilities are also discussed. (author)

  13. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilization abilities are also discussed. (author)

  14. Angular-momentum nonclassicality by breaking classical bounds on statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Rivas, Angel [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We derive simple practical procedures revealing the quantum behavior of angular momentum variables by the violation of classical upper bounds on the statistics. Data analysis is minimum and definite conclusions are obtained without evaluation of moments, or any other more sophisticated procedures. These nonclassical tests are very general and independent of other typical quantum signatures of nonclassical behavior such as sub-Poissonian statistics, squeezing, or oscillatory statistics, being insensitive to the nonclassical behavior displayed by other variables.

  15. Treatment of Nonclassic 11-Hydroxylase Deficiency with Ashwagandha Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Powell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An elderly woman presented with acne and male pattern alopecia, which upon diagnostic evaluation was found to be due to nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency. We previously reported that Ashwagandha root ameliorates nonclassic 3-β-ol dehydrogenase and aldosterone synthase deficiencies. This is the first report of its use being associated with amelioration of nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency, where its apparent effects appear to be dose-related.

  16. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambrosio, Steven M. [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, Chunhua [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A. [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ding, Haiming, E-mail: ding.29@osu.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). {yields} Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). {yields} Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. {yields} The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. {yields} Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not

  17. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, Steven M.; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A.; Ding, Haiming

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). → Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). → Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. → The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. → Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not compound 1, prevented EGF

  18. Nonclassical effects in plasmonics: an energy perspective to quantify nonclassical effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-01-01

    of the nonclassical effects at different microscopic levels by contrasting the numerical results from the semiclassical hydrodynamic Drude model (HDM) and the microscopic random-phase approximation (RPA). The formal relation between the HDM and the RPA is also established for metals by exploring the limit...

  19. Non-classical continuum mechanics a dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2017-01-01

    This dictionary offers clear and reliable explanations of over 100 keywords covering the entire field of non-classical continuum mechanics and generalized mechanics, including the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamic and electromagnetic continua, as well as applied mathematics. Every entry includes the historical background and the underlying theory, basic equations and typical applications. The reference list for each entry provides a link to the original articles and the most important in-depth theoretical works. Last but not least, every entry is followed by a cross-reference to other related subject entries in the dictionary.

  20. Nonclassical nucleation pathways in protein crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fajun

    2017-11-08

    Classical nucleation theory (CNT), which was established about 90 years ago, has been very successful in many research fields, and continues to be the most commonly used theory in describing the nucleation process. For a fluid-to-solid phase transition, CNT states that the solute molecules in a supersaturated solution reversibly form small clusters. Once the cluster size reaches a critical value, it becomes thermodynamically stable and favored for further growth. One of the most important assumptions of CNT is that the nucleation process is described by one reaction coordinate and all order parameters proceed simultaneously. Recent studies in experiments, computer simulations and theory have revealed nonclassical features in the early stage of nucleation. In particular, the decoupling of order parameters involved during a fluid-to-solid transition leads to the so-called two-step nucleation mechanism, in which a metastable intermediate phase (MIP) exists between the initial supersaturated solution and the final crystals. Depending on the exact free energy landscapes, the MIPs can be a high density liquid phase, mesoscopic clusters, or a pre-ordered state. In this review, we focus on the studies of nonclassical pathways in protein crystallization and discuss the applications of the various scenarios of two-step nucleation theory. In particular, we focus on protein solutions in the presence of multivalent salts, which serve as a model protein system to study the nucleation pathways. We wish to point out the unique features of proteins as model systems for further studies.

  1. Classical and nonclassical randomness in quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farenick, Douglas; Plosker, Sarah; Smith, Jerrod

    2011-01-01

    The space POVM H (X) of positive operator-valued probability measures on the Borel sets of a compact (or even locally compact) Hausdorff space X with values in B(H), the algebra of linear operators acting on a d-dimensional Hilbert space H, is studied from the perspectives of classical and nonclassical convexity through a transform Γ that associates any positive operator-valued measure ν with a certain completely positive linear map Γ(ν) of the homogeneous C*-algebra C(X) x B(H) into B(H). This association is achieved by using an operator-valued integral in which nonclassical random variables (that is, operator-valued functions) are integrated with respect to positive operator-valued measures and which has the feature that the integral of a random quantum effect is itself a quantum effect. A left inverse Ω for Γ yields an integral representation, along the lines of the classical Riesz representation theorem for linear functionals on C(X), of certain (but not all) unital completely positive linear maps φ:C(X) x B(H)→B(H). The extremal and C*-extremal points of POVM H (X) are determined.

  2. Nonclassical nucleation pathways in protein crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fajun

    2017-11-01

    Classical nucleation theory (CNT), which was established about 90 years ago, has been very successful in many research fields, and continues to be the most commonly used theory in describing the nucleation process. For a fluid-to-solid phase transition, CNT states that the solute molecules in a supersaturated solution reversibly form small clusters. Once the cluster size reaches a critical value, it becomes thermodynamically stable and favored for further growth. One of the most important assumptions of CNT is that the nucleation process is described by one reaction coordinate and all order parameters proceed simultaneously. Recent studies in experiments, computer simulations and theory have revealed nonclassical features in the early stage of nucleation. In particular, the decoupling of order parameters involved during a fluid-to-solid transition leads to the so-called two-step nucleation mechanism, in which a metastable intermediate phase (MIP) exists between the initial supersaturated solution and the final crystals. Depending on the exact free energy landscapes, the MIPs can be a high density liquid phase, mesoscopic clusters, or a pre-ordered state. In this review, we focus on the studies of nonclassical pathways in protein crystallization and discuss the applications of the various scenarios of two-step nucleation theory. In particular, we focus on protein solutions in the presence of multivalent salts, which serve as a model protein system to study the nucleation pathways. We wish to point out the unique features of proteins as model systems for further studies.

  3. Nonclassical lightstates in optical communication schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattle, K. U.

    1997-11-01

    The present thesis is a result in theoretical and experimental work on quant information and quant communication. The first part describes a new high intense source for polarization entangled photon pairs. The high quality of the source is clearly demonstrated by violating a Bell-inequality in less than 5 minutes with 100 standard deviations. This new source is a genius tool for new experiments in the field of fundamental physics as well as applied physics. The next chapter shows an experimental implementation of an optical dense quantum coding scheme. The combination of Bell-state generation and analysis of this entangled states leads to a new nonclassical communication scheme, where the channel capacity is enhanced. A single two state photon can be used for coding and decoding 1.58 bit instead of 1 bit for classical two state systems. The following chapter discusses two photon interference effects for two independent light sources. In an experiment two independent fluorescence pulses show this kind of interference effects. The fifth chapter describes 3-photon interference effects. This nonclassical interference effect is the elementary process for the quantum teleportation scheme. In this scheme an unknown particle state is transmitted from A to B without sending the particle itself. (author)

  4. Nonclassical light sources for silicon photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoni, Daniele; Galli, Matteo

    2017-09-01

    Quantum photonics has recently attracted a lot of attention for its disruptive potential in emerging technologies like quantum cryptography, quantum communication and quantum computing. Driven by the impressive development in nanofabrication technologies and nanoscale engineering, silicon photonics has rapidly become the platform of choice for on-chip integration of high performing photonic devices, now extending their functionalities towards quantum-based applications. Focusing on quantum Information Technology (qIT) as a key application area, we review recent progress in integrated silicon-based sources of nonclassical states of light. We assess the state of the art in this growing field and highlight the challenges that need to be overcome to make quantum photonics a reliable and widespread technology.

  5. [Taxonomic theory for non-classical systematics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2012-01-01

    Outlined briefly are basic principles of construing general taxonomic theory for biological systematics considered in the context of non-classical scientific paradigm. The necessity of such kind of theory is substantiated, and some key points of its elaboration are exposed: its interpretation as a framework concept for the partial taxonomic theories in various schools of systematics; elaboration of idea of cognitive situation including three interrelated components, namely subject, object, and epistemic ones; its construing as a content-wisely interpreted quasi-axiomatics, with strong structuring of its conceptual space including demarcation between axioms and inferring rules; its construing as a "conceptual pyramid" of concepts of various levels of generality; inclusion of a basic model into definition of the taxonomic system (classification) regulating its content. Two problems are indicated as fundamental: definition of taxonomic diversity as a subject domain for the systematics as a whole; definition of onto-epistemological status of taxonomic system (classification) in general and of taxa in particular.

  6. Incomplete Detection of Nonclassical Phase-Space Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, M.; Tiedau, J.; Bartley, T.; Sperling, J.; Silberhorn, C.; Vogel, W.

    2018-02-01

    We implement the direct sampling of negative phase-space functions via unbalanced homodyne measurement using click-counting detectors. The negativities significantly certify nonclassical light in the high-loss regime using a small number of detectors which cannot resolve individual photons. We apply our method to heralded single-photon states and experimentally demonstrate the most significant certification of nonclassicality for only two detection bins. By contrast, the frequently applied Wigner function fails to directly indicate such quantum characteristics for the quantum efficiencies present in our setup without applying additional reconstruction algorithms. Therefore, we realize a robust and reliable approach to characterize nonclassical light in phase space under realistic conditions.

  7. Classical and nonclassical symmetries analysis for initial value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Chen Yufu

    2010-01-01

    Classical and nonclassical symmetries are considered to reduce evolution equations with initial conditions in two independent variables. First of all, we rearrange the classical infinitesimal operators such that they leave the initial value problems invariant. Secondly, we give a sufficient condition for the nonclassical symmetry reductions of initial value problems. The generalized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with dispersive effects is considered to examine the algorithms.

  8. Nonclassical pseudospectral method for the solution of brachistochrone problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipanah, A.; Razzaghi, M.; Dehghan, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, nonclassical pseudospectral method is proposed for solving the classic brachistochrone problem. The brachistochrone problem is first formulated as a nonlinear optimal control problem. Properties of nonclassical pseudospectral method are presented, these properties are then utilized to reduce the computation of brachistochrone problem to the solution of algebraic equations. Using this method, the solution to the brachistochrone problem is compared with those in the literature

  9. Nonclassical Symmetries for Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations via Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sabbagh, Mostafa F.; Ahmad, Ali T.

    2011-01-01

    The determining equations for the nonclassical symmetry reductions of nonlinear partial differential equations with arbitrary order can be obtained by requiring the compatibility between the original equations and the invariant surface conditions. The (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave equation, Boussinesq equation, and the dispersive wave equations in shallow water serve as examples illustrating how compatibility leads quickly and easily to the determining equations for their nonclassical symmetries. (general)

  10. On the origin of nonclassicality in single systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinda, S; Srikanth, R; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of certain general probability theories of single systems, we identify various nonclassical features such as incompatibility, multiple pure-state decomposability, measurement disturbance, no-cloning and the impossibility of certain universal operations, with the non-simpliciality of the state space. This is shown to naturally suggest an underlying simplex as an ontological model. Contextuality turns out to be an independent nonclassical feature, arising from the intransitivity of compatibility. (paper)

  11. A classical view on nonclassical nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Paul J M; Finney, Aaron R; Habraken, Wouter J E M; Nudelman, Fabio; Friedrich, Heiner; Laven, Jozua; De Yoreo, James J; Rodger, P Mark; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M

    2017-09-19

    Understanding and controlling nucleation is important for many crystallization applications. Calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) is often used as a model system to investigate nucleation mechanisms. Despite its great importance in geology, biology, and many industrial applications, CaCO 3 nucleation is still a topic of intense discussion, with new pathways for its growth from ions in solution proposed in recent years. These new pathways include the so-called nonclassical nucleation mechanism via the assembly of thermodynamically stable prenucleation clusters, as well as the formation of a dense liquid precursor phase via liquid-liquid phase separation. Here, we present results from a combined experimental and computational investigation on the precipitation of CaCO 3 in dilute aqueous solutions. We propose that a dense liquid phase (containing 4-7 H 2 O per CaCO 3 unit) forms in supersaturated solutions through the association of ions and ion pairs without significant participation of larger ion clusters. This liquid acts as the precursor for the formation of solid CaCO 3 in the form of vaterite, which grows via a net transfer of ions from solution according to z Ca 2+ + z CO 3 2- → z CaCO 3 The results show that all steps in this process can be explained according to classical concepts of crystal nucleation and growth, and that long-standing physical concepts of nucleation can describe multistep, multiphase growth mechanisms.

  12. Nonclassical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Cuhaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH deficiency due to mutation of the CYP21A2 gene. Patients with nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH are usually asymptomatic at birth and typically present in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood with symptoms of excessive androgen secretion. Subfertility is relative in NC-CAH, but the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is higher. Here, we report a previously undiagnosed female who gave birth to a normal male child and is planning to become pregnant again. Case Report. A 32-year-old female was referred to our clinic for obesity. Her medical history revealed that she had had three pregnancies. She was planning to become pregnant again. Her laboratory results revealed that she had NC-CAH. Since her husband is the son of her aunt and she had miscarriages and intrauterin exitus in her history, their genetic analyses were performed. Conclusion. Since most patients with NC-CAH have a severe mutation, these patients may give birth to a child with the classical CAH (C-CAH if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Females with NC-CAH who desire pregnancy must be aware of the risk of having an infant with C-CAH.

  13. Nonclassical properties of a contradirectional nonlinear optical coupler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thapliyal, Kishore [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); Pathak, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.pathak@gmail.com [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, A-10, Sector-62, Noida, UP-201307 (India); RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacky University and Institute of Physics of Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Sen, Biswajit [Department of Physics, Vidyasagar Teachers' Training College, Midnapore 721101 (India); Perřina, Jan [RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacky University and Institute of Physics of Academy of Science of the Czech Republic, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-24

    We investigate the nonclassical properties of output fields propagated through a contradirectional asymmetric nonlinear optical coupler consisting of a linear waveguide and a nonlinear (quadratic) waveguide operated by second harmonic generation. In contrast to the earlier results, all the initial fields are considered weak and a completely quantum-mechanical model is used here to describe the system. Perturbative solutions of Heisenberg's equations of motion for various field modes are obtained using Sen–Mandal technique. Obtained solutions are subsequently used to show the existence of single-mode and intermodal squeezing, single-mode and intermodal antibunching, two-mode and multi-mode entanglement in the output of contradirectional asymmetric nonlinear optical coupler. Further, existence of higher order nonclassicality is also established by showing the existence of higher order antibunching, higher order squeezing and higher order entanglement. Variation of observed nonclassical characters with different coupling constants and phase mismatch is discussed. - Highlights: • Nonclassicalities in fields propagating through a directional coupler is studied. • Completely quantum-mechanical description of the coupler is provided. • Analytic solutions of Heisenberg equations of motion for various modes are obtained. • Existence of lower order and higher order entanglement is shown. • Variation of nonclassicalities with phase-mismatch and coupling constants is studied.

  14. Nonclassical states of light with a smooth P function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damanet, François; Kübler, Jonas; Martin, John; Braun, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    There is a common understanding in quantum optics that nonclassical states of light are states that do not have a positive semidefinite and sufficiently regular Glauber-Sudarshan P function. Almost all known nonclassical states have P functions that are highly irregular, which makes working with them difficult and direct experimental reconstruction impossible. Here we introduce classes of nonclassical states with regular, non-positive-definite P functions. They are constructed by "puncturing" regular smooth positive P functions with negative Dirac-δ peaks or other sufficiently narrow smooth negative functions. We determine the parameter ranges for which such punctures are possible without losing the positivity of the state, the regimes yielding antibunching of light, and the expressions of the Wigner functions for all investigated punctured states. Finally, we propose some possible experimental realizations of such states.

  15. Atom ionization in a nonclassical intense electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A.M.; Tikhonova, O.V.

    2002-01-01

    The atoms ionization process in the intense nonclassical electromagnetic field is considered. It is shown that depending on the field quantum state the probability of ionization may essentially change even by one and the same average quantum number in the radiation mode, whereby the difference in the ionization rates is especially significant in the case, when the ionization process is of a multiphoton character. It is demonstrates in particular, that the nonclassical field may be considerably more intensive from the viewpoint of the atoms ionization, than the classical field with the same intensity. The peculiarities of the decay, related to the atomic system state in the strong nonclassical field beyond the perturbation theory frames are studied [ru

  16. Nonclassicality indicator for the real phase-space distribution functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeghi, Parvin; Khademi, Siamak; Nasiri, Sadollah

    2010-01-01

    Benedict et al. and Kenfack et al. advocated nonclassicality indicators based on the measurement of negativity of the Wigner distribution functions. These indicators have some applications in quantum mechanics and quantum optics. In this paper we define a nonclassicality indicator in terms of the interference in phase space, which is applicable to some real distribution functions including those of Wigner. As a special case one may reproduce the previous results using our indicator for the Wigner distribution functions. This indicator is examined for cases of the Schroedinger cat state and the thermal states and the results are compared with those obtained by previous methods. It seems that the physical behavior of nonclassicality indicators originates in the uncertainty principle. This is shown by an onto correspondence between these indicators and the uncertainty principle.

  17. Equilibration and nonclassicality of a double-well potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Steve; De Chiara, Gabriele; Paternostro, Mauro

    2016-01-29

    A double well loaded with bosonic atoms represents an ideal candidate to simulate some of the most interesting aspects in the phenomenology of thermalisation and equilibration. Here we report an exhaustive analysis of the dynamics and steady state properties of such a system locally in contact with different temperature reservoirs. We show that thermalisation only occurs 'accidentally'. We further examine the nonclassical features and energy fluxes implied by the dynamics of the double-well system, thus exploring its finite-time thermodynamics in relation to the settlement of nonclassical correlations between the wells.

  18. Contour detection based on nonclassical receptive field inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called nonclassical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, more generally surround inhibition or suppression, to improve contour detection in machine vision. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation-selective neurons in the

  19. Correspondence and canonicity in non-classical logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sourabh, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis we study correspondence and canonicity for non-classical logic using algebraic and order-topological methods. Correspondence theory is aimed at answering the question of how precisely modal, first-order, second-order languages interact and overlap in their shared semantic environment.

  20. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Ambrosio, Steven M.; Han, Chunhua; Pan, Li; Kinghorn, A. Douglas; Ding, Haiming

    2011-01-01

    Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003), was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compound 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not compound 1, prevented EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). When compounds 1 and 2 were combined they synergistically inhibited c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation, and human oral cancer cell proliferation. The present data suggest that the potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins that target two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. PMID:21596018

  1. The Essence of Nonclassicality: Non-Vanishing Signal Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravinda, S.; Srikanth, R.

    2015-12-01

    Nonclassical properties of correlations- like unpredictability, no-cloning and uncertainty- are known to follow from two assumptions: nonlocality and no-signaling. For two-input-two-output correlations, we derive these properties from a single, unified assumption: namely, the excess of the communication cost over the signaling in the correlation. This is relevant to quantum temporal correlations, resources to simulate quantum correlations and extensions of quantum mechanics. We generalize in the context of such correlations the nonclassicality result for nonlocal-nonsignaling correlations (Masanes et al., Phys. Rev. A 73, 012112 (2006)) and the uncertainty bound on nonlocality (Oppenheim and Wehner, Science 330(6007), 1072 (2010)), when the no-signaling condition is relaxed.

  2. Nonclassical Problem for Ultraparabolic Equation in Abstract Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gia Avalishvili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassical problem for ultraparabolic equation with nonlocal initial condition with respect to one time variable is studied in abstract Hilbert spaces. We define the space of square integrable vector-functions with values in Hilbert spaces corresponding to the variational formulation of the nonlocal problem for ultraparabolic equation and prove trace theorem, which allows one to interpret initial conditions of the nonlocal problem. We obtain suitable a priori estimates and prove the existence and uniqueness of solution of the nonclassical problem and continuous dependence upon the data of the solution to the nonlocal problem. We consider an application of the obtained abstract results to nonlocal problem for ultraparabolic partial differential equation with second-order elliptic operator and obtain well-posedness result in Sobolev spaces.

  3. Nonlinear coherent loss for generating non-classical states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalychev, A; Mogilevtsev, D; Kilin, S

    2011-01-01

    Here, we discuss a generation of non-classical states of bosonic mode with the help of artificially designed loss, namely the nonlinear coherent loss. We show how to generate superpositions of Fock states, and how it is possible to 'comb' the initial states leaving only states with certain properties in the resulting superposition (for example, a generation of a superposition of Fock states with odd number of particles). We discuss purity of generated states and estimate maximal achievable generation fidelity.

  4. Symplectic tomography of nonclassical states of trapped ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man'ko, O.

    1996-03-01

    The marginal distribution for two types of nonclassical states of trapped ion - for squeezed and correlated states and for squeezed even and odd coherent states (squeezed Schroedinger cat states) is studied. The obtained marginal distribution for the two types of states is shown to satisfy classical dynamical equation equivalent to standard quantum evolution equation for density matrix (wave function) derived in symplectic tomography scheme. (author). 20 refs

  5. Non-classical Correlations and Quantum Coherence in Mixed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng-Da; Wei, Mei-Song; Wang, Jicheng; Zhang, Yixin; He, Qi-Liang

    2018-05-01

    We investigate non-classical correlations (entanglement and quantum discord) and quantum coherence for an open two-qubit system each independently coupled to a bosonic environment and a spin environment, respectively. The modulating effects of spin environment and bosonic environment are respectively explored. A relation among the quantum coherence, quantum discord and classical correlation is found during the sudden transition phenomenon. We also compare the case of mixed environments with that of the same environments, showing that the dynamics is dramatically changed.

  6. Construction of classical and non-classical coherent photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honegger, Reinhard; Rieckers, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that the diagonal matrix elements of all-order coherent states for the quantized electromagnetic field have to constitute a Poisson distribution with respect to the photon number. The present work gives first the summary of a constructive scheme, developed previously, which determines in terms of an auxiliary Hilbert space all possible off-diagonal elements for the all-order coherent density operators in Fock space and which identifies all extremal coherent states. In terms of this formalism it is then demonstrated that each pure classical coherent state is a uniformly phase locked (quantum) coherent superposition of number states. In a mixed classical coherent state the exponential of the locked phase is shown to be replaced by a rather arbitrary unitary operator in the auxiliary Hilbert space. On the other hand classes for density operators--and for their normally ordered characteristic functions--of non-classical coherent states are obtained, especially by rather weak perturbations of classical coherent states. These illustrate various forms of breaking the classical uniform phase locking and exhibit rather peculiar properties, such as asymmetric fluctuations for the quadrature phase operators. Several criteria for non-classicality are put forward and applied to the elaborated non-classical coherent states, providing counterexamples against too simple arguments for classicality. It is concluded that classicality is only a stable concept for coherent states with macroscopic intensity

  7. Transcriptional regulation by nonclassical action of thyroid hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeller Lars C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thyroid hormone (TH is essential for normal development, growth and metabolism. Its effects were thought to be principally mediated through triiodothyronine (T3, acting as a ligand for the nuclear TH receptors (TRs α and β residing on thyroid hormone response elements (TREs in the promoter of TH target genes. In this classical model of TH action, T3 binding to TRs leads to recruitment of basal transcription factors and increased transcription of TH responsive genes. Recently, the concept of TH action on gene expression has become more diverse and now includes nonclassical actions of T3 and T4: T3 has been shown to activate PI3K via the TRs, which ultimately increases transcription of certain genes, e.g. HIF-1α. Additionally, both T3 and thyroxine (T4 can bind to a membrane integrin, αvβ3, which leads to activation of the PI3K and MAPK signal transduction pathways and finally also increases gene transcription, e.g. of the FGF2 gene. Therefore, these initially nongenomic, nonclassical actions seem to serve as additional interfaces for transcriptional regulation by TH. Aim of this perspective is to summarize the genes that are currently known to be induced by nonclassical TH action and the mechanisms involved.

  8. Optical nonclassicality test based on third-order intensity correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Kolthammer, W. S.; Di Franco, C.; Kim, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    We develop a nonclassicality criterion for the interference of three delayed, but otherwise identical, light fields in a three-mode Bell interferometer. We do so by comparing the prediction of quantum mechanics with those of a classical framework in which independent sources emit electric fields with random phases. In particular, we evaluate third-order correlations among output intensities as a function of the delays, and show how the presence of a correlation revival for small delays cannot be explained by the classical model of light. The observation of a revival is thus a nonclassicality signature, which can be achieved only by sources with a photon-number statistics that is highly sub-Poissonian. Our analysis provides strong evidence for the nonclassicality of the experiment discussed by Menssen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 153603 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.153603], and shows how a collective "triad" phase affects the interference of any three or more light fields, irrespective of their quantum or classical character.

  9. CLASSICAL AND NON-CLASSICAL PHILOSOPHICAL ANTHROPOLOGY: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kozlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The goals and values of human life, the search for the meaning of human existence contain the potential for a meaningful, progressive development of philosophical and anthropological ideas at any time in history. One of the tasks of philosophical anthropology is the formation of the image of man, the choice of ways to achieve the ideal, the methods of comprehension and resolution of universal problems. The increasing processes of differentiation in science led to the formation of different views on the nature of man, to the distinction between classical and non-classical philosophical anthropology. А comparative analysis of these trends is given in this article.Materials and methods: The dialectical method is preferred in the question of research methodology, the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches are used.Results: The development of philosophical anthropology correlates with the challenges of modernity. By tracking the trends of human change, philosophical anthropology changes the approach to the consideration of its main subject of research. The whole array of disciplines that study man comes to new discoveries, new theories, and philosophical anthropology changes its view of the vision, challenging the principles of classical philosophical anthropology.Classical philosophical anthropology elevates the biological nature of man to a pedestal, non-classical philosophical anthropology actualizes questions of language, culture, thinking, understanding, actualizes the hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches. The desire to understand a person in classical philosophical anthropology is based on the desire to fully reveal the biological mechanisms in a person. The perspective of treating a person in nonclassical philosophical anthropology is polyformen: man as a text, as a dreaming self, as an eternal transition. Non-classical philosophical anthropology, goes from the idea of identity to the idea of variability, from

  10. Quantum teleportation of nonclassical wave packets: An effective multimode theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benichi, Hugo; Takeda, Shuntaro; Lee, Noriyuki; Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    We develop a simple and efficient theoretical model to understand the quantum properties of broadband continuous variable quantum teleportation. We show that, if stated properly, the problem of multimode teleportation can be simplified to teleportation of a single effective mode that describes the input state temporal characteristic. Using that model, we show how the finite bandwidth of squeezing and external noise in the classical channel affect the output teleported quantum field. We choose an approach that is especially relevant for the case of non-Gaussian nonclassical quantum states and we finally back-test our model with recent experimental results.

  11. Nonclassical photon streams using rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, Patrick M.; Naylor, William R.; Longdell, Jevon J.; Beavan, Sarah E.; Sellars, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a fully quantum mechanical treatment of optically rephased photon echoes. These echoes exhibit noise due to amplified spontaneous emission; however, this noise can be seen as a consequence of the entanglement between the atoms and the output light. With a rephasing pulse one can get an 'echo' of the amplified spontaneous emission, leading to light with nonclassical correlations at points separated in time, which is of interest in the context of building wide bandwith quantum repeaters. We also suggest a wideband version of DLCZ protocol based on the same ideas.

  12. Quantum nondemolition measurement with a nonclassical meter input and an electro-optic enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchler, B.C.; Bachor, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical quantum nondemolition measurements are performed using a beamsplitter with a nonclassical meter input and a electro-optic feedforward loop. The nonclassical meter input is provided by a stable 4.5 dB amplitude squeezed source generated by an optical parametric amplifier. We show...

  13. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    System5

    Flowers are solitary, leaf-opposed and sometimes in fascicles. Petals are greenish, 3-6, and often appear like sepals. Fruit is green, resembling that of a custard apple. Seeds are enveloped by fleshy pulp which is sweet when ripe and is edible. The tree is often cultivated. Fruit is rich in annonaceous acetogenins which have ...

  14. Cauchy–Schwarz inequality-based criteria for the non-classicality of sub-Poisson and antibunched light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volovich, Igor V., E-mail: volovich@mi.ras.ru

    2016-01-08

    We discuss non-classicality of photon antibunching and sub-Poisson photon statistics. The difference K between the variance and the mean of the particle number operator as a measure of non-classicality of a state is discussed. The non-classicality of quantum states, discussed here, is different from another non-classicality, related with Bell's inequalities and entanglement though both can be traced to the violation of an inequality implied by an assumption of classicality that utilized the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality in the derivation. - Highlights: • Non-classicality of photon antibunching and sub-Poisson statistics are discussed. • The Cauchy–Schwarz inequality provides criteria for the non-classicality. • The vacuum contribution makes the superposition of quantum states more classical. • Experiments to generate non-classical superpositions of the Fock states are suggested.

  15. Highly Nonclassical Quantum States and Environment Induced Decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, Peter

    2004-06-01

    In this thesis concrete quantum systems are investigated in the framework of the environment induced decoherence. The focus is on the dynamics of highly nonclassical quantum states, the Wigner function of which are negative over some regions of their domains. One of the chosen physical systems is a diatomic molecule, where the potential energy of the nuclei is an anharmonic function of their distance. A system of two-level atoms, which can be important from the viewpoint of quantum information technology, is also investigated. A method is described that is valid in both systems and can determine the characteristic time of the decoherence in a dynamical way. The direction of the decoherence and its relation to energy dissipation is also studied. Finally, a scheme is proposed that can prepare decoherence-free states using the experimental techniques presently available.

  16. Nonclassical polarization effects in fluorescence emission spectra from microdroplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S.; Goddard, N. L.; Hill, S. C.

    1999-12-01

    We report a pronounced nonclassical polarization effect on the shape of fluorescence emission spectra from isolated microdroplets containing a dilute solution of soluble fluors or a dilute layer of surfactant fluors. We see different spectral shapes for 90° scattering when comparing between IVV, IVH, IHH, IHV. However, we measure the largest difference in spectral shape in the surfactant case, with the incident polarization directed toward the detector (IHV vs IHH). Imaging reveals that the emission in this case principally arises from two distinct regions near the surface of the droplet, which are diametrically opposed and along the axis of the incident laser beam. The effect appears to be the direct result of coupling between molecular emission moments and electromagnetic modes of the droplet. It is not the molecule which radiates but the molecule microvessel. Directional emission is sensitive to the polarization of the electromagnetic mode which is stimulated by the coupling.

  17. Propagation of nonclassical correlations across a quantum spin chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, S. [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Physics Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Quantum Systems Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology, Okinawa (Japan); Apollaro, T. J. G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, IT-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Di Franco, C. [Physics Department, University College Cork, Cork, Republic of Ireland (Ireland); Banchi, L.; Cuccoli, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Via G. Sansone 1, IT-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); INFN Sezione di Firenze, via G.Sansone 1, IT-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Vaia, R. [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, via Madonna del Piano 10, IT-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Plastina, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita della Calabria, IT-87036 Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); INFN Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Universita della Calabria, IT-87036, Arcavacata di Rende (Italy); Paternostro, M. [Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    We study the transport of quantum correlations across a chain of interacting spin-1/2 particles. As a quantitative figure of merit, we choose a symmetric version of quantum discord and compare it with the transported entanglement, addressing various operating regimes of the spin medium. Discord turns out to be better transported for a wide range of working points and initial conditions of the system. We relate this behavior to the efficiency of propagation of a single excitation across the spin chain. Moreover, we point out the role played by a magnetic field in the dynamics of discord in the effective channel embodied by the chain. Our analysis can be interestingly extended to transport processes in more complex networks and the study of nonclassical correlations under general quantum channels.

  18. Nonclassicality by Local Gaussian Unitary Operations for Gaussian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A measure of nonclassicality N in terms of local Gaussian unitary operations for bipartite Gaussian states is introduced. N is a faithful quantum correlation measure for Gaussian states as product states have no such correlation and every non product Gaussian state contains it. For any bipartite Gaussian state ρ A B , we always have 0 ≤ N ( ρ A B < 1 , where the upper bound 1 is sharp. An explicit formula of N for ( 1 + 1 -mode Gaussian states and an estimate of N for ( n + m -mode Gaussian states are presented. A criterion of entanglement is established in terms of this correlation. The quantum correlation N is also compared with entanglement, Gaussian discord and Gaussian geometric discord.

  19. Non-classical structures of organic compounds: unusual stereochemistry and hypercoordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkin, Vladimir I; Minyaev, Ruslan M; Hoffmann, Roald

    2002-01-01

    Non-classical structures of organic compounds are defined as molecules containing non-tetrahedral tetracoordinate and/or hypercoordinate carbon atoms. The evolution of the views on this subject is considered and the accumulated theoretical and experimental data on the structures and dynamic transformations of non-classical organic compounds are systematised. It is shown that computational analysis using the methods and the software potential of modern quantum chemistry has now acquired high predictive capacity and is the most important source of data on the structures of non-classical compounds. The bibliography includes 227 references.

  20. Non-classical nonlinear feature extraction from standard resonance vibration data for damage detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiras, J N; Monzó, J; Payá, J; Kundu, T; Popovics, J S

    2014-02-01

    Dynamic non-classical nonlinear analyses show promise for improved damage diagnostics in materials that exhibit such structure at the mesoscale, such as concrete. In this study, nonlinear non-classical dynamic material behavior from standard vibration test data, using pristine and frost damaged cement mortar bar samples, is extracted and quantified. The procedure is robust and easy to apply. The results demonstrate that the extracted nonlinear non-classical parameters show expected sensitivity to internal damage and are more sensitive to changes owing to internal damage levels than standard linear vibration parameters.

  1. Materials with complex behaviour II properties, non-classical materials and new technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oechsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews developments and trends in advanced materials and their properties; modeling and simulation of non-classical materials and new technologies for joining materials. Offers tools for characterizing and predicting properties and behavior.

  2. Testing nonclassicality in multimode fields: A unified derivation of classical inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranowicz, Adam; Bartkowiak, Monika; Wang Xiaoguang; Liu Yuxi; Nori, Franco

    2010-01-01

    We consider a way to generate operational inequalities to test nonclassicality (or quantumness) of multimode bosonic fields (or multiparty bosonic systems) that unifies the derivation of many known inequalities and allows to propose new ones. The nonclassicality criteria are based on Vogel's criterion corresponding to analyzing the positivity of multimode P functions or, equivalently, the positivity of matrices of expectation values of, e.g., creation and annihilation operators. We analyze not only monomials but also polynomial functions of such moments, which can sometimes enable simpler derivations of physically relevant inequalities. As an example, we derive various classical inequalities which can be violated only by nonclassical fields. In particular, we show how the criteria introduced here easily reduce to the well-known inequalities describing (a) multimode quadrature squeezing and its generalizations, including sum, difference, and principal squeezing; (b) two-mode one-time photon-number correlations, including sub-Poisson photon-number correlations and effects corresponding to violations of the Cauchy-Schwarz and Muirhead inequalities; (c) two-time single-mode photon-number correlations, including photon antibunching and hyperbunching; and (d) two- and three-mode quantum entanglement. Other simple inequalities for testing nonclassicality are also proposed. We have found some general relations between the nonclassicality and entanglement criteria, in particular those resulting from the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. It is shown that some known entanglement inequalities can be derived as nonclassicality inequalities within our formalism, while some other known entanglement inequalities can be seen as sums of more than one inequality derived from the nonclassicality criterion. This approach enables a deeper analysis of the entanglement for a given nonclassicality.

  3. Quantitative characterization of non-classic polarization of cations on clay aggregate stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinan Hu

    Full Text Available Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+ at concentrations from10-5 to 10-1 mol L-1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation-surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability.

  4. Quantitative Characterization of Non-Classic Polarization of Cations on Clay Aggregate Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feinan; Li, Hang; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Song; Ding, Wuquan; Xu, Chenyang; Li, Yue; Zhu, Longhui

    2015-01-01

    Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) at concentrations from10−5 to 10−1 mol L−1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation–surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability. PMID:25874864

  5. About the nonclassicality of states defined by nonpositivity of the P-quasiprobability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuensche, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    The definition of nonclassical states in quantum optics by the nonpositivity of their Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability P(α,α * )-P(q,p) is investigated and it is shown that it hides some serious problems. It leads to a subdivision of squeezed thermal states into classical and nonclassical states which is difficult to interpret physically by some qualitatively different behaviour of the states. Nonclassical states are found in arbitrarily small neighbourhoods of every classical state that is illustrated by a very artificial modified thermal state. The observability of the criterion in comparison to that for nonclassicality of states determined by the nearest Hilbert-Schmidt distance to a class of reference states is discussed. The behaviour of the nonclassicality of states in models of phase-insensitive processes of damping and amplification is investigated and it is found that every nonclassical state eventually makes a transition to a classical state. However, this is not specific for the negativities or singularities of the Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability and is found in similar form for other quasiprobabilities, for example, for the Wigner quasiprobability. We discuss in quite general form some defects of the Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability if compared with classical distribution functions over the phase space, in particular the failure of an earlier advertised superposition formula

  6. Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, Christina E.

    2014-01-01

    The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With

  7. Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, Christina E.

    2014-01-24

    The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With

  8. Nonlinear Quantum Optical Springs and Their Nonclassical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.J.; Tavassoly, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    The original idea of quantum optical spring arises from the requirement of quantization of the frequency of oscillations in the Hamiltonian of harmonic oscillator. This purpose is achieved by considering a spring whose constant (and so its frequency) depends on the quantum states of another system. Recently, it is realized that by the assumption of frequency modulation of ω to ω√1+μa † a the mentioned idea can be established. In the present paper, we generalize the approach of quantum optical spring with particular attention to the dependence of frequency to the intensity of radiation field that naturally observes in the nonlinear coherent states, from which we arrive at a physical system has been called by us as nonlinear quantum optical spring. Then, after the introduction of the generalized Hamiltonian of nonlinear quantum optical spring and it's solution, we will investigate the nonclassical properties of the obtained states. Specially, typical collapse and revival in the distribution functions and squeezing parameters, as particular quantum features, will be revealed. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Rodent Models of Non-classical Progesterone Action Regulating Ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A. Mittelman-Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that steroid hormones act not only by binding to nuclear receptors that associate with specific response elements in the nucleus but also by binding to receptors on the cell membrane. In this newly discovered manner, steroid hormones can initiate intracellular signaling cascades which elicit rapid effects such as release of internal calcium stores and activation of kinases. We have learned much about the translocation and signaling of steroid hormone receptors from investigations into estrogen receptor α, which can be trafficked to, and signal from, the cell membrane. It is now clear that progesterone (P4 can also elicit effects that cannot be exclusively explained by transcriptional changes. Similar to E2 and its receptors, P4 can initiate signaling at the cell membrane, both through progesterone receptor and via a host of newly discovered membrane receptors (e.g., membrane progesterone receptors, progesterone receptor membrane components. This review discusses the parallels between neurotransmitter-like E2 action and the more recently investigated non-classical P4 signaling, in the context of reproductive behaviors in the rodent.

  10. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed during puberty. The diagnosis of mosaic Turner could not explain the virilization. Therefore, we repeated the karyotype, which revealed 46, XX in more than 100 metaphases and was sufficient to exclude mosaicism. Furthermore, the endocrinological evaluation revealed high testosterone level with a normal 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP. The presence of pubertal onset virilization with a karyotype of 46, XX and raised testosterone level with normal 17-OHP level, raised the suspicion of NCAH for which adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was done which confirmed the diagnosis of NCAH.

  11. Multi-crack imaging using nonclassical nonlinear acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lue; Zhang Ying; Liu Xiao-Zhou; Gong Xiu-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Solid materials with cracks exhibit the nonclassical nonlinear acoustical behavior. The micro-defects in solid materials can be detected by nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) method with a time-reversal (TR) mirror. While defects lie in viscoelastic solid material with different distances from one another, the nonlinear and hysteretic stress—strain relation is established with Preisach—Mayergoyz (PM) model in crack zone. Pulse inversion (PI) and TR methods are used in numerical simulation and defect locations can be determined from images obtained by the maximum value. Since false-positive defects might appear and degrade the imaging when the defects are located quite closely, the maximum value imaging with a time window is introduced to analyze how defects affect each other and how the fake one occurs. Furthermore, NEWS-TR-NEWS method is put forward to improve NEWS-TR scheme, with another forward propagation (NEWS) added to the existing phases (NEWS and TR). In the added phase, scanner locations are determined by locations of all defects imaged in previous phases, so that whether an imaged defect is real can be deduced. NEWS-TR-NEWS method is proved to be effective to distinguish real defects from the false-positive ones. Moreover, it is also helpful to detect the crack that is weaker than others during imaging procedure. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. Multi-crack imaging using nonclassical nonlinear acoustic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lue; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Gong, Xiu-Fen

    2014-10-01

    Solid materials with cracks exhibit the nonclassical nonlinear acoustical behavior. The micro-defects in solid materials can be detected by nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) method with a time-reversal (TR) mirror. While defects lie in viscoelastic solid material with different distances from one another, the nonlinear and hysteretic stress—strain relation is established with Preisach—Mayergoyz (PM) model in crack zone. Pulse inversion (PI) and TR methods are used in numerical simulation and defect locations can be determined from images obtained by the maximum value. Since false-positive defects might appear and degrade the imaging when the defects are located quite closely, the maximum value imaging with a time window is introduced to analyze how defects affect each other and how the fake one occurs. Furthermore, NEWS-TR-NEWS method is put forward to improve NEWS-TR scheme, with another forward propagation (NEWS) added to the existing phases (NEWS and TR). In the added phase, scanner locations are determined by locations of all defects imaged in previous phases, so that whether an imaged defect is real can be deduced. NEWS-TR-NEWS method is proved to be effective to distinguish real defects from the false-positive ones. Moreover, it is also helpful to detect the crack that is weaker than others during imaging procedure.

  13. Significance of non-classical damping in seismic qualification of equipment and piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Abhinav, E-mail: agupta1@ncsu.edu; Bose, Mrinal K.

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Damping in coupled building-piping or building-equipment systems is nonlclassical. • Significance of nonclassical damping is illustrated. • Classical damping assumption can over predict or under predict response. • Significance of nonclassical damping increases for very light secondary systems. • Composite modal damping is another form of classical damping. - Abstract: This paper presents a discussion on the significance of non-classical damping in coupled primary-secondary systems such as building-equipment or building-piping. Closed-form expressions are used to illustrate that the effect of non-classical damping is significant in systems with tuned or nearly tuned uncoupled modes when the mass-interaction is sufficiently small. Further, simple primary-secondary systems are used to illustrate that composite modal damping is another form of classical damping for which the transformed damping matrix, obtained after pre- and post-multiplication of the damping matrix with the modal matrix, contains only diagonal terms. Both the composite and the classical damping give almost identical results that can be much different from the corresponding results for non-classical damping. Finally, it is shown that consideration of classical damping (ignoring the off-diagonal terms) can give excessively conservative results in nearly tuned primary-secondary systems. For perfectly tuned primary-secondary systems, however, classical damping can give responses that are much lower than what they should be.

  14. Common Vocal Effects and Partial Glottal Vibration in Professional Nonclassical Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffier, Philipp P; Ibrahim Nasr, Ahmed; Ropero Rendon, Maria Del Mar; Wienhausen, Sascha; Forbes, Eleanor; Seidner, Wolfram; Nawka, Tadeus

    2018-05-01

    To multidimensionally investigate common vocal effects in experienced professional nonclassical singers, to examine their mechanism of production and reproducibility, to demonstrate the existence of partial glottal vibration, and to assess the potential of damage to the voice from nonclassical singing. Individual cohort study. Ten male singers aged between 25 and 46 years (34 ± 7 years [mean ± SD]) with different stylistic backgrounds were recruited (five pop/rock/metal, five musical theater). Participants repeatedly presented the usual nonclassical vocal effects and techniques in their repertoire. All performances were documented and analyzed using established instruments (eg, auditory-perceptual assessment, videolaryngostroboscopy, electroglottography, voice function diagnostics). The vocal apparatus of all singers was healthy and capable of high performance. Typical nonclassical vocal effects were breathy voice, creaky voice, vocal fry, grunting, distortion, rattle, belt, and twang. All effects could be easily differentiated from each other. They were intraindividually consistently repeatable and also interindividually produced in a similar manner. A special feature in one singer was the first evidence of partial glottal vibration when belting in the high register. The unintended transition to this reduced voice quality was accompanied by physical fatigue and inflexible respiratory support. The long-lasting use of the investigated nonclassical vocal effects had no negative impact on trained singers. The possibility of long-term damage depends on the individual constitution, specific use, duration, and extent of the hyperfunction. The incidence of partial glottal vibration and its consequences require continuing research to learn more about efficient and healthy vocal function in nonclassical singing. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental detection of nonclassical correlations in mixed-state quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passante, G.; Moussa, O.; Trottier, D. A.; Laflamme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experiment to detect nonclassical correlations in a highly mixed state. The correlations are characterized by the quantum discord and are observed using four qubits in a liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. The state analyzed is the output of a DQC1 computation, whose input is a single quantum bit accompanied by n maximally mixed qubits. This model of computation outperforms the best known classical algorithms and, although it contains vanishing entanglement, it is known to have quantum correlations characterized by the quantum discord. This experiment detects nonvanishing quantum discord, ensuring the existence of nonclassical correlations as measured by the quantum discord.

  16. Non-classical radiation transport in random media with fluctuating densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyuldya, S.V.; Bratchenko, M.I.

    2012-01-01

    The ensemble averaged propagation kernels of the non-classical radiation transport are studied by means of the proposed application of the stochastic differential equation random medium generators. It is shown that the non-classical transport is favored in long-correlated weakly fluctuating media. The developed kernel models have been implemented in GEANT4 and validated against the d ouble Monte Carlo m odeling of absorptions curves of disperse neutron absorbers and γ-albedos from a scatterer/absorber random mix

  17. Non-stationary pre-envelope covariances of non-classically damped systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscolino, G.

    1991-08-01

    A new formulation is given to evaluate the stationary and non-stationary response of linear non-classically damped systems subjected to multi-correlated non-separable Gaussian input processes. This formulation is based on a new and more suitable definition of the impulse response function matrix for such systems. It is shown that, when using this definition, the stochastic response of non-classically damped systems involves the evaluation of quantities similar to those of classically damped ones. Furthermore, considerations about non-stationary cross-covariances, spectral moments and pre-envelope cross-covariances are presented for a monocorrelated input process.

  18. The prognostic role of classical and nonclassical MHC class I expression in endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijen, C.B.; Bantema-Joppe, E.J.; de Jong, Renske; Leffers, N.; Mourits, M.J.; Eggink, Henk F.; van der Zee, A.G.; Hollema, H.; de Bock, G.H.; Nijman, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate classical MHC class I and nonclassical MHC (human leukocyte antigen-G [HLA-GJ) expression in a large cohort of patients with endometrial cancer, to determine the prognostic value of these cell surface markers and their relation with clinicopathological

  19. Higher-order sub-Poissonian-like nonclassical fields: Theoretical and experimental comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina Jr., J.; Michálek, Václav; Haderka, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 033852. ISSN 2469-9926 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : twin beams * photon statistics * sub-Poissonian-like nonclassical fields Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  20. Food Stamps and Food Insecurity: What Can Be Learned in the Presence of Nonclassical Measurement Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig; Kreider, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers have been puzzled to observe that food stamp households appear more likely to be food insecure than observationally similar eligible nonparticipating households. We reexamine this issue allowing for nonclassical reporting errors in food stamp participation and food insecurity. Extending the literature on partially identified…

  1. "Nonclassical" secretion of annexin A2 to the lumenal side of the enterocyte brush border membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; van Deurs, Bo; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-01-01

    side of the microvilli, showing an apical secretion by a "nonclassical" mechanism. In addition, annexin A2 was associated with surface-connected, deep apical tubules in the apical terminal web region and with an underlying pleiomorphic, tubulo-vesicular compartment (subapical compartment...

  2. Nanoparticle-mediated nonclassical crystal growth of sodium fluorosilicate nanowires and nanoplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed nonclassical crystal growth of the sodium fluorosilicate nanowires, nanoplates, and hierarchical structures through self-assembly and aggregation of primary intermediate nanoparticles. Unlike traditional ion-by-ion crystallization, the primary nanoparticles formed first and their subsequent self-assembly, fusion, and crystallization generated various final crystals. These findings offer direct evidences for the aggregation-based crystallization mechanism.

  3. Nonclassical Effects of a Four-Level Excited-Doublet Atom Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiansong; Xu Jingbo

    2006-01-01

    We adopt a dynamical algebraic method to study a four-level excited-doublet atom model and obtain the explicit expressions of the time-evolution operator and the density operator for the system. The nonclassical effects of the system, such as collapses and revivals of the atomic inversion and squeezing of the radiation field, are also discussed.

  4. Observational study of differences in head position for high notes in famous classical and non-classical male singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarante Andrade, Pedro; Švec, Jan G

    2016-07-01

    Differences in classical and non-classical singing are due primarily to aesthetic style requirements. The head position can affect the sound quality. This study aimed at comparing the head position for famous classical and non-classical male singers performing high notes. Images of 39 Western classical and 34 non-classical male singers during live performances were obtained from YouTube. Ten raters evaluated the frontal rotational head position (depression versus elevation) and transverse head position (retraction versus protraction) visually using a visual analogue scale. The results showed a significant difference for frontal rotational head position. Most non-classical singers in the sample elevated their heads for high notes while the classical singers were observed to keep it around the neutral position. This difference may be attributed to different singing techniques and phonatory system adjustments utilized by each group.

  5. Non-Classical C–H···X Hydrogen Bonding and Its Role in Asymmetric Organocatalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ajitha, Manjaly John; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Non-classical hydrogen bonds (NCHBs) have attracted significant interest in the past decade particularly because of their important role in asymmetric catalytic systems. These weak interactions (< 4 kcal/mol) offer much flexibility1 Introduction2 Hydrogen Bonds (HBs) and Non-Classical Hydrogen Bonds (NCHBs)3 Early Developments in NCHBs4 Selected Examples of NCHBs in Organic Transformations5 Recent Examples of NCHBs in Enantioselective Reactions6 Conclusions and Outlook

  6. Nonclassicality characterization in photon statistics based on binary-response single-photon detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yanqiang; Yang Rongcan; Li Gang; Zhang Pengfei; Zhang Yuchi; Wang Junmin; Zhang Tiancai

    2011-01-01

    By employing multiple conventional single-photon counting modules (SPCMs), which are binary-response detectors, instead of photon number resolving detectors, the nonclassicality criteria are investigated for various quantum states. The bounds of the criteria are derived from a system based on three or four SPCMs. The overall efficiency and background are both taken into account. The results of experiments with thermal and coherent light agree with the theoretical analysis. Compared with photon number resolving detectors, the use of a Hanbury Brown-Twiss-like scheme with multiple SPCMs is even better for revealing the nonclassicality of the fields, and the efficiency requirements are not so stringent. Some proposals are presented which can improve the detection performance with binary-response SPCMs for different quantum states.

  7. Nonclassicality of Photon-Added Displaced Thermal State via Quantum Phase-Space Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ran; Meng, Xiang-Guo; Du, Chuan-Xun; Wang, Ji-Suo

    2018-02-01

    We introduce a new kind of nonclassical mixed state generated by adding arbitrary photons to a displaced thermal state, i.e., the photon-added displaced thermal state (PADTS), and obtain the normalization factor, which is simply related to two-variable Hermite polynomials. We also discuss the nonclassicality of the PADTS by considering quantum phase-space distributions. The results indicate that the value of the photon count statistics is maximum when the number of detected photons is equal to the number of added photons, and that the photon-added operation has a similar modulation effect with increasing displacement. Moreover, the negative volume of the Wigner function for the PADTS takes a maximal value for a specific photon-added number.

  8. EFFECTS OF PARAMETRIC VARIATIONS ON SEISMIC ANALYSIS METHODS FOR NON-CLASSICALLY DAMPED COUPLED SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XU, J.; DEGRASSI, G.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive benchmark program was developed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to perform an evaluation of state-of-the-art methods and computer programs for performing seismic analyses of coupled systems with non-classical damping. The program, which was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), was designed to address various aspects of application and limitations of these state-of-the-art analysis methods to typical coupled nuclear power plant (NPP) structures with non-classical damping, and was carried out through analyses of a set of representative benchmark problems. One objective was to examine the applicability of various analysis methods to problems with different dynamic characteristics unique to coupled systems. The examination was performed using parametric variations for three simple benchmark models. This paper presents the comparisons and evaluation of the program participants' results to the BNL exact solutions for the applicable ranges of modeling dynamic characteristic parameters

  9. Noncritical generation of nonclassical frequency combs via spontaneous rotational symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Patera, Giuseppe; de Valcárcel, Germán J.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators (SPOPOs) are optical cavities driven by mode-locked lasers, and containing a nonlinear crystal capable of down-converting a frequency comb to lower frequencies. SPOPOs have received a lot of attention lately because their intrinsic multimode nature makes them compact sources of quantum correlated light with promising applications in modern quantum information technologies. In this work we show that SPOPOs are also capable of accessing the challenging and interesting regime where spontaneous symmetry breaking confers strong nonclassical properties to the emitted light, which has eluded experimental observation so far. Apart from opening the possibility of studying experimentally this elusive regime of dissipative phase transitions, our predictions will have a practical impact, since we show that spontaneous symmetry breaking provides a specific spatiotemporal mode with large quadrature squeezing for any value of the system parameters, turning SPOPOs into robust sources of highly nonclassical light above threshold.

  10. Non-classical Signature of Parametric Fluorescence and its Application in Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamar M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a short theoretical background of what the non-classical light means. We applied the criterion for the existence of non-classical effects derived by C.T. Lee on parametric fluorescence. The criterion was originally derived for the study of two light beams with one mode per beam. We checked if the criterion is still working for two multimode beams of parametric down-conversion through numerical simulations. The theoretical results were tested by measurement of photon number statistics of twin beams emitted by nonlinear BBO crystal pumped by intense femtoseconds UV pulse. We used ICCD camera as the detector of photons in both beams. It appears that the criterion can be used for the measurement of the quantum efficiencies of the ICCD cameras.

  11. Reproducibility of Psychological Experiments as a Problem of Post-Nonclassical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachkov I.V.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental project on reproducibility carried out in the USA by Brian Nosek in 2015 (the Reproducibility Project revealed a serious methodological problem in psychology: the issue of replication of psycho- logical experiments. Reproducibility has been traditionally perceived as one of the basic principles of the scientific method. However, methodological analysis of the modern post-nonclassical stage in the development of science suggests that this might be a bit too uncompromising as applied to psychology. It seems that the very criteria of scientific research need to be reconsidered with regard to the specifics of post-nonclassical science, and, as the authors put it, as a result, reproducibility might lose its key status or even be excluded at all. The reviewed problem and the proposed ways of coping with it are of high importance to research and practice in psychology as they define the strategies for organizing, conducting and evaluating experimental research.

  12. Nonclassicality threshold for the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertesi, Tamas; Pal, Karoly F.

    2011-01-01

    The nonclassical properties of the noisy three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, ρ v =v|GHZ> v is nonclassical for the parameter range 1/2< v≤1. It has been posed whether additional settings would allow to lower the threshold visibility. Here we report on Bell inequalities giving a threshold value smaller than v=1/2. This rules out the possibility of a local hidden variable model in the limit of v=1/2. In particular, the lowest threshold visibility we found is v=0.496 057, attainable with 5x5x5 settings, whereas the most economical one in number of settings corresponds to 3x3x4 settings. The method which enabled us to obtain these results, and in particular the about 10 000 tight Bell inequalities giving v<1/2, are also discussed in detail.

  13. Consequences of nonclassical measurement for the algorithmic description of continuous dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Chris

    1989-01-01

    Continuous dynamical systems intuitively seem capable of more complex behavior than discrete systems. If analyzed in the framework of the traditional theory of computation, a continuous dynamical system with countablely many quasistable states has at least the computational power of a universal Turing machine. Such an analyses assumes, however, the classical notion of measurement. If measurement is viewed nonclassically, a continuous dynamical system cannot, even in principle, exhibit behavior that cannot be simulated by a universal Turing machine.

  14. Phase-space representation of non-classical behaviour of scalar wave-fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canas-Cardona, Gustavo; Castaneda, Roman; Vinck-Posada, Herbert

    2011-01-01

    The modelling of optical fields by using radiant and virtual point sources for the spatial coherence wavelets in the phase-space representation evidences some effects, conventionally attributed to non-classical correlations of light, although such type of correlations are not explicitly included in the model. Specifically, a light state is produced that has similar morphology to the Wigner Distribution Function of the well-known quantum Schroedinger cat and squeezed states.

  15. Joint probability distributions of stimulated parametric down-conversion for controllable nonclassical fluctuations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina, Jan; Křepelka, Jaromír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 281, č. 18 (2008), s. 4705-4711 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100713; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum measurement * parametric down-conversion * nonclassical light * quantum noise Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.552, year: 2008

  16. Non-classical austenite-martensite interfaces observed in single crystals of Cu-Al-Ni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 11 (2009), s. 793-807 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200100627; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/09/P164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape memory alloy s * martensitic microstructure * non-classical interfaces * crossing twins Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.935, year: 2009 http://www.informaworld.com

  17. Direct experimental observation of nonclassicality in ensembles of single-photon emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreva, E.; Traina, P.; Forneris, J.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Ditalia Tchernij, S.; Picollo, F.; Brida, G.; Olivero, P.; Genovese, M.

    2017-11-01

    In this work we experimentally demonstrate a recently proposed criterion addressed to detect nonclassical behavior in the fluorescence emission of ensembles of single-photon emitters. In particular, we apply the method to study clusters of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond characterized with single-photon-sensitive confocal microscopy. Theoretical considerations on the behavior of the parameter at any arbitrary order in the presence of Poissonian noise are presented and, finally, the opportunity of detecting manifold coincidences is discussed.

  18. [A non-classical approach to medical practices: Michel Foucault and Actor-Network Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bińczyk, E

    2001-01-01

    The text presents an analysis of medical practices stemming from two sources: Michel Foucault's conception and the research of Annemarie Mol and John Law, representatives of a trend known as Actor-Network Theory. Both approaches reveal significant theoretical kinship: they can be successfully consigned to the framework of non-classical sociology of science. I initially refer to the cited conceptions as a version of non-classical sociology of medicine. The identity of non-classical sociology of medicine hinges on the fact that it undermines the possibility of objective definitions of disease, health and body. These are rather approached as variable social and historical phenomena, co-constituted by medical practices. To both Foucault and Mol the main object of interest was not medicine as such, but rather the network of medical practices. Mol and Law sketch a new theoretical perspective for the analysis of medical practices. They attempt to go beyond the dichotomous scheme of thinking about the human body as an object of medical research and the subject of private experience. Research on patients suffering blood-sugar deficiency provide the empirical background for the thesis of Actor-Network Theory representatives. Michel Foucault's conceptions are extremely critical of medical practices. The French researcher describes the processes of 'medicalising' Western society as the emergence of a new type of power. He attempts to sensitise the reader to the ethical dimension of the processes of medicalising society.

  19. Molecular characterization of classical and nonclassical MHC class I genes from the golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q-Q; Zhong, G-H; He, K; Sun, D-D; Wan, Q-H

    2016-02-01

    Classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allelic polymorphism is essential for competent antigen presentation. To improve the genotyping efforts in the golden pheasant, it is necessary to differentiate more accurately between classical and nonclassical class I molecules. In our study, all MHC class I genes were isolated from one golden pheasant based on two overlapping PCR amplifications. In total, six full-length class I nucleotide sequences (A-F) were identified, and four were novel. Two (A and C) belonged to the IA1 gene, two (B and D) were alleles derived from the IA2 gene through transgene amplification, and two (E and F) comprised a third novel locus, IA3 that was excluded from the core region of the golden pheasant MHC-B. IA1 and IA2 exhibited the broad expression profiles characteristic of classical loci, while IA3 showed no expression in multiple tissues and was therefore defined as a nonclassical gene. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the three IA genes in the golden pheasant share a much closer evolutionary relationship than the corresponding sequences in other galliform species. This observation was consistent with high sequence similarity among them, which likely arises from the homogenizing effect of recombination. Our careful distinction between the classical and nonclassical MHC class I genes in the golden pheasant lays the foundation for developing locus-specific genotyping and establishing a good molecular marker system of classical MHC I loci. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assesment of Rhythm Disorders in Classical and Nonclassical Mitral Valve Prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodzic, Enisa

    2018-02-01

    Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP) is the most common cardiac valve pathology of to day. Aim of article was to identify the types and frequency of potentially malignant arrhythmia and atrial brillation in patients with MVP, to determine the differences in these arrhythmias between classical and non-classical MVP, to evaluate the correlation of potentially malignant arrhythmia and atrial fibrillation with MVP with possible clinical complications of arrhythmogenic sudden cardiac death and potential risk of thromboembolic vascular incident. Article has retrospective-prospective analytical character and present observational study on 239 patients (120 with MVP (66 with classical and 54 with non-classical MVP), who had a subjective feeling of palpitations and/or pain in the chest, and/or episode of syncope, and did not have ischemic heart disease or another valve pathology) and 119 healthy patients in the control group. All patients were analyzed by 24-hour ECG Holter. Signifficant difference in all analyzed arrhythmias between classical MVP and control group (p MVP (p = 0.016). The potential risk of cardiac death and vascular incidence is signi cantly higher in classical MVP than in non-classical MVP, implying the need for routine ECG-Holter monitoring in their diagnosis for timely prevention of clinical arrhythmogenic complications.

  1. Why aortic elasticity differs among classical and non-classical mitral valve prolapsed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlu, Murat; Demirkol, Sait; Aparci, Mustafa; Arslan, Zekeriya; Balta, Sevket; Dogan, Umuttan; Kilicarslan, Baris; Ozeke, Ozcan; Celik, Turgay; Iyisoy, Atila

    2014-01-01

    Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is the most common valvular heart disease and characterized by the displacement of an abnormally thickened mitral valve leaflet into the left atrium during systole. There are two types of MVP, broadly classified as classic (thickness ≥5 mm) and non-classic (thickness elastic properties of the aorta in young male patients with classical and non-classical MVP. In the present study, 63 young adult males (mean age: 22.7 ± 4.2) were included. Patients were divided into classic MVP (n = 27) and non-classic MVP (n = 36) groups. Aortic strain, aortic distensibility and aortic stiffness index were calculated by using aortic diameters obtained by echocardiography and blood pressures measured by sphygmomanometer. There was no significant difference between the groups in terms of age, body mass index, left ventricular mass and ejection fraction. When comparing the MVP group it was found that aortic strain and aortic distensibility were increased (p = 0.0027, p = 0.016, respectively) whereas the aortic stiffness index was decreased (p = 0.06) in the classical MVP group. We concluded that the elastic properties of the aorta is increased in patients with classic MVP. Further large scale studies should be performed to understand of morphological and physiological properties of the aorta in patients with MVP.

  2. Heat control in opto-mechanical system using quantum non-classicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sushamana; Senwar, Subash

    2016-01-01

    Cooling of matter to the quantum ground state is a primary directive of quantum control. In other words, to extract entropy from a quantum system, efficient indirect quantum measurements may be implemented. The main objective is the cooling of the oscillator either to its motional ground state or to non-classical states, such as low-number Fock states, squeezed states or entangled states. It is shown that the use of quantum control procedure is better choice for even experimental realizations because it leads to a squeezed steady state with less than one phonon on average. The steady state of system corresponds to cooling of the system.

  3. The homology groups of moduli spaces on non-classical Klein surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaw, Myint

    2001-08-01

    We describe the moduli space M-vector±(g,c) of non-classical directed Klein surfaces of genus g=h-c-1 with c≥0 distinguished points as a configuration space B ± (h,c) of classes h-slit pairs in C. Based on this model, we prove that M-vector ± (g,c) is non-orientable for any g and c and we compute the homology groups of the moduli spaces M-vector ± (g,c) for g≤2. (author)

  4. Non-classical solutions of a continuum model for rock descriptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail A. Guzev

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The strain-gradient and non-Euclidean continuum theories are employed for construction of non-classical solutions of continuum models. The linear approximation of both models' results in identical structures in terms of their kinematic and stress characteristics. The solutions obtained in this study exhibit a critical behaviour with respect to the external loading parameter. The conclusions are obtained based on an investigation of the solution for the scalar curvature in the non-Euclidean continuum theory. The proposed analysis enables us to use different theoretical approaches for description of rock critical behaviour under different loading conditions.

  5. Analysis of the elastic behaviour of nonclassical nonlinear mesoscopic materials in quasi-static experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffino, E.; Scalerandi, M.

    2000-01-01

    As discovered by recent quasi-static and dynamic resonance experiments, the classical nonlinear theory fails in describing the hysteretic behaviour of nonlinear mesoscopic materials like rocks, concrete, etc. The paper applies the local interaction simulation approach (LISA) for studying such kind of nonclassical nonlinearity. To this purpose, in the LISA treatment of ultrasonic wave propagation has been included a phenomenological model, based on the PM space approach, of the local mesoscopic features of rocks and other materials with localized damages. A quantitative comparison of simulation and experimental results in quasi-static experiments is also presented

  6. Nonclassical-light generation in a photonic-band-gap nonlinear planar waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Jan Jr.; Sibilia, Concita; Tricca, Daniela; Bertolotti, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The optical parametric process occurring in a photonic-band-gap planar waveguide is studied from the point of view of nonclassical-light generation. The nonlinearly interacting optical fields are described by the generalized superposition of coherent signals and noise using the method of operator linear corrections to a classical strong solution. Scattered backward-propagating fields are taken into account. Squeezed light as well as light with sub-Poissonian statistics can be obtained in two-mode fields under the specified conditions

  7. Managing the spatial properties and photon correlations in squeezed non-classical twisted light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, R. V.; Tikhonova, O. V.

    2018-05-01

    Spatial photon correlations and mode content of the squeezed vacuum light generated in a system of two separated nonlinear crystals is investigated. The contribution of both the polar and azimuthal modes with non-zero orbital angular momentum is analyzed. The control and engineering of the spatial properties and degree of entanglement of the non-classical squeezed light by changing the distance between crystals and pump parameters is demonstrated. Methods for amplification of certain spatial modes and managing the output mode content and intensity profile of quantum twisted light are suggested.

  8. SPRED: A machine learning approach for the identification of classical and non-classical secretory proteins in mammalian genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Graduate School for Computing in Medicine and Life Sciences, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Pugalenthi, Ganesan [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe [Centre for Structural and Cell Biology in Medicine, Institute of Biology, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Moeller, Steffen [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany); Suganthan, P.N. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Martinetz, Thomas, E-mail: martinetz@inb.uni-luebeck.de [Institute for Neuro- and Bioinformatics, University of Luebeck, 23538 Luebeck (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).

  9. SPRED: A machine learning approach for the identification of classical and non-classical secretory proteins in mammalian genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Moeller, Steffen; Suganthan, P.N.; Martinetz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).

  10. Squeezing, photon bunching, photon antibunching and nonclassical photon statistics in degenerate hyper Raman processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Biswajit; Mandal, Swapan

    2007-01-01

    An initially prepared coherent state coupled to a second-order nonlinear medium is responsible for stimulated and spontaneous hyper Raman processes. By using an intuitive approach based on perturbation theory, the Hamiltonian corresponding to the hyper Raman processes is analytically solved to obtain the temporal development of the field operators. It is true that these analytical solutions are valid for small coupling constants. However, the interesting part is that these solutions are valid for reasonably large time. Hence, the present analytical solutions are quite general and are fresh compared to those solutions under short-time approximations. By exploiting the analytical solutions of field operators for various modes, we investigate the squeezing, photon antibunching and nonclassical photon statistics for pure modes of the input coherent light responsible for hyper Raman processes. At least in one instance (stimulated hyper Raman processes for vibration phonon mode), we report the simultaneous appearance of classical (photon bunching) and nonclassical (squeezing) effects of the radiation field responsible for hyper Raman processes

  11. Non-classic multiscale modeling of manipulation based on AFM, in aqueous and humid ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, M. H.; Homayooni, A.; Hefzabad, R. N.

    2018-05-01

    To achieve a precise manipulation, it is important that an accurate model consisting the size effect and environmental conditions be employed. In this paper, the non-classical multiscale modeling is developed to investigate the manipulation in a vacuum, aqueous and humid ambient. The manipulation structure is considered into two parts as a macro-field (MF) and a nano-field (NF). The governing equations of the AFM components (consist of the cantilever and tip) in the MF are derived based on the modified couple stress theory. The material length scale parameter is used to study the size effect. The fluid flow in the MF is assumed as the Couette and Creeping flows. Moreover, the NF is modeled using the molecular dynamics. The Electro-Based (ELBA) model is considered to model the ambient condition in the NF. The nanoparticle in the different conditions is taken into account to study the manipulation. The results of the manipulation indicate that the predicted deflection of the non-classical model is less than the classical one. Comparison of the nanoparticle travelled distance on substrate shows that the manipulation in the submerged condition is close to the ideal manipulation. The results of humid condition illustrate that by increasing the relative humidity (RH) the manipulation force decreases. Furthermore, Root Mean Square (RMS) as a criterion of damage demonstrates that the submerged nanoparticle has the minimum damage, however, the minimum manipulation force occurs in superlative humid ambient.

  12. ON THE POLARIZATION OF CREATIVE CONSCIOUSNESS IN NON-CLASSICAL ERA OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nikolaevich Sklyarov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of "branch" of the total flow of philosophical and aesthetic quest in Russian postsimbolism in the early 20th century and the implications of this polarization in the literary process in the following decades. Special attention is paid to the specifics of the non-classical consciousness, an important feature of which is the intention of the "targeting" of artistic expression. The main lines of development of Russian literature in the 20th century are briefly described. The subject of primary attention of the author are mental peculiarities, features of creative thinking inherited in individuals of every from ideological and artistic "vectors", forming a common paradigm of national literature in the non-classical era. The understanding the specifics of the "middle" line of creative research, defined by the concept of "neotraditionalism" becomes the center of the problem field in the article. In understanding and presentation of the essence of the neotraditional type of creative consciousness author moves into the mainstream, a paved by work of V.I. Tyupa, who proposed in the early 90s as the term itself, taken now adopted by many scientists and methodological principles of neotraditionalism identification as a special type of mental orientation in art. 

  13. New fundamental evidence of non-classical structure in the combination of natural concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, D; Sozzo, S; Veloz, T

    2016-01-13

    We recently performed cognitive experiments on conjunctions and negations of two concepts with the aim of investigating the combination problem of concepts. Our experiments confirmed the deviations (conceptual vagueness, underextension, overextension etc.) from the rules of classical (fuzzy) logic and probability theory observed by several scholars in concept theory, while our data were successfully modelled in a quantum-theoretic framework developed by ourselves. In this paper, we isolate a new, very stable and systematic pattern of violation of classicality that occurs in concept combinations. In addition, the strength and regularity of this non-classical effect leads us to believe that it occurs at a more fundamental level than the deviations observed up to now. It is our opinion that we have identified a deep non-classical mechanism determining not only how concepts are combined but, rather, how they are formed. We show that this effect can be faithfully modelled in a two-sector Fock space structure, and that it can be exactly explained by assuming that human thought is the superposition of two processes, a 'logical reasoning', guided by 'logic', and a 'conceptual reasoning', guided by 'emergence', and that the latter generally prevails over the former. All these findings provide new fundamental support to our quantum-theoretic approach to human cognition. © 2015 The Author(s).

  14. Discriminating strength: a bona fide measure of non-classical correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Rigovacca, L.; Giovannetti, V.

    2014-07-01

    A new measure of non-classical correlations is introduced and characterized. It tests the ability of using a state ρ of a composite system AB as a probe for a quantum illumination task (e.g. see Lloyd 2008 Science 321 1463), in which one is asked to remotely discriminate between the two following scenarios: (i) either nothing happens to the probe, or (ii) the subsystem A is transformed via a local unitary {{R}_{A}} whose properties are partially unspecified when producing ρ. This new measure can be seen as the discrete version of the recently introduced interferometric power measure (Girolami et al 2013 e-print arXiv:1309.1472) and, at least for the case in which A is a qubit, it is shown to coincide (up to an irrelevant scaling factor) with the local quantum uncertainty measure of Girolami, Tufarelli and Adesso (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 240402). Analytical expressions are derived which allow us to formally prove that, within the set of separable configurations, the maximum value of our non-classicality measure is achieved over the set of quantum-classical states (i.e. states ρ which admit a statistical unravelling where each element of the associated ensemble is distinguishable via local measures on B).

  15. Local interaction simulation approach to modelling nonclassical, nonlinear elastic behavior in solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalerandi, Marco; Agostini, Valentina; Delsanto, Pier Paolo; Van Den Abeele, Koen; Johnson, Paul A

    2003-06-01

    Recent studies show that a broad category of materials share "nonclassical" nonlinear elastic behavior much different from "classical" (Landau-type) nonlinearity. Manifestations of "nonclassical" nonlinearity include stress-strain hysteresis and discrete memory in quasistatic experiments, and specific dependencies of the harmonic amplitudes with respect to the drive amplitude in dynamic wave experiments, which are remarkably different from those predicted by the classical theory. These materials have in common soft "bond" elements, where the elastic nonlinearity originates, contained in hard matter (e.g., a rock sample). The bond system normally comprises a small fraction of the total material volume, and can be localized (e.g., a crack in a solid) or distributed, as in a rock. In this paper a model is presented in which the soft elements are treated as hysteretic or reversible elastic units connected in a one-dimensional lattice to elastic elements (grains), which make up the hard matrix. Calculations are performed in the framework of the local interaction simulation approach (LISA). Experimental observations are well predicted by the model, which is now ready both for basic investigations about the physical origins of nonlinear elasticity and for applications to material damage diagnostics.

  16. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian Multistage Game with Nonclassical Information Pattern Using a Direct Solution Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Joshua William

    Game theory has application across multiple fields, spanning from economic strategy to optimal control of an aircraft and missile on an intercept trajectory. The idea of game theory is fascinating in that we can actually mathematically model real-world scenarios and determine optimal decision making. It may not always be easy to mathematically model certain real-world scenarios, nonetheless, game theory gives us an appreciation for the complexity involved in decision making. This complexity is especially apparent when the players involved have access to different information upon which to base their decision making (a nonclassical information pattern). Here we will focus on the class of adversarial two-player games (sometimes referred to as pursuit-evasion games) with nonclassical information pattern. We present a two-sided (simultaneous) optimization solution method for the two-player linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) multistage game. This direct solution method allows for further interpretation of each player's decision making (strategy) as compared to previously used formal solution methods. In addition to the optimal control strategies, we present a saddle point proof and we derive an expression for the optimal performance index value. We provide some numerical results in order to further interpret the optimal control strategies and to highlight real-world application of this game-theoretic optimal solution.

  17. Discriminating strength: a bona fide measure of non-classical correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farace, A; De Pasquale, A; Giovannetti, V [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Rigovacca, L [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    A new measure of non-classical correlations is introduced and characterized. It tests the ability of using a state ρ of a composite system AB as a probe for a quantum illumination task (e.g. see Lloyd 2008 Science 321 1463), in which one is asked to remotely discriminate between the two following scenarios: (i) either nothing happens to the probe, or (ii) the subsystem A is transformed via a local unitary R{sub A} whose properties are partially unspecified when producing ρ. This new measure can be seen as the discrete version of the recently introduced interferometric power measure (Girolami et al 2013 e-print arXiv:1309.1472) and, at least for the case in which A is a qubit, it is shown to coincide (up to an irrelevant scaling factor) with the local quantum uncertainty measure of Girolami, Tufarelli and Adesso (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 240402). Analytical expressions are derived which allow us to formally prove that, within the set of separable configurations, the maximum value of our non-classicality measure is achieved over the set of quantum-classical states (i.e. states ρ which admit a statistical unravelling where each element of the associated ensemble is distinguishable via local measures on B). (paper)

  18. Discriminating strength: a bona fide measure of non-classical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farace, A; De Pasquale, A; Giovannetti, V; Rigovacca, L

    2014-01-01

    A new measure of non-classical correlations is introduced and characterized. It tests the ability of using a state ρ of a composite system AB as a probe for a quantum illumination task (e.g. see Lloyd 2008 Science 321 1463), in which one is asked to remotely discriminate between the two following scenarios: (i) either nothing happens to the probe, or (ii) the subsystem A is transformed via a local unitary R A whose properties are partially unspecified when producing ρ. This new measure can be seen as the discrete version of the recently introduced interferometric power measure (Girolami et al 2013 e-print arXiv:1309.1472) and, at least for the case in which A is a qubit, it is shown to coincide (up to an irrelevant scaling factor) with the local quantum uncertainty measure of Girolami, Tufarelli and Adesso (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 110 240402). Analytical expressions are derived which allow us to formally prove that, within the set of separable configurations, the maximum value of our non-classicality measure is achieved over the set of quantum-classical states (i.e. states ρ which admit a statistical unravelling where each element of the associated ensemble is distinguishable via local measures on B). (paper)

  19. Effect of dielectric medium on the nonclassical properties of nonlinear sphere coherent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Amooghorban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of a medium with dissipation and dispersion and also the curvature of the physical space on the properties of the incident quantum states, we use the quantization of electromagnetic field based on phenomenological approach to obtain input-output relations between radiations on both sides of dielectric slab. By using these relations the fidelity, the Wigner function, and also the quantum correlation of the outgoing state through dielectric slab are obtained for a situation in which the rightward incident state is a nonlinear coherent state on a sphere and the leftward incident state is a vacuum state. Here, the incident states are considered monochromatic and the modeling of the medium is given by the Lorentz' model. Accordingly, we study nonclassical properties of the output states such as the quantum entanglement. It will be observed that the nonclassical properties of the outgoing states depend strongly on the optical property of the medium and also on the curvature of the physical state.

  20. Concrete damage diagnosed using the non-classical nonlinear acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Zhou; Xiao-Zhou, Liu; Xiu-Fen, Gong; E, Nazarov V; Li, Ma

    2009-01-01

    It is known that the strength of concrete is seriously affected by damage and cracking. In this paper, six concrete samples under different damage levels are studied. The experimental results show a linear dependence of the resonance frequency shift on strain amplitude at the fundamental frequency, and approximate quadratic dependence of the amplitudes of the second and third harmonics on strain amplitude at the fundamental frequency as well. In addition, the amplitude of the third harmonics is shown to increase with the increase of damage level, which is even higher than that of the second harmonics in samples with higher damage levels. These are three properties of non-classical nonlinear acoustics. The nonlinear parameters increase from 10 6 to 10 8 with damage level, and are more sensitive to the damage level of the concrete than the linear parameters obtained by using traditional acoustics methods. So, this method based on non-classical nonlinear acoustics may provide a better means of non-destructive testing (NDT) of concrete and other porous materials

  1. Overview on methods for formulating explicit damping matrices for non-classically damped structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.

    1998-04-01

    In computing the dynamic response of a connected system with multiple components having dissimilar damping characteristics, which is often referred to as nonclassically damped system such as nuclear power plant piping systems supported by stiff structures, one needs to define the system-level damping based upon the damping information of components. This is frequently done in practice using approximate methods expressed as composite modal damping with weighting functions. However, when the difference in damping among components is substantial, the composite modal damping may become inappropriate in the characterization of the damping behavior of such systems. In recent years, several new methods have emerged with the expectation that they could produce more exact system-level damping for a group of nonclassically damped structures which are comprised of components that possess classical modal damping. In this paper, an overview is presented to examine these methods in the light of their theoretical basis, the technical merits, and practical applications. To this end, a synthesis method is described, which was shown to reduce to the other methods in the literature

  2. Nonclassical Ly6C− Monocytes Drive the Development of Inflammatory Arthritis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Misharin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Different subsets and/or polarized phenotypes of monocytes and macrophages may play distinct roles during the development and resolution of inflammation. Here, we demonstrate in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis that nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes are required for the initiation and progression of sterile joint inflammation. Moreover, nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes differentiate into inflammatory macrophages (M1, which drive disease pathogenesis and display plasticity during the resolution phase. During the development of arthritis, these cells polarize toward an alternatively activated phenotype (M2, promoting the resolution of joint inflammation. The influx of Ly6C− monocytes and their subsequent classical and then alternative activation occurs without changes in synovial tissue-resident macrophages, which express markers of M2 polarization throughout the course of the arthritis and attenuate joint inflammation during the initiation phase. These data suggest that circulating Ly6C− monocytes recruited to the joint upon injury orchestrate the development and resolution of autoimmune joint inflammation.

  3. Immunomodulation of classical and non-classical HLA molecules by ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Cristina E; Michelin, Severino; Dubner, Diana; Carosella, Edgardo D

    2016-05-01

    Radiotherapy has been employed for the treatment of oncological patients for nearly a century, and together with surgery and chemotherapy, radiation oncology constitutes one of the three pillars of cancer therapy. Ionizing radiation has complex effects on neoplastic cells and on tumor microenvironment: beyond its action as a direct cytotoxic agent, tumor irradiation triggers a series of alterations in tumoral cells, which includes the de novo synthesis of particular proteins and the up/down-regulation of cell surface molecules. Additionally, ionizing radiation may induce the release of "danger signals" which may, in turn lead to cellular and molecular responses by the immune system. This immunomodulatory action of ionizing radiation highlights the importance of the combined use (radiotherapy plus immunotherapy) for cancer healing. Major histocompatibility complex antigens (also called Human Leukocyte Antigens, HLA in humans) are one of those molecules whose expression is modulated after irradiation. This review summarizes the modulatory properties of ionizing radiation on the expression of HLA class I (classical and non-classical) and class II molecules, with special emphasis in non-classical HLA-I molecules. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nonclassicality threshold for the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertesi, Tamas; Pal, Karoly F. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 51, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary)

    2011-10-15

    The nonclassical properties of the noisy three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, {rho}{sub v}=v|GHZ>nonclassical for the parameter range 1/2

  5. Loss of nonclassical properties of quantum states in linear phase-insensitive processes with arbitrary time-dependent parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodonov, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    Conditions of disappearance of different 'nonclassical' properties (usual and high-order squeezing, sub-Poissonian statistics, negativity of s-parametrized quasidistributions) are derived for a quantum oscillator, whose evolution is governed by the standard master equation of quantum optics with arbitrary time-dependent coefficients.

  6. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  7. Nonclassical thermal-state superpositions: Analytical evolution law and decoherence behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-guo; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Wang, Ji-suo; Zhang, Ran

    2018-03-01

    Employing the integration technique within normal products of bosonic operators, we present normal product representations of thermal-state superpositions and investigate their nonclassical features, such as quadrature squeezing, sub-Poissonian distribution, and partial negativity of the Wigner function. We also analytically and numerically investigate their evolution law and decoherence characteristics in an amplitude-decay model via the variations of the probability distributions and the negative volumes of Wigner functions in phase space. The results indicate that the evolution formulas of two thermal component states for amplitude decay can be viewed as the same integral form as a displaced thermal state ρ(V , d) , but governed by the combined action of photon loss and thermal noise. In addition, the larger values of the displacement d and noise V lead to faster decoherence for thermal-state superpositions.

  8. Non-classical homogeneous precipitation mediated by compositional fluctuations in titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nag, S.; Zheng, Y.; Williams, R.E.A.; Devaraj, A.; Boyne, A.; Wang, Y.; Collins, P.C.; Viswanathan, G.B.; Tiley, J.S.; Muddle, B.C.; Banerjee, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents experimental evidence of homogeneous precipitation of the α-phase within the β matrix of a titanium alloy, and then accounts for this phase transformation by a new, non-classical mechanism involving compositional fluctuations, based on the pseudo-spinodal concept [1]. This mechanism involves local compositional fluctuations of small amplitude which, when of a certain magnitude, can favor thermodynamically certain regions of the β matrix to transform congruently to the α-phase but with compositions far from equilibrium. Subsequently, as measured experimentally using the tomographical atom probe, continuous diffusional partitioning between the parent β- and product α-phases during isothermal annealing drives their compositions towards equilibrium. For a given alloy composition, the decomposition mechanism is strongly temperature dependent, which would be expected for homogeneous precipitation via the compositional fluctuation-mediated mechanism but not necessarily for one based on classical nucleation theory. The applicability of this mechanism to phase transformations in general is noted.

  9. Non-classicality criteria: Glauber-Sudarshan P function and Mandel ? parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanian, Moorad

    2018-01-01

    We calculate exactly the quantum mechanical, temporal Wigner quasiprobability density for a single-mode, degenerate parametric amplifier for a system in the Gaussian state, viz., a displaced-squeezed thermal state. The Wigner function allows us to calculate the fluctuations in photon number and the quadrature variance. We contrast the difference between the non-classicality criteria, which is independent of the displacement parameter ?, based on the Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability distribution ? and the classical/non-classical behaviour of the Mandel ? parameter, which depends strongly on ?. We find a phase transition as a function of ? such that at the critical point ?, ?, as a function of ?, goes from strictly classical, for ?, to a mixed classical/non-classical behaviour, for ?.

  10. Is the anomalous magnetic moment the consequence of a non-classical transformation for rotating frames?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisin, B V

    2002-01-01

    We consider the anomalous magnetic moment from an 'optical viewpoint' using an analogy between the motion of a particle with a magnetic moment in a magnetic field and the propagation of an optical pulse through an electro-optical crystal in an electric field. We show that an optical experiment similar to electron magnetic resonance is possible in some electro-optical crystals possessing the Faraday effect. This phenomenon is described by an analogue of the Pauli equation extracted from the Maxwell equation in the slowly varied amplitude approximation. In such an experiment the modulation by rotating fields plays a significant role. From the optical viewpoint the modulation assumes introducing the concept of a point rotation frame with the rotation axis at every point originated from the concept of the optical indicatrix (index ellipsoid). We discuss the connection between the non-classical transformation by transition from one such frame to another and an anomalous magnetic moment

  11. Multinomial Bayesian learning for modeling classical and nonclassical receptive field properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Haruo

    2012-08-01

    We study the interplay of Bayesian inference and natural image learning in a hierarchical vision system, in relation to the response properties of early visual cortex. We particularly focus on a Bayesian network with multinomial variables that can represent discrete feature spaces similar to hypercolumns combining minicolumns, enforce sparsity of activation to learn efficient representations, and explain divisive normalization. We demonstrate that maximal-likelihood learning using sampling-based Bayesian inference gives rise to classical receptive field properties similar to V1 simple cells and V2 cells, while inference performed on the trained network yields nonclassical context-dependent response properties such as cross-orientation suppression and filling in. Comparison with known physiological properties reveals some qualitative and quantitative similarities.

  12. New perspectives for "non-classical" molecules: heavy [1.1.1]propellanes of group 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nied, Dominik; Breher, Frank

    2011-07-01

    Heavy analogues of hydrocarbons intrigue chemists for a number of reasons, not least because they are often fundamentally different from their carbon counterparts and have remained a challenge for both experimentalists and theoreticians for a long time. The appealing properties of [1.1.1]propellanes of group 14 consisting of inverted tetrahedral bridgehead atoms can mainly be attributed to the particular bonding between the latter. More than 20 years after the first member of this family has been published, several contributions to this area have impressively extended the spectrum of these so-called main-group biradicaloids. Still in its infancy, further perspectives for these "non-classical" molecules are now arising. In this tutorial review, early findings and recent developments in this area are presented. Particular attention is drawn on the relationship of unusual structures and unusual reactivities of main-group element compounds in general and in particular of heavy propellane scaffolds of group 14.

  13. Entanglement swapping of noisy states: A kind of superadditivity in nonclassicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Brukner, Caslav; Buzek, Vladimir; Zukowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    We address the question as to whether an entangled state that satisfies local realism will give a violation of the same after entanglement swapping in a suitable scenario. We consider such a possibility as a kind of superadditivity in nonclassicality. Importantly, it will indicate that checking for violation of local realism, in the state obtained after entanglement swapping, can be a method for detecting entanglement in the input state of the swapping procedure. We investigate various entanglement swapping schemes, which involve mixed initial states. The strength of violation of local realism by the state obtained after entanglement swapping is compared with the one for the input states. We obtain a kind of superadditivity of violation of local realism for Werner states, consequent upon entanglement swapping involving Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-state measurements. We also discuss whether entanglement swapping of specific states may be used in quantum repeaters with a substantially reduced need to perform the entanglement distillation step

  14. Universality of Nonclassical Nonlinearity Applications to Non-Destructive Evaluations and Ultrasonic

    CERN Document Server

    Delsanto, Pier Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This book comes as a result of the research work developed in the framework of two international projects: the European Science Foundation supported program NATEMIS (Nonlinear Acoustic Techniques for Micro-Scale Damage Diagnostics) and a Los Alamos-based international network. The main topics of both the programs and the book cover the phenomenology, theory and applications of Nonclassical Nonlinearity (NCNL). NCNL techniques have been found in recent years to be extremely powerful (up to 1000 times more than the corresponding linear techniques) in a wide range of applications, including Material Characterization, Ultrasonics, Geophysics and Maintenance and Restoration of artifacts. These techniques are being adopted as the main inspection and research tool in another European program: AERONEWS (Health monitoring of aircraft by nonlinear elastic wave propagation). In the future, the proposed Universality of NCNL is expected to extend the range of applications to numerous other fields and scientific discipline...

  15. Contemporary commercial music (CCM) survey: who's teaching what in nonclassical music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoVetri, Jeannette L; Weekly, Edrie Means

    2003-06-01

    Currently, there is an increasing interest in and demand for training in a wide variety of nonclassical music--contemporary commercial music (CCM)--and most particularly for music theater. A survey of singing teachers was completed to elucidate their training, education, and experience with and methods of teaching CCM. Teachers were at colleges, universities, and conservatories as well as in private studios, both nationally and in several foreign countries. A substantial percentage of those teaching CCM had neither formal education in teaching it nor professional experience. Many of the respondents indicated conflict between classical and CCM styles. Respondents were generally familiar with voice science and voice medicine as well as certain CCM terminology. Teachers expressed an interest in obtaining more information, with an emphasis on healthy vocal production. These results are discussed, as well as implications for the singing teacher who desires specific training to teach CCM.

  16. Higher-order nonclassical effects generated by multiple-photon annihilation-then-creation and creation-then-annihilation coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hong-Chun; Xiao Jin; Xiong Chao; Zhu Xi-Fang; Xu Xue-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    We explore two observable nonclassical properties of quantum states generated by repeatedly operating annihilation-then-creation (AC) and creation-then-annihilation (CA) on the coherent state, respectively, such as higher-order sub-Poissonian statistics and higher-order squeezing-enhanced effect. The corresponding analytical expressions are derived in detail depending on m . By numerically comparing those quantum properties, it is found that these states above have very different nonclassical properties and nonclassicality is exhibited more strongly after AC operation than after CA operation. (paper)

  17. Investigating β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy through computational approach: classical and non-classical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilimeybodi, Ali; Daneshmehr, Alireza; Sharif-Kashani, Babak

    2018-07-01

    The chronic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors plays a crucial role in cardiac hypertrophy and its progression to heart failure. In β-adrenergic signaling, in addition to the well-established classical pathway, Gs/AC/cAMP/PKA, activation of non-classical pathways such as Gi/PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and Gi/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK contribute in cardiac hypertrophy. The signaling network of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is very complex and not fully understood. So, we use a computational approach to investigate the dynamic response and contribution of β-adrenergic mediators in cardiac hypertrophy. The proposed computational model provides insights into the effects of β-adrenergic classical and non-classical pathways on the activity of hypertrophic transcription factors CREB and GATA4. The results illustrate that the model captures the dynamics of the main signaling mediators and reproduces the experimental observations well. The results also show that despite the low portion of β2 receptors out of total cardiac β-adrenergic receptors, their contribution in the activation of hypertrophic mediators and regulation of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is noticeable and variations in β1/β2 receptors ratio greatly affect the ISO-induced hypertrophic response. The model results illustrate that GSK3β deactivation after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation has a major influence on CREB and GATA4 activation and consequent cardiac hypertrophy. Also, it is found through sensitivity analysis that PKB (Akt) activation has both pro-hypertrophic and anti-hypertrophic effects in β-adrenergic signaling.

  18. An example of enhancement of a non-classical feature of a light beam by mixing with another classical light beam using a beam splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Hari; Mishra, Devendra Kumar

    2005-01-01

    We present here an example where a non-classical feature of a light beam is enhanced simply by mixing with another classical coherent light beam using a beam splitter. This non-classical feature is amplitude-squared squeezing of a Gaussian light beam expressed by a negative value of Y e or a negative value of the normalized quantity W e which can become more negative on enhancement. Here, these values comprise the density, annihilation and creation operators, respectively

  19. Improved CORF model of simple cell combined with non-classical receptive field and its application on edge detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Chai, Guobei; Liu, Wei; Bao, Wenzhuo; Zhao, Xiaoning; Ming, Delie

    2018-02-01

    Simple cells in primary visual cortex are believed to extract local edge information from a visual scene. In this paper, inspired by different receptive field properties and visual information flow paths of neurons, an improved Combination of Receptive Fields (CORF) model combined with non-classical receptive fields was proposed to simulate the responses of simple cell's receptive fields. Compared to the classical model, the proposed model is able to better imitate simple cell's physiologic structure with consideration of facilitation and suppression of non-classical receptive fields. And on this base, an edge detection algorithm as an application of the improved CORF model was proposed. Experimental results validate the robustness of the proposed algorithm to noise and background interference.

  20. Qubit-oscillator systems in the ultrastrong-coupling regime and their potential for preparing nonclassical states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco; Ashhab, Sahel

    2011-03-01

    We consider a system composed of a two-level system (i.e. a qubit) and a harmonic oscillator in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, where the coupling strength is comparable to the qubit and oscillator energy scales. We explore the possibility of preparing nonclassical states in this system, especially in the ground state of the combined system. The nonclassical states that we consider include squeezed states, Schrodinger-cat states and entangled states. We also analyze the nature of the change in the ground state as the coupling strength is increased, going from a separable ground state in the absence of coupling to a highly entangled ground state in the case of very strong coupling. Reference: S. Ashhab and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042311 (2010). We thank support from DARPA, AFOSR, NSA, LPS, ARO, NSF, MEXT, JSPS, FIRST, and JST.

  1. The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent

  2. The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, Peter J., E-mail: peter.spence@awe.co.uk

    2015-09-01

    A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent

  3. Non-Classical C–H···X Hydrogen Bonding and Its Role in Asymmetric Organocatalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ajitha, Manjaly John

    2016-08-17

    Non-classical hydrogen bonds (NCHBs) have attracted significant interest in the past decade particularly because of their important role in asymmetric catalytic systems. These weak interactions (< 4 kcal/mol) offer much flexibility in the preorganization of molecular entities required to achieve high enantioselectivity. Herein, we review some recent important organocatalytic asymmetric reactions where a NCHB serves as a critical factor in determining the stereoselectivity.

  4. Nonclassicality and decoherence of photon-added squeezed coherent Schrödinger kitten states in a Kerr medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, R.; Yogesh, V.

    2018-01-01

    We study the nonclassicality of the evolution of a superposition of an arbitrary number of photon-added squeezed coherent Schrödinger cat states in a nonlinear Kerr medium. The nonlinearity of the medium gives rise to the periodicities of the quantities such as the Wehrl entropy SQ and the negativity δW of the W-distribution, and a series of local minima of these quantities arise at the rational submultiples of the said period. At these local minima the evolving state coincides with the transient Yurke-Stoler type of photon-added squeezed kitten states, which, for the choice of the phase space variables reflecting their macroscopic nature, show extremely short-lived behavior. Proceeding further we provide the closed form tomograms, which furnish the alternate description of these short-lived states. The increasing complexity in the kitten formations induces more number of interference terms that trigger more quantumness of the corresponding states. The nonclassical depth of the photon-added squeezed kitten states are observed to be of maximum possible value. Employing the Lindblad master equation approach we study the amplitude and the phase damping models for the initial state considered here. In the phase damping model the nonclassicality is not completely erased even in the long time limit when the dynamical quantities, such as the negativity δW and the tomogram, assume nontrivial asymptotic values.

  5. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Squeezed and Non-classical Light

    CERN Document Server

    Pike, E; Squeezed and Non-classical Light

    1988-01-01

    The recent generation in the laboratory of phase squeezed and intensity squeezed light beams has brought to fruition the theoretical predictions of such non-classical phenomena which have been made and developed in recent years by a number of workers in the field of quantum optics. A vigorous development is now underway of both theory and experiment and the first measurements have been coi:Jfirmed and extended already in some half dozen laboratories. Although the fields of application of these novellight sources are as yet somewhat hazy in our minds and some inspired thinking is required along these lines, the pace and excitement of the research is very clear. It is to he hoped that the new possibilities of: making measurements below the quantum shot noise lirnit which is made possible by these squeezed states of light willlead to further fundamental advances in the near future. In this NATO ARW a number of the leaders in the field met in the extremely pleasant surroundings of Cortina d'Ampezzo and th...

  6. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Prenucleation Clusters, Classical and Non-Classical Nucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Dirk

    2015-07-20

    Recent observations of prenucleation species and multi-stage crystal nucleation processes challenge the long-established view on the thermodynamics of crystal formation. Here, we review and generalize extensions to classical nucleation theory. Going beyond the conventional implementation as has been used for more than a century now, nucleation inhibitors, precursor clusters and non-classical nucleation processes are rationalized as well by analogous concepts based on competing interface and bulk energy terms. This is illustrated by recent examples of species formed prior to/instead of crystal nucleation and multi-step nucleation processes. Much of the discussed insights were obtained from molecular simulation using advanced sampling techniques, briefly summarized herein for both nucleation-controlled and diffusion-controlled aggregate formation. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  7. Imidazolines as Non-Classical Bioisosteres of N-Acyl homoserine lactones and Quorum Sensing Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Montenegro-Sustaita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of selected 2-substituted imidazolines were synthesized in moderate to excellent yields by a modification of protocols reported in the literature. They were evaluated as potential non-classical bioisosteres of AHL with the aim of counteracting bacterial pathogenicity. Imidazolines 18a, 18e and 18f at various concentrations reduced the violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum, suggesting an anti-quorum sensing profile against Gram-negative bacteria. Imidazoline 18b did not affect the production of violacein, but had a bacteriostatic effect at 100 µM and a bactericidal effect at 1 mM. Imidazoline 18a bearing a hexyl phenoxy moiety was the most active compound of the series, rendering a 72% inhibitory effect of quorum sensing at 100 µM. Imidazoline 18f bearing a phenyl nonamide substituent presented an inhibitory effect on quorum sensing at a very low concentration (1 nM, with a reduction percentage of 28%. This compound showed an irregular performance, decreasing inhibition at concentrations higher than 10 µM, until reaching 100 µM, at which concentration it increased the inhibitory effect with a 49% reduction percentage. When evaluated on Serratia marcescens, compound 18f inhibited the production of prodigiosin by 40% at 100 μM.

  8. Chem/bio sensing with non-classical light and integrated photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J; Schwartz, M; Rengstl, U; Jetter, M; Michler, P; Mizaikoff, B

    2018-01-29

    Modern quantum technology currently experiences extensive advances in applicability in communications, cryptography, computing, metrology and lithography. Harnessing this technology platform for chem/bio sensing scenarios is an appealing opportunity enabling ultra-sensitive detection schemes. This is further facilliated by the progress in fabrication, miniaturization and integration of visible and infrared quantum photonics. Especially, the combination of efficient single-photon sources together with waveguiding/sensing structures, serving as active optical transducer, as well as advanced detector materials is promising integrated quantum photonic chem/bio sensors. Besides the intrinsic molecular selectivity and non-destructive character of visible and infrared light based sensing schemes, chem/bio sensors taking advantage of non-classical light sources promise sensitivities beyond the standard quantum limit. In the present review, recent achievements towards on-chip chem/bio quantum photonic sensing platforms based on N00N states are discussed along with appropriate recognition chemistries, facilitating the detection of relevant (bio)analytes at ultra-trace concentration levels. After evaluating recent developments in this field, a perspective for a potentially promising sensor testbed is discussed for reaching integrated quantum sensing with two fiber-coupled GaAs chips together with semiconductor quantum dots serving as single-photon sources.

  9. Algebraic and group treatments to nonlinear displaced number states and their nonclassicality features: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asili Firouzabadi, N; Tavassoly, M K; Faghihi, M J

    2015-01-01

    Recently, nonlinear displaced number states (NDNSs) have been manually introduced, in which the deformation function f(n) has been artificially added to the previously well-known displaced number states (DNSs). Indeed, just a simple comparison has been performed between the standard coherent state and nonlinear coherent state for the formation of NDNSs. In the present paper, after expressing enough physical motivation of our procedure, four distinct classes of NDNSs are presented by applying algebraic and group treatments. To achieve this purpose, by considering the DNSs and recalling the nonlinear coherent states formalism, the NDNSs are logically defined through an algebraic consideration. In addition, by using a particular class of Gilmore–Perelomov-type of SU(1, 1) and a class of SU(2) coherent states, the NDNSs are introduced via group-theoretical approach. Then, in order to examine the nonclassical behavior of these states, sub-Poissonian statistics by evaluating Mandel parameter and Wigner quasi-probability distribution function associated with the obtained NDNSs are discussed, in detail. (paper)

  10. On Some Nonclassical Algebraic Properties of Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interval-valued fuzzy soft sets realize a hybrid soft computing model in a general framework. Both Molodtsov’s soft sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets can be seen as special cases of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. In this study, we first compare four different types of interval-valued fuzzy soft subsets and reveal the relations among them. Then we concentrate on investigating some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets under the soft product operations. We show that some fundamental algebraic properties including the commutative and associative laws do not hold in the conventional sense, but hold in weaker forms characterized in terms of the relation =L. We obtain a number of algebraic inequalities of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets characterized by interval-valued fuzzy soft inclusions. We also establish the weak idempotent law and the weak absorptive law of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets using interval-valued fuzzy soft J-equal relations. It is revealed that the soft product operations ∧ and ∨ of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets do not always have similar algebraic properties. Moreover, we find that only distributive inequalities described by the interval-valued fuzzy soft L-inclusions hold for interval-valued fuzzy soft sets.

  11. On some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Feng, Feng; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Interval-valued fuzzy soft sets realize a hybrid soft computing model in a general framework. Both Molodtsov's soft sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets can be seen as special cases of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. In this study, we first compare four different types of interval-valued fuzzy soft subsets and reveal the relations among them. Then we concentrate on investigating some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets under the soft product operations. We show that some fundamental algebraic properties including the commutative and associative laws do not hold in the conventional sense, but hold in weaker forms characterized in terms of the relation = L . We obtain a number of algebraic inequalities of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets characterized by interval-valued fuzzy soft inclusions. We also establish the weak idempotent law and the weak absorptive law of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets using interval-valued fuzzy soft J-equal relations. It is revealed that the soft product operations ∧ and ∨ of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets do not always have similar algebraic properties. Moreover, we find that only distributive inequalities described by the interval-valued fuzzy soft L-inclusions hold for interval-valued fuzzy soft sets.

  12. Skeletal muscle wasting: new role of nonclassical renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Rivera, Juan C; Garcia, Dominga

    2017-05-01

    Skeletal muscle can be affected by many physiological and pathological conditions that contribute to the development of muscle weakness, including skeletal muscle loss, inflammatory processes, or fibrosis. Therefore, research into therapeutic treatment alternatives or alleviation of these effects on skeletal muscle is of great importance. Recent studies have shown that angiotensin (1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] - a vasoactive peptide of the nonclassical axis in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) - and its Mas receptor are expressed in skeletal muscle. Ang-(1-7), through its Mas receptor, prevents or diminishes deleterious effects induced by skeletal muscle disease or injury. Specifically, the Ang-(1-7)-Mas receptor axis modulates molecular mechanisms involved in muscle mass regulation, such as the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, the insulin-like growth factor type 1/Akt (protein kinase B) pathway, or myonuclear apoptosis, and also inflammation and fibrosis pathways. Although further research into this topic and the possible side effects of Ang-(1-7) is necessary, these findings are promising, and suggest that the Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis can be considered a possible therapeutic target for treating patients with muscular disorders.

  13. On Some Nonclassical Algebraic Properties of Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Interval-valued fuzzy soft sets realize a hybrid soft computing model in a general framework. Both Molodtsov's soft sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets can be seen as special cases of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. In this study, we first compare four different types of interval-valued fuzzy soft subsets and reveal the relations among them. Then we concentrate on investigating some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets under the soft product operations. We show that some fundamental algebraic properties including the commutative and associative laws do not hold in the conventional sense, but hold in weaker forms characterized in terms of the relation =L. We obtain a number of algebraic inequalities of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets characterized by interval-valued fuzzy soft inclusions. We also establish the weak idempotent law and the weak absorptive law of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets using interval-valued fuzzy soft J-equal relations. It is revealed that the soft product operations ∧ and ∨ of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets do not always have similar algebraic properties. Moreover, we find that only distributive inequalities described by the interval-valued fuzzy soft L-inclusions hold for interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. PMID:25143964

  14. Does Wearing Textured Insoles during Non-class Time Improve Proprioception in Professional Dancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, N; Tirosh, O; Adams, R; Karin, J; Waddington, G

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to determine whether textured insoles inserted in the sports shoes of young dancers improved their inversion and eversion ankle movement discrimination. 26 ballet dancers (14 female, 12 male) from the Australian Ballet School, ages 14-19 years, were divided into 2 groups according to sex and class levels. During the first 4 weeks, the first intervention group (GRP1) was asked to wear textured insoles in their sports shoes during non-class periods, and the second intervention group (GRP2) followed standard practice. In the next 4 weeks, GRP2 was asked to wear the textured insoles and GRP1 did not wear the textured insoles. Participants were tested pre-intervention, after 4 weeks, and at 8 weeks for both inversion and eversion ankle discrimination. In both inversion and eversion testing positions, interaction was found between the 2 groups and the 3 testing times (p<0.001), with significant differences between the first testing and the second testing (p=0.038 and p=0.019, respectively), and between the third testing and the second testing (p=0.003 and p=0.029, respectively). In conclusion, the stimulation to the proprioceptive system arising from textured insoles worn for 4 weeks was sufficient to improve the ankle proprioception of ballet dancers, in both inversion and eversion movements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Prevalence of Nonclassic Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia in Turkish Children Presenting with Premature Pubarche, Hirsutism, or Oligomenorrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigdem Binay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH, caused by mutations in the gene encoding 21-hydroxylase, is a common autosomal recessive disorder. In the present work, our aim was to determine the prevalence of NCAH presenting as premature pubarche (PP, hirsutism, or polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS and to evaluate the molecular spectrum of CYP21A2 mutations in NCAH patients. Methods. A total of 126 patients (122 females, 4 males with PP, hirsutism, or PCOS were included in the present study. All patients underwent an ACTH stimulation test. NCAH was considered to be present when the stimulated 17-hydroxyprogesterone plasma level was >10 ng/mL. Results. Seventy-one of the 126 patients (56% presented with PP, 29 (23% with PCOS, and 26 (21% with hirsutism. Six patients (4,7% were diagnosed with NCAH based on mutational analysis. Four different mutations (Q318X, P30L, V281L, and P453S were found in six NCAH patients. One patient with NCAH was a compound heterozygote for this mutation, and five were heterozygous. Conclusion. NCAH should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with PP, hirsutism, and PCOS, especially in countries in which consanguineous marriages are prevalent.

  16. Propagation of biochirality: crossovers and nonclassical crystallization kinetics of aspartic acid in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tu; Lin, Yu Kun; Tsai, Ya Chung; Lee, Hung Lin

    2013-11-01

    All experimental procedures discussed could be treated as a screening tool for probing the existence of molecular association among the chiral molecules and the solvent system. The molecular association phases of a racemic conglomerate solution (CS) and a racemic compound solution (RCS), and the templating effect of aspartic acid solid surface were observed to minimize the chance of redissolving racemic conglomerate and racemic compound aspartic acid in water and reforming an RCS in crossovers experiments. Only 1 %wt% of l-aspartic acid was adequate enough to induce a transformation from a racemic compound aspartic acid to a racemic conglomerate aspartic acid. This would make the propagation of biochirality more feasible and sound. However, tetrapeptide, (l-aspartic acid)4 , failed to induce enantioseparation as templates purely by crystallization. Nonclassical crystallization theory was needed to take into account the existence of a CS. Fundamental parameters of the crystallization kinetics such as the induction time, interfacial energy, Gibbs energetic barrier, nucleation rate, and critical size of stable nuclei of: (i) racemic compound aspartic acid, (ii) racemic compound aspartic acid seeded with 1 %wt% l-aspartic acid, (iii) racemic conglomerate aspartic acid, and (iv) l-aspartic acid were evaluated and compared with different initial supersaturation ratios. Morphological studies of crystals grown from the crystallization kinetics were also carried out. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Identification and estimation of nonlinear models using two samples with nonclassical measurement errors

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2010-05-01

    This paper considers identification and estimation of a general nonlinear Errors-in-Variables (EIV) model using two samples. Both samples consist of a dependent variable, some error-free covariates, and an error-prone covariate, for which the measurement error has unknown distribution and could be arbitrarily correlated with the latent true values; and neither sample contains an accurate measurement of the corresponding true variable. We assume that the regression model of interest - the conditional distribution of the dependent variable given the latent true covariate and the error-free covariates - is the same in both samples, but the distributions of the latent true covariates vary with observed error-free discrete covariates. We first show that the general latent nonlinear model is nonparametrically identified using the two samples when both could have nonclassical errors, without either instrumental variables or independence between the two samples. When the two samples are independent and the nonlinear regression model is parameterized, we propose sieve Quasi Maximum Likelihood Estimation (Q-MLE) for the parameter of interest, and establish its root-n consistency and asymptotic normality under possible misspecification, and its semiparametric efficiency under correct specification, with easily estimated standard errors. A Monte Carlo simulation and a data application are presented to show the power of the approach.

  18. Non-classical neutron beams for fundamental and solid state research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, H.

    2008-01-01

    The curious dual nature of the neutron, sometimes a particle, sometimes a wave, is wonderfully manifested in the various non-local interference and quantum contextuality effects observed in neutron interferometry. Non-classical states may become useful for novel fundamental and solid state research. Here we discuss unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments and we show how entanglement effects in a single particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality. In all cases of interactions, parasitic beams are produced which cannot be recombined completely with the original beam. This means that a complete reconstruction of the original state would, in principle, be impossible which causes a kind of intrinsic irreversibility. Even small interaction potentials can have huge effects when they are applied in quantum Zeno-like experiments. Recently, it has been shown that an entanglement between external and internal degrees of freedom exists even in single particle systems. This contextuality phenomenon also shows that a quantum system carries much more information than usually extracted. The path towards advanced neutron quantum optics will be discussed. (author)

  19. A non-classical view of the modulation of mineral precipitation by organic additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Ruiz-Agudo, Cristina; Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Putnis, Christine; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Questions persist on the mechanisms of crystallization of sparingly soluble minerals such as calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate or barium sulphate. Compared to CaCO3, the mechanisms of nucleation and growth in the CaC2O4-H2O or BaSO4-H2O systems have received less attention. These phases are important due to their relevance as biominerals and/or unwanted mineral deposits in technological applications. Growing evidence suggests that sparingly soluble salts form by non-classical nucleation and growth pathways, where pre-nucleation ion associates and amorphous (solid or liquid) precursor phase(s) play a critical role (e.g. Rodríguez-Navarro et al. (2015), Ruiz-Agudo et al. (2015)). Indeed the identification of pre-nucleation species in these systems and their strong interactions with organic compounds (Verch et al. 2011) raises the possibility that the control of organics on biomineralization may begin even earlier than previously thought. A sound knowledge of the physical mechanisms by which acidic macromolecules affect nucleation and early growth may offer general insights concerning the molecular control of biomineralization, as well as being critical for improving strategies to control unwanted mineral deposition or for the synthesis of biomimetic materials. Here we present investigations on the initial stages of the precipitation of these relevant minerals in organic-free solutions to identify the precipitation pathway and to look for any potential precursor phase(s) to the final, crystalline polymorph. As well, we explore the effects that several acidic organic compounds have on the different precipitation stages identified. We find that organic additives such as citric acid, polyacrilic acid or a commercial copolymer of maleic acid/allyl sulfonic acid with phosphonate groups can be active at modifying pre-nucleation stages (destabilizing of pre-nucleation species or hampering the aggregation and growth of pre-nucleation associates) and subsequently strongly

  20. Diagnosis and molecular characterization of non-classic forms of Tay-Sachs disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, R; Kok, F; Burin, M G; Sá Miranda, M C; Vasques, C; Henriques-Souza, A M M; Giugliani, R; Vainzof, Mariz; Pereira, L V

    2006-06-01

    Molecular analysis of five Brazilian families, including eight patients presenting with nonclassic Tay-Sachs disease, was performed to identify frequent causative mutations and their correlation with clinical course. Three patients were affected by the B1 subacute variant and were shown to carry the R178H mutation (the DN allele), which is also common among Portuguese patients. Two of them were compound heterozygotes, whereas the third presented with the mutation in both alleles. Since Brazil was a Portuguese colony for over two centuries, common ancestry might be the probable explanation. The fourth patient presented with a juvenile phenotype and carries the R499H mutation, which has been reported only once worldwide and is associated with residual enzyme activity, responsible for a slower clinical course. The fifth family, of an Ashkenazi Jewish background, showed an extensive intrafamilial clinical variability among three affected sibs presenting with muscle atrophy, ataxia, and psychiatric symptoms. They were first diagnosed as having atypical spinal muscular atrophy and, subsequently, spinocerebellar ataxia, but, recently, the diagnosis of late-onset Tay-Sachs disease was confirmed based on reduced plasma hexosaminidase A activity and the G269S/InsTATC1278 genotype. It is therefore highly recommended to test patients with a similar clinical history for Tay-Sachs disease. In the same family, one first cousin committed suicide at the age of 24 years, presenting with a clinical phenotype that suggested an undiagnosed case and highlighting the effect of the intrafamilial clinical variability in delaying a prompt diagnosis. It is now recognized that his parents are, in fact, a carrier couple. Additionally, another relative had been previously identified as a heterozygote in a Tay-Sachs disease screening program, but the information was not shared among the family. Since this information might anticipate diagnosis and genetic counseling, it is advisable that

  1. Mathematical and numerical study of nonlinear hyperbolic equations: model coupling and nonclassical shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutin, B.

    2009-11-01

    This thesis concerns the mathematical and numerical study of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations. A first part deals with an emergent problematic: the coupling of hyperbolic equations. The pursued applications are linked with the mathematical coupling of computing platforms, dedicated to an adaptative simulation of multi-scale phenomena. We propose and analyze a new coupling formalism based on extended PDE systems avoiding the geometric treatment of the interfaces. In addition, it allows to formulate the problem in a multidimensional setting, with possible covering of the coupled models. This formalism allows in particular to equip the coupling procedure with viscous regularization mechanisms, useful in the selection of natural discontinuous solutions. We analyze existence and uniqueness in the framework of a parabolic regularization a la Dafermos. Existence of a solution holds true under very general conditions but failure of uniqueness may naturally arise as soon as resonance occurs at the interfaces. Next, we highlight that our extended PDE framework gives rise to another regularization strategy based on thick interfaces. In this setting, we prove existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the Cauchy problem for initial data in L ∞ . The main tool consists in the derivation of a flexible and robust finite volume method for general triangulation which is analyzed in the setting of entropy measure-valued solutions by DiPerna. The second part is devoted to the definition of a finite volume scheme for the computing of nonclassical solutions of a scalar conservation law based on a kinetic relation. This scheme offers the feature to be stricto sensu conservative, in opposition to a Glimm approach that is only statistically conservative. The validity of our approach is illustrated through numerical examples. (author)

  2. Behavior of thin-walled beams made of advanced composite materials and incorporating non-classical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librescu, Liviu; Song, Ohseop

    1991-11-01

    Several results concerning the refined theory of thin-walled beams of arbitrary closed cross-section incorporating nonclassical effects are presented. These effects are related both with the exotic properties characterizing the advanced composite material structures and the nonuniform torsional model. A special case of the general equations is used to study several problems of cantilevered thin-walled beams and to assess the influence of the incorporated effects. The results presented in this paper could be useful toward a more rational design of aeronautical or aerospace constructions, as well as of helicopter or tilt rotor blades constructed of advanced composite materials.

  3. A nonclassical Radau collocation method for solving the Lane-Emden equations of the polytropic index 4.75 ≤ α < 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirani, M. D.; Maleki, M.; Kajani, M. T.

    2014-11-01

    A numerical method for solving the Lane-Emden equations of the polytropic index α when 4.75 ≤ α ≤ 5 is introduced. The method is based upon nonclassical Gauss-Radau collocation points and Freud type weights. Nonclassical orthogonal polynomials, nonclassical Radau points and weighted interpolation are introduced and are utilized in the interval [0,1]. A smooth, strictly monotonic transformation is used to map the infinite domain x ∈ [0,∞) onto a half-open interval t ∈ [0,1). The resulting problem on the finite interval is then transcribed to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations using collocation. The method is easy to implement and yields very accurate results.

  4. Comparison between photon annihilation-then-creation and photon creation-then-annihilation thermal states: Non-classical and non-Gaussian properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xue-Xiang; Yuan, Hong-Chun; Wang, Yan

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the nonclassical properties of arbitrary number photon annihilation-then-creation operation (AC) and creation-then-annihilation operation (CA) to the thermal state (TS), whose normalization factors are related to the polylogarithm function. Then we compare their quantum characters, such as photon number distribution, average photon number, Mandel Q-parameter, purity and the Wigner function. Because of the noncommutativity between the annihilation operator and the creation operator, the ACTS and the CATS have different nonclassical properties. It is found that nonclassical properties are exhibited more strongly after AC than after CA. In addition we also examine their non-Gaussianity. The result shows that the ACTS can present a slightly bigger non-Gaussianity than the CATS.

  5. Comparison between photon annihilation-then-creation and photon creation-then-annihilation thermal states: Non-classical and non-Gaussian properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xue-Xiang; Wang Yan; Yuan Hong-Chun

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the nonclassical properties of arbitrary number photon annihilation-then-creation operation (AC) and creation-then-annihilation operation (CA) to the thermal state (TS), whose normalization factors are related to the polylogarithm function. Then we compare their quantum characters, such as photon number distribution, average photon number, Mandel Q-parameter, purity and the Wigner function. Because of the noncommutativity between the annihilation operator and the creation operator, the ACTS and the CATS have different nonclassical properties. It is found that nonclassical properties are exhibited more strongly after AC than after CA. In addition we also examine their non-Gaussianity. The result shows that the ACTS can present a slightly bigger non-Gaussianity than the CATS. (general)

  6. Estrogens induce rapid cytoskeleton re-organization in human dermal fibroblasts via the non-classical receptor GPR30.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Carnesecchi

    Full Text Available The post-menopausal decrease in estrogen circulating levels results in rapid skin deterioration pointing out to a protective effect exerted by these hormones. The identity of the skin cell type responding to estrogens is unclear as are the cellular and molecular processes they elicit. Here, we reported that lack of estrogens induces rapid re-organization of the human dermal fibroblast cytoskeleton resulting in striking cell shape change. This morphological change was accompanied by a spatial re-organization of focal adhesion and a substantial reduction of their number as evidenced by vinculin and actin co-staining. Cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization was fully restored upon 17β-estradiol (E2 addition. Treatment with specific ER antagonists and cycloheximide respectively showed that the E2 acts independently of the classical Estrogen Receptors and that cell shape change is mediated by non-genomic mechanisms. E2 treatment resulted in a rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 but not Src or PI3K. We show that human fibroblasts express the non-classical E2 receptor GPR30 and that its agonist G-1 phenocopies the effect of E2. Inhibiting GPR30 through treatment with the G-15 antagonist or specific shRNA impaired E2 effects. Altogether, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which estrogens act on skin fibroblast by regulating cell shape through the non-classical G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 and ERK1/2 activation.

  7. Estrogens induce rapid cytoskeleton re-organization in human dermal fibroblasts via the non-classical receptor GPR30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnesecchi, Julie; Malbouyres, Marilyne; de Mets, Richard; Balland, Martial; Beauchef, Gallic; Vié, Katell; Chamot, Christophe; Lionnet, Claire; Ruggiero, Florence; Vanacker, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    The post-menopausal decrease in estrogen circulating levels results in rapid skin deterioration pointing out to a protective effect exerted by these hormones. The identity of the skin cell type responding to estrogens is unclear as are the cellular and molecular processes they elicit. Here, we reported that lack of estrogens induces rapid re-organization of the human dermal fibroblast cytoskeleton resulting in striking cell shape change. This morphological change was accompanied by a spatial re-organization of focal adhesion and a substantial reduction of their number as evidenced by vinculin and actin co-staining. Cell morphology and cytoskeleton organization was fully restored upon 17β-estradiol (E2) addition. Treatment with specific ER antagonists and cycloheximide respectively showed that the E2 acts independently of the classical Estrogen Receptors and that cell shape change is mediated by non-genomic mechanisms. E2 treatment resulted in a rapid and transient activation of ERK1/2 but not Src or PI3K. We show that human fibroblasts express the non-classical E2 receptor GPR30 and that its agonist G-1 phenocopies the effect of E2. Inhibiting GPR30 through treatment with the G-15 antagonist or specific shRNA impaired E2 effects. Altogether, our data reveal a novel mechanism by which estrogens act on skin fibroblast by regulating cell shape through the non-classical G protein-coupled receptor GPR30 and ERK1/2 activation.

  8. Towards the unified non-classical physics: account for quantum fluctuations in equilibrium thermodynamics via the effective temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.G.Rudoy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of effective temperature (ET T*(T0, T is used in order to approximately "quantize" the thermodynamic functions of the dynamical object which is in the thermal equilibrium with thermal bath being at constant temperature T (T0=E0/kB, where E0 is the ground-state energy, kB - Boltzmann constant, is the characteristic ``quantum'' temperature of the system itself. On these grounds the extensive comparative investigation is carried out for the ``standard model'' of statistical mechanics - the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator (HO. Three well-known approaches are considered and their thermodynamic consequences thoroughly studied. These are: the exact quantum, or non-classical Planck-Einstein approach, intermediate, or semiclassical Bloch-Wigner approach and, finally, the pure classical, or Maxwell-Boltzmann approach.

  9. Non-classical logic inverter coupling a ZnO nanowire-based Schottky barrier transistor and adjacent Schottky diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Hossein; Raza, Syed Raza Ali; Lee, Hee Sung; Im, Seongil

    2014-08-21

    On a single ZnO nanowire (NW), we fabricated an inverter-type device comprising a Schottky diode (SD) and field-effect transistor (FET), aiming at 1-dimensional (1D) electronic circuits with low power consumption. The SD and adjacent FET worked respectively as the load and driver, so that voltage signals could be easily extracted as the output. In addition, NW FET with a transparent conducting oxide as top gate turned out to be very photosensitive, although ZnO NW SD was blind to visible light. Based on this, we could achieve an array of photo-inverter cells on one NW. Our non-classical inverter is regarded as quite practical for both logic and photo-sensing due to its performance as well as simple device configuration.

  10. Influence of pump-field scattering on nonclassical-light generation in a photonic-band-gap nonlinear planar waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perina, Jan Jr.; Sibilia, Concita; Tricca, Daniela; Bertolotti, Mario

    2005-01-01

    Optical parametric process occurring in a nonlinear planar waveguide can serve as a source of light with nonclassical properties. The properties of the generated fields are substantially modified by scattering of the nonlinearly interacting fields in a photonic-band-gap structure inside the waveguide. A general quantum model of linear operator amplitude corrections to the amplitude mean values and its numerical analysis provide conditions for efficient squeezed-light generation as well as generation of light with sub-Poissonian photon-number statistics. The destructive influence of phase mismatch of the nonlinear interaction can fully be compensated using a suitable photonic-band-gap structure inside the waveguide. Also an increase of the signal-to-noise ratio of the incident optical field can be reached in the waveguide

  11. Nuclear translocation of glutathione S-transferase {pi} is mediated by a non-classical localization signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakatsu, Miho [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Goto, Shinji, E-mail: sgoto@nagasaki-u.ac.jp [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Yoshida, Takako; Urata, Yoshishige; Li, Tao-Sheng [Department of Stem Cell Biology, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan)

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is abrogated by the deletion of the last 16 amino acid residues in the carboxy-terminal region, indicating that residues 195-208 of GST{pi} are required for nuclear translocation. {yields} The lack of a contiguous stretch of positively charged amino acid residues within the carboxy-terminal region of GST{pi}, suggests that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is mediated by a non-classical nuclear localization signal. {yields} An in vitro transport assay shows that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is dependent on cytosolic factors and ATP. -- Abstract: Glutathione S-transferase {pi} (GST{pi}), a member of the GST family of multifunctional enzymes, is highly expressed in human placenta and involved in the protection of cellular components against electrophilic compounds or oxidative stress. We have recently found that GST{pi} is expressed in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nucleus in some cancer cells, and that the nuclear expression of GST{pi} appears to correlate with resistance to anti-cancer drugs. Although the mitochondrial targeting signal of GST{pi} was previously identified in the amino-terminal region, the mechanism of nuclear translocation remains completely unknown. In this study, we find that the region of GST{pi}195-208 is critical for nuclear translocation, which is mediated by a novel and non-classical nuclear localization signal. In addition, using an in vitro transport assay, we demonstrate that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} depends on the cytosolic extract and ATP. Although further experiments are needed to understand in depth the precise mechanism of nuclear translocation of GST{pi}, our results may help to establish more efficient anti-cancer therapy, especially with respect to resistance to anti-cancer drugs.

  12. Nonclassical dynamics of the methyl group in 1,1,1-triphenylethane. Evidence from powder 1H NMR spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Osior, Agnieszka

    2017-03-14

    According to the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory, hindered rotation of methyl groups, evidenced in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) line shapes, is a nonclassical process. It comprises a number of quantum-rate processes measured by two different quantum-rate constants. The classical jump model employing only one rate constant is reproduced if these quantum constants happen to be equal. The values of their ratio, or the nonclassicallity coefficient, determined hitherto from NMR spectra of single crystals and solutions range from about 1.20 to 1.30 in the latter case to above 5.0 in the former, with the value of 1 corresponding to the jump model. Presently, first systematic investigations of the DQR effects in wide-line NMR spectra of a powder sample are reported. For 1,1,1-triphenylethane deuterated in the aromatic positions, the relevant line-shape effects were monitored in the range 99–121 K. The values of the nonclassicality coefficient dropping from 2.7 to 1.7 were evaluated in line shape fits to the experimental powder spectra from the range 99–108 K. At these temperatures, the fits with the conventional line-shape model are visibly inferior to the DQR fits. Using a theoretical model reported earlier, a semiquantitative interpretation of the DQR parameters evaluated from the spectra is given. It is shown that the DQR effects as such can be detected in wide-line NMR spectra of powdered samples, which are relatively facile to measure. However, a fully quantitative picture of these effects can only be obtained from the much more demanding experiments on single crystals.

  13. Characterization of novel StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mutations causing non-classic lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa E Flück

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR is crucial for transport of cholesterol to mitochondria where biosynthesis of steroids is initiated. Loss of StAR function causes lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH. OBJECTIVE: StAR gene mutations causing partial loss of function manifest atypical and may be mistaken as familial glucocorticoid deficiency. Only a few mutations have been reported. DESIGN: To report clinical, biochemical, genetic, protein structure and functional data on two novel StAR mutations, and to compare them with published literature. SETTING: Collaboration between the University Children's Hospital Bern, Switzerland, and the CIBERER, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Autonomous University, Barcelona, Spain. PATIENTS: Two subjects of a non-consanguineous Caucasian family were studied. The 46,XX phenotypic normal female was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at the age of 10 months, had normal pubertal development and still has no signs of hypergonodatropic hypogonadism at 32 years of age. Her 46,XY brother was born with normal male external genitalia and was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at 14 months. Puberty was normal and no signs of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism are present at 29 years of age. RESULTS: StAR gene analysis revealed two novel compound heterozygote mutations T44HfsX3 and G221S. T44HfsX3 is a loss-of-function StAR mutation. G221S retains partial activity (∼30% and is therefore responsible for a milder, non-classic phenotype. G221S is located in the cholesterol binding pocket and seems to alter binding/release of cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: StAR mutations located in the cholesterol binding pocket (V187M, R188C, R192C, G221D/S seem to cause non-classic lipoid CAH. Accuracy of genotype-phenotype prediction by in vitro testing may vary with the assays employed.

  14. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in the treatment of non-classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 11-hydroxylase deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalani, Amir; Thomas, Nithin; Sacerdote, Alan; Bahtiyar, Gül

    2013-03-18

    Non-classic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) has been associated with insulin resistance (IR). Therapies such as metformin, thiazolidinediones and lifestyle alterations improve IR and also ameliorate the biochemical and clinical abnormalities of NCAH, much as they do in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). More recently, bariatric surgery, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP), has also been associated with improvement in IR and amelioration of PCOS and may, therefore, be beneficial in NCAH. We report a case of a 39-year-old, deaf-mute, obese woman with NCAH due to 11-hydroxylase deficiency who underwent RYGBP followed by improvement of NCAH manifestations. She was initially treated with metformin and pioglitazone, which lowered serum 11-deoxycortisol from 198 ng/dl (irregular menses normalised as well. We conclude that RYGBP, like other interventions that reduce IR, may be another way of treating non-classic 11-hydroxylase deficiency in selected patients.

  15. The synthesis of [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]venlafaxine: a non-classical, fast-acting antidepressant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, A.D.; Gjedde, A. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital, PET Center, Aarhus (Denmark); Smith, D.F. [Aarhus Univ. Psychiatric Hospital, Inst. for Biological Psychiatry, Risskov (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    As part of our program to develop PET tracers for the 5-HT reuptake site, venlafaxine, a non-classical, fast-acting antidepressant, was selected as a candidate for labelling with {sup 11}C for in vivo evaluation. [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]venlafaxine was produced by the alkylation of O-desmethyl venlafaxine with [{sup 11}C]methyl iodide followed by HPLC purification and formulation. Radiochemically pure [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]venlafaxine was obtained in a 30 {+-} 5% decay corrected radiochemical yield and a specific activity > 50 GBq/{mu}mol(1.4 Ci/{mu}mol) at the end of synthesis. For a typical production starting with 46 GBq (1.3 Ci) [{sup 11}C]CO{sub 2}, 5.2 GBq (140 mCi) [O-methyl-{sup 11}C]venlafaxine was obtained as a sterile, formulated solution in a synthesis time of 30 min (counted from EOB). (Author).

  16. Non-classical nuclear localization signal peptides for high efficiency lipofection of primary neurons and neuronal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H; Zhu, J; Maronski, M; Kotzbauer, P T; Lee, V M-Y; Dichter, M A; Diamond, S L

    2002-01-01

    Gene transfer into CNS is critical for potential therapeutic applications as well as for the study of the genetic basis of neural development and nerve function. Unfortunately, lipid-based gene transfer to CNS cells is extremely inefficient since the nucleus of these post-mitotic cells presents a significant barrier to transfection. We report the development of a simple and highly efficient lipofection method for primary embryonic rat hippocampal neurons (up to 25% transfection) that exploits the M9 sequence of the non-classical nuclear localization signal of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 for targeting beta(2)-karyopherin (transportin-1). M9-assistant lipofection resulted in 20-100-fold enhancement of transfection over lipofection alone for embryonic-derived retinal ganglion cells, rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells, embryonic rat ventral mesencephalon neurons, as well as the clinically relevant human NT2 cells or retinoic acid-differentiated NT2 neurons. This technique can facilitate the implementation of promoter construct experiments in post-mitotic cells, stable transformant generation, and dominant-negative mutant expression techniques in CNS cells.

  17. P2X7 receptors regulate multiple types of membrane trafficking responses and non-classical secretion pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Dubyak, George R

    2009-06-01

    Activation of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) triggers a remarkably diverse array of membrane trafficking responses in leukocytes and epithelial cells. These responses result in altered profiles of cell surface lipid and protein composition that can modulate the direct interactions of P2X7R-expressing cells with other cell types in the circulation, in blood vessels, at epithelial barriers, or within sites of immune and inflammatory activation. Additionally, these responses can result in the release of bioactive proteins, lipids, and large membrane complexes into extracellular compartments for remote communication between P2X7R-expressing cells and other cells that amplify or modulate inflammation, immunity, and responses to tissue damages. This review will discuss P2X7R-mediated effects on membrane composition and trafficking in the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular organelles, as well as actions of P2X7R in controlling various modes of non-classical secretion. It will review P2X7R regulation of: (1) phosphatidylserine distribution in the PM outer leaflet; (2) shedding of PM surface proteins; (3) release of PM-derived microvesicles or microparticles; (4) PM blebbing; (5) cell-cell fusion resulting in formation of multinucleate cells; (6) phagosome maturation and fusion with lysosomes; (7) permeability of endosomes with internalized pathogen-associated molecular patterns; (8) permeability/integrity of mitochondria; (9) exocytosis of secretory lysosomes; and (10) release of exosomes from multivesicular bodies.

  18. Cytokines in the host response to Candida vaginitis: Identifying a role for non-classical immune mediators, S100 alarmins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junko; Noverr, Mairi C.; Fidel, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), caused by Candida albicans, affects a significant number of women during their reproductive years. More than two decades of research have been focused on the mechanisms associated with susceptibility or resistance to symptomatic infection. Adaptive immunity by Th1-type CD4+ T cells and downstream cytokine responses are considered the predominant host defense mechanisms against mucosal Candida infections. However, numerous clinical and animal studies have indicated no or limited protective role of cells and cytokines of the Th1 or Th2 lineage against vaginal infection. The role for Th17 is only now begun to be investigated in-depth for VVC with results already showing significant controversy. On the other hand, a clinical live-challenge study and an established animal model have shown that a symptomatic condition is intimately associated with the vaginal infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) but with no effect on vaginal fungal burden. Subsequent studies identified S100A8 and S100A9 Alarmins as key chemotactic mediators of the acute PMN response. These chemotactic danger signals appear to be secreted by vaginal epithelial cells upon interaction and early adherence of Candida. Thus, instead of a putative immunodeficiency against Candida involving classical immune cells and cytokines of the adaptive response, the pathological inflammation in VVC is now considered a consequence of a non-productive innate response initiated by non-classical immune mediators. PMID:22182685

  19. In Vitro Characterization of the Two-Stage Non-Classical Reassembly Pathway of S-Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Breitwieser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant bacterial surface layer (S-layer protein rSbpA of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 is an ideal model system to study non-classical nucleation and growth of protein crystals at surfaces since the recrystallization process may be separated into two distinct steps: (i adsorption of S-layer protein monomers on silicon surfaces is completed within 5 min and the amount of bound S-layer protein sufficient for the subsequent formation of a closed crystalline monolayer; (ii the recrystallization process is triggered—after washing away the unbound S-layer protein—by the addition of a CaCl2 containing buffer solution, and completed after approximately 2 h. The entire self-assembly process including the formation of amorphous clusters, the subsequent transformation into crystalline monomolecular arrays, and finally crystal growth into extended lattices was investigated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Moreover, contact angle measurements showed that the surface properties of S-layers change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic as the crystallization proceeds. This two-step approach is new in basic and application driven S-layer research and, most likely, will have advantages for functionalizing surfaces (e.g., by spray-coating with tailor-made biological sensing layers.

  20. Itk tyrosine kinase substrate docking is mediated by a nonclassical SH2 domain surface of PLCgamma1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Lie; Joseph, Raji E; Fulton, D Bruce; Andreotti, Amy H

    2009-12-15

    Interleukin-2 tyrosine kinase (Itk) is a Tec family tyrosine kinase that mediates signaling processes after T cell receptor engagement. Activation of Itk requires recruitment to the membrane via its pleckstrin homology domain, phosphorylation of Itk by the Src kinase, Lck, and binding of Itk to the SLP-76/LAT adapter complex. After activation, Itk phosphorylates and activates phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1), leading to production of two second messengers, DAG and IP(3). We have previously shown that phosphorylation of PLC-gamma1 by Itk requires a direct, phosphotyrosine-independent interaction between the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of PLC-gamma1 and the kinase domain of Itk. We now define this docking interface using a combination of mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy and show that disruption of the Itk/PLCgamma1 docking interaction attenuates T cell signaling. The binding surface on PLCgamma1 that mediates recognition by Itk highlights a nonclassical binding activity of the well-studied SH2 domain providing further evidence that SH2 domains participate in important signaling interactions beyond recognition of phosphotyrosine.

  1. Expression of bovine non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I proteins in mouse P815 and human K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasar, Parveen; Wilhelm, Amanda; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Thomas, Aaron J; Teng, Lihong; Shi, Bi; Davis, William C; Suarez, Carlos E; New, Daniel D; White, Kenneth L; Davies, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins can be expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins. To investigate whether bovine non-classical MHC-I proteins are expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins, and to assess the reactivity pattern of monoclonal antibodies with non-classical MHC-I isoforms, we expressed the MHC proteins in murine P815 and human K562 (MHC-I deficient) cells. Following antibiotic selection, stably transfected cell lines were stained with H1A or W6/32 antibodies to detect expression of the MHC-I proteins by flow cytometry. Two non-classical proteins (BoLA-NC1*00501 and BoLA-NC3*00101) were expressed on the cell surface in both cell lines. Surprisingly, the BoLA-NC4*00201 protein was expressed on the cell membrane of human K562 but not mouse P815 cells. Two non-classical proteins (BoLA-NC1*00401, which lacks a transmembrane domain, and BoLA-NC2*00102) did not exhibit cell surface expression. Nevertheless, Western blot analyses demonstrated expression of the MHC-I heavy chain in all transfected cell lines. Ammonium-sulfate precipitation of proteins from culture supernatants showed that BoLA-NC1*00401 was secreted and that all surface expressed proteins where shed from the cell membrane by the transfected cells. Interestingly, the surface expressed MHC-I proteins were present in culture supernatants at a much higher concentration than BoLA-NC1*00401. This comprehensive study shows that bovine non-classical MHC-I proteins BoLA-NC1*00501, BoLA-NC3*00101, and BoLA-NC4*00201 are expressed as surface isoforms with the latter reaching the cell membrane only in K562 cells. Furthermore, it demonstrated that BoLA-NC1*00401 is a secreted isoform and that significant quantities of membrane associated MHC-I proteins can be shed from the cell membrane. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of a Nonclassical Class I MHC Gene in a Reptile, the Galápagos Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Du Pasquier, Louis; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-01-01

    Squamates are a diverse order of vertebrates, representing more than 7,000 species. Yet, descriptions of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in this group are nearly absent from the literature, while the number of MHC studies continues to rise in other vertebrate taxa. The lack of basic information about MHC organization in squamates inhibits investigation into the relationship between MHC polymorphism and disease, and leaves a large taxonomic gap in our understanding of amniote MHC evolution. Here, we use both cDNA and genomic sequence data to characterize a class I MHC gene (Amcr-UA) from the Galápagos marine iguana, a member of the squamate subfamily Iguaninae. Amcr-UA appears to be functional since it is expressed in the blood and contains many of the conserved peptide-binding residues that are found in classical class I genes of other vertebrates. In addition, comparison of Amcr-UA to homologous sequences from other iguanine species shows that the antigen-binding portion of this gene is under purifying selection, rather than balancing selection, and therefore may have a conserved function. A striking feature of Amcr-UA is that both the cDNA and genomic sequences lack the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains that are necessary to anchor the class I receptor molecule into the cell membrane, suggesting that the product of this gene is secreted and consequently not involved in classical class I antigen-presentation. The truncated and conserved character of Amcr-UA lead us to define it as a nonclassical gene that is related to the few available squamate class I sequences. However, phylogenetic analysis placed Amcr-UA in a basal position relative to other published classical MHC genes from squamates, suggesting that this gene diverged near the beginning of squamate diversification. PMID:18682845

  3. A NRC-BNL benchmark evaluation of seismic analysis methods for non-classically damped coupled systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; DeGrassi, G.; Chokshi, N.

    2004-01-01

    Under the auspices of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a comprehensive program to evaluate state-of-the-art methods and computer programs for seismic analysis of typical coupled nuclear power plant (NPP) systems with non-classical damping. In this program, four benchmark models of coupled building-piping/equipment systems with different damping characteristics were developed and analyzed by BNL for a suite of earthquakes. The BNL analysis was carried out by the Wilson-θ time domain integration method with the system-damping matrix computed using a synthesis formulation as presented in a companion paper [Nucl. Eng. Des. (2002)]. These benchmark problems were subsequently distributed to and analyzed by program participants applying their uniquely developed methods and computer programs. This paper is intended to offer a glimpse at the program, and provide a summary of major findings and principle conclusions with some representative results. The participant's analysis results established using complex modal time history methods showed good comparison with the BNL solutions, while the analyses produced with either complex-mode response spectrum methods or classical normal-mode response spectrum method, in general, produced more conservative results, when averaged over a suite of earthquakes. However, when coupling due to damping is significant, complex-mode response spectrum methods performed better than the classical normal-mode response spectrum method. Furthermore, as part of the program objectives, a parametric assessment is also presented in this paper, aimed at evaluation of the applicability of various analysis methods to problems with different dynamic characteristics unique to coupled NPP systems. It is believed that the findings and insights learned from this program will be useful in developing new acceptance criteria and providing guidance for future regulatory activities involving license

  4. Characterization of a nonclassical class I MHC gene in a reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Glaberman

    Full Text Available Squamates are a diverse order of vertebrates, representing more than 7,000 species. Yet, descriptions of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes in this group are nearly absent from the literature, while the number of MHC studies continues to rise in other vertebrate taxa. The lack of basic information about MHC organization in squamates inhibits investigation into the relationship between MHC polymorphism and disease, and leaves a large taxonomic gap in our understanding of amniote MHC evolution. Here, we use both cDNA and genomic sequence data to characterize a class I MHC gene (Amcr-UA from the Galápagos marine iguana, a member of the squamate subfamily Iguaninae. Amcr-UA appears to be functional since it is expressed in the blood and contains many of the conserved peptide-binding residues that are found in classical class I genes of other vertebrates. In addition, comparison of Amcr-UA to homologous sequences from other iguanine species shows that the antigen-binding portion of this gene is under purifying selection, rather than balancing selection, and therefore may have a conserved function. A striking feature of Amcr-UA is that both the cDNA and genomic sequences lack the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains that are necessary to anchor the class I receptor molecule into the cell membrane, suggesting that the product of this gene is secreted and consequently not involved in classical class I antigen-presentation. The truncated and conserved character of Amcr-UA lead us to define it as a nonclassical gene that is related to the few available squamate class I sequences. However, phylogenetic analysis placed Amcr-UA in a basal position relative to other published classical MHC genes from squamates, suggesting that this gene diverged near the beginning of squamate diversification.

  5. Cardiotonic steroids trigger non-classical testosterone signaling in Sertoli cells via the α4 isoform of the sodium pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Lutz; Dietze, Raimund; Kirch, Ulrike; Kirch, Herbert; Eva, Alexander; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios

    2011-12-01

    The α4 isoform of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (sodium pump) is known to be expressed in spermatozoa and to be critical for their motility. In the investigation presented here, we find that the rat-derived Sertoli cell line 93RS2 also expresses considerable amounts of the α4 isoform in addition to the α1 isoform. Since Sertoli cells are not motile, one can assume that the function of the α4 isoform in these cells must differ from that in spermatozoa. Thus, we assessed a potential involvement of this isoform in signaling pathways that are activated by the cardiotonic steroid (CTS) ouabain, a highly specific sodium pump ligand. Treatment of 93RS2 cells with ouabain leads to activation of the c-Src/c-Raf/Erk1/2 signaling cascade. Furthermore, we show for the first time that the activation of this cascade by ouabain results in phosphorylation and activation of the transcription factor CREB. This signaling cascade is induced at low nanomolar concentrations of ouabain, consistent with the involvement of the α4 isoform. This is further supported by experiments involving siRNA: silencing of α4 expression entirely blocks ouabain-induced activation of Erk1/2 whereas silencing of α1 has no effect. The findings of this study unveil new aspects in CTS/sodium pump interactions by demonstrating for the first time ouabain-induced signaling through the α4 isoform. The c-Src/c-Raf/Erk1/2/CREB cascade activated by ouabain is identical to the so-called non-classical signaling cascade that is normally triggered in Sertoli cells by testosterone. Taking into consideration that CTS are produced endogenously, our results may help to gain new insights into the physiological mechanisms associated with male fertility and reproduction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characterization of SLCO5A1/OATP5A1, a solute carrier transport protein with non-classical function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sebastian

    Full Text Available Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP/SLCO have been identified to mediate the uptake of a broad range of mainly amphipathic molecules. Human OATP5A1 was found to be expressed in the epithelium of many cancerous and non-cancerous tissues throughout the body but protein characterization and functional analysis have not yet been performed. This study focused on the biochemical characterization of OATP5A1 using Xenopus laevis oocytes and Flp-In T-REx-HeLa cells providing evidence regarding a possible OATP5A1 function. SLCO5A1 is highly expressed in mature dendritic cells compared to immature dendritic cells (∼6.5-fold and SLCO5A1 expression correlates with the differentiation status of primary blood cells. A core- and complex- N-glycosylated polypeptide monomer of ∼105 kDa and ∼130 kDa could be localized in intracellular membranes and on the plasma membrane, respectively. Inducible expression of SLCO5A1 in HeLa cells led to an inhibitory effect of ∼20% after 96 h on cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling with these cells identified immunologically relevant genes (e.g. CCL20 and genes implicated in developmental processes (e.g. TGM2. A single nucleotide polymorphism leading to the exchange of amino acid 33 (L→F revealed no differences regarding protein expression and function. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OATP5A1 might be a non-classical OATP family member which is involved in biological processes that require the reorganization of the cell shape, such as differentiation and migration.

  7. Expression and phylogenetic analyses reveal paralogous lineages of putatively classical and non-classical MHC-I genes in three sparrow species (Passer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Anna; Strandh, Maria; Råberg, Lars; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-06-26

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) plays a central role in immunity and has been given considerable attention by evolutionary ecologists due to its associations with fitness-related traits. Songbirds have unusually high numbers of MHC class I (MHC-I) genes, but it is not known whether all are expressed and equally important for immune function. Classical MHC-I genes are highly expressed, polymorphic and present peptides to T-cells whereas non-classical MHC-I genes have lower expression, are more monomorphic and do not present peptides to T-cells. To get a better understanding of the highly duplicated MHC genes in songbirds, we studied gene expression in a phylogenetic framework in three species of sparrows (house sparrow, tree sparrow and Spanish sparrow), using high-throughput sequencing. We hypothesize that sparrows could have classical and non-classical genes, as previously indicated though never tested using gene expression. The phylogenetic analyses reveal two distinct types of MHC-I alleles among the three sparrow species, one with high and one with low level of polymorphism, thus resembling classical and non-classical genes, respectively. All individuals had both types of alleles, but there was copy number variation both within and among the sparrow species. However, the number of highly polymorphic alleles that were expressed did not vary between species, suggesting that the structural genomic variation is counterbalanced by conserved gene expression. Overall, 50% of the MHC-I alleles were expressed in sparrows. Expression of the highly polymorphic alleles was very variable, whereas the alleles with low polymorphism had uniformly low expression. Interestingly, within an individual only one or two alleles from the polymorphic genes were highly expressed, indicating that only a single copy of these is highly expressed. Taken together, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the analyses of expression suggest that sparrows have both classical and non-classical

  8. Regulation of non-classical immune parameters in immune thrombocytopenic purpura mice by a spleen-invigorating, qi-replenishing and blood-containing formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Li

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The SQBF had a similar effect to prednisone with regards to enhancing peripheral blood platelet counts in ITP mice. Furthermore, it decreased β-EP levels and increased VIP and SIgA, and protected the thymus. This shows that, on base of the brain-gut axis functions, some non-classical immune vascular active factors or neurotransmitters are also involved in immune responses, and also have relationship with the onset of ITP and bleeding and/or hemostasis. It needs further study to determine whether a change in these active factors is related to immediate hemostasis.

  9. Screening non-classical 21-hydroxylase gene deficiency from patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary syndrome by gene assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie HU

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To screen non-classical 21-hydroxylase deficiency (NC-21OHD from patients diagnosed as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS by gene assay. Methods  Ninety-eight patients with PCOS were enrolled according to 2003 Rotterdam criteria from Department of Endocrinology, Tangdu Hospital of Fourth Military Medical University, and they were divided into three groups according to the modified Ferriman-Gallway (mF-G score as follows: group A with score 0-2; group B with score 3-5, and group C with score ≥6. Meanwhile, 30 healthy subjects from the Medical Center of the Hospital were recruited as control group. Peripheral blood of all subjects were collected for extracting DNA, the CYP21A2 gene were amplified by 5 pairs of specific primers, and then the PCR products were sequenced by Shanghai Sangon Co. The subjects would accept test for serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH at 8:00am if their CYP21A2 was proved to be abnormal. Results  Thirty subjects of control group had no any defects in CYP21A2, but 5 of 98 patients with PCOS were proved to be deficient in CYP21A2, and the genotypes were V281L/920-921insT (P1, V281L/I230M (P2, V281L/Normal (P3, P4, P5, respectively, and all of them were heterozygous mutations. The incidences of NC-21OHD in group C and B were 28.6% and 3.3%, respectively. Genotype P1 had been identified to belong to NC-21OHD, which was consistent with its clinical phenotype. All genotypes P3, P4 and P5 belonged to carriers. But for P2, since I230M hadn't been reported in literature, the patient with V281L/I230M couldn't be classified now. Serum biochemical results showed that only in P1 the cortisol was close to the normal lower level, and ACTH was close to the normal upper limit of the reported level in the literature, and the remainders were all normal. Conclusions  Although PCOS and NC-21OHD are very similar in clinical manifestations, they are different completely in the pathogenesis and treatment. So it

  10. Thermal Stress Analysis of a Continuous and Pulsed End-Pumped Nd:YAG Rod Crystal Using Non-Classic Conduction Heat Transfer Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedi, Mahdi; Shekoohinejad, Hamidreza

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, temperature distribution in the continuous and pulsed end-pumped Nd:YAG rod crystal is determined using nonclassical and classical heat conduction theories. In order to find the temperature distribution in crystal, heat transfer differential equations of crystal with consideration of boundary conditions are derived based on non-Fourier's model and temperature distribution of the crystal is achieved by an analytical method. Then, by transferring non-Fourier differential equations to matrix equations, using finite element method, temperature and stress of every point of crystal are calculated in the time domain. According to the results, a comparison between classical and nonclassical theories is represented to investigate rupture power values. In continuous end pumping with equal input powers, non-Fourier theory predicts greater temperature and stress compared to Fourier theory. It also shows that with an increase in relaxation time, crystal rupture power decreases. Despite of these results, in single rectangular pulsed end-pumping condition, with an equal input power, Fourier theory indicates higher temperature and stress rather than non-Fourier theory. It is also observed that, when the relaxation time increases, maximum amounts of temperature and stress decrease.

  11. A viral, transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-independent, high affinity ligand with alternative interactions endogenously presented by the nonclassical human leukocyte antigen E class I molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Elena; Infantes, Susana; Abia, David; Barnea, Eilon; Beer, Ilan; García, Ruth; Lasala, Fátima; Jiménez, Mercedes; Mir, Carmen; Morreale, Antonio; Admon, Arie; López, Daniel

    2012-10-12

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) enables the flow of viral peptides generated in the cytosol by the proteasome and other proteases to the endoplasmic reticulum, where they complex with nascent human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Later, these peptide-HLA class I complexes can be recognized by CD8(+) lymphocytes. Cancerous cells and infected cells in which TAP is blocked, as well as individuals with unusable TAP complexes, are able to present peptides on HLA class I by generating them through TAP-independent processing pathways. Here, we identify a physiologically processed HLA-E ligand derived from the D8L protein in TAP-deficient vaccinia virus-infected cells. This natural high affinity HLA-E class I ligand uses alternative interactions to the anchor motifs previously described to be presented on nonclassical HLA class I molecules. This octameric peptide was also presented on HLA-Cw1 with similar binding affinity on both classical and nonclassical class I molecules. In addition, this viral peptide inhibits HLA-E-mediated cytolysis by natural killer cells. Comparison between the amino acid sequences of the presenting HLA-E and HLA-Cw1 alleles revealed a shared structural motif in both HLA class molecules, which could be related to their observed similar cross-reactivity affinities. This motif consists of several residues located on the floor of the peptide-binding site. These data expand the role of HLA-E as an antigen-presenting molecule.

  12. Bipartite non-classical correlations for a lossy two connected qubit-cavity systems: trace distance discord and Bell's non-locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Baset A.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, some non-classical correlations are investigated for bipartite partitions of two qubits trapped in two spatially separated cavities connected by an optical fiber. The results show that the trace distance discord and Bell's non-locality introduce other quantum correlations beyond the entanglement. Moreover, the correlation functions of the trace distance discord and the Bell's non-locality are very sensitive to the initial correlations, the coupling strengths, and the dissipation rates of the cavities. The fluctuations of the correlation functions between their initial values and gained (loss) values appear due to the unitary evolution of the system. These fluctuations depend on the chosen initial correlations between the two subsystems. The maximal violations of Bell's inequality occur when the logarithmic negativity and the trace distance discord reach certain values. It is shown that the robustness of the non-classical correlations, against the dissipation rates of the cavities, depends on the bipartite partitions reduced density matrices of the system, and is also greatly enhanced by choosing appropriate coupling strengths.

  13. Antibodies induced by vaccination with purified chick embryo cell culture vaccine (PCECV) cross-neutralize non-classical bat lyssavirus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malerczyk, Claudius; Selhorst, Thomas; Tordo, Noël; Moore, Susan; Müller, Thomas

    2009-08-27

    Tissue-culture vaccines like purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV) have been shown to provide protection against classical rabies virus (RABV) via pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis. A cross-neutralization study was conducted using a panel of 100 human sera, to determine, to what extent after vaccination with PCECV protection exists against non-classical bat lyssavirus strains like European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) type 1 and 2 and Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) concentrations against the rabies virus variants CVS-11, ABLV, EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 were determined by using a modified rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test. For ABLV and EBLV-2, the comparison to CVS-11 revealed almost identical results (100% adequate VNA concentrations >or=0.5 IU/mL; correlation coefficient r(2)=0.69 and 0.77, respectively), while for EBLV-1 more scattering was observed (97% adequate VNA concentrations; r(2)=0.50). In conclusion, vaccination with PCECV produces adequate VNA concentrations against classical RABV as well as non-classical lyssavirus strains ABLV, EBLV-1, and EBLV-2.

  14. Nonclassical Vitamin D Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Zittermann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming increasingly clear that vitamin D has a broad range of actions in the human body. Besides its well-known effects on calcium/phosphate homeostasis, vitamin D influences muscle function, cardiovascular homeostasis, nervous function, and the immune response. Vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been associated with muscle weakness and a high incidence of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and type 1 and 2 diabetes. Most importantly, low vitamin D status has been found to be an independent predictor of all-cause mortality. Several recent randomized controlled trials support the assumption that vitamin D can improve muscle strength, glucose homeostasis, and cardiovascular risk markers. In addition, vitamin D may reduce cancer incidence and elevated blood pressure. Since the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is high throughout the world, there is a need to improve vitamin D status in the general adult population. However, the currently recommended daily vitamin D intake of 5–15 µg is too low to achieve an adequate vitamin D status in individuals with only modest skin synthesis. Thus, there is a need to recommend a vitamin D intake that is effective for achieving adequate circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (>75 nmol/L.

  15. Bifunctional Alkylating Agent-Induced p53 and Nonclassical Nuclear Factor kB Responses and Cell Death are Altered by Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester: A Potential Role for Antioxidant/Electrophilic Response-Element Signaling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minsavage, Gary D; Dillman III, James F

    2007-01-01

    ...) occurred within 5 min after exposure to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. However, exposure to BFA induced nonclassical NF-kB signaling as loss of IkBa was not observed until 2 or 6 h in NHEK or HaCaT cells, respectively...

  16. Functional contribution of elevated circulating and hepatic non-classical CD14CD16 monocytes to inflammation and human liver fibrosis.

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    Henning W Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocyte-derived macrophages critically perpetuate inflammatory responses after liver injury as a prerequisite for organ fibrosis. Experimental murine models identified an essential role for the CCR2-dependent infiltration of classical Gr1/Ly6C(+ monocytes in hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, the monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5 were recently recognized as important fibrosis modulators in mice. In humans, monocytes consist of classical CD14(+CD16(- and non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ cells. We aimed at investigating the relevance of monocyte subpopulations for human liver fibrosis, and hypothesized that 'non-classical' monocytes critically exert inflammatory as well as profibrogenic functions in patients during liver disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed circulating monocyte subsets from freshly drawn blood samples of 226 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD and 184 healthy controls by FACS analysis. Circulating monocytes were significantly expanded in CLD-patients compared to controls with a marked increase of the non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ subset that showed an activated phenotype in patients and correlated with proinflammatory cytokines and clinical progression. Correspondingly, CD14(+CD16(+ macrophages massively accumulated in fibrotic/cirrhotic livers, as evidenced by immunofluorescence and FACS. Ligands of monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR1 and CCR5 were expressed at higher levels in fibrotic and cirrhotic livers, while CCL3 and CCL4 were also systemically elevated in CLD-patients. Isolated monocyte/macrophage subpopulations were functionally characterized regarding cytokine/chemokine expression and interactions with primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSC in vitro. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes released abundant proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, CD14(+CD16(+, but not CD14(+CD16(- monocytes could directly activate collagen-producing HSC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data

  17. Squeezing and other non-classical features in k-photon anharmonic oscillator in binomial and negative binomial states of the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, A.; Lawande, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study of squeezing obtained from k-photon anharmonic oscillator (with interaction hamiltonian of the form (a † ) k , k ≥ 2) interacting with light whose statistics can be varied from sub-Poissonian to poissonian via binomial state of field and super-Poissonian to poissonian via negative binomial state of field is presented. The authors predict that for all values of k there is a tendency increase in squeezing with increased sub-Poissonian character of the field while the reverse is true with super-Poissonian field. They also present non-classical behavior of the first order coherence function explicitly for k = 2 case (i.e., for two-photon anharmonic oscillator model used for a Kerr-like medium) with variation in the statistics of the input light

  18. Entanglement and Other Nonclassical Properties of Two Two-Level Atoms Interacting with a Two-Mode Binomial Field: Constant and Intensity-Dependent Coupling Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoly, M.K.; Hekmatara, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the interaction between two two-level atoms and a two-mode binomial field with a general intensity-dependent coupling regime. The outlined dynamical problem has explicit analytical solution, by which we can evaluate a few of its physical features of interest. To achieve the purpose of the paper, after choosing a particular nonlinearity function, we investigate the quantum statistics, atomic population inversion and at last the linear entropy of the atom-field system which is a good measure for the degree of entanglement. In detail, the effects of binomial field parameters, in addition to different initial atomic states on the temporal behavior of the mentioned quantities have been analyzed. The results show that, the values of binomial field parameters and the initial state of the two atoms influence on the nonclassical effects in the obtained states through which one can tune the nonclassicality criteria appropriately. Setting intensity-dependent coupling function equal to 1 reduces the results to the constant coupling case. By comparing the latter case with the nonlinear regime, we will observe that the nonlinearity disappears the pattern of collapse-revival phenomenon in the evolution of Mandel parameter and population inversion (which can be seen in the linear case with constant coupling), however, more typical collapse-revivals will be appeared for the cross-correlation function in the nonlinear case. Finally, in both linear and nonlinear regime, the entropy remains less than (but close to) 0.5. In other words the particular chosen nonlinearity does not critically affect on the entropy of the system. (paper)

  19. New acetogenin peroxides from the Indian sponge Acarnus bicladotylota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fontana, A.; d'Ippolito, G.; DeSouza, L.; Mollo, E.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Cimino, G.

    ) 12 position 1 H 13 C 1 H 13 C 1 170.5, s 170.5, s 2 2.52, dd, 16.1 and 7.7 Hz 38.3, t 2.52, dd, 16.0 and 7.7 Hz 38.3, t 2.39, dd, 16.1 and 5.8 Hz 2.39, dd, 16.0 and 5.8 Hz 3 4.49, m 76.8, d 4.49, m 76.8, d 4 1.78, m 25.1, t 1.73, m 25.1, t 1..., 1.78 and 1.65; H 2 -5, 1.84 and 1.62) in the COSY spectrum. The 13 C NMR data, moreover, showed the presence of an ester function ( 170.5, C-1) and two oxygen- bearing carbons at 76.8 (C-3) and 102.3 (C-6). This latter signal, together...

  20. DNA binding mode of the cis and trans geometries of new antitumor nonclassical platinum complexes containing piperidine, piperazine or 4-picoline ligand in cell-free media. Relations to their activity in cancer cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpárková, Jana; Marini, Victoria; Najajreh, Y.; Gibson, D.; Brabec, Viktor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 20 (2003), s. 6321-6332 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5004101; GA AV ČR KJB5004301; GA ČR GA305/01/0418 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : cross links * DNA * nonclassical platinum complexes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.922, year: 2003

  1. Number-phase entropic squeezing and nonclassical properties of a three-level atom interacting with a two-mode field: intensity-dependent coupling, deformed Kerr medium, and detuning effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Mohammad Javad; Tavassoly, Mohammad Kazem

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we follow our presented model in J. Opt. Soc. Am. B {\\bf 30}, 1109--1117 (2013), in which the interaction between a $\\Lambda$-type three-level atom and a quantized two-mode radiation field in a cavity in the presence of nonlinearities is studied. After giving a brief review on the procedure of obtaining the state vector of the atom-field system, some further interesting and important physical features (which are of particular interest in the quantum optics field of research) of the whole system state, i.e., the number-phase entropic uncertainty relation (based on the two-mode Pegg-Barnett formalism) and some of the nonclassicality signs consist of sub-Poissonian statistics, Cauchy-Schwartz inequality and two kinds of squeezing phenomenon are investigated. During our presentation, the effects of intensity-dependent coupling, deformed Kerr medium and the detuning parameters on the depth and domain of each of the mentioned nonclassical criteria of the considered quantum system are studied, in detail. It is shown that each of the mentioned nonclassicality aspects can be obtained by appropriately choosing the related parameters.

  2. The production, purification and crystallization of a soluble form of the nonclassical MHC HLA-G: the essential role of cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, Craig S.; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Kostenko, Lyudmila; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å from crystals of HLA-G. Cobalt ions were found to be essential for the production of diffracting crystals. HLA-G is a nonclassical class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule that is primarily expressed at the foetal–maternal interface. Although the role of HLA-G has not been fully elucidated, current evidence suggests it protects the foetus from the maternal immune response. In this report, HLA-G (44 kDa) is characterized by expression in Escherichia coli. The inclusion bodies were refolded in complex with a peptide derived from histone H2A (RIIPRHLQL), purified and subsequently crystallized. Correct refolding was determined using two conformation-dependent antibodies. Cobalt ions were shown to be an essential ingredient for obtaining diffraction-quality crystals. The crystals, which diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution, belonged to space group P3 2 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 77.15, c = 151.72 Å

  3. High-Density Lipoprotein Reduction Differentially Modulates to Classical and Nonclassical Monocyte Subpopulations in Metabolic Syndrome Patients and in LPS-Stimulated Primary Human Monocytes In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grün, Johanna L.; Manjarrez-Reyna, Aaron N.; Gómez-Arauz, Angélica Y.; Leon-Cabrera, Sonia; Bueno-Hernández, Nallely; Islas-Andrade, Sergio

    2018-01-01

    The effect of metabolic syndrome on human monocyte subpopulations has not yet been studied. Our main goal was to examine monocyte subpopulations in metabolic syndrome patients, while also identifying the risk factors that could directly influence these cells. Eighty-six subjects were divided into metabolic syndrome patients and controls. Monocyte subpopulations were quantified by flow cytometry, and interleukin- (IL-) 1β secretion levels were measured by ELISA. Primary human monocytes were cultured in low or elevated concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The nonclassical monocyte (NCM) percentage was significantly increased in metabolic syndrome patients as compared to controls, whereas classical monocytes (CM) were reduced. Among all metabolic syndrome risk factors, HDL reduction exhibited the most important correlation with monocyte subpopulations and then was studied in vitro. Low HDL concentration reduced the CM percentage, whereas it increased the NCM percentage and IL-1β secretion in LPS-treated monocytes. The LPS effect was abolished when monocytes were cultured in elevated HDL concentrations. Concurring with in vitro results, IL-1β serum values significantly increased in metabolic syndrome patients with low HDL levels as compared to metabolic syndrome patients without HDL reduction. Our data demonstrate that HDL directly modulates monocyte subpopulations in metabolic syndrome. PMID:29850624

  4. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA and Immune Regulation: How Do Classical and Non-Classical HLA Alleles Modulate Immune Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B. Crux

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host. Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-B27/B57 CD8+ T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing the host to autoimmune diseases. The focus of this review will be reexamining the role of classical and non-classical HLA alleles, including class Ia (HLA-A, -B, -C, class Ib (HLA-E, -F, -G, -H, and class II (HLA-DR, -DQ, -DM, and -DP in immune regulation and viral pathogenesis (e.g., HIV and HCV. To our knowledge, this is the very first review of its kind to comprehensively analyze the role of these molecules in immune regulation associated with chronic viral infections.

  5. A BENCHMARK PROGRAM FOR EVALUATION OF METHODS FOR COMPUTING SEISMIC RESPONSE OF COUPLED BUILDING-PIPING/EQUIPMENT WITH NON-CLASSICAL DAMPING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Degrassi, G.; Chokshi, N.

    2001-01-01

    Under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) developed a comprehensive program to evaluate state-of-the-art methods and computer programs for seismic analysis of typical coupled nuclear power plant (NPP) systems with nonclassical damping. In this program, four benchmark models of coupled building-piping/equipment systems with different damping characteristics were analyzed for a suite of earthquakes by program participants applying their uniquely developed methods and computer programs. This paper presents the results of their analyses, and their comparison to the benchmark solutions generated by BNL using time domain direct integration methods. The participant's analysis results established using complex modal time history methods showed good comparison with the BNL solutions, while the analyses produced with either complex-mode response spectrum methods or classical normal-mode response spectrum method, in general, produced more conservative results, when averaged over a suite of earthquakes. However, when coupling due to damping is significant, complex-mode response spectrum methods performed better than the classical normal-mode response spectrum method. Furthermore, as part of the program objectives, a parametric assessment is also presented in this paper, aimed at evaluation of the applicability of various analysis methods to problems with different dynamic characteristics unique to coupled NPP systems. It is believed that the findings and insights learned from this program will be useful in developing new acceptance criteria and providing guidance for future regulatory activities involving licensing applications of these alternate methods to coupled systems

  6. High-Density Lipoprotein Reduction Differentially Modulates to Classical and Nonclassical Monocyte Subpopulations in Metabolic Syndrome Patients and in LPS-Stimulated Primary Human Monocytes In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna L. Grün

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of metabolic syndrome on human monocyte subpopulations has not yet been studied. Our main goal was to examine monocyte subpopulations in metabolic syndrome patients, while also identifying the risk factors that could directly influence these cells. Eighty-six subjects were divided into metabolic syndrome patients and controls. Monocyte subpopulations were quantified by flow cytometry, and interleukin- (IL- 1β secretion levels were measured by ELISA. Primary human monocytes were cultured in low or elevated concentrations of high-density lipoprotein (HDL and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. The nonclassical monocyte (NCM percentage was significantly increased in metabolic syndrome patients as compared to controls, whereas classical monocytes (CM were reduced. Among all metabolic syndrome risk factors, HDL reduction exhibited the most important correlation with monocyte subpopulations and then was studied in vitro. Low HDL concentration reduced the CM percentage, whereas it increased the NCM percentage and IL-1β secretion in LPS-treated monocytes. The LPS effect was abolished when monocytes were cultured in elevated HDL concentrations. Concurring with in vitro results, IL-1β serum values significantly increased in metabolic syndrome patients with low HDL levels as compared to metabolic syndrome patients without HDL reduction. Our data demonstrate that HDL directly modulates monocyte subpopulations in metabolic syndrome.

  7. The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 enters the nucleus via a nonclassical Ran-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeline, Michael; Merle, Eric; Moroianu, Junona

    2003-01-01

    E7, the major transforming protein of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), type 16, binds and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and the Rb-related proteins p107 and p130. HPV16 E7 is a nuclear protein lacking a classical basic nuclear localization signal. In this study we investigated the nuclear import of HPV16 E7 oncoprotein in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells. HPV16 E7 nuclear import was independent of pRb, as an E7 ΔDLYC variant defective in pRb binding was imported into the nuclei of digitonin-permeabilized cells as efficiently as wild-type E7 in the presence of exogenous cytosol. Interestingly, we discovered that HPV16 E7 is imported into the nuclei via a novel pathway different from those mediated by Kap α2β1 heterodimers, Kap β1, or Kap β2. Nuclear accumulation of E7 required Ran and was not inhibited by the RanG19V-GTP variant, an inhibitor of Kap β mediated import pathways. Together the data suggest that HPV16 E7 translocates through the nuclear pores via a nonclassical Ran-dependent pathway, independent of the main cytosolic Kap β import receptors

  8. The non-classical antigens of HLA-G and HLA-E as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and as therapeutic targets in transplantation and tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliger, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I antigen HLA-G represents a tolerogenic molecule and is involved in the inhibition of natural killer cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated cytotoxicity. Under physiological conditions, HLA-G expression is mainly restricted to immune-privileged tissues, whereas it is overexpressed in tumors and transplants as well as in virus-infected cells. Due to its immunosuppressive features, HLA-G is important for pregnancy or organ transplantation and autoimmune diseases as well as cancer immune escape. This review focusses on the expression, regulation, and function of HLA-G in tumor cells andlor in transplants as well as therapeutic tools for enhancing (transplantation) or avoiding (tumor) tolerance. Thus, HLA-G or HLA-G-derived synthetic molecules might be used as therapeutic agents in combination with immunosuppressive drugs to enhance organ tolerance upon transplantation. In addition, HLA-G neoexpressing tumor cells could be targeted by HLA-G-specific microRNAs in order to enhance tumor immunogenicity.

  9. Ex-Th17 (Nonclassical Th1) Cells Are Functionally Distinct from Classical Th1 and Th17 Cells and Are Not Constrained by Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdeo, Sharee A; Cluxton, Deborah; Sulaimani, Jamal; Moran, Barry; Canavan, Mary; Orr, Carl; Veale, Douglas J; Fearon, Ursula; Fletcher, Jean M

    2017-03-15

    Th17 cells are an important therapeutic target in autoimmunity. However, it is known that Th17 cells exhibit considerable plasticity, particularly at sites of autoimmune inflammation. Th17 cells can switch to become ex-Th17 cells that no longer produce IL-17 but produce IFN-γ. These ex-Th17 cells are also called nonclassical Th1 cells because of their ability to produce IFN-γ, similar to Th1 cells; however, it is unclear whether they resemble Th1 or Th17 cells in terms of their function and regulation, and whether they have a pathogenic role in autoimmunity. We compared the phenotypic and functional features of human Th17, Th1, and ex-Th17 cell populations. Our data showed that despite their loss of IL-17 expression, ex-Th17 cells were more polyfunctional in terms of cytokine production than either Th1 or bona fide Th17 cells, and produced increased amounts of proinflammatory cytokines. The proliferative brake on Th17 cells appeared to be lifted because ex-Th17 cells proliferated more than Th17 cells after stimulation. In contrast with Th1 and Th17 cells, ex-Th17 cells were highly resistant to suppression of proliferation and cytokines by regulatory T cells. Finally, we showed that ex-Th17 cells accumulated in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Taken together, these data indicate that human ex-Th17 cells are functionally distinct from Th1 and Th17 cells, and suggest that they may play a pathogenic role at sites of autoimmunity, such as the rheumatoid arthritis joint where they accumulate. These findings have implications for therapeutic strategies that target IL-17, because these may not inhibit pathogenic ex-Th17 cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. Ouabain interactions with the α4 isoform of the sodium pump trigger non-classical steroid hormone signaling and integrin expression in spermatogenic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upmanyu, Neha; Dietze, Raimund; Kirch, Ulrike; Scheiner-Bobis, Georgios

    2016-11-01

    In addition to the ubiquitous α1 isoform of the sodium pump, sperm cells also express a male-specific α4 isoform whose function has been associated with sperm motility, fertility, and capacitation. Here we investigate in the murine spermatogenic cell line GC-2 interactions of the α4 isoform with the cardiotonic steroid ouabain in signaling cascades involved in the non-classical action of steroid hormones. Exposure of GC-2 cells to low concentrations of ouabain stimulates the phosphorylation of Erk1/2 and of the transcription factors CREB and ATF-1. As a consequence of this signaling cascade, ouabain stimulates on the mRNA level the expression of integrins αv, β3 and α5, whose expression is also modulated by the cAMP response element. Increased expression of integrins αv and β3 is also seen in cultures of seminiferous tubules exposed to 10nM ouabain. At the protein level we observed a significant stimulation of β3 integrin expression by ouabain. Abrogation of α4 isoform expression by siRNA leads to the complete suppression of all ouabain-induced signaling mentioned above, including its stimulatory effect on the expression of β3 integrin. The results presented here demonstrate for the first time the induction of signaling cascades through the interaction of ouabain with the α4 isoform in a germ-cell derived cell line. The novel finding that these interactions lead to increased expression of integrins in GC-2 cells and the confirmation of these results in the ex vivo experiments indicate that hormone/receptor-like interactions of ouabain with the α4 isoform might be of significance for male physiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dynamics of entropy and nonclassical properties of the state of a Λ-type three-level atom interacting with a single-mode cavity field with intensity-dependent coupling in a Kerr medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M J; Tavassoly, M K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the interaction between a three-level atom and a quantized single-mode field with ‘intensity-dependent coupling’ in a ‘Kerr medium’. The three-level atom is considered to be in a Λ-type configuration. Under particular initial conditions, which may be prepared for the atom and the field, the dynamical state vector of the entire system will be explicitly obtained, for the arbitrary nonlinearity function f(n) associated with any physical system. Then, after evaluating the variation of the field entropy against time, we will investigate the quantum statistics as well as some of the nonclassical properties of the introduced state. During our calculations we investigate the effects of intensity-dependent coupling, Kerr medium and detuning parameters on the depth and domain of the nonclassicality features of the atom–field state vector. Finally, we compare our obtained results with those of V-type three-level atoms. (paper)

  12. Dynamics of entropy and nonclassical properties of the state of a Λ-type three-level atom interacting with a single-mode cavity field with intensity-dependent coupling in a Kerr medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M. J.; Tavassoly, M. K.

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we study the interaction between a three-level atom and a quantized single-mode field with ‘intensity-dependent coupling’ in a ‘Kerr medium’. The three-level atom is considered to be in a Λ-type configuration. Under particular initial conditions, which may be prepared for the atom and the field, the dynamical state vector of the entire system will be explicitly obtained, for the arbitrary nonlinearity function f(n) associated with any physical system. Then, after evaluating the variation of the field entropy against time, we will investigate the quantum statistics as well as some of the nonclassical properties of the introduced state. During our calculations we investigate the effects of intensity-dependent coupling, Kerr medium and detuning parameters on the depth and domain of the nonclassicality features of the atom-field state vector. Finally, we compare our obtained results with those of V-type three-level atoms.

  13. Advancements in nonclassical gas dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannan, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Shock waves can be formed in all states of matter, be it in the single- or multi-phase condition, when the substance is subjected to a rapid change of state, e.g., a sudden pressure variation. In the case of shock waves in vapors and gases, because of the fact that the developed theory is often

  14. Unusual evolutionary conservation and further species-specific adaptations of a large family of nonclassical MHC class Ib genes across different degrees of genome ploidy in the amphibian subfamily Xenopodinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Goyos, Ana; Taran, Joseph; De Jesús Andino, Francisco; Ohta, Yuko; Robert, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    Nonclassical MHC class Ib (class Ib) genes are a family of highly diverse and rapidly evolving genes wherein gene numbers, organization, and expression markedly differ even among closely related species rendering class Ib phylogeny difficult to establish. Whereas among mammals there are few unambiguous class Ib gene orthologs, different amphibian species belonging to the anuran subfamily Xenopodinae exhibit an unusually high degree of conservation among multiple class Ib gene lineages. Comparative genomic analysis of class Ib gene loci of two divergent (~65 million years) Xenopodinae subfamily members Xenopus laevis (allotetraploid) and Xenopus tropicalis (diploid) shows that both species possess a large cluster of class Ib genes denoted as Xenopus/Silurana nonclassical (XNC/SNC). Our study reveals two distinct phylogenetic patterns among these genes: some gene lineages display a high degree of flexibility, as demonstrated by species-specific expansion and contractions, whereas other class Ib gene lineages have been maintained as monogenic subfamilies with very few changes in their nucleotide sequence across divergent species. In this second category, we further investigated the XNC/SNC10 gene lineage that in X. laevis is required for the development of a distinct semi-invariant T cell population. We report compelling evidence of the remarkable high degree of conservation of this gene lineage that is present in all 12 species of the Xenopodinae examined, including species with different degrees of ploidy ranging from 2, 4, 8 to 12 N. This suggests that the critical role of XNC10 during early T cell development is conserved in amphibians.

  15. Emerging therapeutic potential of graviola and its constituents in cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Siddiqui, Jawed A; Jahan, Rahat; Chaudhary, Sanjib; Walker, Larry A; Sayed, Zafar; Jones, Dwight T; Batra, Surinder K; Macha, Muzafar A

    2018-04-05

    Cancer remains a leading cause of death in the USA and around the world. Although the current synthetic inhibitors used in targeted therapies have improved patient prognosis, toxicity and development of resistance to these agents remain a challenge. Plant-derived natural products and their derivatives have historically been used to treat various diseases, including cancer. Several leading chemotherapeutic agents are directly or indirectly based on botanical natural products. Beyond these important drugs, however, a number of crude herbal or botanical preparations have also shown promising utility for cancer and other disorders. One such natural resource is derived from certain plants of the family Annonaceae, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Among the best known of these is Annona muricata, also known as soursop, graviola or guanabana. Extracts from the fruit, bark, seeds, roots and leaves of graviola, along with several other Annonaceous species, have been extensively investigated for anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Phytochemical studies have identified the acetogenins, a class of bioactive polyketide-derived constituents, from the extracts of Annonaceous species, and dozens of these compounds are present in different parts of graviola. This review summarizes current literature on the therapeutic potential and molecular mechanism of these constituents from A.muricata against cancer and many non-malignant diseases. Based on available data, there is good evidence that these long-used plants could have both chemopreventive and therapeutic potential. Appropriate attention to safety studies will be important to assess their effectiveness on various diseases caused or promoted by inflammation.

  16. The diagnosis of nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency, based on serum basal or post-ACTH stimulation 17-hydroxyprogesterone, can lead to false-positive diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroziak, Urszula; Kępczyńska-Nyk, Anna; Kuryłowicz, Alina; Małunowicz, Ewa Maria; Wójcicka, Anna; Miśkiewicz, Piotr; Macech, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    As nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCCAH) needs to be taken into account in women with hyperandrogenism, we aimed to assess whether the recommended level of poststimulated 17OHP ≥30 nmol/l confirms NCCAH. Forty, consecutive women with biochemical and/or clinical hyperandrogenism (aged 25·4, 18-38) suspected of having NCCAH were recruited to the study. In patients with 17OHP level between 5·1 and 29·9 nmol/l an ACTH stimulation test was performed. In patients with basal or poststimulated 17OHP ≥30 nmol/l, twenty-four-hour urinary steroid profile (USP) analysis was performed and CYP21A2 mutation was assessed. In selected patients with poststimulated 17OHP basal or poststimulated 17OHP ≥30 nmol/l (group A) and with poststimulated 17OHP basal or poststimulated 17OHP ≥30 nmol/l was found in 21, but NCCAH was confirmed by USP followed by genetic testing only in 5 (24%). Four patients were diagnosed as heterozygotes, and in twelve, no CYP21A2 mutation was detected. The diagnosis of NCCAH based only on serum 17OHP measurements (basal or poststimulated) may lead to false-positive diagnosis when performed by immunoassay with a cut-off value of ≥30 nmol/l. The definitive diagnosis can be established based on USP and/or genetic testing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. CCR6+ Th cells in the cerebrospinal fluid of persons with multiple sclerosis are dominated by pathogenic non-classic Th1 cells and GM-CSF-only-secreting Th cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restorick, S M; Durant, L; Kalra, S; Hassan-Smith, G; Rathbone, E; Douglas, M R; Curnow, S J

    2017-08-01

    Considerable attention has been given to CCR6 + IL-17-secreting CD4 + T cells (Th17) in the pathology of a number of autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). However, other Th subsets also play important pathogenic roles, including those that secrete IFNγ and GM-CSF. CCR6 expression by Th17 cells allows their migration across the choroid plexus into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), where they are involved in the early phase of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), and in MS these cells are elevated in the CSF during relapses and contain high frequencies of autoreactive cells. However, the relatively low frequency of Th17 cells suggests they cannot by themselves account for the high percentage of CCR6 + cells in MS CSF. Here we identify the dominant CCR6 + T cell subsets in both the blood and CSF as non-classic Th1 cells, including many that secrete GM-CSF, a key encephalitogenic cytokine. In addition, we show that Th cells secreting GM-CSF but not IFNγ or IL-17, a subset termed GM-CSF-only-secreting Th cells, also accumulate in the CSF. Importantly, in MS the proportion of IFNγ- and GM-CSF-secreting T cells expressing CCR6 was significantly enriched in the CSF, and was elevated in MS, suggesting these cells play a pathogenic role in this disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ORF73 LANA homologs of RRV and MneRV2 contain an extended RGG/RG-rich nuclear and nucleolar localization signal that interacts directly with importin β1 for non-classical nuclear import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kellie; Cherezova, Lidia; DeMaster, Laura K; Rose, Timothy M

    2017-11-01

    The latency-associated nuclear antigens (LANA) of KSHV and macaque RFHVMn, members of the RV1 rhadinovirus lineage, are closely related with conservation of complex nuclear localization signals (NLS) containing bipartite KR-rich motifs and RG-rich domains, which interact distinctly with importins α and ß1 for nuclear import via classical and non-classical pathways, respectively. RV1 LANAs are expressed in the nucleus of latently-infected cells where they inhibit replication and establish a dominant RV1 latency. Here we show that LANA homologs of macaque RRV and MneRV2 from the more distantly-related RV2 lineage, lack the KR-rich NLS, and instead have a large RG-rich NLS with multiple RG dipeptides and a conserved RGG motif. The RG-NLS interacts uniquely with importin β1, which mediates nuclear import and accumulation of RV2 LANA in the nucleolus. The alternative nuclear import and localization of RV2 LANA homologs may contribute to the dominant RV2 lytic replication phenotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Squamocin induce histological and ultrastructural changes in the midgut cells of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaz, Muhammad; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Costa, Marilza da Silva; Cossolin, Jamile Fernanda Silva; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Gonçalves, Wagner Gonzaga; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2018-07-30

    Annonaceous acetogenins (Annona squamosa Linnaeus) comprises of a series of natural products which are extracted from Annonaceae species, squamocin proved to be highly efficient among those agents. Squamocin is mostly referred as a lethal agent for midgut cells of different insects, with toxic effects when tested against larva of some insects. In present study, LC 50 and LC 90 of squamocin for A. gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were calculated using probit analysis. Morphological changes in midgut cells were analyzed under light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopes when larvae were treated with LC 50 and LC 90 of squamocin for 24, 48 and 72 h. Results revealed that the maximum damage to midgut cells was found under LC 90 where it showed digestive cells with enlarged basal labyrinth, highly vacuolated cytoplasm, damaged apical surface, cell protrusions to the gut lumen, autophagy and cell death. The midgut goblet cells showed a strong disorganization of their microvilli. Likewise, in insects treated with squamocin, mitochondria were not marked with Mitotracker fluorescent probe, suggesting some molecular damage in these organelles, which was reinforced by decrease in the respiration rate in these insects. These results demonstrate that squamocin has potential to induce enough morphological changes in midgut through epithelial cell damage in A. gemmatalis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transport from non-classical orbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.P.

    2001-10-01

    From the guiding centre orbit invariants it is possible to construct a map of different orbit shapes in a phase space of three dimensionless variables: normalised toroidal radius y, particle pitch angle ξ, normalised orbit width ρ [1, 2, 3]. The map describes the link between two points in phase space: point 1 (y 1 , ξ 1 , ρ) and point 2 (y 2 , ξ 2 , ρ) where y 1 , y 2 denote the orbit intersection points 1 and 2 with the y(R) axis. An algorithm permits the rapid calculation of point 2 when point 1 is given. The orbit drift excursion Δy = y 2 - y 1 is calculated and converted to Δx = x 2 - x 1 where x denotes a dimensionless flux surface label for a given equilibrium. The mono-energetic distribution function f 0 (Δx) is calculated at fixed ρ 0 (energy) and with a uniform pitch distribution for three tokamaks PBX, JET, MAST. These have been selected because of their variation of inverse aspect ratio ε. A fourth and hypothetical tokamak labelled 'NEOC' (neoclassical) is introduced to compare the results obtained with those predicted by neoclassical theory. A strong dependence of f 0 upon ε is established. An appropriate thermal distribution f(Δx) is also calculated for the four tokamaks and this distribution depends on the profile shapes of normalised temperature and normalised density as well as on the topology of the equilibrium. The thermal distribution functions are shown to exceed the levels assumed in neoclassical transport theory: the mean values are two to four times larger. It is shown that one reason for this excess is due to orbits which traverse the central region of the tokamak. The implications of the results obtained for estimates of transport can then be studied. The magnitude of the drift excursion Δx from a given flux surface x yields by itself no transport. In the limit vertical bar δ vertical bar yξρ (Δx) and δ = (δy, δξ, δρ). The former vector can be calculated in the thermal case. The latter vector describes collisionless changes to y from gyrophase-scattering and changes to ξ, ρ caused by pitch angle scattering and momentum changes in Coulomb collisions. In order to calculate the dependence of this vector upon plasma variables it is necessary to impose the statistical properties associated with the aforementioned collisionless - collisional changes. However, this transport mechanism is augmented by changes δ which occur in the vicinity of those boundaries that separate different orbit topologies; such narrow regions act like 'loss cones' in phase space because the gradient of Δx becomes very large, reaching infinity on the boundaries. (author)

  1. Ehrenfest's Theorem and Nonclassical States of Light

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    presently a doctoral student at RRI ..... Having outlined the strategy, it remains to specify the wave functions for the ..... to arbitrary accuracy is possible if the measuring device has su±ciently high resolution. ..... scopic `world of middle dimensions' which we perceive ... highest clarity and a teacher of remarkable excellence.

  2. Ehrenfest's Theorem and Nonclassical States of Light

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    research interests include quantum mechanics ... His research interests are ... with the help of a simple model in quantum optics, and to bring out ... statement remains true even when ^H has an explicit t- dependence ... For example, the expectation values of the position ..... optics. The experimental realization of these states ...

  3. Nonclassical measurements errors in nonlinear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Edith; Mulalic, Ismir

    Discrete choice models and in particular logit type models play an important role in understanding and quantifying individual or household behavior in relation to transport demand. An example is the choice of travel mode for a given trip under the budget and time restrictions that the individuals...... estimates of the income effect it is of interest to investigate the magnitude of the estimation bias and if possible use estimation techniques that take the measurement error problem into account. We use data from the Danish National Travel Survey (NTS) and merge it with administrative register data...... that contains very detailed information about incomes. This gives a unique opportunity to learn about the magnitude and nature of the measurement error in income reported by the respondents in the Danish NTS compared to income from the administrative register (correct measure). We find that the classical...

  4. A classical view on nonclassical nucleation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.J.M.; Finney, A.R.; Habraken, W.J.E.M.; Nudelman, F.; Friedrich, H.; Laven, J.; De Yoreo, J.J.; Rodger, P.M.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and controlling nucleation is important for many crystallization applications. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is often used as a model system to investigate nucleation mechanisms. Despite its great importance in geology, biology, and many industrial applications, CaCO3 nucleation is still a

  5. Macroscopic nonclassical-state preparation via postselection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Víctor; Coto, Raúl; Eremeev, Vitalie; Orszag, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Macroscopic quantum superposition states are fundamental to test the classical-quantum boundary and present suitable candidates for quantum technologies. Although the preparation of such states has already been realized, the existing setups commonly consider external driving and resonant interactions, predominantly by considering Jaynes-Cummings-like and beam-splitter-like interactions, as well as the nonlinear radiation pressure interaction in cavity optomechanics. In contrast to previous works on the matter, we propose a feasible probabilistic scheme to generate a macroscopic mechanical qubit, as well as phononic Schrödinger's cat states with no need of any energy exchange with the macroscopic mechanical oscillator. Essentially, we investigate an open dispersive spin-mechanical system in the absence of any external driving under nonideal conditions, such as the detrimental effects due to the oscillator and spin energy losses in a thermal bath at nonzero temperature. In our work, we show that the procedure to generate the mechanical qubit state is solely based on spin postselection in the weak to moderate coupling regime. Finally, we demonstrate that the mechanical superposition is related to the amplification of the mean values of the mechanical quadratures as they maximize the quantum coherence.

  6. Differential invariants in nonclassical models of hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublik, Vasily V.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, differential invariants are used to construct solutions for equations of the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting gas and the dynamics of a viscous incompressible fluid modified by nanopowder inoculators. To describe the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting gas, we use the complete system of Navier—Stokes equations with allowance for heat fluxes. Mathematical description of the dynamics of liquid metals under high-energy external influences (laser radiation or plasma flow) includes, in addition to the Navier—Stokes system of an incompressible viscous fluid, also heat fluxes and processes of nonequilibrium crystallization of a deformable fluid. Differentially invariant solutions are a generalization of partially invariant solutions, and their active study for various models of continuous medium mechanics is just beginning. Differentially invariant solutions can also be considered as solutions with differential constraints; therefore, when developing them, the approaches and methods developed by the science schools of academicians N. N. Yanenko and A. F. Sidorov will be actively used. In the construction of partially invariant and differentially invariant solutions, there are overdetermined systems of differential equations that require a compatibility analysis. The algorithms for reducing such systems to involution in a finite number of steps are described by Cartan, Finikov, Kuranishi, and other authors. However, the difficultly foreseeable volume of intermediate calculations complicates their practical application. Therefore, the methods of computer algebra are actively used here, which largely helps in solving this difficult problem. It is proposed to use the constructed exact solutions as tests for formulas, algorithms and their software implementations when developing and creating numerical methods and computational program complexes. This combination of effective numerical methods, capable of solving a wide class of problems, with analytical methods makes it possible to make the results of mathematical modeling more accurate and reliable.

  7. Forma no clásica de hiperplasia adrenal congénita en la niñez y adolescencia Non-classic way of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carvajal Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hiperplasia adrenal congénita es un trastorno hereditario de la esteroidogénesis suprarrenal, trasmitido por mutaciones genéticas con carácter autosómico recesivo, las cuales afectan las enzimas que intervienen en la biosíntesis del cortisol. La causa la constituye en 90 a 95 % de los casos la deficiencia de la enzima 21 hidroxilasa. OBJETIVO: exponer la experiencia de los autores de este trabajo en la forma no clásica de esta enfermedad. MÉTODOS: se realizó la caracterización de 7 pacientes diagnosticados en la sala de endocrinología pediátrica del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología, ubicada en el Hospital Pediátrico del Cerro, durante el período 1998-2008. Todos los pacientes pertenecían al sexo femenino. RESULTADOS: los síntomas se iniciaron a una edad promedio de 8,8 años y más de la mitad de los casos presentaron pubarquia precoz. La menarquia se produjo a una edad media de 10,7 años. Se logró el diagnóstico bioquímico al obtenerse valores elevados de 17 hidroxiprogesterona (en condiciones basales. Se emplearon distintas modalidades de tratamiento según la edad de cada paciente y los síntomas predominantes en cada caso. CONCLUSIONES: se corroboró la mayor frecuencia de diagnóstico de esta enfermedad en el sexo femenino, así como la importancia del estudio y el seguimiento ante un paciente con pubarquia precoz.INTRODUCTION: the congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an inherited disorder of suprarenal esteroidogenesis, transmitted by genetic mutations with a autosomal recessive character affecting the enzymes intervening in cortisol biosynthesis. In the 90 to 95% of cases, the cause is a deficiency of Hydroxylase enzyme 21. OBJECTIVE: to show the current paper authors' experience in the non-classic way of this entity. METHODS: we made a characterization of 7 female patients diagnosed in the Children Endocrinology Ward of the National Institute of Endocrinology located in the Children Hospital, Cerro

  8. Antitumor activity of Annona squamosa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Yayun; Shi, Yeye; Ma, Chengyao; Wang, Xunan; Li, Yue; Miao, Yunjie; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang

    2016-12-04

    Custard apple (Annona squamosa Linn.) is an edible tropical fruit, and its seeds have been used to treat "malignant sore" (cancer) and other usage as insecticide. A comparison of extraction processes, chemical composition analysis and antitumor activity of A. squamosa seed oil (ASO) were investigated. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were established by comparing percolation, soxhlet, ultrasonic and SFE-CO 2 extraction methods. The chemical composition of fatty acid and content of total annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) of ASO was investigated by GC-MS and colorimetric assay, and anti-tumor activity of ASO was tested using H 22 xenografts bearing mice. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were obtained as follows: using soxhlet extraction method with extraction solvent of petroleum ether, temperature of 80°C, and extraction time of 90min. Under these conditions, the yield of ASO was 22.65%. GC-MS analysis results showed that the main chemical compositions of fatty acid of ASO were palmitic acid (9.92%), linoleic acid (20.49%), oleic acid (56.50%) and stearic acid (9.14%). The total ACGs content in ASO was 41.00mg/g. ASO inhibited the growth of H 22 tumor cells in mice with a maximum inhibitory rate of 53.54% by oral administration. Furthermore, it was found that ASO exerted an antitumor effect via decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6), janus kinase (Jak) and phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription (p-Stat3) expression. The results demonstrated that ASO suppressed the H 22 solid tumor development may due to its main chemical constituents unsaturated fatty acid and ACGs via IL-6/Jak/Stat3 pathway. ASO may be a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. КОНЦЕПЦІЯ АНТРОПОЦЕНТРИЗМУ В НЕКЛАСИЧНІЙ ФІЛОСОФІЇ / The concept of anthropocentrism in the non-classical philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Скакун Ігор

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Скакун Игорь. Концепция антропоцентризма в неклассической философии. В работе исследуется мировоззренческий и методологический потенциал антропоцентризма и его реализация в динамике парадигм человекомерности научного знания. Раскрывается суть идеи человекомерности и принципа антропоцентризма, формы их актуализации в постклассической парадигме знания. Ключевые слова: антропологизация, антропоцентризм, человек, методология, научная картина мира. Skakun Ihor. THE CONCEPT OF ANTHROPOCENTRISM IN THE NONCLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY. In the paper the ideological and methodological potential of anthropocentrism and its implementation in the dynamics of human dimensional paradigms of scientific knowledge is argued. The author reveals the essence of the idea of personality and principle of anthropocentrism, shapes their actualization in postclassical paradigms of knowledge. The concept of anthropocentrism became an independent philosophical concept, according to which man is the center and purpose of world creation. Anthropocentrism in non-classical philosophy outlined the importance of the qualitative change in the methodological approach of philosophical understanding of man. It should be emphasized that man-restructuring concept was only potential, as factors of its implementation (as it was in post-non-classical period to the just formed. Thinkers’ ideas of the transition period (from classic to non-classic and the ideas of thinkers formed a new era of post-non-classical objectivistic and subjectivist concepts of man. Awareness of the problem of man as the central

  10. Non-Classical Order in Sphere Forming ABAC Tetrablock Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Sides, Scott; Bates, Frank

    2013-03-01

    AB diblock and ABC triblock copolymers have been studied thoroughly. ABAC tetrablock copolymers, representing the simplest variation from ABC triblock by breaking the molecular symmetry via inserting some of the A block in between B and C blocks, have been studied systematically in this research. The model system is poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene-b-ethylene oxide) (SISO) tetrablock terpolymers and the resulting morphologies were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, gel permeation chromatography, small-angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical spectroscopy. Two novel phases are first discovered in a single component block copolymers: hexagonally ordered spherical phase and tentatively identified dodecagonal quasicrystalline (QC) phase. In particular, the discovery of QC phase bridges the world of soft matters to that of metals. These unusual sets of morphologies will be discussed in the context of segregation under the constraints associated with the tetrablock molecular architecture. Theoretical calculations based on the assumption of Gaussian chain statistics provide valuable insights into the molecular configurations associated with these morphologies. the U.S. Department of Energy, Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, under contract number DEAC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle LLC at Oak Ridge National Lab.

  11. Towards non-classical walks with bright laser pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available as scalability of the systems. Here we outline how to perform the QW due to interference characteristics inherent in the phenomenon, to mitigate these challenges. We utilize the properties of vector beams to physically implement such a walk in orbital angular...

  12. Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    modulation and entanglement in a compound gradient echo memory, Physical Review A 93(2) 023809 2016. We present a theoretical model for a Kerr...Carvalho, M. Hedges and M R James, Analysis of the operation of gradient echo memories using a quantum input-output model, New Journal of Physics , 15...new structured uncertainty methods that ensure robust stability of quantum systems based on nominal linear models, and (v) physical realizability

  13. Statistical analysis of complex systems with nonclassical invariant measures

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    I investigate the problem of finding a statistical description of a complex many-body system whose invariant measure cannot be constructed stemming from classical thermodynamics ensembles. By taking solitons as a reference system and by employing a

  14. Classical and Nonclassical Estrogen Receptor Action on Chromatin Templates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeen, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Improvement of hormone-based therapy in breast cancer and circumvention of its shortcomings is limited by the lack of detailed understanding of how steroids like estrogen work at a cellular and molecular level...

  15. Classical and Nonclassical Estrogen Receptor Action on Chromatin Templaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeen, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Improvement of hormone-based therapy in breast cancer and circumvention of its shortcomings is limited by the lack of detailed understanding of how steroids like estrogen work at a cellular and molecular level...

  16. Non-classical light emission from single conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollars, Christopher; Lane, Stephen; Huser, Thomas

    2002-03-01

    Photon-antibunching from single, isolated molecules of collapsed-chain poly[2-methoxy,5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) has been observed using confocal microscopy techniques. Efficient inter-segment energy transfer in collapsed-chain conjugated polymers leads to emission from an average of only 2-3 active sites on a polymer chain that is composed of hundreds of quasi-chromophores. These few centers consist of the segments with the lowest excitation energy and are supplied by the efficient light-harvesting and energy transfer of the surrounding higher-energy segments. This effect depends on the conformation of the polymer molecules, which is controlled by solvent polarity. These results provide new insight into the controversial photophysics of conjugated polymers and their application in optoelectronic devices.

  17. Statistical analysis of complex systems with nonclassical invariant measures

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2011-02-28

    I investigate the problem of finding a statistical description of a complex many-body system whose invariant measure cannot be constructed stemming from classical thermodynamics ensembles. By taking solitons as a reference system and by employing a general formalism based on the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur scheme, I demonstrate how to build an invariant measure and, within a one-dimensional phase space, how to develop a suitable thermodynamics. A detailed example is provided with a universal model of wave propagation, with reference to a transparent potential sustaining gray solitons. The system shows a rich thermodynamic scenario, with a free-energy landscape supporting phase transitions and controllable emergent properties. I finally discuss the origin of such behavior, trying to identify common denominators in the area of complex dynamics.

  18. Generation and measurement of nonclassical states by quantum Fock filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ariano, G.M.; Maccone, L.; Paris, M.G.A.; Sacchi, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    We study a novel optical setup which selects a specific Fock component from a generic input state. The device allows to synthesize number states and superpositions of few number states, and to measure the photon distribution and the density matrix of a generic signal. (Authors)

  19. Classical Sets and Non-Classical Sets: An Overview -38 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our traditional models for formal modeling, reasoning or computing are deterministic ..... breakthrough has been accomplished, making use of the versatility of electronic ... reasoning and decision theory, among others, have been explored.

  20. Probing the non-classicality of temporal correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ringbauer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between spacelike separated measurements on entangled quantum systems are stronger than any classical correlations and are at the heart of numerous quantum technologies. In practice, however, spacelike separation is often not guaranteed and we typically face situations where measurements have an underlying time order. Here we aim to provide a fair comparison of classical and quantum models of temporal correlations on a single particle, as well as timelike-separated correlations on multiple particles. We use a causal modeling approach to show, in theory and experiment, that quantum correlations outperform their classical counterpart when allowed equal, but limited communication resources. This provides a clearer picture of the role of quantum correlations in timelike separated scenarios, which play an important role in foundational and practical aspects of quantum information processing.

  1. Generation of three-mode nonclassical vibrational states of ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Truong Minh Duc

    2002-01-01

    We propose using eight lasers with appropriate orientations and conditions to generate stable trio coherent states of an ion in a three-dimensional isotropic trap. Seven lasers whose orientations are important should be detuned to the third lower sideband of the ion vibrational motion. The eighth laser whose direction is not important should be in resonance with the ionic transition

  2. Classical and Nonclassical Estrogen Receptor Action on Chromatin Templates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeen, Steven

    2000-01-01

    .... Using newly-developed approaches, I investigated mechanisms of estrogen/estrogen receptor action on chromatin templates in vitro in order to better understand the role of chromatin in steroid-regulated gene expression...

  3. Classical and Nonclassical Estrogen Receptor Action on Chromatin Templaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeen, Steve

    2001-01-01

    .... Using newly-developed approaches, I investigated mechanisms of estrogen/estrogen receptor action on chromatin templates in vitro in order to better understand the role of chromatin in steroid-regulated gene expression...

  4. Vaguely defined objects representations, fuzzy sets and nonclassical cardinality theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wygralak, Maciej

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, an impetuous development of new, unconventional theories, methods, techniques and technologies in computer and information sciences, systems analysis, decision-making and control, expert systems, data modelling, engineering, etc. , resulted in a considerable increase of interest in adequate mathematical description and analysis of objects, phenomena, and processes which are vague or imprecise by their very nature. Classical two-valued logic and the related notion of a set, together with its mathematical consequences, are then often inadequate or insufficient formal tools, and can even become useless for applications because of their (too) categorical character: 'true - false', 'belongs - does not belong', 'is - is not', 'black - white', '0 - 1', etc. This is why one replaces classical logic by various types of many-valued logics and, on the other hand, more general notions are introduced instead of or beside that of a set. Let us mention, for instance, fuzzy sets and derivative concepts, flou...

  5. Spectroscopy and nonclassical fluorescence properties of single trapped Ba+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolle, J.

    1998-06-01

    This thesis reports on the setup and application of an experimental apparatus for spectroscopic and quantum optical investigations of a single Barium ion in a Paul trap. The realization of the apparatus, which consists of the ion trap in ultra high vacuum, two laser systems, and a photon counting detection system, is described in detail, with particular consideration of the noise sources like stray light and laser frequency instabilities. The two lasers at 493 nm and 650 nm needed to continuously excite resonance fluorescence from the Barium ion have been realized using diode lasers only. The preparation of a single localized Barium ion is described, in particular its optical cooling with the laser light and the minimization of induced vibration in the trapping potential. The purely quantum mechanical property of antibunching is observed by measuring the intensity correlation function of resonance fluorescence from the trapped and cooled ion. Interference properties of the single ion resonance fluorescence are investigated with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. From the measured high-contrast interference signal it is proven that each individual fluorescence photon interferes with itself. The fluorescence excitation spectrum, on varying one laser frequency, is also measured and exhibits dark resonances. These measurements are compared to calculations based on optical Bloch equations for the 8 atomic levels involved. Future experiments, in particular the detection of reduced quantum fluctuations (squeezing) in one quadrature component of the resonance fluorescence, are discussed. (author)

  6. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukerman, Igor, E-mail: igor@uakron.edu

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • Advanced non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization theories of metamaterials, valid in electrostatics and electrodynamics. • Classical theories (Clausius–Mossotti, Lorenz–Lorentz, Maxwell Garnett) fit well into the proposed framework. • Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. • A challenging problem for future research is to determine what effective tensors are attainable for given constituents of a metamaterial. - Abstract: Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius–Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  7. N-particle nonclassicality without N-particle correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieśniak, Marcin; Nawareg, Mohamed; Żukowski, Marek

    2012-10-01

    Most of known multipartite Bell inequalities involve correlation functions for all subsystems. They are useless for entangled states without such correlations. We give a method of derivation of families of Bell inequalities for N parties, which involve, e.g., only (N-1)-partite correlations, but still are able to detect proper N-partite entanglement. We present an inequality which reveals five-partite entanglement despite using only four-partite correlations. Classes of inequalities introduced here can be put into a handy form of a single nonlinear inequality. An example is given of an N-qubit state, which strongly violates such an inequality, despite having no N-qubit correlations. This surprising property might be of potential value for quantum information tasks.

  8. Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    has a history going back some 50 years, to the birth of modern control theory with Kalman’s foundational work on filtering and LQG optimal control...realizability conditions. DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. 8 Shi Wang, Matthew R James H- Infinity control of...physical model for a quantum measurement-based feedback control system with time delay is presented for the H- infinity control. Luis Augusto

  9. Experimental non-classicality of an indivisible quantum system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapkiewicz, Radek; Li, Peizhe; Schaeff, Christoph; Langford, Nathan K; Ramelow, Sven; Wieśniak, Marcin; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-06-22

    In contrast to classical physics, quantum theory demands that not all properties can be simultaneously well defined; the Heisenberg uncertainty principle is a manifestation of this fact. Alternatives have been explored--notably theories relying on joint probability distributions or non-contextual hidden-variable models, in which the properties of a system are defined independently of their own measurement and any other measurements that are made. Various deep theoretical results imply that such theories are in conflict with quantum mechanics. Simpler cases demonstrating this conflict have been found and tested experimentally with pairs of quantum bits (qubits). Recently, an inequality satisfied by non-contextual hidden-variable models and violated by quantum mechanics for all states of two qubits was introduced and tested experimentally. A single three-state system (a qutrit) is the simplest system in which such a contradiction is possible; moreover, the contradiction cannot result from entanglement between subsystems, because such a three-state system is indivisible. Here we report an experiment with single photonic qutrits which provides evidence that no joint probability distribution describing the outcomes of all possible measurements--and, therefore, no non-contextual theory--can exist. Specifically, we observe a violation of the Bell-type inequality found by Klyachko, Can, Binicioğlu and Shumovsky. Our results illustrate a deep incompatibility between quantum mechanics and classical physics that cannot in any way result from entanglement.

  10. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization theories of metamaterials, valid in electrostatics and electrodynamics. • Classical theories (Clausius–Mossotti, Lorenz–Lorentz, Maxwell Garnett) fit well into the proposed framework. • Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. • A challenging problem for future research is to determine what effective tensors are attainable for given constituents of a metamaterial. - Abstract: Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius–Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  11. Is transparent intensional logic a non-classical logic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Materna, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2014), s. 47-55 ISSN 1425-3305 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : anti- realism * bivalence * classicality * construction * expressivity * extensions * hyperintensionality * intensions * procedure * realism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  12. Allele Age Under Non-Classical Assumptions is Clarified by an Exact Computational Markov Chain Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Bianca; Krukov, Ivan; de Koning, A P Jason

    2017-09-19

    Determination of the age of an allele based on its population frequency is a well-studied problem in population genetics, for which a variety of approximations have been proposed. We present a new result that, surprisingly, allows the expectation and variance of allele age to be computed exactly (within machine precision) for any finite absorbing Markov chain model in a matter of seconds. This approach makes none of the classical assumptions (e.g., weak selection, reversibility, infinite sites), exploits modern sparse linear algebra techniques, integrates over all sample paths, and is rapidly computable for Wright-Fisher populations up to N e  = 100,000. With this approach, we study the joint effect of recurrent mutation, dominance, and selection, and demonstrate new examples of "selective strolls" where the classical symmetry of allele age with respect to selection is violated by weakly selected alleles that are older than neutral alleles at the same frequency. We also show evidence for a strong age imbalance, where rare deleterious alleles are expected to be substantially older than advantageous alleles observed at the same frequency when population-scaled mutation rates are large. These results highlight the under-appreciated utility of computational methods for the direct analysis of Markov chain models in population genetics.

  13. The Ebola virus glycoprotein mediates entry via a non-classical dynamin-dependent macropinocytic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulherkar, Nirupama; Raaben, Matthijs; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Whelan, Sean P.; Chandran, Kartik

    2011-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) has been reported to enter cultured cell lines via a dynamin-2-independent macropinocytic pathway or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The route(s) of productive EBOV internalization into physiologically relevant cell types remain unexplored, and viral-host requirements for this process are incompletely understood. Here, we use electron microscopy and complementary chemical and genetic approaches to demonstrate that the viral glycoprotein, GP, induces macropinocytic uptake of viral particles into cells. GP's highly-glycosylated mucin domain is dispensable for virus-induced macropinocytosis, arguing that interactions between other sequences in GP and the host cell surface are responsible. Unexpectedly, we also found a requirement for the large GTPase dynamin-2, which is proposed to be dispensable for several types of macropinocytosis. Our results provide evidence that EBOV uses an atypical dynamin-dependent macropinocytosis-like entry pathway to enter Vero cells, adherent human peripheral blood-derived monocytes, and a mouse dendritic cell line.

  14. Treatise on irreversible and statistical thermodynamics an introduction to nonclassical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Yourgrau, Wolfgang; Raw, Gough

    2002-01-01

    Extensively revised edition of a much-respected work examines thermodynamics of irreversible processes, general principles of statistical thermodynamics, assemblies of noninteracting structureless particles, and statistical theory. 1966 edition.

  15. Expression of the Classical and Nonclassical HLA Molecules in Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Bevilacqua Rolfsen Ferreira da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering that downregulation of HLA expression could represent a potential mechanism for breast carcinogenesis and metastasis, the aim of the present study was to use immunohistochemical methods to analyze the expression of HLA-Ia, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-E, and HLA-G in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC of the breast and to relate this HLA profile to anatomopathological parameters. Fifty-two IDC from breast biopsies were stratified according to histological differentiation (well, moderately, and poorly differentiated and to the presence of metastases in axillary lymph nodes. The expression of HLA molecules was assessed by immunohistochemistry, using a computer-assisted system. Overall, 31 (59.6% out of the 52 IDC breast biopsies exhibited high expression of HLA-G, but only 14 (26.9% showed high expression of HLA-E. A large number (41, 78.8% of the biopsies showed low expression of HLA-Ia, while 45 (86.5% showed high expression of HLA-DQ and 36 (69.2% underexpressed HLA-DR. Moreover, 24 (41.2% of 52 biopsies had both low HLA-Ia expression and high HLA-G expression, while 11 (21.2% had low HLA-Ia expression and high HLA-E expression. These results suggest that, by different mechanisms, the downregulation of HLA-Ia, HLA-E, and HLA-DR and the upregulation of HLA-G and HLA-DQ are associated with immune response evasion and breast cancer aggressiveness.

  16. Thrombin induces rapid PAR1-mediated non-classical FGF1 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Maria; Kolev, Vihren; Soldi, Raffaella; Kirov, Alexander; Graziani, Irene; Oliveira, Silvia Marta; Kacer, Doreen; Friesel, Robert; Maciag, Thomas; Prudovsky, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Thrombin induces cell proliferation and migration during vascular injury. We report that thrombin rapidly stimulated expression and release of the pro-angiogenic polypeptide fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). Thrombin failed to induce FGF1 release from protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) null fibroblasts, indicating that this effect was dependent on PAR1. Similarly to thrombin, FGF1 expression and release were induced by TRAP, a specific oligopeptide agonist of PAR1. These results identify a novel aspect of the crosstalk between FGF and thrombin signaling pathways which both play important roles in tissue repair and angiogenesis

  17. Experimental test of the strongly nonclassical character of a noisy squeezed single-photon state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jezek, M.; Tipsmark, A.; Dong, R.

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally verify the quantum non-Gaussian character of a conditionally generated noisy squeezed single-photon state with a positive Wigner function. Employing an optimized witness based on probabilities of squeezed vacuum and squeezed single-photon states, we prove that the state cannot...... be expressed as a mixture of Gaussian states. In our experiment, the non-Gaussian state is generated by conditional subtraction of a single photon from a squeezed vacuum state. The state is probed with a homodyne detector and the witness is determined by averaging a suitable pattern function over the measured...

  18. Nonclassical state generation for linear quantum systems via nonlinear feedback control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohki, Kentaro; Tsumura, Koji; Takeuchi, Reiji

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a measurement nonlinear feedback control scheme to generate Wigner-function negativity in an optical cavity having dynamics described as a linear quantum system. In general, linear optical quantum systems can be easily constructed with reliable devices; therefore, the idea of constructing the entire system with such an optical system and nonlinear feedback is reasonable for generating Wigner-function negativity. However, existing studies have insufficiently examined the realizability or actual implementation of feedback control, which essentially requires fast responses from the sensors and actuators. In order to solve this problem, we consider the realizable feedback control of the optical phase of a pumping beam supplied to a cavity by using electro-optical modulation, which can be utilized as a fast control actuator. Then, we introduce mathematical models of the feedback-controlled system and evaluate its effect on the generation of the Wigner-function negativity by using numerical simulation. Through various numerical simulations, we show that the proposed feedback control can effectively generate the negativity of the Wigner function. (paper)

  19. Wigner functions for nonclassical states of a collection of two-level atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G. S.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    1993-01-01

    The general theory of atomic angular momentum states is used to derive the Wigner distribution function for atomic angular momentum number states, coherent states, and squeezed states. These Wigner functions W(theta,phi) are represented as a pseudo-probability distribution in spherical coordinates theta and phi on the surface of a sphere of radius the square root of j(j +1) where j is the total angular momentum.

  20. Event-by-event simulation of nonclassical effects in two-photon interference experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.; Delina, M.; Raedt, H. De

    2012-01-01

    A corpuscular simulation model for second-order intensity interference phenomena is discussed. It is shown that both the visibility V = 1/2 predicted for two-photon interference experiments with two independent sources and the visibility V = 1 predicted for two-photon interference experiments with a

  1. Laryngoscopic and spectral analysis of laryngeal and pharyngeal configuration in non-classical singing styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Lanas, Andres; Olavarria, Christian; Azocar, Maria Josefina; Muñoz, Daniel; Madrid, Sofia; Monsalve, Sebastian; Martinez, Francisca; Vargas, Sindy; Cortez, Pedro; Mayerhoff, Ross M

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess three different singing styles (pop, rock, and jazz) with laryngoscopic, acoustic, and perceptual analysis in healthy singers at different loudness levels. Special emphasis was given to the degree of anterior-posterior (A-P) laryngeal compression, medial laryngeal compression, vertical laryngeal position (VLP), and pharyngeal compression. Prospective study. Twelve female trained singers with at least 5 years of voice training and absence of any voice pathology were included. Flexible and rigid laryngeal endoscopic examinations were performed. Voice recording was also carried out. Four blinded judges were asked to assess laryngoscopic and auditory perceptual variables using a visual analog scale. All laryngoscopic parameters showed significant differences for all singing styles. Rock showed the greatest degree for all of them. Overall A-P laryngeal compression scores demonstrated significantly higher values than overall medial compression and VLP. High loudness level produced the highest degree of A-P compression, medial compression, pharyngeal compression, and the lowest VLP for all singing styles. Additionally, rock demonstrated the highest values for alpha ratio (less steep spectral slope), L1-L0 ratio (more glottal adduction), and Leq (more vocal intensity). Statistically significant differences between the three loudness levels were also found for these acoustic parameters. Rock singing seems to be the style with the highest degree of both laryngeal and pharyngeal activity in healthy singers. Although, supraglottic activity during singing could be labeled as hyperfunctional vocal behavior, it may not necessarily be harmful, but a strategy to avoid vocal fold damage. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonclassical ligands for the thyrotropin receptor: functional studies on thyrostimulin and Graves’ disease immunoglobulins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zeijl, C.J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Clementine van Zeijl onderzocht twee liganden (verbindingsmoleculen) voor TSHR, de receptor voor schildklierstimulerend hormoon (TSH). Ze bestudeerde bij muizen de rol van thyrostimuline (een recentelijk ontdekt TSHR-stimulerend glycoproteïnehormoon) in de hypothalamus-hypofyse-schildklieras (HPT)

  3. Oxidative Corrosion of the UO 2 (001) Surface by Nonclassical Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, Joanne E.; Biwer, Craig A.; Chaka, Anne M. [Pacific Northwest; Ilton, Eugene S. [Pacific Northwest; Du, Yingge [Pacific Northwest; Bargar, John R. [Stanford Synchrotron; Eng, Peter J.

    2017-11-07

    Uranium oxide is central to every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle, from mining through fuel fabrication and use, to waste disposal and environmental cleanup. Its chemical and mechanical stability are intricately linked to the concentration of interstitial O atoms within the structure and the oxidation state of U. We have previously shown that during corrosion of the UO2 (111) surface under either 1 atm O2 gas or oxygenated water at room temperature, oxygen interstitials diffuse into the substrate to form a superlattice with three-layer periodicity. In the current study, we present results from surface x-ray scattering that reveal the structure of the oxygen diffusion profile beneath the (001) surface. The first few layers below the surface oscillate strongly in their surface-normal lattice parameters, suggesting preferential interstitial occupation of every other layer below the surface, which is geometrically consistent with the interstitial network that forms below the oxidized (111) surface. Deeper layers are heavily contracted and indicate that the oxidation front penetrates ~52 Å below the (001) surface after 21 days of dry O2 gas exposure at ambient pressure and temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates U is present as U(IV), U(V), and U(VI).

  4. Quantum enhanced feedback cooling of a mechanical oscillator using nonclassical light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfermeier, Clemens; Kerdoncuff, Hugo; Hoff, Ulrich B; Fu, Hao; Huck, Alexander; Bilek, Jan; Harris, Glen I; Bowen, Warwick P; Gehring, Tobias; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2016-11-29

    Laser cooling is a fundamental technique used in primary atomic frequency standards, quantum computers, quantum condensed matter physics and tests of fundamental physics, among other areas. It has been known since the early 1990s that laser cooling can, in principle, be improved by using squeezed light as an electromagnetic reservoir; while quantum feedback control using a squeezed light probe is also predicted to allow improved cooling. Here we show the implementation of quantum feedback control of a micro-mechanical oscillator using squeezed probe light. This allows quantum-enhanced feedback cooling with a measurement rate greater than it is possible with classical light, and a consequent reduction in the final oscillator temperature. Our results have significance for future applications in areas ranging from quantum information networks, to quantum-enhanced force and displacement measurements and fundamental tests of macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  5. Quantum Mechanical Noise in a Michelson Interferometer with Nonclassical Inputs: Nonperturbative Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sun-Kun

    1996-01-01

    The variances of the quantum-mechanical noise in a two-input-port Michelson interferometer within the framework of the Loudon-Ni model were solved exactly in two general cases: (1) one coherent state input and one squeezed state input, and (2) two photon number states inputs. Low intensity limit, exponential decaying signal and the noise due to mixing were discussed briefly.

  6. Correlations in local measurements on a quantum state, and complementarity as an explanation of nonclassicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    and the classical correlations and we relate our quantitative finding to the so-called classical correlation locked in a quantum state. We derive upper bounds for the sum of classical correlation obtained by measurements in different mutually unbiased bases and we show that the complementarity gap is also present......We consider the classical correlations that two observers can extract by measurements on a bipartite quantum state and we discuss how they are related to the quantum mutual information of the state. We show with several examples how complementarity gives rise to a gap between the quantum...... in the deterministic quantum computation with one quantum bit....

  7. Information-theoretic metric as a tool to investigate nonclassical correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Lamine, Brahim; Joyce, Michael; Vignolles, Hélène; Consiglio, David

    2014-06-01

    We report on a project to introduce interactive learning strategies (ILS) to physics classes at the Université Pierre et Marie Curie, one of the leading science universities in France. In Spring 2012, instructors in two large introductory classes, first-year, second-semester mechanics, and second-year introductory electricity and magnetism, enrolling approximately 500 and 250 students, respectively, introduced ILS into some, but not all, of the sections of each class. The specific ILS utilized were think-pair-share questions and Peer Instruction in the main lecture classrooms, and University of Washington Tutorials for Introductory Physics in recitation sections. Pre- and postinstruction assessments [Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM), respectively] were given, along with a series of demographic questions. Since not all lecture or recitation sections in these classes used ILS, we were able to compare the results of the FCI and CSEM between interactive and noninteractive classes taught simultaneously with the same curriculum. We also analyzed final exam results, as well as the results of student and instructor attitude surveys between classes. In our analysis, we argue that multiple linear regression modeling is superior to other common analysis tools, including normalized gain. Our results show that ILS are effective at improving student learning by all measures used: research-validated concept inventories and final exam scores, on both conceptual and traditional problem-solving questions. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that interactivity in the classroom is a significant predictor of student learning, showing a similar or stronger relationship with student learning than such ascribed characteristics as parents’ education, and achieved characteristics such as grade point average and hours studied per week. Analysis of student and instructor attitudes shows that both groups believe that ILS improve student learning in the physics classroom and increase student engagement and motivation. All of the instructors who used ILS in this study plan to continue their use.

  8. Non-classical kinetics processes and morphologies in QSE driven growth in Pb/Si(111

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuntová, Zdeňka; Hupalo, M.; Chvoj, Zdeněk; Tringides, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 600, - (2006), s. 4765-4770 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010207; GA MŠk ME 655 Grant - others:US department of Energy by Iowa State University(US) 7405-Eng-82; MCT(US) NSF-INT-0308505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum size effects * self-organized growth * magic thickness * interlayer diffusion nucleation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2006

  9. Non-classical signature of parametric fluorescence and its application in metrology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamar, Martin; Michálek, Václav; Pathak, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2014), s. 227-236 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : parametric fluorescence * photon number squeezed light * quantum efficiency Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2014

  10. Observation of spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2009-01-01

    and negative spatial quantum correlations are observed when varying the quantum state incident to the multiple scattering medium, and the strength of the correlations is controlled by the number of photons. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical proposals by implementing......We present the experimental realization of spatial quantum correlations of photons that are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The quantum correlation relates photons propagating along two different light paths through the random medium and is infinite in range. Both positive...... the full quantum model of multiple scattering....

  11. Non-classical relaxation cycle of a three-dimensional system of Lotka-Volterra equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolesov, Yu S

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical model of the well-known Belousov's reaction is the object of study. It is reasonable to assume that one coefficient in the corresponding system of differential equations is large, while the other parameters are finite. Non-standard tools taking account of the peculiarities of the problem bring one to a theorem on the existence of a relaxation cycle, allowing at the same time to reveal its characteristic features

  12. Salicylate-Induced Auditory Perceptual Disorders and Plastic Changes in Nonclassical Auditory Centers in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Di Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that sodium salicylate (SS activates not only central auditory structures, but also nonauditory regions associated with emotion and memory. To identify electrophysiological changes in the nonauditory regions, we recorded sound-evoked local field potentials and multiunit discharges from the striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate cortex after SS-treatment. The SS-treatment produced behavioral evidence of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Physiologically, the treatment significantly enhanced sound-evoked neural activity in the striatum, amygdala, and hippocampus, but not in the cingulate. The enhanced sound evoked response could be linked to the hyperacusis-like behavior. Further analysis showed that the enhancement of sound-evoked activity occurred predominantly at the midfrequencies, likely reflecting shifts of neurons towards the midfrequency range after SS-treatment as observed in our previous studies in the auditory cortex and amygdala. The increased number of midfrequency neurons would lead to a relative higher number of total spontaneous discharges in the midfrequency region, even though the mean discharge rate of each neuron may not increase. The tonotopical overactivity in the midfrequency region in quiet may potentially lead to tonal sensation of midfrequency (the tinnitus. The neural changes in the amygdala and hippocampus may also contribute to the negative effect that patients associate with their tinnitus.

  13. Device for plasma confinement and heating by high currents and nonclassical plasma transport properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppi, B.; Montgomery, D.B.

    1973-12-11

    A toroidal plasma containment device having means for inducing high total plasma currents and current densities and at the same time emhanced plasma heating, strong magnetic confinement, high energy density containment, magnetic modulation, microwaveinduced heating, and diagnostic accessibility is described. (Official Gazette)

  14. Non-Classical Gluconeogenesis-Dependent Glucose Metabolism in Rhipicephalus microplus Embryonic Cell Line BME26

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Martins da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we evaluated several genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glycolysis and glycogen metabolism, the major pathways for carbohydrate catabolism and anabolism, in the BME26 Rhipicephalus microplus embryonic cell line. Genetic and catalytic control of the genes and enzymes associated with these pathways are modulated by alterations in energy resource availability (primarily glucose. BME26 cells in media were investigated using three different glucose concentrations, and changes in the transcription levels of target genes in response to carbohydrate utilization were assessed. The results indicate that several genes, such as glycogen synthase (GS, glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK, and glucose-6 phosphatase (GP displayed mutual regulation in response to glucose treatment. Surprisingly, the transcription of gluconeogenic enzymes was found to increase alongside that of glycolytic enzymes, especially pyruvate kinase, with high glucose treatment. In addition, RNAi data from this study revealed that the transcription of gluconeogenic genes in BME26 cells is controlled by GSK-3. Collectively, these results improve our understanding of how glucose metabolism is regulated at the genetic level in tick cells.

  15. Nonclassical disordered phase in the strong quantum limit of frustrated antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccatto, H.A.; Gazza, C.J.; Trumper, A.E.

    1992-07-01

    The Schwinger boson approach to quantum helimagnets is discussed. It is shown that in order to get quantitative agreement with exact results on finite lattices, parity-breaking pairing of bosons must be allowed. The so-called J 1 - J 2 - J 3 model is studied, particularly on the special line J 2 = 2J 3 . A quantum disordered phase is found between the Neel and spiral phases, though notably only in the strong quantum limit S = 1/2, and for the third-neighbor coupling J 3 ≥ 0.038 J 1 . For spins S≥1 the spiral phase goes continuously to an antiferromagnetic order. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs

  16. Quantifying non-classical and beyond-quantum correlations in the unified operator formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geller, Joshua; Piani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Acin et al (2010 Phys. Rev. Lett. 104 140404) introduced a unified framework for the study of no-signalling correlations. Such a framework is based on the notion of local quantum measurements, but, in order to account for beyond-quantum correlations, global pseudo-states that are not positive semidefinite are allowed. After a short review of the formalism, we consider its use in the quantification of both general non-local and beyond-quantum correlations. We argue that the unified framework for correlations provides a simple approach to such a quantification, in particular when the quantification is meant to be operational and meaningful in a resource-theory scenario, i.e., when considering the processing of resources by means of non-resources. We relate different notions of robustness of correlations, both at the level of (pseudo-)states and abstract probability distributions, with particular focus on the beyond-quantum robustness of correlations and pseudo-states. We revisit known results and argue that, within the unified framework, the relation between the two levels—that of operators and that of probability distributions—is very strict. We point out how the consideration of robustness at the two levels leads to a natural framework for the quantification of entanglement in a device-independent way. Finally, we show that the beyond-quantum robustness of the non-positive operators needed to achieve beyond-quantum correlations coincides with their negativity and their distance from the set of quantum states. As an example, we calculate the beyond-quantum robustness for the case of a noisy Popescu–Rohrlich box. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘50 years of Bell’s theorem’. (paper)

  17. A closed-form solution procedure to the vibration of non-classically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proportional damping subjected to harmonic loads is considered. Modal substitution is employed to transform the coupled differential equations of motion from geometric to modal coordinates. As might be expected, the modal transformation does ...

  18. A non-classical phase diagram for virus-bacterial co-evolution mediated by CRISPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pu; Deem, Michael

    CRISPR is a newly discovered prokaryotic immune system. Bacteria and archaea with this system incorporate genetic material from invading viruses into their genomes, providing protection against future infection by similar viruses. Due to the cost of CRISPR, bacteria can lose the acquired immunity. We will show an intriguing phase diagram of the virus extinction probability, which when the rate of losing the acquired immunity is small, is more complex than that of the classic predator-prey model. As the CRISPR incorporates genetic material, viruses are under pressure to evolve to escape the recognition by CRISPR, and this co-evolution leads to a non-trivial phase structure that cannot be explained by the classical predator-prey model.

  19. Observation of non-classical correlations in sequential measurements of photon polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Yutaro; Iinuma, Masataka; Hofmann, Holger F

    2016-01-01

    A sequential measurement of two non-commuting quantum observables results in a joint probability distribution for all output combinations that can be explained in terms of an initial joint quasi-probability of the non-commuting observables, modified by the resolution errors and back-action of the initial measurement. Here, we show that the error statistics of a sequential measurement of photon polarization performed at different measurement strengths can be described consistently by an imaginary correlation between the statistics of resolution and back-action. The experimental setup was designed to realize variable strength measurements with well-controlled imaginary correlation between the statistical errors caused by the initial measurement of diagonal polarizations, followed by a precise measurement of the horizontal/vertical polarization. We perform the experimental characterization of an elliptically polarized input state and show that the same complex joint probability distribution is obtained at any measurement strength. (paper)

  20. Nonclassical statistics of intracavity coupled chi((2)) waveguides: The quantum optical dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2003-01-01

    A model is proposed where two chi((2)) nonlinear waveguides are contained in a cavity suited for second-harmonic generation. The evanescent wave coupling between the waveguides is considered as weak, and the interplay between this coupling and the nonlinear interaction within the waveguides gives...

  1. Alteration in non-classicality of light on passing through a linear polarization beam splitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Namrata; Prakash, Ranjana

    2016-06-01

    We observe the polarization squeezing in the mixture of a two mode squeezed vacuum and a simple coherent light through a linear polarization beam splitter. Squeezed vacuum not being squeezed in polarization, generates polarization squeezed light when superposed with coherent light. All the three Stokes parameters of the light produced on the output port of polarization beam splitter are found to be squeezed and squeezing factor also depends upon the parameters of coherent light.

  2. Nonclassical features of trimodal excited coherent Greenberger - Horne - Zeilinger(GHZ) - type state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, J.; Ahmed, A. B. M.; Mohammed, S. Naina

    2017-06-01

    We examine the influence of photon excitation on each mode of the Glauber coherent GHZ type tripartite state. Concurrence is adopted as entanglement measure between bipartite entangled state. The pairwise concurrence is calculated and used as a quantifier of intermodal entanglement. The entanglement distribution among three modes is investigated using tangle as a measure and the residual entanglement is also calculated. The effect of the photon addition process on the quadrature squeezing is investigated. The higher order squeezing capacity of the photon addition process is also shown.

  3. Multiqubit W states lead to stronger nonclassicality than Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Zukowski, Marek; Wiesniak, Marcin; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2003-01-01

    The N-qubit states of the W class, for N>10, lead to more robust (against noise admixture) violations of local realism, than the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. These violations are most pronounced for correlations for a pair of qubits, conditioned on specific measurement results for the remaining N-2 qubits. The considerations provide us with a qualitative difference between the W state and GHZ state in the situation when they are separately sent via depolarizing channels. For sufficiently high amount of noise in the depolarizing channel, the GHZ states cannot produce a distillable state between two qubits, whereas the W states can still produce a distillable state in a similar situation

  4. Investigating Musical Performance: Commonality and Diversity among Classical and Non-Classical Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Duffy, Celia; Morton, Frances; Hadden, Elizabeth; Potter, John; De Bezenac, Christophe; Whyton, Tony; Himonides, Evangelos; Welch, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The research project "Investigating Musical Performance: Comparative Studies in Advanced Musical Learning" was devised to investigate how classical, popular, jazz and Scottish traditional musicians deepen and develop their learning about performance in undergraduate, postgraduate and wider music community contexts. The aim of this paper is to…

  5. Interplay of nonclassicality and entanglement of two-mode Gaussian fields generated in optical parametric processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arkhipov, Ie.I.; Peřina, Jan; Peřina, J.; Miranowicz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2016), 1-15, č. článku 013807. ISSN 2469-9926 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : two-mode Gaussian fields * optical parametric processes Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  6. Nonclassicality and entanglement criteria for bipartite optical fields characterized by quadratic detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina Jr., J.; Arkhipov, I.I.; Michálek, Václav; Haderka, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-15, č. článku 043845. ISSN 2469-9926 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : parametric down-conversion * photon statistic * bipartite optical fields * quadratic detectors Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  7. Substitution Frege and extended Frege proof systems in non-classical logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 2 (2009), s. 1-48 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : propositional proof complexity * Frege system * model logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2009

  8. Asymptotic approach to the description of nonclassical transport processes. Fermat's principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratenko, P. S.

    2017-11-01

    A method has been proposed to calculate the concentration distribution at asymptotically long distances from a source of impurity in a medium including long-scale heterogeneities. It has been found that the exponent Γ ≫ 1 in an expression for the concentration satisfies a nonlinear equation with first-order partial derivatives. This has allowed using the variational principle to calculate the function Γ. The pre-exponential factor in the expression for the concentration has been determined in the leading approximation in the small parameter Γ-1. An analogy with geometrical optics and semiclassical approximation in quantum mechanics has been demonstrated.

  9. Chimeric antigen receptor T cells form nonclassical and potent immune synapses driving rapid cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, A J; Cross, R S; Watson, K A; Liao, Y; Shi, W; Prince, H M; Beavis, P A; Trapani, J A; Kershaw, M H; Ritchie, D S; Darcy, P K; Neeson, P J; Jenkins, M R

    2018-02-27

    Chimeric antigen receptor T (CAR-T) cells are effective serial killers with a faster off-rate from dying tumor cells than CAR-T cells binding target cells through their T cell receptor (TCR). Here we explored the functional consequences of CAR-mediated signaling using a dual-specific CAR-T cell, where the same cell was triggered via TCR (tcrCTL) or CAR (carCTL). The carCTL immune synapse lacked distinct LFA-1 adhesion rings and was less reliant on LFA to form stable conjugates with target cells. carCTL receptors associated with the synapse were found to be disrupted and formed a convoluted multifocal pattern of Lck microclusters. Both proximal and distal receptor signaling pathways were induced more rapidly and subsequently decreased more rapidly in carCTL than in tcrCTL. The functional consequence of this rapid signaling in carCTL cells included faster lytic granule recruitment to the immune synapse, correlating with faster detachment of the CTL from the target cell. This study provides a mechanism for how CAR-T cells can debulk large tumor burden quickly and may contribute to further refinement of CAR design for enhancing the quality of signaling and programming of the T cell. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  10. Classical and Non-Classical Roles for Pre-Receptor Control of DHT Metabolism in Prostate Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailin; Zhang, Jiawei; Plymate, Stephen; Mostaghel, Elahe A

    2016-04-01

    Androgens play an important role in prostate cancer (PCa) development and progression. Accordingly, androgen deprivation therapy remains the front-line treatment for locally recurrent or advanced PCa, but patients eventually relapse with the lethal form of the disease termed castration resistant PCa (CRPC). Importantly, castration does not eliminate androgens from the prostate tumor microenvironment which is characterized by elevated tissue androgens that are well within the range capable of activating the androgen receptor (AR). In this mini-review, we discuss emerging data that suggest a role for the enzymes mediating pre-receptor control of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) metabolism, including AKR1C2, HSD17B6, HSD17B10, and the UGT family members UGT2B15 and UGT2B17, in controlling intratumoral androgen levels, and thereby influencing PCa progression. We review the expression of steroidogenic enzymes involved in this pathway in primary PCa and CRPC, the activity and regulation of these enzymes in PCa experimental models, and the impact of genetic variation in genes mediating pre-receptor DHT metabolism on PCa risk. Finally, we discuss recent data that suggests several of these enzymes may also play an unrecognized role in CRPC progression separate from their role in androgen inactivation.

  11. Suppression of contour perception by band-limited noise and its relation to nonclassical receptive field inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    Band-spectrum noise has been shown to suppress the visual perception of printed letters. The suppression exhibits a specific dependence on the spatial frequency of the noise, and the frequency domain of most effective inhibition has been related to the size of the letters. In this paper, we address

  12. Entanglement and nonclassicality in four-mode Gaussian states generated via parametric down-conversion and frequency up-conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arkhipov, Ie.I.; Peřina Jr., J.; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Sep (2016), 1-12, č. článku 33802. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : four-mode Gaussian states * parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  13. The natural history of autoimmune Addison's disease with a non-classical presentation: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Jacopo; Pezzani, Raffaele; Scarpa, Riccardo; Gallo, Nicoletta; Betterle, Corrado

    2018-05-24

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is the most frequent cause of adrenocortical insufficiency. The natural history of AAD usually comprises five consecutive stages with the first stage characterized by the increase of plasma renin consistent with the impairment of pars glomerulosa, which is usually the first affected layer of the adrenal cortex. We describe a 19-year-old female with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) who underwent an autoantibody screening due to having the personal and family history of other autoimmune diseases in the absence of relevant clinical manifestations. She was positive for adrenal cortex autoantibodies (ACA) and steroid 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies (21-OH Ab) at high titers. She had increased basal levels of ACTH with normal basal cortisol not responding to ACTH stimulation, reduced levels of dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate but normal levels of orthostatic renin and aldosterone. This scenario was consistent with a subclinical AAD presenting with first impairments in pars fasciculata and reticularis and conserved pars glomerulosa function. Only subsequently, progressive deficiency in pars glomerulosa function has become evident. Review of the literature showed that there was only one case, reported to date, with a similar atypical natural history of AAD. The strategies for screening for ACA/21-OH Ab in patients with HT are discussed.

  14. Photon correlation spectroscopy of classical and non-classical light fields and its debt to Glauber and Harvard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Union Gikon Company of Japan has designed their new photon-correlation spectrometer to the outside world with the aid of a number of Japanese Universities and Industrial Research Laboratories. It comes with a list of some two dozen Japanese Institutions who have been using it successfully since its recent launch in their home country. The cost of the system is some $60,000 and it will no doubt, find its place in the market alongside existing well-known photon correlation systems such as those from Brookhaven Instruments Corporation, Hiac Royco, Coulter and Malvern Instruments. Although they may be used for other purposes, the main application of the instruments is the measurement of sizes of submicron particles such as proteins, enzymes, viruses, polymers and numerous other macro-molecular substances. A topical proposal, for example, is the detection of the immunological reactions of the AIDS virus. Photon correlation spectroscopy has become an important technique in modern laboratory practice

  15. Global well-posedness and asymptotic behavior of the solutions to non-classical thermo(visco)elastic models

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent findings on the global existence, the uniqueness and the large-time behavior of global solutions of thermo(vis)coelastic systems and related models arising in physics, mechanics and materials science such as thermoviscoelastic systems, thermoelastic systems of types II and III, as well as Timoshenko-type systems with past history. Part of the book is based on the research conducted by the authors and their collaborators in recent years. The book will benefit interested beginners in the field and experts alike.

  16. Nonclassical dynamics of the methyl group in 1,1,1-triphenylethane. Evidence from powder 1H NMR spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Osior, Agnieszka; Kalicki, Przemysław; Kamieński, Bohdan; Szymański, Sławomir; Bernatowicz, Piotr; Shkurenko, Aleksander

    2017-01-01

    interpretation of the DQR parameters evaluated from the spectra is given. It is shown that the DQR effects as such can be detected in wide-line NMR spectra of powdered samples, which are relatively facile to measure. However, a fully quantitative picture

  17. Non-classical polycrystalline silicon thin-film transistor with embedded block-oxide for suppressing the short channel effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jyi-Tsong; Huang, Kuo-Dong; Hu, Shu-Fen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) thin-film transistor with a block oxide enclosing body, BTFT, is fabricated and investigated. By utilizing the block-oxide structure of thin-film transistors, the BTFT is shown to suppress the short channel effect. This proposed structure is formed by burying self-aligned oxide spacers along the sidewalls of the source and drain junctions, which reduces the P–N junction area, thereby reducing the junction capacitance and leakage current. Measurements demonstrate that the BTFT eliminates the punch-through effect even down to gate lengths of 1.5 µm, whereas the conventional TFT suffers serious short channel effects at this gate length

  18. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus strains and evidence for the involvement of non-classical enterotoxin genes in food poisoning outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciupescu, Laurentiu-Mihai; Auvray, Frederic; Nicorescu, Isabela Madalina; Meheut, Thomas; Ciupescu, Veronica; Lardeux, Anne-Laure; Tanasuica, Rodica; Hennekinne, Jacques-Antoine

    2018-06-05

    To an increasing extent, molecular and genetic characterization is now used to investigate foodborne outbreaks. The aim of this study was to seek molecular links among coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) isolated from three recent food poisoning outbreaks in Romania using polymerase chain reaction and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) techniques. Nineteen CPS isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus by detection of the 23S rDNA gene. Among them, 15 carried at least one staphylococcal enterotoxin-encoding gene (se). The Calarași outbreak strains grouped in pulsotype 2 and were sed/sej/ser-positive, whereas the Arad outbreak strains clustered in pulsotype 17 and were either sed/seg/sei/sej/ser- or seg/sei-positive. The Pitești outbreak strains clustered in pulsotype 1 and, surprisingly, possessed only one enterotoxin gene, i.e. seh. Similar to other European countries, the seh gene has been identified with increasing frequency in Romanian outbreaks; this highlights the importance of considering the application of methods recommended for staphylococcal enterotoxin regulation in Europe.

  19. B-H center dot center dot center dot pi: a nonclassical hydrogen bond or dispersion contact?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Pecina, Adam; Řezáč, Jan; Sedlák, Robert; Hnyk, Drahomír; Lepšík, Martin; Hobza, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 28 (2017), s. 18194-18200 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08045S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : perturbation theory * intermolecular interactions * interaction energies Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry; Inorganic and nuclear chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2017/cp/c7cp02762a

  20. HLA non-class II genes may confer type I diabetes susceptibility in a Mapuche (Amerindian) affected family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Martin-Villa, Jose M; Moscoso, Juan; Moreno, Almudena; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Zamora, Jorge; Asenjo, Silvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of type I diabetes is studied in an Amerindian (Mapuche) family from Chile, analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet-cell autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. The affected sib is the only one that has one specific HLA haplotype combination that differs from the other sibs only in the HLA class I genes. It is concluded that HLA diabetes susceptibility factors may be placed outside the class II region or even that susceptibility factors do not exist in the HLA region in this Amerindian family.

  1. Dissecting the chloroplast proteome of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) provides new insights into classical and non-classical functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Nilesh Vikram; Subba, Pratigya; Barua, Pragya; Gayen, Dipak; Keshava Prasad, T S; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-08-08

    Chloroplast, the energy organelle unique to plant cells, is a dynamic entity which integrates an array of metabolic pathways and serves as first level for energy conversion for the entire ecological hierarchy. Increasing amount of sequence data and evolution of mass spectrometric approaches has opened up new avenues for opportune exploration of the global proteome of this organelle. In our study, we aimed at generation of a comprehensive catalogue of chloroplast proteins in a grain legume, chickpea and provided a reference proteome map. To accurately assign the identified proteins, purity of chloroplast-enriched fraction was stringently monitored by multiple chemical and immunological indexes, besides pigment and enzyme analyses. The proteome analysis led to the identification of 2451 proteins, including 27 isoforms, which include predicted and novel chloroplast constituents. The identified proteins were validated through their sequence analysis. Extensive sequence based localization prediction revealed more than 50% proteins to be chloroplast resident by at least two different algorithms. Chromosomal distribution of identified proteins across nuclear and chloroplast genome unveiled the presence of 55 chloroplast encoded gene. In depth comparison of our dataset with the non-redundant set of chloroplast proteins identified so far across other species revealed novel as well as overlapping candidates. Pulses add large amount of nitrogen to the soil and has very low water footprint and therefore, contributes to fortification of sustainable agriculture. Chickpea is one of the earliest cultivated legumes and serves as an energy and protein source for humans and animals. Chloroplasts are the unique organelles which conduct photosynthesis. Investigation on chloroplast proteome is of particular significance, especially to plant biologists, as it would allow a better understanding of chloroplast function in plants. Generation of a saturated proteome map would not only validate the proteome inventory from its genome sequencing, but also serve as a comprehensive catalogue for future studies. We identified 2451 proteins, encoded by both the nuclear as well as chloroplast genomes, presumably involved in multivariate metabolic processes. The chloroplast deduced proteome and putative chloroplast proteins identified in this study would provide a foundation for future investigation of the expression and function of the chloroplast proteins of chickpea in specific and other crops species in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Myxedema coma of both primary and secondary origin, with non-classic presentation and extremely elevated creatine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenga, S; Squadrito, S; Saporito, F; Cimino, A; Arrigo, F; Trimarchi, F

    2000-09-01

    Myxedema coma is a rare, often fatal endocrine emergency that concerns elderly patients with long-standing primary hypothyroidism; myxedema coma of central origin is exceedingly rare. Here, we report a 37-year-old woman in whom classical symptoms of hypothyroidism had been absent. Six years earlier, she had severe obstetric hemorrhage and, shortly after, two subsequent episodes of pericardial effusion. On the day of admission, pericardiocentesis was performed for the third episode of pericardial effusion. Because of the subsequent grave arrhythmias and unconsciousness, she was transferred to our ICU. Prior to the endocrine consultation, a silent myocardial infarction had been suspected, based on the extremely high serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and isoenzyme CK-MB. However, based on thyroid sonography, pituitary computed tomography, elevated titers of antithyroid antibodies and pituitary stimulation tests, the final diagnosis was myxedema coma of dual origin: an atrophic variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and post-necrotic pituitary atrophy (Sheehan syndrome). Substitutive therapy caused a prompt clinical amelioration and normalization of CK levels. Our patient is the first case of myxedema coma of double etiology, and illustrates how its presentation deviates markedly from the one endocrinologists and physicians at ICU are prepared to encounter. In addition, cardiac problems as those of our patient should not discourage from substitutive treatment (using L-thyroxine and the gastrointestinal route of absorption), if the age is relatively low.

  3. Non-classical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by the vitamin D receptor: insights into calcium homeostasis, immune system regulation and cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Vassil; Salehi-Tabar, Reyhaneh; An, Beum-Soo; White, John H

    2014-10-01

    Hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] signals through the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), a ligand-regulated transcription factor. Gene expression profiling studies have revealed that 1,25(OH)2D signaling through the VDR can lead to activation or repression of target gene transcription in roughly equal proportions. Classically, transcriptional regulation by the VDR, similar to other nuclear receptors, has been characterized by its capacity to recognize high affinity cognate vitamin D response elements (VDREs), located in the regulatory regions of target genes. Several biochemical studies revealed that the VDRE-bound receptor recruits a series of coregulatory proteins, leading to transactivation of adjacent target genes. However, genome-wide and other analyses of VDR binding have revealed that a subset of VDR binding sites does not contain VDREs, and that VDREs are not associated with transcriptionally repressed VDR target genes. Work over the last ∼20 years and in particular recent findings have revealed a diverse array of mechanisms by which VDR can form complexes with several other classes of transcriptional activators, leading to repression of gene transcription. Moreover, these efforts have led to several insights into the molecular basis for the physiological regulation of calcium homeostasis, immune system function and cancer chemoprevention by 1,25(OH)2D/VDR signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. PDILT, a divergent testis-specific protein disulfide isomerase with a non-classical SXXC motif that engages in disulfide-dependent interactions in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lith, Marcel; Hartigan, Nichola; Hatch, Jennifer; Benham, Adam M

    2005-01-14

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is the archetypal enzyme involved in the formation and reshuffling of disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). PDI achieves its redox function through two highly conserved thioredoxin domains, and PDI can also operate as an ER chaperone. The substrate specificities and the exact functions of most other PDI family proteins remain important unsolved questions in biology. Here, we characterize a new and striking member of the PDI family, which we have named protein disulfide isomerase-like protein of the testis (PDILT). PDILT is the first eukaryotic SXXC protein to be characterized in the ER. Our experiments have unveiled a novel, glycosylated PDI-like protein whose tissue-specific expression and unusual motifs have implications for the evolution, catalytic function, and substrate selection of thioredoxin family proteins. We show that PDILT is an ER resident glycoprotein that liaises with partner proteins in disulfide-dependent complexes within the testis. PDILT interacts with the oxidoreductase Ero1alpha, demonstrating that the N-terminal cysteine of the CXXC sequence is not required for binding of PDI family proteins to ER oxidoreductases. The expression of PDILT, in addition to PDI in the testis, suggests that PDILT performs a specialized chaperone function in testicular cells. PDILT is an unusual PDI relative that highlights the adaptability of chaperone and redox function in enzymes of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  5. The spectrum of non-classical Diamond-Blackfan anemia: a case of late beginning transfusion dependency associated to a new RPL5 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Farruggia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diamond Blackfan anemia typically presents in infants and is often associated with many kinds of malformations. Severity of anemia often needs transfusional support in the first months of life. We describe here a patient with Diamond Blackfan anemia related to a RPL5 mutation. The patient had no physical abnormalities and experienced a very late onset of transfusion dependency.

  6. Infrared and dc conductivity in metals with strong scattering: Nonclassical behavior from a generalized Boltzmann equation containing band-mixing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.B.; Chakraborty, B.

    1981-01-01

    Metals with high resistivity (approx.100 μΩ cm) seem to show weaker variation of resistivity (as a function of temperature and perhaps also static disorder) than predicted by semiclassical (Bloch-Boltzmann) theory (SBT). We argue that the effect is not closely related to Anderson localization, and therefore does not necessarily signify a failure of the independent collision approximation. Instead we propose a failure of the semiclassical acceleration and conduction approximations. A generalization of Boltzmann theory is made which includes quantum (interband) acceleration and conduction, as well as a complete treatment of interband-collision effects (within the independent-collision approximation). The interband terms enhance short-time response to E fields (because the theory satisfies the exact f-sum rule instead of the semiclassical approximation to it). This suggests that the additional conductivity, as expressed phenomenologically by the shunt resistor model, is explained by interband effects. The scattering operator is complex, its imaginary parts being related to energy-band renormalization caused by the disorder. Charge conservation is respected and thermal equilibrium is restored by the collision operator. The theory is formally solved for the leading corrections to SBT, which have the form of a shunt resistor model. At infrared frequencies, the conductivity mostly obeys the Drude law sigma(ω)approx.sigma(0)(1-iωtau) -1 , except for one term which goes as (1-iωtau) -2

  7. Setting the anomeric effect against steric effects in simple acyclic acetals. Non-anomeric non-classical conformations. An n.m.r. and molecular mechanics investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, J. Edgar; Heki, Katsuhiko; Hirota, Minoru

    1987-01-01

    N.m.r. parameters for a series of simple aliphatic acetals indicate that the preferred conformation changes from the anomeric one found in formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (formal), to a new one whose structure is suggested by molecular mechanics calculations.......N.m.r. parameters for a series of simple aliphatic acetals indicate that the preferred conformation changes from the anomeric one found in formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (formal), to a new one whose structure is suggested by molecular mechanics calculations....

  8. Evaluation of the prevalence of periodontal disease as a non-classical risk factor in the group of patients undergoing hip and/or knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, Karolina; Płatek, Anna E; Łęgosz, Paweł; Czerniuk, Maciej R; Małdyk, Paweł; Szymański, Filip M

    2018-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic disease causing an inflammatory process that affects various organs and is as-sociated with an increased risk of many diseases, including bone and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of periodontal disease in continuous patients scheduled for hip or knee replacement surgery. The study was a prospective, epidemiological analysis performed in consecutive patients scheduled for total joint (hip or knee) replacement surgery. Patients enrolled into the study were screened for classical risk factors and had a dental evaluation performed for the diagnosis of periodontal disease. The study population consisted of 228 patients. A total of 137 (60.1%) patients were scheduled for a hip replace-ment surgery, while 91 (39.9%) had a knee replacement. The mean age of the study population was 66.8 ± 12.2 years, and 83 (36.4%) patients were male. A clinically significant disease was present in 65 (28.5%) cases, while all (100%) of the patients had at least minimal signs of periodontal disease. In patients with periodontal disease the percentage of tartar involvement of the teeth was 33.1 ± 26.8%, mean dental plaque coverage was 48.1 ± 29.8%, and bleeding occurred at a rate of 35.4 ± 29%. As for the hygiene level, it was generally poor in the majority of patients with periodontal disease. No differences in terms of baseline risk factors were present between patients with and without periodontal disease. In conclusion, periodontal diseases are highly prevalent in patients undergoing hip and/or knee replacement surgery. The presence of the periodontal disease is possibly associated with a worse prognosis and should be treated.

  9. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies recognizing HLA-G or HLA-E: new tools to analyze the expression of nonclassical HLA class I molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menier, C.; Saez, B.; Hořejší, Václav; Martinozzi, S.; Krawice-Radanne, I.; Bruel, S.; Le Danff, C.; Reboul, M.; Hilgert, Ivan; Rabreau, M.; Larrad, M. L.; Pla, M.; Carosella, E. D.; Rouas-Freiss, N.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2003), s. 315-326 ISSN 0198-8859 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HLA-G * HLA-E * monoclonal antibody Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.619, year: 2003

  10. Classical and Non-Classical Regimes of the Limited-Fetch Wave Growth and Localized Structures on the Surface of Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Abstracts, Vol. 15, EGU2013- 5284-1, 2013, EGU General Assembly 2013 [published] [P6] S. I. Badulin and V. G. Grigorieva, Weak turbulence theory as... generalization of compact 1D water waves equation for 2D situation; study of the implications of modulational instability on solitons, rogue waves and air...integrability of 1-D Zakharov equation and generalization of compact equation for almost 1-D waves • Study of modulational instability and its

  11. Vocal pedagogy and contemporary commercial music : reflections on higher education non-classical vocal pedagogy in the United States and Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Keskinen, Anu Katri

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the discipline of higher education contemporary commercial music (CCM) vocal pedagogy through the experiences of two vocal pedagogy teachers, the other in the USA and the other in Finland. The aim of this study has been to find out how the discipline presently looks from a vocal pedagogy teacher's viewpoint, what has the process of building higher education CCM vocal pedagogy courses been like, and where is the field headed. The discussion on CCM pedagogy, also kn...

  12. Non-Classical Transformation of Benzendiazonium Hydrogen Sulfates. Access to 1,3-Dimethylisochromeno[4,3-c]pyrazol-5(1H-one, a Potential Benzodiazepine Receptor Ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Daidone

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The compound 2-((1,3-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl(methylcarbamoylbenzene-diazonium hydrogen sulfate (10 was reacted with copper sulfate and sodium chloride, in the presence of ascorbic acid as reducing agent, to afford a mixture of the chlorinated epimers 4′-chloro-2,2′,5′-trimethyl-2′,4′-dihydrospiro[isoindoline-1,3′-pyrazol]-3-one (18 and (19, the epimers 4′-hydroxy-2,2′,5′-trimethyl-2′,4′-dihydrospiro[isoindoline-1,3′-pyrazol]-3-one (20 and (21, and N-(1,3-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-5-ylbenzamide (22. Under the foregoing conditions, diazonium salt 10 affords neither the 2-chloro-N-(1,3-dimethyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl-N-methylbenzamide (23 nor the tricyclic derivative 24, the classical products of the Sandmeyer and Pschorr reactions, respectively. Finally, by heating 20 at 210 °C the compound 1,3-dimethylisochromeno[4,3-c]pyrazol-5(1H-one (24 was obtained. The transformation under the above conditions of 2-((4-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl- 1H-pyrazol-5-yl(methylcarbamoylbenzendiazonium hydrogen sulphate (11 afforded 4′,4′-dichloro-2,5′-dimethyl-2′-phenyl-2′,4′-dihydrospiro[isoindoline-1,3′-pyrazol]-3-one (29 as the sole reaction product.

  13. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  14. Isolation and chemical identification of lipid derivatives from avocado (Persea americana) pulp with antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sanchez, Dariana Graciela; Flores-García, Mirthala; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rizzo, Sheryl; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; De la Peña-Diaz, Aurora; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen; García-Rivas, Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Platelets play a pivotal role in physiological hemostasis. However, in coronary arteries damaged by atherosclerosis, enhanced platelet aggregation, with subsequent thrombus formation, is a precipitating factor in acute ischemic events. Avocado pulp (Persea americana) is a good source of bioactive compounds, and its inclusion in the diet as a source of fatty acid has been related to reduced platelet aggregability. Nevertheless, constituents of avocado pulp with antiplatelet activity remain unknown. The present study aims to characterize the chemical nature of avocado constituents with inhibitory effects on platelet aggregation. Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) was used as a fractionation and purification tool, guided by an in vitro adenosine diphosphate (ADP), arachidonic acid or collagen-platelet aggregation assay. Antiplatelet activity was initially linked to seven acetogenins that were further purified, and their dose-dependent effects in the presence of various agonists were contrasted. This process led to the identification of Persenone-C (3) as the most potent antiplatelet acetogenin (IC₅₀=3.4 mM) among the evaluated compounds. In vivo evaluations with Persenone A (4) demonstrated potential protective effects against arterial thrombosis (25 mg kg⁻¹ of body weight), as coagulation times increased (2-fold with respect to the vehicle) and thrombus formation was attenuated (71% versus vehicle). From these results, avocado may be referred to as a functional food containing acetogenin compounds that inhibit platelet aggregation with a potential preventive effect on thrombus formation, such as those that occur in ischaemic diseases.

  15. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  16. Generation and storage of quantum states using cold atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Josse, Vincent; Cviklinski, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Cold cesium or rubidium atomic samples have a good potential both for generation and storage of nonclassical states of light. Generation of nonclassical states of light is possible through the high non-linearity of cold atomic samples excited close to a resonance line. Quadrature squeezing, polar...

  17. Maximum intensity of rarefaction shock waves for dense gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guardone, A.; Zamfirescu, C.; Colonna, P.

    2009-01-01

    Modern thermodynamic models indicate that fluids consisting of complex molecules may display non-classical gasdynamic phenomena such as rarefaction shock waves (RSWs) in the vapour phase. Since the thermodynamic region in which non-classical phenomena are physically admissible is finite in terms of

  18. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria: A Global Challenge · Saswati Sengupta Madhab K Chattopadhyay · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 192-211 General Article. Ehrenfest's Theorem and Nonclassical States of Light - Dynamics of Nonclassical States of Light · Lijo T George C Sudheesh S Lakshmibala V Balakrishnan.

  19. Diagnostic dilemmas in Fabry disease: a case series study on GLA mutations of unknown clinical significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, B.E.; Hollak, C.E.M.; Poorthuis, B.J.H.M.; Bergh-Weerman, M.A. van den; Florquin, S.; Kok, W.E.; Deprez, R.H.L.; Timmermans, J.; Linthorst, G.E.

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease' (FD) phenotype is heterogeneous: alpha-galactosidase A gene mutations (GLA) can lead to classical or non-classical FD, or no FD. The aim of this study is to describe pitfalls in diagnosing non-classical FD and assess the diagnostic value of plasma globotriaosylsphingosine. This is a

  20. The Logic of Self-Organized Criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiyarov Kamil I.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A consideration of non-classical logic in terms of classical one allows us to show a role of designated truth values. In this way we show that our version of non-classical many-valued logic can be based on the structure of genetic code.

  1. Nonlocality of a free atomic wave packet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, F.; Freyberger, M.; Wodkiewicz, K.

    2004-01-01

    A simple model allows us to study the nonclassical behavior of slowly moving atoms interacting with a quantized field. Atom and field become entangled and their joint state can be identified as a mesoscopic 'Schroedinger cat'. By introducing appropriate observables for atom and field and by analyzing correlations between them based on a Bell-type inequality we can show the corresponding nonclassical behavior

  2. Comment on 'Correlative amplitude-operational phase entanglement embodied by the EPR-pair eigenstate ({eta})'[42.50.Dv Nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field, including entangled photon states; quantum state engineering and measurements; 03.65.Ud Entanglement and quantum nonlocality (e.g. EPR paradox, Bell's inequalities, GHZ states, etc.);

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2003-01-10

    In a recent paper in this journal Fan (Fan H 2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.35 1007) discards the possibility of using a genuine phase-difference operator to investigate number-phase entanglement because of the lack of unitarity of the Susskind-Glogower phase operators. However, Fan overlooked the existence of a bona fide unitary operator exponential of the phase difference. Here we find the amplitude-phase maximally entangled states as the simultaneous eigenstates of the total number and the phase-difference operators. (comment)

  3. Comment on "Correlative amplitude-operational phase entanglement embodied by the EPR-pair eigenstate |eta) 42.50.Dv Nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field, including entangled photon states; quantum state engineering and measurements; 03.65.Ud Entanglement and quantum nonlocality (e.g. EPR paradox, Bell's inequalities, GHZ states, etc.)"

    CERN Document Server

    Luis, A

    2003-01-01

    In a recent paper in this journal Fan (Fan H 2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen.35 1007) discards the possibility of using a genuine phase-difference operator to investigate number-phase entanglement because of the lack of unitarity of the Susskind-Glogower phase operators. However, Fan overlooked the existence of a bona fide unitary operator exponential of the phase difference. Here we find the amplitude-phase maximally entangled states as the simultaneous eigenstates of the total number and the phase-difference operators. (comment)

  4. Reply to the comment on 'Correlative amplitude-operational phase entanglement embodied by the EPR-pair eigenstate ({eta})'[42.50.Dv Nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field, including entangled photon states; quantum state engineering and measurements; 03.65.Ud Entanglement and quantum nonlocality (e.g. EPR paradox, Bell's inequalities, GHZ states, etc.);

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Hongyi [CCAST (World Laboratory), PO Box 8730, Beijing 100080, People' s Republic of (China); Hu, Haipeng [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026, People' s Republic of China (China)

    2003-01-10

    We compare and contrast our amplitude-phase entanglement with that of Luis in his comment. Luis's entangled state is defined in a finite Fock space. His comment on the operational phase operator seems to be contradicting the original meaning of Mandel et al. (reply)

  5. Reply to the comment on "Correlative amplitude-operational phase entanglement embodied by the EPR-pair eigenstate |eta) 42.50.Dv Nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field, including entangled photon states; quantum state engineering and measurements; 03.65.Ud Entanglement and quantum nonlocality (e.g. EPR paradox, Bell's inequalities, GHZ states, etc.)"

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, H

    2003-01-01

    We compare and contrast our amplitude-phase entanglement with that of Luis in his comment. Luis's entangled state is defined in a finite Fock space. His comment on the operational phase operator seems to be contradicting the original meaning of Mandel et al. (reply)

  6. Potential of Annona muricata L. seed oil: phytochemical and nutritional characterization associated with non-toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Pinto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, phenolic compounds, fatty acid and antioxidant activity in vitro as well as a toxicological screening of A. muricata seed oil in vivo. The chemical composition and quantification of phenolic compounds were determined by the Adolfo Lutz Institute normative. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The oil was extracted by chloroform/ methanol and precipitated crude (AmPtO and supernatant oils (AmSO were obtained. The fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography and total compounds by HPLC-DAD. BALB/C mice received AmPtO and AmSO (0.5 and 1.0mL·Kg-1 for 14 days. Toxicity parameters were assessed. The major fatty acids in the oil were oleic (39.2% and linoleic (33%. HPLC-DAD suggested the presence of acetogenins (annonacin: 595 [M-H]-, with a greater presence in AmPtO. The AmPtO group showed toxicity, which may be related to the acetogenin content in AmPtO. The AmSO group showed no toxicity and this oil has potential for food or medicinal use.

  7. Considerations concerning the justification of quantum logic by the argumentative conditions of a scientific language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stachow, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses the connection between dialogical logic and the empirical conditions of quantum mechanics. It is shown how this dialogue game leads to a nonclassical logical calculus, called the effective quantum logic. (HSI)

  8. Quantum-chemical study of hydride transfer in catalytic transformation of paraffins on zeolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kazansky, V.B.; Frash, M.V.; Santen, van R.A.; Chon, H.; Ihm, S.-K.; Uh, Y.S.

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio quantum-chemical cluster calculations demonstrate that the activated complexes of hydride transfer reaction in catalytic transformation of paraffins on zeolites very much resembles adsorbed nonclassical carbonium ions. The calculated activation energies for reactions involving propane and

  9. Single-Crystal X-ray Structure of Anti-Candida Agent, (E)-3- (1H ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The molecules are packed in crystal structure by weak non-classical intermolecular ... precipitate the Mannich base hydrochloride 1. Imidazole (2.4 g .... conducted by full- matrix least-squares .... This research project was supported by a grant.

  10. Tomography of binomial states of the radiation field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The symplectic, optical, and photon-number tomographic symbols of binomial states of the radiation field are studied. Explicit relations for all tomograms of the binomial states are obtained. Two measures for nonclassical properties of these states are discussed.

  11. The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Entanglement is an important resource for quantum information processing. [1–3] and also one of the most important nonclassical properties in quantum theory. ... consideration, which consists of two entangled two-level atoms A and B with ...

  12. On the Generation of Intermediate Number Squeezed State of the Quantized Radiation Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baseia, B.; de Lima, A. F.; Bagnato, V. S.

    Recently, a new state of the quantized radiation field — the intermediate number squeezed state (INSS) — has been introduced in the literature: it interpolates between the number state |n> and the squeezed state |z, α>=Ŝ(z)|α>, and exhibits interesting nonclassical properties as antibunching, sub-Poissonian statistics and squeezing. Here we introduce a slight modification in the previous definition allowing us a proposal to generate the INSS. Nonclassical properties using a new set of parameters are also studied.

  13. Psoriasis or not? Review of 51 clinically confirmed cases reveals an expanded histopathologic spectrum of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Thinh; Parsi, Kory K; Ogawa, Toru; Kiuru, Maija; Konia, Thomas; Li, Chin-Shang; Fung, Maxwell A

    2017-12-01

    Psoriasis is usually diagnosed clinically, so only non-classic or refractory cases tend to be biopsied. Diagnostic uncertainty persists when dermatopathologists encounter features regarded as non-classic for psoriasis. Define and document classic and non-classic histologic features in skin biopsies from patients with clinically confirmed psoriasis. Minimal clinical diagnostic criteria were informally validated and applied to a consecutive series of biopsies histologically consistent with psoriasis. Clinical confirmation required 2 of the following criteria: (1) classic morphology, (2) classic distribution, (3) nail pitting, and (4) family history, with #1 and/or #2 as 1 criterion in every case RESULTS: Fifty-one biopsies from 46 patients were examined. Classic features of psoriasis included hypogranulosis (96%), club-shaped rete ridges (96%), dermal papilla capillary ectasia (90%), Munro microabscess (78%), suprapapillary plate thinning (63%), spongiform pustules (53%), and regular acanthosis (14%). Non-classic features included irregular acanthosis (84%), junctional vacuolar alteration (76%), spongiosis (76%), dermal neutrophils (69%), necrotic keratinocytes (67%), hypergranulosis (65%), neutrophilic spongiosis (61%), dermal eosinophils (49%), compact orthokeratosis (37%), papillary dermal fibrosis (35%), lichenoid infiltrate (25%), plasma cells (16%), and eosinophilic spongiosis (8%). Psoriasis exhibits a broader histopathologic spectrum. The presence of some non-classic features does not necessarily exclude the possibility of psoriasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Plants of the Annonaceae traditionally used as antimalarials: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Frausin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Species of the Annonaceae family are used all over the tropics in traditional medicine in tropical regions for the treatment of malaria and other illnesses. Phytochemical studies of this family have revealed chemical components which could offer new alternatives for the treatment and control of malaria. Searches in scientific reference sites (SciFinder Scholar, Scielo, PubMed, ScienceDirect and ISI Web of Science and a bibliographic literature search for species of Annonaceae used traditionally to treat malaria and fever were carried out. This family contains 2,100 species in 123 genera. We encountered 113 articles reporting medicinal use of one or more species of this family including 63 species in 27 genera with uses as antimalarials and febrifuges. Even though the same species of Annonaceae are used by diverse ethnic groups, different plant parts are often chosen for applications, and diverse methods of preparation and treatment are used. The ethanol extracts of Polyalthia debilis and Xylopia aromatica proved to be quite active against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro (median inhibition concentration, IC50 < 1.5 µg/mL. Intraperitoneal injection of Annickia chlorantha aqueous extracts (cited as Enantia chlorantha cleared chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis from the blood of mice in a dose-dependant manner. More phytochemical profiles of Annonaceous species are required; especially information on the more commonly distributed antimalarial compounds in this family.

  15. A modified CCFS approach for the seismic analysis of multiply supported MDOF secondary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saudy, A.; Ghobarah, A.; Aziz, T.S.

    1992-01-01

    An alternative technique has been developed to evaluate the ordinates of the Cross Cross Floor Spectra (CCFS). The technique properly accounts for the dynamic interaction, tuning and non-classical damping characters of the combined Primary-Secondary (P-S) systems. The approach is able to estimate the peak response of the tuned non-classically damped P-S systems more accurately. In the analysis, two fictions oscillators are attached to the primary system in the course of evaluating the ordinates rather than attaching only one oscillator to the primary system as was previously suggested. Two numerical examples are analyzed by the original and the proposed techniques. The results are compared with the response values obtained using coupled dynamic analysis. The proposed technique proved to be more accurate in estimating the peak response of the secondary system, specially in cases of tuned, non-classically damped P-S systems. (orig.)

  16. Geometrical Bell inequalities for arbitrarily many qudits with different outcome strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieśniak, Marcin; Dutta, Arijit; Ryu, Junghee

    2016-01-01

    Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) states are intuitively known to be the most nonclassical ones. They lead to the most radically nonclassical behavior of three or more entangled quantum subsystems. In the case of two-dimensional systems, it has been shown that GHZ states lead to an exponentially higher robustness of Bell nonclassicality against the white noise for geometrical inequalities than in the case of Weinfurter–Werner–Wolf–Żukowski–Brukner ones. We introduce geometrical Bell inequalities for collections of arbitrarily many systems of any dimensionality. We show that the violation factor of these inequalities grows exponentially with the number of parties and study their behavior in terms of dimensionality of subsystems and number of local measurements. We also investigate various strategies of assigning mathematical objects to events in the experiment, each leading to different violation ratios. (paper)

  17. Landau-like theory for universality of critical exponents in quasistationary states of isolated mean-field systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shun; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y

    2015-06-01

    An external force dynamically drives an isolated mean-field Hamiltonian system to a long-lasting quasistationary state, whose lifetime increases with population of the system. For second order phase transitions in quasistationary states, two nonclassical critical exponents have been reported individually by using a linear and a nonlinear response theories in a toy model. We provide a simple way to compute the critical exponents all at once, which is an analog of the Landau theory. The present theory extends the universality class of the nonclassical exponents to spatially periodic one-dimensional systems and shows that the exponents satisfy a classical scaling relation inevitably by using a key scaling of momentum.

  18. Generalized Multiphoton Quantum Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Tillmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassical interference of photons lies at the heart of optical quantum information processing. Here, we exploit tunable distinguishability to reveal the full spectrum of multiphoton nonclassical interference. We investigate this in theory and experiment by controlling the delay times of three photons injected into an integrated interferometric network. We derive the entire coincidence landscape and identify transition matrix immanants as ideally suited functions to describe the generalized case of input photons with arbitrary distinguishability. We introduce a compact description by utilizing a natural basis that decouples the input state from the interferometric network, thereby providing a useful tool for even larger photon numbers.

  19. Formation of Schrödinger-cat states in the Morse potential: Wigner function picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, Peter; Czirjak, Attila; Molnar, Balazs; Benedict, Mihaly

    2002-04-22

    We investigate the time evolution of Morse coherent states in the potential of the NO molecule. We present animated wave functions and Wigner functions of the system exhibiting spontaneous formation of Schrödinger-cat states at certain stages of the time evolution. These nonclassical states are coherent superpositions of two localized states corresponding to two di.erent positions of the center of mass. We analyze the degree of nonclassicality as the function of the expectation value of the position in the initial state. Our numerical calculations are based on a novel, essentially algebraic treatment of the Morse potential.

  20. Gaussian-state entanglement in a quantum beat laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2011-01-01

    Recently quantum beat lasers have been considered as a source of entangled radiation [S. Qamar, F. Ghafoor, M. Hillery, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 77, 062308 (2008)]. We investigate and quantify the entanglement of this system when the initial cavity modes are prepared in a Gaussian two-mode state, one being a nonclassical state and the other a thermal state. It is investigated how the output entanglement varies with the nonclassicality of the input Gaussian state, thermal noise, and the strength of the driving field.

  1. The Interaction of a N-Type Four Level Atom with the Electromagnetic Field for a Kerr Medium Induced Intensity-Dependent Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Anas; Yevick, David

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of a N-type four-level atom with a single field in the presence of an intensity-dependent coupling in a nonlinear Kerr medium is investigated. The exact analytic solution is obtained in the case that the atom and electromagnetic field are initially in a higher excited state and a coherent state, respectively. It is then demonstrated that effects such as nonclassical light generation, degree of entanglement stabilization, Kerr medium nonclassical control, and squeezed light are can be more efficiently implemented within this four-level framework than in many competing procedures. Additionally, inversion, linear entropy, Mandel Q-parameter and normal squeezing dynamics are examined.

  2. Reduction operators of Burgers equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocheketa, Oleksandr A; Popovych, Roman O

    2013-02-01

    The solution of the problem on reduction operators and nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation is systematically treated and completed. A new proof of the theorem on the special "no-go" case of regular reduction operators is presented, and the representation of the coefficients of operators in terms of solutions of the initial equation is constructed for this case. All possible nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation to single ordinary differential equations are exhaustively described. Any Lie reduction of the Burgers equation proves to be equivalent via the Hopf-Cole transformation to a parameterized family of Lie reductions of the linear heat equation.

  3. Error Free Quantum Reading by Quasi Bell State of Entangled Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Osamu

    2017-12-01

    Nonclassical states of light field have been exploited to provide marvellous results in quantum information science. Usefulness of nonclassical states in quantum information science depends on whether a physical parameter as a signal is continuous or discrete. Here we present an investigation of the potential of quasi Bell states of entangled coherent states in quantum reading of the classical digital memory which was pioneered by Pirandola (Phys.Rev.Lett.,106,090504,2011). This is a typical example of discrimination for discrete quantum parameters. We show that the quasi Bell state gives the error free performance in the quantum reading that cannot be obtained by any classical state.

  4. Is the classical law of the addition of probabilities violated in quantum interference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenovic, Dusan; Bozic, Mirjana; Vuskovic, Lepsa

    2002-01-01

    We analyse and compare the positive and negative arguments on whether quantum interference violates the classical law of the addition of probabilities. The analysis takes into account the results of recent interference experiments in neutron, electron and atom optics. Nonclassical behaviour of atoms was found in atomic experiments where the measurements included their time of arrival and space distribution. We determine probabilities of elementary events associated with the nonclassical behaviour of particles in interferometers. We show that the emergence of the interference pattern in the process of accumulation of such elementary events is consistent with the classical law of the addition of probabilities

  5. Superposition of number and squeezed states of the quantized light field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Brito, A.L.; Marques, G.A.; Baseia, B.; Dias, H.

    1998-01-01

    A recent paper in the literature (Mod. Phys. Lett. B, 9 (1995) 1673) introduced the Intermediate Number Squeezed State (INSS) of the quantized radiation field interpolating between the number state (n) and the squeezed-coherent state (z, α), exhibiting various nonclassical properties. Here, it's introduced an alternative state, interpolating between those limiting states and show that nonclassical effects in this new intermediate state can be greater than those exhibited by the INSS, depending on the values of the interpolating parameters. Although constituting an application of a general approach (Nuovo Cimento D, 18 (1996) 425), it concludes another case in the literature (Phys. Scr., 55 (1997) 179) as a particularisation of this

  6. Notion and methods of measurement of enterprise financial liquidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows methods of assessment of the financial liquidity of an enterprise. Static, dynamic and non-classic methods of the financial liquidity assessment have been shown. The following static methods are discussed: construction and information content of current indicator, rapid indicator and indicator of an instant liquidity. In the case of dynamic part, indicators were shown of cash efficiency and sufficiency i.e. criteria of financial liquidity assessing based on the financial circulations. Moreover, chosen methods were mentioned of the financial liquidity assessment, which are less frequently used in practice, which are called non-classic.

  7. Quantum measurement in quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimble, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Recent progress in the generation and application of manifestly quantum or nonclassical states of the electromagnetic field is reviewed with emphasis on the research of the Quantum Optics Group at Caltech. In particular, the possibilities for spectroscopy with non-classical light are discussed both in terms of improved quantitative measurement capabilities and for the fundamental alteration of atomic radiative processes. Quantum correlations for spatially extended systems are investigated in a variety of experiments which utilize nondegenerate parametric down conversion. Finally, the prospects for measurement of the position of a free mass with precision beyond the standard quantum limit are briefly considered. (author). 38 refs., 1 fig

  8. Nonlinear optical properties of an electromagnetically induced transparency medium interacting with two quantized fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kuang-Leman; Wu Yong Shi

    2003-01-01

    We study linear and nonlinear optical properties of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium interacting with two quantized laser fields in the adiabatic EIT case. We show that the EIT medium exhibits normal dispersion. Kerr and higher-order nonlinear refractive index coefficients are also calculated in a completely analytical form. It is indicated that the EIT medium exhibits giant resonantly enhanced nonlinearities. We discuss the response of the EIT medium to nonclassical light fields and find that the polarization vanishes when the probe laser is initially in a nonclassical state of no single-photon coherence.

  9. Observations on the Monoidal t-norm Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2002), s. 107-112 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : non-classical logics * basic fuzzy logic * monoidal t-norm logic * product logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.550, year: 2002

  10. Contemporary Challenges in Learning and Teaching Folk Music in a Higher Education Context: A Case Study of Hua'er Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that traditional approaches in folk music education are not necessarily compatible with the conventions of formal music education. Whilst many recent studies have tended to define these non-classical music learning contexts as "informal", the practice of folk transmission music appears to be much more complex…

  11. Admissibility region for rarefaction shock waves in dense gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamfirescu, C.; Guardone, A.; Colonna, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the vapour phase and close to the liquid–vapour saturation curve, fluids made of complex molecules are expected to exhibit a thermodynamic region in which the fundamental derivative of gasdynamic ? is negative. In this region, non-classical gasdynamic phenomena such as rarefaction shock waves are

  12. Myositis ossificans circumscripta, secondary to high-velocity gunshot and fragment wound that causes sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokkus, Kemal; Sagtas, Ergin; Suslu, Feride Ekimler; Aydin, Ahmet Turan

    2013-10-17

    This report concerns an unusual cause of sciatica. The case presented is of a young man with myositis ossificans that resulted in sciatica and was treated with en bloc excision and low-dose radiotherapy and indomethacine. The aim of this study was to explain the different diagnostic properties of myositis ossificans around the hip and non-classic causes of sciatica.

  13. Negation and negative information in the W3C resource description framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Analyti, A.; Antoniou, G.; Damásio, C.V.; Wagner, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of negation plays a special role in non-classical logics and also in knowledge representation formalisms where negative information has to be taken into account on par with positive information. In the tradition of mathematical logic, there is a general preference to consider positive

  14. 3-Methoxy-4-(4-nitrobenzyloxybenzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H13NO5, the vanillin group makes a dihedral angle of 4.95 (8° with the benzene ring of the nitrobenzene group. The packing is stabilized by weak, non-classical intermolecular C—H...O interactions which link molecules into chains running along the c axis.

  15. The role of non-CRF inhibition in contour detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, C.; Petkov, N.; Westenberg, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called non-classical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, to improve the performance of contour detectors. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation selective neurons in the primary visual cortex of macaque monkeys and has been

  16. Differential cross sections for the one electron two center symmetric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maidagan, J.M.; Piacentini, R.D.; Rivarola, R.D.; Universidad Autonoma de Madrid

    1982-01-01

    We use the two-state atomic expansion with variable nuclear charge to study charge-exchange differential cross sections for symmetrical one-electron systems at intermediate energy. The nonclassical small angle diffraction scattering is discussed. Our results are compared with data for H + -H collisions. (orig.)

  17. Differential cross sections for the one electron two center symmetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidagan, J.M.; Piacentini, R.D. (Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica); Rivarola, R.D. (Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France). Lab. d' Astrophysique; Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Cuantica)

    1982-03-01

    We use the two-state atomic expansion with variable nuclear charge to study charge-exchange differential cross sections for symmetrical one-electron systems at intermediate energy. The nonclassical small angle diffraction scattering is discussed. Our results are compared with data for H/sup +/-H collisions.

  18. Spatially single-mode source of bright squeezed vacuum

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, A. M.; Iskhakov, T. Sh.; Sharapova, P.; Lemieux, S.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Chekhova, M. V.; Leuchs, G.

    2014-01-01

    Bright squeezed vacuum, a macroscopic nonclassical state of light, can be obtained at the output of a strongly pumped non-seeded traveling-wave optical parametric amplifier (OPA). By constructing the OPA of two consecutive crystals separated by a large distance we make the squeezed vacuum spatially single-mode without a significant decrease in the brightness or squeezing.

  19. 75 FR 27170 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Determination Concerning the Potential for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Points for a 203-Watt Multiple-Voltage EPS for a Video Game Console Efficiency- Reference point for... would likely benefit economically from the imposition of energy conservation standards for non-Class A... projected savings and national NPV considers only the direct financial costs and benefits to consumers of...

  20. Quantum optics experiments with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachor, H.A.; McClelland, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    Quantum fluctuations of light ultimately limit the sensitivity of spectroscopic measurements. The quantum properties of coherent laser light and of nonclassical types of light are reviewed. Two recent experiments are described which generate light with suppressed quantum noise, pointing the way to improved and more sensitive measurements. (orig.)

  1. Expanding Basic Fuzzy Logic with Truth Constants for Component Delimiters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haniková, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 197, 16 June (2012), s. 95-107 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEICC/08/E018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : mathematics * non-classical logics * algebra * basic fuzzy logic BL * propositional constants Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.749, year: 2012

  2. Optimized Binomial Quantum States of Complex Oscillators with Real Spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelaya, K D; Rosas-Ortiz, O

    2016-01-01

    Classical and nonclassical states of quantum complex oscillators with real spectrum are presented. Such states are bi-orthonormal superpositions of n +1 energy eigenvectors of the system with binomial-like coefficients. For large values of n these optimized binomial states behave as photon added coherent states when the imaginary part of the potential is cancelled. (paper)

  3. Back-and-forth systems for fuzzy first-order models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dellunde, P.; García-Cerdaña, A.; Noguera, Carles

    (2018) ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GF15-34650L Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Mathematical fuzzy logic * first-order fuzzy logics * non-classical logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/MTR/noguera-0486421.pdf

  4. Nonlocal Response in Plasmonic Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-01-01

    After a brief overview of nanoplasmonics experiments that defy explanation with classical electrodynamics, we introduce nonlocal response as a main reason for non-classical effects. This concept is first introduced phenomenologically, and afterwards based on the semi-classical hydrodynamic Drude...

  5. Hydrogen research and development in Hawaii: Hawaii natural energy institute's hydrogen from renewable resources research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.R.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Takahashi, P.K.; Jensen, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Hawaii, an energy-vulnerable state, has launched a Renewable Resources Research Program, focusing on hydrogen production and storage; the main tasks of this effort are: photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen through the use of coated silicon electrodes; solar conversion and the production of hydrogen with cyanobacteria; improved hydrogen storage through the use of nonclassical poly-hydride metal complexes. 10 refs

  6. Single Photon Experiments and Quantum Complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiev D. D.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Single photon experiments have been used as one of the most striking illustrations of the apparently nonclassical nature of the quantum world. In this review we examine the mathematical basis of the principle of complementarity and explain why the Englert-Greenberger duality relation is not violated in the configurations of Unruh and of Afshar.

  7. Statistical properties of several models of fractional random point processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendjaballah, C.

    2011-08-01

    Statistical properties of several models of fractional random point processes have been analyzed from the counting and time interval statistics points of view. Based on the criterion of the reduced variance, it is seen that such processes exhibit nonclassical properties. The conditions for these processes to be treated as conditional Poisson processes are examined. Numerical simulations illustrate part of the theoretical calculations.

  8. Theory of superfluidity and drag force in the one-dimensional Bose gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherny, A.Y.; Caux, J.-S.; Brand, J.

    2012-01-01

    The one-dimensional Bose gas is an unusual superfluid. In contrast to higher spatial dimensions, the existence of non-classical rotational inertia is not directly linked to the dissipationless motion of infinitesimal impurities. Recently, experimental tests with ultracold atoms have begun and

  9. AllergoOncology : Opposite outcomes of immune tolerance in allergy and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen-Jarolim, E; Bax, H J; Bianchini, R; Crescioli, S; Daniels-Wells, T R; Dombrowicz, D; Fiebiger, Edda; Gould, H J; Irshad, S; Janda, Jozef; Josephs, D H; Levi-Schaffer, F; O Mahony, L; Pellizzari, G; Penichet, M L; Redegeld, F; Roth-Walter, F; Singer, J; Untersmayr, Eva; Vangelista, L; Karagiannis, S N

    2018-01-01

    While desired for the cure of allergy, regulatory immune cell subsets and nonclassical Th2-biased inflammatory mediators in the tumour microenvironment can contribute to immune suppression and escape of tumours from immunological detection and clearance. A key aim in the cancer field is therefore to

  10. Bisphosphonate adverse effects, lessons from large databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    is on bisphosphonates used for osteoporosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Register studies have so far not confirmed a shift from classical to nonclassical femur fractures with bisphosphonates. However, studies were either small or without X-ray adjudication. Two new studies found no increase in jaw surgery for inflammatory...

  11. Childhood Pompe disease: clinical spectrum and genotype in 31 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelle, C.I. van; Meijden, J.C. van der; Hout, J.M. van den; Jaeken, J.; Baethmann, M.; Voit, T.; Kroos, M.A.; Derks, T.G.; Rubio-Gozalbo, M.E.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Lachmann, R.H.; Mengel, E.; Michelakakis, H.; Jongste, J.C. de; Reuser, A.J.; Ploeg, A.T. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As little information is available on children with non-classic presentations of Pompe disease, we wished to gain knowledge of specific clinical characteristics and genotypes. We included all patients younger than 18 years, who had been evaluated at the Pompe Center in Rotterdam, the

  12. Childhood Pompe disease: Clinical spectrum and genotype in 31 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.I. van Capelle (Carine); J.C. van der Meijden (Chris); J.M.P. van den Hout (Johanna); J. Jaeken; M. Baethmann; T. Voit; M.A. Kroos (Marian); T.G.J. Derks (Terry G J); M.E. Rubio-Gozalbo (Estela); M.A. Willemsen (Michél); R. Lachmann (Robin); E. Mengel; H. Michelakakis (Helen); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); A.J.J. Reuser (Arnold); A.T. van der Ploeg (Ans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: As little information is available on children with non-classic presentations of Pompe disease, we wished to gain knowledge of specific clinical characteristics and genotypes. We included all patients younger than 18 years, who had been evaluated at the Pompe Center in

  13. Childhood Pompe disease : clinical spectrum and genotype in 31 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Capelle, C I; van der Meijden, J C; van den Hout, J M P; Jaeken, J; Baethmann, M; Voit, T; Kroos, M A; Derks, T G J; Rubio-Gozalbo, M E; Willemsen, M A; Lachmann, R H; Mengel, E; Michelakakis, H; de Jongste, J C; Reuser, A J J; van der Ploeg, A T

    2016-01-01

    Background: As little information is available on children with non-classic presentations of Pompe disease, we wished to gain knowledge of specific clinical characteristics and genotypes. We included all patients younger than 18 years, who had been evaluated at the Pompe Center in Rotterdam, the

  14. Integration of single-photon sources and detectors on GaAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Digeronimo, G.E.; Petruzzella, Maurangelo; Birindelli, Simone; Gaudio, Rosalinda; Poor, Sartoon Fattah; van Otten, Frank W.M.; Fiore, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Quantum photonic integrated circuits (QPICs) on a GaAs platform allow the generation, manipulation, routing, and detection of non-classical states of light, which could pave the way for quantum information processing based on photons. In this article, the prototype of a multi-functional QPIC is

  15. Relationship between Mind and Brain: A Proposal of Solution Based on Forms of Intra- and Extra-Individual Negentropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Alberto A.; Zumaeta, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that the problem of the mind-brain relationship can be overcome by a non-classical materialistic model of personality based on the information defined as a special form of negentropy with a structure and activity, which in five intra-individual categories, organizes all and each of the levels of the personality, and, in an…

  16. School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…

  17. Ergocalciferol treatment and aspects of mineral homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eva; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Lewin, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Focus on non-classical effects and possible less side effects of treatment with nutritional vitamin D, raises the expectation of possible benefits from treating chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). Treatment with 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D (calcitriol) induces elevated...... of treatment with high doses of ergocalciferol on parameters of mineral homeostasis in predialysis CKD patients....

  18. Sublinear Expectation Nonlinear Regression for the Financial Risk Measurement and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunquan Song

    2013-01-01

    normality of the estimation and the mini-max property of the prediction are obtained. Finally, simulation study and real data analysis are carried out to illustrate the new model and methods. In this paper, the notions and methodological developments are nonclassical and original, and the proposed modeling and inference methods establish the foundations for nonlinear expectation statistics.

  19. Renin-angiotensin system: an old player with novel functions in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Morales, María Gabriela; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle is a tissue that shows the most plasticity in the body; it can change in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. Among the diseases that affect skeletal muscle are myopathy-associated fibrosis, insulin resistance, and muscle atrophy. A common factor in these pathologies is the participation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This system can be functionally separated into the classical and nonclassical RAS axis. The main components of the classical RAS pathway are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (Ang-II), and Ang-II receptors (AT receptors), whereas the nonclassical axis is composed of ACE2, angiotensin 1-7 [Ang (1-7)], and the Mas receptor. Hyperactivity of the classical axis in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance, atrophy, and fibrosis. In contrast, current evidence supports the action of the nonclassical RAS as a counter-regulator axis of the classical RAS pathway in skeletal muscle. In this review, we describe the mechanisms involved in the pathological effects of the classical RAS, advances in the use of pharmacological molecules to inhibit this axis, and the beneficial effects of stimulation of the nonclassical RAS pathway on insulin resistance, atrophy, and fibrosis in skeletal muscle. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A new potential secretion pathway for recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangqiang; Xia, Yongjun; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Haiqin; Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Wei

    2015-11-10

    Secretion of cytoplasmic expressed proteins into growth media has significant advantages. Due to the lack of an outer membrane, Bacillus subtilis is considered as a desirable 'cell factory' for the secretion of recombinant proteins. However, bottlenecks in the classical pathway for the secretion of recombinant proteins limit its use on a wide scale. In this study, we attempted to use four typical non-classically secreted proteins as signals to export three recombinant model proteins to the culture medium. All four non-classically secreted proteins can direct the export of the intrinsically disordered nucleoskeletal-like protein (Nsp). Two of them can guide the secretion of alkaline phosphatase (PhoA). One can lead the secretion of the thermostable β-galactosidase BgaB, which cannot be secreted with the aid of typical Sec-dependent signal peptides. Our results show that the non-classically secreted proteins lead the recombinant proteins to the culture medium, and thus non-classical protein secretion pathways can be exploited as a novel secretion pathway for recombinant proteins.

  1. Practical Hints on Greek and Latin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopes, James

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of some of the difficulties and procedures in translating classical quotations occurring in a modern text. Some of the topics covered are: use of published translations, transliteration from ancient Greek, and non-classical idioms such as medieval and botanical Latin. (AMH)

  2. Students, Please Turn to YouTube for Your Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Using the Flipped Classroom approach, the teacher "flips" the presentation of the material, the lesson, to non-class time by preparing a video that compresses the material and posting it on a website, such as YouTube, which the students can view at home or anywhere they choose. The teacher, in this case a Math teacher, is then free to…

  3. 2-Chloroquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lei Cao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C8H5ClN2O, the quinazoline system is approximately planar with a maximum deviation from the least-squares plane of 0.034 (2 Å. In the crystal, classical N—H...O and weak non-classical C—H...N hydrogen bonds link the molecules.

  4. Omnidirectional sparse visual path following with occlusion-robust feature tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Goedemé, Toon; Tuytelaars, Tinne; Van Gool, Luc; Vanacker, Gerolf; Nuttin, Marnix

    2005-01-01

    Goedemé T., Tuytelaars T., Van Gool L., Vanacker G., Nuttin M., ''Omnidirectional sparse visual path following with occlusion-robust feature tracking'', Proceedings 6th workshop on omnidirectional vision, camera networks and non-classical cameras, 8 pp., October 21, 2005, Beijing, China.

  5. Crystallization by particle attachment in synthetic, biogenic, and geologic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Yoreo, James; Gilbert, P.U.P.A.; Sommerdijk, N.A.J.M.; Lee Penn, R.; Whitelam, S.; Joester, D.; Zhang, H.; Rimer, J.D.; Navrotsky, A.; Banfield, J.F.; Wallace, A.F.; Marc Michel, F.; Meldrum, F.C.; Cölfen, H.; Dove, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Field and laboratory observations show that crystals commonly form by the addition and attachment of particles that range from multi-ion complexes to fully formed nanoparticles. The particles involved in these nonclassical pathways to crystallization are diverse, in contrast to classical models that

  6. Another approach to vibrational analysis of stepped structures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fedotov, I

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available points as well as the non-classical boundary conditions at the junctions. The solution of the problems is formulated in terms of Green function. By means of the proposed algorithm a problem of arbitrary complexity could be considered in the same terms...

  7. Phase-space interference in extensive and nonextensive quantum heat engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardal, Ali Ümit Cemal; Paternostro, Mauro; Mustecaplioglu, Ozgur E.

    2018-01-01

    Quantum interference is at the heart of what sets the quantum and classical worlds apart. We demonstrate that quantum interference effects involving a many-body working medium is responsible for genuinely nonclassical features in the performance of a quantum heat engine. The features with which...

  8. HLA-E expression by gynecological cancers restrains tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooden, Marloes; Lampen, Margit; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; Leffers, Ninke; Trimbos, J. Baptist; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Nijman, Hans; van Hall, Thorbald

    2011-01-01

    HLA-E is a nonclassical HLA class I molecule, which differs from classical HLA molecules by its nonpolymorphic, conserved nature. Expression and function of HLA-E in normal tissues and solid tumors is not fully understood. We investigated HLA-E protein expression on tissue sections of 420 ovarian

  9. Coordination of CO to the alkaline earth metallocene [(Me5C5)2Ca

    OpenAIRE

    Selg, Peter; Brintzinger, Hans-Herbert; Andersen, Richard A.; Horváth, István T.

    1995-01-01

    The exothermic formation of a Ca–CO complex [Eq.(a), ΔHo = −25 kJ mol−1] confirms that CO can bind to a metal center without π back donation from filled d orbitals. In its spectroscopic properties, the calcocene–carbonyl complex resembles "nonclassical" noble metal carbonyl complexes. Cp* = η5-C5Me5.

  10. Shape recovery mechanism observed in single crystals of shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Landa, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 6 (2008), s. 537-551 ISSN 0141-1594 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape memory alloys * shape recovery process * martensitic microstructure * non-classical boundaries Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.201, year: 2008

  11. Entanglement in optical parametric down-conversion with losses and noise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina, Jan; Křepelka, Jaromír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 19 (2009), 3918-3923 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ČR IAA100100713 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum measurement * parametric down-conversion * nonclassical light Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2009

  12. Single photon emission up to liquid nitrogen temperature from charged excitons confined in GaAs-based epitaxial nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusanowski, L.; Syperek, M.; Marynski, A.; Li, L.H.; Misiewicz, J.; Höfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Fiore, A.; Sek, G.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a non-classical photon emitter at near infrared wavelength based on a single (In,Ga)As/GaAs epitaxially grown columnar quantum dot. Charged exciton complexes have been identified in magneto-photoluminescence. Photon auto-correlation histograms from the recombination of a trion

  13. METHODOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF E-LEARNING DIDACTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey F. Sergeev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the discussion of the methodological problems of e-learning, didactic issues the use of advanced networking and Internet technologies to create training systems and simulators based on the methodological principles of non-classical and post-non-classical psychology and pedagogy. 

  14. HLA-G genotype and HLA-G expression in systemic lupus erythematosus: HLA-G as a putative susceptibility gene in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, R; Hviid, T V F; Govoni, M

    2008-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease mainly mediated by the deposit of immune complexes and defects in T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells along with a high production of T-helper 2 cytokines. A tolerance-inducible function of nonclassical class Ib human leukocyte...

  15. Some Practical Approaches to a Course on Paraconsistent Logic for Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Torres, Germano; de Moraes, Carlos Henrique Valerio; Coutinho, Maurilio Pereira; Martins, Helga Gonzaga; Borges da Silva, Luiz Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a non-classical logic course primarily indicated for graduate students in electrical engineering and energy engineering. The content of this course is based on the vision that it is not enough for a student to indefinitely accumulate knowledge; it is necessary to explore all the occasions to update, deepen, and enrich that…

  16. Peirce's cenopythagorean categories, Merleau-Ponty's chiasmatic entrelacs and Grothendieck's Résumé.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalamea, Fernando

    2015-12-01

    We present Peirce's cenopythagorean categories and Merleau-Ponty's entrelacs and chiasma, as universal phenomenological tools, particularly useful for a better understanding of dynamic, non-classical, non-separated contemporary mathematics. As a case study, we revisit Grothendieck's Résumé, and we explore its extremely rich mathematical, semiotical and phenomenological entanglements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physical optics modeling of modal patterns in a crossed porro prism resonator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A physical optics model is proposed to describe the transverse modal patterns in crossed Porro prism resonators. The model departs from earlier attempts in that the prisms are modeled as non-classical rotating elements with amplitude and phase...

  18. Research briefing on selected opportunities in atomic, molecular, and optical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research on the following topics: The Laser-Atom Revolution; Controlling Dynamical Pathways; Nonclassical States of Light; Transient States of Atomic Systems; New Light Generation and Handling; Clusters; Atomic Physics at User Facilities; and Impacts of AMO Sciences on Modern Technologies

  19. Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis and Transformations using Benign Reaction Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nonclassical heating technique using microwaves, termed as 'Bunsen burner of the 21st century, is rapidly becoming popular and is dramatically reducing the reaction times. The significant outcomes of microwave (MW)-assisted green chemistry endeavors are summarized that have r...

  20. Archaeology: A Guide to Reference Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Doreen, Comp.

    This bibliographic guide lists reference sources available at McGill University for research in prehistory and non-classical archaeology. No exclusively biographical sources have been included, but many of the encyclopedias and handbooks contain biographical information and are annotated accordingly. Titles are listed in the following categories:…

  1. A rare CYP21A2 mutation in a congenital adrenal hyperplasia kindred displaying genotype-phenotype nonconcordance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ahmed; Yuen, Tony; Al-Malki, Sultan; Yau, Mabel; Kazmi, Diya; Sun, Li; Harbison, Madeleine; Haider, Shozeb; Zaidi, Mone; New, Maria I

    2016-01-01

    Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency is caused by the autosomal recessive inheritance of mutations in the gene CYP21A2. CYP21A2 mutations lead to variable impairment of the 21-hydroxylase enzyme, which, in turn, is associated with three clinical phenotypes, namely, salt wasting, simple virilizing, and nonclassical CAH. However, it is known that a given mutation can associate with different clinical phenotypes, resulting in a high rate of genotype-phenotype nonconcordance. We aimed to study the genotype-phenotype nonconcordance in a family with three siblings affected with nonclassical CAH. All had hormonal evidence of nonclassical CAH, but this phenotype could not be explained by the genotype obtained from commercial CYP21A2 genetic testing, which revealed heterozygosity for the maternal 30 kb deletion mutation. We performed Sanger sequencing of the entire CYP21A2 gene in this family to search for a rare mutation that was not covered by commercial testing and found in the three siblings a second, rare c.1097G>A (p.R366H) mutation in exon 8. Computational modeling confirmed that this was a mild mutation consistent with nonclassical CAH. We recommend that sequencing of entire genes for rare mutations should be carried out when genotype-phenotype nonconcordance is observed in patients with autosomal recessive monogenic disorders, including CAH. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Da Costa on ontology: a naturalistic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mariano Nogueira Coelho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Da Costa's conception of being modifies that of Quine to incorporate relativization to non-classical logics. A naturalistic view of this conception is discussed. This view tries to extend to logic some ideas of Maddy's naturalism concerning mathematics.

  3. It's Not Given Us to Foretell How Our Words Will Echo through the Ages: The Reception of Novel Ideas by Scientific Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bazhanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals some mostly unnoticed and unexpected trends in reception of novel ideas in science. The author formulates certain principles of the reception of these ideas by scientific communities and justifies them by examples from modern mathematics and non-classical logic.

  4. A model for the stochastic origins of Schrodinger's equation

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Mark P.

    2001-01-01

    A model for the motion of a charged particle in the vacuum is presented which, although purely classical in concept, yields Schrodinger's equation as a solution. It suggests that the origins of the peculiar and nonclassical features of quantum mechanics are actually inherent in a statistical description of the radiative reactive force.

  5. Disentanglement, Bell-nonlocality violation and teleportation capacity of the decaying tripartite states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ming-Liang, E-mail: mingliang0301@163.com

    2012-09-15

    Dynamics of disentanglement as measured by the tripartite negativity and Bell nonlocality as measured by the extent of violation of the multipartite Bell-type inequalities are investigated in this work. It is shown definitively that for the initial three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) or W class state preparation, the Bell nonlocality suffers sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoirs. Moreover, all the Bell-nonlocal states are useful for nonclassical teleportation, while there are entangled states that do not violate any Bell-type inequalities, but still yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different aspects of quantum correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robustness of the initial tripartite GHZ and W class states against decoherence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bell-nonlocality sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonzero minimum tripartite negativity is needed for nonclassical teleportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the Bell-nonlocal states yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity.

  6. Quantitative measures of entanglement in pair-coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, G S; Biswas, Asoka

    2005-01-01

    The pair-coherent states for a two-mode radiation field are known to belong to a family of states with non-Gaussian wavefunction. The nature of quantum entanglement between the two modes and some features of non-classicality are studied for such states. The existing criterion for inseparability are examined in the context of pair-coherent states

  7. Electrochemistry of hydrous oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, L.D.; Lyons, M.E.G.

    1986-01-01

    The formation, acid-base properties, structural aspects, and transport processes of hydrous oxide films are discussed. Classical and nonclassical theoretical models of the oxide-solution interface are compared. Monolayer oxidation, behavior, and crystal growth of oxides on platinum, palladium, gold, iridium, rhodium, ruthenium, and some non-noble metals, including tungsten, are reviewed and compared

  8. Th1-Induced CD106 Expression Mediates Leukocytes Adhesion on Synovial Fibroblasts from Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Laura; Margheri, Francesca; Luciani, Cristina; Capone, Manuela; Rossi, Maria Caterina; Chillà, Anastasia; Santarlasci, Veronica; Mazzoni, Alessio; Cimaz, Rolando; Liotta, Francesco; Maggi, Enrico; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Del Rosso, Mario; Annunziato, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that subsets of human T helper cells can orchestrate leukocyte adhesion to synovial fibroblasts (SFbs), thus regulating the retention of leukocytes in the joints of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Several cell types, such as monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, T and B lymphocytes, SFbs and osteoclasts participate in joint tissue damage JIA. Among T cells, an enrichment of classic and non-classic Th1 subsets, has been found in JIA synovial fluid (SF), compared to peripheral blood (PB). Moreover, it has been shown that IL-12 in the SF of inflamed joints mediates the shift of Th17 lymphocytes towards the non-classic Th1 subset. Culture supernatants of Th17, classic and non-classic Th1 clones, have been tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation, and to induce expression of adhesion molecules on SFbs, obtained from healthy donors. Culture supernatants of both classic and non-classic Th1, but not of Th17, clones, were able to induce CD106 (VCAM-1) up-regulation on SFbs. This effect, mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, was crucial for the adhesion of circulating leukocytes on SFbs. Finally, we found that SFbs derived from SF of JIA patients expressed higher levels of CD106 than those from healthy donors, resembling the phenotype of SFbs activated in vitro with Th1-clones supernatants. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that classic and non-classic Th1 cells induce CD106 expression on SFbs through TNF-α, an effect that could play a role in leukocytes retention in inflamed joints.

  9. Synergistic Cytotoxicity Effect by Combination Treatment of Polyketide Derivatives from Annona muricata Linn Leaves and Doxorubicin as Potential Anticancer Material on Raji Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, A. N.; Astirin, O. P.; Prayito, A.; Fisma, R.; Prihapsara, F.

    2018-03-01

    Nasopharynx cancer is one of the most deadly cancer. The main priority of nasopharynx cancer treatment is the use of chemotherapeutic agents, especially doxorubicin. However, doxorubicin might also lead to diverse side effect. An approach recently develop to overcome side effect of doxorubicin is to used of combined chemotherapeutic agent. One of the compounds found effication as an anticancer agent on nasopharynx cancer is acetogenin, a polyketide compound that is abundant in Annona muricata L. leaves. This study has been done to examine polyketide derivatives was isolated from Annona muricata L. which has potency to induce apoptosis by p53 expression on raji cell line. The determination of cytotoxic combination activity from polyketide derivative and doxorubicin was evaluated using MTT assay to obtain the value of CI (combination index). Data analysis showed that combination of polyketide derivative from Annona muricata L. (14,4 µg/ml) and doxorubicin with all of concentration performed synergistic effect on raji cell line with CI value from 0.13 – 0.65.

  10. Isolation and structure elucidation of avocado seed (Persea americana) lipid derivatives that inhibit Clostridium sporogenes endospore germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Dariana Graciela; Pacheco, Adriana; García-Cruz, María Isabel; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet Alejandra; Benavides-Lozano, Jorge Alejandro; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen

    2013-07-31

    Avocado fruit extracts are known to exhibit antimicrobial properties. However, the effects on bacterial endospores and the identity of antimicrobial compounds have not been fully elucidated. In this study, avocado seed extracts were tested against Clostridium sporogenes vegetative cells and active endospores. Bioassay-guided purification of a crude extract based on inhibitory properties linked antimicrobial action to six lipid derivatives from the family of acetogenin compounds. Two new structures and four compounds known to exist in nature were identified as responsible for the activity. Structurally, most potent molecules shared features of an acetyl moiety and a trans-enone group. All extracts produced inhibition zones on vegetative cells and active endospores. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of isolated molecules ranged from 7.8 to 15.6 μg/mL, and bactericidal effects were observed for an enriched fraction at 19.5 μg/mL. Identified molecules showed potential as natural alternatives to additives and antibiotics used by the food and pharmaceutical industries to inhibit Gram-positive spore-forming bacteria.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of Anonna mucosa (Jacq. grown in vivo and obtained by in vitroculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago José de Souza Barboza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian flora includes numerous species of medicinal importance that can be used to develop new drugs. Plant tissue culture offers strategies for conservation and use of these species allowing continuous production of plants and bioactive substances. Annona mucosa has produced substances such as acetogenins and alkaloids that exhibit antimicrobial activities. The widespread use of antibiotics has led to an increase in multidrug-resistant bacteria, which represents a serious risk of infection. In view of this problem, the aim of this work was to evaluate the antibacterial potential of extracts of A. mucosa obtained by in vitro techniques and also cultured under in vivo conditions. Segments from seedlings were inoculated onto different culture media containing the auxin picloram and the cytokinin kinetin at different concentrations. The calluses obtained were used to produce cell suspension cultures. The materials were subjected to methanol extraction and subsequent fractionation in hexane and dichloromethane. The antimicrobial activity against 20 strains of clinical relevance was evaluated by the macrodilution method at minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations. The extracts showed selective antimicrobial activity, inhibiting the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes and Bacillus thuringiensis at different concentrations. The plant tissue culture methods produced plant materials with antibacterial properties, as well as in vivo grown plants. The antibacterial activity of material obtained through biotechnological procedures of A. mucosa is reported here for the first time.

  12. Toxicology of a Peruvian botanical remedy to support healthy liver function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Hugh A; Sloley, B Duff; Cabanillas, José; Chiu, Andrea; Aung, Steven K H; Green, Francis H Y

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of these studies was to determine the safety of a botanical treatment for supporting healthy liver function developed in Peru. The formulation, A4+, contains extracts of Curcuma longa L. rhizome (A4R), Cordia lutea Lam. flower (A4F) and Annona muricata L. leaf (A4L). The tests were used to support an application for a non-traditional Natural Health Product Licence from the Natural Health Product Directorate of Health Canada and future clinical trials. Besides reviewing the scientific and clinical information from Peru on the ingredients and conducting an initial Ames test for mutagenicity, we analysed A4+ for its chemical profile and tested genotoxicity (micronucleus test) and general toxicity (28-day repeated dose). A4+ and extracts from the three plants provided distinctive chemical fingerprints. A4L contained acetogenins, requiring a second chromatographic method to produce a specific fingerprint. The Ames test proved positive at the highest concentration (5,000 μg/mL) but A4+ showed no evidence of genotoxicity in the more specific mouse micronucleus test. The 28-day repeated dose (general toxicity) study in rats showed no toxicity at 2,000 mg/kg. We conclude that under the conditions of these studies, A4+ shows no evidence of toxicity at the levels indicated. A no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 2,000 mg/kg was assigned.

  13. Using qubits to reveal quantum signatures of an oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shantanu

    In this thesis, we seek to study the qubit-oscillator system with the aim to identify and quantify inherent quantum features of the oscillator. We show that the quantum signatures of the oscillator get imprinted on the dynamics of the joint system. The two key features which we explore are the quantized energy spectrum of the oscillator and the non-classicality of the oscillator's wave function. To investigate the consequences of the oscillator's discrete energy spectrum, we consider the qubit to be coupled to the oscillator through the Rabi Hamiltonian. Recent developments in fabrication technology have opened up the possibility to explore parameter regimes which were conventionally inaccessible. Motivated by these advancements, we investigate in this thesis a parameter space where the qubit frequency is much smaller than the oscillator frequency and the Rabi frequency is allowed to be an appreciable fraction of the bare frequency of the oscillator. We use the adiabatic approximation to understand the dynamics in this quasi-degenerate qubit regime. By deriving a dressed master equation, we systematically investigate the effects of the environment on the system dynamics. We develop a spectroscopic technique, using which one can probe the steady state response of the driven and damped system. The spectroscopic signal clearly reveals the quantized nature of the oscillator's energy spectrum. We extend the adiabatic approximation, earlier developed only for the single qubit case, to a scenario where multiple qubits interact with the oscillator. Using the extended adiabatic approximation, we study the collapse and revival of multi-qubit observables. We develop analytic expressions for the revival signals which are in good agreement with the numerically evaluated results. Within the quantum restriction imposed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, the uncertainty in the position and momentum of an oscillator is minimum and shared equally when the oscillator is prepared

  14. Decoherence and Fidelity in Teleportation of Coherent Photon-Added Two-Mode Squeezed Thermal States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heng-Mei; Yuan, Hong-Chun; Wan, Zhi-Long; Wang, Zhen

    2018-04-01

    We theoretically introduce a kind of non-Gaussian entangled resources, i.e., coherent photon-added two-mode squeezed thermal states (CPA-TMSTS), by successively performing coherent photon addition operation to the two-mode squeezed thermal states. The normalization factor related to bivariate Hermite polynomials is obtained. Based upon it, the nonclassicality and decoherence process are analyzed by virtue of the Wigner function. It is shown that the coherent photon addition operation is an effective way in generating partial negative values of Wigner function, which clearly manifests the nonclassicality and non-Gaussianity of the target states. Additionally, the fidelity in teleporting coherent states using CPA-TMSTS as entangled resource is quantified both analytically and numerically. It is found that the CPA-TMSTS is an entangled resource of high-efficiency and high-fidelity in quantum teleportation.

  15. Allergic reaction to polysulphone membrane dialyser masquerading as infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaya, Japheth E; Jacobson, Mitchell S; Esprit, Don; Ajayi, Tokunbo

    2015-02-18

    Hypersensitivity reactions during haemodialysis are well documented in the literature. Most dialysis membrane reactions occur with ethylene oxide or non-biocompatible membranes and less frequently with biocompatible membranes. The symptoms are non-specific except for the temporal relationship typically occurring during the haemodialysis. Patients who present with the non-classic type of reaction pose a diagnostic challenge and clinicians must have a high index of suspicion. We present a non-classic presentation of a hypersensitivity reaction to a polysulfone membrane dialyser with recurrent fevers during and after haemodialysis, initially thought to be due to infection. After a series of negative work ups for infection, dialysis membrane reaction was considered and the patient improved after change of the membrane. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Spectral methods in chemistry and physics applications to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Shizgal, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This book is a pedagogical presentation of the application of spectral and pseudospectral methods to kinetic theory and quantum mechanics. There are additional applications to astrophysics, engineering, biology and many other fields. The main objective of this book is to provide the basic concepts to enable the use of spectral and pseudospectral methods to solve problems in diverse fields of interest and to a wide audience. While spectral methods are generally based on Fourier Series or Chebychev polynomials, non-classical polynomials and associated quadratures are used for many of the applications presented in the book. Fourier series methods are summarized with a discussion of the resolution of the Gibbs phenomenon. Classical and non-classical quadratures are used for the evaluation of integrals in reaction dynamics including nuclear fusion, radial integrals in density functional theory, in elastic scattering theory and other applications. The subject matter includes the calculation of transport coefficient...

  17. Investigation of Size-Dependency in Free-Vibration of Micro-Resonators Based on the Strain Gradient Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vatankhah

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper investigates the vibration behavior of micro-resonators based on the strain gradient theory, a non-classical continuum theory capable of capturing the size effect appearing in micro-scale structures. The micro-resonator is modeled as a clamped-clamped micro-beam with an attached mass subjected to an axial force. The governing equations of motion and both classical and non-classical sets of boundary conditions are developed based on the strain gradient theory. The normalized natural frequency of the micro-resonator is evaluated and the influences of various parameters are assessed. In addition, the current results are compared to those of the classical and modified couple stress continuum theories.

  18. Entanglement dynamics and position-momentum entropic uncertainty relation of a Λ-type three-level atom interacting with a two-mode cavity field in the presence of nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M. J.; Tavassoly, M. K.; Hooshmandasl, M. R.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, the interaction between a $\\Lambda$-type three-level atom and two-mode cavity field is discussed. The detuning parameters and cross-Kerr nonlinearity are taken into account and it is assumed that atom-field coupling and Kerr medium to be $f$-deformed. Even though the system seems to be complicated, the analytical form of the state vector of the entire system for considered model is exactly obtained. The time evolution of nonclassical properties such as quantum entanglement and position-momentum entropic uncertainty relation (entropy squeezing) of the field are investigated. In each case, the influences of the detuning parameters, generalized Kerr medium and intensity-dependent coupling on the latter nonclassicality signs are analyzed, in detail.

  19. NRC-BNL Benchmark Program on Evaluation of Methods for Seismic Analysis of Coupled Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chokshi, N.; DeGrassi, G.; Xu, J.

    1999-01-01

    A NRC-BNL benchmark program for evaluation of state-of-the-art analysis methods and computer programs for seismic analysis of coupled structures with non-classical damping is described. The program includes a series of benchmarking problems designed to investigate various aspects of complexities, applications and limitations associated with methods for analysis of non-classically damped structures. Discussions are provided on the benchmarking process, benchmark structural models, and the evaluation approach, as well as benchmarking ground rules. It is expected that the findings and insights, as well as recommendations from this program will be useful in developing new acceptance criteria and providing guidance for future regulatory activities involving licensing applications of these alternate methods to coupled systems

  20. Relative substituent orientation in the structure of cis-3-chloro-1,3-dimethyl-N-(4-nitrophenyl-2-oxocyclopentane-1-carboxamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Zeller

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the title compound, C14H15ClN2O4, prepared by reaction of a methacryloyl dimer with nitroaniline, was determined to establish the relative substituent orientation on the cyclopentanone ring. In agreement with an earlier proposed reaction mechanism, the amide group and the methyl group adjacent to the chloro substituent adopt equatorial positions and relative cis orientation, whereas the Cl substituent itself and the methyl group adjacent to the amide have axial orientations relative to the mean plane of the five-membered ring. The conformation of the molecule is stabilized by one classical N—H...O (2.18 Å and one non-classical C—H...O (2.23 Å hydrogen bond, each possessing an S(6 graph-set motif. The crystal packing is defined by several non-classical intramolecular hydrogen bonds, as well as by partial stacking of the aromatic rings.

  1. Evolution of Wigner function in laser process under the action of linear resonance force and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao-ming, Lu

    2018-05-01

    The negativity of Wigner function (WF) is one of the important symbols of non-classical properties of light field. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the evolution of WF in dissipative process. The evolution formula of WF in laser process under the action of linear resonance force is given by virtue of thermo entangled state representation and the technique of integration within an ordered product of operator. As its application, the evolution of WF of thermal field and that of single-photon-added coherent state are discussed. The results show that the WF of thermal field maintains its original character. On the other hand, the negative region size and the depth of negativity of WF of single- photon-added coherent state decrease until it vanishes with dissipation. This shows that the non-classical property of single-photon-added coherent state is weakened, until it disappears with dissipation time increasing.

  2. Wigner functions and tomograms of the photon-depleted even and odd coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jisuo; Meng Xiangguo

    2008-01-01

    Using the coherent state representation of Wigner operator and the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, this paper derives the Wigner functions for the photon-depleted even and odd coherent states (PDEOCSs). Moreover, in terms of the Wigner functions with respect to the complex parameter α the nonclassical properties of the PDEOCSs are discussed. The results show that the nonclassicality for the state |β, m) o (or |β, m) e ) is more pronounced when m is even (or odd). According to the marginal distributions of the Wigner functions, the physical meaning of the Wigner functions is given. Further, the tomograms of the PDEOCSs are calculated with the aid of newly introduced intermediate coordinate-momentum representation in quantum optics

  3. Entanglement Potential Versus Negativity of Wigner Function for SUP-Operated Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arpita

    2018-02-01

    We construct a distinct category of nonclassical quantum states by applying a superposition of products (SUP) of field annihilation (\\hat {a}) and creation (\\hat {a}^{\\dagger }) operators of the type (s\\hat {a}\\hat {a}^{\\dagger }+t\\hat {a}^{\\dagger }\\hat {a}), with s2+t2=1, upon thermal and even coherent states. We allow these SUP operated states to undergo a decoherence process and then describe the nonclassical features of the resulted field by using the entanglement potential (EP) and the negativity of the Wigner distribution function. Our analysis reveals that both the measures are reduced in the linear loss process. The partial negativity of the Wigner function disappears when losses exceed 50% but EP exists always.

  4. Neoclassical theory of electromagnetic interactions a single theory for macroscopic and microscopic scales

    CERN Document Server

    Babin, Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors present their recently developed theory of electromagnetic interactions. This neoclassical approach extends the classical electromagnetic theory down to atomic scales and allows the explanation of various non-classical phenomena in the same framework. While the classical Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetism theory succeeds in describing the physical reality at macroscopic scales, it struggles at atomic scales. Here, quantum mechanics traditionally takes over to describe non-classical phenomena such as the hydrogen spectrum and de Broglie waves. By means of modifying the classical theory, the approach presented here is able to consistently explain quantum-mechanical effects, and while similar to quantum mechanics in some respects, this neoclassical theory also differs markedly from it. In particular, the newly developed framework omits probabilistic interpretations of the wave function and features a new fundamental spatial scale which, at the size of the free electron, is much lar...

  5. Negative values of quasidistributions and quantum wave and number statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peřina, J.; Křepelka, J.

    2018-04-01

    We consider nonclassical wave and number quantum statistics, and perform a decomposition of quasidistributions for nonlinear optical down-conversion processes using Bessel functions. We show that negative values of the quasidistribution do not directly represent probabilities; however, they directly influence measurable number statistics. Negative terms in the decomposition related to the nonclassical behavior with negative amplitudes of probability can be interpreted as positive amplitudes of probability in the negative orthogonal Bessel basis, whereas positive amplitudes of probability in the positive basis describe classical cases. However, probabilities are positive in all cases, including negative values of quasidistributions. Negative and positive contributions of decompositions to quasidistributions are estimated. The approach can be adapted to quantum coherence functions.

  6. Quantum cooling and squeezing of a levitating nanosphere via time-continuous measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoni, Marco G.; Zhang, Jinglei; Millen, James; Barker, Peter F.; Serafini, Alessio

    2015-07-01

    With the purpose of controlling the steady state of a dielectric nanosphere levitated within an optical cavity, we study its conditional dynamics under simultaneous sideband cooling and additional time-continuous measurement of either the output cavity mode or the nanosphere’s position. We find that the average phonon number, purity and quantum squeezing of the steady-states can all be made more non-classical through the addition of time-continuous measurement. We predict that the continuous monitoring of the system, together with Markovian feedback, allows one to stabilize the dynamics for any value of the laser frequency driving the cavity. By considering state of the art values of the experimental parameters, we prove that one can in principle obtain a non-classical (squeezed) steady-state with an average phonon number {n}{ph}≈ 0.5.

  7. Quantum Correlations in Nonlocal Boson Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Farid; Lund, Austin P; Ralph, Timothy C

    2017-09-22

    Determination of the quantum nature of correlations between two spatially separated systems plays a crucial role in quantum information science. Of particular interest is the questions of if and how these correlations enable quantum information protocols to be more powerful. Here, we report on a distributed quantum computation protocol in which the input and output quantum states are considered to be classically correlated in quantum informatics. Nevertheless, we show that the correlations between the outcomes of the measurements on the output state cannot be efficiently simulated using classical algorithms. Crucially, at the same time, local measurement outcomes can be efficiently simulated on classical computers. We show that the only known classicality criterion violated by the input and output states in our protocol is the one used in quantum optics, namely, phase-space nonclassicality. As a result, we argue that the global phase-space nonclassicality inherent within the output state of our protocol represents true quantum correlations.

  8. Nonlinear elliptic equations and nonassociative algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Nadirashvili, Nikolai; Vlăduţ, Serge

    2014-01-01

    This book presents applications of noncommutative and nonassociative algebras to constructing unusual (nonclassical and singular) solutions to fully nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations of second order. The methods described in the book are used to solve a longstanding problem of the existence of truly weak, nonsmooth viscosity solutions. Moreover, the authors provide an almost complete description of homogeneous solutions to fully nonlinear elliptic equations. It is shown that even in the very restricted setting of "Hessian equations", depending only on the eigenvalues of the Hessian, these equations admit homogeneous solutions of all orders compatible with known regularity for viscosity solutions provided the space dimension is five or larger. To the contrary, in dimension four or less the situation is completely different, and our results suggest strongly that there are no nonclassical homogeneous solutions at all in dimensions three and four. Thus this book gives a complete list of dimensions...

  9. Semiclassical asymptotic behavior and the rearrangement mechanisms for Coulomb particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.V.; Gevorkyan, A.S.; Dubrovskii, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The semiclassical asymptotic behavior of the eikonal amplitude of the resonance rearrangement in a system of three Coulomb particles is studied. It is shown that the general formula for the amplitude correctly describes two classical mechanisms (pickup and knockout) and one nonclassical mechanism (stripping). The classical mechanisms predominate at high energies, while the stripping mechanism predominates at lower energies. In the region of medium energies the dominant mechanism is the pickup (or Thomas) mechanism, which is realized by nonclassical means. For such transitions the classical cross section diverges, and the amplitude must be computed on a complex trajectory. The physical reasons for introducing the approximate complex trajectories are discussed. The contributions of all the mechanisms to the rearrangement cross section are found in their analytic forms

  10. Phase-conjugate optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2006-01-01

    Quantum optical coherence tomography (Q-OCT) offers a factor-of-2 improvement in axial resolution and the advantage of even-order dispersion cancellation when it is compared to conventional OCT (C-OCT). These features have been ascribed to the nonclassical nature of the biphoton state employed in the former, as opposed to the classical state used in the latter. Phase-conjugate OCT (PC-OCT) shows that nonclassical light is not necessary to reap Q-OCT's advantages. PC-OCT uses classical-state signal and reference beams, which have a phase-sensitive cross correlation, together with phase conjugation to achieve the axial resolution and even-order dispersion cancellation of Q-OCT with a signal-to-noise ratio that can be comparable to that of C-OCT

  11. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  12. Quantum Correlations in Mixed-State Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavan Modi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effects of quantum correlations, such as entanglement and discord, on the efficiency of phase estimation by studying four quantum circuits that can be readily implemented using NMR techniques. These circuits define a standard strategy of repeated single-qubit measurements, a classical strategy where only classical correlations are allowed, and two quantum strategies where nonclassical correlations are allowed. In addition to counting space (number of qubits and time (number of gates requirements, we introduce mixedness as a key constraint of the experiment. We compare the efficiency of the four strategies as a function of the mixedness parameter. We find that the quantum strategy gives sqrt[N] enhancement over the standard strategy for the same amount of mixedness. This result applies even for highly mixed states that have nonclassical correlations but no entanglement.

  13. Pseudo-entanglement evaluated in noninertial frames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehri-Dehnavi, Hossein; Mirza, Behrouz; Mohammadzadeh, Hosein; Rahimi, Robabeh

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We study pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. → We examine different measures of entanglement and nonclassical correlation for the state. → We find the threshold for entanglement is changed in noninertial frames. → We also describe the behavior of local unitary classes of states in noninertial frames. - Abstract: We study quantum discord, in addition to entanglement, of bipartite pseudo-entanglement in noninertial frames. It is shown that the entanglement degrades from its maximum value in a stationary frame to a minimum value in an infinite accelerating frame. There is a critical region found in which, for particular cases, entanglement of states vanishes for certain accelerations. The quantum discord of pseudo-entanglement decreases by increasing the acceleration. Also, for a physically inaccessible region, entanglement and nonclassical correlation are evaluated and shown to match the corresponding values of the physically accessible region for an infinite acceleration.

  14. Experimental Fock-State Superradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, L.; Muñoz-Martínez, L. F.; Barros, D. F.; Morales, J. E. O.; Moreira, R. S. N.; Alves, N. D.; Tieco, A. F. G.; Saldanha, P. L.; Felinto, D.

    2018-02-01

    Superradiance in an ensemble of atoms leads to the collective enhancement of radiation in a particular mode shared by the atoms in their spontaneous decay from an excited state. The quantum aspects of this phenomenon are highlighted when such collective enhancement is observed in the emission of a single quantum of light. Here we report a further step in exploring experimentally the nonclassical features of superradiance by implementing the process not only with single excitations, but also in a two-excitation state. Particularly, we measure and theoretically model the wave packets corresponding to superradiance in both the single-photon and two-photon regimes. Such progress opens the way to the study and future control of the interaction of nonclassical light modes with collective quantum memories at higher photon numbers.

  15. Effect of interface/surface stress on the elastic wave band structure of two-dimensional phononic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Jiwei; Liu, Yongquan; Su, Xianyue

    2012-01-01

    In the present Letter, the multiple scattering theory (MST) for calculating the elastic wave band structure of two-dimensional phononic crystals (PCs) is extended to include the interface/surface stress effect at the nanoscale. The interface/surface elasticity theory is employed to describe the nonclassical boundary conditions at the interface/surface and the elastic Mie scattering matrix embodying the interface/surface stress effect is derived. Using this extended MST, the authors investigate the interface/surface stress effect on the elastic wave band structure of two-dimensional PCs, which is demonstrated to be significant when the characteristic size reduces to nanometers. -- Highlights: ► Multiple scattering theory including the interface/surface stress effect. ► Interface/surface elasticity theory to describe the nonclassical boundary conditions. ► Elastic Mie scattering matrix embodying the interface/surface stress effect. ► Interface/surface stress effect would be significant at the nanoscale.

  16. Second-order temporal interference of two independent light beams at an asymmetrical beam splitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianbin; Wang Jingjing; Xu Zhuo

    2017-01-01

    The second-order temporal interference of classical and nonclassical light at an asymmetrical beam splitter is discussed based on two-photon interference in Feynman’s path integral theory. The visibility of the second-order interference pattern is determined by the properties of the superposed light beams, the ratio between the intensities of these two light beams, and the reflectivity of the asymmetrical beam splitter. Some requirements about the asymmetrical beam splitter have to be satisfied in order to ensure that the visibility of the second-order interference pattern of nonclassical light beams exceeds the classical limit. The visibility of the second-order interference pattern of photons emitted by two independent single-photon sources is independent of the ratio between the intensities. These conclusions are important for the researches and applications in quantum optics and quantum information when an asymmetrical beam splitter is employed. (paper)

  17. Optical interference with noncoherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagi, Yoav; Firstenberg, Ofer; Fisher, Amnon; Ron, Amiram

    2003-01-01

    We examine a typical two-source optical interference apparatus consisting of two cavities, a beam splitter, and two detectors. We show that field-field interference occurs even when the cavities are not initially in coherent states but rather in other nonclassical states. However, we find that the visibility of the second-order interference, that is, the expectation values of the detectors' readings, changes from 100%, when the cavities are prepared in coherent states, to zero visibility when they are initially in single Fock states. We calculate the fourth-order interference, and for the latter case find that it corresponds to a case where the currents oscillate with 100% visibility, but with a random phase for every experiment. Finally, we suggest an experimental realization of the apparatus with nonclassical sources

  18. Anderson localization with second quantized fields in a coupled array of waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Clinton; Vemuri, Gautam; Agarwal, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    We report a theoretical study of Anderson localization of nonclassical light in an array of waveguides in which neighboring waveguides are evanescently coupled and in which the disorder can be added in a controlled manner. We use squeezed light at the input to investigate the effects of nonclassicality and compare the results with those obtained by using conventional classical fields, such as a coherent field and a Gaussian field. Our results show that there is an enhancement in fluctuations of localized light due to the medium's disorder. We find superbunching of the localized light, which may be useful for enhancing the interaction between radiation and matter. Another important consequence of sub-Poissonian statistics of the incoming light is to quench the total fluctuations at the output. Finally, we show that as a result of the multiplicative noise in the problem, the output field is far from Gaussian even if the input is a coherent field.

  19. 'Parity effect' based generation of Schrodinger cat like states in high-Q microcavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoli, A.; Messina, A.

    1999-01-01

    It has been very recently shown that the dynamics of a two-level atom coupled to a bimodal degenerate cavity field by two-photon processes, is characterized by an interesting nonclassical dynamical behavior christened ''parity effect''. This effect consists in the fact that if the cavity field is prepared leaving one mode in its vacuum state and exciting the other one in a generic linear combination of even number states only, or odd number states only, then there exists an appropriate intensity-dependent interval of time after which the bimodal cavity exhibits macroscopically different parity-dependent quantum features. We show that this nonclassical effect is at the origin of the possibility of generating Schrodinger cat like states of the bimodal field appropriately selecting its initial conditions

  20. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: Case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Avaria E.; María José Vargas F.; Loreto Triviño F.; Andrea Gleisner E.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disease whose main cause is the deficiency of 21-hydroxylase, an enzyme involved in the synthesis of cortisol and aldosterone. There are two forms of CAH, a classical and nonclassical form, being the first objective of analysis in the clinical case. Its clinical manifestations vary in severity, depending on the level of hormone deficiency. Within the classic is described the salt-wasting form, whose consequences are ...

  1. MHC and Evolution in Teleosts

    OpenAIRE

    Grimholt, Unni

    2016-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are key players in initiating immune responses towards invading pathogens. Both MHC class I and class II genes are present in teleosts, and, using phylogenetic clustering, sequences from both classes have been classified into various lineages. The polymorphic and classical MHC class I and class II gene sequences belong to the U and A lineages, respectively. The remaining class I and class II lineages contain nonclassical gene sequences that, de...

  2. Quantum Biology at the Cellular Level - elements of the research program

    OpenAIRE

    Bordonaro, Michael; Ogryzko, Vasily

    2013-01-01

    Quantum Biology is emerging as a new field at the intersection between fundamental physics and biology, promising novel insights into the nature and origin of biological order. We discuss several elements of QBCL (Quantum Biology at Cellular Level), a research program designed to extend the reach of quantum concepts to higher than molecular levels of biological organization. Key words. decoherence, macroscopic superpositions, basis-dependence, formal superposition, non-classical correlations,...

  3. Quantum Properties of the Superposition of Two Nearly Identical Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Anas; Yevick, David

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we examine the properties of the state obtained when two nearly identical coherent states are superimposed. We found that this state exhibits many nonclassical properties such as sub-Poissonian statistics, squeezing and a partially negative Wigner function. These and other properties indicate that such states, here termed near coherent states, are significantly closer to coherent states more than the generalized Schrördinger cat states. We finally provide an experimental procedure for generating the near coherent states.

  4. Pair q-coherent states and their antibunching effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongqing; Li Junhong; An Guanglei; Chongqing Univ. of Posts and Telecommunications, Chongqing

    2005-01-01

    Using the properties of the q-deformed boson creation and annihilation operators and their inverse operators, two kind of q-deformed pair coherent states are introduced. Antibunching effects and correlation properties between two modes in the states are investigated. It is shown that q-deformed pair coherent states exhibit antibunching effects and the photons of the two modes are correlated. These nonclassical effects are influenced by the parameter q. These effects increase when |lnq| increases. (authors)

  5. Bright squeezed vacuum in a nonlinear interferometer: frequency/temporal Schmidt-mode description

    OpenAIRE

    Sharapova, P. R.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Lemieux, S.; Boyd, R. W.; Chekhova, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    Control over the spectral properties of the bright squeezed vacuum (BSV), a highly multimode non-classical macroscopic state of light that can be generated through high-gain parametric down conversion, is crucial for many applications. In particular, in several recent experiments BSV is generated in a strongly pumped SU(1,1) interferometer to achieve phase supersensitivity, perform broadband homodyne detection, or tailor the frequency spectrum of squeezed light. In this work, we present an an...

  6. Entanglement replication in driven dissipative many-body systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippilli, S; Paternostro, M; Adesso, G; Illuminati, F

    2013-01-25

    We study the dissipative dynamics of two independent arrays of many-body systems, locally driven by a common entangled field. We show that in the steady state the entanglement of the driving field is reproduced in an arbitrarily large series of inter-array entangled pairs over all distances. Local nonclassical driving thus realizes a scale-free entanglement replication and long-distance entanglement distribution mechanism that has immediate bearing on the implementation of quantum communication networks.

  7. How nonlocal damping reduces plasmon-enhanced fluorescence in ultranarrow gaps [arXiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Mortensen, N. Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Nonclassical modifications of plasmon-assisted fluorescence enhancement are theoretically explored by placing dipole emitters at the narrow gaps encountered in canonical plasmonic architectures, namely dimers and trimers of different metallic nanoparticles. Through detailed simulations, in compar...... bounds to the enhancement feasible with ultrasmall plasmonic cavities, thus providing a theoretical description closer to state of the art experiments. [Phys. Rev. B 96, 085413 (2017) doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.96.085413]....

  8. Experimental demonstration of a Hadamard gate for coherent state qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipsmark, Anders; Laghaout, Amine; Andersen, Ulrik L. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dong, Ruifang [Quantum Frequency Standards Division, National Time Service Center (NTSC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, 710600 Lintong, Shaanxi (China); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Marek, Petr [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Jezek, Miroslav [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    We discuss and make an experimental test of a probabilistic Hadamard gate for coherent state qubits. The scheme is based on linear optical components, nonclassical resources, and the joint projective action of a photon counter and a homodyne detector. We experimentally characterize the gate for the coherent states of the computational basis by full tomographic reconstruction of the transformed output states. Based on the parameters of the experiment, we simulate the fidelity for all coherent state qubits on the Bloch sphere.

  9. On the importance of nonlocal effects on the description of emitter-plasmon coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic nanostructures present several characteristics that make them ideal templates for the modification and control of the emission properties of quantum emitters such as organic molecules, fluorescent dyes and quantum dots. State-of-the-art plasmonic architectures strongly enhance and confine...... dimensions, allowing the design of ultranarrow plasmonic cavities and the precise positioning of emitters inside them. In these situations, however, a description beyond classical electrodynamics is rendered unavoidable, as nonclassical effects such as electron spill-out, tunnelling, and nonlocal screening...

  10. Controlling open quantum systems: Tools, achievements, and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of quantum devices, which exploit the two essential elements of quantum physics, coherence and entanglement, has sparked renewed interest in the control of open quantum systems. Successful implementations face the challenge to preserve the relevant nonclassical features at the level of device operation. A major obstacle is decoherence which is caused by interaction with the environment. Optimal control theory is a tool that can be used to identify control strategies in the presence...

  11. Phenomenological sociology in the framework of contemporary methodological debates

    OpenAIRE

    A S Ivanova

    2010-01-01

    The article provides a review of the pivotal doctrines in the sphere of social sciences and humanities methodology, namely positivism (O. Comte, H. Spenser et al) and antipositivism (W. Dilthey, H. Rickert et al). In terms of E. Husserl's late philosophy as well as the works of M. Merleau-Ponty and A. Schutz the article provides the analysis of one of the prominent schools of the contemporary social theory - phenomenological sociology which is highlighted as the non-classical strategy of the ...

  12. Operational interpretations of quantum discord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, D.; Modi, K.; Aolita, L.; Boixo, S.; Piani, M.; Winter, A.

    2011-01-01

    Quantum discord quantifies nonclassical correlations beyond the standard classification of quantum states into entangled and unentangled. Although it has received considerable attention, it still lacks any precise interpretation in terms of some protocol in which quantum features are relevant. Here we give quantum discord its first information-theoretic operational meaning in terms of entanglement consumption in an extended quantum-state-merging protocol. We further relate the asymmetry of quantum discord with the performance imbalance in quantum state merging and dense coding.

  13. Wigner Function of Thermo-Invariant Coherent State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue-Fen, Xu; Shi-Qun, Zhu

    2008-01-01

    By using the thermal Winger operator of thermo-field dynamics in the coherent thermal state |ξ) representation and the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators, the Wigner function of the thermo-invariant coherent state |z,ℵ> is derived. The nonclassical properties of state |z,ℵ> is discussed based on the negativity of the Wigner function. (general)

  14. Neutrosophic Regular Filters and Fuzzy Regular Filters in Pseudo-BCI Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neutrosophic set is a new mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. Pseudo-BCI algebra is a kind of non-classical logic algebra in close connection with various non-commutative fuzzy logics. Recently, we applied neutrosophic set theory to pseudo-BCI algebras. In this paper, we study neutrosophic filters in pseudo-BCI algebras.

  15. Reconstructing weak values without weak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars M.

    2007-01-01

    I propose a scheme for reconstructing the weak value of an observable without the need for weak measurements. The post-selection in weak measurements is replaced by an initial projector measurement. The observable can be measured using any form of interaction, including projective measurements. The reconstruction is effected by measuring the change in the expectation value of the observable due to the projector measurement. The weak value may take nonclassical values if the projector measurement disturbs the expectation value of the observable

  16. Tropospheric - Stratospheric Tidal Investigations. Part 2. The Vertical Structure of Atmospheric Oscillations Formulated by Classical Tidal Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-28

    in a form that may be applied to a numerical integracion scheme (Lindzen, 1968). It is now possible to express the upward energy flux at x >X L in...from tre setting up of a dependence on multiple reflexions between tiorizontal surfaces at different heights which are critically dependent on basic...longer horizontal and by integratJiw of the non-classical equations multiple reflexions and resuLtinr sensitivities are found to oe largely removed

  17. Radiotherapy in bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozan, R.

    1992-01-01

    In 1992, the problem of the vesical radiotherapy is not resolved. The author presents the situation and the different techniques of radiotherapy in bladder cancers: external radiotherapy, only and associated with surgery, interstitial curietherapy and non-classical techniques as per operative radiotherapy, neutron therapy and concurrent radiotherapy with chemotherapy. In order to compare their efficiency, the five-year survival are given in all cases.(10 tabs)

  18. HLA-G in human reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, Thomas Vauvert F

    2005-01-01

    The non-classical human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib genes, HLA-E, -G and -F, are located on chromosome 6 in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC). HLA class Ib antigens resemble the HLA class Ia antigens in many ways, but several major differences have been described. This review ...... transplantation and in inflammatory or autoimmune disease, and of HLA-G in an evolutionary context, are also briefly examined....

  19. Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masahito, Hayashi; Reynaud, S.; Jaekel, M.Th.; Fiuraaek, J.; Garcia-Patron, R.; Cerf, N.J.; Hage, B.; Chelkowski, S.; Franzen, A.; Lastzka, N.; Vahlbruch, N.; Danzmann, K.; Schnabel, R.; Hassan, S.S.; Joshi, A.; Jakob, M.; Bergou, J.A.; Kozlovskii, A.V.; Prakash, H.; Kumar, R.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the conference was to bring together people working in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on non-classical light sources and related areas, quantum computing, statistical mechanics and mathematical physics. As a novelty, this edition will include the topics of quantum imaging, quantum phase noise and number theory in quantum mechanics. This document gives the program of the conference and gathers the abstracts

  20. Conditional symmetries for systems of PDEs: new definitions and their application for reaction-diffusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherniha, Roman

    2010-01-01

    New definitions of Q-conditional symmetry for systems of PDEs are presented, which generalize the standard notation of non-classical (conditional) symmetry. It is shown that different types of Q-conditional symmetry of a system generate a hierarchy of conditional symmetry operators. A class of two-component nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems is examined to demonstrate the applicability of the definitions proposed and it is shown when different definitions of Q-conditional symmetry lead to the same operators.

  1. 2-(4-Fluoroanilino-3-(2-hydroxyethylquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular and crystal structures of the title compound, C16H14FN3O2, are stabilized by intramolecular N—H...O and intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The existence of non-classical intramolecular C—H...N hydrogen bonds provides a dihedral angle between the fluoro-substituted benzene and pyrimidinone rings of 7.9 (1°.

  2. Implicational (Semilinear) Logics II: Additional Connectives and Characterizations of Semilinearity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2016), s. 353-372 ISSN 0933-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 247584 - MATOMUVI Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : abstract algebraic logic * implicational logics * disjunctional logics * semilinear logics * non-classical logics * transfer theorems Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.394, year: 2016

  3. Quantum state engineering in hybrid open quantum systems

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Chaitanya; Larson, Jonas; Spiller, Timothy P.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a possibility to generate nonclassical states in light-matter coupled noisy quantum systems, namely, the anisotropic Rabi and Dicke models. In these hybrid quantum systems, a competing influence of coherent internal dynamics and environment-induced dissipation drives the system into nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Explicitly, for the anisotropic Rabi model, the steady state is given by an incoherent mixture of two states of opposite parities, but as each parity state disp...

  4. Experimental demonstration of a Hadamard gate for coherent state qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders; Dong, Ruifang; Laghaout, Amine

    2011-01-01

    We discuss and make an experimental test of a probabilistic Hadamard gate for coherent state qubits. The scheme is based on linear optical components, nonclassical resources, and the joint projective action of a photon counter and a homodyne detector. We experimentally characterize the gate for t...... for the coherent states of the computational basis by full tomographic reconstruction of the transformed output states. Based on the parameters of the experiment, we simulate the fidelity for all coherent state qubits on the Bloch sphere....

  5. Time evolution of scattering states and velocity increase due to nonlinear processes in the quantum hall regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, J.; Duport, C.

    1991-01-01

    We report the first numerical results (with realistic parameter values) for the time evolution of a scattered Landau function in a model system. They give a striking illustration for the Hall velocity increase beyond the classical value of the conduction electrons in the quantum Hall regime. This phenomenon, which is crucial for the integer quantum Hall effect, is caused by a special kind of nonclassical particle dynamics induced by disorder and cannot be described by linear response theory

  6. Recovery of the Dirac system from the rectangular Weyl matrix function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, B; Kirstein, B; Roitberg, I Ya; Sakhnovich, A L

    2012-01-01

    Weyl theory for Dirac systems with rectangular matrix potentials is non-classical. The corresponding Weyl functions are rectangular matrix functions. Furthermore, they are non-expansive in the upper semi-plane. Inverse problems are studied for such Weyl functions, and some results are new even for the square Weyl functions. High-energy asymptotics of Weyl functions and Borg–Marchenko-type uniqueness results are derived too. (paper)

  7. High-Rate Strong-Signal Quantum Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Horace P.

    1996-01-01

    Several quantum cryptosystems utilizing different kinds of nonclassical lights, which can accommodate high intensity fields and high data rate, are described. However, they are all sensitive to loss and both the high rate and the strong-signal character rapidly disappear. A squeezed light homodyne detection scheme is proposed which, with present-day technology, leads to more than two orders of magnitude data rate improvement over other current experimental systems for moderate loss.

  8. PROSPECTS OF CONCEPTUALIZATION OF THE NOTION “HEREDITY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kochergin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the prospects for further development of the conceptualization of the notion “heredity” in a wide range of biological and socio-humanitarian aspects. Further development of genetics closely relates to the disclosure of interaction of genetic, interdisciplinary, general scientific, ethical, legal and philosophical categories, its complex dialectics. The doctrine of heredity in the post-nonclassical stage of its development is increasingly taking on the traits of humanities, of a science of human.

  9. Admissibility region for rarefaction shock waves in dense gases

    OpenAIRE

    Zamfirescu, C.; Guardone, A.; Colonna, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the vapour phase and close to the liquid–vapour saturation curve, fluids made of complex molecules are expected to exhibit a thermodynamic region in which the fundamental derivative of gasdynamic ? is negative. In this region, non-classical gasdynamic phenomena such as rarefaction shock waves are physically admissible, namely they obey the second law of thermodynamics and fulfil the speed-orienting condition for mechanical stability. Previous studies have demonstrated that the thermodynami...

  10. Direct monitoring of dopamine and 5-HT release in substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rice, M E; Richards, C D; Nedergaard, S

    1994-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry with carbon fibre microelectrodes was used to detect endogenous dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) release from three distinct regions of guinea-pig mid-brain in vitro: rostral and caudal substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Previous...... these regions with in situ electrodes and demonstrates the utility of fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to investigate the mechanisms and possible non-classical functions of somato-dendritic DA release....

  11. Synthesis of cocarboxylase: process intensification via microwave irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Пинчукова, Наталия Александровна; Волошко, Александр Юрьевич; Горобец, Николай Юрьевич; Беликов, Константин Николаевич; Гудзенко, Людмила Васильевна; Чебанов, Валентин Анатольевич

    2013-01-01

    Energy saving is the key point in the development of new chemical technologies and industrial scaling of the processes of obtaining chemical reagents, functional materials, pharmaceutical substances, etc. The use of the non-classical process activation methods, including microwave radiation, known as effective heating source, allowing significant process acceleration, is a promising direction in the field of new energy-saving technologies.The paper gives the results of modeling of the process...

  12. Photonic entanglement : new sources and new applications

    OpenAIRE

    Svozilík, Jiŕí

    2014-01-01

    Non-classical correlations, usually referred as entanglement, are ones of the most studied and discussed features of Quantum Mechanics, since the initial introduction of the concept in the decade of 1930s. Even nowadays, a lot of efforts, both theoretical and experimental, are devoted in this topic, that covers many distinct areas of physics, such as a quantum computing, quantum measurement, quantum communications, solid state physics, chemistry and even biology. The fundamental tasks that on...

  13. Squeezed States and Uncertainty Relations. Abstracts; Internationale sur les etats comprimes et les relations d'incertitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masahito, Hayashi [ERATO, Quantum Computation and Information Project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan); Reynaud, S. [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. Kastler Brossel, 75 - Paris (France); Jaekel, M.Th. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie, Lab. de Physique Theorique 75 - Paris (France); Fiuraaek, J. [Palacky Univ., Dept. of Optics (Czech Republic); Garcia-Patron, R.; Cerf, N.J. [QUIC, Ecole Polytechnique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Hage, B.; Chelkowski, S.; Franzen, A.; Lastzka, N.; Vahlbruch, N.; Danzmann, K.; Schnabel, R. [Hannover Univ., Institut Faur Atom- und Molekaulphysik, Max-Planck-Institut, Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) (Germany); Hassan, S.S. [Bahrain Univ., Dept. of Mathematics, College of Science (Bahrain); Joshi, A. [Arkansas, Univ., Dept. of Physics, Fayetteville, AR (United States); Jakob, M. [ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH (ARCS), Tech Gate Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Bergou, J.A. [New York City Univ., Dept. of Physics, Hunter College, NY (United States); Kozlovskii, A.V. [P.N.Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Prakash, H. [Allahabad Univ., Dept. of Physics (India)]|[Allahabad Univ., M. N. Saha Centre of Space Studies, Institute of Interdisciplinary Studies (India); Kumar, R. [Allahabad Univ., Dept. of Physics (India)]|[Udai Pratap Autonomous College (India)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of the conference was to bring together people working in the field of quantum optics, with special emphasis on non-classical light sources and related areas, quantum computing, statistical mechanics and mathematical physics. As a novelty, this edition will include the topics of quantum imaging, quantum phase noise and number theory in quantum mechanics. This document gives the program of the conference and gathers the abstracts.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of beta-lactams against multiresistant micro-organisms from the family Enterobacteriaceae, and genus Pseudomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebla, A; González, I; Vallín, C

    1994-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of twenty beta-lactams was determined against multiresistant micro-organisms from the Enterobacteriaceae family (450) and the genus Pseudomonas (90). The antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed by the disk diffusion method. The most effective antibiotics were cephalosporins of the second and third generation, and non-classical beta-lactams (imipenem and moxalactam). A pronounced resistance was found to carbenicillin, ampicillin, cephalotin and cefazolin. These resistance patterns corresponded to a high consumption of these antibiotics.

  15. Advances in network complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Dehmer, Matthias; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2013-01-01

    A well-balanced overview of mathematical approaches to describe complex systems, ranging from chemical reactions to gene regulation networks, from ecological systems to examples from social sciences. Matthias Dehmer and Abbe Mowshowitz, a well-known pioneer in the field, co-edit this volume and are careful to include not only classical but also non-classical approaches so as to ensure topicality. Overall, a valuable addition to the literature and a must-have for anyone dealing with complex systems.

  16. Human leukocyte antigen-G polymorphism in relation to expression, function, and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Hviid, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) is a nonclassical class Ib molecule belonging to the major histocompatibility complex. HLA-G appears to play a role in the suppression of immune responses and contribute to long-term immune escape or tolerance. The focus of this review is polymorphism in the HLA......-G gene and protein and its possible importance in expression, function, and disease associations....

  17. Theoretical and experimental studies on electric field and confinement in helical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Todoroki, J.; Ida, K.; Idei, H.; Iguchi, H.; Yamada, H.

    1994-06-01

    The present study consists of two parts. The first part is oriented to a theoretical model of selfconsistent analysis to determine simultaneously the electric field and loss cone boundary in heliotron/torsatron configurations under the influence of nonclassical particle losses. The second part is referred to the analysis on NBI heated and ECH plasmas in Compact Helical System (CHS) device. A comparison is made between theoretical results and experimental observations. (author)

  18. Combine EPR and two-slit experiments: Interference of advanced waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyshko, D. N.

    1988-10-01

    A nonclassical interference effect, using two-photon correlations in nonlinear optical interactions, is discussed. The apparent nonlocality could be conveniently interpreted in terms of advanced waves, emitted by one detector toward the other. A new Bell-type experiment is proposed, in which the measured photon's parameter is the wave-vector (instead of the polarisation), so that the observable can take more than two possible values.

  19. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 666-678 ISSN 1755-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : conservative translation * deductive system * nonclassical logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8757256

  20. Truth as a Mathematical Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves Béziau

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss in which sense truth is considered as a mathematical object in propositional logic. After clarifying how this concept is used in classical logic, through the notions of truth-table, truth-function and bivaluation, we examine some generalizations of it in non-classical logics: many-valued matrix semantics with three and four values, non-truth-functional bivalent semantics, Kripke possible world semantics.