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Sample records for nonclassical annonaceous acetogenins

  1. Novel cytotoxic annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, F R; Wu, Y C

    2001-07-01

    Seven new annonaceous acetogenins, muricins A-G (1-7), as well as five known compounds, a mixture of muricatetrocin A (8) and muricatetrocin B (9), longifolicin (10), corossolin (11), and corossolone (12), were isolated from the seeds of Annona muricata. The structures of all isolates were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. These acetogenins showed significantly selective in vitro cytotoxicities toward the human hepatoma cell lines Hep G(2) and 2,2,15.

  2. Cytotoxic bistetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from the seeds of Annona squamosa.

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    Chen, Yong; Chen, Jian-Wei; Li, Xiang

    2011-11-28

    Three new bistetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins (1-3) were isolated from a 95% EtOH extract of Annona squamosa seeds. Four known annonaceous acetogenins, uvarigrandin A (4), bullatacin (5), squamostatin-A (6), and squamostatin-D (7), were also isolated. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configurations of the carbinol centers of 1-3 were defined by application of the Mosher method. These compounds all exhibited significant cytotoxic activity in vitro against five human tumor cell lines.

  3. New cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

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    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chou, Chi-Jung; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Ming-Jung; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2002-04-01

    Three new monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins, muricin H (1), muricin I (2), and cis-annomontacin (3), along with five known acetogenins, annonacin, annonacinone, annomontacin, murisolin, and xylomaticin, were isolated from the seeds of Annona muricata. Additionally, two new monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins, cis-corossolone (4) and annocatalin (5), together with four known ones, annonacin, annonacinone, solamin, and corossolone, were isolated from the leaves of this species. The structures of all new isolates were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. These new acetogenins exhibited significant activity in in vitro cytotoxic assays against two human hepatoma cell lines, Hep G(2) and 2,2,15. Compound 5 showed a high selectivity toward the Hep 2,2,15 cell line.

  4. New adjacent Bis-tetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona muricata.

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    Chang, Fang-Rong; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Lin, Chih-Yuan; Chou, Chi-Jung; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2003-03-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two new Annonaceous acetogenins, annocatacin A ( 1). and annocatacin B ( 2). from the seeds and the leaves, respectively, of Annona muricata. Compounds 1 and 2 are the first examples where the adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran ring system is located at C-15. The new structures were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. Both Annonaceous acetogenins 1 and 2 showed significant in vitro cytotoxicity toward the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep G2 and 2,2,15, and were compared with the known adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, neoannonin ( 3). desacetyluvaricin ( 4). bullatacin ( 5). asimicin ( 6). annoglaucin ( 7). squamocin ( 8). and rollimusin ( 9).

  5. Novel cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuranic Annonaceous acetogenins from Annona montana.

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    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Chen, Shu-Li; Wu, Chin-Chung; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Yang-Chang

    2005-08-01

    Four new monotetrahydrofuranic Annonaceous acetogenins, montalicins G (1) and H (2) and monlicins A (3) and B (4), and two new linear acetogenins, (+)-monhexocin (5) and (-)-monhexocin (6), as well as three known compounds, murisolin (7), 4-deoxyannomontacin (8), and muricatacin (9), were isolated from the seeds of Annona montana by high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The absolute stereochemical structures of new isolates were elucidated and characterized by spectral and chemical methods. Interestingly, these compounds show special cytotoxicity against human hepatoma cells, Hep G2.

  6. Apolar Annonaceous acetogenins from the fruit pulp of Annona muricata.

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    Melot, Alice; Fall, Djibril; Gleye, Christophe; Champy, Pierre

    2009-11-02

    A methylene chloride extract of the pulp of Annona muricata L. was fractionated in search for scarcely functionalized Annonaceous acetogenins (type E). Previously known C-35 and C-37 mono-epoxy unsaturated compounds, epomuricenins-A and -B (1+2) and epomusenins-A and -B (3+4), were obtained. Two new mono-epoxy saturated C-35 representatives, epomurinins-A and -B (5+6) were also isolated.

  7. Four cytotoxic annonaceous acetogenins from the seeds of Annona squamosa.

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    Miao, Y; Xu, X; Yuan, F; Shi, Y; Chen, Y; Chen, J; Li, X

    2016-06-01

    Four new annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs), squamocin-I (1), II (2) and III (3) and squamoxinone-D (4), together with seven known ACGs (5-11), were isolated from the seeds of Annona squamosa. The structures of all isolates were elucidated and characterised by spectral and chemical methods. Compounds 1-4 were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against Hep G2, SMMC 7721, BEL 7402, BGC 803 and H460 human cancer cell lines. Compound 1 exhibited better potent activity than the positive compound and compound 3 shows selectively cytotoxical activity against H460 with IC50 values of 0.0492 μg/ml.

  8. Montacin and cis-montacin, two new cytotoxic monotetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from Annona montana.

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    Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Chang, Fang-Rong; Wu, Yang-Chang; Wang, Hui-Kang; Nakanishi, Yuka; Bastow, Kenneth F; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2004-11-01

    Two new monotetrahydrofuran Annonaceous acetogenins, montacin (1), and cis-montacin (2), along with four known acetogenins, annonacin, cis-annonacin, annomontacin, and cis-annomontacin, were isolated from the seeds of Annona montana. The structures of the new isolates were elucidated by spectral and chemical methods. The new acetogenins exhibited moderate in vitro cytotoxic activity against the 1A9 human ovarian cancer cell line. Interestingly, when Ca(2+) was present, compounds 1 and 2 became 3- to 10-fold more active against 1A9 cells and the PTX10 subline.

  9. Medicinal Chemistry of Annonaceous Acetogenins: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Novel Analogues

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    Naoto Kojima

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Most Annonaceous acetogenins are characterized by between one and three THF ring(s with one or two flanking hydroxyl group(s in the center of a C32/34 fatty acid, and the terminal carboxylic acid is combined with a 2-propanol unit to form an α,β-unsaturated γ-lactone. While many studies have addressed the properties and synthesis of natural acetogenins due to their attractive biological activities and unique structural features, a number of analogues have also been described. This review covers the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of acetogenin analogues.

  10. MALDI-TOF MS Profiling of Annonaceous Acetogenins in Annona muricata Products for Human Consumption

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    Vincent Guérineau

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Annonaceous acetogenins are proposed as environmental neurotoxicants consumed through medicinal and alimentary habits and responsible for atypical parkinsonian syndromes observed in tropical areas. Potential sources of exposure still have to be determined, as, to date, only a few batches of products for human consumption were searched for these compounds. To assess the presence of acetogenins, we propose a fast, sensitive and accurate method of screening, using MALDI-TOF MS, with minimal sample preparation. Development of the technique is discussed. Its application to leaves of herbal tea, pulp and bottled nectar of Annona muricata is presented.

  11. MALDI-TOF MS profiling of annonaceous acetogenins in Annona muricata products for human consumption.

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    Champy, Pierre; Guérineau, Vincent; Laprévote, Olivier

    2009-12-15

    Annonaceous acetogenins are proposed as environmental neurotoxicants consumed through medicinal and alimentary habits and responsible for atypical parkinsonian syndromes observed in tropical areas. Potential sources of exposure still have to be determined, as, to date, only a few batches of products for human consumption were searched for these compounds. To assess the presence of acetogenins, we propose a fast, sensitive and accurate method of screening, using MALDI-TOF MS, with minimal sample preparation. Development of the technique is discussed. Its application to leaves of herbal tea, pulp and bottled nectar of Annona muricata is presented.

  12. Three new anti-proliferative Annonaceous acetogenins with mono-tetrahydrofuran ring from graviola fruit (Annona muricata).

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    Sun, Shi; Liu, Jingchun; Kadouh, Hoda; Sun, Xiuxiu; Zhou, Kequan

    2014-06-15

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fruit powder of graviola (Annona muricata) yielded three novel compounds: muricins J, K, and L. The compounds are all C35 Annonaceous acetogenins with a mono-tetrahydrofuran ring and four hydroxyls. Their structures were elucidated by spectral methods and chemical modification after isolation via chromatographic techniques and HPLC purification. These three acetogenins demonstrated an antiproliferative against human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Annonaceous acetogenins of the seeds from Annona muricata.

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    Li, D Y; Yu, J G; Zhu, J X; Yu, D L; Luo, X Z; Sun, L; Yang, S L

    2001-01-01

    Muricatenol (1) is a new C37 non-THF ring acetogenin with four hydroxyls and one isolated double bond in the long aliphatic chain. 2,4-cis-Gigantetrocinone (2) and 2,4-trans-gigantetrocinone (3) have been isolated as their acetates by preparative TLC. 2,4-trans-Isoannonacin-10-one (4) and 2,4-trans-isoannonacin (5) have been isolated as only 2,4-trans-form for the first time (no cis-form). Also four known acetogenins, gigantetrocin-A (6), gigantetrocin-B (7), annomontacin (8), gigantetronenin (9) and a mixture of N-fatty acyl tryptamines have been isolated (10). Their structures have been established on the basis of spectral analyses. The CHCl3 fraction of the seeds showed strong antitumor activities.

  14. Three new antitumor annonaceous acetogenins from the seeds of Annona squamosa.

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    Ma, Chengyao; Wang, Qiwen; Shi, Yeye; Li, Yue; Wang, Xunan; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yong; Chen, Jianwei

    2017-09-01

    Two new annonaceous acetogenins squamocin P (2) and annosquatin III (3) and one new ACG precursor dieporeticenin B (1) along with five known precursors (4-8) were isolated from the seeds of Annona squamosa. Their structures were ascertained by chemical methods and various spectral evidences. These compounds showed inhibitory effects against three multidrug-resistant (MDR) cancer cell lines. Compound 2 and 3 displayed selective cytotoxicity against SMMC 7721/T (IC 50 0.435 and 1.79 μM) and MCF-7/ADR (IC 50 values 3.34 and 4.04 μM).

  15. Annonaceous acetogenins nanosuspensions stabilized by PCL–PEG block polymer: significantly improved antitumor efficacy

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    Hong JY

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jingyi Hong,1,* Yanhong Li,1,2,* Yijing Li,1 Yao Xiao,1,2 Haixue Kuang,2 Xiangtao Wang1 1Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substances and Resources Utilization of Chinese Herbal Medicine, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 2School of Pharmacy, Heilongjiang University of Chinese Medicine, Harbin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs have shown superior antitumor activity against a variety of cancer cell lines, but their clinical application has been limited by their poor solubility. In this study, ACGs-nanosuspensions (NSps were successfully prepared by a precipitation ultrasonic method using monomethoxypoly (ethylene glycol2000–poly (ε-caprolactone2000 (mPEG2000–PCL2000 as a stabilizer. The resultant ACGs-NSps had a mean particle size of 123.2 nm, a zeta potential of -20.17 mV, and a high drug payload of 73.68%. ACGs-NSps were quite stable in various physiological solutions, and they exhibited sustained drug release. Compared to free drug, ACGs-NSps exhibited stronger cytotoxicity against 4T1, MCF-7, and HeLa cells. An in vivo real-time biodistribution investigation after labeling with 1,1'-dioctadecyltetramethyl indotricarbocyanine iodide, a noninvasive near-infrared fluorescence probe, demonstrated that ACGs-NSps could effectively accumulate in tumor. An in vivo antitumor activity study in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice revealed that ACGs-NSps achieved much better therapeutic efficacy than the traditional dosage form (oil solution even at 1/10 of the dose (74.83% vs 45.53%, P<0.05, demonstrating that NSp was a good dosage form for ACGs to treat cancer. Keywords: annonaceous acetogenins, mPEG2000–PCL2000, near–infrared fluorescence, biodistribution, antitumor efficacy

  16. Isolation of three new annonaceous acetogenins from Graviola fruit (Annona muricata) and their anti-proliferation on human prostate cancer cell PC-3.

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    Sun, Shi; Liu, Jingchun; Zhou, Ninghui; Zhu, Wenjun; Dou, Q Ping; Zhou, Kequan

    2016-09-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the fruit powder of Graviola (Annona muricata) was continued to be conducted and yielded three more novel bioactive compounds: C-35 annonaceous acetogenins, muricins M and N, and C-37 annonaceous acetogenins, muricenin. They all contain a mono-tetrahydrofuran ring and four hydroxyl groups. The structures were elucidated by spectral methods and chemical modification after isolation via open column chromatographic separation and HPLC purification. Especially, murices M and N demonstrated more potent anti-proliferative activities against human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Annonaceous acetogenins nanosuspensions stabilized by PCL-PEG block polymer: significantly improved antitumor efficacy

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    Hong, Jingyi; Li, Yanhong; Li, Yijing; Xiao, Yao; Kuang, Haixue; Wang, Xiangtao

    2016-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) have shown superior antitumor activity against a variety of cancer cell lines, but their clinical application has been limited by their poor solubility. In this study, ACGs-nanosuspensions (NSps) were successfully prepared by a precipitation ultrasonic method using monomethoxypoly (ethylene glycol)2000–poly (ε-caprolactone)2000 (mPEG2000–PCL2000) as a stabilizer. The resultant ACGs-NSps had a mean particle size of 123.2 nm, a zeta potential of −20.17 mV, and a high drug payload of 73.68%. ACGs-NSps were quite stable in various physiological solutions, and they exhibited sustained drug release. Compared to free drug, ACGs-NSps exhibited stronger cytotoxicity against 4T1, MCF-7, and HeLa cells. An in vivo real-time biodistribution investigation after labeling with 1,1′-dioctadecyltetramethyl indotricarbocyanine iodide, a noninvasive near-infrared fluorescence probe, demonstrated that ACGs-NSps could effectively accumulate in tumor. An in vivo antitumor activity study in 4T1 tumor-bearing mice revealed that ACGs-NSps achieved much better therapeutic efficacy than the traditional dosage form (oil solution) even at 1/10 of the dose (74.83% vs 45.53%, P<0.05), demonstrating that NSp was a good dosage form for ACGs to treat cancer. PMID:27486323

  18. Folate-modified Annonaceous acetogenins nanosuspensions and their improved antitumor efficacy.

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    Hong, Jingyi; Sun, Zhonghao; Li, Yijing; Guo, Yifei; Liao, Yonghong; Liu, Meifeng; Wang, Xiangtao

    2017-01-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) are a large family of fatty acid derived natural products that are exclusively isolated from the Annonaceae species. Many members of this diverse family have a broad spectrum of biological activities, the most impressive of which is anticancer activity. However, their poor solubility and severe toxicity restrict their clinical application, and their complicated composition hinders their formulation and drug delivery. In this study, β-cyclodextrin was modified with folic acid (FA) and then combined with soybean lecithin to prepare FA-modified ACGs nanosuspensions (FA-ACGs-NSps). The obtained FA-ACGs-NSps had a high drug payload of 57.59% and average particle size of 199.5 nm, and they exhibited sustained drug release within 142 hours. In comparison with ACGs-NSps, FA-ACGs-NSps showed significantly enhanced cytotoxicity and higher cell uptake toward folate receptor-positive 4T1 cell lines. An in vivo study demonstrated that FA-ACGs-NSps more effectively accumulated in tumors and enhanced the antitumor therapeutic efficacy with less toxicity in 4T1 tumor bearing mice. Therefore, FA-ACGs-NSps may be a promising drug delivery system for ACGs to improve their therapeutic window and may be suitable for clinical application to treat folate-positive tumors.

  19. Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) nanosuspensions based on a self-assembly stabilizer and the significantly improved anti-tumor efficacy.

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    Hong, Jingyi; Li, Yanhong; Xiao, Yao; Li, Yijing; Guo, Yifei; Kuang, Haixue; Wang, Xiangtao

    2016-09-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) have exhibited antitumor activity against various cancers. However, these substances' poor solubility has limited clinical applications. In this study, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and soybean lecithin (SPC) were self-assembled into an amphiphilic complex. ACGs nanosuspensions (ACGs-NSps) were prepared with a mean particle size of 144.4nm, a zeta potential of -22.9mV and a high drug payload of 46.17% using this complex as stabilizer. The ACGs-NSps demonstrated sustained release in vitro and good stability in plasma as well as simulated gastrointestinal fluid, and met the demand of both intravenous injection and oral administration. The ACGs-NSps demonstrated significantly increased cytotoxicity against Hela and HepG2 cancer cell lines compared to ACGs in solution (in vitro cytotoxicity assay). An in vivo study with H22-tumor bearing mice demonstrated that nanosuspensions significantly improved ACGs' antitumor activity. When orally administered, ACGs-NSps achieved a similar tumor inhibition rate at 1/10th the dose of ACGs in an oil solution (47.94% vs. 49.74%, p>0.05). Improved therapeutic efficacy was further achieved when the ACGs-NSps were intravenously injected into mice (70.31%). With the help of nanosuspension technology, ACGs may be an effective antitumor drug for clinic use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 1 H qNMR Quantification of Annonaceous Acetogenins in Crude Extracts of Annona muricata L. Fruit Pulp.

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    Bonneau, Natacha; Cynober, Timothé; Jullian, Jean-Christophe; Champy, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (AAGs) constitute a group of environmental neurotoxins, possibly implicated in sporadic atypical Parkinsonism/dementia complexes. The recent evidencing of complex mixtures of AAGs in edible fruits and derived food products requires efficient and practical analytical tools for an estimation of human exposure. To develop a simple method for the direct quantitation of the majority of AAGs (sub-types 1a and 1b) within crude extracts, using commonly available 1 H-NMR spectrometers, for food control. Method development was carried out on 400 MHz and 300 MHz spectrometers, for routine application on fruits crude extracts of Annona muricata L. The method was validated with annonacin and squamocin as reference compounds. Two internal standards (ISs), fumaric acid and dimethyl fumarate, were successfully used, in deuterated methanol (CD 3 OD) and deuterated chloroform (CDCl 3 ), respectively. Quantitation was carried out using signals corresponding to the deshielded ethylenic protons characterising most AAGs, at δ 7.18 or δ 6.98 ppm in CDCl 3 . The limit of quantification (LOQ) was 2.5 mM, with acceptable accuracy, and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.5 mM. The AAGs contents measured in seven distinct fruit samples of Annona muricata ranged from 14 μmol to 226 μmol of AAGs per 100 g fresh pulp (i.e. 0.14 mmol to 1.3 mmol of AAGs per fruit). A simple, accurate and specific method for quantification of AAGs content was developed and validated for routine application to fruit pulp crude extracts. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. The fruit of Annona squamosa L. as a source of environmental neurotoxins: From quantification of squamocin to annotation of Annonaceous acetogenins by LC-MS/MS analysis.

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    Bonneau, Natacha; Baloul, Lamia; Bajin Ba Ndob, Idensi; Sénéjoux, François; Champy, Pierre

    2017-07-01

    Annonaceous acetogenins (AAGs) are neurotoxins possibly responsible for atypical Parkinsonism/dementia clusters, via the consumption of edible Annonaceae fruits. Their presence was investigated in fruit pulps of Annona squamosa from different locations. Qualitative analysis of other AAGs was performed. We here report the identification of squamocin in batches from Asia, the Caribbean Basin and the Indian Ocean. This molecule was quantified by HPLC-UV, evidencing a content of 13.5-36.4mg/fruit. HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF allowed the detection of 25 different raw formulas matching with AAGs. LC-MS/MS methodological development was performed using 4 representative standards. The main AAGs could be annotated, including bullatacin (rolliniastatin-2) and annonacin. This study evidences a remarkable homogeneity for the main AAGs within the species, and discrepancies for minor compounds. These findings indicate that A. squamosa should be considered a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of the environmental neurotoxins annonaceous acetogenins in an Annona cherimolia Mill. Alcoholic Beverage Using HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap.

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    Le Ven, Jessica; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Lewin, Guy; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David; Champy, Pierre

    2014-08-27

    Epidemiological and toxicological studies have suggested Annonaceaeous acetogenins to be environmental neurotoxins responsible for sporadic atypical parkinsonism/dementia in tropical areas. These compounds are present in the tropical genus Annona (Annonaceae), known for its fruit-yielding cultivated species such as Annona cherimolia. This species is widely cultivated in South America, Spain, and Portugal and yields acetogenins in its seeds, stems, and roots. The presence of these compounds in the pulp of its fruit and in derived food products is unclear. An innovative and sensitive methodology by HPLC-ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap with postcolumn infusion of lithium iodide was used to identify the presence of low levels of acetogenins in an A. cherimolia Mill. fruit-based commercial alcoholic beverage. More than 80 representatives were detected, and the 31 most intense acetogenins were identified. All together these findings indicate that this species should be considered as a risk factor within the framework of a worldwide problem of food toxicity.

  3. In vitro cytotoxic, antifungal, trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of acetogenins isolated from Annona cornifolia A. St. -Hil. (Annonaceae)

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    LIMA, LUCIANA A.R.S.; ALVES, TÂNIA M.A.; ZANI, CARLOS L.; SALES JÚNIOR, POLICARPO A.; ROMANHA, ALVARO J.; JOHANN, SUSANA; CISALPINO, PATRÍCIA S.; PIMENTA, LÚCIA P.S.; BOAVENTURA, MARIA AMÉLIA D.

    2014-01-01

    Annona cornifolia A. St. -Hil. is a small annual perennial tree found in the Brazilian savannah; their green fruit is popularly used in the treatment of ulcers. The acetogenins isolated from the seeds of Annona cornifolia previously showed to possess antioxidant activity. In continuation of our investigations on the biological activities of acetogenins, four binary mixtures and ten pure adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins were evaluated: the cytotoxic (against three human tum...

  4. Cohibins C and D, two important metabolites in the biogenesis of acetogenins from Annona muricata and Annona nutans.

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    Gleye, C; Raynaud, S; Fourneau, C; Laurens, A; Laprévote, O; Serani, L; Fournet, A; Hocquemiller, R

    2000-09-01

    Two new annonaceous acetogenins, cohibins C (1a) and D (1b), have been isolated by extensive chromatography of a hexane extract of Annona muricata seeds and a cyclohexane extract of Annona nutans root bark. Their structures have been established on the basis of spectral evidence (NMR, MS) and confirmed by chemical transformation into a pair of monotetrahydrofuran (mono-THF) acetogenins. The role of these compounds in the biogenesis of mono-THF acetogenins is discussed.

  5. Alkaloids and acetogenins in Annonaceae development: biological considerations

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    Alma Rosa González-Esquinca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical studies of the plant family Annonaceae have intensified in the last several decades due to the discovery of annonaceous molecules with medicinal potential (e.g., benzylisoquinoline alkaloids and acetogenins. Approximately 500 alkaloids have been identified in 138 Annonaceae species in 43 genera. In addition, until 2004, 593 annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs had been identified, from 51 species in 13 genera.This suggests that plants from this family allocate important resources to the biosynthesis of these compounds. Despite the diversity of these molecules, their biological roles, including their physiological and/or ecological functions, are not well understood. In this study, it was provided new data describing the variety and distribution of certain alkaloids and ACGs in annonaceous plants in distinct stages of development. The potential relationships among some of these compounds and the seasonally climatic changes occurring in the plant habitat are also discussed. These data will improve our understanding of the secondary metabolism of these pharmacologically important molecules and their expression patterns during development, which will help to determine the optimal growth conditions and harvest times for their production.

  6. In vitro cytotoxic, antifungal, trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of acetogenins isolated from Annona cornifolia A. St. -Hil. (Annonaceae

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    LUCIANA A.R.S. LIMA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Annona cornifolia A. St. -Hil. is a small annual perennial tree found in the Brazilian savannah; their green fruit is popularly used in the treatment of ulcers. The acetogenins isolated from the seeds of Annona cornifolia previously showed to possess antioxidant activity. In continuation of our investigations on the biological activities of acetogenins, four binary mixtures and ten pure adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins were evaluated: the cytotoxic (against three human tumor cell lines, antifungal (against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, trypanocidal (against Trypanosoma cruzi and leishmanicidal (against Leishmania amazonensis activities. Acetogenins presented cytotoxic activity confirming their potential use in anti-cancer therapy. Regarding leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities, an inhibition of 87% of L. amazonensis amastigotes and 100% of T. cruzi amastigotes and trypomastigotes was observed, when tested at the concentration of 20 µg mL–1. Moreover, six acetogenins showed more activity against all the three tested isolates of P. brasiliensis than trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a drug used for treating paracoccidioidomycosis. Thus, acetogenins may be an alternative in treating a number of diseases that have a huge impact on millions of people worldwide. This paper reports for the first time the antifungal, leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities for these acetogenins.

  7. Quantification of acetogenins in Annona muricata linked to atypical parkinsonism in guadeloupe.

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    Champy, Pierre; Melot, Alice; Guérineau Eng, Vincent; Gleye, Christophe; Fall, Djibril; Höglinger, Gunter U; Ruberg, Merle; Lannuzel, Annie; Laprévote, Olivier; Laurens, Alain; Hocquemiller, Reynald

    2005-12-01

    Atypical parkinsonism in Guadeloupe has been associated with the consumption of fruit and infusions or decoctions prepared from leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae), which contains annonaceous acetogenins, lipophilic inhibitors of complex I of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We have determined the concentrations of annonacin, the major acetogenin in A. muricata, in extracts of fruit and leaves by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization mass spectrometry. An average fruit is estimated to contain about 15 mg of annonacin, a can of commercial nectar 36 mg, and a cup of infusion or decoction 140 microg. As an indication of its potential toxicity, an adult who consumes one fruit or can of nectar a day is estimated to ingest over 1 year the amount of annonacin that induced brain lesions in rats receiving purified annonacin by intravenous infusion.

  8. Annona muricata (Annonaceae: A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities

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    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  9. Annona muricata (Annonaceae): A Review of Its Traditional Uses, Isolated Acetogenins and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadamtousi, Soheil Zorofchian; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Nikzad, Sonia; Mohan, Gokula; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Kadir, Habsah Abdul

    2015-07-10

    Annona muricata is a member of the Annonaceae family and is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional use. A. muricata, also known as soursop, graviola and guanabana, is an evergreen plant that is mostly distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits of A. muricata are extensively used to prepare syrups, candies, beverages, ice creams and shakes. A wide array of ethnomedicinal activities is contributed to different parts of A. muricata, and indigenous communities in Africa and South America extensively use this plant in their folk medicine. Numerous investigations have substantiated these activities, including anticancer, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antiparasitic, antimalarial, hepatoprotective and antidiabetic activities. Phytochemical studies reveal that annonaceous acetogenins are the major constituents of A. muricata. More than 100 annonaceous acetogenins have been isolated from leaves, barks, seeds, roots and fruits of A. muricata. In view of the immense studies on A. muricata, this review strives to unite available information regarding its phytochemistry, traditional uses and biological activities.

  10. Structural Characterisation of Acetogenins from Annona muricata by Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Coupled to High-Resolution Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboureur, Laurent; Bonneau, Natacha; Champy, Pierre; Brunelle, Alain; Touboul, David

    2017-11-01

    Acetogenins are plant polyketides known to be cytotoxic and proposed as antitumor candidates. They are also suspected to be alimentary neurotoxins. Their occurrence as complex mixtures renders their dereplication and structural identification difficult using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and efforts are required to improve the methodology. To develop a supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry method, involving lithium post-column cationisation, for the structural characterisation of Annonaceous acetogenins in crude extracts. The seeds of Annona muricata L. were extracted with methanol. Supercritical fluid chromatography of the extract, using a 2-ethylpyridine stationary phase column, was monitored using a high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Lithium iodide was added post-column in the make-up solvent. For comparison, the same extract was analysed using high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to the same mass spectrometer, with a column based on solid core particles. Sensitivity was similar for both HPLC and SFC approaches. Retention behaviour and fragmentation pathways of three different isomer groups are described. A previously unknown group of acetogenins was also evidenced for the first time. The use of SFC-MS/MS allows the reduction of the time of analysis, of environmental impact and an increase in the chromatographic resolution, compared to liquid chromatography. This new methodology enlightened a new group of acetogenins, isomers of montanacin-D. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Circumvention of tumor multidrug resistance by a new annonaceous acetogenin: atemoyacin-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, L W; Pan, Q C; Liang, Y J; Huang, H B

    1999-05-01

    To explore the effect of atemoyacin-B (Ate) on overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR). Bullatacin (Bul) was used as a positive control. Cytotoxic effects of Bul and Ate were studied with cell culture of human MDR breast adenocarcinoma cells, MCF-7/Dox and human KBv200 cells, and their parental sensitive cell lines MCF-7 and KB. Cytotoxicity was determined by tetrazolium (MTT) assay. The function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was examined by Fura 2-AM assay. Cellular accumulation of doxorubicin (Dox) was determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry. IC50 of Ate for MCF-7/Dox, MCF-7, KBv200, and KB cells were 122, 120, 1.34, and 1.27 nmol.L-1, respectively. IC50 of Bul for MCF-7/Dox, MCF-7, KBv200, and KB cells were 0.60, 0.59, 0.04, and 0.04 nmol.L-1, respectively. The cytotoxicities of Bul and Ate to MDR cells were similar to those to parental sensitive cells. Bul and Ate markedly increased cellular Fura-2 and Dox accumulation in MCF-7/Dox cells, but not in MCF-7 cells. The rates of apoptosis in MDR cells were similar to those in sensitive cells induced by Ate. There was no cross-resistance of P-gp positive MCF-7/Dox and KBv200 cell lines to Bul and Ate as compared with their sensitive P-gp negative MCF-7 and KB cell lines. The mechanism of the circumvention of MDR was associated with the decrease of P-gp function and the increase of cellular drug accumulation in MDR cells.

  12. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhua; Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Mukkavilli, Rao; Vangala, Subrahmanyam; Reid, Michelle D; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-06-01

    Phytochemical complexity of plant extracts may offer health-promoting benefits including chemotherapeutic and chemopreventive effects. Isolation of 'most-active fraction' or single constituents from whole extracts may not only compromise the therapeutic efficacy but also render toxicity, thus emphasizing the importance of preserving the natural composition of whole extracts. The leaves of Annona muricata, commonly known as Graviola, are known to be rich in flavonoids, isoquinoline alkaloids and annonaceous acetogenins. Here, we demonstrate phytochemical synergy among the constituents of Graviola leaf extract (GLE) compared to its flavonoid-enriched (FEF) and acetogenin-enriched (AEF) fractions. Comparative quantitation of flavonoids revealed enrichment of rutin (~7-fold) and quercetin-3-glucoside (Q-3-G, ~3-fold) in FEF compared to GLE. In vivo pharmacokinetics and in vitro absorption kinetics of flavonoids revealed enhanced bioavailability of rutin in FEF compared to GLE. However, GLE was more effective in inhibiting in vitro prostate cancer proliferation, viability and clonogenic capacity compared to FEF. Oral administration of 100mg/kg bw GLE showed ~1.2-fold higher tumor growth-inhibitory efficacy than FEF in human prostate tumor xenografts although the concentration of rutin and Q-3-G was more in FEF. Contrarily, AEF, despite its superior in vitro and in vivo efficacy, resulted in death of the mice due to toxicity. Our data indicate that despite lower absorption and bioavailability of rutin, maximum efficacy was achieved in the case of GLE, which also comprises of other phytochemical groups including acetogenins that make up its natural complex environment. Hence, our study emphasizes on evaluating the nature of interactions among Graviola leaf phytochemcials for developing favorable dose regimen for prostate cancer management to achieve optimal therapeutic benefits. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  13. Quantification of nonclassicality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mraz, Melanie; Sperling, Jan; Vogel, Werner; Hage, Boris [Universitaet Rostock, Institut fuer Physik, Rostock (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    At the beginning of the 20th century the discussion on physics beyond the classical regime started. This was the hour of birth of quantum physics and, with Einstein's description of the photoelectric effect, of quantum optics. Even the physicists had problems to understand nonclassical quantum phenomena, because of its non-intuitive properties. So, why further struggling? Nonclassical states have an advantage over classical states for various applications. Only one example is the quantum teleportation which would be unthinkable without nonclassical states. Hence, it is of a fundamental interest to study properties of nonclassical quantum states. It is already possible to say if a state is nonclassical or not, but how can we decide how much nonclassicality is in our system? We propose a degree of nonclassicality being a nonclassicality measure. It is determined by the decomposition of a quantum state into superpositions of coherent states. On the one hand, coherent states resembles the behavior of a classical harmonic oscillator most closely. On the other hand, the more quantum superpositions of coherent states are needed, the more quantum interferences arise. A method for such a decomposition of quantum states is presented and the degree of nonclassicality is determined for different states. We apply our method to typical nonclassical states, such as the compass state and the squeezed vacuum state.

  14. Polyketide Natural Products, Acetogenins from Graviola (Annona muricata L), its Biochemical, Cytotoxic Activity and Various Analyses Through Computational and Bio-Programming Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Keerthana; Ramasamy, Gnanam; Doraisamy, Uma; Mannu, Jayakanthan; K, Rajamani; Murugesan, Jayadeepa Rajamani

    2016-01-01

    Plants became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide mankind with new remedies. Annona muricata, the plant of Annonaceae family, is also known as sour sop or Graviola. In recent years, many compounds have been reported and have gained organic chemist's and biochemist's attention because of their novel structure and wide range of bioactivity. Local populations have used the bark, leaves, roots, fruit, seeds and flowers for thousands of years to treat everything from arthritis to liver problems. Annonaceous acetogenins found only in the Annonaceae family kill malignant cells of 12 different types of cancer including Breast, Ovarian, Colon, Prostate, Liver, Lung, Pancreatic and Lymphoma. Hence, the study was initiated to identify, fractionate and validate compounds of pharmaceutical importance from the leaf extract. Research was made for the phytochemical screening using different solvents and the metabolites were screened using TLC. The presence of acetogenins was confirmed using PMA 5% spray. The anti-cancer activity studies were done for Breast Cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and the cell inhibition activity was 98%. We were curious to study the computational part of the aetogenins; hence, apart from the experimental studies, various computational studies were progressed using Schrödinger and other computational tools to validate the key target protein and the potent molecule "Coronin" and Annonaine. To predict and decipher the activity of various acetogenins in Annona muricata and its potent activity towards the inhibition of cancer cell lines, it is interesting to look out for the potent lead compound against the disease.

  15. C15 acetogenins from the Laurencia complex: 50 years of research – an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauana Wanke

    Full Text Available Abstract Acetogenins are secondary metabolites derived from the polyketide pathway and their potential role as chemotaxonomical markers for red algae belonging to the Laurencia complex has been long pointed out. C15 acetogenins from algae are quite different from plant acetogenins: they are usually halogenated, and have an enyne or a bromoallene terminal group. Since they were first reported, laurencin and other algal acetogenins have inspired great curiosity among natural product chemists and also those working with synthesis. This paper reviews the literature about C15 acetogenins, focusing on their distribution, chemical and biological aspects, including their reported biological activities.

  16. Witnessing nonclassical multipartite states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saguia, A.; Rulli, C. C.; Oliveira, Thiago R. de; Sarandy, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a witness for nonclassical multipartite states based on their disturbance under local measurements. The witness operator provides a sufficient condition for nonclassicality that coincides with a nonvanishing global quantum discord, but it does not demand an extremization procedure. Moreover, for the case of Z 2 -symmetric systems, we rewrite the witness in terms of correlation functions so that classicality is found to necessarily require either vanishing magnetization in the invariant axis or isotropy of the two-point function in the transverse spin plane. We illustrate our results in quantum spin chains, where a characterization of factorized ground states (with spontaneously broken Z 2 symmetry) is achieved. As a by-product, the witness is also shown to indicate a second-order quantum phase transitions, which is illustrated for both the XY and the Ashkin-Teller spin chains.

  17. Acetogenins in Annona muricata L. (annonaceae) leaves are potent molluscicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J De S; De Carvalho, J M; De Lima, M R F; Bieber, L W; Bento, Edson De S; Franck, X; Sant'ana, A E G

    2006-03-01

    An ethanolic extract of the leaves of Annona muricata was shown to be toxic to adult forms of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (LC50 9.32 microg mL(-1)) and to larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 0.49 microg mL(-1)). Activity-guided fractionation of the extract gave rise to a sample with high molluscicidal activity that contained the acetogenins, annonacin (90%), isoannonacin (6%) and goniothalamicin (4%).

  18. Coronin from roots of Annona muricata, a putative intermediate in acetogenin biosynthesis (1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleye, C; Akendengue, B; Laurens, A; Hocquemiller, R

    2001-08-01

    A novel acetogenin, coronin, was isolated from the roots of Annona muricata L. The structure was elucidated by a combination of chemical and spectral methods including MS and NMR measurements. Coronin is probably an intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway of bis-tetrahydrofuran acetogenins, and is proposed as a biogenetic precursor of neoannonin-B.

  19. Preface: Nonclassical Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.

    2008-01-01

    Transport phenomena in highly heterogeneous media can be dramatically different from those in homogeneous media and therefore are of great fundamental and practical interest. Anomalous transport occurs in semiconductor physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, biology, and other areas. It plays an especially important role in hydrogeology because it may govern the rate of migration and degree of dispersion of groundwater contaminants from hazardous waste sites. The series of four articles in this special section of Vadose Zone Journal is devoted to transport phenomena in heterogeneous media in the context of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. It contains the results of joint investigations performed at the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The work was supported by the U.S. DOE (under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231). The problems addressed in this research involve a broad range of space and time scales and were approached using modern methods of theoretical and computational physics, such as scaling analysis and diagrammatic techniques used before in critical phenomena theory. Special attention is paid to the asymptotics of concentration behavior (concentration tails). This issue is exceptionally important for the reliability assessments of radioactive waste disposal because, depending on the structure of the tails, concentrations at large distances from the source can differ by many orders of magnitude. In the first paper of this special section, Bolshov et al. (2008b) present an overview of field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior in geologic media. It is recognized that natural fracture networks as a rule have fractal geometry and can be classified as percolation systems. This is one of the main factors giving rise to anomalous transport in geologic media. Another important factor is the presence of contaminant traps provided by

  20. Nonlinearity and nonclassicality in a nanomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teklu, Berihu [Clermont Universite, Blaise Pascal University, CNRS, PHOTON-N2, Institut Pascal, Aubiere Cedex (France); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy); Ferraro, Alessandro; Paternostro, Mauro [Queen' s University, Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, School of Mathematics and Physics, Belfast (United Kingdom); Paris, Matteo G.A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano (Italy)

    2015-12-15

    We address quantitatively the relationship between the nonlinearity of a mechanical resonator and the nonclassicality of its ground state. In particular, we analyze the nonclassical properties of the nonlinear Duffing oscillator (being driven or not) as a paradigmatic example of a nonlinear nanomechanical resonator. We first discuss how to quantify the nonlinearity of this system and then show that the nonclassicality of the ground state, as measured by the volume occupied by the negative part of the Wigner function, monotonically increases with the nonlinearity in all the working regimes addressed in our study. Our results show quantitatively that nonlinearity is a resource to create nonclassical states in mechanical systems. (orig.)

  1. Nonclassical effects in plasmonics: an energy perspective to quantify nonclassical effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2016-01-01

    Plasmons are commonly interpreted with classical electrodynamics, while nonclassical effects may influence the dynamics of plasmon resonances as the plasmon confinement approaches the few-nanometer scale. However, an unambiguous approach to quantify the degree of nonclassical dynamics remains. We...... propose a nonclassical-impact parameter (NCI) to characterize the degree of nonclassical effects from an energy perspective, i.e., which fraction of the total electromagnetic energy is attributed to classical electrodynamic terms and which fraction is correspondingly to be assigned to nonclassical degrees...

  2. Exponential attractors for a nonclassical diffusion equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaozhen Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of exponential attractors for a nonclassical diffusion equation in ${H^{2}(Omega}cap{H}^{1}_{0}(Omega$ when the space dimension is less than 4.

  3. Fisher information, nonclassicality and quantum revivals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romera, Elvira [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Física Atómica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Santos, Francisco de los, E-mail: dlsantos@onsager.ugr.es [Instituto Carlos I de Física Teórica y Computacional, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain); Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Física de la Materia, Universidad de Granada, Fuentenueva s/n, 18071 Granada (Spain)

    2013-11-08

    Wave packet revivals and fractional revivals are studied by means of a measure of nonclassicality based on the Fisher information. In particular, we show that the spreading and the regeneration of initially Gaussian wave packets in a quantum bouncer and in the infinite square-well correspond, respectively, to high and low nonclassicality values. This result is in accordance with the physical expectations that at a quantum revival wave packets almost recover their initial shape and the classical motion revives temporarily afterward.

  4. Surfactant enhanced non-classical extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanowski, J.

    1999-01-01

    Surfactant enhanced non-classical extractions are presented and discussed. They include micellar enhanced ultrafiltration and cloud point extraction. The ideas of the processes are given and the main features are presented. They are compared to the classical solvent extraction. The fundamental of micellar solutions and their solubilization abilities are also discussed. (author)

  5. Nonclassical Orthogonal Polynomials and Corresponding Quadratures

    CERN Document Server

    Fukuda, H; Alt, E O; Matveenko, A V

    2004-01-01

    We construct nonclassical orthogonal polynomials and calculate abscissas and weights of Gaussian quadrature for arbitrary weight and interval. The program is written by Mathematica and it works if moment integrals are given analytically. The result is a FORTRAN subroutine ready to utilize the quadrature.

  6. Nonclassical rotational inertia in helium crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A C; West, J T; Chan, M H W

    2007-09-28

    It has been proposed that the observed nonclassical rotational inertia (NCRI) in solid helium results from the superflow of thin liquid films along interconnected grain boundaries within the sample. We have observed NCRI in large (4)He crystals grown at constant temperature and pressure, demonstrating that the superfluid grain boundary model cannot explain the phenomenon.

  7. In vivo antimalarial efficacy of acetogenins, alkaloids and flavonoids enriched fractions from Annona crassiflora Mart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Lúcia Pinheiro Santos; Garcia, Giani Martins; Gonçalves, Samuel Geraldo do Vale; Dionísio, Bárbara Lana; Braga, Erika Martins; Mosqueira, Vanessa Carla Furtado

    2014-01-01

    Annona crassiflora and Annonaceae plants are known to be used to treat malaria by traditional healers. In this work, the antimalarial efficacy of different fractions of A. crassiflora, particularly acetogenin, alkaloids and flavonoid-rich fractions, was determined in vivo using Plasmodium berghei-infected mice model and toxicity was accessed by brine shrimp assay. The A. crassiflora fractions were administered at doses of 12.5 mg/kg/day in a 4-day test protocol. The results showed that some fractions from woods were rich in acetogenins, alkaloids and terpenes, and other fractions from leaves were rich in alkaloids and flavonoids. The parasitaemia was significantly (p < 0.05, p < 0.001) reduced (57-75%) with flavonoid and alkaloid-rich leaf fractions, which also increased mean survival time of mice after treatment. Our results confirm the usage of this plant in folk medicine as an antimalarial remedy.

  8. Acetogenins and alkaloids during the initial development of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Saldaña, Christian Anabí; Cruz-Ortega, María Del Rocío; Martínez Vázquez, Mariano; De-la-Cruz-Chacón, Iván; Castro-Moreno, Marisol; González-Esquinca, Alma Rosa

    2017-10-26

    In plants, the presence and distribution of specialized metabolites during the early stages of development are not documented enough, even though their biosynthesis is one of the most important strategies for survival. In this study, five alkaloids and four acetogenins were detected in Annona muricata L. during early development seedling, including three phases of root emergence and three of seedling formation. Hexane and alkaloid extracts were obtained from each organ, which were analyzed in a gas-mass chromatograph and in a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a photodiode array UV detector (HPLC-DAD). This research shows the presence of the acetogenins cis-uvarimicin IV, mosinone, muricina B, and cis-annonacin-10-one, as well as of the alkaloids reticuline, coreximine, anonaine, asimilobine, and nornuciferine, both groups with a variable organ-specific distribution, related with the formation of organs and tissues.

  9. Chemical Composition of Laurencia obtusa Extract and Isolation of a New C15-Acetogenin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Esselin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A new C15-acetogenin, sagonenyne (20, exhibiting an unusual single tetrahydropyran ring was isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Laurencia obtusa collected on the Corsican coastline. Its structure was established by detailed NMR spectroscopic analysis, mass spectrometry, and comparison with literature data. Twenty-three known compounds were identified in the same extract by means of column chromatography steps, using a 13C-NMR computer aided method developed in our laboratory. In addition to sesquiterpenes, which represent the main chemical class of this extract, diterpenes, sterols, and C15-acetogenins were identified. The crude extract was submitted to a cytotoxicity assay and was particularly active against THP-1 cells, a human leukemia monocytic cell line.

  10. Sesquiterpene and Acetogenin Derivatives from the Marine Red Alga Laurencia okamurai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Gui Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to 13 known compounds, four new bisabolane sesquiterpenes, okamurenes A–D (1–4, a new chamigrane derivative, okamurene E (5, and a new C12-acetogenin, okamuragenin (6, were isolated from the marine red alga Laurencia okamurai. The structures of these compounds were determined through detailed spectroscopic analyses. Of these, okamurenes A and B (1 and 2 are the first examples of bromobisabolane sesquiterpenes possessing a phenyl moiety among Laurencia-derived sesquiterpenes, while okamuragenin (6 was the first acetogenin aldehyde possessing a C12-carbon skeleton. Each of the isolated compounds was evaluated for the brine shrimp (Artemia salina lethal assay and 7-hydroxylaurene displayed potent lethality with LD50 1.8 μM.

  11. Acetogenins from Annona muricata as potential inhibitors of antiapoptotic proteins: a molecular modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly regulated process crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis and development. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins play a crucial role in regulating apoptosis. Overexpressed Bcl-2 proteins are associated with the development and progression of several human cancers. Annona muricata is a tropical plant that belongs to the Annonaceae family and is well known for its anticancer properties. In this study, molecular docking and simulations were performed to investigate the inhibitory potential of phytochemicals present in A. muricata against antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family including Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-Xl), and Mcl-1. Docking results revealed that the acetogenins, such as annomuricin A, annohexocin, muricatocin A, annomuricin-D-one, and muricatetrocin A/B, exhibited strong binding interactions with Bcl-Xl when compared to Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Binding score and interactions of these acetogenins were notably better than those of currently available synthetic and natural inhibitors. Molecular dynamics simulations of the top-scoring lead molecules established that these molecules could bind strongly and consistently in the active site of Bcl-Xl. These results suggest that acetogenins could be explored as selective natural inhibitors of Bcl-Xl that could assist in promoting the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis.

  12. Acetogenins from Annona muricata as potential inhibitors of antiapoptotic proteins: a molecular modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Priya; Vijayan, Ranjit

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a highly regulated process crucial for maintaining cellular homeostasis and development. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins play a crucial role in regulating apoptosis. Overexpressed Bcl-2 proteins are associated with the development and progression of several human cancers. Annona muricata is a tropical plant that belongs to the Annonaceae family and is well known for its anticancer properties. In this study, molecular docking and simulations were performed to investigate the inhibitory potential of phytochemicals present in A. muricata against antiapoptotic proteins of the Bcl-2 family including Bcl-2, B-cell lymphoma extra-large (Bcl-Xl), and Mcl-1. Docking results revealed that the acetogenins, such as annomuricin A, annohexocin, muricatocin A, annomuricin-D-one, and muricatetrocin A/B, exhibited strong binding interactions with Bcl-Xl when compared to Bcl-2 and Mcl-1. Binding score and interactions of these acetogenins were notably better than those of currently available synthetic and natural inhibitors. Molecular dynamics simulations of the top-scoring lead molecules established that these molecules could bind strongly and consistently in the active site of Bcl-Xl. These results suggest that acetogenins could be explored as selective natural inhibitors of Bcl-Xl that could assist in promoting the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. PMID:27110097

  13. Nonclassical energy transfer in photosynthetic FMO complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramavicius Vytautas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Excitation energy transfer in a photosynthetic FMO complex has been simulated using the stochastic Schrödinger equation. Fluctuating chromophore transition energies are simulated from the quantum correlation function which allows to properly include the finite temperature. The resulting excitation dynamics shows fast thermalization of chromophore occupations into proper thermal equilibrium. The relaxation process is characterized by entropy dynamics, which shows nonclassical behavior.

  14. Angular-momentum nonclassicality by breaking classical bounds on statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, Alfredo; Rivas, Angel

    2011-01-01

    We derive simple practical procedures revealing the quantum behavior of angular momentum variables by the violation of classical upper bounds on the statistics. Data analysis is minimum and definite conclusions are obtained without evaluation of moments, or any other more sophisticated procedures. These nonclassical tests are very general and independent of other typical quantum signatures of nonclassical behavior such as sub-Poissonian statistics, squeezing, or oscillatory statistics, being insensitive to the nonclassical behavior displayed by other variables.

  15. Treatment of Nonclassic 11-Hydroxylase Deficiency with Ashwagandha Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Powell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An elderly woman presented with acne and male pattern alopecia, which upon diagnostic evaluation was found to be due to nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency. We previously reported that Ashwagandha root ameliorates nonclassic 3-β-ol dehydrogenase and aldosterone synthase deficiencies. This is the first report of its use being associated with amelioration of nonclassic 11-hydroxylase deficiency, where its apparent effects appear to be dose-related.

  16. Non-classical continuum mechanics a dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Maugin, Gérard A

    2017-01-01

    This dictionary offers clear and reliable explanations of over 100 keywords covering the entire field of non-classical continuum mechanics and generalized mechanics, including the theory of elasticity, heat conduction, thermodynamic and electromagnetic continua, as well as applied mathematics. Every entry includes the historical background and the underlying theory, basic equations and typical applications. The reference list for each entry provides a link to the original articles and the most important in-depth theoretical works. Last but not least, every entry is followed by a cross-reference to other related subject entries in the dictionary.

  17. Classical and nonclassical randomness in quantum measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farenick, Douglas; Plosker, Sarah; Smith, Jerrod

    2011-01-01

    The space POVM H (X) of positive operator-valued probability measures on the Borel sets of a compact (or even locally compact) Hausdorff space X with values in B(H), the algebra of linear operators acting on a d-dimensional Hilbert space H, is studied from the perspectives of classical and nonclassical convexity through a transform Γ that associates any positive operator-valued measure ν with a certain completely positive linear map Γ(ν) of the homogeneous C*-algebra C(X) x B(H) into B(H). This association is achieved by using an operator-valued integral in which nonclassical random variables (that is, operator-valued functions) are integrated with respect to positive operator-valued measures and which has the feature that the integral of a random quantum effect is itself a quantum effect. A left inverse Ω for Γ yields an integral representation, along the lines of the classical Riesz representation theorem for linear functionals on C(X), of certain (but not all) unital completely positive linear maps φ:C(X) x B(H)→B(H). The extremal and C*-extremal points of POVM H (X) are determined.

  18. Nonclassical nucleation pathways in protein crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fajun

    2017-11-01

    Classical nucleation theory (CNT), which was established about 90 years ago, has been very successful in many research fields, and continues to be the most commonly used theory in describing the nucleation process. For a fluid-to-solid phase transition, CNT states that the solute molecules in a supersaturated solution reversibly form small clusters. Once the cluster size reaches a critical value, it becomes thermodynamically stable and favored for further growth. One of the most important assumptions of CNT is that the nucleation process is described by one reaction coordinate and all order parameters proceed simultaneously. Recent studies in experiments, computer simulations and theory have revealed nonclassical features in the early stage of nucleation. In particular, the decoupling of order parameters involved during a fluid-to-solid transition leads to the so-called two-step nucleation mechanism, in which a metastable intermediate phase (MIP) exists between the initial supersaturated solution and the final crystals. Depending on the exact free energy landscapes, the MIPs can be a high density liquid phase, mesoscopic clusters, or a pre-ordered state. In this review, we focus on the studies of nonclassical pathways in protein crystallization and discuss the applications of the various scenarios of two-step nucleation theory. In particular, we focus on protein solutions in the presence of multivalent salts, which serve as a model protein system to study the nucleation pathways. We wish to point out the unique features of proteins as model systems for further studies.

  19. Different susceptibilities of Leishmania spp. promastigotes to the Annona muricata acetogenins annonacinone and corossolone, and the Platymiscium floribundum coumarin scoparone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Nova, Nadja Soares; de Morais, Selene Maia; Falcão, Maria José Cajazeiras; Alcantara, Terezinha Thaize Negreiros; Ferreira, Pablito Augusto Travassos; Cavalcanti, Eveline Solon Barreira; Vieira, Icaro Gusmão Pinto; Campello, Cláudio Cabral; Wilson, Mary

    2013-03-01

    Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease that can manifest itself in visceral and cutaneous form. The aim of this study was to search for new leishmanicidal compounds. Preliminarily, Artemia salina assay was applied to compounds from two plants found in Northeastern Brazil, Platymiscium floribundum and Annona muricata. Then these compounds were tested against three Leishmania species (Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania major). A screening assay using luciferase-expressing promastigote form were used to measure the viability of promastigote One coumarin, scoparone, isolated from P. floribundum and two acetogenins, annonacinone and corossolone isolated from A. muricata showed leishmanicidal activity in all species tested. Nevertheless, Leishmania species indicated different susceptibilities in relation to the tested compounds: L. mexicana was more sensitive to scoparone followed by L. major and L. donovani. The three species presented similar inhibition to corossolone and annonacinone. Acetogenin annonacinone (EC(50)=6.72-8.00 μg/mL) indicated high leishmanicidal activity; corossolone (EC(50)=16.14-18.73 μg/mL) and scoparone (EC(50)=9.11-27.51 μg/mL) moderate activity. A. saline larvae were less sensitive to the coumarin scoparone and acetogenin corossolone was the most toxic. In conclusion, the leishmanicidal activity demonstrated by the coumarin and acetogenins indicate these compounds for further studies aiming the development of new leishmanicidal agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonclassical Kinetics of Clonal yet Heterogeneous Enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Jun; Song, Sanggeun; Jeong, In-Chun; Koh, Hye Ran; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Sung, Jaeyoung

    2017-07-06

    Enzyme-to-enzyme variation in the catalytic rate is ubiquitous among single enzymes created from the same genetic information, which persists over the lifetimes of living cells. Despite advances in single-enzyme technologies, the lack of an enzyme reaction model accounting for the heterogeneous activity of single enzymes has hindered a quantitative understanding of the nonclassical stochastic outcome of single enzyme systems. Here we present a new statistical kinetics and exactly solvable models for clonal yet heterogeneous enzymes with possibly nonergodic state dynamics and state-dependent reactivity, which enable a quantitative understanding of modern single-enzyme experimental results for the mean and fluctuation in the number of product molecules created by single enzymes. We also propose a new experimental measure of the heterogeneity and nonergodicity for a system of enzymes.

  1. Testing dimension and nonclassicality in communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Joseph; Brunner, Nicolas; Pawłowski, Marcin

    2015-08-01

    We consider networks featuring preparation, transformation, and measurement devices, in which devices exchange communication via mediating physical systems. We investigate the problem of testing the dimension of the mediating systems in the device-independent scenario, that is, based on observable data alone. A general framework for tackling this problem is presented, considering both classical and quantum systems. These methods can then also be used to certify the nonclassicality of the mediating systems, given an upper bound on their dimension. Several case studies are reported, which illustrate the relevance of the framework. These examples also show that, for fixed dimension, quantum systems largely outperform classical ones. Moreover, the use of a transformation device considerably improves noise tolerance when compared to simple prepare-and-measure networks. These results suggest that the classical simulation of quantum systems becomes costly in terms of dimension, even for simple networks.

  2. Nonclassical states of the Jaynes - Cummings model and its excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlan, E.M.; Razumova, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The nonclassical squeezed states of the Jaynes -Cummings (JC) model are built,and the problem of their excitation in parametric processes is considered.The statistical properties of a field oscillator are analyzed in these states

  3. Nonclassical pseudospectral method for the solution of brachistochrone problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alipanah, A.; Razzaghi, M.; Dehghan, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, nonclassical pseudospectral method is proposed for solving the classic brachistochrone problem. The brachistochrone problem is first formulated as a nonlinear optimal control problem. Properties of nonclassical pseudospectral method are presented, these properties are then utilized to reduce the computation of brachistochrone problem to the solution of algebraic equations. Using this method, the solution to the brachistochrone problem is compared with those in the literature

  4. On the origin of nonclassicality in single systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinda, S; Srikanth, R; Pathak, Anirban

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of certain general probability theories of single systems, we identify various nonclassical features such as incompatibility, multiple pure-state decomposability, measurement disturbance, no-cloning and the impossibility of certain universal operations, with the non-simpliciality of the state space. This is shown to naturally suggest an underlying simplex as an ontological model. Contextuality turns out to be an independent nonclassical feature, arising from the intransitivity of compatibility. (paper)

  5. Classical and nonclassical symmetries analysis for initial value problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhiyong; Chen Yufu

    2010-01-01

    Classical and nonclassical symmetries are considered to reduce evolution equations with initial conditions in two independent variables. First of all, we rearrange the classical infinitesimal operators such that they leave the initial value problems invariant. Secondly, we give a sufficient condition for the nonclassical symmetry reductions of initial value problems. The generalized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with dispersive effects is considered to examine the algorithms.

  6. Nonclassical pseudospectral method for the solution of brachistochrone problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alipanah, A. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Razzaghi, M. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States) and Department of Applied Mathematics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)]. E-mail: razzaghi@math.msstate.edu; Dehghan, M. [Department of Applied Mathematics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    In this paper, nonclassical pseudospectral method is proposed for solving the classic brachistochrone problem. The brachistochrone problem is first formulated as a nonlinear optimal control problem. Properties of nonclassical pseudospectral method are presented, these properties are then utilized to reduce the computation of brachistochrone problem to the solution of algebraic equations. Using this method, the solution to the brachistochrone problem is compared with those in the literature.

  7. Characterization of Classical and Nonclassical Fabry Disease: A Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Maarten; Wanner, Christoph; Hughes, Derralynn; Mehta, Atul; Oder, Daniel; Watkinson, Oliver T; Elliott, Perry M; Linthorst, Gabor E; Wijburg, Frits A; Biegstraaten, Marieke; Hollak, Carla E

    2017-05-01

    Fabry disease leads to renal, cardiac, and cerebrovascular manifestations. Phenotypic differences between classically and nonclassically affected patients are evident, but there are few data on the natural course of classical and nonclassical disease in men and women. To describe the natural course of Fabry disease stratified by sex and phenotype, we retrospectively assessed event-free survival from birth to the first clinical visit (before enzyme replacement therapy) in 499 adult patients (mean age 43 years old; 41% men; 57% with the classical phenotype) from three international centers of excellence. We classified patients by phenotype on the basis of characteristic symptoms and enzyme activity. Men and women with classical Fabry disease had higher event rate than did those with nonclassical disease (hazard ratio for men, 5.63, 95% confidence interval, 3.17 to 10.00; P Fabry disease had lower eGFR, higher left ventricular mass, and higher plasma globotriaosylsphingosine concentrations than men with nonclassical Fabry disease or women with either phenotype ( P Fabry disease had a history of more events than men with nonclassical disease or women with either phenotype; women with classical Fabry disease were more likely to develop complications than women with nonclassical disease. These data may support the development of new guidelines for the monitoring and treatment of Fabry disease and studies on the effects of intervention in subgroups of patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  8. Isolaurenidificin and Bromlaurenidificin, Two New C15-Acetogenins from the Red Alga Laurencia obtusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed O. Bawakid

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic fractionation of the CH2Cl2/MeOH extract of the Red Sea red alga Laurencia obtusa gave two new hexahydrofuro[3,2-b]furan-based C15-acetogenins, namely, isolaurenidificin (1 and bromlaurenidificin (2. The chemical structures were elucidated based on extensive analyses of their spectral data. Compounds 1 and 2 showed no toxicity (LC50 > 12 mM using Artemia salina as test organism. Both compounds showed weak cytotoxicity against A549, HepG-2, HCT116, MCF-7, and PC-3 cells, however, they exhibited a relatively potent cytotoxic activity against peripheral blood neutrophils. This can be attributed partly to induction of apoptosis.

  9. Nonclassical Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia and Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Cuhaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The most common form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH is 21-hydroxylase (21-OH deficiency due to mutation of the CYP21A2 gene. Patients with nonclassical CAH (NC-CAH are usually asymptomatic at birth and typically present in late childhood, adolescence, or adulthood with symptoms of excessive androgen secretion. Subfertility is relative in NC-CAH, but the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage is higher. Here, we report a previously undiagnosed female who gave birth to a normal male child and is planning to become pregnant again. Case Report. A 32-year-old female was referred to our clinic for obesity. Her medical history revealed that she had had three pregnancies. She was planning to become pregnant again. Her laboratory results revealed that she had NC-CAH. Since her husband is the son of her aunt and she had miscarriages and intrauterin exitus in her history, their genetic analyses were performed. Conclusion. Since most patients with NC-CAH have a severe mutation, these patients may give birth to a child with the classical CAH (C-CAH if their partner is also carrying a severe mutation. Females with NC-CAH who desire pregnancy must be aware of the risk of having an infant with C-CAH.

  10. Atom ionization in a nonclassical intense electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A.M.; Tikhonova, O.V.

    2002-01-01

    The atoms ionization process in the intense nonclassical electromagnetic field is considered. It is shown that depending on the field quantum state the probability of ionization may essentially change even by one and the same average quantum number in the radiation mode, whereby the difference in the ionization rates is especially significant in the case, when the ionization process is of a multiphoton character. It is demonstrates in particular, that the nonclassical field may be considerably more intensive from the viewpoint of the atoms ionization, than the classical field with the same intensity. The peculiarities of the decay, related to the atomic system state in the strong nonclassical field beyond the perturbation theory frames are studied [ru

  11. Transgenic expression of nonclassically secreted FGF suppresses kidney repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Kirov

    Full Text Available FGF1 is a signal peptide-less nonclassically released growth factor that is involved in angiogenesis, tissue repair, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. The effects of nonclassical FGF export in vivo are not sufficiently studied. We produced transgenic mice expressing FGF1 in endothelial cells (EC, which allowed the detection of FGF1 export to the vasculature, and studied the efficiency of postischemic kidney repair in these animals. Although FGF1 transgenic mice had a normal phenotype with unperturbed kidney structure, they showed a severely inhibited kidney repair after unilateral ischemia/reperfusion. This was manifested by a strong decrease of postischemic kidney size and weight, whereas the undamaged contralateral kidney exhibited an enhanced compensatory size increase. In addition, the postischemic kidneys of transgenic mice were characterized by hyperplasia of interstitial cells, paucity of epithelial tubular structures, increase of the areas occupied by connective tissue, and neutrophil and macrophage infiltration. The continuous treatment of transgenic mice with the cell membrane stabilizer, taurine, inhibited nonclassical FGF1 export and significantly rescued postischemic kidney repair. It was also found that similar to EC, the transgenic expression of FGF1 in monocytes and macrophages suppresses kidney repair. We suggest that nonclassical export may be used as a target for the treatment of pathologies involving signal peptide-less FGFs.

  12. Investigation on reactivity of non-classical carbenes with sterically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 128; Issue 4. Investigation on reactivity of non-classical carbenes with sterically hindered Lewis acid, B(C6F5)3 under inert and open conditions. Arunabha Thakur Pavan K Vardhanapu Gonela Vijaykumar Sushil Ranjan Bhatta. Regular Articles Volume 128 Issue 4 ...

  13. Investigation on reactivity of non-classical carbenes with sterically ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (OH2). ] (1). As a part of our ongoing research interest in aNHC chemistry,24 the present study reports the reactivity of the strongly acidic, sterically encumbered borane. B(C6F5)3 towards non-classical carbenes as Lewis bases. Herein we report the isolation and characteri- zation of four new boron compounds resulted by ...

  14. Contour detection based on nonclassical receptive field inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called nonclassical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, more generally surround inhibition or suppression, to improve contour detection in machine vision. Non-CRF inhibition is exhibited by 80% of the orientation-selective neurons in the

  15. Classical Sets and Non-Classical Sets: An Overview -38 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Classical Sets and Non-Classical Sets: Sumita Basu is assistant professor of mathematics at Lady Braboume. College, Kolkata. Her research interests include artificial intelligence, automata theory, and mathematical logic. Keywords. Fuzzy sets, crisp sets, rough sets, law of excluded middle,. DeMorgan's laws. An Overview.

  16. Histochemical detection of acetogenins and storage molecules in the endosperm of Annona macroprophyllata Donn Sm. seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguna Hernández, G; Brechú-Franco, A E; De la Cruz-Chacón, I; González-Esquinca, A R

    2015-07-09

    Acetogenins (ACGs) are bioactive compounds with cytotoxic properties in different cell lines. They are antitumoural, antiparasitic, antimalarial, insecticidal, antimicrobial, antifungal and antibacterial. These secondary metabolites function in plant defence and are found in specific organelles and specific cells, thereby preventing toxicity to the plant itself and permitting site-specific defence. The aim of this work was to histochemically determine the in situ localisation of ACGs in the endosperm of Annona macroprophyllata seeds using Kedde's reagent. Additionally, the colocalisation of ACGs with other storage molecules was analysed. The seeds were analysed after 6 and 10 days of imbibition, when 1 or 2 cm of the radicle had emerged and metabolism was fully established. The seeds were then transversally cut in half at the midline and processed using different histological and histochemical techniques. Positive reactions with Kedde's reagent were only observed in fresh, unfixed sections that were preserved in water, and staining was found only in the large cells (the idioblasts) at the periphery of the endosperm. The ACGs' positive reaction with Sudan III corroborated their lipid nature. Paraffin sections stained with Naphthol Blue Black showed reactions in the endosperm parenchyma cells and stained the proteoplasts blue, indicating that they might correspond to storage sites for albumin-like proteins. Lugol's iodine, which is similar in chemical composition to Wagner's reagent, caused a golden brown reaction product in the cytoplasm of the idioblasts, which may indicate the presence of alkaloids. Based on these results, we propose that Kedde's reagent is an appropriate histochemical stain for detecting ACGs in situ in idioblasts and that idioblasts store ACGs and probably alkaloids. ACGs that are located in idioblasts found in restricted, peripheral areas of the endosperm could serve as a barrier that protects the seeds against insects and pathogen attack.

  17. Laguerre polynomial excited coherent state: generation and nonclassical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wei; Zhou, Weidong; Zhang, Haoliang; Liu, Cunjin; Huang, Jiehui; Hu, Liyun

    2017-11-01

    We propose a theoretical protocol to generate a kind of non-Gaussian state—a Laguerre polynomial excited coherent state (LPECS) by exploiting a two-mode squeezing transformation and a conditional measurement with a coherent state input. Then we investigate the nonclassical features of the LPECS according to the Glauber-Sudarshan P(α ) function, photon number distribution, Mandel’s Q parameter, second-order correlation function, and squeezing properties as well as negative Wigner distribution. Our results show that the generated output state presents obvious nonclassical properties which can be modulated by a coherent amplitude, a squeezing parameter and a conditional measurement. In particular, the squeezing and negative Wigner function are clear.

  18. Symplectic tomography of nonclassical states of trapped ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man'ko, O.

    1996-03-01

    The marginal distribution for two types of nonclassical states of trapped ion - for squeezed and correlated states and for squeezed even and odd coherent states (squeezed Schroedinger cat states) is studied. The obtained marginal distribution for the two types of states is shown to satisfy classical dynamical equation equivalent to standard quantum evolution equation for density matrix (wave function) derived in symplectic tomography scheme. (author). 20 refs

  19. Atomism and the Reasoning by a Non-Classical Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Antonino Drago; Romina Oliva

    1999-01-01

    Often, in the original scientific writings, a double negated statement (DNS) is not equivalent to his corresponding positive one; that means the inferring law 'non non A -> A' does not apply. Recent studies recognized in the failure of this logical law the borderline between classical and non-classical logics. Original writings by classical chemists dealing with the problem of atomism are particularly characterized by the occurrences of DNSs. An historical case, Avogadro's contribution to ...

  20. Non-classical rotational inertia in the supersolid state

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Shun-ichiro

    2004-01-01

    An abrupt drop in the moment of inertia recently found in solid helium 4 is explained in terms of dynamics of zero-point vacancies (ZPV). Mechanical decoupling of ZPV from the motion of the container due to Bose statistics is developed to a macroscopic phenomenon by repulsive interaction. It gives a negative answer to the question whether BEC is a necessary condition for non-classical rotational inertia in a bulk three-dimensional system.

  1. Transcriptional regulation by nonclassical action of thyroid hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moeller Lars C

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thyroid hormone (TH is essential for normal development, growth and metabolism. Its effects were thought to be principally mediated through triiodothyronine (T3, acting as a ligand for the nuclear TH receptors (TRs α and β residing on thyroid hormone response elements (TREs in the promoter of TH target genes. In this classical model of TH action, T3 binding to TRs leads to recruitment of basal transcription factors and increased transcription of TH responsive genes. Recently, the concept of TH action on gene expression has become more diverse and now includes nonclassical actions of T3 and T4: T3 has been shown to activate PI3K via the TRs, which ultimately increases transcription of certain genes, e.g. HIF-1α. Additionally, both T3 and thyroxine (T4 can bind to a membrane integrin, αvβ3, which leads to activation of the PI3K and MAPK signal transduction pathways and finally also increases gene transcription, e.g. of the FGF2 gene. Therefore, these initially nongenomic, nonclassical actions seem to serve as additional interfaces for transcriptional regulation by TH. Aim of this perspective is to summarize the genes that are currently known to be induced by nonclassical TH action and the mechanisms involved.

  2. Aliphatic acetogenin constituents of avocado fruits inhibit human oral cancer cell proliferation by targeting the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Ambrosio, Steven M. [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, Chunhua [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Pan, Li; Douglas Kinghorn, A. [Division of Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacognosy, College of Pharmacy, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ding, Haiming, E-mail: ding.29@osu.edu [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} The aliphatic acetogenins [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] (1) and [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate] (2) isolated from avocado fruit inhibit phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). {yields} Aliphatic acetogenin 2, but not 1, prevents EGF-induced activation of EGFR (Tyr1173). {yields} Combination of both aliphatic acetogenins synergistically inhibits c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) phosphorylation and human oral cancer cell proliferation. {yields} The potential anticancer activity of avocado fruits is due to a combination of specific aliphatic acetogenins targeting two key components of the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. {yields} Providing a double hit on a critical cancer pathway such as EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 by phytochemicals like those found in avocado fruit could lead to more effective approach toward cancer prevention. -- Abstract: Avocado (Persea americana) fruits are consumed as part of the human diet and extracts have shown growth inhibitory effects in various types of human cancer cells, although the effectiveness of individual components and their underlying mechanism are poorly understood. Using activity-guided fractionation of the flesh of avocado fruits, a chloroform-soluble extract (D003) was identified that exhibited high efficacy towards premalignant and malignant human oral cancer cell lines. From this extract, two aliphatic acetogenins of previously known structure were isolated, compounds 1 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-enyl acetate] and 2 [(2S,4S)-2,4-dihydroxyheptadec-16-ynyl acetate]. In this study, we show for the first time that the growth inhibitory efficacy of this chloroform extract is due to blocking the phosphorylation of EGFR (Tyr1173), c-RAF (Ser338), and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) in the EGFR/RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK1/2 cancer pathway. Compounds 1 and 2 both inhibited phosphorylation of c-RAF (Ser338) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204). Compound 2, but not

  3. Patrolling Mechanics of Non-Classical Monocytes in Vascular Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscher, Konrad; Marcovecchio, Paola; Hedrick, Catherine C; Ley, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Non-classical monocytes have emerged as the preeminent vascular housekeepers. Continuous intravascular screening is enabled by slow patrolling on the endothelium and allows a rapid response to local perturbations. Intravital imaging has been crucial to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and migratory phenotype of patrolling. In this review, we discuss technical requirements of intravital microscopy such as imaging modalities, labeling strategies, and data analysis. We further focus on patrolling kinetics and adhesion receptors in different organs and vascular beds including arteries during homeostasis and vascular inflammation and define pertinent questions in the field.

  4. Patrolling Mechanics of Non-Classical Monocytes in Vascular Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Buscher

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-classical monocytes have emerged as the preeminent vascular housekeepers. Continuous intravascular screening is enabled by slow patrolling on the endothelium and allows a rapid response to local perturbations. Intravital imaging has been crucial to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and migratory phenotype of patrolling. In this review, we discuss technical requirements of intravital microscopy such as imaging modalities, labeling strategies, and data analysis. We further focus on patrolling kinetics and adhesion receptors in different organs and vascular beds including arteries during homeostasis and vascular inflammation and define pertinent questions in the field.

  5. Nonclassical photon streams using rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, Patrick M.; Naylor, William R.; Longdell, Jevon J.; Beavan, Sarah E.; Sellars, Matthew J.

    2010-01-01

    We present a fully quantum mechanical treatment of optically rephased photon echoes. These echoes exhibit noise due to amplified spontaneous emission; however, this noise can be seen as a consequence of the entanglement between the atoms and the output light. With a rephasing pulse one can get an 'echo' of the amplified spontaneous emission, leading to light with nonclassical correlations at points separated in time, which is of interest in the context of building wide bandwith quantum repeaters. We also suggest a wideband version of DLCZ protocol based on the same ideas.

  6. Quantum nondemolition measurement with a nonclassical meter input and an electro-optic enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchler, B.C.; Bachor, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Optical quantum nondemolition measurements are performed using a beamsplitter with a nonclassical meter input and a electro-optic feedforward loop. The nonclassical meter input is provided by a stable 4.5 dB amplitude squeezed source generated by an optical parametric amplifier. We show...

  7. The state of Hawking radiation is non-classical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.; Zigdon, Yoav

    2018-01-01

    We show that the state of the Hawking radiation emitted from a large Schwarzschild black hole (BH) deviates significantly from a classical state, in spite of its apparent thermal nature. For this state, the occupation numbers of single modes of massless asymptotic fields, such as photons, gravitons and possibly neutrinos, are small and, as a result, their relative fluctuations are large. The occupation numbers of massive fields are much smaller and suppressed beyond even the expected Boltzmann suppression. It follows that this type of thermal state cannot be viewed as classical or even semiclassical. We substantiate this claim by showing that, in a state with low occupation numbers, physical observables have large quantum fluctuations and, as such, cannot be faithfully described by a mean-field or by a WKB-like semiclassical state. Since the evolution of the BH is unitary, our results imply that the state of the BH interior must also be non-classical when described in terms of the asymptotic fields. We show that such a non-classical interior cannot be described in terms of a semiclassical geometry, even though the average curvature is sub-Planckian.

  8. Statistical methods in quantum optics 2 non-classical fields

    CERN Document Server

    Carmichael, H J

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Methods in Quantum Optics 2 - Non-Classical Fields continues the development of the methods used in quantum optics to treat open quantum systems and their fluctuations. Its early chapters build upon the phase-space methods introduced in the first volume Statistical Methods in Quantum Optics 1 - Matter Equations and Fokker-Planck Equations: the difficulties these methods face in treating non-classical light are exposed, where the regime of large fluctuations – failure of the system size expansion – is shown to be particularly problematic. Cavity QED is adopted as a natural vehicle for extending quantum noise theory into this regime. In response to the issues raised, the theory of quantum trajectories is presented as a universal approach to the treatment of fluctuations in open quantum systems. This book presents its material at a level suitable for beginning researchers or students in an advanced course in quantum optics, or a course in quantum mechanics or statistical physics that deals with o...

  9. A multiscale transport model for non-classical nanochannel electroosmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadauria, Ravi; Aluru, N. R.

    2017-12-01

    We present a multiscale model describing the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in nanoscale channels involving high surface charge liquid-solid interfaces. The departure of the EOF velocity profiles from classical predictions is explained by the non-classical charge distribution in the confined direction including charge inversion, reduced mobility of interfacial counter-ions, and subsequent enhancement of the local viscosity. The excess component of the local solvent viscosity is modeled by the local application of the Fuoss-Onsager theory and the Hubbard-Onsager electro-hydrodynamic equation based dielectric friction theory. The electroosmotic slip velocity is estimated from the interfacial friction coefficient, which in turn is calculated using a generalized Langevin equation based dynamical framework. The proposed model for local viscosity enhancement and EOF velocity shows good agreement of corresponding physical quantities against relevant molecular dynamics simulation results, including the cases of anomalous transport such as EOF reversal.

  10. Non-Classical Smoothening of Nano-Scale Surface Corrugations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Michael J.; Chason, Eric; Erlebacher, Jonah; Floro, Jerrold A.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    1999-05-20

    We report the first experimental observation of non-classical morphological equilibration of a corrugated crystalline surface. Periodic rippled structures with wavelengths of 290-550 nm were made on Si(OO1) by sputter rippling and then annealed at 650 - 750 °C. In contrast to the classical exponential decay with time, the ripple amplitude, A{lambda}(t), followed an inverse linear decay, A{lambda}(t)= A{lambda}(0)/(1 +k{lambda}t), agreeing with a prediction of Ozdemir and Zangwill. We measure the activation energy for surface relaxation to be 1.6±0.2 eV, consistent with an interpretation that dimers mediate transport.

  11. Highly Nonclassical Quantum States and Environment Induced Decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foldi, Peter

    2004-06-01

    In this thesis concrete quantum systems are investigated in the framework of the environment induced decoherence. The focus is on the dynamics of highly nonclassical quantum states, the Wigner function of which are negative over some regions of their domains. One of the chosen physical systems is a diatomic molecule, where the potential energy of the nuclei is an anharmonic function of their distance. A system of two-level atoms, which can be important from the viewpoint of quantum information technology, is also investigated. A method is described that is valid in both systems and can determine the characteristic time of the decoherence in a dynamical way. The direction of the decoherence and its relation to energy dissipation is also studied. Finally, a scheme is proposed that can prepare decoherence-free states using the experimental techniques presently available.

  12. On-Chip Architecture for Self-Homodyned Nonclassical Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Kevin A.; Kelaita, Yousif A.; Sapra, Neil V.; Dory, Constantin; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Müller, Kai; Vučković, Jelena

    2017-04-01

    In the last decade, there has been remarkable progress on the practical integration of on-chip quantum photonic devices, yet quantum-state generators remain an outstanding challenge. Simultaneously, the quantum-dot photonic-crystal-resonator platform has demonstrated a versatility for creating nonclassical light with tunable quantum statistics thanks to a newly discovered self-homodyning interferometric effect that preferentially selects the quantum light over the classical light when using an optimally tuned Fano resonance. In this work, we propose a general structure for the cavity quantum electrodynamical generation of quantum states from a waveguide-integrated version of the quantum-dot photonic-crystal-resonator platform, which is specifically tailored for preferential quantum-state transmission. We support our results with rigorous finite-difference time-domain and quantum-optical simulations and show how our proposed device can serve as a robust generator of highly pure single- and even multiphoton states.

  13. Non-Classical Smoothening of Nano-Scale Surface Corrugations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Michael J.; Chason, Eric; Erlebacher, Jonah; Floro, Jerrold A.; Sinclair, Michael B.

    1999-01-01

    We report the first experimental observation of non-classical morphological equilibration of a corrugated crystalline surface. Periodic rippled structures with wavelengths of 290-550 nm were made on Si(OO1) by sputter rippling and then annealed at 650 - 750 ampersand deg;C. In contrast to the classical exponential decay with time, the ripple amplitude, A λ (t), followed an inverse linear decay, A λ (t)= A λ (0)/(1 +k λ t), agreeing with a prediction of Ozdemir and Zangwill. We measure the activation energy for surface relaxation to be 1.6 ampersand plusmn;0.2 eV, consistent with an interpretation that dimers mediate transport

  14. Nonclassicality by Local Gaussian Unitary Operations for Gaussian States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A measure of nonclassicality N in terms of local Gaussian unitary operations for bipartite Gaussian states is introduced. N is a faithful quantum correlation measure for Gaussian states as product states have no such correlation and every non product Gaussian state contains it. For any bipartite Gaussian state ρ A B , we always have 0 ≤ N ( ρ A B < 1 , where the upper bound 1 is sharp. An explicit formula of N for ( 1 + 1 -mode Gaussian states and an estimate of N for ( n + m -mode Gaussian states are presented. A criterion of entanglement is established in terms of this correlation. The quantum correlation N is also compared with entanglement, Gaussian discord and Gaussian geometric discord.

  15. Non-classical structures of organic compounds: unusual stereochemistry and hypercoordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minkin, Vladimir I; Minyaev, Ruslan M; Hoffmann, Roald

    2002-01-01

    Non-classical structures of organic compounds are defined as molecules containing non-tetrahedral tetracoordinate and/or hypercoordinate carbon atoms. The evolution of the views on this subject is considered and the accumulated theoretical and experimental data on the structures and dynamic transformations of non-classical organic compounds are systematised. It is shown that computational analysis using the methods and the software potential of modern quantum chemistry has now acquired high predictive capacity and is the most important source of data on the structures of non-classical compounds. The bibliography includes 227 references.

  16. Materials with complex behaviour II properties, non-classical materials and new technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Oechsner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This book reviews developments and trends in advanced materials and their properties; modeling and simulation of non-classical materials and new technologies for joining materials. Offers tools for characterizing and predicting properties and behavior.

  17. Sudden vanishing and reappearance of nonclassical effects: General occurrence of finite-time decays and periodic vanishings of nonclassicality and entanglement witnesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkowiak, Monika; Miranowicz, Adam; Wang Xiaoguang; Liu Yuxi; Leonski, Wieslaw; Nori, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Analyses of phenomena exhibiting finite-time decay of quantum entanglement have recently attracted considerable attention. Such decay is often referred to as sudden vanishing (or sudden death) of entanglement, which can be followed by its sudden reappearance (or sudden rebirth). We analyze various finite-time decays (for dissipative systems) and analogous periodic vanishings (for unitary systems) of nonclassical correlations as described by violations of classical inequalities and the corresponding nonclassicality witnesses (or quantumness witnesses), which are not necessarily entanglement witnesses. We show that these sudden vanishings are universal phenomena and can be observed: (i) not only for two- or multimode but also for single-mode nonclassical fields, (ii) not solely for dissipative systems, and (iii) at evolution times which are usually different from those of sudden vanishings and reappearances of quantum entanglement.

  18. Testing nonclassicality in multimode fields: A unified derivation of classical inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranowicz, Adam; Bartkowiak, Monika; Wang Xiaoguang; Liu Yuxi; Nori, Franco

    2010-01-01

    We consider a way to generate operational inequalities to test nonclassicality (or quantumness) of multimode bosonic fields (or multiparty bosonic systems) that unifies the derivation of many known inequalities and allows to propose new ones. The nonclassicality criteria are based on Vogel's criterion corresponding to analyzing the positivity of multimode P functions or, equivalently, the positivity of matrices of expectation values of, e.g., creation and annihilation operators. We analyze not only monomials but also polynomial functions of such moments, which can sometimes enable simpler derivations of physically relevant inequalities. As an example, we derive various classical inequalities which can be violated only by nonclassical fields. In particular, we show how the criteria introduced here easily reduce to the well-known inequalities describing (a) multimode quadrature squeezing and its generalizations, including sum, difference, and principal squeezing; (b) two-mode one-time photon-number correlations, including sub-Poisson photon-number correlations and effects corresponding to violations of the Cauchy-Schwarz and Muirhead inequalities; (c) two-time single-mode photon-number correlations, including photon antibunching and hyperbunching; and (d) two- and three-mode quantum entanglement. Other simple inequalities for testing nonclassicality are also proposed. We have found some general relations between the nonclassicality and entanglement criteria, in particular those resulting from the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality. It is shown that some known entanglement inequalities can be derived as nonclassicality inequalities within our formalism, while some other known entanglement inequalities can be seen as sums of more than one inequality derived from the nonclassicality criterion. This approach enables a deeper analysis of the entanglement for a given nonclassicality.

  19. Quantitative Characterization of Non-Classic Polarization of Cations on Clay Aggregate Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Feinan; Li, Hang; Liu, Xinmin; Li, Song; Ding, Wuquan; Xu, Chenyang; Li, Yue; Zhu, Longhui

    2015-01-01

    Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+) at concentrations from10−5 to 10−1 mol L−1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation–surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability. PMID:25874864

  20. About the nonclassicality of states defined by nonpositivity of the P-quasiprobability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuensche, Alfred

    2004-01-01

    The definition of nonclassical states in quantum optics by the nonpositivity of their Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability P(α,α * )-P(q,p) is investigated and it is shown that it hides some serious problems. It leads to a subdivision of squeezed thermal states into classical and nonclassical states which is difficult to interpret physically by some qualitatively different behaviour of the states. Nonclassical states are found in arbitrarily small neighbourhoods of every classical state that is illustrated by a very artificial modified thermal state. The observability of the criterion in comparison to that for nonclassicality of states determined by the nearest Hilbert-Schmidt distance to a class of reference states is discussed. The behaviour of the nonclassicality of states in models of phase-insensitive processes of damping and amplification is investigated and it is found that every nonclassical state eventually makes a transition to a classical state. However, this is not specific for the negativities or singularities of the Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability and is found in similar form for other quasiprobabilities, for example, for the Wigner quasiprobability. We discuss in quite general form some defects of the Glauber-Sudarshan quasiprobability if compared with classical distribution functions over the phase space, in particular the failure of an earlier advertised superposition formula

  1. Quantitative characterization of non-classic polarization of cations on clay aggregate stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feinan Hu

    Full Text Available Soil particle interactions are strongly influenced by the concentration, valence and ion species and the pH of the bulk solution, which will also affect aggregate stability and particle transport. In this study, we investigated clay aggregate stability in the presence of different alkali ions (Li+, Na+, K+, and Cs+ at concentrations from10-5 to 10-1 mol L-1. Strong specific ion effects on clay aggregate stability were observed, and showed the order Cs+>K+>Na+>Li+. We found that it was not the effects of ion size, hydration, and dispersion forces in the cation-surface interactions but strong non-classic polarization of adsorbed cations that resulted in these specific effects. In this study, the non-classic dipole moments of each cation species resulting from the non-classic polarization were estimated. By comparing non-classic dipole moments with classic values, the observed dipole moments of adsorbed cations were up to 104 times larger than the classic values for the same cation. The observed non-classic dipole moments sharply increased with decreasing electrolyte concentration. We conclude that strong non-classic polarization could significantly suppress the thickness of the diffuse layer, thereby weakening the electric field near the clay surface and resulting in improved clay aggregate stability. Even though we only demonstrated specific ion effects on aggregate stability with several alkali ions, our results indicate that these effects could be universally important in soil aggregate stability.

  2. Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, Christina E.

    2014-01-24

    The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With

  3. Non-classical state engineering for quantum networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, Christina E.

    2014-01-01

    The wide field of quantum information processing and quantum networks has developed very fast in the last two decades. Besides the regime of discrete variables, which was developed first, the regime of continuous variables represents an alternative approach to realize many quantum applications. Non-classical states of light, like squeezed or entangled states, are a fundamental resource for quantum applications like quantum repeaters, quantum memories, quantum key distribution, quantum spectroscopy, and quantum metrology. These states can be generated successfully in the infrared wavelength regime. However, for some tasks other wavelengths, especially in the visible wavelength regime, are desirable. To generate non-classical states of light in this wavelength regime frequency up-conversion can be used, since all quantum properties are maintained in this process. The first part of this thesis deals with the experimental frequency up-conversion of quantum states. Squeezed vacuum states of light at 1550 nm were up-converted to 532 nm and a noise reduction of -1.5 dB at 532 nm was achieved. These states can be used for increasing the sensitivity of gravitational wave detectors or spectroscopic measurements. Furthermore, one part of an entangled state at 1550 nm was up-converted to 532 nm and, thus, entanglement between these two wavelengths was generated and characterized to -1.4 dB following Duan et al. With such a quantum link it is possible to establish a quantum network, which takes advantage of the low optical loss at 1550 nm for information transmission and of atomic transitions around 532 nm for a quantum memory in a quantum repeater. For quantum networks the distribution of entanglement and especially of a quantum key is essential. In the second part of this thesis the experimental distribution of entanglement by separable states is demonstrated. The underlying protocol requires a special three-mode state, which is separable in two of the three splittings. With

  4. Nonlinear Quantum Optical Springs and Their Nonclassical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.J.; Tavassoly, M.K.

    2011-01-01

    The original idea of quantum optical spring arises from the requirement of quantization of the frequency of oscillations in the Hamiltonian of harmonic oscillator. This purpose is achieved by considering a spring whose constant (and so its frequency) depends on the quantum states of another system. Recently, it is realized that by the assumption of frequency modulation of ω to ω√1+μa † a the mentioned idea can be established. In the present paper, we generalize the approach of quantum optical spring with particular attention to the dependence of frequency to the intensity of radiation field that naturally observes in the nonlinear coherent states, from which we arrive at a physical system has been called by us as nonlinear quantum optical spring. Then, after the introduction of the generalized Hamiltonian of nonlinear quantum optical spring and it's solution, we will investigate the nonclassical properties of the obtained states. Specially, typical collapse and revival in the distribution functions and squeezing parameters, as particular quantum features, will be revealed. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  5. Rodent Models of Non-classical Progesterone Action Regulating Ovulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda A. Mittelman-Smith

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available It is becoming clear that steroid hormones act not only by binding to nuclear receptors that associate with specific response elements in the nucleus but also by binding to receptors on the cell membrane. In this newly discovered manner, steroid hormones can initiate intracellular signaling cascades which elicit rapid effects such as release of internal calcium stores and activation of kinases. We have learned much about the translocation and signaling of steroid hormone receptors from investigations into estrogen receptor α, which can be trafficked to, and signal from, the cell membrane. It is now clear that progesterone (P4 can also elicit effects that cannot be exclusively explained by transcriptional changes. Similar to E2 and its receptors, P4 can initiate signaling at the cell membrane, both through progesterone receptor and via a host of newly discovered membrane receptors (e.g., membrane progesterone receptors, progesterone receptor membrane components. This review discusses the parallels between neurotransmitter-like E2 action and the more recently investigated non-classical P4 signaling, in the context of reproductive behaviors in the rodent.

  6. Multi-crack imaging using nonclassical nonlinear acoustic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lue; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Xiao-Zhou; Gong, Xiu-Fen

    2014-10-01

    Solid materials with cracks exhibit the nonclassical nonlinear acoustical behavior. The micro-defects in solid materials can be detected by nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) method with a time-reversal (TR) mirror. While defects lie in viscoelastic solid material with different distances from one another, the nonlinear and hysteretic stress—strain relation is established with Preisach—Mayergoyz (PM) model in crack zone. Pulse inversion (PI) and TR methods are used in numerical simulation and defect locations can be determined from images obtained by the maximum value. Since false-positive defects might appear and degrade the imaging when the defects are located quite closely, the maximum value imaging with a time window is introduced to analyze how defects affect each other and how the fake one occurs. Furthermore, NEWS-TR-NEWS method is put forward to improve NEWS-TR scheme, with another forward propagation (NEWS) added to the existing phases (NEWS and TR). In the added phase, scanner locations are determined by locations of all defects imaged in previous phases, so that whether an imaged defect is real can be deduced. NEWS-TR-NEWS method is proved to be effective to distinguish real defects from the false-positive ones. Moreover, it is also helpful to detect the crack that is weaker than others during imaging procedure.

  7. Multi-crack imaging using nonclassical nonlinear acoustic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lue; Zhang Ying; Liu Xiao-Zhou; Gong Xiu-Fen

    2014-01-01

    Solid materials with cracks exhibit the nonclassical nonlinear acoustical behavior. The micro-defects in solid materials can be detected by nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) method with a time-reversal (TR) mirror. While defects lie in viscoelastic solid material with different distances from one another, the nonlinear and hysteretic stress—strain relation is established with Preisach—Mayergoyz (PM) model in crack zone. Pulse inversion (PI) and TR methods are used in numerical simulation and defect locations can be determined from images obtained by the maximum value. Since false-positive defects might appear and degrade the imaging when the defects are located quite closely, the maximum value imaging with a time window is introduced to analyze how defects affect each other and how the fake one occurs. Furthermore, NEWS-TR-NEWS method is put forward to improve NEWS-TR scheme, with another forward propagation (NEWS) added to the existing phases (NEWS and TR). In the added phase, scanner locations are determined by locations of all defects imaged in previous phases, so that whether an imaged defect is real can be deduced. NEWS-TR-NEWS method is proved to be effective to distinguish real defects from the false-positive ones. Moreover, it is also helpful to detect the crack that is weaker than others during imaging procedure. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. A Non-classical Hydrostatic Equation for Unsaturated Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Bras, R. L.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Sakaki, T.; Detwiler, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    The classical hydrostatic equation (CHE) of a liquid fluid in unsaturated porous media is critically re-examined vis-a-vis Newton's first law, the principle of minimum potential energy, and the principle of virtual work. We found that the CHE is inconsistent with these fundamental principles. A non-classical hydrostatic equation (NCHE), derived based on Newton's first law and the principle of minimum potential energy, includes an extra term as a nonlinear function of tension and liquid content. The NCHE makes four quantitative and experimentally verifiable predictions that are inconsistent with the CHE: 1) tension head is a nonlinear function of elevation (nonlinearity); 2) the vertical profile of equilibrium liquid content extends within a finite distance bounded by 'edges' (discontinuity); 3) equilibrium profiles of liquid content and tension head may decrease or increase with elevation (non-monotonicity); and 4) opposite horizontal equilibrium distribution of liquid content to that according to the CHE (lateral reversion). Preliminary laboratory experiments have confirmed nonlinearity and provided suggestive evidence consistent with discontinuity. In addition, an analytical expression of areal liquid content as a function of liquid content in terms of retention curve was obtained for the first time. This study provides an alternative explanation of flow and transport in unsaturated porous media deviating from Darcy's law or Richards' equation, and may be a starting point of formulating revised Darcy's and Richards' equation.

  9. Nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia misdiagnosed as Turner syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH misdiagnosed as mosaic Turner syndrome. She presented with complaints of primary infertility. Short stature, the presence of facial hair and hoarse voice was also noted. She had primary amenorrhea and was advised for karyotype at 16 years of age, which was reported as 45, X[20]/46, XX[80], stating her as a case of mosaic Turner syndrome. Clitoroplasty was done at 21 years of age for clitoromegaly, which was noticed during puberty. The diagnosis of mosaic Turner could not explain the virilization. Therefore, we repeated the karyotype, which revealed 46, XX in more than 100 metaphases and was sufficient to exclude mosaicism. Furthermore, the endocrinological evaluation revealed high testosterone level with a normal 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP. The presence of pubertal onset virilization with a karyotype of 46, XX and raised testosterone level with normal 17-OHP level, raised the suspicion of NCAH for which adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test was done which confirmed the diagnosis of NCAH.

  10. Experimental detection of nonclassical correlations in mixed-state quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passante, G.; Moussa, O.; Trottier, D. A.; Laflamme, R.

    2011-01-01

    We report on an experiment to detect nonclassical correlations in a highly mixed state. The correlations are characterized by the quantum discord and are observed using four qubits in a liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance quantum information processor. The state analyzed is the output of a DQC1 computation, whose input is a single quantum bit accompanied by n maximally mixed qubits. This model of computation outperforms the best known classical algorithms and, although it contains vanishing entanglement, it is known to have quantum correlations characterized by the quantum discord. This experiment detects nonvanishing quantum discord, ensuring the existence of nonclassical correlations as measured by the quantum discord.

  11. J(Si,H) Coupling Constants in Nonclassical Transition-Metal Silane Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Wolfgang; Meixner, Petra; Batke, Kilian; Barquera-Lozada, José E; Ruhland, Klaus; Fischer, Andreas; Eickerling, Georg; Eichele, Klaus

    2016-09-12

    We will outline that the sign and magnitude of J(Si,H) coupling constants provide a highly sensitive tool to measure the extent of Si-H bond activation in nonclassical silane complexes. Up to now, this structure-property relationship was obscured by erroneous J(Si,H) sign determinations in the literature. These new findings also help to identify the salient control parameters of the Si-H bond activation process in nonclassical silane complexes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Higher-order sub-Poissonian-like nonclassical fields: Theoretical and experimental comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina Jr., J.; Michálek, Václav; Haderka, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 3 (2017), s. 1-7, č. článku 033852. ISSN 2469-9926 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : twin beams * photon statistics * sub-Poissonian-like nonclassical fields Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  13. Food Stamps and Food Insecurity: What Can Be Learned in the Presence of Nonclassical Measurement Error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Craig; Kreider, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Policymakers have been puzzled to observe that food stamp households appear more likely to be food insecure than observationally similar eligible nonparticipating households. We reexamine this issue allowing for nonclassical reporting errors in food stamp participation and food insecurity. Extending the literature on partially identified…

  14. The prognostic role of classical and nonclassical MHC class I expression in endometrial cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijen, C.B.; Bantema-Joppe, E.J.; de Jong, Renske; Leffers, N.; Mourits, M.J.; Eggink, Henk F.; van der Zee, A.G.; Hollema, H.; de Bock, G.H.; Nijman, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate classical MHC class I and nonclassical MHC (human leukocyte antigen-G [HLA-GJ) expression in a large cohort of patients with endometrial cancer, to determine the prognostic value of these cell surface markers and their relation with clinicopathological

  15. Experimental detection of nonclassicality of single-mode fields via intensity moments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arkhipov, Ie.I.; Peřina, Jan; Haderka, O.; Michálek, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 26 (2016), s. 29496-29505 ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : experimental detection of nonclassicality * single-mode fields * intensity moments Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.307, year: 2016

  16. Squeezing effects applied in nonclassical superposition states for quantum nanoelectronic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong Ryeol

    2017-06-01

    Quantum characteristics of a driven series RLC nanoelectronic circuit whose capacitance varies with time are studied using an invariant operator method together with a unitary transformation approach. In particular, squeezing effects and nonclassical properties of a superposition state composed of two displaced squeezed number states of equal amplitude, but 180° out of phase, are investigated in detail. We applied our developments to a solvable specific case obtained from a suitable choice of time-dependent parameters. The pattern of mechanical oscillation of the amount of charges stored in the capacitor, which are initially displaced, has exhibited more or less distortion due to the influence of the time-varying parameters of the system. We have analyzed squeezing effects of the system from diverse different angles and such effects are illustrated for better understanding. It has been confirmed that the degree of squeezing is not constant, but varies with time depending on specific situations. We have found that quantum interference occurs whenever the two components of the superposition meet together during the time evolution of the probability density. This outcome signifies the appearance of nonclassical features of the system. Nonclassicality of dynamical systems can be a potential resource necessary for realizing quantum information technique. Indeed, such nonclassical features of superposition states are expected to play a key role in upcoming information science which has attracted renewed attention recently.

  17. "Nonclassical" secretion of annexin A2 to the lumenal side of the enterocyte brush border membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; van Deurs, Bo; Hansen, Gert H

    2003-01-01

    side of the microvilli, showing an apical secretion by a "nonclassical" mechanism. In addition, annexin A2 was associated with surface-connected, deep apical tubules in the apical terminal web region and with an underlying pleiomorphic, tubulo-vesicular compartment (subapical compartment...

  18. Nanoparticle-mediated nonclassical crystal growth of sodium fluorosilicate nanowires and nanoplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed nonclassical crystal growth of the sodium fluorosilicate nanowires, nanoplates, and hierarchical structures through self-assembly and aggregation of primary intermediate nanoparticles. Unlike traditional ion-by-ion crystallization, the primary nanoparticles formed first and their subsequent self-assembly, fusion, and crystallization generated various final crystals. These findings offer direct evidences for the aggregation-based crystallization mechanism.

  19. Feature-based prediction of non-classical and leaderless protein secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jannick Dyrløv; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Blom, Nikolaj

    2004-01-01

    -containing) secretory proteins where only the mature part of the protein has been annotated or cases where the signal peptide remains uncleaved. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified new proteins potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. Predictions can be made at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/SecretomeP....

  20. Systematic review and metaanalysis on nonclassic cardiovascular biomarkers after hypertensive pregnancy disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Sanne; Hermes, Wietske; Ket, Johannes C. F.; Otten, René H. J.; van Pampus, Maria G.; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W. M.; Franx, Arie; Mol, Ben W.; de Groot, Christianne J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which nonclassic cardiovascular biomarkers are associated with persistent endothelial dysfunction after pregnancy in women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy disorders compared with women with uncomplicated pregnancies. This was a systematic review and

  1. [Diffuse hypertrichosis revealing non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthin, C; Sibilia, P; Martins-Hericher, J; Donzeau, A; Martin, L

    2018-03-07

    Non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (NC-CAH) is a recessive autosomal disease caused by a deficiency of adrenal steroidogenesis enzymes. It must be distinguished from classical CAH, either simple virilising or salt-wasting, diagnosed during the neonatal period and responsible for potentially lethal disorders of sexual differentiation. NC-CAH presents a simpler and less specific clinical picture. Herein, we present two cases comprising twin girls consulting for diffuse hypertrichosis. Two 5-year-old twin girls were seen at our consultation for increased pilosity on all four limbs, but with no facial pilosity or synophrys, as well as comedones on the chin. Their height and weight and psychomotor development was normal, with no signs of precocious puberty and no clitoral hypertrophy. Levels of 17OH-P and SDHA were high, while FSH and LH were low and IGF1 and TSH were normal. Analysis of gene CYP21 associated with NC-CAH showed mutations p.V281L and IVS2-13A/C>G. Mutation p.V281L was present in the heterozygous state in the older sister and the father, together with moderate hyperpilosity but without hirsutism or acne. No mutations were found in the mother, indicating either de novo appearance of mutation IVS2-13A/C>G in the twins or germline mosaicism in the mother. We diagnosed NC-CAH as the cause of diffuse hypertrichosis in these twins. This disease is not rare, with a prevalence of 1/1000 to 1500 among peoples of European descent. It is often diagnosed late since routine neonatal screening is not performed. In some cases, NC-CAH remains asymptomatic. The appearance of pubic hair at around 5 to 7 years is the initial reason for consultation, particularly with a dermatologist. Hyperandrogenism varies, involving hirsutism, acne, fertility disorders and premature ageing of bone. Cortisol and aldosterone levels are generally normal. The risk of acute adrenal insufficiency is extremely low. Differential diagnosis concerns ovarian or adrenal tumors and

  2. Nonclassicality Generated by Applying Hermite-Polynomials Photon-Added Operator on the Even/Odd Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Gang; Du, Jian-ming; Zhang, Wen-hai; Yu, Hai-jun

    2017-05-01

    We examine nonclassical properties of the quantum state generated by applying Hermite polynomials photon-added operator on the even/odd coherent state (HPECS/HPOCS). Explicit expressions for its nonclassical properties, such as quantum statistical properties and squeezing phenomenon, are obtained. It is interesting to find that the HPECS/HPOCS exhibits sub-Poissonian distribution, anti-bunching effects and negative values of the Wigner function. Thus, we confirm the HPPECS/HPPOCS is a new nonclassical state. Finally, we reveal that the HPPECS/HPPOCS is a novel intelligent state by its squeezing effects in position distribution and quadrature squeezing.

  3. [Classical and non-classical taxonomy: where does the boundary pass?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlinov, I Ia

    2006-01-01

    Rise of non-classical science during XX century had certain influence upon development of biological taxonomy. Scientific pluralism (especially normative naturalism of Laudan), contrary to positivist and early post-positivist treatments, made taxonomy acknowledged scientific discipline of its own right. The present state of some schools of taxonomy makes it possible to consider them as a part of non-classical science and constituting the non-classical taxonomy. The latter is characterized by the following most important features. Ontological substantiation of both classificatory approaches and particular classifications is requested which invalidates such formal approaches as nominalistic and phenetic (numerical) schools. This substantiation takes a form of content-wise background preferably causal models which include certain axioms and presumptions about taxonomic diversity being studied, together with its causes, and thus define initial conditions of classificatory procedures. From this viewoint, phylogenetic classificatory approach is the most developed part of non-classical taxonomy. The entire taxonomic diversity is structured into several aspects of different levels of generality, each being outlined by a particular consideration aspect. The latter makes personal knowledge constituting an irremovable part of any scientific statement about taxonomic diversity, thus opposition of "objectively" and "subjectively" elaborated classifications becomes vague. Interrelation of various species concepts corresponding to its different consideration aspects is described by uncertainty relation principle. Classificatory algorithms are to be compatible with the conditions of a background model to ensure particular classifications obtained by their means are interpretable within the same model: this is provided by the correspondence principle. Classification is considered as a taxonomic hypothesis, i.e. a conjectural judgement about structure of particular fragment of

  4. Ultralow-dose dexamethasone to preserve endogenous cortisol stress response in nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia: A new promising treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C.M. van der Kaay (Danielle); E.L.T. van den Akker (Erica)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: Nonclassical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is characterized by sufficient cortisol and aldosterone production at the cost of androgen overproduction. Hydrocortisone or dexamethasone in supraphysiological doses are current treatment; however, their downside is

  5. Classical and non-classical HLA class I aberrations in primary cervical squamous- and adenocarcinomas and paired lymph node metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Ferns, Debbie M.; Heeren, A. Marijne; Samuels, Sanne; Bleeker, Maaike C. G.; de Gruijl, Tanja D.; Kenter, Gemma G.; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumors avoid destruction by cytotoxic T cells (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells by downregulation of classical human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and overexpression of non-classical HLA. This is the first study to investigate HLA expression in relation to histology (squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) vs. adenocarcinoma (AC)), clinicopathological parameters and survival in a large cervical cancer patient cohort. Methods Classical (HLA-A and HLA-B/C)- and non-classical HLA molecules (HLA-E ...

  6. Non-classical Signature of Parametric Fluorescence and its Application in Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamar M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a short theoretical background of what the non-classical light means. We applied the criterion for the existence of non-classical effects derived by C.T. Lee on parametric fluorescence. The criterion was originally derived for the study of two light beams with one mode per beam. We checked if the criterion is still working for two multimode beams of parametric down-conversion through numerical simulations. The theoretical results were tested by measurement of photon number statistics of twin beams emitted by nonlinear BBO crystal pumped by intense femtoseconds UV pulse. We used ICCD camera as the detector of photons in both beams. It appears that the criterion can be used for the measurement of the quantum efficiencies of the ICCD cameras.

  7. Reproducibility of Psychological Experiments as a Problem of Post-Nonclassical Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vachkov I.V.,

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental project on reproducibility carried out in the USA by Brian Nosek in 2015 (the Reproducibility Project revealed a serious methodological problem in psychology: the issue of replication of psycho- logical experiments. Reproducibility has been traditionally perceived as one of the basic principles of the scientific method. However, methodological analysis of the modern post-nonclassical stage in the development of science suggests that this might be a bit too uncompromising as applied to psychology. It seems that the very criteria of scientific research need to be reconsidered with regard to the specifics of post-nonclassical science, and, as the authors put it, as a result, reproducibility might lose its key status or even be excluded at all. The reviewed problem and the proposed ways of coping with it are of high importance to research and practice in psychology as they define the strategies for organizing, conducting and evaluating experimental research.

  8. Nonclassical phase-space trajectories for the damped harmonic quantum oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachon, L.A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); CeiBA - Complejidad, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Ingold, G.-L., E-mail: gert.ingold@physik.uni-augsburg.de [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetsstrasse 1, D-86135 Augsburg (Germany); Dittrich, T. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); CeiBA - Complejidad, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)

    2010-10-05

    Graphical abstract: The phase-space path-integral approach to the damped harmonic oscillator is analyzed beyond the Markovian approximation and the appearance of nonclassical trajectories is discussed. - Abstract: The phase-space path-integral approach to the damped harmonic oscillator is analyzed beyond the Markovian approximation. It is found that pairs of nonclassical trajectories contribute to the path-integral representation of the Wigner propagating function. Due to the linearity of the problem, the sum coordinate of a pair still satisfies the classical equation of motion. Furthermore, it is shown that the broadening of the Wigner propagating function of the damped oscillator arises due to the time-nonlocal interaction mediated by the heat bath.

  9. Probing the upper limit of nonclassical rotational inertia in solid helium 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner, Ann Sophie C; Reppy, John D

    2008-10-10

    We study the effect of confinement on solid 4He's nonclassical rotational inertia fraction (NCRIF) in a torsional oscillator by constraining it to narrow annular cells of various widths. The NCRIF exhibits an observed maximum value of 20% for annuli of approximately 100 microm width. Samples constrained to porous media or to larger geometries both have smaller NCRIF, mostly below approximately 1%. In addition, we extend the blocked-annulus experiment of Kim and Chan to solid samples with large supersolid fractions. Blocking the annulus suppresses the nonclassical decoupling from 17.1% to below the limit of our detection of 0.8%. This result demonstrates the nonlocal nature of the supersolid phenomena. At 20 mK, NCRIF depends on velocity history showing a closed hysteresis loop in different thin annular cells.

  10. Löwenheim-Skolem theorems for non-classical first-order algebraizable logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dellunde, P.; García-Cerdaña, A.; Noguera, Carles

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 3 (2016), s. 321-345 ISSN 1367-0751 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Löwenheim-Skolem theorems * first-order predicate logic s * non-classical logic s * algebraizable logic s * model theory Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.575, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/MTR/noguera-0469168.pdf

  11. Phase-space representation of non-classical behaviour of scalar wave-fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canas-Cardona, Gustavo; Castaneda, Roman [Physics School, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellin, A.A. 3840 Medellin (Colombia); Vinck-Posada, Herbert, E-mail: gcanas@unal.edu.co [Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Bogota, Bogota D.C (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    The modelling of optical fields by using radiant and virtual point sources for the spatial coherence wavelets in the phase-space representation evidences some effects, conventionally attributed to non-classical correlations of light, although such type of correlations are not explicitly included in the model. Specifically, a light state is produced that has similar morphology to the Wigner Distribution Function of the well-known quantum Schroedinger cat and squeezed states.

  12. Electron microscopy of crystalline solids and non-classical crystal growth

    OpenAIRE

    Greer, Heather Frances

    2013-01-01

    This project concerns the non-classical crystal growth of various porous and non-porous materials. In order to determine their crystal growth mechanism, the reaction was stopped at several different reaction times with the size, morphology, crystal structure and orientation of the particles analysed using scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy as the principal characterisation techniques. Other techniques used include X-ray diffraction, energy disper...

  13. Non-classical austenite-martensite interfaces observed in single crystals of Cu-Al-Ni

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Landa, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 11 (2009), s. 793-807 ISSN 0141-1594 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200100627; GA ČR(CZ) GP202/09/P164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape memory alloy s * martensitic microstructure * non-classical interfaces * crossing twins Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 0.935, year: 2009 http://www.informaworld.com

  14. Observation of non-classical rotational inertia in bulk solid 4He

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Motoshi; Takada, Shunichi; Shibayama, Yoshiyuki; Shirahama, Keiya

    2006-01-01

    In recent torsional oscillator experiments by Kim and Chan (KC), a decrease of rotational inertia has been observed in solid 4He in porous materials and in a bulk annular channel. This observation strongly suggests the existence of "non-classical rotational inertia" (NCRI), i.e. superflow, in solid 4He. In order to study such a possible "supersolid" phase, we perform torsional oscillator experiments for cylindrical solid 4He samples. We have observed decreases of rotational inertia below 200 ...

  15. Nonsuperfluid origin of the nonclassical rotational inertia in a bulk sample of solid 4He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reppy, John D

    2010-06-25

    The torsional oscillator experiments described here examine the effect of disorder on the nonclassical rotational inertia (NCRI) of a solid 4He sample. The NCRI increases with increasing disorder, but the period changes responsible for this increase occur primarily at higher temperatures. Contrary to expectations based on a supersolid scenario, the oscillator period remains relatively unaffected at the lowest temperatures. This result points to a nonsuperfluid origin for the NCRI.

  16. [A non-classical approach to medical practices: Michel Foucault and Actor-Network Theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bińczyk, E

    2001-01-01

    The text presents an analysis of medical practices stemming from two sources: Michel Foucault's conception and the research of Annemarie Mol and John Law, representatives of a trend known as Actor-Network Theory. Both approaches reveal significant theoretical kinship: they can be successfully consigned to the framework of non-classical sociology of science. I initially refer to the cited conceptions as a version of non-classical sociology of medicine. The identity of non-classical sociology of medicine hinges on the fact that it undermines the possibility of objective definitions of disease, health and body. These are rather approached as variable social and historical phenomena, co-constituted by medical practices. To both Foucault and Mol the main object of interest was not medicine as such, but rather the network of medical practices. Mol and Law sketch a new theoretical perspective for the analysis of medical practices. They attempt to go beyond the dichotomous scheme of thinking about the human body as an object of medical research and the subject of private experience. Research on patients suffering blood-sugar deficiency provide the empirical background for the thesis of Actor-Network Theory representatives. Michel Foucault's conceptions are extremely critical of medical practices. The French researcher describes the processes of 'medicalising' Western society as the emergence of a new type of power. He attempts to sensitise the reader to the ethical dimension of the processes of medicalising society.

  17. Conformational variation in structures of classical and nonclassical MHCII proteins and functional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Corrie A.; Stern, Lawrence J.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Recent structural characterizations of classical and nonclassical major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) proteins have provided a view into the dynamic nature of the MHCII peptide binding groove and the role that structural changes play in peptide loading processes. Although there have been numerous reports of crystal structures for MHCII-peptide complexes, a detailed analysis comparing all the structures has not been reported, and subtle conformational variations present in these structures may not have been fully appreciated. We compared the 91 MHCII crystal structures reported in the PDB to date, including a HLA-DR mutant particularly susceptible to DM-mediated peptide exchange, and reviewed experimental and computational studies of the effect of peptide binding on MHCII structure. These studies provide evidence for conformational lability in and around the α subunit 310 helix at residues α48-51, a region known to be critical for HLA-DM-mediated peptide exchange. A biophysical study of MHC-peptide hydrogen bond strengths and a recent structure of the nonclassical MHCII protein HLA-DO reveal changes in the same region. Conformational variability was observed also in the vicinity of a kink in the β subunit helical region near residue β66 and in the orientation and loop conformation in the β2 Ig domain. Here, we provide an overview of the regions within classical and nonclassical MHCII proteins that display conformational changes and the potential role that these changes may have in the peptide loading/exchange process. PMID:23046127

  18. Revisiting the prevalence of nonclassic congenital adrenal hyperplasia in US Ashkenazi Jews and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah-Shmouni, Fady; Morissette, Rachel; Sinaii, Ninet; Elman, Meredith; Prezant, Toni R; Chen, Wuyan; Pulver, Ann; Merke, Deborah P

    2017-11-01

    PurposeNonclassic 21-hydroxylase deficiency, a mild form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), is estimated to be the most common autosomal recessive condition, with an especially high prevalence in Ashkenazi Jews (3.7% affected, 30.9% carriers), based on a 1985 HLA-B linkage study of affected families. Affected individuals, especially women, may suffer from hyperandrogenism and infertility. State-of-the-art genetic studies have not been done to confirm these remarkable rates.MethodsCYP21A2 genotyping was performed in 200 unrelated healthy Ashkenazi Jewish subjects and 200 random US Caucasians who did not self-identify as a specific ethnicity using multiplex minisequencing, real-time polymerase chain reaction and junction site analysis.ResultsNonclassic CAH carriership was found similarly in 15% (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.4-20.7) of Ashkenazi Jews and 9.5% (95% CI: 5.8-14.4) of Caucasians (P=0.13). The proportion of Ashkenazi Jewish nonclassic CAH carriers (0.15 versus 0.309, Pcounseling.

  19. The prognostic role of classical and nonclassical MHC class I expression in endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijen, Claudia B M; Bantema-Joppe, Enja J; de Jong, Renske A; Leffers, Ninke; Mourits, Marian J E; Eggink, Henk F; van der Zee, Ate G J; Hollema, Harry; de Bock, Geertruida H; Nijman, Hans W

    2010-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate classical MHC class I and nonclassical MHC (human leukocyte antigen-G [HLA-G]) expression in a large cohort of patients with endometrial cancer, to determine the prognostic value of these cell surface markers and their relation with clinicopathological variables. Tissue microarrays containing epithelial endometrial carcinoma tissue from 554 patients were stained for classical and nonclassical MHC class I using the following monoclonal antibodies: 4H84 (anti-HLA-G), beta2-m (anti-beta-2-microglobulin) and HC-10 (MHC class I antigen heavy chain). Expression data were linked to known clinicopathological characteristics and survival. HLA-G upregulation and MHC class I downregulation in neoplastic cells was observed in 40% and 48%, respectively. Nonendometrioid tumor type, advanced stage disease (FIGO stage > or = II) and poorly or undifferentiated tumors were associated with MHC class I downregulation. Absence of HLA-G expression was independently associated with MHC class I downregulation. In univariate analysis, MHC class I downregulation was a predictor of worse disease-specific survival. Prognostic unfavorable tumor characteristics were correlated with downregulation of MHC class I expression in endometrial cancer cells. Furthermore, downregulated MHC class I has a negative impact on disease-specific survival, observed in a large cohort of patients with endometrial cancer. As there seems to be a relation between classical and nonclassical MHC class I molecules (HLA-G), further research is warranted to unravel this regulatory mechanism.

  20. [HPV infection associated with nonclassic cytological signs in patients from Mérida, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Toro, Luisana; Rodríguez Meza, Andry; López de Sánchez, Mercedes; Toro de Méndez, Morelva

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to identify those nonclassic cytological signs that would allow the prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Cytology samples taken from outpatients that attended public and private gynecological practices, between January of 2006 and December of 2008, were studied. The cytological samples were informed following the criteria of the Bethesda system 2001. Those reports with a cytological interpretation of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion/HPV (LSIL/HPV) were selected. Age data and other cytologic characteristics were also taken. 25,565 Pap smears were revised, of which 291 were LSIL/HPV. The age average of the patients was 32.01 years and the age range was between 15 and 67 years. 55.10% of the patients were below 30 years of age. The koilocytosis was the most frequent viral cytological sign (66.1%). Among the HPV infection associated nonclassic cytologic signs were in order of frequency: nuclear enlargement (44%), megalocytosis (38.5%), followed by binucleation and lightly irregular chromatin distribution, in the same proportion (33.7%) and the typical parakeratotic cells (33.3%). Discreet nuclear hyperchromasia and hiper-keratotic cells were the less frequent morphological changes (28.5%). The indirect signs significantly associated to the infection were: binucleation, lightly irregular chromatin distribution, discreet nuclear hyperchromasia and para-keratotic cells. The combination of HPV infection associated with nonclassic cytological signs would allow the identification of a high proportion of patients with this infection, increasing in this way the sensibility of the cytological study in the detection of HPV and the possibility of selecting subgroups at risk for the development of cervical lesions and their opportune study.

  1. Cross-sectional observational study of 208 patients with non-classical urea cycle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüegger, Corinne M; Lindner, Martin; Ballhausen, Diana; Baumgartner, Matthias R; Beblo, Skadi; Das, Anibh; Gautschi, Matthias; Glahn, Esther M; Grünert, Sarah C; Hennermann, Julia; Hochuli, Michel; Huemer, Martina; Karall, Daniela; Kölker, Stefan; Lachmann, Robin H; Lotz-Havla, Amelie; Möslinger, Dorothea; Nuoffer, Jean-Marc; Plecko, Barbara; Rutsch, Frank; Santer, René; Spiekerkoetter, Ute; Staufner, Christian; Stricker, Tamar; Wijburg, Frits A; Williams, Monique; Burgard, Peter; Häberle, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are inherited disorders of ammonia detoxification often regarded as mainly of relevance to pediatricians. Based on an increasing number of case studies it has become obvious that a significant number of UCD patients are affected by their disease in a non-classical way: presenting outside the newborn period, following a mild course, presenting with unusual clinical features, or asymptomatic patients with only biochemical signs of a UCD. These patients are surviving into adolescence and adulthood, rendering this group of diseases clinically relevant to adult physicians as well as pediatricians. In preparation for an international workshop we collected data on all patients with non-classical UCDs treated by the participants in 20 European metabolic centres. Information was collected on a cohort of 208 patients 50% of which were ≥ 16 years old. The largest subgroup (121 patients) had X-linked ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) of whom 83 were female and 29% of these were asymptomatic. In index patients, there was a mean delay from first symptoms to diagnosis of 1.6 years. Cognitive impairment was present in 36% of all patients including female OTCD patients (in 31%) and those 41 patients identified presymptomatically following positive newborn screening (in 12%). In conclusion, UCD patients with non-classical clinical presentations require the interest and care of adult physicians and have a high risk of neurological complications. To improve the outcome of UCDs, a greater awareness by health professionals of the importance of hyperammonemia and UCDs, and ultimately avoidance of the still long delay to correctly diagnose the patients, is crucial.

  2. Non-classical effects of androgens on testes from neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rosa, Luciana Abreu; Escott, Gustavo Monteiro; Cavalari, Fernanda Carvalho; Schneider, Clara Maria Müller; de Fraga, Luciano Stürmer; Loss, Eloísa da Silveira

    2015-01-01

    The intratesticular testosterone concentration is high during the early postnatal period although the intracellular androgen receptor expression (iAR) is still absent in Sertoli cells (SCs). This study aimed to evaluate the non-classical effects of testosterone and epitestosterone on calcium uptake and the electrophysiological effects of testosterone (1μM) on SCs from rats on postnatal day (pnd) 3 and 4 with lack of expression of the iAR. In addition, crosstalk on the electrophysiological effects of testosterone and epitestosterone with follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in SCs from 15-day-old rats was evaluated. The isotope (45)Ca(2+) was utilized to evaluate the effects of testosterone and epitestosterone in calcium uptake. The membrane potential of SCs was recorded using a standard single microelectrode technique. No immunoreaction concerning the iAR was observed in SCs on pnd 3 and 4. At this age, both testosterone and epitestosterone increased the (45)Ca(2+) uptake. Testosterone promoted membrane potential depolarization of SCs on pnd 4. FSH application followed by testosterone and epitestosterone reduced the depolarization of the two hormones. Application of epitestosterone 5 min after FSH resulted in a delay of epitestosterone-promoted depolarization. The cell resistance was also reduced. Thus, in SCs from neonatal Wistar rats, both testosterone and epitestosterone act through a non-classical mechanism stimulating calcium uptake in whole testes, and testosterone produces a depolarizing effect on SC membranes. Testosterone and epitestosterone stimulates non-classical actions via a membrane mechanism, which is independent of iAR. FSH and testosterone/epitestosterone affect each other's electrophysiological responses suggesting crosstalk between the intracellular signaling pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Res May 2015 Cover Tp 04.05.15

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    System5

    Flowers are solitary, leaf-opposed and sometimes in fascicles. Petals are greenish, 3-6, and often appear like sepals. Fruit is green, resembling that of a custard apple. Seeds are enveloped by fleshy pulp which is sweet when ripe and is edible. The tree is often cultivated. Fruitis rich in annonaceous acetogenins which have ...

  4. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    System5

    Flowers are solitary, leaf-opposed and sometimes in fascicles. Petals are greenish, 3-6, and often appear like sepals. Fruit is green, resembling that of a custard apple. Seeds are enveloped by fleshy pulp which is sweet when ripe and is edible. The tree is often cultivated. Fruit is rich in annonaceous acetogenins which have ...

  5. ( Annona muricata Linn) Fruit and Molecular Docking Experiments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annona muricata (Soursop) has attracted attention due to its content of annonaceous acetogenins, a large family of naturally occurring polyketides isolated from various species of the genus Annonaceae. The ethyl acetate fraction of Annona muricata was subjected to standard isolation protocol-gradient and isocratic silica ...

  6. Heat control in opto-mechanical system using quantum non-classicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Sushamana; Senwar, Subash

    2016-01-01

    Cooling of matter to the quantum ground state is a primary directive of quantum control. In other words, to extract entropy from a quantum system, efficient indirect quantum measurements may be implemented. The main objective is the cooling of the oscillator either to its motional ground state or to non-classical states, such as low-number Fock states, squeezed states or entangled states. It is shown that the use of quantum control procedure is better choice for even experimental realizations because it leads to a squeezed steady state with less than one phonon on average. The steady state of system corresponds to cooling of the system.

  7. Oscillation frequency dependence of nonclassical rotation inertia of solid 4He.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Y; Graves, J C; Kojima, H

    2007-07-06

    The nonclassical rotational inertia fraction of the identical cylindrical solid 4He below 300 mK is studied at 496 and 1173 Hz by a double resonance torsional oscillator. Below 35 mK, the fractions are the same at sufficiently low rim velocities. Above 35 mK, the fraction is greater for the higher than the lower mode. The dissipation peak of the lower mode occurs at a temperature approximately 4 mK lower than that of the higher mode. The drive dependence of the two modes shows that the reduction of the fraction is characterized by critical velocity, not amplitude or acceleration.

  8. Mammalian non-classical major histocompatibility complex I and its receptors: Important contexts of gene, evolution, and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratheek, B. M.; Nayak, Tapas K.; Sahoo, Subhransu S.; Mohanty, Prafulla K.; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Chakraborty, Ntiya G.; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2014-01-01

    The evolutionary conserved, less-polymorphic, nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules: Qa-1 and its human homologue human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) along with HLA-F, G and H cross-talk with the T-cell receptors and also interact with natural killer T-cells and other lymphocytes. Moreover, these nonclassical MHC molecules are known to interact with CD94/NKG2 heterodimeric receptors to induce immune responses and immune regulations. This dual role of Qa-1/HLA-E in terms of innate and adaptive immunity makes them more interesting. This review highlights the new updates of the mammalian nonclassical MHC-I molecules in terms of their gene organization, evolutionary perspective and their role in immunity. PMID:25400340

  9. Expression of bovine non-classical major histocompatibility complex class 1 proteins in mouse P815 and human K562 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins can be expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins. To investigate whether bovine non-classical MHC-I proteins are expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins, and to assess the reactivity pattern of monoclonal antibodies with non-class...

  10. Spatial-Temporal Expression of Non-classical MHC Class I Molecules in the C57 Mouse Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiane; Shen, Yuqing; Li, Mingli; Lv, Dan; Zhang, Aifeng; Peng, Yaqin; Miao, Fengqin; Zhang, Jianqiong

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies clearly demonstrate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I expression in the brain plays an important functional role in neural development and plasticity. A previous study from our laboratory demonstrated the temporal and spatial expression patterns of classical MHC class I molecules in the brain of C57 mice. Studies regarding non-classical MHC class I molecules remain limited. Here we examine the expression of non-classical MHC class I molecules in mouse central nervous system (CNS) during embryonic and postnatal developmental stages using in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence. We find non-classical MHC class I molecules, M3/T22/Q1, are expressed in the cerebral cortex, neuroepithelium of the lateral ventricle, neuroepithelium of aquaeductus and developing cerebellum during embryonic developmental stages. During the postnatal period from P0 to adult, non-classical MHC class I mRNAs are detected in olfactory bulb, hippocampus, cerebellum and some nerve nuclei. Overall, the expression patterns of non-classical MHC class I molecules are similar to those of classical MHC class I molecules in the developing mouse brain. In addition, non-classical MHC class I molecules are present in the H2-K(b) and H2-D(b) double knock-out mice where their expression levels are greatly increased within the same locations as compared to wild type mice. The elucidation and discovery of the expression profile of MHC class I molecules during development is important for supporting an enhanced understanding of their physiological and potential pathological roles within the CNS.

  11. SPRED: A machine learning approach for the identification of classical and non-classical secretory proteins in mammalian genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar; Pugalenthi, Ganesan; Hartmann, Enno; Kalies, Kai-Uwe; Moeller, Steffen; Suganthan, P.N.; Martinetz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein secretion generally occurs via the classical secretory pathway that traverses the ER and Golgi apparatus. Secreted proteins usually contain a signal sequence with all the essential information required to target them for secretion. However, some proteins like fibroblast growth factors (FGF-1, FGF-2), interleukins (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta), galectins and thioredoxin are exported by an alternative pathway. This is known as leaderless or non-classical secretion and works without a signal sequence. Most computational methods for the identification of secretory proteins use the signal peptide as indicator and are therefore not able to identify substrates of non-classical secretion. In this work, we report a random forest method, SPRED, to identify secretory proteins from protein sequences irrespective of N-terminal signal peptides, thus allowing also correct classification of non-classical secretory proteins. Training was performed on a dataset containing 600 extracellular proteins and 600 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. The algorithm was tested on 180 extracellular proteins and 1380 cytoplasmic and/or nuclear proteins. We obtained 85.92% accuracy from training and 82.18% accuracy from testing. Since SPRED does not use N-terminal signals, it can detect non-classical secreted proteins by filtering those secreted proteins with an N-terminal signal by using SignalP. SPRED predicted 15 out of 19 experimentally verified non-classical secretory proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome we identified 566 protein sequences potentially undergoing non-classical secretion. The dataset and standalone version of the SPRED software is available at (http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/spred/spred).

  12. ON THE POLARIZATION OF CREATIVE CONSCIOUSNESS IN NON-CLASSICAL ERA OF RUSSIAN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nikolaevich Sklyarov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the phenomenon of "branch" of the total flow of philosophical and aesthetic quest in Russian postsimbolism in the early 20th century and the implications of this polarization in the literary process in the following decades. Special attention is paid to the specifics of the non-classical consciousness, an important feature of which is the intention of the "targeting" of artistic expression. The main lines of development of Russian literature in the 20th century are briefly described. The subject of primary attention of the author are mental peculiarities, features of creative thinking inherited in individuals of every from ideological and artistic "vectors", forming a common paradigm of national literature in the non-classical era. The understanding the specifics of the "middle" line of creative research, defined by the concept of "neotraditionalism" becomes the center of the problem field in the article. In understanding and presentation of the essence of the neotraditional type of creative consciousness author moves into the mainstream, a paved by work of V.I. Tyupa, who proposed in the early 90s as the term itself, taken now adopted by many scientists and methodological principles of neotraditionalism identification as a special type of mental orientation in art. 

  13. Overview on methods for formulating explicit damping matrices for non-classically damped structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.

    1998-04-01

    In computing the dynamic response of a connected system with multiple components having dissimilar damping characteristics, which is often referred to as nonclassically damped system such as nuclear power plant piping systems supported by stiff structures, one needs to define the system-level damping based upon the damping information of components. This is frequently done in practice using approximate methods expressed as composite modal damping with weighting functions. However, when the difference in damping among components is substantial, the composite modal damping may become inappropriate in the characterization of the damping behavior of such systems. In recent years, several new methods have emerged with the expectation that they could produce more exact system-level damping for a group of nonclassically damped structures which are comprised of components that possess classical modal damping. In this paper, an overview is presented to examine these methods in the light of their theoretical basis, the technical merits, and practical applications. To this end, a synthesis method is described, which was shown to reduce to the other methods in the literature

  14. Squeezing, photon bunching, photon antibunching and nonclassical photon statistics in degenerate hyper Raman processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Biswajit; Mandal, Swapan

    2007-01-01

    An initially prepared coherent state coupled to a second-order nonlinear medium is responsible for stimulated and spontaneous hyper Raman processes. By using an intuitive approach based on perturbation theory, the Hamiltonian corresponding to the hyper Raman processes is analytically solved to obtain the temporal development of the field operators. It is true that these analytical solutions are valid for small coupling constants. However, the interesting part is that these solutions are valid for reasonably large time. Hence, the present analytical solutions are quite general and are fresh compared to those solutions under short-time approximations. By exploiting the analytical solutions of field operators for various modes, we investigate the squeezing, photon antibunching and nonclassical photon statistics for pure modes of the input coherent light responsible for hyper Raman processes. At least in one instance (stimulated hyper Raman processes for vibration phonon mode), we report the simultaneous appearance of classical (photon bunching) and nonclassical (squeezing) effects of the radiation field responsible for hyper Raman processes

  15. Nonclassical Ly6C− Monocytes Drive the Development of Inflammatory Arthritis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Misharin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Different subsets and/or polarized phenotypes of monocytes and macrophages may play distinct roles during the development and resolution of inflammation. Here, we demonstrate in a murine model of rheumatoid arthritis that nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes are required for the initiation and progression of sterile joint inflammation. Moreover, nonclassical Ly6C− monocytes differentiate into inflammatory macrophages (M1, which drive disease pathogenesis and display plasticity during the resolution phase. During the development of arthritis, these cells polarize toward an alternatively activated phenotype (M2, promoting the resolution of joint inflammation. The influx of Ly6C− monocytes and their subsequent classical and then alternative activation occurs without changes in synovial tissue-resident macrophages, which express markers of M2 polarization throughout the course of the arthritis and attenuate joint inflammation during the initiation phase. These data suggest that circulating Ly6C− monocytes recruited to the joint upon injury orchestrate the development and resolution of autoimmune joint inflammation.

  16. The Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation Experiment: Perspective from Classical Vectors, Nonclassical Vectors, and Product Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen de la Vega-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is usually accepted that most 2D-NMR experiments cannot be approached using classical models. Instructors argue that Product Operators (PO or density matrix formalisms are the only alternative to get insights into complex spin evolution for experiments involving Multiple-Quantum Coherence, such as the Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation (HMQC technique. Nevertheless, in recent years, several contributions have been published to provide vectorial descriptions for the HMQC taking PO formalism as the starting point. In this work we provide a graphical representation of the HMQC experiment, taking the basic elements of Bloch’s vector model as building blocks. This description bears an intuitive and comfortable understanding of spin evolution during the pulse sequence, for those who are novice in 2D-NMR. Finally, this classical vectorial depiction is tested against the PO formalism and nonclassical vectors, conveying the didactic advantage of shedding light on a single phenomenon from different perspectives. This comparative approach could be useful to introduce PO and nonclassical vectors for advanced upper-division undergraduate and graduate education.

  17. Non-classic multiscale modeling of manipulation based on AFM, in aqueous and humid ambient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, M. H.; Homayooni, A.; Hefzabad, R. N.

    2018-05-01

    To achieve a precise manipulation, it is important that an accurate model consisting the size effect and environmental conditions be employed. In this paper, the non-classical multiscale modeling is developed to investigate the manipulation in a vacuum, aqueous and humid ambient. The manipulation structure is considered into two parts as a macro-field (MF) and a nano-field (NF). The governing equations of the AFM components (consist of the cantilever and tip) in the MF are derived based on the modified couple stress theory. The material length scale parameter is used to study the size effect. The fluid flow in the MF is assumed as the Couette and Creeping flows. Moreover, the NF is modeled using the molecular dynamics. The Electro-Based (ELBA) model is considered to model the ambient condition in the NF. The nanoparticle in the different conditions is taken into account to study the manipulation. The results of the manipulation indicate that the predicted deflection of the non-classical model is less than the classical one. Comparison of the nanoparticle travelled distance on substrate shows that the manipulation in the submerged condition is close to the ideal manipulation. The results of humid condition illustrate that by increasing the relative humidity (RH) the manipulation force decreases. Furthermore, Root Mean Square (RMS) as a criterion of damage demonstrates that the submerged nanoparticle has the minimum damage, however, the minimum manipulation force occurs in superlative humid ambient.

  18. Effect of dielectric medium on the nonclassical properties of nonlinear sphere coherent states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Amooghorban

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of a medium with dissipation and dispersion and also the curvature of the physical space on the properties of the incident quantum states, we use the quantization of electromagnetic field based on phenomenological approach to obtain input-output relations between radiations on both sides of dielectric slab. By using these relations the fidelity, the Wigner function, and also the quantum correlation of the outgoing state through dielectric slab are obtained for a situation in which the rightward incident state is a nonlinear coherent state on a sphere and the leftward incident state is a vacuum state. Here, the incident states are considered monochromatic and the modeling of the medium is given by the Lorentz' model. Accordingly, we study nonclassical properties of the output states such as the quantum entanglement. It will be observed that the nonclassical properties of the outgoing states depend strongly on the optical property of the medium and also on the curvature of the physical state.

  19. Structure and function of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex molecule MR1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krovi, S Harsha; Gapin, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play a central role in the vertebrate adaptive immune system. By presenting short peptides derived from pathogen-derived proteins, these "classical" MHC molecules can alert the T cell branch of the immune system of infected cells and clear the pathogen. There exist other "non-classical" MHC molecules, which while similar in structure to classical MHC proteins, are contrasted by their limited polymorphism. While the functions of many class Ib MHC molecules have still to be elucidated, the nature and diversity of antigens (if any) that some of them might present to the immune system is expected to be more restricted and might function as another approach to distinguish self from non-self. The MHC-related 1 (MR1) molecule is a member of this family of non-classical MHC proteins. It was recently shown to present unique antigens in the form of vitamin metabolites found in certain microbes. MR1 is strongly conserved genetically, structurally, and functionally through mammalian evolution, indicating its necessity in ensuring an effective immune system for members of this class. Although MR1 will be celebrating 21 years this year since its discovery, most of our understanding of how this molecule functions has only been uncovered in the past decade. Herein, we discuss where MR1 is expressed, how it selectively is able to bind to its appropriate antigens and how it, then, is able to specifically activate a distinct population of T cells.

  20. [Successful treatment and pregnancy in a women with the non-classic form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akker, E. van den; Stikkelbroeck, M.M.L.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Roumen, F.J.M.E.; Otten, B.J.

    2002-01-01

    In an 18-year-old woman non-classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency was diagnosed and dexamethasone treatment was instituted. Ten years later, she became pregnant for the first time; at 37 weeks unexpected intrauterine foetal death was found to have occurred. A second pregnancy ended with a spontaneous

  1. Non-classical crystallization of thin films and nanostructures in CVD and PVD processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Nong Moon

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to a recently-developed approach to the growth mechanism of thin films and nanostructures via chemical vapour deposition (CVD). Starting from the underlying principles of the low pressure synthesis of diamond films, it is shown that diamond growth occurs not by individual atoms but by charged nanoparticles. This newly-discovered growth mechanism turns out to be general to many CVD and some physical vapor deposition (PVD) processes. This non-classical crystallization is a new paradigm of crystal growth, with active research taking place on growth in solution, especially in biomineralization processes. Established understanding of the growth of thin films and nanostructures is based around processes involving individual atoms or molecules. According to the author’s research over the last two decades, however, the generation of charged gas phase nuclei is shown to be the rule rather than the exception in the CVD process, and charged gas phase nuclei are actively ...

  2. Universality of Nonclassical Nonlinearity Applications to Non-Destructive Evaluations and Ultrasonic

    CERN Document Server

    Delsanto, Pier Paolo

    2006-01-01

    This book comes as a result of the research work developed in the framework of two international projects: the European Science Foundation supported program NATEMIS (Nonlinear Acoustic Techniques for Micro-Scale Damage Diagnostics) and a Los Alamos-based international network. The main topics of both the programs and the book cover the phenomenology, theory and applications of Nonclassical Nonlinearity (NCNL). NCNL techniques have been found in recent years to be extremely powerful (up to 1000 times more than the corresponding linear techniques) in a wide range of applications, including Material Characterization, Ultrasonics, Geophysics and Maintenance and Restoration of artifacts. These techniques are being adopted as the main inspection and research tool in another European program: AERONEWS (Health monitoring of aircraft by nonlinear elastic wave propagation). In the future, the proposed Universality of NCNL is expected to extend the range of applications to numerous other fields and scientific discipline...

  3. Is the anomalous magnetic moment the consequence of a non-classical transformation for rotating frames?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gisin, B V

    2002-01-01

    We consider the anomalous magnetic moment from an 'optical viewpoint' using an analogy between the motion of a particle with a magnetic moment in a magnetic field and the propagation of an optical pulse through an electro-optical crystal in an electric field. We show that an optical experiment similar to electron magnetic resonance is possible in some electro-optical crystals possessing the Faraday effect. This phenomenon is described by an analogue of the Pauli equation extracted from the Maxwell equation in the slowly varied amplitude approximation. In such an experiment the modulation by rotating fields plays a significant role. From the optical viewpoint the modulation assumes introducing the concept of a point rotation frame with the rotation axis at every point originated from the concept of the optical indicatrix (index ellipsoid). We discuss the connection between the non-classical transformation by transition from one such frame to another and an anomalous magnetic moment

  4. Nonclassical thermal-state superpositions: Analytical evolution law and decoherence behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-guo; Goan, Hsi-Sheng; Wang, Ji-suo; Zhang, Ran

    2018-03-01

    Employing the integration technique within normal products of bosonic operators, we present normal product representations of thermal-state superpositions and investigate their nonclassical features, such as quadrature squeezing, sub-Poissonian distribution, and partial negativity of the Wigner function. We also analytically and numerically investigate their evolution law and decoherence characteristics in an amplitude-decay model via the variations of the probability distributions and the negative volumes of Wigner functions in phase space. The results indicate that the evolution formulas of two thermal component states for amplitude decay can be viewed as the same integral form as a displaced thermal state ρ(V , d) , but governed by the combined action of photon loss and thermal noise. In addition, the larger values of the displacement d and noise V lead to faster decoherence for thermal-state superpositions.

  5. Entanglement swapping of noisy states: A kind of superadditivity in nonclassicality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Brukner, Caslav; Buzek, Vladimir; Zukowski, Marek

    2005-01-01

    We address the question as to whether an entangled state that satisfies local realism will give a violation of the same after entanglement swapping in a suitable scenario. We consider such a possibility as a kind of superadditivity in nonclassicality. Importantly, it will indicate that checking for violation of local realism, in the state obtained after entanglement swapping, can be a method for detecting entanglement in the input state of the swapping procedure. We investigate various entanglement swapping schemes, which involve mixed initial states. The strength of violation of local realism by the state obtained after entanglement swapping is compared with the one for the input states. We obtain a kind of superadditivity of violation of local realism for Werner states, consequent upon entanglement swapping involving Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-state measurements. We also discuss whether entanglement swapping of specific states may be used in quantum repeaters with a substantially reduced need to perform the entanglement distillation step

  6. Mechanisms of resistance in nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica strains exhibiting a nonclassical quinolone resistance phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunell, Marianne; Webber, Mark A; Kotilainen, Pirkko; Lilly, Andrew J; Caddick, Jonathan M; Jalava, Jari; Huovinen, Pentti; Siitonen, Anja; Hakanen, Antti J; Piddock, Laura J V

    2009-09-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella enterica strains with a nonclassical quinolone resistance phenotype were isolated from patients returning from Thailand or Malaysia to Finland. A total of 10 isolates of seven serovars were studied in detail, all of which had reduced susceptibility (MIC > or = 0.125 microg/ml) to ciprofloxacin but were either susceptible or showed only low-level resistance (MIC resistance-determining regions (QRDR) of gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE by PCR and denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography and the amplification of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qnrD, aac(6')-Ib-cr, and qepA by PCR. PMQR was confirmed by plasmid analysis, Southern hybridization, and plasmid transfer. No mutations in the QRDRs of gyrA, gyrB, parC, or parE were detected with the exception of a Thr57-Ser substitution within ParC seen in all but the S. enterica serovar Typhimurium strains. The qnrA and qnrS genes were the only PMQR determinants detected. Plasmids carrying qnr alleles were transferable in vitro, and the resistance phenotype was reproducible in Escherichia coli DH5alpha transformants. These data demonstrate the emergence of a highly mobile qnr genotype that, in the absence of mutation within topoisomerase genes, confers the nontypical quinolone resistance phenotype in S. enterica isolates. The qnr resistance mechanism enables bacteria to survive elevated quinolone concentrations, and therefore, strains carrying qnr alleles may be able to expand during fluoroquinolone treatment. This is of concern since nonclassical quinolone resistance is plasmid mediated and therefore mobilizable.

  7. Improved CORF model of simple cell combined with non-classical receptive field and its application on edge detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Chai, Guobei; Liu, Wei; Bao, Wenzhuo; Zhao, Xiaoning; Ming, Delie

    2018-02-01

    Simple cells in primary visual cortex are believed to extract local edge information from a visual scene. In this paper, inspired by different receptive field properties and visual information flow paths of neurons, an improved Combination of Receptive Fields (CORF) model combined with non-classical receptive fields was proposed to simulate the responses of simple cell's receptive fields. Compared to the classical model, the proposed model is able to better imitate simple cell's physiologic structure with consideration of facilitation and suppression of non-classical receptive fields. And on this base, an edge detection algorithm as an application of the improved CORF model was proposed. Experimental results validate the robustness of the proposed algorithm to noise and background interference.

  8. Qubit-oscillator systems in the ultrastrong-coupling regime and their potential for preparing nonclassical states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco; Ashhab, Sahel

    2011-03-01

    We consider a system composed of a two-level system (i.e. a qubit) and a harmonic oscillator in the ultrastrong-coupling regime, where the coupling strength is comparable to the qubit and oscillator energy scales. We explore the possibility of preparing nonclassical states in this system, especially in the ground state of the combined system. The nonclassical states that we consider include squeezed states, Schrodinger-cat states and entangled states. We also analyze the nature of the change in the ground state as the coupling strength is increased, going from a separable ground state in the absence of coupling to a highly entangled ground state in the case of very strong coupling. Reference: S. Ashhab and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042311 (2010). We thank support from DARPA, AFOSR, NSA, LPS, ARO, NSF, MEXT, JSPS, FIRST, and JST.

  9. The generation of arbitrary order, non-classical, Gauss-type quadrature for transport applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented, based upon the Stieltjes method (1884), for the determination of non-classical Gauss-type quadrature rules, and the associated sets of abscissae and weights. The method is then used to generate a number of quadrature sets, to arbitrary order, which are primarily aimed at deterministic transport calculations. The quadrature rules and sets detailed include arbitrary order reproductions of those presented by Abu-Shumays in [4,8] (known as the QR sets, but labelled QRA here), in addition to a number of new rules and associated sets; these are generated in a similar way, and we label them the QRS quadrature sets. The method presented here shifts the inherent difficulty (encountered by Abu-Shumays) associated with solving the non-linear moment equations, particular to the required quadrature rule, to one of the determination of non-classical weight functions and the subsequent calculation of various associated inner products. Once a quadrature rule has been written in a standard form, with an associated weight function having been identified, the calculation of the required inner products is achieved using specific variable transformations, in addition to the use of rapid, highly accurate quadrature suited to this purpose. The associated non-classical Gauss quadrature sets can then be determined, and this can be done to any order very rapidly. In this paper, instead of listing weights and abscissae for the different quadrature sets detailed (of which there are a number), the MATLAB code written to generate them is included as Appendix D. The accuracy and efficacy (in a transport setting) of the quadrature sets presented is not tested in this paper (although the accuracy of the QRA quadrature sets has been studied in [12,13]), but comparisons to tabulated results listed in [8] are made. When comparisons are made with one of the azimuthal QRA sets detailed in [8], the inherent difficulty in the method of generation, used there, becomes apparent

  10. Non-Classical C–H···X Hydrogen Bonding and Its Role in Asymmetric Organocatalysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ajitha, Manjaly John

    2016-08-17

    Non-classical hydrogen bonds (NCHBs) have attracted significant interest in the past decade particularly because of their important role in asymmetric catalytic systems. These weak interactions (< 4 kcal/mol) offer much flexibility in the preorganization of molecular entities required to achieve high enantioselectivity. Herein, we review some recent important organocatalytic asymmetric reactions where a NCHB serves as a critical factor in determining the stereoselectivity.

  11. Non-classical continuum theory for fluids incorporating internal and Cosserat rotation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, K. S.; Joy, A. D.; Reddy, J. N.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a non-classical continuum theory for fluent continua in which the conservation and balance laws are derived by incorporating both internal rotation rates arising from the velocity gradient tensor and the rotation rates of the Cosserats. Specifically, in this non-classical continuum theory we have (1) the usual velocities (\\bar{ ±b {\\varvec{v }}}), (2) the three internal rotation rates ({}_i^t\\bar{ ±b {\\varvec{Θ }}}) about the axes of a fixed triad whose axes are parallel to the x-frame arising from the velocity gradient tensor (\\bar{ ±b {\\varvec{L }}}) that are completely defined by the antisymmetric part of the velocity gradient tensor, and (3) three additional rotation rates ({}_e^t\\bar{ ±b {\\varvec{Θ }}}) about the axes of the same triad located at each material point as additional three unknown degrees of freedom, referred to as Cosserat rotation rates. This gives rise to \\bar{ ±b {\\varvec{v }}} and {}_e^t\\bar{ ±b {\\varvec{Θ }}} as six degrees of freedom at a material point. The internal rotation rates {}_i^t\\bar{ ±b {\\varvec{Θ }}}, often neglected in classical fluid mechanics, exist in all deforming fluent continua as these are due to velocity gradient tensor. When the internal rotation rates {}_i^t\\bar{ ±b {\\varvec{Θ }}} are resisted by deforming fluent continua, conjugate moment tensor arises that together with {}_i^t\\bar{ ±b {\\varvec{Θ }}} may result in energy storage and/or dissipation, which must be considered in the conservation and balance laws. The Cosserat rotation rations {}_e^t\\bar{ ±b {\\varvec{Θ }}} also result in conjugate moment tensor that together with {}_e^t\\bar{ ±b {\\varvec{Θ }}} may also result in energy storage and/or dissipation. The main focus of this paper is a consistent derivation of conservation and balance laws for fluent continua that incorporate the aforementioned physics and associated constitutive theories for thermofluids using the conditions resulting from the entropy

  12. Does Wearing Textured Insoles during Non-class Time Improve Proprioception in Professional Dancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, N; Tirosh, O; Adams, R; Karin, J; Waddington, G

    2015-11-01

    This study sought to determine whether textured insoles inserted in the sports shoes of young dancers improved their inversion and eversion ankle movement discrimination. 26 ballet dancers (14 female, 12 male) from the Australian Ballet School, ages 14-19 years, were divided into 2 groups according to sex and class levels. During the first 4 weeks, the first intervention group (GRP1) was asked to wear textured insoles in their sports shoes during non-class periods, and the second intervention group (GRP2) followed standard practice. In the next 4 weeks, GRP2 was asked to wear the textured insoles and GRP1 did not wear the textured insoles. Participants were tested pre-intervention, after 4 weeks, and at 8 weeks for both inversion and eversion ankle discrimination. In both inversion and eversion testing positions, interaction was found between the 2 groups and the 3 testing times (p<0.001), with significant differences between the first testing and the second testing (p=0.038 and p=0.019, respectively), and between the third testing and the second testing (p=0.003 and p=0.029, respectively). In conclusion, the stimulation to the proprioceptive system arising from textured insoles worn for 4 weeks was sufficient to improve the ankle proprioception of ballet dancers, in both inversion and eversion movements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Squeezed and Non-classical Light

    CERN Document Server

    Pike, E; Squeezed and Non-classical Light

    1988-01-01

    The recent generation in the laboratory of phase squeezed and intensity squeezed light beams has brought to fruition the theoretical predictions of such non-classical phenomena which have been made and developed in recent years by a number of workers in the field of quantum optics. A vigorous development is now underway of both theory and experiment and the first measurements have been coi:Jfirmed and extended already in some half dozen laboratories. Although the fields of application of these novellight sources are as yet somewhat hazy in our minds and some inspired thinking is required along these lines, the pace and excitement of the research is very clear. It is to he hoped that the new possibilities of: making measurements below the quantum shot noise lirnit which is made possible by these squeezed states of light willlead to further fundamental advances in the near future. In this NATO ARW a number of the leaders in the field met in the extremely pleasant surroundings of Cortina d'Ampezzo and th...

  14. On Some Nonclassical Algebraic Properties of Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Interval-valued fuzzy soft sets realize a hybrid soft computing model in a general framework. Both Molodtsov's soft sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets can be seen as special cases of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. In this study, we first compare four different types of interval-valued fuzzy soft subsets and reveal the relations among them. Then we concentrate on investigating some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets under the soft product operations. We show that some fundamental algebraic properties including the commutative and associative laws do not hold in the conventional sense, but hold in weaker forms characterized in terms of the relation =L. We obtain a number of algebraic inequalities of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets characterized by interval-valued fuzzy soft inclusions. We also establish the weak idempotent law and the weak absorptive law of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets using interval-valued fuzzy soft J-equal relations. It is revealed that the soft product operations ∧ and ∨ of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets do not always have similar algebraic properties. Moreover, we find that only distributive inequalities described by the interval-valued fuzzy soft L-inclusions hold for interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. PMID:25143964

  15. Imidazolines as Non-Classical Bioisosteres of N-Acyl homoserine lactones and Quorum Sensing Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabel Montenegro-Sustaita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of selected 2-substituted imidazolines were synthesized in moderate to excellent yields by a modification of protocols reported in the literature. They were evaluated as potential non-classical bioisosteres of AHL with the aim of counteracting bacterial pathogenicity. Imidazolines 18a, 18e and 18f at various concentrations reduced the violacein production by Chromobacterium violaceum, suggesting an anti-quorum sensing profile against Gram-negative bacteria. Imidazoline 18b did not affect the production of violacein, but had a bacteriostatic effect at 100 µM and a bactericidal effect at 1 mM. Imidazoline 18a bearing a hexyl phenoxy moiety was the most active compound of the series, rendering a 72% inhibitory effect of quorum sensing at 100 µM. Imidazoline 18f bearing a phenyl nonamide substituent presented an inhibitory effect on quorum sensing at a very low concentration (1 nM, with a reduction percentage of 28%. This compound showed an irregular performance, decreasing inhibition at concentrations higher than 10 µM, until reaching 100 µM, at which concentration it increased the inhibitory effect with a 49% reduction percentage. When evaluated on Serratia marcescens, compound 18f inhibited the production of prodigiosin by 40% at 100 μM.

  16. On some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Feng, Feng; Zhang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Interval-valued fuzzy soft sets realize a hybrid soft computing model in a general framework. Both Molodtsov's soft sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets can be seen as special cases of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. In this study, we first compare four different types of interval-valued fuzzy soft subsets and reveal the relations among them. Then we concentrate on investigating some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets under the soft product operations. We show that some fundamental algebraic properties including the commutative and associative laws do not hold in the conventional sense, but hold in weaker forms characterized in terms of the relation = L . We obtain a number of algebraic inequalities of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets characterized by interval-valued fuzzy soft inclusions. We also establish the weak idempotent law and the weak absorptive law of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets using interval-valued fuzzy soft J-equal relations. It is revealed that the soft product operations ∧ and ∨ of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets do not always have similar algebraic properties. Moreover, we find that only distributive inequalities described by the interval-valued fuzzy soft L-inclusions hold for interval-valued fuzzy soft sets.

  17. On Some Nonclassical Algebraic Properties of Interval-Valued Fuzzy Soft Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interval-valued fuzzy soft sets realize a hybrid soft computing model in a general framework. Both Molodtsov’s soft sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets can be seen as special cases of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets. In this study, we first compare four different types of interval-valued fuzzy soft subsets and reveal the relations among them. Then we concentrate on investigating some nonclassical algebraic properties of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets under the soft product operations. We show that some fundamental algebraic properties including the commutative and associative laws do not hold in the conventional sense, but hold in weaker forms characterized in terms of the relation =L. We obtain a number of algebraic inequalities of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets characterized by interval-valued fuzzy soft inclusions. We also establish the weak idempotent law and the weak absorptive law of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets using interval-valued fuzzy soft J-equal relations. It is revealed that the soft product operations ∧ and ∨ of interval-valued fuzzy soft sets do not always have similar algebraic properties. Moreover, we find that only distributive inequalities described by the interval-valued fuzzy soft L-inclusions hold for interval-valued fuzzy soft sets.

  18. Mechanical removal of dendritic cell-generating non-classical monocytes via ex vivo lung perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, John P; Sevenoaks, Hannah; Sjöberg, Trygve; Steen, Stig; Yonan, Nizar; Fildes, James E

    2014-08-01

    Ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) is a novel procedure designed to rapidly assess and recondition unusable donor lungs for transplantation (LTx). EVLP may reduce graft immunogenicity and allorecognition via removal of passenger leukocytes. We aimed to explore this hypothesis using human EVLP and in vitro analysis. Explanted human lungs (n = 7) underwent standard EVLP. Perfusate samples and the leukocyte filter were collected, and cells characterized via flow cytometry. Isolated alveolar monocytes (from post-LTx bronchoalveolar lavage) were differentiated to dendritic cells and characterized (n = 10). An in vitro (air epithelial-liquid endothelial) lung model was utilized to evaluate monocyte migration and differentiation within the lung. Non-classical monocytes (NCM, normally <1% of total white blood cell repertoire) mobilized within 30 minutes of EVLP and represented 80.04% of the passenger leukocyte population. This subset readily differentiated to dendritic cells and secreted pro-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-γ and interleukin-2) after stimulation. NCM rapidly diapedesed from the vascular bed to the alveolus and, when cultured on the alveolus, differentiated to dendritic cells with inflammatory phenotypes. The lung possesses a reservoir of NCM, which can readily diapedese to the alveolus or mobilize in the circulation. After activation, NCM differentiate to inflammatory dendritic cells with T-cell co-stimulatory capacity. EVLP may impart additional benefits after LTx via the removal of passenger monocytes, which may represent a previously unidentified beneficial mechanism of action. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nonclassical Nucleation in a Solid-Solid Transition of Confined Hard Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Weikai; Peng, Yi; Han, Yilong; Bowles, Richard K.; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2015-10-01

    A solid-solid phase transition of colloidal hard spheres confined between two planar hard walls is studied using a combination of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation. The transition from a solid consisting of five crystalline layers with square symmetry (5 □ ) to a solid consisting of four layers with triangular symmetry (4 △ ) is shown to occur through a nonclassical nucleation mechanism that involves the initial formation of a precritical liquid cluster, within which the cluster of the stable 4 △ phase grows. Free-energy calculations show that the transition occurs in one step, crossing a single free-energy barrier, and that the critical nucleus consists of a small 4 △ solid cluster wetted by a metastable liquid. In addition, the liquid cluster and the solid cluster are shown to grow at the planar hard walls. We also find that the critical nucleus size increases with supersaturation, which is at odds with classical nucleation theory. The △-solid-like cluster is shown to contain both face-centered-cubic and hexagonal-close-packed ordered particles.

  20. Identification and estimation of nonlinear models using two samples with nonclassical measurement errors

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.

    2010-05-01

    This paper considers identification and estimation of a general nonlinear Errors-in-Variables (EIV) model using two samples. Both samples consist of a dependent variable, some error-free covariates, and an error-prone covariate, for which the measurement error has unknown distribution and could be arbitrarily correlated with the latent true values; and neither sample contains an accurate measurement of the corresponding true variable. We assume that the regression model of interest - the conditional distribution of the dependent variable given the latent true covariate and the error-free covariates - is the same in both samples, but the distributions of the latent true covariates vary with observed error-free discrete covariates. We first show that the general latent nonlinear model is nonparametrically identified using the two samples when both could have nonclassical errors, without either instrumental variables or independence between the two samples. When the two samples are independent and the nonlinear regression model is parameterized, we propose sieve Quasi Maximum Likelihood Estimation (Q-MLE) for the parameter of interest, and establish its root-n consistency and asymptotic normality under possible misspecification, and its semiparametric efficiency under correct specification, with easily estimated standard errors. A Monte Carlo simulation and a data application are presented to show the power of the approach.

  1. Conservation of sequence motifs suggests that the nonclassical MHC class I lineages CD1/PROCR and UT were established before the emergence of tetrapod species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Johannes M; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Grimholt, Unni

    2017-12-21

    Humans have a number of nonclassical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules that are quite divergent from the classical ones, and that may have separated from the classical lineage in pre-mammalian times. To estimate when in evolution the respective nonclassical lineages separated from the classical lineage, we first identified "phylogenetic marker motifs" within the evolution of classical MHC class I; the selected motifs are rather specific for and rather stably inherited within clades of species. Distribution of these motifs in nonclassical MHC class I molecules indicates that the lineage including the nonclassical MHC class I molecules CD1 and PROCR separated from the classical lineage before the emergence of tetrapod species, and that the human nonclassical MHC class I molecules FCGRT, MIC/ULBP/RAET, HFE, MR1, and ZAG show similarity with classical MHC class I at the avian/reptilian level. An MR1-like α1 exon sequence was identified in turtle. Our system furthermore indicates that the lineage UT, hitherto only found in non-eutherian mammals, predates tetrapod existence, and we identified UT genes in reptiles. If only accepting wide distribution of a lineage among extant species as true evidence for ancientness, the oldest identified nonclassical MHC class I lineage remains the fish-specific lineage Z, which was corroborated in the present study by finding both Z and classical-type MHC class I sequences in a primitive fish, the bichir. In short, we gained important new insights into the evolution of classical MHC class I motifs and the probable time of origin of nonclassical MHC class I lineages.

  2. Transcription of non-classic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in the bovine placenta throughout gestation and after Brucella abortus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Larissa Sarmento; da Silva Mol, Juliana Pinto; de Macedo, Auricélio Alves; Silva, Ana Patrícia Carvalho; Dos Santos Ribeiro, Diego Luiz; Santos, Renato Lima; da Paixão, Tatiane Alves; de Carvalho Neta, Alcina Vieira

    2015-10-15

    Transcription of non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) was assessed in the bovine placenta throughout gestation. Additionally, the effect of Brucella abortus infection on expression of non-classical MHC-I was also evaluated using a chorioallantoic membrane explant model of infection. The non-classical MHC-I genes MICB and NC3 had higher levels of transcription in the intercotyledonary region when compared to the placentome, which had higher levels of transcription at the second trimester of gestation. NC1 and classical MHC-I had very low levels of transcription throughout gestation. Trophoblastic cells of B. abortus-infected chorioallantoic membrane explants had an increase in transcription of non-classical MHC-I at 4h post infection. Therefore, this study provides an analysis of non-classical MHC-I transcription at different stages of gestation and different placental tissues, and during B. abortus infection. These findings provide additional knowledge on immune regulation in placental tissues, a known immune-privileged site. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. A non-classical view of the modulation of mineral precipitation by organic additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Agudo, Encarnacion; Ruiz-Agudo, Cristina; Burgos-Cara, Alejandro; Putnis, Christine; Rodriguez-Navarro, Carlos; Putnis, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Questions persist on the mechanisms of crystallization of sparingly soluble minerals such as calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate or barium sulphate. Compared to CaCO3, the mechanisms of nucleation and growth in the CaC2O4-H2O or BaSO4-H2O systems have received less attention. These phases are important due to their relevance as biominerals and/or unwanted mineral deposits in technological applications. Growing evidence suggests that sparingly soluble salts form by non-classical nucleation and growth pathways, where pre-nucleation ion associates and amorphous (solid or liquid) precursor phase(s) play a critical role (e.g. Rodríguez-Navarro et al. (2015), Ruiz-Agudo et al. (2015)). Indeed the identification of pre-nucleation species in these systems and their strong interactions with organic compounds (Verch et al. 2011) raises the possibility that the control of organics on biomineralization may begin even earlier than previously thought. A sound knowledge of the physical mechanisms by which acidic macromolecules affect nucleation and early growth may offer general insights concerning the molecular control of biomineralization, as well as being critical for improving strategies to control unwanted mineral deposition or for the synthesis of biomimetic materials. Here we present investigations on the initial stages of the precipitation of these relevant minerals in organic-free solutions to identify the precipitation pathway and to look for any potential precursor phase(s) to the final, crystalline polymorph. As well, we explore the effects that several acidic organic compounds have on the different precipitation stages identified. We find that organic additives such as citric acid, polyacrilic acid or a commercial copolymer of maleic acid/allyl sulfonic acid with phosphonate groups can be active at modifying pre-nucleation stages (destabilizing of pre-nucleation species or hampering the aggregation and growth of pre-nucleation associates) and subsequently strongly

  4. Mathematical and numerical study of nonlinear hyperbolic equations: model coupling and nonclassical shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boutin, B.

    2009-11-01

    This thesis concerns the mathematical and numerical study of nonlinear hyperbolic partial differential equations. A first part deals with an emergent problematic: the coupling of hyperbolic equations. The pursued applications are linked with the mathematical coupling of computing platforms, dedicated to an adaptative simulation of multi-scale phenomena. We propose and analyze a new coupling formalism based on extended PDE systems avoiding the geometric treatment of the interfaces. In addition, it allows to formulate the problem in a multidimensional setting, with possible covering of the coupled models. This formalism allows in particular to equip the coupling procedure with viscous regularization mechanisms, useful in the selection of natural discontinuous solutions. We analyze existence and uniqueness in the framework of a parabolic regularization a la Dafermos. Existence of a solution holds true under very general conditions but failure of uniqueness may naturally arise as soon as resonance occurs at the interfaces. Next, we highlight that our extended PDE framework gives rise to another regularization strategy based on thick interfaces. In this setting, we prove existence and uniqueness of the solutions of the Cauchy problem for initial data in L ∞ . The main tool consists in the derivation of a flexible and robust finite volume method for general triangulation which is analyzed in the setting of entropy measure-valued solutions by DiPerna. The second part is devoted to the definition of a finite volume scheme for the computing of nonclassical solutions of a scalar conservation law based on a kinetic relation. This scheme offers the feature to be stricto sensu conservative, in opposition to a Glimm approach that is only statistically conservative. The validity of our approach is illustrated through numerical examples. (author)

  5. Diagnosis and molecular characterization of non-classic forms of Tay-Sachs disease in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenberg, R; Kok, F; Burin, M G; Sá Miranda, M C; Vasques, C; Henriques-Souza, A M M; Giugliani, R; Vainzof, Mariz; Pereira, L V

    2006-06-01

    Molecular analysis of five Brazilian families, including eight patients presenting with nonclassic Tay-Sachs disease, was performed to identify frequent causative mutations and their correlation with clinical course. Three patients were affected by the B1 subacute variant and were shown to carry the R178H mutation (the DN allele), which is also common among Portuguese patients. Two of them were compound heterozygotes, whereas the third presented with the mutation in both alleles. Since Brazil was a Portuguese colony for over two centuries, common ancestry might be the probable explanation. The fourth patient presented with a juvenile phenotype and carries the R499H mutation, which has been reported only once worldwide and is associated with residual enzyme activity, responsible for a slower clinical course. The fifth family, of an Ashkenazi Jewish background, showed an extensive intrafamilial clinical variability among three affected sibs presenting with muscle atrophy, ataxia, and psychiatric symptoms. They were first diagnosed as having atypical spinal muscular atrophy and, subsequently, spinocerebellar ataxia, but, recently, the diagnosis of late-onset Tay-Sachs disease was confirmed based on reduced plasma hexosaminidase A activity and the G269S/InsTATC1278 genotype. It is therefore highly recommended to test patients with a similar clinical history for Tay-Sachs disease. In the same family, one first cousin committed suicide at the age of 24 years, presenting with a clinical phenotype that suggested an undiagnosed case and highlighting the effect of the intrafamilial clinical variability in delaying a prompt diagnosis. It is now recognized that his parents are, in fact, a carrier couple. Additionally, another relative had been previously identified as a heterozygote in a Tay-Sachs disease screening program, but the information was not shared among the family. Since this information might anticipate diagnosis and genetic counseling, it is advisable that

  6. Non-classical major histocompatibility complex class makes a crucial contribution to reproduction in the dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Lei; Peng, Xiuli; Zhang, Shen; Deng, Ganzhen; Wu, Yue; He, Mingyue; Li, Beibei; Li, Chengye; Zhang, Kechun

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of classical and non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on the reproduction in the dairy cow. Nine pairs of MHC-I genes were chosen according to their homology and possible function, and their transcription levels in maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from all three trimesters and transcription levels in fetal tissues were compared to evaluate their contributions to cattle reproduction. The results showed that three non-classical genes were variably expressed in PBMCs of pregnant cows. MICB was downregulated in the first and second trimesters (P0.05). BoLA-NC1* was upregulated in the first and last trimesters (P0.05). BoLA-NC3* was upregulated in all trimesters (P<0.001). On the other hand, MICB was upregulated in fetal ear tissues (P<0.001), and BoLA-NC1* was almost silent in both fetal placenta and ear tissues (P<0.001); however, BoLA-NC3* was upregulated in both the fetal placenta and ear tissues (P<0.001). These results suggested that non-classical gene BoLA-NC1* increased maternal immunity against the fetus, which was inhibited by BoLA-NC3*. BoLA-NC3* also inhibited fetal autoimmunity. Apoptosis of the fetal placenta could reduce itself expressing MICB, and upregulated expression of MICB in ear tissues was favorable for the fetus to escape autoimmunity. On the other hand, downregulated expression of MICB in the fetal placenta allows for placental decoherence from the maternal placentome, which was beneficial to fetus delivery. Although classical genes were expressed differentially, their effects were restricted because of heavy chain deficiency.

  7. Heterodyne non-demolition measurements on cold atomic samples: towards the preparation of non-classical states for atom interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernon, S; Vanderbruggen, T; Kohlhaas, R; Bertoldi, A; Bouyer, P [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, CNRS and Universite Paris-Sud Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, F-91127 Palaiseau cedex (France); Landragin, A, E-mail: simon.bernon@institutoptique.fr [LNE-SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, CNRS and UPMC 61 avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2011-06-15

    We report on a novel experiment to generate non-classical atomic states via quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements on cold atomic samples prepared in a high-finesse ring cavity. The heterodyne technique developed for QND detection exhibits an optical shot-noise limited behavior for local oscillator optical power of a few hundred {mu}W, and a detection bandwidth of several GHz. This detection tool is used in a single pass to follow non-destructively the internal state evolution of an atomic sample when subjected to Rabi oscillations or a spin-echo interferometric sequence.

  8. Observation of classical rotational inertia and nonclassical supersolid signals in solid 4He below 250 mK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner, Ann Sophie C; Reppy, John D

    2006-10-20

    We have confirmed the existence, as first reported by Kim and Chan, of a supersolid state in solid 4He at temperatures below 250 mK. We have employed a torsional oscillator cell with a square cross section to insure a locking of the solid to the oscillating cell. We find that the nonclassical rotational inertia signal is not a universal property of solid 4He but can be eliminated through an annealing of the solid helium sample. This result has important implications for our understanding of the supersolid state.

  9. A nonclassical Radau collocation method for solving the Lane-Emden equations of the polytropic index 4.75 ≤ α < 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirani, M. D.; Maleki, M.; Kajani, M. T.

    2014-11-01

    A numerical method for solving the Lane-Emden equations of the polytropic index α when 4.75 ≤ α ≤ 5 is introduced. The method is based upon nonclassical Gauss-Radau collocation points and Freud type weights. Nonclassical orthogonal polynomials, nonclassical Radau points and weighted interpolation are introduced and are utilized in the interval [0,1]. A smooth, strictly monotonic transformation is used to map the infinite domain x ∈ [0,∞) onto a half-open interval t ∈ [0,1). The resulting problem on the finite interval is then transcribed to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations using collocation. The method is easy to implement and yields very accurate results.

  10. Measures of nonclassicality for a two-level atom interacting with power-law potential field under decoherence effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, S.; Berrada, K.; Alkhateeb, Sadah A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a useful quantum system to perform different tasks of quantum information and computational technologies. We explore the required optimal conditions for this system that are feasible with real experimental realization. We present an active way to control the variation of some measures of nonclassicality considering the time-dependent coupling and photon transition effects under a model that closely describes a realistic experimental scenario. We investigate qualitatively the quantum measures for a two-level atom system interacting with a quantum field initially defined in a coherent state in the framework of power-law potentials (PLPCSs). We study the nonlocal correlation in the whole system state using the negativity as a measure of entanglement in terms of the exponent parameter, number of photon transition, and phase damping effect. The influences of the different physical parameters on the statistical properties and purity of the field are also demonstrated during the time evolution. The results indicate that the preservation and enhancement of entanglement greatly benefit from the combination of the choice of the physical parameters. Finally, we explore an interesting relationship between the different quantum measures of non-classicality during the time evolution in the absence and presence of time-dependent coupling effect.

  11. Cognitive aspects of a temporality concept in the comparative analysis of post-nonclassical scientificity and myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tychkin Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers ‘time’, a fundamental category of human existence, in the context of cognitive processes research in modern culture. Main methodological approaches to determining temporality in myth have been outlined. The authors validate a thesis that methods of understanding time in science and myth at the current development stage of research of the specified worldview forms as cognitive practices correlate. Main features of a ‘time’ concept and its function in mythological thinking, such as unity, interpenetrability, verticality, have been formulated. Myth creates senses, forms a steady ontological picture of the world, makes a human an active source in “constructing the reality”. In this connection, myth mostly plays the role of one of the algorithms of cognitive activity in the context of modern cognitive science. A “temporality” concept realized in myth forms conditions to use it as one of ontological foundations in the modern research of cognitive processes. Main types of temporality in classical and nonclassical science have been described. The specificity of time concept transformation in non-classical science and actualization of relativity and probability of processes and their complementary nature have been revealed. D.Chou’s bootstrap theory of particles has been studied. There has been shown that temporary processes of the micro-world are discrete, diverse and do not exist within the framework of universal integrity which to a great extent correlates with the modern scientific worldview and principles of cognitive practices.

  12. Natural Killer Cell Interactions with Classical and Non-Classical Human Leukocyte Antigen Class I in HIV-1 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölzemer, Angelique; Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo F.; Altfeld, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are effector lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are able to mount a multifaceted antiviral response within hours following infection. This is achieved through an array of cell surface receptors surveilling host cells for alterations in human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) expression and other ligands as signs of viral infection, malignant transformation, and cellular stress. This interaction between HLA-I ligands and NK-cell receptor is not only important for recognition of diseased cells but also mediates tuning of NK-cell-effector functions. HIV-1 alters the expression of HLA-I ligands on infected cells, rendering them susceptible to NK cell-mediated killing. However, over the past years, various HIV-1 evasion strategies have been discovered to target NK-cell-receptor ligands and allow the virus to escape from NK cell-mediated immunity. While studies have been mainly focusing on the role of polymorphic HLA-A, -B, and -C molecules, less is known about how HIV-1 affects the more conserved, non-classical HLA-I molecules HLA-E, -G, and -F. In this review, we will focus on the recent progress in understanding the role of non-classical HLA-I ligands in NK cell-mediated recognition of HIV-1-infected cells. PMID:29184550

  13. Imunoekspresi Ki-67 Pada Tumor Payudara Tikus Wistar Yang Diinokulasi Tumor Terinduksi Benzo(Α)Pyrene Dan Diberikan Ekstrak Daun Sirsak

    OpenAIRE

    Sitorus, Mega Sari

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased cell population as result of proliferation increasing or decreased of death or differentiation cell. Tumors, mainly cancers which has higher proliferation activity, show prognostic factor and tumor aggressiveness. Annonaceous acetogenins(ACGs) which are the active agent of soursop leaves have a potential cytotoxic (antitumor) effect through inhibiting work on NADHubiqiunone oxidireductase (NADH-dehydrogenase or complex I). The purpose of this research t...

  14. Annona muricata aqueous extract suppresses T47D breast cancer cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Ika Fidianingsih; Ety Sari Handayani

    2014-01-01

    Background Cancer is a dreadful disease caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division. Annona muricata L, also known as soursop, is useful as an anticancer herbal medication since its leaves, seeds and fruits contain active compounds called annonaceous acetogenins. The objective of this study was to scientifically justify the traditional application of soursop for anticancer treatment in the community, by comparing the antiproliferative effect of Annona muricata L leaf, seed and fruit ...

  15. On the origin of nonclassical light generation upon resonant excitation of a GaAs semiconductor microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demenev, A. A.; Domaretskii, D. R.; Parakhonskii, A. L.; Lebedev, M. V.

    2017-10-01

    It was shown in JETP Lett. 102, 508 (2015) that the intensity correlation function of the emission from a high-quality-factor semiconductor microcavity under resonant optical pumping exhibits an oscillatory behavior with an unexpectedly long oscillation period and a long decay time, which fall in the nanosecond range. A further investigation demonstrates that the origin of these oscillations is not related to the weak Rabi interaction between long-lived localized exciton states in the quantum well and the electromagnetic field of the microcavity mode. It proves that the semiconductor microcavity plays a secondary role in the observation of nonclassical light: it provides the spectral selection of the modes of the pump laser. We believe that intrinsic instabilities lead to the chaotic excitation of spiking in the laser modes under a constant operating current.

  16. Non-classical logic inverter coupling a ZnO nanowire-based Schottky barrier transistor and adjacent Schottky diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Shokouh, Seyed Hossein; Raza, Syed Raza Ali; Lee, Hee Sung; Im, Seongil

    2014-08-21

    On a single ZnO nanowire (NW), we fabricated an inverter-type device comprising a Schottky diode (SD) and field-effect transistor (FET), aiming at 1-dimensional (1D) electronic circuits with low power consumption. The SD and adjacent FET worked respectively as the load and driver, so that voltage signals could be easily extracted as the output. In addition, NW FET with a transparent conducting oxide as top gate turned out to be very photosensitive, although ZnO NW SD was blind to visible light. Based on this, we could achieve an array of photo-inverter cells on one NW. Our non-classical inverter is regarded as quite practical for both logic and photo-sensing due to its performance as well as simple device configuration.

  17. Deformed photon-added entangled squeezed vacuum and one-photon states: Entanglement, polarization, and nonclassical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Karimi; M, K. Tavassoly

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, after a brief review on the entangled squeezed states, we produce a new class of the continuous-variable-type entangled states, namely, deformed photon-added entangled squeezed states. These states are obtained via the iterated action of the f-deformed creation operator A = f (n)a † on the entangled squeezed states. In the continuation, by studying the criteria such as the degree of entanglement, quantum polarization as well as sub-Poissonian photon statistics, the two-mode correlation function, one-mode and two-mode squeezing, we investigate the nonclassical behaviors of the introduced states in detail by choosing a particular f-deformation function. It is revealed that the above-mentioned physical properties can be affected and so may be tuned by justifying the excitation number, after choosing a nonlinearity function. Finally, to generate the introduced states, we propose a theoretical scheme using the nonlinear Jaynes-Cummings model.

  18. New class of generalized photon-added coherent states and some of their non-classical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mojaveri, B; Mahmoodi, S; Dehghani, A

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we construct a new class of generalized photon added coherent states (GPACSs), |z,m〉 r by excitations on a newly introduced family of generalized coherent states (GCSs) |z〉 r (A Dehghani and B Mojaveri 2012 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 45 095304), obtained via generalized hypergeometric type displacement operators acting on the vacuum state of the simple harmonic oscillator. We show that these states realize resolution of the identity property through positive definite measures on the complex plane. Meanwhile, we demonstrate that the introduced states can also be interpreted as nonlinear coherent states (NLCSs), with a spacial nonlinearity function. Finally, some of their non-classical features as well as their quantum statistical properties are compared with Agarwal's photon-added coherent states (PACSs), |z,m〉. (paper)

  19. A new synthetic route to a family of non-classical addition-type thermoplastics. I - Concept and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Ruth H.

    1988-01-01

    A synthesis scheme was developed for a host of nonclassical addition-type thermoplastics (ATT) that can be cured by an addition reaction, leading to a linear polymer structure. The synthesis involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated prepolymer with either a bismaleimide (BMI) or a biscitraconimide. A new polymer, designated LaRC-RP80, synthesized using this scheme, was found to exhibit several significantly improved properties over the commercial BMI, Kerimid 601, including an eight-fold increase in toughness while maintaining a high Tg, a higher (by 167 C) heat stability, and a 50-percent increase in moisture resistance. In addition, LaRC-RP80 has good hot/wet lap shear strength and processes easily at 288 C without voids in the finished product.

  20. Characterization of novel StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mutations causing non-classic lipoid adrenal hyperplasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa E Flück

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR is crucial for transport of cholesterol to mitochondria where biosynthesis of steroids is initiated. Loss of StAR function causes lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (LCAH. OBJECTIVE: StAR gene mutations causing partial loss of function manifest atypical and may be mistaken as familial glucocorticoid deficiency. Only a few mutations have been reported. DESIGN: To report clinical, biochemical, genetic, protein structure and functional data on two novel StAR mutations, and to compare them with published literature. SETTING: Collaboration between the University Children's Hospital Bern, Switzerland, and the CIBERER, Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Autonomous University, Barcelona, Spain. PATIENTS: Two subjects of a non-consanguineous Caucasian family were studied. The 46,XX phenotypic normal female was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at the age of 10 months, had normal pubertal development and still has no signs of hypergonodatropic hypogonadism at 32 years of age. Her 46,XY brother was born with normal male external genitalia and was diagnosed with adrenal insufficiency at 14 months. Puberty was normal and no signs of hypergonadotropic hypogonadism are present at 29 years of age. RESULTS: StAR gene analysis revealed two novel compound heterozygote mutations T44HfsX3 and G221S. T44HfsX3 is a loss-of-function StAR mutation. G221S retains partial activity (∼30% and is therefore responsible for a milder, non-classic phenotype. G221S is located in the cholesterol binding pocket and seems to alter binding/release of cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: StAR mutations located in the cholesterol binding pocket (V187M, R188C, R192C, G221D/S seem to cause non-classic lipoid CAH. Accuracy of genotype-phenotype prediction by in vitro testing may vary with the assays employed.

  1. Nonclassical dynamics of the methyl group in 1,1,1-triphenylethane. Evidence from powder 1H NMR spectra

    KAUST Repository

    Osior, Agnieszka

    2017-03-14

    According to the damped quantum rotation (DQR) theory, hindered rotation of methyl groups, evidenced in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) line shapes, is a nonclassical process. It comprises a number of quantum-rate processes measured by two different quantum-rate constants. The classical jump model employing only one rate constant is reproduced if these quantum constants happen to be equal. The values of their ratio, or the nonclassicallity coefficient, determined hitherto from NMR spectra of single crystals and solutions range from about 1.20 to 1.30 in the latter case to above 5.0 in the former, with the value of 1 corresponding to the jump model. Presently, first systematic investigations of the DQR effects in wide-line NMR spectra of a powder sample are reported. For 1,1,1-triphenylethane deuterated in the aromatic positions, the relevant line-shape effects were monitored in the range 99–121 K. The values of the nonclassicality coefficient dropping from 2.7 to 1.7 were evaluated in line shape fits to the experimental powder spectra from the range 99–108 K. At these temperatures, the fits with the conventional line-shape model are visibly inferior to the DQR fits. Using a theoretical model reported earlier, a semiquantitative interpretation of the DQR parameters evaluated from the spectra is given. It is shown that the DQR effects as such can be detected in wide-line NMR spectra of powdered samples, which are relatively facile to measure. However, a fully quantitative picture of these effects can only be obtained from the much more demanding experiments on single crystals.

  2. Classical and non-classical MHC I molecule manipulation by human cytomegalovirus: so many targets—but how many arrows in the quiver?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halenius, Anne; Gerke, Carolin; Hengel, Hartmut

    2015-01-01

    Major mechanisms for the recognition of pathogens by immune cells have evolved to employ classical and non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules. Classical MHC I molecules present antigenic peptide ligands on infected cells to CD8+ T cells, whereas a key function for non-classical MHC I molecules is to mediate inhibitory or activating stimuli in natural killer (NK) cells. The structural diversity of MHC I puts immense pressure on persisting viruses, including cytomegaloviruses. The very large coding capacity of the human cytomegalovirus allows it to express a whole arsenal of immunoevasive factors assigned to individual MHC class I targets. This review summarizes achievements from more than two decades of intense research on how human cytomegalovirus manipulates MHC I molecules and escapes elimination by the immune system. PMID:25418469

  3. Classical and non-classical HLA class I aberrations in primary cervical squamous- and adenocarcinomas and paired lymph node metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferns, Debbie M; Heeren, A Marijne; Samuels, Sanne; Bleeker, Maaike C G; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Kenter, Gemma G; Jordanova, Ekaterina S

    2016-01-01

    Tumors avoid destruction by cytotoxic T cells (CTL) and natural killer (NK) cells by downregulation of classical human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and overexpression of non-classical HLA. This is the first study to investigate HLA expression in relation to histology (squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) vs. adenocarcinoma (AC)), clinicopathological parameters and survival in a large cervical cancer patient cohort. Classical (HLA-A and HLA-B/C)- and non-classical HLA molecules (HLA-E and HLA-G) were studied on primary tumors and paired lymph node (LN) metastases from cervical cancer patients ( n  = 136) by immunohistochemistry. The Chi 2 test was used for the comparison of clinicopathological characteristics between SCC and AC patients. The Related-Samples Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was used to compare HLA expression between the primary tumor and metastasis in LN. Patient survival rates were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier curves and Log Rank test. The Mann-Whitney U Test was used to compare the distribution of HLA class I expression between SCC and AC. Decreased expression of HLA-A (SCC P  HLA-B/C (SCC P  HLA (SCC P  HLA-A ( P  = 0.05). SCC metastases showed more complete loss of HLA-A, while AC metastases showed more complete loss of HLA-B/C ( P  = 0.04). In addition, tumor size and parametrium involvement were also related to aberrant HLA class I expression. No significant associations between HLA expression and disease-specific (DSS) or disease-free survival (DFS) were found in this advanced disease cohort. However, in the SCC group, samples showing loss of HLA-A or loss of total classical HLA but positive for HLA-G were linked to poor patient survival (DSS P  = 0.001 and P  = 0.01; DFS P  = 0.003 and P  = 0.01, for HLA-A and total classical HLA, respectively). These results strengthen the idea of tumor immune escape variants leading to metastasis. Moreover, SCC tumors showing downregulation of HLA-A or total classical HLA in combination with HLA

  4. Expression of bovine non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I proteins in mouse P815 and human K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasar, Parveen; Wilhelm, Amanda; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Thomas, Aaron J; Teng, Lihong; Shi, Bi; Davis, William C; Suarez, Carlos E; New, Daniel D; White, Kenneth L; Davies, Christopher J

    2016-08-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) proteins can be expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins. To investigate whether bovine non-classical MHC-I proteins are expressed as cell surface or secreted proteins, and to assess the reactivity pattern of monoclonal antibodies with non-classical MHC-I isoforms, we expressed the MHC proteins in murine P815 and human K562 (MHC-I deficient) cells. Following antibiotic selection, stably transfected cell lines were stained with H1A or W6/32 antibodies to detect expression of the MHC-I proteins by flow cytometry. Two non-classical proteins (BoLA-NC1*00501 and BoLA-NC3*00101) were expressed on the cell surface in both cell lines. Surprisingly, the BoLA-NC4*00201 protein was expressed on the cell membrane of human K562 but not mouse P815 cells. Two non-classical proteins (BoLA-NC1*00401, which lacks a transmembrane domain, and BoLA-NC2*00102) did not exhibit cell surface expression. Nevertheless, Western blot analyses demonstrated expression of the MHC-I heavy chain in all transfected cell lines. Ammonium-sulfate precipitation of proteins from culture supernatants showed that BoLA-NC1*00401 was secreted and that all surface expressed proteins where shed from the cell membrane by the transfected cells. Interestingly, the surface expressed MHC-I proteins were present in culture supernatants at a much higher concentration than BoLA-NC1*00401. This comprehensive study shows that bovine non-classical MHC-I proteins BoLA-NC1*00501, BoLA-NC3*00101, and BoLA-NC4*00201 are expressed as surface isoforms with the latter reaching the cell membrane only in K562 cells. Furthermore, it demonstrated that BoLA-NC1*00401 is a secreted isoform and that significant quantities of membrane associated MHC-I proteins can be shed from the cell membrane. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanism of non-classical light emission from acoustically populated (311)A GaAs quantum wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazić, S.; Hey, R.; Santos, P. V.

    2012-01-01

    We employ surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to control the transfer of photo-generated carriers between interconnected quantum wells and quantum wires (QWRs) grown on pre-patterned (311)A GaAs substrates. Optical studies, carried out under remote acoustic excitation of a single QWR, have shown sharp photoluminescence lines and antibunched photons with tunable emission energy. These features are attributed to recombination of acoustically transported carriers in potential inhomogeneities within the wire. The origin of the photon antibunching is discussed in terms of a ‘bottleneck’ in the number of carriers trapped in the QWR, which restricts the number of recombination events per SAW cycle. We propose a model for antibunching based on the trapping of carriers induced by the SAW piezoelectric field in states at the interface between the GaAs QWR and the AlGaAs barriers. Non-classical light is emitted during the subsequent release of the trapped carriers into the recombination centers within the wire. The spatial distribution of the emitting recombination centers is estimated using time-resolved measurements.

  6. Increased large artery intima media thickness in adolescents with either classical or non-classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewska, M; Balsamo, A; Valenzise, M; Manganaro, A; Faggioli, G; Bombaci, S; Conti, V; Ferri, M; Aversa, T; Cicognani, A; De Luca, F

    2013-01-01

    Increased artery intima-media thickness (IMT) was found in adults with classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). No data are available in patients with non-classical (NC) CAH. To evaluate IMT in adolescents with classical and NC CAH and to compare the results with those recorded in a control population. Eighteen adolescents with either classical (Subgroup A1) or NC CAH (Subgroup A2) were compared with 16 controls (Group B). All subjects underwent IMT ultrasonography measurement at different sites; results were correlated with clinical, metabolic, and insulin resistance (IR) data. When compared with Group B, both subgroups exhibited higher IMT values at all sites. No differences were found between classical and NC CAH. Univariate analysis of factors impacting on IMT of CAH patients demonstrated that: a) abdominal aorta (AA) IMT was positively correlated with cumulative glucocorticoid doses, triglyceride serum levels, and diastolic blood pressure SD score and negatively with androstenendione and ACTH levels; b) common carotid (CC) IMT was positively associated with triglycerides and triglyceride/HDL ratio. At multiple regression analysis, the independent positive predictors of AA and CC IMT were respectively triglyceride levels and triglyceride/HDL ratio. a) Even adolescents with NC CAH and not only those with classical form may be at higher risk of artery alterations; b) this risk is not necessarily associated with either obesity or waist/height ratio or dyslipidemia; c) an important role in the pathogenesis of artery alterations in CAH may be played by intermittent iatrogenic hypercortisolism and secondary IR.

  7. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis protein LdtMt2 is a nonclassical transpeptidase required for virulence and resistance to amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhika; Lavollay, Marie; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Arthur, Michel; Bishai, William R; Lamichhane, Gyanu

    2010-04-01

    The peptidoglycan layer is a vital component of the bacterial cell wall. The existing paradigm describes the peptidoglycan network as a static structure that is cross-linked predominantly by 4-->3 transpeptide linkages. However, the nonclassical 3-->3 linkages predominate the transpeptide networking of the peptidoglycan layer of nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The molecular basis of these linkages and their role in the physiology of the peptidoglycan layer, virulence and susceptibility of M. tuberculosis to drugs remain undefined. Here we identify MT2594 as an L,D-transpeptidase that generates 3-->3 linkages in M. tuberculosis. We show that the loss of this protein leads to altered colony morphology, loss of virulence and increased susceptibility to amoxicillin-clavulanate during the chronic phase of infection. This suggests that 3-->3 cross-linking is vital to the physiology of the peptidoglycan layer. Although a functional homolog exists, expression of ldtMt2 is dominant throughout the growth phases of M. tuberculosis. 4-->3 transpeptide linkages are targeted by one of the most widely used classes of antibacterial drugs in human clinical use today, beta-lactams. Recently, meropenem-clavulanate was shown to be effective against drug-resistant M. tuberculosis. Our study suggests that a combination of L,D-transpeptidase and beta-lactamase inhibitors could effectively target persisting bacilli during the chronic phase of tuberculosis.

  8. In Vitro Characterization of the Two-Stage Non-Classical Reassembly Pathway of S-Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Breitwieser

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The recombinant bacterial surface layer (S-layer protein rSbpA of Lysinibacillus sphaericus CCM 2177 is an ideal model system to study non-classical nucleation and growth of protein crystals at surfaces since the recrystallization process may be separated into two distinct steps: (i adsorption of S-layer protein monomers on silicon surfaces is completed within 5 min and the amount of bound S-layer protein sufficient for the subsequent formation of a closed crystalline monolayer; (ii the recrystallization process is triggered—after washing away the unbound S-layer protein—by the addition of a CaCl2 containing buffer solution, and completed after approximately 2 h. The entire self-assembly process including the formation of amorphous clusters, the subsequent transformation into crystalline monomolecular arrays, and finally crystal growth into extended lattices was investigated by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D and atomic force microscopy (AFM. Moreover, contact angle measurements showed that the surface properties of S-layers change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic as the crystallization proceeds. This two-step approach is new in basic and application driven S-layer research and, most likely, will have advantages for functionalizing surfaces (e.g., by spray-coating with tailor-made biological sensing layers.

  9. Characterization of a Nonclassical Class I MHC Gene in a Reptile, the Galápagos Marine Iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Du Pasquier, Louis; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-01-01

    Squamates are a diverse order of vertebrates, representing more than 7,000 species. Yet, descriptions of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in this group are nearly absent from the literature, while the number of MHC studies continues to rise in other vertebrate taxa. The lack of basic information about MHC organization in squamates inhibits investigation into the relationship between MHC polymorphism and disease, and leaves a large taxonomic gap in our understanding of amniote MHC evolution. Here, we use both cDNA and genomic sequence data to characterize a class I MHC gene (Amcr-UA) from the Galápagos marine iguana, a member of the squamate subfamily Iguaninae. Amcr-UA appears to be functional since it is expressed in the blood and contains many of the conserved peptide-binding residues that are found in classical class I genes of other vertebrates. In addition, comparison of Amcr-UA to homologous sequences from other iguanine species shows that the antigen-binding portion of this gene is under purifying selection, rather than balancing selection, and therefore may have a conserved function. A striking feature of Amcr-UA is that both the cDNA and genomic sequences lack the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains that are necessary to anchor the class I receptor molecule into the cell membrane, suggesting that the product of this gene is secreted and consequently not involved in classical class I antigen-presentation. The truncated and conserved character of Amcr-UA lead us to define it as a nonclassical gene that is related to the few available squamate class I sequences. However, phylogenetic analysis placed Amcr-UA in a basal position relative to other published classical MHC genes from squamates, suggesting that this gene diverged near the beginning of squamate diversification. PMID:18682845

  10. Classic and nonclassic HLA class I expression in penile cancer and relation to HPV status and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajadiningrat, Rosa S; Horenblas, Simon; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Sanders, Joyce; de Jong, Jeroen; Jordanova, Ekaterina S

    2015-04-01

    Loss of expression of HLA class I is a mechanism of immune evasion in various cancers that is often associated with a worse patient outcome. We analyzed HLA expression in a large cohort with penile cancer in relation to clinical outcome. We used penile cancer tissue blocks from 168 patients who underwent surgical resection between 2000 and 2009 to construct tissue microarrays. Immunohistochemical staining was done with antibodies directed against classic and nonclassic HLA molecules. HLA expression was scored semiquantitatively, divided into 3 expression groups and correlated with clinicopathological variables, including HPV and survival. Survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards models. Complete and partial loss of total classic HLA class I was observed in 32% and 50% of cases, and up-regulation of HLA-E and G in 16% and 13%, respectively. When corrected for relevant clinical parameters, partial HLA-A loss was significantly associated with decreased survival overall (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.6) and in HPV negative patients alone (HR 3.4, 95% CI 1.4-8.4). Abnormal HLA-B/C, E or G expression levels were not associated with survival. To our knowledge this is the first study to describe a link between HLA expression and the clinical outcome of penile cancer. HLA down-regulation occurs frequently and partial loss of HLA-A is an independent predictor of poor survival in HPV negative patients. Complete understanding of the mechanisms and relevance of HLA down-regulation and immune evasion in regard to the clinical outcome will contribute to the future design of immunotherapy interventions. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The non-classical nuclear import carrier Transportin 1 modulates circadian rhythms through its effect on PER1 nuclear localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korge, Sandra; Maier, Bert; Brüning, Franziska; Ehrhardt, Lea; Korte, Thomas; Mann, Matthias; Herrmann, Andreas; Robles, Maria S; Kramer, Achim

    2018-01-01

    Circadian clocks are molecular timekeeping mechanisms that allow organisms to anticipate daily changes in their environment. The fundamental cellular basis of these clocks is delayed negative feedback gene regulation with PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME containing protein complexes as main inhibitory elements. For a correct circadian period, it is essential that such clock protein complexes accumulate in the nucleus in a precisely timed manner, a mechanism that is poorly understood. We performed a systematic RNAi-mediated screen in human cells and identified 15 genes associated with the nucleo-cytoplasmic translocation machinery, whose expression is important for circadian clock dynamics. Among them was Transportin 1 (TNPO1), a non-classical nuclear import carrier, whose knockdown and knockout led to short circadian periods. TNPO1 was found in endogenous clock protein complexes and particularly binds to PER1 regulating its (but not PER2's) nuclear localization. While PER1 is also transported to the nucleus by the classical, Importin β-mediated pathway, TNPO1 depletion slowed down PER1 nuclear import rate as revealed by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments. In addition, we found that TNPO1-mediated nuclear import may constitute a novel input pathway of how cellular redox state signals to the clock, since redox stress increases binding of TNPO1 to PER1 and decreases its nuclear localization. Together, our RNAi screen knocking down import carriers (but also export carriers) results in short and long circadian periods indicating that the regulatory pathways that control the timing of clock protein subcellular localization are far more complex than previously assumed. TNPO1 is one of the novel players essential for normal circadian periods and potentially for redox regulation of the clock.

  12. Characterization of a nonclassical class I MHC gene in a reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaberman, Scott; Du Pasquier, Louis; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2008-08-06

    Squamates are a diverse order of vertebrates, representing more than 7,000 species. Yet, descriptions of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in this group are nearly absent from the literature, while the number of MHC studies continues to rise in other vertebrate taxa. The lack of basic information about MHC organization in squamates inhibits investigation into the relationship between MHC polymorphism and disease, and leaves a large taxonomic gap in our understanding of amniote MHC evolution. Here, we use both cDNA and genomic sequence data to characterize a class I MHC gene (Amcr-UA) from the Galápagos marine iguana, a member of the squamate subfamily Iguaninae. Amcr-UA appears to be functional since it is expressed in the blood and contains many of the conserved peptide-binding residues that are found in classical class I genes of other vertebrates. In addition, comparison of Amcr-UA to homologous sequences from other iguanine species shows that the antigen-binding portion of this gene is under purifying selection, rather than balancing selection, and therefore may have a conserved function. A striking feature of Amcr-UA is that both the cDNA and genomic sequences lack the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains that are necessary to anchor the class I receptor molecule into the cell membrane, suggesting that the product of this gene is secreted and consequently not involved in classical class I antigen-presentation. The truncated and conserved character of Amcr-UA lead us to define it as a nonclassical gene that is related to the few available squamate class I sequences. However, phylogenetic analysis placed Amcr-UA in a basal position relative to other published classical MHC genes from squamates, suggesting that this gene diverged near the beginning of squamate diversification.

  13. Characterization of a nonclassical class I MHC gene in a reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Glaberman

    Full Text Available Squamates are a diverse order of vertebrates, representing more than 7,000 species. Yet, descriptions of full-length major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes in this group are nearly absent from the literature, while the number of MHC studies continues to rise in other vertebrate taxa. The lack of basic information about MHC organization in squamates inhibits investigation into the relationship between MHC polymorphism and disease, and leaves a large taxonomic gap in our understanding of amniote MHC evolution. Here, we use both cDNA and genomic sequence data to characterize a class I MHC gene (Amcr-UA from the Galápagos marine iguana, a member of the squamate subfamily Iguaninae. Amcr-UA appears to be functional since it is expressed in the blood and contains many of the conserved peptide-binding residues that are found in classical class I genes of other vertebrates. In addition, comparison of Amcr-UA to homologous sequences from other iguanine species shows that the antigen-binding portion of this gene is under purifying selection, rather than balancing selection, and therefore may have a conserved function. A striking feature of Amcr-UA is that both the cDNA and genomic sequences lack the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains that are necessary to anchor the class I receptor molecule into the cell membrane, suggesting that the product of this gene is secreted and consequently not involved in classical class I antigen-presentation. The truncated and conserved character of Amcr-UA lead us to define it as a nonclassical gene that is related to the few available squamate class I sequences. However, phylogenetic analysis placed Amcr-UA in a basal position relative to other published classical MHC genes from squamates, suggesting that this gene diverged near the beginning of squamate diversification.

  14. Characterization of SLCO5A1/OATP5A1, a solute carrier transport protein with non-classical function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Sebastian

    Full Text Available Organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP/SLCO have been identified to mediate the uptake of a broad range of mainly amphipathic molecules. Human OATP5A1 was found to be expressed in the epithelium of many cancerous and non-cancerous tissues throughout the body but protein characterization and functional analysis have not yet been performed. This study focused on the biochemical characterization of OATP5A1 using Xenopus laevis oocytes and Flp-In T-REx-HeLa cells providing evidence regarding a possible OATP5A1 function. SLCO5A1 is highly expressed in mature dendritic cells compared to immature dendritic cells (∼6.5-fold and SLCO5A1 expression correlates with the differentiation status of primary blood cells. A core- and complex- N-glycosylated polypeptide monomer of ∼105 kDa and ∼130 kDa could be localized in intracellular membranes and on the plasma membrane, respectively. Inducible expression of SLCO5A1 in HeLa cells led to an inhibitory effect of ∼20% after 96 h on cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling with these cells identified immunologically relevant genes (e.g. CCL20 and genes implicated in developmental processes (e.g. TGM2. A single nucleotide polymorphism leading to the exchange of amino acid 33 (L→F revealed no differences regarding protein expression and function. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OATP5A1 might be a non-classical OATP family member which is involved in biological processes that require the reorganization of the cell shape, such as differentiation and migration.

  15. Regulation of non-classical immune parameters in immune thrombocytopenic purpura mice by a spleen-invigorating, qi-replenishing and blood-containing formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiantian Li

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The SQBF had a similar effect to prednisone with regards to enhancing peripheral blood platelet counts in ITP mice. Furthermore, it decreased β-EP levels and increased VIP and SIgA, and protected the thymus. This shows that, on base of the brain-gut axis functions, some non-classical immune vascular active factors or neurotransmitters are also involved in immune responses, and also have relationship with the onset of ITP and bleeding and/or hemostasis. It needs further study to determine whether a change in these active factors is related to immediate hemostasis.

  16. Expression and phylogenetic analyses reveal paralogous lineages of putatively classical and non-classical MHC-I genes in three sparrow species (Passer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Anna; Strandh, Maria; Råberg, Lars; Westerdahl, Helena

    2017-06-26

    The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) plays a central role in immunity and has been given considerable attention by evolutionary ecologists due to its associations with fitness-related traits. Songbirds have unusually high numbers of MHC class I (MHC-I) genes, but it is not known whether all are expressed and equally important for immune function. Classical MHC-I genes are highly expressed, polymorphic and present peptides to T-cells whereas non-classical MHC-I genes have lower expression, are more monomorphic and do not present peptides to T-cells. To get a better understanding of the highly duplicated MHC genes in songbirds, we studied gene expression in a phylogenetic framework in three species of sparrows (house sparrow, tree sparrow and Spanish sparrow), using high-throughput sequencing. We hypothesize that sparrows could have classical and non-classical genes, as previously indicated though never tested using gene expression. The phylogenetic analyses reveal two distinct types of MHC-I alleles among the three sparrow species, one with high and one with low level of polymorphism, thus resembling classical and non-classical genes, respectively. All individuals had both types of alleles, but there was copy number variation both within and among the sparrow species. However, the number of highly polymorphic alleles that were expressed did not vary between species, suggesting that the structural genomic variation is counterbalanced by conserved gene expression. Overall, 50% of the MHC-I alleles were expressed in sparrows. Expression of the highly polymorphic alleles was very variable, whereas the alleles with low polymorphism had uniformly low expression. Interestingly, within an individual only one or two alleles from the polymorphic genes were highly expressed, indicating that only a single copy of these is highly expressed. Taken together, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the analyses of expression suggest that sparrows have both classical and non-classical

  17. mer, fac, and Bidentate Coordination of an Alkyl-POP Ligand in the Chemistry of Nonclassical Osmium Hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteruelas, Miguel A; García-Yebra, Cristina; Martín, Jaime; Oñate, Enrique

    2017-01-03

    Nonclassical and classical osmium polyhydrides containing the diphosphine 9,9-dimethyl-4,5-bis(diisopropylphosphino)xanthene (xant(P i Pr 2 ) 2 ), coordinated in κ 3 -mer, κ 3 -fac, and κ 2 -P,P fashions, have been isolated during the cyclic formation of H 2 by means of the sequential addition of H + and H - or H - and H + to the classical trihydride OsH 3 Cl{xant(P i Pr 2 ) 2 } (1). This complex adds H + to form the compressed dihydride dihydrogen complex [OsCl(H···H)(η 2 -H 2 ){xant(P i Pr 2 ) 2 }] + (2). Under argon, cation 2 loses H 2 and the resulting unsaturated fragment dimerizes to give [(Os(H···H){xant(P i Pr 2 ) 2 }) 2 (μ-Cl) 2 ] 2+ (3). During the transformation the phosphine changes its coordination mode from mer to fac. The benzofuran counterpart of 1, OsH 3 Cl{dbf(P i Pr 2 ) 2 } (4; dbf(P i Pr 2 ) 2 = 4,6-bis(diisopropylphosphino)dibenzofuran), also adds H + to afford the benzofuran counterpart of 2, [OsCl(H···H)(η 2 -H 2 ){xant(P i Pr 2 ) 2 }] + (5), which in contrast to the latter is stable and does not dimerize. Acetonitrile breaks the chloride bridge of 3 to form the dihydrogen [OsCl(η 2 -H 2 )(CH 3 CN){xant(P i Pr 2 ) 2 }] + (6), regenerating the mer coordination of the diphosphine. The hydride ion also breaks the chloride bridge of 3. The addition of KH to 3 leads to 1, closing a cycle for the formation of H 2 . Complex 1 reacts with a second hydride ion to give OsH 4 {xant(P i Pr 2 ) 2 } (7) as consequence of the displacement of the chloride. Similarly to the latter, the oxygen atom of the mer-coordinated diphosphine of 7 has a tendency to be displaced by the hydride ion. Thus, the addition of KH to 7 yields [OsH 5 {xant(P i Pr 2 ) 2 }] - (8), containing a κ 2 -P,P-diphosphine. Complex 8 is easily protonated to afford OsH 6 {xant(P i Pr 2 ) 2 } (9), which releases H 2 to regenerate 7, closing a second cycle for the formation of molecular hydrogen.

  18. Thermal Stress Analysis of a Continuous and Pulsed End-Pumped Nd:YAG Rod Crystal Using Non-Classic Conduction Heat Transfer Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojahedi, Mahdi; Shekoohinejad, Hamidreza

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, temperature distribution in the continuous and pulsed end-pumped Nd:YAG rod crystal is determined using nonclassical and classical heat conduction theories. In order to find the temperature distribution in crystal, heat transfer differential equations of crystal with consideration of boundary conditions are derived based on non-Fourier's model and temperature distribution of the crystal is achieved by an analytical method. Then, by transferring non-Fourier differential equations to matrix equations, using finite element method, temperature and stress of every point of crystal are calculated in the time domain. According to the results, a comparison between classical and nonclassical theories is represented to investigate rupture power values. In continuous end pumping with equal input powers, non-Fourier theory predicts greater temperature and stress compared to Fourier theory. It also shows that with an increase in relaxation time, crystal rupture power decreases. Despite of these results, in single rectangular pulsed end-pumping condition, with an equal input power, Fourier theory indicates higher temperature and stress rather than non-Fourier theory. It is also observed that, when the relaxation time increases, maximum amounts of temperature and stress decrease.

  19. Functional contribution of elevated circulating and hepatic non-classical CD14CD16 monocytes to inflammation and human liver fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning W Zimmermann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monocyte-derived macrophages critically perpetuate inflammatory responses after liver injury as a prerequisite for organ fibrosis. Experimental murine models identified an essential role for the CCR2-dependent infiltration of classical Gr1/Ly6C(+ monocytes in hepatic fibrosis. Moreover, the monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR1 and CCR5 were recently recognized as important fibrosis modulators in mice. In humans, monocytes consist of classical CD14(+CD16(- and non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ cells. We aimed at investigating the relevance of monocyte subpopulations for human liver fibrosis, and hypothesized that 'non-classical' monocytes critically exert inflammatory as well as profibrogenic functions in patients during liver disease progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed circulating monocyte subsets from freshly drawn blood samples of 226 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD and 184 healthy controls by FACS analysis. Circulating monocytes were significantly expanded in CLD-patients compared to controls with a marked increase of the non-classical CD14(+CD16(+ subset that showed an activated phenotype in patients and correlated with proinflammatory cytokines and clinical progression. Correspondingly, CD14(+CD16(+ macrophages massively accumulated in fibrotic/cirrhotic livers, as evidenced by immunofluorescence and FACS. Ligands of monocyte-related chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR1 and CCR5 were expressed at higher levels in fibrotic and cirrhotic livers, while CCL3 and CCL4 were also systemically elevated in CLD-patients. Isolated monocyte/macrophage subpopulations were functionally characterized regarding cytokine/chemokine expression and interactions with primary human hepatic stellate cells (HSC in vitro. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes released abundant proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, CD14(+CD16(+, but not CD14(+CD16(- monocytes could directly activate collagen-producing HSC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data

  20. Squeezing and other non-classical features in k-photon anharmonic oscillator in binomial and negative binomial states of the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, A.; Lawande, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    A systematic study of squeezing obtained from k-photon anharmonic oscillator (with interaction hamiltonian of the form (a † ) k , k ≥ 2) interacting with light whose statistics can be varied from sub-Poissonian to poissonian via binomial state of field and super-Poissonian to poissonian via negative binomial state of field is presented. The authors predict that for all values of k there is a tendency increase in squeezing with increased sub-Poissonian character of the field while the reverse is true with super-Poissonian field. They also present non-classical behavior of the first order coherence function explicitly for k = 2 case (i.e., for two-photon anharmonic oscillator model used for a Kerr-like medium) with variation in the statistics of the input light

  1. Entanglement and Other Nonclassical Properties of Two Two-Level Atoms Interacting with a Two-Mode Binomial Field: Constant and Intensity-Dependent Coupling Regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoly, M.K.; Hekmatara, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the interaction between two two-level atoms and a two-mode binomial field with a general intensity-dependent coupling regime. The outlined dynamical problem has explicit analytical solution, by which we can evaluate a few of its physical features of interest. To achieve the purpose of the paper, after choosing a particular nonlinearity function, we investigate the quantum statistics, atomic population inversion and at last the linear entropy of the atom-field system which is a good measure for the degree of entanglement. In detail, the effects of binomial field parameters, in addition to different initial atomic states on the temporal behavior of the mentioned quantities have been analyzed. The results show that, the values of binomial field parameters and the initial state of the two atoms influence on the nonclassical effects in the obtained states through which one can tune the nonclassicality criteria appropriately. Setting intensity-dependent coupling function equal to 1 reduces the results to the constant coupling case. By comparing the latter case with the nonlinear regime, we will observe that the nonlinearity disappears the pattern of collapse-revival phenomenon in the evolution of Mandel parameter and population inversion (which can be seen in the linear case with constant coupling), however, more typical collapse-revivals will be appeared for the cross-correlation function in the nonlinear case. Finally, in both linear and nonlinear regime, the entropy remains less than (but close to) 0.5. In other words the particular chosen nonlinearity does not critically affect on the entropy of the system. (paper)

  2. Alterations in classical and nonclassical HLA expression in recurrent and progressive HPV-induced usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and implications for immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Esch, E M G; Tummers, B; Baartmans, V; Osse, E M; Ter Haar, N; Trietsch, M D; Hellebrekers, B W J; Holleboom, C A G; Nagel, H T C; Tan, L T; Fleuren, G J; van Poelgeest, M I E; van der Burg, S H; Jordanova, E S

    2014-08-15

    Immunotherapy of usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (uVIN) is promising; however, many patients still fail to show clinical responses, which could be explained by an immune escape through alterations in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression. Therefore, we analyzed a cohort of patients with a primary (n = 43) and subsequent recurrent uVIN lesion (n = 20), vaccine-treated uVIN patients (n = 12), patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced vulvar carcinoma (n = 21) and healthy controls (n = 26) for the expression of classical HLA-class I/II and nonclassical HLA-E/-G and MHC class I chain-related molecule A (MICA). HLA-class I was downregulated in 70% of uVIN patients, including patients with a clinical response to immunotherapy. Downregulation of HLA-class I is probably reversible, as only 15% of the uVIN cases displayed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and HLA-class I could be upregulated in uVIN keratinocyte cultures by interferon γ. HLA-class I downregulation is more frequently associated with LOH in vulvar carcinomas (25-55.5%). HLA-class II was found to be focally expressed in 65% of uVIN patients. Of the nonclassical molecules, MICA was downregulated in 80% of uVIN whereas HLA-E and -G were expressed in a minority of cases. Their expression was more prominent in vulvar carcinoma. No differences were found between the alterations observed in paired primary and recurrent uVIN. Importantly, downregulation of HLA-B/C in primary uVIN lesions was associated with the development of recurrences and progression to cancer. We conclude that downregulation of HLA is frequently observed in premalignant HPV-induced lesions, including clinical responders to immunotherapy, and is associated with worse clinical outcome. However, in the majority of cases downregulation may still be reversible. Copyright © 2014 UICC.

  3. Annona species (Annonaceae): a rich source of potential antitumor agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tundis, Rosa; Xiao, Jianbo; Loizzo, Monica R

    2017-06-01

    Plants have provided the basis of traditional medicine systems throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to yield molecules for new remedies. We analyzed studies published from 2009 to 2016 on the Annona species (Annonaceae), including A. coriacea, A. crassifolia, A. hypoglauca, A. muricata, A. squamosa, A. sylvatica, and A. vepretorum, as sources of potential antitumor agents. Here, we report and discuss the mechanisms of action and structure-activity relationships of the most active Annona constituents. Annonaceous acetogenins are one of the most promising classes of natural products, owing to their potential antitumor activity. However, their neurotoxicity should not be underestimated. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. DNA binding mode of the cis and trans geometries of new antitumor nonclassical platinum complexes containing piperidine, piperazine or 4-picoline ligand in cell-free media. Relations to their activity in cancer cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpárková, Jana; Marini, Victoria; Najajreh, Y.; Gibson, D.; Brabec, Viktor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 20 (2003), s. 6321-6332 ISSN 0006-2960 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5004101; GA AV ČR KJB5004301; GA ČR GA305/01/0418 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : cross links * DNA * nonclassical platinum complexes Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.922, year: 2003

  5. S100A13-C2A binary complex structure-a key component in the acidic fibroblast growth factor for the non-classical pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, Sepuru K.; Rani, Sandhya G.; Kumar, Sriramoju M.; Yu Chin

    2009-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are key regulators of cell proliferation, differentiation, tumor-induced angiogenesis and migration. FGFs are essential for early embryonic development, organ formation and angiogenesis. They play important roles in tumor formation, inflammation, wound healing and restenosis. The biological effects of FGFs are mediated through the activation of the four transmembrane phosphotyrosine kinase receptors (FGFRs) in the presence of heparin sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) and therefore require the release of FGFs into the extracellular space. However, FGF-1 lacks the signal peptide required for the releasing of these proteins through the classical endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi secretary pathway. Maciag et al. demonstrated that FGF-1 is exported through a non-classical release pathway involving the formation of a specific multiprotein complex [M. Landriscina, R. Soldi, C. Bagala, I. Micucci, S. Bellum, F. Tarantini, I. Prudovsky, T. Maciag, S100A13 participates in the release of fibroblast growth factor 1 in response to heat shock in vitro, J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2001) 22544-22552; C.M. Carreira, T.M. LaVallee, F. Tarantini, A. Jackson, J.T. Lathrop, B. Hampton, W.H. Burgess, T. Maciag, S100A13 is involved in the regulation of fibroblast growth factor-1 and p40 synaptotagmin-1 release in vitro, J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 22224-22231; T.M. LaValle, F. Tarantini, S. Gamble, C.M. Carreira, A. Jackson, T. Maciag, Synaptotagmin-1 is required for fibroblast growth factor-1 release, J. Biol. Chem. 273 (1998) 22217-22223; C. Bagala, V. Kolev, A. Mandinova, R. Soldi, C. Mouta, I. Graziani, I, Prudovsky, T. Maciag, The alternative translation of synaptotagmin 1 mediates the non-classical release of FGF1, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 310 (2003) 1041-1047]. The protein constituents of this complex include FGF-1, S100A13 (a Ca 2+ -binding protein), and the p40 form of synaptotagmin 1 (Syt1). To understand the molecular events in the FGF-1 releasing

  6. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) and Immune Regulation: How Do Classical and Non-Classical HLA Alleles Modulate Immune Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crux, Nicole B.; Elahi, Shokrollah

    2017-01-01

    The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host. Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27/B57 CD8+ T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing the host to autoimmune diseases. The focus of this review will be reexamining the role of classical and non-classical HLA alleles, including class Ia (HLA-A, -B, -C), class Ib (HLA-E, -F, -G, -H), and class II (HLA-DR, -DQ, -DM, and -DP) in immune regulation and viral pathogenesis (e.g., HIV and HCV). To our knowledge, this is the very first review of its kind to comprehensively analyze the role of these molecules in immune regulation associated with chronic viral infections. PMID:28769934

  7. Convective storms and non-classical low-level jets during high ozone level episodes in the Amazon region: An ARM/GOAMAZON case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias-Junior, Cléo Q.; Dias, Nelson Luís; Fuentes, José D.; Chamecki, Marcelo

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the ozone dynamics during the occurrence of both downdrafts associated with mesoscale convective storms and non-classical low-level jets. Extensive data sets, comprised of air chemistry and meteorological observations made in the Amazon region of Brazil over the course of 2014-15, are analyzed to address several questions. A first objective is to investigate the atmospheric thermodynamic and dynamic conditions associated with storm-generated ozone enhancements in the Amazon region. A second objective is to determine the magnitude and the frequency of ground-level ozone enhancements related to low-level jets. Ozone enhancements are analyzed as a function of wind shear, low-level jet maximum wind speed, and altitude of jet core. Strong and sudden increases in ozone levels are associated with simultaneous changes in variables such as horizontal wind speed, convective available potential energy, turbulence intensity and vertical velocity skewness. Rapid increases in vertical velocity skewness give support to the hypothesis that the ozone enhancements are directly related to downdrafts. Low-level jets associated with advancing density currents are often present during and after storm downdrafts that transport ozone-enriched air from aloft to the surface.

  8. The production, purification and crystallization of a soluble form of the nonclassical MHC HLA-G: the essential role of cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, Craig S.; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Kostenko, Lyudmila; McCluskey, James; Rossjohn, Jamie

    2005-01-01

    X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.9 Å from crystals of HLA-G. Cobalt ions were found to be essential for the production of diffracting crystals. HLA-G is a nonclassical class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule that is primarily expressed at the foetal–maternal interface. Although the role of HLA-G has not been fully elucidated, current evidence suggests it protects the foetus from the maternal immune response. In this report, HLA-G (44 kDa) is characterized by expression in Escherichia coli. The inclusion bodies were refolded in complex with a peptide derived from histone H2A (RIIPRHLQL), purified and subsequently crystallized. Correct refolding was determined using two conformation-dependent antibodies. Cobalt ions were shown to be an essential ingredient for obtaining diffraction-quality crystals. The crystals, which diffracted to 1.9 Å resolution, belonged to space group P3 2 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = b = 77.15, c = 151.72 Å

  9. The E7 oncoprotein of high-risk human papillomavirus type 16 enters the nucleus via a nonclassical Ran-dependent pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeline, Michael; Merle, Eric; Moroianu, Junona

    2003-01-01

    E7, the major transforming protein of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV), type 16, binds and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), and the Rb-related proteins p107 and p130. HPV16 E7 is a nuclear protein lacking a classical basic nuclear localization signal. In this study we investigated the nuclear import of HPV16 E7 oncoprotein in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells. HPV16 E7 nuclear import was independent of pRb, as an E7 ΔDLYC variant defective in pRb binding was imported into the nuclei of digitonin-permeabilized cells as efficiently as wild-type E7 in the presence of exogenous cytosol. Interestingly, we discovered that HPV16 E7 is imported into the nuclei via a novel pathway different from those mediated by Kap α2β1 heterodimers, Kap β1, or Kap β2. Nuclear accumulation of E7 required Ran and was not inhibited by the RanG19V-GTP variant, an inhibitor of Kap β mediated import pathways. Together the data suggest that HPV16 E7 translocates through the nuclear pores via a nonclassical Ran-dependent pathway, independent of the main cytosolic Kap β import receptors

  10. Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA and Immune Regulation: How Do Classical and Non-Classical HLA Alleles Modulate Immune Response to Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole B. Crux

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to viral infections are likely to involve a sophisticated array of immune response. These genetic elements may modulate other biological factors that account for significant influence on the gene expression and/or protein function in the host. Among them, the role of the major histocompatibility complex in viral pathogenesis in particular human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV, is very well documented. We, recently, added a novel insight into the field by identifying the molecular mechanism associated with the protective role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA-B27/B57 CD8+ T cells in the context of HIV-1 infection and why these alleles act as a double-edged sword protecting against viral infections but predisposing the host to autoimmune diseases. The focus of this review will be reexamining the role of classical and non-classical HLA alleles, including class Ia (HLA-A, -B, -C, class Ib (HLA-E, -F, -G, -H, and class II (HLA-DR, -DQ, -DM, and -DP in immune regulation and viral pathogenesis (e.g., HIV and HCV. To our knowledge, this is the very first review of its kind to comprehensively analyze the role of these molecules in immune regulation associated with chronic viral infections.

  11. Peptide binding characteristics of the non-classical class Ib MHC molecule HLA-E assessed by a recombinant random peptide approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly Etienne

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing evidence suggests that the effect of HLA-E on Natural Killer (NK cell activity can be affected by the nature of the peptides bound to this non-classical, MHC class Ib molecule. However, its reduced cell surface expression, and until recently, the lack of specific monoclonal antibodies hinder studying the peptide-binding specificity HLA-E. Results An in vitro refolding system was used to assess binding of recombinant HLA-E to either specific peptides or a nonamer random peptide library. Peptides eluted from HLA-E molecules refolded around the nonamer library were then used to determine a binding motif for HLA-E. Hydrophobic and non-charged amino acids were found to predominate along the peptide motif, with a leucine anchor at P9, but surprisingly there was no methionine preference at P2, as suggested by previous studies. Conclusions Compared to the results obtained with rat classical class Ia MHC molecules, RT1-A1c and RT1-Au, HLA-E appears to refold around a random peptide library to reduced but detectable levels, suggesting that this molecule's specificity is tight but probably not as exquisite as has been previously suggested. This, and a previous report that it can associate with synthetic peptides carrying a viral sequence, suggests that HLA-E, similar to its mouse counterpart (Qa-1b, could possibly bind peptides different from MHC class I leader peptides and present them to T lymphocytes.

  12. Peptide binding characteristics of the non-classical class Ib MHC molecule HLA-E assessed by a recombinant random peptide approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, James; Joly, Etienne; Trowsdale, John; Butcher, Geoffrey W

    2001-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that the effect of HLA-E on Natural Killer (NK) cell activity can be affected by the nature of the peptides bound to this non-classical, MHC class Ib molecule. However, its reduced cell surface expression, and until recently, the lack of specific monoclonal antibodies hinder studying the peptide-binding specificity HLA-E. Results An in vitro refolding system was used to assess binding of recombinant HLA-E to either specific peptides or a nonamer random peptide library. Peptides eluted from HLA-E molecules refolded around the nonamer library were then used to determine a binding motif for HLA-E. Hydrophobic and non-charged amino acids were found to predominate along the peptide motif, with a leucine anchor at P9, but surprisingly there was no methionine preference at P2, as suggested by previous studies. Conclusions Compared to the results obtained with rat classical class Ia MHC molecules, RT1-A1c and RT1-Au, HLA-E appears to refold around a random peptide library to reduced but detectable levels, suggesting that this molecule's specificity is tight but probably not as exquisite as has been previously suggested. This, and a previous report that it can associate with synthetic peptides carrying a viral sequence, suggests that HLA-E, similar to its mouse counterpart (Qa-1b), could possibly bind peptides different from MHC class I leader peptides and present them to T lymphocytes. PMID:11432755

  13. Cord blood monocyte-derived inflammatory cytokines suppress IL-2 and induce nonclassic "T(H)2-type" immunity associated with development of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuxia; Collier, Fiona; Naselli, Gaetano; Saffery, Richard; Tang, Mimi L K; Allen, Katrina J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Harrison, Leonard C; Vuillermin, Peter

    2016-01-13

    Food allergy is a major health burden in early childhood. Infants who develop food allergy display a proinflammatory immune profile in cord blood, but how this is related to interleukin-4 (IL-4)/T helper 2 (T(H)2)-type immunity characteristic of allergy is unknown. In a general population-derived birth cohort, we found that in infants who developed food allergy, cord blood displayed a higher monocyte to CD4(+) T cell ratio and a lower proportion of natural regulatory T cell (nT(reg)) in relation to duration of labor. CD14(+) monocytes of food-allergic infants secreted higher amounts of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α) in response to lipopolysaccharide. In the presence of the mucosal cytokine transforming growth factor-β, these inflammatory cytokines suppressed IL-2 expression by CD4(+) T cells. In the absence of IL-2, inflammatory cytokines decreased the number of activated nT(reg) and diverted the differentiation of both nT(reg) and naïve CD4(+) T cells toward an IL-4-expressing nonclassical TH2 phenotype. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for susceptibility to food allergy in infants and suggest anti-inflammatory approaches to its prevention. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Zearalenone and alpha-zearalenol inhibit the synthesis and secretion of pig follicle stimulating hormone via the non-classical estrogen membrane receptor GPR30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jing; Wei, Chao; Li, Yueqin; Liu, Ying; Wang, Yue; Pan, Jirong; Liu, Jiali; Wu, Yingjie; Cui, Sheng

    2018-02-05

    Zearalenone (ZEA) is one of the most popular endocrine-disrupting chemicals and is mainly produced by fungi of the genus Fusarium. The excessive intake of ZEA severely disrupts human and animal fertility by affecting the reproductive axis. However, most studies on the effects of ZEA and its metabolite α-zearalenol (α-ZOL) on reproductive systems have focused on gonads. Few studies have investigated the endocrine-disrupting effects of ZEA and α-ZOL on pituitary gonadotropins, including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). The present study was designed to investigate the effects of ZEA and α-ZOL on the synthesis and secretion of FSH and LH and related mechanisms in female pig pituitary. Our in vivo and in vitro results demonstrated that ZEA significantly inhibited the synthesis and secretion of FSH in the pig pituitary gland, but ZEA and α-ZOL had no effects on LH. Our study also showed that ZEA and α-ZOL decreased FSH synthesis and secretion through non-classical estrogen membrane receptor GPR30, which subsequently induced protein kinase cascades and the phosphorylation of PKC, ERK and p38MAPK signaling pathways in pig pituitary cells. Furthermore, our study showed that the LIM homeodomain transcription factor LHX3 was involved in the mechanisms of ZEA and α-ZOL actions on gonadotropes in the female pig pituitary. These findings elucidate the mechanisms behind the physiological alterations resulting from endocrine-disrupting chemicals and further show that the proposed key molecules of the α-ZOL signaling pathway could be potential pharmacological targets. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Non-classical antigen processing pathways are required for MHC class II-restricted direct tumor recognition by NY-ESO-1-specific CD4+ T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Tsuji, Takemasa; Luescher, Immanuel; Old, Lloyd J.; Shrikant, Protul; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2014-01-01

    Tumor antigen-specific CD4+ T cells that directly recognize cancer cells are important for orchestrating antitumor immune responses at the local tumor sites. However, the mechanisms of direct MHC class II (MHC-II) presentation of intracellular tumor antigen by cancer cells are poorly understood. We found that two functionally distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells were expanded after HLA-DPB1*04 (DP04)-binding NY-ESO-1157–170 peptide vaccination in ovarian cancer patients. While both subsets similarly recognized exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein pulsed on DP04+ target cells, only one type recognized target cells with intracellular expression of NY-ESO-1. The tumor-recognizing CD4+ T cells more efficiently recognized the short 8–9-mer peptides than the non-tumor-recognizing CD4+ T cells. In addition to endosomal/lysosomal proteases that are typically involved in MHC-II antigen presentation, several pathways in the MHC class I presentation pathways such as the proteasomal degradation and transporter-associated with antigen-processing (TAP)-mediated peptide transport were also involved in the presentation of intracellular NY-ESO-1 on MHC-II. The presentation was inhibited significantly by primaquine, a small molecule that inhibits endosomal recycling, consistent with findings that pharmacological inhibition of new protein synthesis enhances antigen presentation. Together, our data demonstrated that cancer cells selectively present peptides from intracellular tumor antigens on MHC-II by multiple non-classical antigen-processing pathways. Harnessing direct tumor-recognizing ability of CD4+ T cells could be a promising strategy to enhance antitumor immune responses in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. PMID:24764581

  16. Ex-Th17 (Nonclassical Th1) Cells Are Functionally Distinct from Classical Th1 and Th17 Cells and Are Not Constrained by Regulatory T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdeo, Sharee A; Cluxton, Deborah; Sulaimani, Jamal; Moran, Barry; Canavan, Mary; Orr, Carl; Veale, Douglas J; Fearon, Ursula; Fletcher, Jean M

    2017-03-15

    Th17 cells are an important therapeutic target in autoimmunity. However, it is known that Th17 cells exhibit considerable plasticity, particularly at sites of autoimmune inflammation. Th17 cells can switch to become ex-Th17 cells that no longer produce IL-17 but produce IFN-γ. These ex-Th17 cells are also called nonclassical Th1 cells because of their ability to produce IFN-γ, similar to Th1 cells; however, it is unclear whether they resemble Th1 or Th17 cells in terms of their function and regulation, and whether they have a pathogenic role in autoimmunity. We compared the phenotypic and functional features of human Th17, Th1, and ex-Th17 cell populations. Our data showed that despite their loss of IL-17 expression, ex-Th17 cells were more polyfunctional in terms of cytokine production than either Th1 or bona fide Th17 cells, and produced increased amounts of proinflammatory cytokines. The proliferative brake on Th17 cells appeared to be lifted because ex-Th17 cells proliferated more than Th17 cells after stimulation. In contrast with Th1 and Th17 cells, ex-Th17 cells were highly resistant to suppression of proliferation and cytokines by regulatory T cells. Finally, we showed that ex-Th17 cells accumulated in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Taken together, these data indicate that human ex-Th17 cells are functionally distinct from Th1 and Th17 cells, and suggest that they may play a pathogenic role at sites of autoimmunity, such as the rheumatoid arthritis joint where they accumulate. These findings have implications for therapeutic strategies that target IL-17, because these may not inhibit pathogenic ex-Th17 cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Nonclassical antigen-processing pathways are required for MHC class II-restricted direct tumor recognition by NY-ESO-1-specific CD4(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki, Junko; Tsuji, Takemasa; Luescher, Immanuel; Old, Lloyd J; Shrikant, Protul; Gnjatic, Sacha; Odunsi, Kunle

    2014-04-01

    Tumor antigen-specific CD4(+) T cells that directly recognize cancer cells are important for orchestrating antitumor immune responses at the local tumor sites. However, the mechanisms of direct MHC class II (MHC-II) presentation of intracellular tumor antigen by cancer cells are poorly understood. We found that two functionally distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells were expanded after HLA-DPB1*04 (DP04)-binding NY-ESO-1157-170 peptide vaccination in patients with ovarian cancer. Although both subsets recognized exogenous NY-ESO-1 protein pulsed on DP04(+) target cells, only one type recognized target cells with intracellular expression of NY-ESO-1. The tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells more efficiently recognized the short 8-9-mer peptides than the non-tumor-recognizing CD4(+) T cells. In addition to endosomal/lysosomal proteases that are typically involved in MHC-II antigen presentation, several pathways in the MHC class I presentation pathways, such as the proteasomal degradation and transporter-associated with antigen-processing-mediated peptide transport, were also involved in the presentation of intracellular NY-ESO-1 on MHC-II. The presentation was inhibited significantly by primaquine, a small molecule that inhibits endosomal recycling, consistent with findings that pharmacologic inhibition of new protein synthesis enhances antigen presentation. Together, our data demonstrate that cancer cells selectively present peptides from intracellular tumor antigens on MHC-II by multiple nonclassical antigen-processing pathways. Harnessing the direct tumor-recognizing ability of CD4(+) T cells could be a promising strategy to enhance antitumor immune responses in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

  18. Elevation of Non-Classical (CD14+/lowCD16++) Monocytes Is Associated with Increased Albuminuria and Urine TGF-β1 in HIV-Infected Individuals on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Brooks I; Byron, Mary Margaret; Ng, Roland C; Chow, Dominic C; Ndhlovu, Lishomwa C; Shikuma, Cecilia M

    2016-01-01

    High rates of albuminuria are observed among HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART). Though pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses are described as components of albuminuria in the general population, it is unclear how these responses are associated to albuminuria in ART-treated chronic HIV. We investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets and urine inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers to albuminuria in ART-treated HIV-infected participants. Cross-sectional analyses were performed on Hawaii Aging with HIV-cardiovascular disease study cohort participants who were required at entry to be ≥40 years old and on ART ≥3 months. Monocyte subpopulations were determined in banked peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using multi-parametric flow-cytometry. Entry random urine samples were assessed for albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR). Urine samples were measured for inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers using Luminex technology. Among 96 HIV-infected subjects with measured UACR (87% male, 59% Caucasian, and 89% undetectable HIV RNA with median CD4 of 495.5 cells/μL), 18 patients (19%) had albuminuria. Non-classical (CD14low/+CD16++) monocytes were significantly elevated in subjects with albuminuria (p = 0.034) and were correlated to UACR (r = 0.238, p = 0.019). Elevated non-classical monocyte counts were significant predictors of worsening albuminuria, independent of traditional- and ART-associated risk factors (β = 0.539, p = 0.007). Urine TGF-β1 and collagen-IV were significantly higher in albuminuric compared to non-albuminuric participants (TGF-β1; p = 0.039 and collagen-IV; p = 0.042). Urine TGF-β1 was significantly correlated with non-classical monocyte counts (r = 0.464, p = 0.017). Alterations in monocyte subpopulations and urine pro-fibrotic factors may play a role in kidney dysfunction during chronic HIV infection and warrants further study.

  19. Organometallic nucleosides induce non-classical leukemic cell death that is mitochondrial-ROS dependent and facilitated by TCL1-oncogene burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Christian; Vasyutina, Elena; Lohmann, Gregor; Schrader, Alexandra; Romanski, Steffen; Hirschhäuser, Christoph; Mayer, Petra; Frias, Corazon; Herling, Carmen D; Hallek, Michael; Schmalz, Hans-Günther; Prokop, Aram; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios; Herling, Marco

    2015-06-04

    ) and maximal respiratory capacity were not affected by TCL1 overexpression, it mediated a reduced aerobic glycolysis (lactate production) and a higher fraction of oxygen consumption coupled to ATP-synthesis. Redox-active substances such as organometallic nucleosides can confer specific cytotoxicity to ROS-stressed cancer cells. Their P53- and caspase-independent induction of non-classical apoptosis implicates that redox-based strategies can overcome resistance to conventional apoptotic triggers. The high TCL1-oncogenic burden of aggressive CLL cells instructs their particular dependence on mitochondrial energetic flux and renders them more susceptible towards agents interfering in mitochondrial homeostasis.

  20. Advancements in nonclassical gas dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannan, N.R.

    2009-01-01

    Shock waves can be formed in all states of matter, be it in the single- or multi-phase condition, when the substance is subjected to a rapid change of state, e.g., a sudden pressure variation. In the case of shock waves in vapors and gases, because of the fact that the developed theory is often

  1. Elevation of Non-Classical (CD14+/lowCD16++ Monocytes Is Associated with Increased Albuminuria and Urine TGF-β1 in HIV-Infected Individuals on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooks I Mitchell

    Full Text Available High rates of albuminuria are observed among HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART. Though pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic responses are described as components of albuminuria in the general population, it is unclear how these responses are associated to albuminuria in ART-treated chronic HIV. We investigated the relationship of monocyte subsets and urine inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers to albuminuria in ART-treated HIV-infected participants.Cross-sectional analyses were performed on Hawaii Aging with HIV-cardiovascular disease study cohort participants who were required at entry to be ≥40 years old and on ART ≥3 months. Monocyte subpopulations were determined in banked peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC using multi-parametric flow-cytometry. Entry random urine samples were assessed for albumin-to-creatinine ratios (UACR. Urine samples were measured for inflammatory and fibrotic biomarkers using Luminex technology.Among 96 HIV-infected subjects with measured UACR (87% male, 59% Caucasian, and 89% undetectable HIV RNA with median CD4 of 495.5 cells/μL, 18 patients (19% had albuminuria. Non-classical (CD14low/+CD16++ monocytes were significantly elevated in subjects with albuminuria (p = 0.034 and were correlated to UACR (r = 0.238, p = 0.019. Elevated non-classical monocyte counts were significant predictors of worsening albuminuria, independent of traditional- and ART-associated risk factors (β = 0.539, p = 0.007. Urine TGF-β1 and collagen-IV were significantly higher in albuminuric compared to non-albuminuric participants (TGF-β1; p = 0.039 and collagen-IV; p = 0.042. Urine TGF-β1 was significantly correlated with non-classical monocyte counts (r = 0.464, p = 0.017.Alterations in monocyte subpopulations and urine pro-fibrotic factors may play a role in kidney dysfunction during chronic HIV infection and warrants further study.

  2. Unusual evolutionary conservation and further species-specific adaptations of a large family of nonclassical MHC class Ib genes across different degrees of genome ploidy in the amphibian subfamily Xenopodinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edholm, Eva-Stina; Goyos, Ana; Taran, Joseph; De Jesús Andino, Francisco; Ohta, Yuko; Robert, Jacques

    2014-06-01

    Nonclassical MHC class Ib (class Ib) genes are a family of highly diverse and rapidly evolving genes wherein gene numbers, organization, and expression markedly differ even among closely related species rendering class Ib phylogeny difficult to establish. Whereas among mammals there are few unambiguous class Ib gene orthologs, different amphibian species belonging to the anuran subfamily Xenopodinae exhibit an unusually high degree of conservation among multiple class Ib gene lineages. Comparative genomic analysis of class Ib gene loci of two divergent (~65 million years) Xenopodinae subfamily members Xenopus laevis (allotetraploid) and Xenopus tropicalis (diploid) shows that both species possess a large cluster of class Ib genes denoted as Xenopus/Silurana nonclassical (XNC/SNC). Our study reveals two distinct phylogenetic patterns among these genes: some gene lineages display a high degree of flexibility, as demonstrated by species-specific expansion and contractions, whereas other class Ib gene lineages have been maintained as monogenic subfamilies with very few changes in their nucleotide sequence across divergent species. In this second category, we further investigated the XNC/SNC10 gene lineage that in X. laevis is required for the development of a distinct semi-invariant T cell population. We report compelling evidence of the remarkable high degree of conservation of this gene lineage that is present in all 12 species of the Xenopodinae examined, including species with different degrees of ploidy ranging from 2, 4, 8 to 12 N. This suggests that the critical role of XNC10 during early T cell development is conserved in amphibians.

  3. New acetogenin peroxides from the Indian sponge Acarnus bicladotylota

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fontana, A.; d'Ippolito, G.; DeSouza, L.; Mollo, E.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Cimino, G.

    on the basis of a parent ion in the CIMS (m/z 440 [M + NH 4 ] + ) consistent with the 13 C NMR data (Table 1). The 1 H NMR spectrum of 1a showed two well-defined double- doublets at 2.39 and 2.52 (H 2 -2) that were both coupled to the downshifted methine... conulose. The ectosomal skeleton showed a felt-work of tylotes (tylota head spined terminally), whereas the endosomal skeleton showed plumose bands of styles in thicker parts of the specimen and erect in encrusting parts. Spongin, pale yellow in color...

  4. ORF73 LANA homologs of RRV and MneRV2 contain an extended RGG/RG-rich nuclear and nucleolar localization signal that interacts directly with importin β1 for non-classical nuclear import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kellie; Cherezova, Lidia; DeMaster, Laura K; Rose, Timothy M

    2017-11-01

    The latency-associated nuclear antigens (LANA) of KSHV and macaque RFHVMn, members of the RV1 rhadinovirus lineage, are closely related with conservation of complex nuclear localization signals (NLS) containing bipartite KR-rich motifs and RG-rich domains, which interact distinctly with importins α and ß1 for nuclear import via classical and non-classical pathways, respectively. RV1 LANAs are expressed in the nucleus of latently-infected cells where they inhibit replication and establish a dominant RV1 latency. Here we show that LANA homologs of macaque RRV and MneRV2 from the more distantly-related RV2 lineage, lack the KR-rich NLS, and instead have a large RG-rich NLS with multiple RG dipeptides and a conserved RGG motif. The RG-NLS interacts uniquely with importin β1, which mediates nuclear import and accumulation of RV2 LANA in the nucleolus. The alternative nuclear import and localization of RV2 LANA homologs may contribute to the dominant RV2 lytic replication phenotype. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Subtle Changes in Peptide Conformation Profoundly Affect Recognition of the Non-Classical MHC Class I Molecule HLA-E by the CD94-NKG2 Natural Killer Cell Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoare, Hilary L; Sullivan, Lucy C; Clements, Craig S; Ely, Lauren K; Beddoe, Travis; Henderson, Kate N; Lin, Jie; Reid, Hugh H; Brooks, Andrew G; Rossjohn, Jamie [Monash; (Melbourne)

    2008-03-31

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I molecule that binds peptides derived from the leader sequences of other HLA class I molecules. Natural killer cell recognition of these HLA-E molecules, via the CD94-NKG2 natural killer family, represents a central innate mechanism for monitoring major histocompatibility complex expression levels within a cell. The leader sequence-derived peptides bound to HLA-E exhibit very limited polymorphism, yet subtle differences affect the recognition of HLA-E by the CD94-NKG2 receptors. To better understand the basis for this peptide-specific recognition, we determined the structure of HLA-E in complex with two leader peptides, namely, HLA-Cw*07 (VMAPRALLL), which is poorly recognised by CD94-NKG2 receptors, and HLA-G*01 (VMAPRTLFL), a high-affinity ligand of CD94-NKG2 receptors. A comparison of these structures, both of which were determined to 2.5-Å resolution, revealed that allotypic variations in the bound leader sequences do not result in conformational changes in the HLA-E heavy chain, although subtle changes in the conformation of the peptide within the binding groove of HLA-E were evident. Accordingly, our data indicate that the CD94-NKG2 receptors interact with HLA-E in a manner that maximises the ability of the receptors to discriminate between subtle changes in both the sequence and conformation of peptides bound to HLA-E.

  6. Structural elucidation of the nonclassical secondary cell wall polysaccharide from Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987. Comparison with the polysaccharides from Bacillus anthracis and B. cereus type strain ATCC 14579 reveals both unique and common structural features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoff, Christine; Choudhury, Biswa; Saile, Elke; Quinn, Conrad P; Carlson, Russell W; Kannenberg, Elmar L

    2008-10-31

    Nonclassical secondary cell wall polysaccharides constitute a major cell wall structure in the Bacillus cereus group of bacteria. The structure of the secondary cell wall polysaccharide from Bacillus cereus ATCC 10987, a strain that is closely related to Bacillus anthracis, was determined. This polysaccharide was released from the cell wall with aqueous hydrogen fluoride (HF) and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The purified polysaccharide, HF-PS, was characterized by glycosyl composition and linkage analyses, mass spectrometry, and one- and two-dimensional NMR analysis. The results showed that the B. cereus ATCC 10987 HF-PS has a repeating oligosaccharide consisting of a -->6)-alpha-GalNAc-(1-->4)-beta-ManNAc-(1-->4)-beta-GlcNAc-(1--> trisaccharide that is substituted with beta-Gal at O3 of the alpha-GalNAc residue and nonstoichiometrically acetylated at O3 of the N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc) residue. Comparison of this structure with that of the B. anthracis HF-PS and with structural data obtained for the HF-PS from B. cereus type strain ATCC 14579 revealed that each HF-PS had the same general structural theme consisting of three HexNAc and one Hex residues. A common structural feature in the HF-PSs from B. cereus ATCC 10987 and B. anthracis was the presence of a repeating unit consisting of a HexNAc(3) trisaccharide backbone in which two of the three HexNAc residues are GlcNAc and ManNAc and the third can be either GlcNAc or GalNAc. The implications of these results with regard to the possible functions of the HF-PSs are discussed.

  7. Human periodontal ligament stem cells suppress T-cell proliferation via down-regulation of non-classical major histocompatibility complex-like glycoprotein CD1b on dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C; Kim, M; Han, J-A; Choi, B; Hwang, D; Do, Y; Yun, J-H

    2017-02-01

    Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) from the periodontal ligament tissue were recently identified as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The capabilities of PDLSCs in periodontal tissue or bone regeneration have been reported, but their immunomodulatory role in T-cell immune responses via dendritic cells (DCs), known as the most potent antigen-presenting cell, has not been studied. The aim of this study is to understand the immunological function of homogeneous human STRO-1 + CD146 + PDLSCs in DC-mediated T-cell immune responses to modulate the periodontal disease process. We utilized highly purified (> 95%) human STRO-1 + CD146 + PDLSCs and human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Each stem cell was co-cultured with human monocyte-derived DCs in the presence of lipopolysaccharide isolated from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major pathogenic bacterium responsible for periodontal disease, in vitro to examine the immunological effect of each stem cell on DCs and DC-mediated T-cell proliferation. We discovered that STRO-1 + CD146 + PDLSCs, as well as BMSCs, significantly decreased the level of non-classical major histocompatibility complex glycoprotein CD1b on DCs, resulting in defective T-cell proliferation, whereas most human leukocyte antigens and the co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 in/on DCs were not significantly affected by the presence of BMSCs or STRO-1 + CD146 + PDLSCs. This study unveiled an immunomodulatory role of STRO-1 + CD146 + PDLSCs in negatively regulating DC-mediated T-cell immune responses, demonstrating their potential to be utilized in promising new stem cell therapies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ehrenfest's Theorem and Nonclassical States of Light

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    `free' field adds the same amount (in the present case,. ~!) to the total energy of the system; and the harmonic oscillator, too, has a discrete spectrum with a constant spacing between adjacent energy levels. The foregoing is admittedly less than a thumbnail sketch of field quantization, but it suffices for our present pur- poses.

  9. Ehrenfest's Theorem and Nonclassical States of Light

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for the expectation values of the position and momen- tum are so well-known and so often used in quantum physics, that they are sometimes referred to (somewhat imprecisely) as the general form of the Ehrenfest relation itself. Something very special happens when the potential is a quadratic function of the position, as in ...

  10. Ehrenfest's Theorem and Nonclassical States of Light

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hermitian operators ^x and ^p, this will immediately imply a Hamiltonian that is higher than quadratic order in those quadratures. It follows from the commutation relation. [^a; ^ay] = ^I, however, that ^ay2 ^a2 = (^ay ^a)2 − ^ay ^a. The Kerr Hamiltonian is therefore completely expressible as a function of the photon number ...

  11. Nonclassical Flight Control for Unhealthy Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping

    1997-01-01

    This research set out to investigate flight control of aircraft which has sustained damage in regular flight control effectors, due to jammed control surfaces or complete loss of hydraulic power. It is recognized that in such an extremely difficult situation unconventional measures may need to be taken to regain control and stability of the aircraft. Propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) concept, initiated at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. represents a ground-breaking effort in this direction. In this approach, the engine is used as the only flight control effector in the rare event of complete loss of normal flight control system. Studies and flight testing conducted at NASA Dryden have confirmed the feasibility of the PCA concept. During the course of this research (March 98, 1997 to November 30, 1997), a comparative study has been done using the full nonlinear model of an F-18 aircraft. Linear controllers and nonlinear controllers based on a nonlinear predictive control method have been designed for normal flight control system and propulsion controlled aircraft. For the healthy aircraft with normal flight control, the study shows that an appropriately designed linear controller can perform as well as a nonlinear controller. On the other hand. when the normal flight control is lost and the engine is the only available means of flight control, a nonlinear PCA controller can significantly increase the size of the recoverable region in which the stability of the unstable aircraft can be attained by using only thrust modulation. The findings and controller design methods have been summarized in an invited paper entitled.

  12. Ehrenfest's Theorem and Nonclassical States of Light

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ing in one dimension is completely determined if the instantaneous values of its position and momentum are known through direct or indirect measurement. QM, on the other hand, is inherently probabilistic. We can only speak of the probability amplitude for the position of the particle to lie in the range (x; x + dx), when it is in.

  13. Macroscopic nonclassical-state preparation via postselection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro, Víctor; Coto, Raúl; Eremeev, Vitalie; Orszag, Miguel

    2017-11-01

    Macroscopic quantum superposition states are fundamental to test the classical-quantum boundary and present suitable candidates for quantum technologies. Although the preparation of such states has already been realized, the existing setups commonly consider external driving and resonant interactions, predominantly by considering Jaynes-Cummings-like and beam-splitter-like interactions, as well as the nonlinear radiation pressure interaction in cavity optomechanics. In contrast to previous works on the matter, we propose a feasible probabilistic scheme to generate a macroscopic mechanical qubit, as well as phononic Schrödinger's cat states with no need of any energy exchange with the macroscopic mechanical oscillator. Essentially, we investigate an open dispersive spin-mechanical system in the absence of any external driving under nonideal conditions, such as the detrimental effects due to the oscillator and spin energy losses in a thermal bath at nonzero temperature. In our work, we show that the procedure to generate the mechanical qubit state is solely based on spin postselection in the weak to moderate coupling regime. Finally, we demonstrate that the mechanical superposition is related to the amplification of the mean values of the mechanical quadratures as they maximize the quantum coherence.

  14. Differential invariants in nonclassical models of hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublik, Vasily V.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, differential invariants are used to construct solutions for equations of the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting gas and the dynamics of a viscous incompressible fluid modified by nanopowder inoculators. To describe the dynamics of a viscous heat-conducting gas, we use the complete system of Navier—Stokes equations with allowance for heat fluxes. Mathematical description of the dynamics of liquid metals under high-energy external influences (laser radiation or plasma flow) includes, in addition to the Navier—Stokes system of an incompressible viscous fluid, also heat fluxes and processes of nonequilibrium crystallization of a deformable fluid. Differentially invariant solutions are a generalization of partially invariant solutions, and their active study for various models of continuous medium mechanics is just beginning. Differentially invariant solutions can also be considered as solutions with differential constraints; therefore, when developing them, the approaches and methods developed by the science schools of academicians N. N. Yanenko and A. F. Sidorov will be actively used. In the construction of partially invariant and differentially invariant solutions, there are overdetermined systems of differential equations that require a compatibility analysis. The algorithms for reducing such systems to involution in a finite number of steps are described by Cartan, Finikov, Kuranishi, and other authors. However, the difficultly foreseeable volume of intermediate calculations complicates their practical application. Therefore, the methods of computer algebra are actively used here, which largely helps in solving this difficult problem. It is proposed to use the constructed exact solutions as tests for formulas, algorithms and their software implementations when developing and creating numerical methods and computational program complexes. This combination of effective numerical methods, capable of solving a wide class of problems, with analytical methods makes it possible to make the results of mathematical modeling more accurate and reliable.

  15. Nonclassical rotational inertia of a supersolid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftalion, Amandine; Blanc, Xavier; Jerrard, Robert L

    2007-09-28

    As proposed by Leggett [Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 1543 (1970)10.1103/PhysRevLett.25.1543], the supersolidity of a crystal is characterized by the nonclassicalical Rotational Inertia (NCRI) property. Using a model of quantum crystal introduced by Josserand, Pomeau, and Rica [Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2426 (1994)10.1103/PhysRevLett.72.2426], we prove that NCRI occurs. This is done by analyzing the ground state of the aforementioned model, which is related to a sphere packing problem, and then deriving a theoretical formula for the moment of inertia. We infer a lower estimate for the NCRI fraction, which is a landmark of supersolidity.

  16. Nonclassical measurements errors in nonlinear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Edith; Mulalic, Ismir

    that contains very detailed information about incomes. This gives a unique opportunity to learn about the magnitude and nature of the measurement error in income reported by the respondents in the Danish NTS compared to income from the administrative register (correct measure). We find that the classical...... of a households face. In this case an important policy parameter is the effect of income (reflecting the household budget) on the choice of travel mode. This paper deals with the consequences of measurement error in income (an explanatory variable) in discrete choice models. Since it is likely to give misleading...... estimates of the income effect it is of interest to investigate the magnitude of the estimation bias and if possible use estimation techniques that take the measurement error problem into account. We use data from the Danish National Travel Survey (NTS) and merge it with administrative register data...

  17. Forma no clásica de hiperplasia adrenal congénita en la niñez y adolescencia Non-classic way of congenital adrenal hyperplasia in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Carvajal Martínez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN: la hiperplasia adrenal congénita es un trastorno hereditario de la esteroidogénesis suprarrenal, trasmitido por mutaciones genéticas con carácter autosómico recesivo, las cuales afectan las enzimas que intervienen en la biosíntesis del cortisol. La causa la constituye en 90 a 95 % de los casos la deficiencia de la enzima 21 hidroxilasa. OBJETIVO: exponer la experiencia de los autores de este trabajo en la forma no clásica de esta enfermedad. MÉTODOS: se realizó la caracterización de 7 pacientes diagnosticados en la sala de endocrinología pediátrica del Instituto Nacional de Endocrinología, ubicada en el Hospital Pediátrico del Cerro, durante el período 1998-2008. Todos los pacientes pertenecían al sexo femenino. RESULTADOS: los síntomas se iniciaron a una edad promedio de 8,8 años y más de la mitad de los casos presentaron pubarquia precoz. La menarquia se produjo a una edad media de 10,7 años. Se logró el diagnóstico bioquímico al obtenerse valores elevados de 17 hidroxiprogesterona (en condiciones basales. Se emplearon distintas modalidades de tratamiento según la edad de cada paciente y los síntomas predominantes en cada caso. CONCLUSIONES: se corroboró la mayor frecuencia de diagnóstico de esta enfermedad en el sexo femenino, así como la importancia del estudio y el seguimiento ante un paciente con pubarquia precoz.INTRODUCTION: the congenital adrenal hyperplasia is an inherited disorder of suprarenal esteroidogenesis, transmitted by genetic mutations with a autosomal recessive character affecting the enzymes intervening in cortisol biosynthesis. In the 90 to 95% of cases, the cause is a deficiency of Hydroxylase enzyme 21. OBJECTIVE: to show the current paper authors' experience in the non-classic way of this entity. METHODS: we made a characterization of 7 female patients diagnosed in the Children Endocrinology Ward of the National Institute of Endocrinology located in the Children Hospital, Cerro

  18. Emerging therapeutic potential of graviola and its constituents in cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Siddiqui, Jawed A; Jahan, Rahat; Chaudhary, Sanjib; Walker, Larry A; Sayed, Zafar; Jones, Dwight T; Batra, Surinder K; Macha, Muzafar A

    2018-04-05

    Cancer remains a leading cause of death in the USA and around the world. Although the current synthetic inhibitors used in targeted therapies have improved patient prognosis, toxicity and development of resistance to these agents remain a challenge. Plant-derived natural products and their derivatives have historically been used to treat various diseases, including cancer. Several leading chemotherapeutic agents are directly or indirectly based on botanical natural products. Beyond these important drugs, however, a number of crude herbal or botanical preparations have also shown promising utility for cancer and other disorders. One such natural resource is derived from certain plants of the family Annonaceae, which are widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Among the best known of these is Annona muricata, also known as soursop, graviola or guanabana. Extracts from the fruit, bark, seeds, roots and leaves of graviola, along with several other Annonaceous species, have been extensively investigated for anticancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Phytochemical studies have identified the acetogenins, a class of bioactive polyketide-derived constituents, from the extracts of Annonaceous species, and dozens of these compounds are present in different parts of graviola. This review summarizes current literature on the therapeutic potential and molecular mechanism of these constituents from A.muricata against cancer and many non-malignant diseases. Based on available data, there is good evidence that these long-used plants could have both chemopreventive and therapeutic potential. Appropriate attention to safety studies will be important to assess their effectiveness on various diseases caused or promoted by inflammation.

  19. PENGARUH EKSTRAK METANOL DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata Linn. TERHADAP VIABILITAS GALUR SEL KANKER PROSTAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Yulianti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakDaun sirsak mengandung senyawa aktif annonaceous acetogenins yang memiliki efek sitotoksik pada sel kanker. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh ekstrak daun sirsak terhadap viabilitas dan peningkatan daya hambat terhadap galur sel kanker prostat PC3. Desain penelitian adalah eksperimental in vitro. Subyek penelitian adalah cell line PC3 yang terbagi 5 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol sel, kelompok perlakuan dengan ekstrak metanol daun sirsak (EMDS dengan konsentrasi 6,25; 12,5 dan 25 mg/mL dan kelompok doksorubisin. Kelompok perlakuan diuji viabilitas sel dengan MTT assay pada inkubasi 0 dan 24 jam dan dilakukan pengamatan morfologi sel. Data dianalisis dengan uji statistik ANOVA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan penurunan nilai OD pada kelompok EMDS 6,25 dan 12,5 ug/mL, namun uji statistik tidak berbeda bermakna dan kemampuan menghambat viabilitas sel paling besar ada pada kelompok EMDS 12,5 ug/mL (nilai OD 0,94. Pengamatan morfologi sel menunjukkan efek sitotoksik. Kesimpulan: Ekstrak metanol daun sirsak memiliki peran potensial sebagai antikanker terhadap galur sel kanker prostat PC3 meskipun sangat kecil efek penghambatannya.AbstractSoursop leaves contain annonaceous acetogenins active compounds that have a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of soursop leaf extract on the viability and inhibitory rate on the prostate cancer cell line PC3. The study was an experimental in vitro study. Subjects were 5 groups of PC3 cell line: cell control group, the group treated with methanol extract of soursop leaves (EMDS with the concentrations of 6.25; 12.5 and 25 mg/mL and the doxorubicin group. The groups were tested using the MTT cell viability assay at 0 and 24 hours of incubation followed by PC3 cell morphology examination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA test. The results showed a decrease in the OD value of 6.25 and 12.5 ug/mL EMDS group, but statistical tests did not differ significantly

  20. Ekstraksi Acetogenin Dari Biji Sirsak (Annona muricata L) dengan Pelarut Aseton

    OpenAIRE

    Sinaga, Suci Damayanti

    2016-01-01

    The soursop seeds (Annonamuricata L) contain bioactive compounds that can serve as a pesticide and used as an anthelmintic. It is because the seeds contain acetogenyn. Acetogenyn which was synthesized through reaction between polyketide-derivedacetic acid with 35-39 carbon atom in fatty acid, is the secondary metabolite of Annonaceae plant. This research aims to determine the variables that influence in soursop seeds extraction processso that high % yield value can be obtained,...

  1. Ekstraksi Acetogenin dari Daun Sirsak (Annona muricata L) dengan Pelarut Aseton

    OpenAIRE

    Nurhayani

    2016-01-01

    Soursop leaf (Annona muricata L) contains flavonoids, tannins, phytosterols, calcium oxalate, alkaloids and acetogenyn. Acetogenyn which was synthesized through reaction between polyketide derived-acetic acid with 35-39 carbon atom in fatty acid, is the secondary metabolite of Annonaceae plant. This research aims to determine the variables that influence in soursop leaf extraction so that high % yield value can be obtained and to prove the presence of acetogenyn compound qua...

  2. КОНЦЕПЦІЯ АНТРОПОЦЕНТРИЗМУ В НЕКЛАСИЧНІЙ ФІЛОСОФІЇ / The concept of anthropocentrism in the non-classical philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Скакун Ігор

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Скакун Игорь. Концепция антропоцентризма в неклассической философии. В работе исследуется мировоззренческий и методологический потенциал антропоцентризма и его реализация в динамике парадигм человекомерности научного знания. Раскрывается суть идеи человекомерности и принципа антропоцентризма, формы их актуализации в постклассической парадигме знания. Ключевые слова: антропологизация, антропоцентризм, человек, методология, научная картина мира. Skakun Ihor. THE CONCEPT OF ANTHROPOCENTRISM IN THE NONCLASSICAL PHILOSOPHY. In the paper the ideological and methodological potential of anthropocentrism and its implementation in the dynamics of human dimensional paradigms of scientific knowledge is argued. The author reveals the essence of the idea of personality and principle of anthropocentrism, shapes their actualization in postclassical paradigms of knowledge. The concept of anthropocentrism became an independent philosophical concept, according to which man is the center and purpose of world creation. Anthropocentrism in non-classical philosophy outlined the importance of the qualitative change in the methodological approach of philosophical understanding of man. It should be emphasized that man-restructuring concept was only potential, as factors of its implementation (as it was in post-non-classical period to the just formed. Thinkers’ ideas of the transition period (from classic to non-classic and the ideas of thinkers formed a new era of post-non-classical objectivistic and subjectivist concepts of man. Awareness of the problem of man as the central

  3. A Review on Annona squamosa L.: Phytochemicals and Biological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chengyao; Chen, Yayun; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang; Chen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae) is a fruit tree with a long history of traditional uses. A. squamosa is an evergreen plant mainly located in tropical and subtropical regions. Srikayas, the fruits of A. squamosa, are extensively used to prepare candies, ice creams and beverages. A wide range of ethno-medicinal uses has been related to different portions of A. squamosa, such as tonic, apophlegmatisant, cool medicine, abortient and heart sedative. Numerous research projects on A. squamosa have found that it has anticancer, anti-oxidant, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, hepatoprotective, antiparasitic, antimalarial, insecticidal, microbicidel and molluscicidal activities. Phytochemistry investigations on A. squamosa have considered annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs), diterpenes (DITs), alkaloids (ALKs) and cyclopeptides (CPs) as the main constituents. Until 2016, 33 DITs, 19 ALKs, 88 ACGs and 13 CPs from this species were reported. On the basis of the multiple researches on A. squamosa, this review strives to integrate available information on its phytochemicals, folklore uses and bioactivities, hoping to promote a better understanding of its medicinal values.

  4. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years. PMID:21992488

  5. Assessment of toxic potential of Cerrado fruit seeds using Artemia salina bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raíza Cavalcante Fonseca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Artemia salina bioassay was used to assess toxicity of seeds and kernels of Brazilian fruits from cerrado (central high plains region and other inner regions of the country. Water extracts of the kernels were filtered and added to Artemia cultures containing ten individuals per mL. Dose - response curves were constructed, and LD50 values were calculated. Pure potassium cyanide standard was used to draw a calibration curve for comparison to detect the presence of cyanide in the samples tested. Extracts of the seeds of araticum, mangaba, cagaita, jatobá, and tucumã were found toxic to Artemia salina, and some of the dose - response curves were very similar in shape to those obtained with pure potassium cyanide standards, while the samples of baru, cajá-manga, siriguela, trauma, and veludo showed no toxicity at all. The Guignard test, specific for cyanide detection, showed negative results in all toxic samples, suggesting the presence of other toxic compounds rather than cyanide. The comparison of araticum dose - response curve with those of other annonaceous fruits suggests the presence acetogenins as the main toxic compounds in the seeds. These results could be useful to prevent poisoning by industrial derivatives of the fruits studied.

  6. Squamocin induce histological and ultrastructural changes in the midgut cells of Anticarsia gemmatalis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiaz, Muhammad; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Costa, Marilza da Silva; Cossolin, Jamile Fernanda Silva; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Gonçalves, Wagner Gonzaga; Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzébio Goulart; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2018-07-30

    Annonaceous acetogenins (Annona squamosa Linnaeus) comprises of a series of natural products which are extracted from Annonaceae species, squamocin proved to be highly efficient among those agents. Squamocin is mostly referred as a lethal agent for midgut cells of different insects, with toxic effects when tested against larva of some insects. In present study, LC 50 and LC 90 of squamocin for A. gemmatalis Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were calculated using probit analysis. Morphological changes in midgut cells were analyzed under light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopes when larvae were treated with LC 50 and LC 90 of squamocin for 24, 48 and 72 h. Results revealed that the maximum damage to midgut cells was found under LC 90 where it showed digestive cells with enlarged basal labyrinth, highly vacuolated cytoplasm, damaged apical surface, cell protrusions to the gut lumen, autophagy and cell death. The midgut goblet cells showed a strong disorganization of their microvilli. Likewise, in insects treated with squamocin, mitochondria were not marked with Mitotracker fluorescent probe, suggesting some molecular damage in these organelles, which was reinforced by decrease in the respiration rate in these insects. These results demonstrate that squamocin has potential to induce enough morphological changes in midgut through epithelial cell damage in A. gemmatalis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular docking studies of bioactive compounds from Annona muricata Linn as potential inhibitors for Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 antiapoptotic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Rosdi, Mohamad Norisham; Mohd Arif, Shahkila; Abu Bakar, Mohamad Hafizi; Razali, Siti Aisyah; Mohamed Zulkifli, Razauden; Ya'akob, Harisun

    2018-01-01

    Annona muricata Linn or usually identified as soursop is a potential anticancer plant that has been widely reported to contain valuable chemopreventive agents known as annonaceous acetogenins. The antiproliferative and anticancer activities of this tropical and subtropical plant have been demonstrated in cell culture and animal studies. A. muricata L. exerts inhibition against numerous types of cancer cells, involving multiple mechanism of actions such as apoptosis, a programmed cell death that are mainly regulated by Bcl-2 family of proteins. Nonetheless, the binding mode and the molecular interactions of the plant's bioactive constituents have not yet been unveiled for most of these mechanisms. In the current study, we aim to elucidate the binding interaction of ten bioactive phytochemicals of A. muricata L. to three Bcl-2 family of antiapoptotic proteins viz. Bcl-2, Bcl-w and Mcl-1 using an in silico molecular docking analysis software, Autodock 4.2. The stability of the complex with highest affinity was evaluated using MD simulation. We compared the docking analysis of these substances with pre-clinical Bcl-2 inhibitor namely obatoclax. The study identified the potential chemopreventive agent among the bioactive compounds. We also characterized the important interacting residues of protein targets which involve in the binding interaction. Results displayed that anonaine, a benzylisoquinoline alkaloid, showed a high affinity towards the Bcl-2, thus indicating that this compound is a potent inhibitor of the Bcl-2 antiapoptotic family of proteins.

  8. Nigerian foodstuffs with prostate cancer chemopreventive polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, Sunday Eneojo

    2011-09-23

    Dietary polyphenols are antioxidants that can scavenge biological free radicals, and chemoprevent diseases with biological oxidation as their main etiological factor. In this paper, we review our laboratory data vis-ὰ-vis available literature on prostate cancer chemopreventive substances in Nigerian foodstuffs. Dacryodes edulis fruit, Moringa oleifera and Syzygium aromaticum contained prostate active polyphenols like ellagic acid, gallate, methylgallate, catechol, kaempferol quercetin and their derivatives. Also Canarium schweinfurthii Engl oil contained ten phenolic compounds and lignans, namely; catechol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, tyrosol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, phloretic acid, pinoresinol, secoisolariciresinol. In addition, tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) which contains the powerful antioxidant and anti-prostate cancer agent, lycopene; cabbage (Brassica oleracea) containing indole-3-carbinol; citrus fruits containing pectin; Soursop (Annona muricata) containing annonaceous acetogenins; soya beans (Glycine max) containing isoflavones; chilli pepper (Capsicum annuum) containing capsaicin, and green tea (Camellia sinensis) containing (-) epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), (-) epicatechin, (-) epicatechin-3-gallate and (-) epigallocatechin -3-gallate which are widely reported to posses prostate cancer chemopreventive compounds are also grown in Nigeria and other African countries. Thus, the high incidence of prostate cancer among males of African extraction can be dramatically reduced, and the age of onset drastically increased, if the population at risk consumes the right kinds of foods in the right proportion, beginning early in life, especially as prostate cancer has a latency period of about 50 years.

  9. Characterizing nonclassical correlations via local quantum Fisher information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunho; Li, Longsuo; Kumar, Asutosh; Wu, Junde

    2018-03-01

    We define two ways of quantifying the quantum correlations based on quantum Fisher information (QFI) in order to study the quantum correlations as a resource in quantum metrology. By investigating the hierarchy of measurement-induced Fisher information introduced in Lu et al. [X. M. Lu, S. Luo, and C. H. Oh, Phys. Rev. A 86, 022342 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.022342], we show that the presence of quantum correlation can be confirmed by the difference of the Fisher information induced by the measurements of two hierarchies. In particular, the quantitative quantum correlations based on QFI coincide with the geometric discord for pure quantum states.

  10. ierarchies of non-classical states in quantum optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    {1] E C G Sudarshan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 19, 277 (1963). R J Glauber, Phys. Rev. 131, 2766 (1963). {2] See, for instance, J R Kiauder and E C G Sudarshan, Fundamentals qf'qi-tannmz optics (Bem jamin, New York, 1968). {3] M C Teieh and B E A Saleh, in Progress in Optics, edited by E Wolf (North-Holland, Amster-.

  11. Statistical analysis of complex systems with nonclassical invariant measures

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2011-02-28

    I investigate the problem of finding a statistical description of a complex many-body system whose invariant measure cannot be constructed stemming from classical thermodynamics ensembles. By taking solitons as a reference system and by employing a general formalism based on the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur scheme, I demonstrate how to build an invariant measure and, within a one-dimensional phase space, how to develop a suitable thermodynamics. A detailed example is provided with a universal model of wave propagation, with reference to a transparent potential sustaining gray solitons. The system shows a rich thermodynamic scenario, with a free-energy landscape supporting phase transitions and controllable emergent properties. I finally discuss the origin of such behavior, trying to identify common denominators in the area of complex dynamics.

  12. Nonclassical properties of a nonlinear generalized geometric state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, M Sebawe [Mathematics Department, College of Science, King Saud University, PO Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Obada, A-S F [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo (Egypt); Darwish, M [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Al-Arish (Egypt)], E-mail: m.sebaweh@physics.org

    2008-05-15

    In this paper, we introduce and investigate some properties of a nonlinear generalized geometric state (the state that interpolates between the number state and a nonlinear pure thermal state). We mainly concentrate on the statistical properties. We have discussed the normal squeezing as well as the amplitude squared squeezing, further the Mandel's q-parameter is also considered. The investigation is also extended to include the quasi-probability distribution functions (W-Wigner and Q-functions). The quadrature distribution and the phase properties in the Pegg-Barnett formalism besides the phase variances are considered.

  13. Classical and Nonclassical Estrogen Receptor Action on Chromatin Templates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeen, Steven

    2000-01-01

    .... Using newly-developed approaches, I investigated mechanisms of estrogen/estrogen receptor action on chromatin templates in vitro in order to better understand the role of chromatin in steroid-regulated gene expression...

  14. Classical and Nonclassical Estrogen Receptor Action on Chromatin Templaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeen, Steve

    2001-01-01

    .... Using newly-developed approaches, I investigated mechanisms of estrogen/estrogen receptor action on chromatin templates in vitro in order to better understand the role of chromatin in steroid-regulated gene expression...

  15. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerman, Igor

    2017-05-01

    Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius-Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  16. Classical and non-classical effective medium theories: New perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukerman, Igor, E-mail: igor@uakron.edu

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • Advanced non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization theories of metamaterials, valid in electrostatics and electrodynamics. • Classical theories (Clausius–Mossotti, Lorenz–Lorentz, Maxwell Garnett) fit well into the proposed framework. • Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. • A challenging problem for future research is to determine what effective tensors are attainable for given constituents of a metamaterial. - Abstract: Future research in electrodynamics of periodic electromagnetic composites (metamaterials) can be expected to produce sophisticated homogenization theories valid for any composition and size of the lattice cell. The paper outlines a promising path in that direction, leading to non-asymptotic and nonlocal homogenization models, and highlights aspects of homogenization that are often overlooked: the finite size of the sample and the role of interface boundaries. Classical theories (e.g. Clausius–Mossotti, Maxwell Garnett), while originally derived from a very different set of ideas, fit well into the proposed framework. Nonlocal effects can be included in the model, making an order-of-magnitude accuracy improvements possible. One future challenge is to determine what effective parameters can or cannot be obtained for a given set of constituents of a metamaterial lattice cell, thereby delineating the possible from the impossible in metamaterial design.

  17. Non-classical detonation regimes of liquid high explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, A. V.; Mochalova, V. M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data of studies of the liquid explosives characteristics, in the reaction zone of which the distribution of parameters does not correspond to the classical detonation theory. An increase of the pressure and particle velocity behind a shock jump in liquid explosives and the possibility of the existence of a steady-state detonation wave without a von Neumann spike are interpreted within the framework of models that take into account the possibility of chemical reactions directly in the shock wave front.

  18. Towards non-classical walks with bright laser pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice C

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the avid search for means to increase computational power in comparison to that which is currently available, quantum walks (QWs) have become a promising option with derived quantum algorithms providing an associated speed up compared to what...

  19. Classical and Nonclassical Estrogen Receptor Action on Chromatin Templates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeen, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Improvement of hormone-based therapy in breast cancer and circumvention of its shortcomings is limited by the lack of detailed understanding of how steroids like estrogen work at a cellular and molecular level...

  20. Classical and Nonclassical Estrogen Receptor Action on Chromatin Templaces

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nordeen, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Improvement of hormone-based therapy in breast cancer and circumvention of its shortcomings is limited by the lack of detailed understanding of how steroids like estrogen work at a cellular and molecular level...

  1. Vaguely defined objects representations, fuzzy sets and nonclassical cardinality theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wygralak, Maciej

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, an impetuous development of new, unconventional theories, methods, techniques and technologies in computer and information sciences, systems analysis, decision-making and control, expert systems, data modelling, engineering, etc. , resulted in a considerable increase of interest in adequate mathematical description and analysis of objects, phenomena, and processes which are vague or imprecise by their very nature. Classical two-valued logic and the related notion of a set, together with its mathematical consequences, are then often inadequate or insufficient formal tools, and can even become useless for applications because of their (too) categorical character: 'true - false', 'belongs - does not belong', 'is - is not', 'black - white', '0 - 1', etc. This is why one replaces classical logic by various types of many-valued logics and, on the other hand, more general notions are introduced instead of or beside that of a set. Let us mention, for instance, fuzzy sets and derivative concepts, flou...

  2. Non-classical light emission from single conjugated polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollars, Christopher; Lane, Stephen; Huser, Thomas

    2002-03-01

    Photon-antibunching from single, isolated molecules of collapsed-chain poly[2-methoxy,5-(2’-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene-vinylene] (MEH-PPV) has been observed using confocal microscopy techniques. Efficient inter-segment energy transfer in collapsed-chain conjugated polymers leads to emission from an average of only 2-3 active sites on a polymer chain that is composed of hundreds of quasi-chromophores. These few centers consist of the segments with the lowest excitation energy and are supplied by the efficient light-harvesting and energy transfer of the surrounding higher-energy segments. This effect depends on the conformation of the polymer molecules, which is controlled by solvent polarity. These results provide new insight into the controversial photophysics of conjugated polymers and their application in optoelectronic devices.

  3. Generation of three-mode nonclassical vibrational states of ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Ba An; Truong Minh Duc

    2002-01-01

    We propose using eight lasers with appropriate orientations and conditions to generate stable trio coherent states of an ion in a three-dimensional isotropic trap. Seven lasers whose orientations are important should be detuned to the third lower sideband of the ion vibrational motion. The eighth laser whose direction is not important should be in resonance with the ionic transition

  4. Classical Sets and Non-Classical Sets: An Overview -38 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mathematicians, logicians, and computer scientists are trying to model uncertain, imprecise or vague concepts. Here we present two models of vague concepts and draw a comparison between such imprecise sets and the stan- dard classical sets. In Section 1, we define classical sets, which model precise concepts.

  5. Theory and numerics of non-classical thermo-hyperelasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Bargmann, Swantje

    2007-01-01

    Diese Arbeit stellt einen Beitrag zur Theorie und Numerik nicht klassischer Thermoelastizität dar. Thermoelastizität beschäftigt sich allgemein mit der Verbindung mechanischer und thermischer Feldprobleme. Oft wird Wärmeleitung in Festkörpern durch das Fouriersche Gesetz beschrieben. Es nimmt an, dass der Wärmefluss proportional zum Temperaturgradienten ist. Dieser Ansatz wird in dieser Arbeit sowohl als Fouriersche als auch als klassische Theorie bezeichnet. In dieser Arbeit bezieht sich der...

  6. Characterizing the nonclassicality of mesoscopic optical twin-beam states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allevi, A.; Lamperti, M.; Bondani, M.; Peřina ml., Jan; Michálek, Václav; Haderka, O.; Machulka, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2013), "063807-1"-"063807-9" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : mesoscopic optical twin-beam states * photon-number domain Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013

  7. N-particle nonclassicality without N-particle correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieśniak, Marcin; Nawareg, Mohamed; Żukowski, Marek

    2012-10-01

    Most of known multipartite Bell inequalities involve correlation functions for all subsystems. They are useless for entangled states without such correlations. We give a method of derivation of families of Bell inequalities for N parties, which involve, e.g., only (N-1)-partite correlations, but still are able to detect proper N-partite entanglement. We present an inequality which reveals five-partite entanglement despite using only four-partite correlations. Classes of inequalities introduced here can be put into a handy form of a single nonlinear inequality. An example is given of an N-qubit state, which strongly violates such an inequality, despite having no N-qubit correlations. This surprising property might be of potential value for quantum information tasks.

  8. Probing the non-classicality of temporal correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Ringbauer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Correlations between spacelike separated measurements on entangled quantum systems are stronger than any classical correlations and are at the heart of numerous quantum technologies. In practice, however, spacelike separation is often not guaranteed and we typically face situations where measurements have an underlying time order. Here we aim to provide a fair comparison of classical and quantum models of temporal correlations on a single particle, as well as timelike-separated correlations on multiple particles. We use a causal modeling approach to show, in theory and experiment, that quantum correlations outperform their classical counterpart when allowed equal, but limited communication resources. This provides a clearer picture of the role of quantum correlations in timelike separated scenarios, which play an important role in foundational and practical aspects of quantum information processing.

  9. [Cortical representation of nonclassical parts of the visual system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukanidina, V E; Zagorul'ko, T M

    1978-01-01

    Cortical evoked potentials and extracellular evoked neuronal activity have been investigated in unanesthetized d-curarine immobilized rats during stimulation of the superior colliculi. The focus of responses was found in the lateral part of the visual neocortex (area 18a according to Krieg [5]). The evoked potential includes a negative and subsequent positive waves, its latency being equal to 7.9 +/- 2.8 msec. With deepening the electrode the amplitude of the response decreases, although its polarity remains unchanged. The neuronal activity is of phasic character. During simultaneous record of the evoked potentials and neuronal activity, temporal correlation between impulse activity and the ascending part of the main negative wave of the EP is observed. The data obtained indicate imcomplete overlapping of the retino-geniculo-cortical and retino-tecto-thalamo-cortical channels in the visual system of rats.

  10. Is transparent intensional logic a non-classical logic?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Materna, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2014), s. 47-55 ISSN 1425-3305 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : anti- realism * bivalence * classicality * construction * expressivity * extensions * hyperintensionality * intensions * procedure * realism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  11. Characterization of the nonclassical nature of conditionally prepared single photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U'Ren, Alfred B.; Silberhorn, Christine; Ball, Jonathan L.; Banaszek, Konrad; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2005-01-01

    A reliable single photon source is a prerequisite for linear optical quantum computation and for secure quantum key distribution. A criterion yielding a conclusive test of the single photon character of a given source, attainable with realistic detectors, is therefore highly desirable. In the context of heralded single photon sources, such a criterion should be sensitive to the effects of higher photon number contributions, and to vacuum introduced through optical losses, which tend to degrade source performance. In this Rapid Communication we present, theoretically and experimentally, a criterion meeting the above requirements

  12. Nonclassical rotational inertia for a supersolid under rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Aftalion, Amandine; Blanc, Xavier; Jerrard, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    As proposed by Leggett [4], the supersolidity of a crystal is characterized by the Non Classical Rotational Inertia (NCRI) property. Using a model of quantum crystal introduced by Josserand, Pomeau and Rica [5], we prove that NCRI occurs. This is done by analyzing the ground state of the aforementioned model, which is related to a sphere packing problem, and then deriving a theoretical formula for the inertia momentum. We infer a lower estimate for the NCRI fraction, which is a landmark of su...

  13. Directional Dicke Subradiance with Nonclassical and Classical Light Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Daniel; Schneider, Raimund; Oppel, Steffen; von Zanthier, Joachim

    2018-03-01

    We investigate Dicke subradiance of N ≥2 distant quantum sources in free space, i.e., the spatial emission patterns of spontaneously radiating noninteracting multilevel atoms or multiphoton sources, prepared in totally antisymmetric states. We find that the radiated intensity is marked by a full suppression of spontaneous emission in particular directions. In resemblance to the analogous, yet inverted, superradiant emission profiles of N distant two-level atoms prepared in symmetric Dicke states, we call the corresponding emission patterns directional Dicke subradiance. We further derive that higher-order intensity correlations of the light emitted by statistically independent thermal light sources display the same directional Dicke subradiant behavior and show that it stems from the same interference phenomenon as in the case of quantum sources. We finally present measurements of directional Dicke subradiance for N =2 ,…,5 distant thermal light sources corroborating the theoretical findings.

  14. Linear Quantum Systems: Non-Classical States and Robust Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-29

    paper is to extend linear systems and signals theory to include single photon quantum signals . We provide detailed results describing how quantum...v) physical realizability results for finite level quantum systems. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Control Theory , Quantum Feedback, Quantum Algorithms 16...nominal linear models, and (v) physical realizability results for finite level quantum systems. Introduction: Classical linear systems theory

  15. Avaliação da atividade citotóxica das sementes de Annona cornifolia A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae Evaluation of the cytotoxic activity of seeds of Annona cornifolia A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.R.S. Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Na família Annonaceae, especialmente o gênero Annona é muito apreciado por fornecer frutos comestíveis. Espécies desse gênero são utilizadas na medicina popular contra diabetes, malária e infecções. Muitas dessas atividades biológicas têm sido relacionadas às acetogeninas de anonáceas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a atividade citotóxica dos grupos e de uma acetogenina pura (cornifolina obtidos a partir do extrato etanólico das sementes de Annona cornifolia A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae. Esta atividade foi avaliada pelo ensaio colorimétrico MTT. Cornifolina (1, a única substância pura testada, apresentou citotoxicidade positiva sobre todas as linhagens tumorais avaliadas. Os grupos testados, todos caracterizados por espectroscopia no infravermelho (IV, apresentaram 68,7% dos valores de CI50 menores que 20,0 µg mL-1, sendo também considerados citotóxicos. As amostras testadas foram mais ativas que o taxol sobre melanoma humano (MeWo e, ainda, o grupo G10-5 apresentou melhor atividade sobre fibroblasto tumorigênico de camundongo (L929. Além disso, os grupos mostraram menor citotoxidade do que o taxol sobre a linhagem normal (CHO.The family Annonaceae, especially the genus Annona, is greatly appreciated for providing edible fruits. Species of this genus are used in folk medicine against diabetes, malaria and infections. Many of these biological activities have been related to annonaceous acetogenins. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of groups and a pure acetogenin (cornifolin obtained from the ethanol extract of the seeds of Annona cornifolia A. St.-Hil. (Annonaceae. This activity was evaluated by using MTT colorimetric assay. Cornifolin (1, the only tested substance that was pure, showed positive cytotoxicity on all evaluated tumor cell lines. The tested groups, all characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR, showed 68.7% of the IC50 values lower than 20.0 µg mL-1, also considered cytotoxic. The

  16. Antitumor activity of Annona squamosa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Chen, Yayun; Shi, Yeye; Ma, Chengyao; Wang, Xunan; Li, Yue; Miao, Yunjie; Chen, Jianwei; Li, Xiang

    2016-12-04

    Custard apple (Annona squamosa Linn.) is an edible tropical fruit, and its seeds have been used to treat "malignant sore" (cancer) and other usage as insecticide. A comparison of extraction processes, chemical composition analysis and antitumor activity of A. squamosa seed oil (ASO) were investigated. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were established by comparing percolation, soxhlet, ultrasonic and SFE-CO 2 extraction methods. The chemical composition of fatty acid and content of total annonaceous acetogenins (ACGs) of ASO was investigated by GC-MS and colorimetric assay, and anti-tumor activity of ASO was tested using H 22 xenografts bearing mice. The optimal extraction parameters of ASO were obtained as follows: using soxhlet extraction method with extraction solvent of petroleum ether, temperature of 80°C, and extraction time of 90min. Under these conditions, the yield of ASO was 22.65%. GC-MS analysis results showed that the main chemical compositions of fatty acid of ASO were palmitic acid (9.92%), linoleic acid (20.49%), oleic acid (56.50%) and stearic acid (9.14%). The total ACGs content in ASO was 41.00mg/g. ASO inhibited the growth of H 22 tumor cells in mice with a maximum inhibitory rate of 53.54% by oral administration. Furthermore, it was found that ASO exerted an antitumor effect via decreasing interleukin-6 (IL-6), janus kinase (Jak) and phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of transcription (p-Stat3) expression. The results demonstrated that ASO suppressed the H 22 solid tumor development may due to its main chemical constituents unsaturated fatty acid and ACGs via IL-6/Jak/Stat3 pathway. ASO may be a potential candidate for the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chronic consumption of Annona muricata juice triggers and aggravates cerebral tau phosphorylation in wild-type and MAPT transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottscholl, Robert; Haegele, Marlen; Jainsch, Britta; Xu, Hong; Respondek, Gesine; Höllerhage, Matthias; Rösler, Thomas W; Bony, Emilie; Le Ven, Jessica; Guérineau, Vincent; Schmitz-Afonso, Isabelle; Champy, Pierre; Oertel, Wolfgang H; Yamada, Elizabeth S; Höglinger, Günter U

    2016-11-01

    In the pathogenesis of tauopathies, genetic and environmental factors have been identified. While familial clustering led to the identification of mutations in MAPT encoding the microtubule-associated protein tau, the high incidence of a sporadic tauopathy endemic in Guadeloupe was linked to the plant-derived mitochondrial complex I inhibitor annonacin. The interaction of both factors was studied in the present work in a realistic paradigm over a period of 12 months. Mice over-expressing either human wild-type tau or R406W mutant tau as well as non-transgenic mice received either regular drinking water or commercially available tropical fruit juice made of soursop (Annona muricata L.) as dietary source of neurotoxins. HPLC-MS analysis of this juice identified several Annonaceous acetogenins, mainly annonacin (16.2 mg/L), and 41 isoquinoline alkaloids (18.0 mg/L, mainly asimilobine and reticuline). After 12 month of juice consumption, several brain regions showed an increased number of neurons with phosphorylated tau in the somatodendritic compartment of R406W mice and, to a much lesser extent, of non-transgenic mice and mice over-expressing human wild-type tau. Moreover, juice drinking was associated with a reduction in synaptophysin immunoreactivity, as well as an increase in 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT) reactivity in all three genotypes. The increase in 3NT suggests that Annona muricata juice promotes the generation of reactive nitrogen species. This study provides first experimental evidence that long-lasting oral ingestion of a widely consumed environmental factor can induce somatodendritic accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau in mice expressing rodent or human wild-type tau, and can accelerate tau pathology in R406W-MAPT transgenic mice. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. Annona muricata aqueous extract suppresses T47D breast cancer cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Fidianingsih

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Cancer is a dreadful disease caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division. Annona muricata L, also known as soursop, is useful as an anticancer herbal medication since its leaves, seeds and fruits contain active compounds called annonaceous acetogenins. The objective of this study was to scientifically justify the traditional application of soursop for anticancer treatment in the community, by comparing the antiproliferative effect of Annona muricata L leaf, seed and fruit aqueous extracts on T47D breast cancer cells. Methods This study used an experimental post test trial with control group design. Infusions of soursop leaves, seeds, and fruits collected from Kaliurang, Sleman district, Yogyakarta were used for cytotoxicity tests on T47D cells, in comparison with tamoxifen as standard cancer therapy. Proliferative inhibition was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide [MTT] assay. The parameter of proliferative inhibition was IC50 which is defined as 50% proliferative inhibition ability of soursop and tamoxifen. Significant differences between groups were determined at p<0.05 by Kruskal-Wallis test. Results The leaves, fruits, and seeds Annona muricata and tamoxifen were proven to be able to inhibit T47D cell proliferation. The IC50 of Annona muricata leaf, seed, fruit aqueous extracts and tamoxifen were 31,384.21 µg/ml; 1.528,800 µg/ml; 329,194.81 µg/ml and 114.52 µg/ml, respectively (p=0.016. The IC50 of Annona muricata aqueous extract was significantly different from that of tamoxifen. Conclusions The proliferative inhibition of soursop leaves against T47D breast cancer cells is higher than that of soursop fruits and seeds. Annona muricata fruit, seed, and leaf aqueous extracts were less toxic than tamoxifen.

  19. Evaluation of cytotoxicity of aqueous extract of Graviola leaves on squamous cell carcinoma cell-25 cell lines by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl) -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and determination of percentage of cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle by flow cytometry: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadi, Visveswaraiah Paranjyothi; Ravi, Venkatadasappa; Arpitha, Anantharaju; Litha; Kumaraswamy, Kikkerilakshminarayana; Manjunath, Krishnappa

    2015-01-01

    Malignancies constitute a wide variety of disorders having high mortality and morbidity rates. Current protocols for management include surgical intervention, chemotherapy, and radiation which possess numerous adverse effects. Many phytochemicals are available with anticancer properties similar to anticancer drugs. Major benefit of these compounds is apparent lack of toxicity to normal tissues. Graviola (botanical name: Annona Muricata) contain bioactive compound "annonaceous acetogenins" known for anticancer activity on cancer cell lines. To determine cytotoxicity of Graviola and percentage cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle. The cytotoxicity of aqueous extract of Graviola leaves on squamous cell carcinoma (SCC-25) cell lines at various concentrations evaluated using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The percentage of SCC-25 cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle determined using flow cytometry. Graviola Leaves, American Type Culture Collection SCC-25 cell lines were procured from Skanda Laboratories, Bengaluru. The cytotoxicity of aqueous extract of Graviola on SCC-25 cells at various concentrations evaluated using MTT assay. The percentage of SCC-25 cell inhibition at G2M phase of cell cycle determined using flow cytometry. Statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA. MTT assay showed statistically significant (P < 0.001) dose-dependent inhibition of SCC-25 cell lines by Graviola with IC50 value of 12.42 μg/ml. Flow cytometry revealed that Graviola at 25 and 50 g/ml arrested 53.39% and 52.09% cells in G2M phase of cell cycle respectively, which was statistically significant. Graviola showed significant cytotoxic activity and percentage of cell inhibition at G2M phase cell cycle against SCC-25 cell lines.

  20. DNA as a Model for Probing Polymer Entanglements: Circular Polymers and Non-Classical Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Regan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Double-stranded DNA offers a robust platform for investigating fundamental questions regarding the dynamics of entangled polymer solutions. The exceptional monodispersity and multiple naturally occurring topologies of DNA, as well as a wide range of tunable lengths and concentrations that encompass the entanglement regime, enable direct testing of molecular-level entanglement theories and corresponding scaling laws. DNA is also amenable to a wide range of techniques from passive to nonlinear measurements and from single-molecule to bulk macroscopic experiments. Over the past two decades, researchers have developed methods to directly visualize and manipulate single entangled DNA molecules in steady-state and stressed conditions using fluorescence microscopy, particle tracking and optical tweezers. Developments in microfluidics, microrheology and bulk rheology have also enabled characterization of the viscoelastic response of entangled DNA from molecular levels to macroscopic scales and over timescales that span from linear to nonlinear regimes. Experiments using DNA have uniquely elucidated the debated entanglement properties of circular polymers and blends of linear and circular polymers. Experiments have also revealed important lengthscale and timescale dependent entanglement dynamics not predicted by classical tube models, both validating and refuting new proposed extensions and alternatives to tube theory and motivating further theoretical work to describe the rich dynamics exhibited in entangled polymer systems.

  1. Salicylate-Induced Auditory Perceptual Disorders and Plastic Changes in Nonclassical Auditory Centers in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Di Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that sodium salicylate (SS activates not only central auditory structures, but also nonauditory regions associated with emotion and memory. To identify electrophysiological changes in the nonauditory regions, we recorded sound-evoked local field potentials and multiunit discharges from the striatum, amygdala, hippocampus, and cingulate cortex after SS-treatment. The SS-treatment produced behavioral evidence of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Physiologically, the treatment significantly enhanced sound-evoked neural activity in the striatum, amygdala, and hippocampus, but not in the cingulate. The enhanced sound evoked response could be linked to the hyperacusis-like behavior. Further analysis showed that the enhancement of sound-evoked activity occurred predominantly at the midfrequencies, likely reflecting shifts of neurons towards the midfrequency range after SS-treatment as observed in our previous studies in the auditory cortex and amygdala. The increased number of midfrequency neurons would lead to a relative higher number of total spontaneous discharges in the midfrequency region, even though the mean discharge rate of each neuron may not increase. The tonotopical overactivity in the midfrequency region in quiet may potentially lead to tonal sensation of midfrequency (the tinnitus. The neural changes in the amygdala and hippocampus may also contribute to the negative effect that patients associate with their tinnitus.

  2. Association of HLA-A and Non-Classical HLA Class I Alleles

    OpenAIRE

    Carlini, Federico; Ferreira, Virginia; Buhler, St?phane; Tous, Audrey; Eliaou, Jean-Fran?ois; Ren?, C?line; Chiaroni, Jacques; Picard, Christophe; Di Cristofaro, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The HLA-A locus is surrounded by HLA class Ib genes: HLA-E, HLA-H, HLA-G and HLA-F. HLA class Ib molecules are involved in immuno-modulation with a central role for HLA-G and HLA-E, an emerging role for HLA-F and a yet unknown function for HLA-H. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to describe the main allelic associations between HLA-A and HLA-H, -G, -F and -E. Therefore, HLA-A, -E, -G, -H and -F coding polymorphisms, as well as HLA-G UnTranslated Region haplotypes (referred to a...

  3. Association of HLA-A and Non-Classical HLA Class I Alleles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Federico; Ferreira, Virginia; Buhler, Stéphane; Tous, Audrey; Eliaou, Jean-François; René, Céline; Chiaroni, Jacques; Picard, Christophe; Di Cristofaro, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The HLA-A locus is surrounded by HLA class Ib genes: HLA-E, HLA-H, HLA-G and HLA-F. HLA class Ib molecules are involved in immuno-modulation with a central role for HLA-G and HLA-E, an emerging role for HLA-F and a yet unknown function for HLA-H. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to describe the main allelic associations between HLA-A and HLA-H, -G, -F and -E. Therefore, HLA-A, -E, -G, -H and -F coding polymorphisms, as well as HLA-G UnTranslated Region haplotypes (referred to as HLA-G UTRs), were explored in 191 voluntary blood donors. Allelic frequencies, Global Linkage Disequilibrium (GLD), Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) for specific pairs of alleles and two-loci haplotype frequencies were estimated. We showed that HLA-A, HLA-H, HLA-F, HLA-G and HLA-G UTRs were all in highly significant pairwise GLD, in contrast to HLA-E. Moreover, HLA-A displayed restricted associations with HLA-G UTR and HLA-H. We also confirmed several associations that were previously found to have a negative impact on transplantation outcome. In summary, our results suggest complex functional and clinical implications of the HLA-A genetic region. PMID:27701438

  4. Nonclassicality and entanglement criteria for bipartite optical fields characterized by quadratic detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina Jr., J.; Arkhipov, I.I.; Michálek, Václav; Haderka, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 96, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-15, č. článku 043845. ISSN 2469-9926 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : parametric down-conversion * photon statistic * bipartite optical fields * quadratic detectors Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  5. Conformational analysis for some nonclassical antagonists of histamine H3 receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borota, Ana; Mracec, Maria; Rad, Ramona; Ostopovici, Liliana; Mracec, Mircea

    A conformational search in vacuum for a series of 1,3-substituted pyrrolidine derivatives has been performed using the AMBER, AM1, PM3, and MNDO methods. Conformational analysis of the pyrrolidine ligands suggests that these compounds could have many conformers that populate the low-energy minima on the potential energy surface (PES). The conformational space occupied by the ligands is large and, in vacuum, the rotation barriers of different flexible bonds have energies between 0.5 and thousands of kcal/mol. By optimization, most conformers have energy barriers of 0-5 kcal/mol; thus, they could interconvert easily to obtain better interactions in the receptor active site. Optimized conformers having energy barriers of >5 kcal/mol display bad geometries with very large bond lengths and deformed rings. Shapes and heights of rotation barriers obtained through COSMO-AM1 single-point calculations in water are similar to those obtained from single-point calculations in vacuum. However, in water the energy barriers are lower, allowing most conformers to convert in other low-energy conformers. The best conformers in vacuum and in water are different: the gas phase best conformer has a helical shape, while the best conformer in water has an extended shape.

  6. BELTING AND POP, NONCLASSICAL APPROACHES TO THE FEMALE MIDDLE VOICE - SOME PRELIMINARY CONSIDERATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHUTTE, HK; MILLER, DG

    There is a commonly perceived difference in the sound produced in the approximate range D4-D5 by female singers in the western opera and concert tradition, on the one hand, and certain other styles, including rock, pop, folk, and some Broadway musicals, on the other. The term ''belting'' is

  7. Nonclassical disordered phase in the strong quantum limit of frustrated antiferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccatto, H.A.; Gazza, C.J.; Trumper, A.E.

    1992-07-01

    The Schwinger boson approach to quantum helimagnets is discussed. It is shown that in order to get quantitative agreement with exact results on finite lattices, parity-breaking pairing of bosons must be allowed. The so-called J 1 - J 2 - J 3 model is studied, particularly on the special line J 2 = 2J 3 . A quantum disordered phase is found between the Neel and spiral phases, though notably only in the strong quantum limit S = 1/2, and for the third-neighbor coupling J 3 ≥ 0.038 J 1 . For spins S≥1 the spiral phase goes continuously to an antiferromagnetic order. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs

  8. Nonclassical statistics of intracavity coupled chi((2)) waveguides: The quantum optical dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2003-01-01

    A model is proposed where two chi((2)) nonlinear waveguides are contained in a cavity suited for second-harmonic generation. The evanescent wave coupling between the waveguides is considered as weak, and the interplay between this coupling and the nonlinear interaction within the waveguides gives...

  9. Classical and nonclassical germanium environments in high-pressure BaGe5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Rodrigo; Carrillo-Cabrera, Wilder; Schwarz, Ulrich; Grin, Yuri

    2015-02-02

    A new crystalline form of BaGe(5) was obtained at a pressure of 15(2) GPa in the temperature range from 1000(100) to 1200(120) K. Single-crystal electron and powder X-ray diffraction patterns indicate a body-centered orthorhombic structure (space group Imma, Pearson notation oI24) with unit cell parameters a = 8.3421(8) Å, b = 4.8728(5) Å, and c = 13.7202(9) Å. The crystal structure of hp-BaGe(5) consists of four-bonded Ge atoms forming complex layers with Ge-Ge contacts between 2.560(6) and 2.684(3) Å; the Ba atoms are coordinated by 15 Ge neighbors in the range from 3.341(6) to 3.739(4) Å. Analysis of the chemical bonding using quantum chemical techniques in real space reveal charge transfer from the Ba cations to the anionic Ge species. Ge atoms having nearly tetrahedral environments show an electron-localizability-based oxidation number close to 0; the four-bonded Ge atoms with a Ψ-pyramidal environment adopt a value close to 1-. In agreement with the calculated electronic density of states, the compound is a metallic conductor (electrical resistivity of ca. 240 μΩ cm at 300 K), and magnetic susceptibility measurements evidence diamagnetic behavior with χ(0) = -95 × 10(-6) emu mol(-1).

  10. Expression of the Classical and Nonclassical HLA Molecules in Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gisela Bevilacqua Rolfsen Ferreira da; Silva, Tarsia Giabardo Alves; Duarte, Roberta Aparecida; Neto, Nicolino Lia; Carrara, Hélio Humberto Angotti; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Gonçalves, Maria Alice Guimarães; Soares, Edson Garcia; Soares, Christiane Pienna

    2013-01-01

    Considering that downregulation of HLA expression could represent a potential mechanism for breast carcinogenesis and metastasis, the aim of the present study was to use immunohistochemical methods to analyze the expression of HLA-Ia, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-E, and HLA-G in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast and to relate this HLA profile to anatomopathological parameters. Fifty-two IDC from breast biopsies were stratified according to histological differentiation (well, moderately, an...

  11. The Ebola virus glycoprotein mediates entry via a non-classical dynamin-dependent macropinocytic pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulherkar, Nirupama; Raaben, Matthijs; Torre, Juan Carlos de la; Whelan, Sean P.; Chandran, Kartik

    2011-01-01

    Ebola virus (EBOV) has been reported to enter cultured cell lines via a dynamin-2-independent macropinocytic pathway or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The route(s) of productive EBOV internalization into physiologically relevant cell types remain unexplored, and viral-host requirements for this process are incompletely understood. Here, we use electron microscopy and complementary chemical and genetic approaches to demonstrate that the viral glycoprotein, GP, induces macropinocytic uptake of viral particles into cells. GP's highly-glycosylated mucin domain is dispensable for virus-induced macropinocytosis, arguing that interactions between other sequences in GP and the host cell surface are responsible. Unexpectedly, we also found a requirement for the large GTPase dynamin-2, which is proposed to be dispensable for several types of macropinocytosis. Our results provide evidence that EBOV uses an atypical dynamin-dependent macropinocytosis-like entry pathway to enter Vero cells, adherent human peripheral blood-derived monocytes, and a mouse dendritic cell line.

  12. Controlling nonclassical properties of the two-photon process by a time-varying field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Jia; Shuang-Yuan, Xie; Ya-Ping, Yang

    2009-01-01

    The interactions between a two-level atom and a field via two-photon transition without rotating wave approximation have been investigated. We emphasize the dynamic behaviors of the atomic population inversion, the field squeezing, and the atomic dipole squeezing numerically when the field frequency varies with time in the forms of sine and rectangle. Some interesting phenomena are discovered and discussed. The good periodic character of the atomic population inversion in the standard two-photon Jaynes–Cummings model is weakened by the influence of the sine field frequency modulation. The rectangular field frequency modulation can change the correlation among different oscillations suddenly and induce new collapse-revival processes of the atomic population inversion. The field squeezing increases at the beginning of time, but then decreases and loses as the time increases after it reaches the maximum due to the sine modulation. The effects of the rectangular modulation on the field squeezing depend mostly on the appearance time of the modulation. The atomic dipole squeezing is weakened under the influence of the sine or rectangular modulation. Our results indicate that it is possible to perform the dynamic controlling of the system properties by changing the parameters of the system with time. This implies that one can dynamically control a quantum information process by choosing the system modulation properly. (general)

  13. The superluminal velocities as the consequence of non-classical states of electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veklenko, B. A.

    2017-06-01

    It was shown within the framework of conventional quantum electrodynamics, and without using perturbation theory, the presence of superluminal signals, transferring the information, while investigating the scattering of quantum electromagnetic field by excited atom. The superluminal signals are impossible in the theory of free fields, but their existence is predicted by the theory of interacting fields.

  14. Non-classical detonation regimes of the mixtures of tetranitromethane/methanol and tetranitromethane/nitrobenzene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalova, Valentina; Utkin, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The experimental study of the liquid explosive tetranitromethane and its mixtures with not detonating liquids (methanol and nitrobenzene) is presented in this work. By the using of a laser interferometer VISAR the stability of detonation waves in that mixtures, depending on the diluent concentration, was investigated. It is shown that the detonation front of these mixtures is stable up to 40% of diluent. Also the dependence of the detonation velocity of tetranitromethane/diluent on the diluent concentration and the limit concentration of the diluent, above which the detonation of the mixture was impossible, were found for each mixture. The compounds of the mixtures, in the reaction zone of which the distribution of parameters didn't correspond to the classical detonation theory, were found. An increase of the pressure and particle velocity behind a shock jump in the mixtures of tetranitromethane/methanol and tetranitromethane/nitrobenzene and the possibility of the existence of a steady-state detonation wave without a Von Neumann spike are interpreted within the framework of models that take into account the possibility of chemical reactions directly in the shock wave front. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 15-03-07830).

  15. Expression of the Classical and Nonclassical HLA Molecules in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gisela Bevilacqua Rolfsen Ferreira; Silva, Tarsia Giabardo Alves; Duarte, Roberta Aparecida; Neto, Nicolino Lia; Carrara, Hélio Humberto Angotti; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Gonçalves, Maria Alice Guimarães; Soares, Edson Garcia; Soares, Christiane Pienna

    2013-01-01

    Considering that downregulation of HLA expression could represent a potential mechanism for breast carcinogenesis and metastasis, the aim of the present study was to use immunohistochemical methods to analyze the expression of HLA-Ia, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, HLA-E, and HLA-G in invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast and to relate this HLA profile to anatomopathological parameters. Fifty-two IDC from breast biopsies were stratified according to histological differentiation (well, moderately, and poorly differentiated) and to the presence of metastases in axillary lymph nodes. The expression of HLA molecules was assessed by immunohistochemistry, using a computer-assisted system. Overall, 31 (59.6%) out of the 52 IDC breast biopsies exhibited high expression of HLA-G, but only 14 (26.9%) showed high expression of HLA-E. A large number (41, 78.8%) of the biopsies showed low expression of HLA-Ia, while 45 (86.5%) showed high expression of HLA-DQ and 36 (69.2%) underexpressed HLA-DR. Moreover, 24 (41.2%) of 52 biopsies had both low HLA-Ia expression and high HLA-G expression, while 11 (21.2%) had low HLA-Ia expression and high HLA-E expression. These results suggest that, by different mechanisms, the downregulation of HLA-Ia, HLA-E, and HLA-DR and the upregulation of HLA-G and HLA-DQ are associated with immune response evasion and breast cancer aggressiveness. PMID:24363939

  16. Non-classical signature of parametric fluorescence and its application in metrology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hamar, Martin; Michálek, Václav; Pathak, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2014), s. 227-236 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : parametric fluorescence * photon number squeezed light * quantum efficiency Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.989, year: 2014

  17. Observation of spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Huck, Alexander; Andersen, Ulrik Lund

    2009-01-01

    and negative spatial quantum correlations are observed when varying the quantum state incident to the multiple scattering medium, and the strength of the correlations is controlled by the number of photons. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical proposals by implementing......We present the experimental realization of spatial quantum correlations of photons that are induced by multiple scattering of squeezed light. The quantum correlation relates photons propagating along two different light paths through the random medium and is infinite in range. Both positive...... the full quantum model of multiple scattering....

  18. Event-by-event simulation of nonclassical effects in two-photon interference experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Michielsen, Kristel; Jin, Fengping; Delina, Mutia; De Raedt, Hans

    2012-01-01

    A corpuscular simulation model for second-order intensity interference phenomena is discussed. It is shown that both the visibility ${\\cal V}=1/2$ predicted for two-photon interference experiments with two independent sources and the visibility ${\\cal V}=1$ predicted for two-photon interference experiments with a parametric down-conversion source can be explained in terms of a locally causal, modular, adaptive, corpuscular, classical (non-Hamiltonian) dynamical system. Hence, there is no need...

  19. Association of HLA-A and Non-Classical HLA Class I Alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, Federico; Ferreira, Virginia; Buhler, Stéphane; Tous, Audrey; Eliaou, Jean-François; René, Céline; Chiaroni, Jacques; Picard, Christophe; Di Cristofaro, Julie

    2016-01-01

    The HLA-A locus is surrounded by HLA class Ib genes: HLA-E, HLA-H, HLA-G and HLA-F. HLA class Ib molecules are involved in immuno-modulation with a central role for HLA-G and HLA-E, an emerging role for HLA-F and a yet unknown function for HLA-H. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to describe the main allelic associations between HLA-A and HLA-H, -G, -F and -E. Therefore, HLA-A, -E, -G, -H and -F coding polymorphisms, as well as HLA-G UnTranslated Region haplotypes (referred to as HLA-G UTRs), were explored in 191 voluntary blood donors. Allelic frequencies, Global Linkage Disequilibrium (GLD), Linkage Disequilibrium (LD) for specific pairs of alleles and two-loci haplotype frequencies were estimated. We showed that HLA-A, HLA-H, HLA-F, HLA-G and HLA-G UTRs were all in highly significant pairwise GLD, in contrast to HLA-E. Moreover, HLA-A displayed restricted associations with HLA-G UTR and HLA-H. We also confirmed several associations that were previously found to have a negative impact on transplantation outcome. In summary, our results suggest complex functional and clinical implications of the HLA-A genetic region.

  20. Solid-State Source of Nonclassical Photon Pairs with Embedded Multimode Quantum Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutluer, Kutlu; Mazzera, Margherita; de Riedmatten, Hugues

    2017-05-26

    The generation and distribution of quantum correlations between photonic qubits is a key resource in quantum information science. For applications in quantum networks and quantum repeaters, it is required that these quantum correlations be stored in a quantum memory. In 2001, Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) proposed a scheme combining a correlated photon-pair source and a quantum memory in atomic gases, which has enabled fast progress towards elementary quantum networks. In this Letter, we demonstrate a solid-state source of correlated photon pairs with embedded spin-wave quantum memory, using a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal. We show strong quantum correlations between the photons, high enough for performing quantum communication. Unlike the original DLCZ proposal, our scheme is inherently multimode thanks to a built-in rephasing mechanism, allowing us to demonstrate storage of 11 temporal modes. These results represent an important step towards the realization of complex quantum networks architectures using solid-state resources.

  1. A Case Report of Conventional Solid Ameloblastoma presenting with Non-Classical Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Ganapathy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ameloblastomas constitute approximately 1 percent of all cysts and tumors of the jaws. The occurrence in the mandible is four times higher than in the maxilla; in the mandible there is a predilection for the molar-ramus area with a little more than two-thirds occurring in this region. The tumor is relatively uncommon anteriorly. The average age of occurrences is in the third or fourth decade. They can grow quite large without metastasizing. The selection of treatment for an individual ameloblastoma depends to a large extent on its clinical type i. e. whether the tumor is a typical intraosseous solid or Multicystic ameloblastoma with poorly defined margins. Other factors of importance are its location in the jaws and its size, the age of the patient and patients availability for follow up examination.

  2. Treatise on irreversible and statistical thermodynamics an introduction to nonclassical thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Yourgrau, Wolfgang; Raw, Gough

    2002-01-01

    Extensively revised edition of a much-respected work examines thermodynamics of irreversible processes, general principles of statistical thermodynamics, assemblies of noninteracting structureless particles, and statistical theory. 1966 edition.

  3. Wigner functions for nonclassical states of a collection of two-level atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, G. S.; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    1993-01-01

    The general theory of atomic angular momentum states is used to derive the Wigner distribution function for atomic angular momentum number states, coherent states, and squeezed states. These Wigner functions W(theta,phi) are represented as a pseudo-probability distribution in spherical coordinates theta and phi on the surface of a sphere of radius the square root of j(j +1) where j is the total angular momentum.

  4. Thrombin induces rapid PAR1-mediated non-classical FGF1 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Maria; Kolev, Vihren; Soldi, Raffaella; Kirov, Alexander; Graziani, Irene; Oliveira, Silvia Marta; Kacer, Doreen; Friesel, Robert; Maciag, Thomas; Prudovsky, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Thrombin induces cell proliferation and migration during vascular injury. We report that thrombin rapidly stimulated expression and release of the pro-angiogenic polypeptide fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1). Thrombin failed to induce FGF1 release from protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) null fibroblasts, indicating that this effect was dependent on PAR1. Similarly to thrombin, FGF1 expression and release were induced by TRAP, a specific oligopeptide agonist of PAR1. These results identify a novel aspect of the crosstalk between FGF and thrombin signaling pathways which both play important roles in tissue repair and angiogenesis

  5. A non-classical phase diagram for virus-bacterial co-evolution mediated by CRISPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pu; Deem, Michael

    CRISPR is a newly discovered prokaryotic immune system. Bacteria and archaea with this system incorporate genetic material from invading viruses into their genomes, providing protection against future infection by similar viruses. Due to the cost of CRISPR, bacteria can lose the acquired immunity. We will show an intriguing phase diagram of the virus extinction probability, which when the rate of losing the acquired immunity is small, is more complex than that of the classic predator-prey model. As the CRISPR incorporates genetic material, viruses are under pressure to evolve to escape the recognition by CRISPR, and this co-evolution leads to a non-trivial phase structure that cannot be explained by the classical predator-prey model.

  6. Correlations in local measurements on a quantum state, and complementarity as an explanation of nonclassicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We consider the classical correlations that two observers can extract by measurements on a bipartite quantum state and we discuss how they are related to the quantum mutual information of the state. We show with several examples how complementarity gives rise to a gap between the quantum and the ...

  7. Information-theoretic metric as a tool to investigate nonclassical correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Alexander L.; Lamine, Brahim; Joyce, Michael; Vignolles, Hélène; Consiglio, David

    2014-06-01

    We report on a project to introduce interactive learning strategies (ILS) to physics classes at the Université Pierre et Marie Curie, one of the leading science universities in France. In Spring 2012, instructors in two large introductory classes, first-year, second-semester mechanics, and second-year introductory electricity and magnetism, enrolling approximately 500 and 250 students, respectively, introduced ILS into some, but not all, of the sections of each class. The specific ILS utilized were think-pair-share questions and Peer Instruction in the main lecture classrooms, and University of Washington Tutorials for Introductory Physics in recitation sections. Pre- and postinstruction assessments [Force Concept Inventory (FCI) and Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism (CSEM), respectively] were given, along with a series of demographic questions. Since not all lecture or recitation sections in these classes used ILS, we were able to compare the results of the FCI and CSEM between interactive and noninteractive classes taught simultaneously with the same curriculum. We also analyzed final exam results, as well as the results of student and instructor attitude surveys between classes. In our analysis, we argue that multiple linear regression modeling is superior to other common analysis tools, including normalized gain. Our results show that ILS are effective at improving student learning by all measures used: research-validated concept inventories and final exam scores, on both conceptual and traditional problem-solving questions. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that interactivity in the classroom is a significant predictor of student learning, showing a similar or stronger relationship with student learning than such ascribed characteristics as parents’ education, and achieved characteristics such as grade point average and hours studied per week. Analysis of student and instructor attitudes shows that both groups believe that ILS improve student learning in the physics classroom and increase student engagement and motivation. All of the instructors who used ILS in this study plan to continue their use.

  8. A closed-form solution procedure to the vibration of non-classically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    proportional damping subjected to harmonic loads is considered. Modal substitution is employed to transform the coupled differential equations of motion from geometric to modal coordinates. As might be expected, the modal transformation does ...

  9. Non-classical neutron beams for fundamental and solid state research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    disappears when the phase shift becomes larger than the coherence length. When the interference in ordinary space disappears, a modulation of the momentum dis- tribution appears. This is shown schematically in figure 4 [22]. In light optics. [32,33] and more recently in neutron optics [34], it has been shown that interfer-.

  10. Non-classical neutron beams for fundamental and solid state research

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, it has been shown that an entanglement between external and internal degrees of freedom exists even in single particle systems. This contextuality phenomenon also shows that a quantum system carries much more information than usually extracted. The path towards advanced neutron quantum optics will be ...

  11. Non-classical reproductive tract infections on the rise in women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... specimens for antibodies to Treponema pallidum and Chlamydia trachomatis respectively. Infections recorded 45% under gynecological care and 14% for general consultations (p< 0.001), with an alarming 84% of general consultation cases without any intention of STIs screens or having future gynecologic appointments.

  12. Oxidative Corrosion of the UO 2 (001) Surface by Nonclassical Diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, Joanne E.; Biwer, Craig A.; Chaka, Anne M. [Pacific Northwest; Ilton, Eugene S. [Pacific Northwest; Du, Yingge [Pacific Northwest; Bargar, John R. [Stanford Synchrotron; Eng, Peter J.

    2017-11-07

    Uranium oxide is central to every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle, from mining through fuel fabrication and use, to waste disposal and environmental cleanup. Its chemical and mechanical stability are intricately linked to the concentration of interstitial O atoms within the structure and the oxidation state of U. We have previously shown that during corrosion of the UO2 (111) surface under either 1 atm O2 gas or oxygenated water at room temperature, oxygen interstitials diffuse into the substrate to form a superlattice with three-layer periodicity. In the current study, we present results from surface x-ray scattering that reveal the structure of the oxygen diffusion profile beneath the (001) surface. The first few layers below the surface oscillate strongly in their surface-normal lattice parameters, suggesting preferential interstitial occupation of every other layer below the surface, which is geometrically consistent with the interstitial network that forms below the oxidized (111) surface. Deeper layers are heavily contracted and indicate that the oxidation front penetrates ~52 Å below the (001) surface after 21 days of dry O2 gas exposure at ambient pressure and temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates U is present as U(IV), U(V), and U(VI).

  13. Investigating Musical Performance: Commonality and Diversity among Classical and Non-Classical Musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Andrea; Papageorgi, Ioulia; Duffy, Celia; Morton, Frances; Hadden, Elizabeth; Potter, John; De Bezenac, Christophe; Whyton, Tony; Himonides, Evangelos; Welch, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The research project "Investigating Musical Performance: Comparative Studies in Advanced Musical Learning" was devised to investigate how classical, popular, jazz and Scottish traditional musicians deepen and develop their learning about performance in undergraduate, postgraduate and wider music community contexts. The aim of this paper is to…

  14. Non-classical kinetics processes and morphologies in QSE driven growth in Pb/Si(111

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuntová, Zdeňka; Hupalo, M.; Chvoj, Zdeněk; Tringides, M. C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 600, - (2006), s. 4765-4770 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010207; GA MŠk ME 655 Grant - others:US department of Energy by Iowa State University(US) 7405-Eng-82; MCT(US) NSF-INT-0308505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : quantum size effects * self - organized growth * magic thickness * interlayer diffusion nucleation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2006

  15. Quantum Mechanical Noise in a Michelson Interferometer with Nonclassical Inputs: Nonperturbative Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Sun-Kun

    1996-01-01

    The variances of the quantum-mechanical noise in a two-input-port Michelson interferometer within the framework of the Loudon-Ni model were solved exactly in two general cases: (1) one coherent state input and one squeezed state input, and (2) two photon number states inputs. Low intensity limit, exponential decaying signal and the noise due to mixing were discussed briefly.

  16. Interplay of nonclassicality and entanglement of two-mode Gaussian fields generated in optical parametric processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arkhipov, Ie.I.; Peřina, Jan; Peřina, J.; Miranowicz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 1 (2016), 1-15, č. článku 013807. ISSN 2469-9926 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : two-mode Gaussian fields * optical parametric processes Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  17. The application of the optical system ATOS II for rapid prototyping methods of non-classical models of cogbelt pulleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krawiec Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The widespread application of both gear wheels and cogbelt pulleys with noncircular generating line in technique stimulates the development of manufacturing and measuring methods of these wheels. The paper presents the rapid prototyping methods of models of cogbelt pulleys with nocircular evelope. Evaluation method of manufacturing accuracy of cogbelt pulleys, which are applied in unevenrunning belt transmissions, are presented. These transmissions are widely applied in steering techniques and drives of machines and devices. Verification of mapping accuracy of shape of geometrical model of cogbelt pulley was done with the application of noncontact optical system i.e. coordinate optical scanner GOM Atos Compact Scan 5M GOM company.

  18. A nonclassical IFITM5 mutation located in the coding region causes severe osteogenesis imperfecta with prenatal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer-Kuhn, Heike; Semler, Oliver; Garbes, Lutz; Zimmermann, Katharina; Becker, Jutta; Wollnik, Bernd; Schoenau, Eckhard; Netzer, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a hereditary connective tissue disorder characterized by a wide range of skeletal symptoms. Most patients have dominantly inherited or de novo mutations in COL1A1 or COL1A2. Up to 5% of patients have OI type V, characterized by hyperplastic callus formation after fractures, calcification of the interosseous membrane of the forearm, and a mesh-like lamellation pattern observed in bone histology. Recently, a heterozygous mutation in the 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of IFITM5 (c.-14C > T) was identified as the underlying cause of OI type V, and only this specific mutation was subsequently identified in all patient cohorts with this OI subtype. We now present a case of a heterozygous mutation within the coding region of IFITM5 (c.119C > T; p.S40L). The mutation occurred de novo in the patient and resulted in severe OI with prenatal onset and extreme short stature. At the age of 19 months, the typical clinical hallmarks of OI type V were not present. Our finding has important consequences for the genetic "work-up" of patients suspected to have OI, both in prenatal and in postnatal settings: The entire gene-not only the 5'-UTR harboring the "classical" OI type V mutation-has to be analyzed to exclude a causal role of IFITM5. We propose that this should be part of the initial diagnostic steps for genetic laboratories performing SANGER sequencing in OI patients. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  19. Trichuris suis induces human non-classical patrolling monocytes via the mannose receptor and PKC: implications for multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Gijs; Braster, Rens; Koning, Jasper J.; Laan, Lisa C.; van Vliet, Sandra J.; Los, Tamara; Eveleens, Anne Marieke; van der Pol, Susanne M. A.; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Boztug, Kaan; Belot, Alexandre; Szilagyi, Katka; van den Berg, Timo K.; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Egmond, Marjolein; de Vries, Helga E.; Cummings, Richard D.; Dijkstra, Christine D.; van Die, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The inverse correlation between prevalence of auto-immune disorders like the chronic neuro-inflammatory disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and the occurrence of helminth (worm) infections, suggests that the helminth-trained immune system is protective against auto-immunity. As monocytes

  20. Entanglement and nonclassicality in four-mode Gaussian states generated via parametric down-conversion and frequency up-conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arkhipov, Ie.I.; Peřina Jr., J.; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Sep (2016), 1-12, č. článku 33802. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : four-mode Gaussian states * parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  1. Interaction of Bile Salts with β-Cyclodextrins Reveals Nonclassical Hydrophobic Effect and Enthalpy-Entropy Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Bijan K; Ghosh, Narayani; Mukherjee, Saptarshi

    2016-04-28

    Herein, we present an endeavor toward exploring the lacuna underlying the host:guest chemistry of inclusion complex formation between bile salt(s) and β-cyclodextrin(s) (βCDs). An extensive thermodynamic investigation based on isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) demonstrates a dominant contribution from exothermic enthalpy change (ΔH enthalpy-entropy compensation behavior showing indication for almost complete compensation. To this end, we have quantified the interaction of two bile salt molecules (namely, sodium deoxycholate and sodium glycocholate) with a series of varying chemical substituents on the host counterpart, namely, βCD, (2-hydroxypropyl)-βCD, and methyl βCD.

  2. HLA non-class II genes may confer type I diabetes susceptibility in a Mapuche (Amerindian) affected family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Bravo, Francisco; Martinez-Laso, Jorge; Martin-Villa, Jose M; Moscoso, Juan; Moreno, Almudena; Serrano-Vela, Juan I; Zamora, Jorge; Asenjo, Silvia; Gleisner, Andrea; Arnaiz-Villena, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of type I diabetes is studied in an Amerindian (Mapuche) family from Chile, analyzing glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet-cell autoantibodies and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. The affected sib is the only one that has one specific HLA haplotype combination that differs from the other sibs only in the HLA class I genes. It is concluded that HLA diabetes susceptibility factors may be placed outside the class II region or even that susceptibility factors do not exist in the HLA region in this Amerindian family.

  3. Nonclassical human leukocyte antigen (HLA-G, HLA-E, and HLA-F) in coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidi, Ines; Kharrat, Najla; Abdelhedi, Rania; Hassine, Amna Ben; Laaribi, Ahmed Baligh; Yahia, Hamza Ben; Abdelmoula, Nouha Bouayed; Abid, Leila; Rebai, Ahmed; Rizzo, Roberta

    2016-04-01

    Several evidences suggest the association between the evolution of coronary artery disease (CAD) and the development of coronary syndrome that is often associated with disrupted plaque and partial or complete thrombosis of the related artery. Because of the inflammatory nature of CAD, we investigated the human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, HLA-E, and HLA-F genetic polymorphisms within CAD patients and evaluated their potential association with this disease in Tunisian population. Different polymorphisms in HLA-G (14-bp Insertion/Deletion, +3142C/G), HLA-E (HLA-E*01:01/01:03 A/G), HLA-F (HLA-F*01:02 T/C, 01:03 C/T, 01:04 A/C) genes were typed using different laboratory techniques in a cohort of 89 CAD patients and 84 controls. A significant association was reported between the HLA-G +3142 G allele (OR=1.64, 95% CI=1.05-2.56, p=0.02) and increased risk of CAD. No association was found for the other studied polymorphisms. When we considered the haplotypes, we found TDELCA and TDELGG haplotypes associated to CAD with p=0.008 and p=0.030, respectively, suggesting the potential interaction between HLA-G and HLA-E genes. Our findings indicated that the HLA-G +3142C/G polymorphism and TDELCA and TDELGG haplotypes can harbour a reliable diagnosis value for the risk of CAD development suggesting that HLA-G, -E and -F molecules might be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. However, further studies are necessary to confirm our results. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissecting the chloroplast proteome of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) provides new insights into classical and non-classical functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Nilesh Vikram; Subba, Pratigya; Barua, Pragya; Gayen, Dipak; Keshava Prasad, T S; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-08-08

    Chloroplast, the energy organelle unique to plant cells, is a dynamic entity which integrates an array of metabolic pathways and serves as first level for energy conversion for the entire ecological hierarchy. Increasing amount of sequence data and evolution of mass spectrometric approaches has opened up new avenues for opportune exploration of the global proteome of this organelle. In our study, we aimed at generation of a comprehensive catalogue of chloroplast proteins in a grain legume, chickpea and provided a reference proteome map. To accurately assign the identified proteins, purity of chloroplast-enriched fraction was stringently monitored by multiple chemical and immunological indexes, besides pigment and enzyme analyses. The proteome analysis led to the identification of 2451 proteins, including 27 isoforms, which include predicted and novel chloroplast constituents. The identified proteins were validated through their sequence analysis. Extensive sequence based localization prediction revealed more than 50% proteins to be chloroplast resident by at least two different algorithms. Chromosomal distribution of identified proteins across nuclear and chloroplast genome unveiled the presence of 55 chloroplast encoded gene. In depth comparison of our dataset with the non-redundant set of chloroplast proteins identified so far across other species revealed novel as well as overlapping candidates. Pulses add large amount of nitrogen to the soil and has very low water footprint and therefore, contributes to fortification of sustainable agriculture. Chickpea is one of the earliest cultivated legumes and serves as an energy and protein source for humans and animals. Chloroplasts are the unique organelles which conduct photosynthesis. Investigation on chloroplast proteome is of particular significance, especially to plant biologists, as it would allow a better understanding of chloroplast function in plants. Generation of a saturated proteome map would not only validate the proteome inventory from its genome sequencing, but also serve as a comprehensive catalogue for future studies. We identified 2451 proteins, encoded by both the nuclear as well as chloroplast genomes, presumably involved in multivariate metabolic processes. The chloroplast deduced proteome and putative chloroplast proteins identified in this study would provide a foundation for future investigation of the expression and function of the chloroplast proteins of chickpea in specific and other crops species in general. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Homocysteine as a non-classical risk factor for atherosclerosis in relation to pharmacotherapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Magdalena; Dworacka, Marzena; Winiarska, Hanna; Krzyżagórska, Ewa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate which of the pharmacotherapeutic methods that are frequently used to treat type 2 diabetes is associated with the most beneficial profile in relation to pro-atherogenic homocysteine levels. We measured the serum homocysteine level in 182 patients with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin (89), treated with insulin in combination with metformin (31), receiving sulfonylureas (31) and treated conventionally with insulin (31). The total homocysteine levels in the serum were assayed. To exclude the influence of selected metabolic and anthropometric factors on the differences between the examined groups, multivariate analysis of covariance was used (ANCOVA). In this analysis, serum homocysteine concentration was the dependent variable, while diabetes duration, waist circumference, HbA 1c , 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol, fasting glycaemia and peptide C were used as covariates. The serum homocysteine levels in patients treated with insulin in monotherapy were significantly higher than what was observed in the metformin treated subjects and in the patients receiving insulin combined with metformin. The analysis of covariance also confirmed that the differences between the therapeutic groups were affected by waist circumference and the C-peptide levels. We conclude that conventional insulin therapy may have a negative effect on pro-atherogenic homocysteine levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study revealed that pro-atherogenic homocysteine levels may not only be modified by pharmacotherapy of type 2 diabetes, but also by beta cell secretory function and abdominal obesity.

  6. Global well-posedness and asymptotic behavior of the solutions to non-classical thermo(visco)elastic models

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Yuming

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent findings on the global existence, the uniqueness and the large-time behavior of global solutions of thermo(vis)coelastic systems and related models arising in physics, mechanics and materials science such as thermoviscoelastic systems, thermoelastic systems of types II and III, as well as Timoshenko-type systems with past history. Part of the book is based on the research conducted by the authors and their collaborators in recent years. The book will benefit interested beginners in the field and experts alike.

  7. B-H center dot center dot center dot pi: a nonclassical hydrogen bond or dispersion contact?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fanfrlík, Jindřich; Pecina, Adam; Řezáč, Jan; Sedlák, Robert; Hnyk, Drahomír; Lepšík, Martin; Hobza, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 28 (2017), s. 18194-18200 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP208/12/G016; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-08045S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : perturbation theory * intermolecular interactions * interaction energies Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UACH-T) OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry; Inorganic and nuclear chemistry (UACH-T) Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016 http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlehtml/2017/cp/c7cp02762a

  8. Experimental evaluation of non-classical correlations between measurement outcomes and target observable in a quantum measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Iinuma, Masataka; Suzuki, Yutaro; Nii, Taiki; Kinoshita, Ryuji; Hofmann, Holger F.

    2015-01-01

    In general, it is difficult to evaluate measurement errors when the initial and final conditions of the measurement make it impossible to identify the correct value of the target observable. Ozawa proposed a solution based on the operator algebra of observables which has recently been used in experiments investigating the error-disturbance trade-off of quantum measurements. Importantly, this solution makes surprisingly detailed statements about the relations between measurement outcomes and t...

  9. Effects of estradiol benzoate, raloxifen and an ethanolic extract of Cimicifuga racemosa in nonclassical estrogen regulated organs of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidlova-Wuttke, Dana; Jarry, Hubertus; Wuttke, Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    The special extract of Cimicifuga racemosa (CR) BNO 1055 was shown to have bone protective effects without exerting estrogenic effects in the uterus or mammary gland. Whether the effects of CR BNO 1055 would be exerted in other organs that also express estrogen receptors (ERs) but in which the effects of estrogens and of the selective estrogen receptor modulator raloxifen (Ral) were not thoroughly studied was therefore investigated in the present contribution. Rats were ovariectomized (ovx) and their food immediately substituted with estradiol benzoate (EB), Ral or 2 doses of CR BNO 1055 for 3 months. Expressions of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta) and of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) genes were determined in the vagina, liver, thyroid gland, lung, spleen, colon and kidney by means of quantitative RT-PCRs. Body weights in all treatment groups were significantly reduced and uterine weights in the EB treated animals were largely and in the Ral treated animals slightly but significantly increased. CR BNO 1055 was without effects in the uterus. We tested 3 genes: ERalpha gene expression was significantly reduced in the vagina, liver and kidney and remained unaffected in all other organs with the exception of the thyroid gland where ERalpha gene expression was stimulated by EB, Ral had--if any--similar effects in these organs. The CR extract BNO 1055 was devoid of any effect on ERalpha gene expression. ERbeta gene expression was suppressed in the vagina and colon by EB and this effect was shared by Ral in the colon. In the thyroid, EB and Ral stimulated ERbeta gene expression. Expression of IGF-1 gene was stimulated by EB and CR BNO 1055 in the vagina and kidney and inhibited by EB and Ral in the liver. No effects were observed by CR BNO 1055 in these organs. The effects of Ral, if occurring, were similar to those of EB while CR BNO 1055 was ineffective in all organs but the vagina. In the colon, reduced ERbeta gene activity may augment ERalpha mediated effects. In all other organs the effects of ER await further investigation. The CR BNO 1055 did not show any activity pattern which would be similar to the pattern observed under EB or Ral. Therefore the observed effects of CR BNO 1055 in these organs are most likely not estrogenic in nature. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  10. Suppression of contour perception by band-limited noise and its relation to nonclassical receptive field inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    Band-spectrum noise has been shown to suppress the visual perception of printed letters. The suppression exhibits a specific dependence on the spatial frequency of the noise, and the frequency domain of most effective inhibition has been related to the size of the letters. In this paper, we address

  11. The chemopotential effect of Annona muricata leaves against azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats and the apoptotic effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 cells: a bioassay-guided approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Rouhollahi, Elham; Karimian, Hamed; Fadaeinasab, Mehran; Firoozinia, Mohammad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Abdul Kadir, Habsah

    2015-01-01

    Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML) on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E) was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg), EEAML (500 mg/kg) and positive control (5-fluorouracil). Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing compounds in the anticancer activity of A. muricata leaves.

  12. The chemopotential effect of Annona muricata leaves against azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats and the apoptotic effect of Acetogenin Annomuricin E in HT-29 cells: a bioassay-guided approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi

    Full Text Available Annona muricata has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer and tumors. This study evaluated the chemopreventive properties of an ethyl acetate extract of A. muricata leaves (EEAML on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF in rats. Moreover, the cytotoxic compound of EEAML (Annomuricin E was isolated, and its apoptosis-inducing effect was investigated against HT-29 colon cancer cell line using a bioassay-guided approach. This experiment was performed on five groups of rats: negative control, cancer control, EEAML (250 mg/kg, EEAML (500 mg/kg and positive control (5-fluorouracil. Methylene blue staining of colorectal specimens showed that application of EEAML at both doses significantly reduced the colonic ACF formation compared with the cancer control group. Immunohistochemistry analysis showed the down-regulation of PCNA and Bcl-2 proteins and the up-regulation of Bax protein after administration of EEAML compared with the cancer control group. In addition, an increase in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants and a decrease in the malondialdehyde level of the colon tissue homogenates were observed, suggesting the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Annomuricin E inhibited the growth of HT-29 cells with an IC50 value of 1.62 ± 0.24 μg/ml after 48 h. The cytotoxic effect of annomuricin E was further substantiated by G1 cell cycle arrest and early apoptosis induction in HT-29 cells. Annomuricin E triggered mitochondria-initiated events, including the dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential and the leakage of cytochrome c from the mitochondria. Prior to these events, annomuricin E activated caspase 3/7 and caspase 9. Upstream, annomuricin E induced a time-dependent upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 at the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, these findings substantiate the usage of A. muricata leaves in ethnomedicine against cancer and highlight annomuricin E as one of the contributing compounds in the anticancer activity of A. muricata leaves.

  13. The spectrum of non-classical Diamond-Blackfan anemia: a case of late beginning transfusion dependency associated to a new RPL5 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Farruggia

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diamond Blackfan anemia typically presents in infants and is often associated with many kinds of malformations. Severity of anemia often needs transfusional support in the first months of life. We describe here a patient with Diamond Blackfan anemia related to a RPL5 mutation. The patient had no physical abnormalities and experienced a very late onset of transfusion dependency.

  14. Non-classical forms of pemphigus: pemphigus herpetiformis, IgA pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and IgG/IgA pemphigus*

    OpenAIRE

    Porro, Adriana Maria; Caetano, Livia de Vasconcelos Nasser; Maehara, Laura de Sena Nogueira; Enokihara, Milvia Maria dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The pemphigus group comprises the autoimmune intraepidermal blistering diseases classically divided into two major types: pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceous. Pemphigus herpetiformis, IgA pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and IgG/IgA pemphigus are rarer forms that present some clinical, histological and immunopathological characteristics that are different from the classical types. These are reviewed in this article. Future research may help definitively to locate the position of th...

  15. Non-classical forms of pemphigus: pemphigus herpetiformis, IgA pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and IgG/IgA pemphigus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porro, Adriana Maria; Caetano, Livia de Vasconcelos Nasser; Maehara, Laura de Sena Nogueira; Enokihara, Milvia Maria dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    The pemphigus group comprises the autoimmune intraepidermal blistering diseases classically divided into two major types: pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceous. Pemphigus herpetiformis, IgA pemphigus, paraneoplastic pemphigus and IgG/IgA pemphigus are rarer forms that present some clinical, histological and immunopathological characteristics that are different from the classical types. These are reviewed in this article. Future research may help definitively to locate the position of these forms in the pemphigus group, especially with regard to pemphigus herpetiformis and the IgG/ IgA pemphigus. PMID:24626654

  16. GPR30, the non-classical membrane G protein related estrogen receptor, is overexpressed in human seminoma and promotes seminoma cell proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Chevalier

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Testicular germ cell tumours are the most frequent cancer of young men with an increasing incidence all over the world. Pathogenesis and reasons of this increase remain unknown but epidemiological and clinical data have suggested that fetal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs with estrogenic effects, could participate to testicular germ cell carcinogenesis. However, these EEDs (like bisphenol A are often weak ligands for classical nuclear estrogen receptors. Several research groups recently showed that the non classical membrane G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30 mediates the effects of estrogens and several xenoestrogens through rapid non genomic activation of signal transduction pathways in various human estrogen dependent cancer cells (breast, ovary, endometrium. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that GPER was overexpressed in testicular tumours and was able to trigger JKT-1 seminoma cell proliferation. RESULTS: We report here for the first time a complete morphological and functional characterization of GPER in normal and malignant human testicular germ cells. In normal adult human testes, GPER was expressed by somatic (Sertoli cells and germ cells (spermatogonia and spermatocytes. GPER was exclusively overexpressed in seminomas, the most frequent testicular germ cell cancer, localized at the cell membrane and triggered a proliferative effect on JKT-1 cells in vitro, which was completely abolished by G15 (a GPER selective antagonist and by siRNA invalidation. CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate that GPER is expressed by human normal adult testicular germ cells, specifically overexpressed in seminoma tumours and able to trigger seminoma cell proliferation in vitro. It should therefore be considered rather than classical ERs when xeno-estrogens or other endocrine disruptors are assessed in testicular germ cell cancers. It may also represent a prognosis marker and/or a therapeutic target for seminomas.

  17. Non-classical processes in surface hemostasis: mechanisms for the poly-N-acetyl glucosamine-induced alteration of red blood cell morphology and surface prothrombogenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Thomas H; Smith, Carr J; Scull, Christopher M; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Nichols, Timothy C [Francis Owen Blood Research Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 125 University Lake Dr., CB 3114, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Valeri, C Robert [Naval Blood Research Laboratory, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Demcheva, Marina; Vournakis, John N [Marine Polymer Technologies, Inc., Danvers, MA (United States)

    2008-03-01

    It is well established that platelets and the intrinsic plasma coagulation pathway can be activated when blood contacts artificial surfaces. Experiments were performed to assess the effect of hemostatic poly-N-acetyl glucosamine (pGlcNAc) nanofibers on red blood cells. The pGlcNAc nanofibers, isolated from a marine diatom, interact with red blood cells (RBCs) to produce stomatocytes. The stomatocytes could be converted to echinocytes by treatment with echinocytic reagents, as measured by electron microscopy. Electrophoretic and Western blot analysis of RBC surface proteins demonstrated that pGlcNAc fibers were bound to band 3 of the RBC. An important and unique result of the interaction of RBCs with pGlcNAc fibers was the activation of the intrinsic coagulation cascade. This prothrombotic effect was associated with the presentation of phosphatidylserine on the outer layer of the surface membrane of nanofiber bound RBCs. The results demonstrate that RBCs can play a direct and important role in achieving surface hemostasis by accelerating the generation of thrombin, and add to the growing body of evidence that RBCs can strongly interact with hemostatic systems.

  18. Combined treatment with fenretinide and indomethacin induces AIF-mediated, non-classical cell death in human acute T-cell leukemia Jurkat cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojka-Osinska, Anna, E-mail: hojka@immuno.iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Immunobiology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Ziolo, Ewa, E-mail: ziolo@immuno.iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Immunobiology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland); Rapak, Andrzej, E-mail: rapak@immuno.iitd.pan.wroc.pl [Laboratory of Tumor Molecular Immunobiology, Ludwik Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, 53-114 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The combination of fenretinide and indomethacin induces a high level of cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Apoptotic pathway is caspase-independent. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Jurkat cells undergo AIF-mediated cell death. -- Abstract: Currently used cytotoxic drugs in cancer therapy have a similar mechanism of action and low specificity. Applied simultaneously, they show an additive effect with strong side effects. Clinical trials with the use of different agents in cancer therapy show that the use of these compounds alone is not very effective in fighting cancer. An alternative solution could be to apply a combination of these agents, because their combination has a synergistic effect on some cancer cells. Therefore, in our investigations we examined the effects of a synthetic retinoid-fenretinide when combined with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-indomethacin on the process of apoptosis in the acute human T-cell leukemia cell line Jurkat. We demonstrate that treatment with the combination of the tested compounds induces the death of cells, that is peculiar and combines features of apoptosis as well as non-apoptotic cell death. In detail we observed, cell membrane permeabilization, phosphatydylserine exposure, no oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, no caspase-3 activation, but apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation. Taken together these results indicate, that Jurkat cells after treatment with a combination of fenretinide and indomethacin undergo AIF-mediated programmed cell death.

  19. GPR30, the Non-Classical Membrane G Protein Related Estrogen Receptor, Is Overexpressed in Human Seminoma and Promotes Seminoma Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Vega, Aurélie; Bouskine, Adil; Siddeek, Bénazir; Michiels, Jean-François; Chevallier, Daniel; Fénichel, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Background Testicular germ cell tumours are the most frequent cancer of young men with an increasing incidence all over the world. Pathogenesis and reasons of this increase remain unknown but epidemiological and clinical data have suggested that fetal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors (EEDs) with estrogenic effects, could participate to testicular germ cell carcinogenesis. However, these EEDs (like bisphenol A) are often weak ligands for classical nuclear estrogen receptors. Several research groups recently showed that the non classical membrane G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) mediates the effects of estrogens and several xenoestrogens through rapid non genomic activation of signal transduction pathways in various human estrogen dependent cancer cells (breast, ovary, endometrium). The aim of this study was to demonstrate that GPER was overexpressed in testicular tumours and was able to trigger JKT-1 seminoma cell proliferation. Results We report here for the first time a complete morphological and functional characterization of GPER in normal and malignant human testicular germ cells. In normal adult human testes, GPER was expressed by somatic (Sertoli cells) and germ cells (spermatogonia and spermatocytes). GPER was exclusively overexpressed in seminomas, the most frequent testicular germ cell cancer, localized at the cell membrane and triggered a proliferative effect on JKT-1 cells in vitro, which was completely abolished by G15 (a GPER selective antagonist) and by siRNA invalidation. Conclusion These results demonstrate that GPER is expressed by human normal adult testicular germ cells, specifically overexpressed in seminoma tumours and able to trigger seminoma cell proliferation in vitro. It should therefore be considered rather than classical ERs when xeno-estrogens or other endocrine disruptors are assessed in testicular germ cell cancers. It may also represent a prognosis marker and/or a therapeutic target for seminomas. PMID:22496838

  20. Non-classical mechanisms of transcriptional regulation by the vitamin D receptor: insights into calcium homeostasis, immune system regulation and cancer chemoprevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Vassil; Salehi-Tabar, Reyhaneh; An, Beum-Soo; White, John H

    2014-10-01

    Hormonal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] signals through the nuclear vitamin D receptor (VDR), a ligand-regulated transcription factor. Gene expression profiling studies have revealed that 1,25(OH)2D signaling through the VDR can lead to activation or repression of target gene transcription in roughly equal proportions. Classically, transcriptional regulation by the VDR, similar to other nuclear receptors, has been characterized by its capacity to recognize high affinity cognate vitamin D response elements (VDREs), located in the regulatory regions of target genes. Several biochemical studies revealed that the VDRE-bound receptor recruits a series of coregulatory proteins, leading to transactivation of adjacent target genes. However, genome-wide and other analyses of VDR binding have revealed that a subset of VDR binding sites does not contain VDREs, and that VDREs are not associated with transcriptionally repressed VDR target genes. Work over the last ∼20 years and in particular recent findings have revealed a diverse array of mechanisms by which VDR can form complexes with several other classes of transcriptional activators, leading to repression of gene transcription. Moreover, these efforts have led to several insights into the molecular basis for the physiological regulation of calcium homeostasis, immune system function and cancer chemoprevention by 1,25(OH)2D/VDR signaling. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '16th Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies recognizing HLA-G or HLA-E:new tools to analyze the expression of nonclassical HLA calss I molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menier, C.; Saez, B.; Hořejší, Václav; Martinozzi, S.; Krawice-Radanne, I.; Bruel, S.; Le Danff, C.; Reboul, M.; Hilgert, Ivan; Rabreau, M.; Larrad, M. L.; Pla, M.; Carosella, E. D.; Rouas-Freiss, N.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2002), s. 315-326 ISSN 0198-8859 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Keywords : Characterization * monoclonal antibody * molecules Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.573, year: 2002

  2. Infrared and dc conductivity in metals with strong scattering: Nonclassical behavior from a generalized Boltzmann equation containing band-mixing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.B.; Chakraborty, B.

    1981-01-01

    Metals with high resistivity (approx.100 μΩ cm) seem to show weaker variation of resistivity (as a function of temperature and perhaps also static disorder) than predicted by semiclassical (Bloch-Boltzmann) theory (SBT). We argue that the effect is not closely related to Anderson localization, and therefore does not necessarily signify a failure of the independent collision approximation. Instead we propose a failure of the semiclassical acceleration and conduction approximations. A generalization of Boltzmann theory is made which includes quantum (interband) acceleration and conduction, as well as a complete treatment of interband-collision effects (within the independent-collision approximation). The interband terms enhance short-time response to E fields (because the theory satisfies the exact f-sum rule instead of the semiclassical approximation to it). This suggests that the additional conductivity, as expressed phenomenologically by the shunt resistor model, is explained by interband effects. The scattering operator is complex, its imaginary parts being related to energy-band renormalization caused by the disorder. Charge conservation is respected and thermal equilibrium is restored by the collision operator. The theory is formally solved for the leading corrections to SBT, which have the form of a shunt resistor model. At infrared frequencies, the conductivity mostly obeys the Drude law sigma(ω)approx.sigma(0)(1-iωtau) -1 , except for one term which goes as (1-iωtau) -2

  3. Arik-Coon q-oscillator cat states on the noncommutative complex plane ℂq-1 and their nonclassical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, H.; Sayyah-Fard, M.

    The normalized even and odd q-cat states corresponding to Arik-Coon q-oscillator on the noncommutative complex plane ℂq-1 are constructed as the eigenstates of the lowering operator of a q-deformed su(1, 1) algebra with the left eigenvalues. We present the appropriate noncommutative measures in order to realize the resolution of the identity condition by the even and odd q-cat states. Then, we obtain the q-Bargmann-Fock realizations of the Fock representation of the q-deformed su(1, 1) algebra as well as the inner products of standard states in the q-Bargmann representations of the even and odd subspaces. Also, the Euler’s formula of the q-factorial and the Gaussian integrals based on the noncommutative q-integration are obtained. Violation of the uncertainty relation, photon antibunching effect and sub-Poissonian photon statistics by the even and odd q-cat states are considered in the cases 0 1.

  4. Carbonic anhydrases in the reproductive system:with special emphasis on isoenzymes VI, IX, XII, and a novel nuclear nonclassical form

    OpenAIRE

    Karhumaa, P. (Pepe)

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of zinc-containing metalloenzymes that catalyze the interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate (CO2 + H2O ⇔ HCO3- + H+). They are present in almost all organs and are implicated in various biological functions, the most important of which is participation in the regulation of ion, water, and acid-base balance. Recently, some members of the CA gene family have been suggested to promote cell proliferation and to act as trophic growth fact...

  5. Setting the anomeric effect against steric effects in simple acyclic acetals. Non-anomeric non-classical conformations. An n.m.r. and molecular mechanics investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, J. Edgar; Heki, Katsuhiko; Hirota, Minoru

    1987-01-01

    N.m.r. parameters for a series of simple aliphatic acetals indicate that the preferred conformation changes from the anomeric one found in formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (formal), to a new one whose structure is suggested by molecular mechanics calculations.......N.m.r. parameters for a series of simple aliphatic acetals indicate that the preferred conformation changes from the anomeric one found in formaldehyde dimethyl acetal (formal), to a new one whose structure is suggested by molecular mechanics calculations....

  6. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies recognizing HLA-G or HLA-E: new tools to analyze the expression of nonclassical HLA class I molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Menier, C.; Saez, B.; Hořejší, Václav; Martinozzi, S.; Krawice-Radanne, I.; Bruel, S.; Le Danff, C.; Reboul, M.; Hilgert, Ivan; Rabreau, M.; Larrad, M. L.; Pla, M.; Carosella, E. D.; Rouas-Freiss, N.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2003), s. 315-326 ISSN 0198-8859 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HLA-G * HLA-E * monoclonal antibody Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.619, year: 2003

  7. Zero and second-derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for the quantification of two non-classical β-lactams in pharmaceutical vials: Application to stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzanfaly, Eman S; Youssif, Rania M; Salama, Nahla N; Fayed, Ahmed S; Hendawy, Hassan A M; Salem, Maissa Y

    2017-12-01

    The formation of metal chelates with various ligands may lead to the production of fluorescent chelates or enhance the fluorescence of the chelating agent. This paper describes two sensitive, selective and computer-solved methods, namely, zero order (SF) and second-derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetry (SDSFS) for nano-quantitation of two carbapenems; meropenem (MP) and ertapenem (EP). The methods are based on the chelation of MP with Tb 3+ and EP with Zr 4+ in buffered organic medium at pH 4.0 to produce fluorescent chelates. In the zero order method, the relative synchronous fluorescence intensity is measured at 327.0 nm at Δλ = 70.0 and 100.0 nm for MP and EP, respectively. The second method utilizes a second-derivative technique to enhance the method selectivity and emphasize a stability-indicating approach. The peak amplitudes ( 2 D) of the second-derivative synchronous spectra were estimated to be 333.06 and 330.06 nm for MP and EP, respectively. The proposed synchronous spectrofluorimetric methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and applied successfully for the analysis of MP and EP in pure forms, pharmaceutical vials and in synthetic mixtures with different degradants of both drugs. Under optimum conditions, the mole-ratio method was applied and the co-ordination ratios of MP-Tb 3+ and EP-Zr 4+ chelates were found to be 1:1 and 1:3. The formation constants for the chelation complexes were evaluated using the Benesi-Hildebrand's equation; the free energy change (ΔG) was also calculated. The results indicated that EP-Zr 4+ was more stable than the MP-Tb 3+ chelate. Moreover, the developed methods were found to be selective and inexpensive for quantitative determination of both drugs in quality control laboratories at nano-levels. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Evaluation of the prevalence of periodontal disease, as a non-classical risk factor in the group of patients undergoing hip and/or knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamkiewicz, Karolina; Płatek, Anna E; Łęgosz, Paweł; Czerniuk, Maciej R; Małdyk, Paweł; Szymański, Filip M

    2018-01-03

    Periodontal disease is a chronic disease, causing inflammatory process that affects various organs and is associated with an increased risk of many diseases including bone and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of periodontal disease in continuous patients scheduled for hip or knee replacement surgery. The study was a prospective, epidemiological analysis performed in consecutive patients scheduled for total joint (hip or knee) replacement surgery. Patients enrolled into the study were screened for classical risk factors and had a dental evaluation performed for the diagnosis of periodontal disease. The study population consisted of 228 patients. 137 (60.1%) patients were scheduled a hip replacement surgery, while 91 (39.9%) had a knee replacement. The mean age of the study population was 66.8 ± 12.2 years and 83 (36.4%) patients were male. A clinically significant disease was present in 65 (28.5%) cases, while all (100%) of the patients had at least minimal signs of periodontal disease. In patients with periodontal disease percentage of tartar involvement of the teeth was 33.1 ± 26.8%, mean dental plaque coverage was 48.1 ± 29.8% and bleeding occurred at a mean of 35.4 ± 29%. As for the hygiene level it was generally poor in majority of patients with periodontal disease. No differences in terms of baseline risk factors were present between patients with and without periodontal disease. In conclusion, periodontal diseases are highly prevalent in patients undergoing hip and/or knee replacement surgery. Presence of the periodontium disease in possibly associated with a worse prognosis and should be treated.

  9. Non-Classical Bonding in Titanasilacyclohexadiene Compounds Resulting from Highly Methyl-Substituted Titanocene-Bis(trimethylsilyl)ethyne Complexes and Bis{(trimethylsilyl)ethynyl}silanes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Michal; Štěpnička, P.; Gyepes, R.; Císařová, I.; Kubišta, Jiří; Lukešová, Lenka; Meunier, P.; Mach, Karel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 25 (2005), s. 6094-6103 ISSN 0276-7333 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/05/0474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : titanocene * zirconocene * catalysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.473, year: 2005

  10. Pengaruh Ekstrak Daun Sirsak (Annona Muricata L) Terhadap Profil Darah Dan Kelulushidupan Ikan Lele Sangkuriang (Clarias Gariepinus Var. Sangkuriang) Yang Diinfeksi Bakteri Aeromonas Hydrophila

    OpenAIRE

    Kurniawan, Kurniawan; Prayitno, Slamet Budi; Sarjito, Sarjito; Lusiastuti, Angela Mariana

    2013-01-01

    The main problem in catfish farms is mass mortality coused by Motile Aeromonas Septicemia (MAS) by Aeromonas hydrophila. Natural ingredients that are currently being developed is soursop leaf. It was because soursop leaf contains acetogenin compounds that wishes compared to other plant parts. An acetogenin compound has the benefit of as an antibacterial. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence and best dose of sourshoup leaf extract in feed to the blood profile and surviva...

  11. Frequency of Von Hippel-Lindau germline mutations in classic and non-classic Von Hippel-Lindau disease identified by DNA sequencing, Southern blot analysis and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hes, F. J.; van der Luijt, R. B.; Janssen, A. L. W.; Zewald, R. A.; de Jong, G. J.; Lenders, J. W.; Links, T. P.; Luyten, G. P. M.; Sijmons, R. H.; Eussen, H. J.; Halley, D. J. J.; Lips, C. J. M.; Pearson, P. L.; van den Ouweland, A. M. W.; Majoor-Krakauer, D. F.

    The current clinical diagnosis of Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease demands at least one specific a sporadic VHL manifestation in a patient with familial VHL disease, or, in asporadic patient, at least two or more hemangioblastomas or a single hemangioblastoma in combination with a typical visceral

  12. A protocol to identify non-classical risk factors for preterm births: the Brazilian Ribeirão Preto and São Luís prenatal cohort (BRISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Simões, Vanda Maria Ferreira; Barbieri, Marco Antonio; Cardoso, Viviane Cunha; Alves, Claudia Maria Coelho; Thomaz, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca; de Sousa Queiroz, Rejane Christine; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; Bettiol, Heloísa

    2014-11-19

    Preterm birth is the main cause of morbidity and mortality during the perinatal period. Classical risk factors are held responsible for only 1/3 of preterm births and no current intervention has produced an appreciable reduction of this event. It is necessary to explore new hypotheses and mechanisms of causality by using an integrated approach, collaboration among research groups and less fragmented theoretical-methodological approaches in order to detect new risk factors and to formulate more effective intervention strategies. The study will be conducted on a convenience cohort of Brazilian pregnant women recruited at public and private prenatal health services. A total of 1500 pregnant women in São Luís, and 1500 in Ribeirão Preto, will be invited for an interview and for the collection of biological specimens from the 22nd to the 25th week of gestational age (GA). At the time of delivery they will be reinterviewed. GA will be determined using an algorithm based on two criteria: date of last menstruation (DLM) and obstetric ultrasound (OUS) performed at less than 20 weeks of GA. Illicit drug consumption during pregnancy will be determined using a self-applied questionnaire and the following instruments will be used: perceived stress scale, Beck anxiety scale, screening for depression of the Center of Epidemiological Studies (CES-D), experiences of racial discrimination, social network and social support scale of the Medical Outcomes Study and violence (Abuse Assessment Screening and violence questionnaire of the WHO). Bacterial vaginosis, urinary tract infection and periodontal disease will also be identified. Neuroendocrine, immunoinflammatory and medical intervention hypotheses will be tested. The occurrence of elective cesarean section in the absence of labor will be used as a marker of medical intervention. Psychosocial, genetic and infectious mechanisms will be selected, since there are indications that they influence preterm birth (PTB). The studies will be conducted in two Brazilian cities with discrepant socioeconomic conditions. The expectation is to identify risk factors for PTB having a greater predictive power than classically studied factors. The final objective is to propose more effective interventions for the reduction of PTB, which, after being tested, might subsidize health policies.

  13. Cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of Annona muricata pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, M C; Arango, G J; González, M C; Robledo, S M; Velez, I D

    2000-04-01

    Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Annona muricata pericarp were tested in vitro against Leishmania braziliensis and L. panamensis promastigotes, and against cell line U-937. The ethyl acetate extract was more active than the other extracts and even of Glucantime used as reference substance. Its fractionation led to the isolation of three acetogenins--annonacin, annonacin A and annomuricin A.

  14. Acetogeninas de anonáceas isoladas de folhas de Rollinia laurifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nascimento Francisco das Chagas do

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of hexanic extract of leaves of Rollinia laurifolia afforded three known acetogenins, uvariamicin-I (1, solamin(2 and gonionenin(3, for the first time isolated from Rollinia genus. The structures of 1, 2 and 3 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods.

  15. Alkaloids isolated from the leaves of atemoya (Annona cherimola × Annona squamosa)

    OpenAIRE

    Rabêlo,Suzana V.; Costa,Emmanoel V.; Barison,Andersson; Dutra,Lívia M.; Nunes,Xirley P.; Tomaz,José C.; Oliveira,Gibson G.; Lopes,Norberto P.; Santos,Maria de Fátima C.; Almeida,Jackson R.G. da Silva

    2015-01-01

    AbstractAtemoya is an interspecific annonaceous hybrid between Annona cherimola Mill. and Annona squamosa L. Its phytochemical investigation led to seven alkaloids, including two aporphine (anonaine and asimilobine), three oxoaporphine (lanuginosine, liriodenine and lysicamine) and two proaporphine (pronuciferine and stepharine). These alkaloids were identified by a series of spectrometric methods, mainly MS and NMR (1D and 2D), as well as by comparison with literature data. Our findings show...

  16. Phytochemical survey of Malaysian plants

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi, H.A.

    1992-01-01

    La revue phytochimique de la flore de Malaisie a été entreprise, couvrant la recherche systématique des alcaloïdes, terpènes, saponines et flavones. Des études chimiques des Annonacées ont été réalisées. Ces études ont conduit à l'isolement de nombreux alcaloïdes connus ou nouveaux. (Résumé d'auteur)

  17. Leishmanicidal activity and cytotoxicity of compounds from two Annonacea species cultivated in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila-Nova, Nadja Soares; Morais, Selen Maiade; Falcão, Maria José Cajazeiras; Machado, Lyeghyna Karla Andrade; Beviláqua, Cláudia Maria Leal; Costa, Igor Rafael Sousa; Brasil, Nilce Viana Gramosa Pompeu de Sousa; Andrade Júnior, Heitor Francode

    2011-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in 88 countries, with a total of 12 million people infected and 350 million at risk. In the search for new leishmanicidal agents, alkaloids and acetogenins isolated from leaves of Annona squamosa and seeds of Annona muricata were tested against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania chagasi. Methanol-water (80:20) extracts of A. squamosa leaves and A. muricata seeds were extracted with 10% phosphoric acid and organic solvents to obtain the alkaloid and acetogenin-rich extracts. These extracts were chromatographed on a silica gel column and eluted with a mixture of several solvents in crescent order of polarity. The compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis. The isolated compounds were tested against Leishmania chagasi, which is responsible for American visceral leishmaniasis, using the MTT test assay. The cytotoxicity assay was evaluated for all isolated compounds, and for this assay, RAW 264.7 cells were used. O-methylarmepavine, a benzylisoquinolinic alkaloid, and a C37 trihydroxy adjacent bistetrahydrofuran acetogenin were isolated from A. squamosa, while two acetogenins, annonacinone and corossolone, were isolated from A. muricata. Against promastigotes, the alkaloid showed an IC50 of 23.3 µg/mL, and the acetogenins showed an IC50 ranging from 25.9 to 37.6 µg/mL; in the amastigote assay, the IC50 values ranged from 13.5 to 28.7 µg/mL. The cytotoxicity assay showed results ranging from 43.5 to 79.9 µg/mL. These results characterize A. squamosa and A. muricata as potential sources of leishmanicidal agents. Plants from Annonaceae are rich sources of natural compounds and an important tool in the search for new leishmanicidal therapies.

  18. Pramana – Journal of Physics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bose–Einstein condensation; Bose–Einstein statistics; indistinguishability; Bosonic stimulation; condensate; quantized vortex; de Boer quantum parameter; non-classical rotational inertia; supersolid.

  19. Effect of binary combination of some plant-derived molluscicides with MGK-264 or piperonyl butoxide on the reproduction of the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Priyamvada; Singh, Vinay K; Singh, Dinesh K

    2005-02-01

    The effects of sub-lethal treatments (20 and 60% of 24-h LC(50)) with plant-derived molluscicides Annona squamosa, acetogenins, Argemone mexicana seed and protopine, in combination (1 + 5) with MGK-264 (ENT 8184) or piperonyl butoxide on the reproduction of Lymnaea acuminata has been studied. The plant-derived molluscicides and their active molluscicidal components, protopine and acetogenins, in combination with ENT 8184 or piperonyl butoxide caused a significant reduction in the fecundity, hatchability and survival of young snails. Combination of A squamosa seed powder with piperonyl butoxide was very effective as it caused a complete arrest of snail fecundity within 24 h of treatment. Removal of the snails to fresh water after the 96-h treatments caused a significant recovery in the fecundity of L acuminata. Copyright (c) 2005 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Noer Kasanah; Triyanto Triyanto; Drajad Sarwo Seto; Windi Amelia; Alim Isnansetyo

    2015-01-01

    Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta) are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported...

  1. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI AIR REBUSAN DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata Linn) TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN LARVA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Ariana

    2016-01-01

    PENGARUH KONSENTRASI AIR REBUSAN DAUN SIRSAK (Annona muricata Linn) TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN LARVA NYAMUK Aedes aegypti Diah Ariana, ST, M.Kes Prodi D3 Analis Kesehatan UM Surabaya   Abstract Leaves of the soursop (Annona muricata Linn) Indonesia is known as a medicinal plant that can treat a variety of diseases other than as a cure soursop leaves is also an insecticide-producing plants are bioactive compounds known as acetogenin which are bioactive compounds in high concent...

  2. Diagnostic dilemmas in Fabry disease: a case series study on GLA mutations of unknown clinical significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, B. E.; Hollak, C. E. M.; Poorthuis, B. J. H. M.; van den Bergh Weerman, M. A.; Florquin, S.; Kok, W. E. M.; Lekanne Deprez, R. H.; Timmermans, J.; Linthorst, G. E.

    2015-01-01

    Fabry disease' (FD) phenotype is heterogeneous: alpha-galactosidase A gene mutations (GLA) can lead to classical or non-classical FD, or no FD. The aim of this study is to describe pitfalls in diagnosing non-classical FD and assess the diagnostic value of plasma globotriaosylsphingosine. This is a

  3. SERIES ARTICLES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    177 Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria: A Global Challenge. Saswati Sengupta and Madhab K Chattopadhyay. 192 Ehrenfest's Theorem and Nonclassical States of Light. Dynamics of Nonclassical States of Light. Lijo T George, C Sudheesh, S Lakshmibala and. V Balakrishnan. REFLECTIONS. 212 Darshana Jolts. Waves.

  4. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria: A Global Challenge · Saswati Sengupta Madhab K Chattopadhyay · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 192-211 General Article. Ehrenfest's Theorem and Nonclassical States of Light - Dynamics of Nonclassical States of Light · Lijo T George C Sudheesh S Lakshmibala V Balakrishnan.

  5. A dynamic-logical perspective on quantum behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show how recent concepts from Dynamic Logic, and in particular from Dynamic Epistemic logic, can be used to model and interpret quantum behavior. Our main thesis is that all the non-classical properties of quantum systems are explainable in terms of the non-classical flow of quantum

  6. Effect of herbal molluscicides and their combinations on the reproduction of the snail Lymnaea acuminata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amrita; Singh, D K

    2004-05-01

    Effects of sublethal treatment (20 and 60% of LC50/24 h) of the plant-derived molluscicides Annona squamosa Linn. and Lawsonia inermis Linn. and their combinations with other herbal molluscicides, such as Cedrus deodara Roxb, Azadirachta indica A. Juss, bulb powder of Allium sativum Linn. and Polianthes tuberosa Linn., and oleoresin of Zingiber officinale Rosc., and acetogenins extracted from the seeds of A. squamosa Linn., on the reproduction of the snail Lymnaea acuminata have been studied. It was observed that the plant-derived molluscicides singly and in binary combinations with other herbal molluscicides and the extracted acetogenins caused a significant reduction in the fecundity, hatchability, and survival of young snails. Withdrawal of the snails to fresh water after the above treatment caused a significant recovery in the fecundity of the snail Lymnaea acuminata. Twenty-four-hour sublethal treatment with the acetogenins caused a maximum reduction in the protein, amino acid, DNA, and RNA in the ovotestis of treated Lymnaea acuminata.

  7. Staphylococcus aureus harbouring egc cluster coding for non-classical enterotoxins, involved in a food poisoning outbreak, Romania, 2012 / Staphylococcus aureus purtător de gene codante pentru enterotoxine non-clasice (cluster egc, implicat într-un focar de toxiinfecţie alimentară, România, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coldea Ileana Luminita

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available În martie 2012, într-un judeţ din România, a fost raportat un focar de toxiinfecţie alimentară ce a afectat un număr de 30 de preşcolari. Debutul simptomelor (vărsături, diaree şi dureri abdominale, la 1-2 ore de la ingestia unui anumit produs alimentar (lapte, a sugerat o posibilă etiologie stafilococică a acestui focar.

  8. 78 FR 77668 - Certification Reports, Compliance Statements, Application for a Test Procedure Waiver, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ...; (23) Class A external power supplies; (24) Non-class A external power supplies; (25) Battery chargers... flow systems; (34) Computer room air conditioners; (35) Commercial water heating equipment; (36...

  9. Relative coordinates of coherent electron pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usenko, Constantin V.; Cherkashyna, Nataliia O.

    2008-03-01

    It is shown that relative coordinate and momentum of coherent electron pair have the meaning of observables with the help of quadrupole and magnetic moments. Distributions of quadrupole terms of scalar potential are shown. These distributions have nonclassical properties.

  10. Tomography of binomial states of the radiation field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bazrafkan, MR; Man'ko, [No Value

    2004-01-01

    The symplectic, optical, and photon-number tomographic symbols of binomial states of the radiation field are studied. Explicit relations for all tomograms of the binomial states are obtained. Two measures for nonclassical properties of these states are discussed.

  11. Linear amplification and quantum cloning for non-Gaussian continuous variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nha, Hyunchul; Milburn, G. J.; Carmichael, H. J.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate phase-insensitive linear amplification at the quantum limit for single- and two-mode states and show that there exists a broad class of non-Gaussian states whose nonclassicality survives even at an arbitrarily large gain. We identify the corresponding observable nonclassical effects and find that they include, remarkably, two-mode entanglement. The implications of our results for quantum cloning outside the Gaussian regime are also addressed.

  12. High-fidelity teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit and entanglement swapping for continuous variables

    CERN Document Server

    Takei, N; Aoki, T; Furusawa, A; Takei, Nobuyuki; Yonezawa, Hidehiro; Aoki, Takao; Furusawa, Akira

    2005-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate continuous-variable quantum teleportation beyond the no-cloning limit. We teleport a coherent state and achieve the fidelity of 0.70$\\pm$0.02 that surpasses the no-cloning limit of 2/3. Surpassing the limit is necessary to transfer the nonclassicality of an input quantum state. By using our high-fidelity teleporter, we demonstrate entanglement swapping, namely teleportation of quantum entanglement, as an example of transfer of nonclassicality.

  13. Generation and storage of quantum states using cold atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Josse, Vincent; Cviklinski, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Cold cesium or rubidium atomic samples have a good potential both for generation and storage of nonclassical states of light. Generation of nonclassical states of light is possible through the high non-linearity of cold atomic samples excited close to a resonance line. Quadrature squeezing......, polarization squeezing and entanglement have been demonstrated. Quantum state storage is made possible by the presence of long-lived angular momentum in the ground state. Cold atoms are thus a promising resource in quantum information....

  14. Conditional Similarity Reductions of the (2+1)-dimensional KdV Equation via the Extended Lie Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-yan; Qian, Xian-min; Lin, Ji; Lou, S. Y.

    2004-06-01

    The classical and nonclassical Lie group approaches are extended and applied to construct new conditional similarity reductions for nonlinear systems. The application of the method to a simple (2+1)-dimensional KdV equation results in not only the known conditional similarity reductions obtained by the modified Clarkson and Kruskal’s direct method but also a great diversity of classical and nonclassical conditional similarity reductions.

  15. A dynamic-logical perspective on quantum behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Baltag, A.; Smets, S.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show how recent concepts from Dynamic Logic, and in particular from Dynamic Epistemic logic, can be used to model and interpret quantum behavior. Our main thesis is that all the non-classical properties of quantum systems are explainable in terms of the non-classical flow of quantum information. We give a logical analysis of quantum measurements (formalized using modal operators) as triggers for quantum information flow, and we compare them with other logical operators previo...

  16. Goniothalamus: Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shahzad Aslam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Goniothalamus species are used in widespread medicines to cause abortion, antiaging, body pains, rheumatism, skin complaints, typhoid fever, tympanites, stomach ache and fever. The present study reviews the distribution of species along with their synonyms, their traditional usage, and correlated chemical compounds of Goniothalamus species with stress on the authentication of their ethnobotanical uses. The findings in some Goniothalamus species suggest that the chemical nature of their derivatives, such as acetogenins and styryl lactones, may justify the uses of these species against cancer in Asian traditional medicines due to their cytotoxic potential.

  17. Antibacterial Compounds from Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Kasanah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seaweeds produce great variety of metabolites benefit for human. Red seaweeds (Rhodophyta are well known as producer of phycocolloids such agar, agarose, carragenan and great variety of secondary metabolites. This review discusses the red algal secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. The chemical constituents of red algae are steroid, terpenoid, acetogenin and dominated by halogenated compounds mainly brominated compounds. Novel compounds with intriguing skeleton are also reported such as bromophycolides and neurymenolides. In summary, red seaweeds are potential sources for antibacterial agents and can serve as lead in synthesis of new natural medicines.

  18. The Value of Caspase-3 after the Application of Annona muricata Leaf Extract in COLO-205 Colorectal Cancer Cell Line

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Murdani; Syam, Ari Fahrial; Meilany, Sofy; Laksono, Bayu; Prabu, Oryza Gryagus; Bekti, Heri Setiyo; Indrawati, Lili; Makmun, Dadang

    2017-01-01

    Annona muricata, commonly known as soursop, contains annonacin, acetogenin, and polyphenol which are known to have chemopreventive effects on cancer. In this study, we tend to evaluate the apoptosis-inducing effect of soursop (Annona muricata) leaf extract on the colorectal cancer cell line COLO-205 through the activities of caspase-3 which is a marker of cell apoptosis. Cell cultures were incubated with soursop leaf with a concentration of 10 μg/ml and then compared with those of the incubat...

  19. Potential of Annona muricata L. seed oil: phytochemical and nutritional characterization associated with non-toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Pinto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional quality, phenolic compounds, fatty acid and antioxidant activity in vitro as well as a toxicological screening of A. muricata seed oil in vivo. The chemical composition and quantification of phenolic compounds were determined by the Adolfo Lutz Institute normative. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by DPPH, FRAP and ABTS methods. The oil was extracted by chloroform/ methanol and precipitated crude (AmPtO and supernatant oils (AmSO were obtained. The fatty acid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography and total compounds by HPLC-DAD. BALB/C mice received AmPtO and AmSO (0.5 and 1.0mL·Kg-1 for 14 days. Toxicity parameters were assessed. The major fatty acids in the oil were oleic (39.2% and linoleic (33%. HPLC-DAD suggested the presence of acetogenins (annonacin: 595 [M-H]-, with a greater presence in AmPtO. The AmPtO group showed toxicity, which may be related to the acetogenin content in AmPtO. The AmSO group showed no toxicity and this oil has potential for food or medicinal use.

  20. SINTESIS LAKTOGENIN DARI TETRAHIDROFURAN-3-KARBOKSALDEHIDA DAN 2-ASETIL-γ-BUTIROLAKTON DENGAN KATALIS NATRIUM METOKSIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffy Julianus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Acetogenin compound known for its activity as anticancer by inhibited the NADHubiquinone reductase contained in the mitochondria. These compounds with high liphophilicity properties have a weakness in solubility with log P 8.44, so modifications to improve the solubility by maintaining a core group of tetrahydrofuran and γ-lactone as well as shortening the alkyl chain is needed. The modified compounds was lactogenin or 3-(3- (tetrahydrofuran-3-yl acryloyl dihydrofuran-2(3H-one that have a log P 0.90 and is expected to have a better solubility properties than acetogenin. Lactogenin synthesis was based on cross-aldol condensation reaction by reacting tetrahyrdofuran-3-carbaldehyde and 2-acetyl-γ-butyrolactone using sodium methoxide as catalyst. The synthesized compounds were red solution with specific smell. The TLC result showed the new products at Rf 0.314. The purity test by gas chromatography showed 74.07% purity. The structure elucidation by infrared and mass spectroscopy showed that the synthesized compound was β-hydroxy lactogenin or 3-(3-hydroxy-3-(tetrahydrofuran-3-yl propanoyl dihydrofuran-2(3H-one. Keywords: NADH-ubiquinone oksidoreduktase, lactogenin, cross-aldol condensation reaction, β-hydroxy lactogenin

  1. Synergistic larvicidal effect and morphological alterations induced by ethanolic extracts of Annona muricata and Piper nigrum against the dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzybowski, Adelia; Tiboni, Marcela; Silva, Mário A N; Chitolina, Rodrigo F; Passos, Maurício; Fontana, José D

    2013-05-01

    Phytopesticide combinations of different botanical sources are seldom reported. Annona muricata seed and Piper nigrum fruit ethanolic extracts enriched in acetogenins and piperamides, respectively, were synergistically used as larvicides against the dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti. Individual bioassays of A. muricata and P. nigrum indicated respective LC50 values of 93.48 and 1.84 µg mL(-1) against third-instar larvae. Five combinations of different proportions of plant extracts pointed to synergism between the extracts. The best A. muricata:P. nigrum extract combination was 90:10, which showed 5.12 times the amount of synergism, as confirmed by statistical equations and total concentration log versus combination proportions. Concerning the morphology, A. muricata caused larvae body elongation, mainly in the abdomen, along with the appearance of a cervix. Conversely, P. nigrum induced abdomen and whole body shortening. The morphological effects of A. muricata were prevalent in all of the combinations tested, irrespective of its proportion in the combination. It is suggested that the different mechanisms of action of the larvicidal actives A. muricata acetogenins and P. nigrum piperamides explain the observed synergism. The combination of inexpensive botanicals and a low-cost organosolvent such as ethanol leads to a simple and efficient phytolarvicidal formulation. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. FIRST REPORT OF Phytophthora nicotianae CAUSING ROOT ROT OF SOURSOP IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAQUELINE FIGUEREDO DE OLIVEIRA COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In 2013, soursop trees showing symptoms of root rot were observed in a field in Maceió, state of Alagoas, Brazil. It was isolated Phytophthora sp. which pathogenicity was confirmed in the host seedlings. Morphological and physiological characteristics in carrot-agar modified medium were consistent with Phytophthora nicotianae description. The PCR sequences products obtained with ITS1/ITS4 primers were compared to sequences of ribosomal DNA of Phytophthora species from the GenBank database observing high identity with other P. nicotianae isolates. A phylogenetic tree was performed to compare the isolate with other sequences of P. nicotianae, which clustering has been verified with 99% of bootstrap, confirming the morphophysiological studies. This is the first report of this pathogen on annonaceous plants in the Northeastern Brazil.

  3. Psoriasis or not? Review of 51 clinically confirmed cases reveals an expanded histopathologic spectrum of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Thinh; Parsi, Kory K; Ogawa, Toru; Kiuru, Maija; Konia, Thomas; Li, Chin-Shang; Fung, Maxwell A

    2017-12-01

    Psoriasis is usually diagnosed clinically, so only non-classic or refractory cases tend to be biopsied. Diagnostic uncertainty persists when dermatopathologists encounter features regarded as non-classic for psoriasis. Define and document classic and non-classic histologic features in skin biopsies from patients with clinically confirmed psoriasis. Minimal clinical diagnostic criteria were informally validated and applied to a consecutive series of biopsies histologically consistent with psoriasis. Clinical confirmation required 2 of the following criteria: (1) classic morphology, (2) classic distribution, (3) nail pitting, and (4) family history, with #1 and/or #2 as 1 criterion in every case RESULTS: Fifty-one biopsies from 46 patients were examined. Classic features of psoriasis included hypogranulosis (96%), club-shaped rete ridges (96%), dermal papilla capillary ectasia (90%), Munro microabscess (78%), suprapapillary plate thinning (63%), spongiform pustules (53%), and regular acanthosis (14%). Non-classic features included irregular acanthosis (84%), junctional vacuolar alteration (76%), spongiosis (76%), dermal neutrophils (69%), necrotic keratinocytes (67%), hypergranulosis (65%), neutrophilic spongiosis (61%), dermal eosinophils (49%), compact orthokeratosis (37%), papillary dermal fibrosis (35%), lichenoid infiltrate (25%), plasma cells (16%), and eosinophilic spongiosis (8%). Psoriasis exhibits a broader histopathologic spectrum. The presence of some non-classic features does not necessarily exclude the possibility of psoriasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Similarity and conditional similarity reductions of a (2+1)-dimensional KdV equation via a direct method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Sen-yue; Tang, Xiao-yan; Lin, Ji

    2000-12-01

    To get the similarity solutions of a nonlinear physical equation, one may use the classical Lie group approach, nonclassical Lie group approach and the Clarkson and Kruskal (CK) direct method. In this paper the direct method is modified to get the similarity and conditional similarity reductions of a (2+1) dimensional KdV-type equation. Ten types of usual similarity reductions [including the (1+1)-dimensional shallow water wave equation and the variable KdV equation] and six types of conditional similarity reductions of the (2+1)-dimensional KdV equation are obtained. Some special solutions of the conditional similarity reduction equations are found to show the nontriviality of the conditional similarity reduction approach. The conditional similarity solutions cannot be obtained by using the nonclassical Lie group approach in its present form. How to modify the nonclassical Lie group approach to obtain the conditional similarity solutions is still open.

  5. Toward quantum state tomography of a single polariton state of an atomic ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S.L.; Béguin, J.B.; Sørensen, H.L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a proposal and a feasibility study for the creation and quantum state tomography of a single polariton state of an atomic ensemble. The collective non-classical and non-Gaussian state of the ensemble is generated by detection of a single forward-scattered photon. The state is subsequen...... the feasibility of the proposed method for the detection of a non-classical and non-Gaussian state of the mesoscopic atomic ensemble. This work represents the first attempt at hybrid discrete-continuous variable quantum state processing with atomic memories.......We present a proposal and a feasibility study for the creation and quantum state tomography of a single polariton state of an atomic ensemble. The collective non-classical and non-Gaussian state of the ensemble is generated by detection of a single forward-scattered photon. The state...

  6. Correlated multiphoton holes: absence of multiphoton coincidence events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afek, I; Ambar, O; Silberberg, Y

    2010-08-27

    We generate bipartite states of light which exhibit an absence of multiphoton coincidence events between two modes amid a constant background flux. These "correlated photon holes" are produced by mixing a coherent state and relatively weak spontaneous parametric down-conversion by using a balanced beam splitter. Correlated holes with arbitrarily high photon numbers may be obtained by adjusting the relative phase and amplitude of the inputs. We measure states of up to five photons and verify their nonclassicality. The scheme provides a route for observation of high-photon-number nonclassical correlations without requiring intense quantum resources.

  7. The Interaction of a N-Type Four Level Atom with the Electromagnetic Field for a Kerr Medium Induced Intensity-Dependent Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Anas; Yevick, David

    2018-01-01

    The interaction of a N-type four-level atom with a single field in the presence of an intensity-dependent coupling in a nonlinear Kerr medium is investigated. The exact analytic solution is obtained in the case that the atom and electromagnetic field are initially in a higher excited state and a coherent state, respectively. It is then demonstrated that effects such as nonclassical light generation, degree of entanglement stabilization, Kerr medium nonclassical control, and squeezed light are can be more efficiently implemented within this four-level framework than in many competing procedures. Additionally, inversion, linear entropy, Mandel Q-parameter and normal squeezing dynamics are examined.

  8. Landau-like theory for universality of critical exponents in quasistationary states of isolated mean-field systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shun; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y

    2015-06-01

    An external force dynamically drives an isolated mean-field Hamiltonian system to a long-lasting quasistationary state, whose lifetime increases with population of the system. For second order phase transitions in quasistationary states, two nonclassical critical exponents have been reported individually by using a linear and a nonlinear response theories in a toy model. We provide a simple way to compute the critical exponents all at once, which is an analog of the Landau theory. The present theory extends the universality class of the nonclassical exponents to spatially periodic one-dimensional systems and shows that the exponents satisfy a classical scaling relation inevitably by using a key scaling of momentum.

  9. Towards a refined definition of monocyte subsets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loems eZiegler-Heitbrock

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In a nomenclature proposal published in 2010 monocytes were subdivided into classical and nonclassical cells and in addition an intermediate monocyte subset was proposed. Over the last couple of years many studies have analyzed these intermediate cells, their characteristics have been described and their expansion has been documented in many clinical settings. While these cells appear to be in transition from classical to nonclassical monocytes and hence may not form a distinct cell population in a strict sense, their separate analysis and enumeration is warranted in health and disease.

  10. Is the classical law of the addition of probabilities violated in quantum interference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenovic, Dusan; Bozic, Mirjana; Vuskovic, Lepsa

    2002-01-01

    We analyse and compare the positive and negative arguments on whether quantum interference violates the classical law of the addition of probabilities. The analysis takes into account the results of recent interference experiments in neutron, electron and atom optics. Nonclassical behaviour of atoms was found in atomic experiments where the measurements included their time of arrival and space distribution. We determine probabilities of elementary events associated with the nonclassical behaviour of particles in interferometers. We show that the emergence of the interference pattern in the process of accumulation of such elementary events is consistent with the classical law of the addition of probabilities

  11. Notion and methods of measurement of enterprise financial liquidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows methods of assessment of the financial liquidity of an enterprise. Static, dynamic and non-classic methods of the financial liquidity assessment have been shown. The following static methods are discussed: construction and information content of current indicator, rapid indicator and indicator of an instant liquidity. In the case of dynamic part, indicators were shown of cash efficiency and sufficiency i.e. criteria of financial liquidity assessing based on the financial circulations. Moreover, chosen methods were mentioned of the financial liquidity assessment, which are less frequently used in practice, which are called non-classic.

  12. Error Free Quantum Reading by Quasi Bell State of Entangled Coherent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirota Osamu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassical states of light field have been exploited to provide marvellous results in quantum information science. Usefulness of nonclassical states in quantum information science depends on whether a physical parameter as a signal is continuous or discrete. Here we present an investigation of the potential of quasi Bell states of entangled coherent states in quantum reading of the classical digital memory which was pioneered by Pirandola (Phys.Rev.Lett.,106,090504,2011. This is a typical example of discrimination for discrete quantum parameters. We show that the quasi Bell state gives the error free performance in the quantum reading that cannot be obtained by any classical state.

  13. Generalized Multiphoton Quantum Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Tillmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nonclassical interference of photons lies at the heart of optical quantum information processing. Here, we exploit tunable distinguishability to reveal the full spectrum of multiphoton nonclassical interference. We investigate this in theory and experiment by controlling the delay times of three photons injected into an integrated interferometric network. We derive the entire coincidence landscape and identify transition matrix immanants as ideally suited functions to describe the generalized case of input photons with arbitrary distinguishability. We introduce a compact description by utilizing a natural basis that decouples the input state from the interferometric network, thereby providing a useful tool for even larger photon numbers.

  14. Error Free Quantum Reading by Quasi Bell State of Entangled Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Osamu

    2017-12-01

    Nonclassical states of light field have been exploited to provide marvellous results in quantum information science. Usefulness of nonclassical states in quantum information science depends on whether a physical parameter as a signal is continuous or discrete. Here we present an investigation of the potential of quasi Bell states of entangled coherent states in quantum reading of the classical digital memory which was pioneered by Pirandola (Phys.Rev.Lett.,106,090504,2011). This is a typical example of discrimination for discrete quantum parameters. We show that the quasi Bell state gives the error free performance in the quantum reading that cannot be obtained by any classical state.

  15. Gaussian-state entanglement in a quantum beat laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahira, Rabia; Ikram, Manzoor; Nha, Hyunchul; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2011-01-01

    Recently quantum beat lasers have been considered as a source of entangled radiation [S. Qamar, F. Ghafoor, M. Hillery, and M. S. Zubairy, Phys. Rev. A 77, 062308 (2008)]. We investigate and quantify the entanglement of this system when the initial cavity modes are prepared in a Gaussian two-mode state, one being a nonclassical state and the other a thermal state. It is investigated how the output entanglement varies with the nonclassicality of the input Gaussian state, thermal noise, and the strength of the driving field.

  16. A comparative study of the P and Q representations of a feedback controlled two-qubit system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin

    2011-05-01

    In this Letter the Master equation of a two qubit system is transformed into Fokker-Planck equations in order to find the Glauber-Sudarshan P function representation. For the two qubit system examined in this Letter, the P representation is ill defined, which indicates the system is non-classical. A qualitative measure of the non-classical nature of the system is found by taking the semi-classical limit of the Fokker-Planck equation and obtaining a simplified Glauber-Sudarshan P representation. The agreement between the simplified P representation and the Q representation as well as the system stability are discussed when feedback is present and absent.

  17. Bryophytes: liverworts, mosses, and hornworts: extraction and isolation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    There are more than 20,000 species of bryophytes in the world. Among them, almost of liverworts (Marchantiophyta) possess beautiful blue, yellow colored or colorless cellular oil bodies from which over several hundred new terpenoids, acetogenins, and aromatic compounds including flavonoids with more than 40 new carbon skeletons have been isolated. Some of the isolated compounds from liverworts show antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, allergenic contact dermatitis, cytotoxicity, insect antifeedant and mortality, antioxidant, nitric oxide (NO) production and plant growth inhibitory, neurotrophic and piscicidal activity, tublin polymerization inhibitory, muscle relaxing, and liver X-receptor (LXR)α agonist and (LXR)β antagonist activities, among others. The bio- and chemical diversity, chemical analysis of bryophytes including extraction, distillation, purification, TLC, GC and GC-MS, and HPLC analysis of oil bodies of liverworts are surveyed.

  18. Phytochemical and biological studies of bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Yoshinori; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Nagashima, Fumihiro

    2013-07-01

    The bryophytes contain the Marchantiophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses) and Anthocerotophyta (hornworts). Of these, the Marchantiophyta have a cellular oil body which produce a number of mono-, sesqui- and di-terpenoids, aromatic compounds like bibenzyl, bis-bibenzyls and acetogenins. Most sesqui- and di-terpenoids obtained from liverworts are enantiomers of those found in higher plants. Many of these compounds display a characteristic odor, and can have interesting biological activities. These include: allergenic contact dermatitis, antimicrobial, antifungal and antiviral, cytotoxic, insecticidal, insect antifeedant, superoxide anion radical release, 5-lipoxygenase, calmodulin, hyaluronidase, cyclooxygenase, DNA polymerase β, and α-glucosidase and NO production inhibitory, antioxidant, piscicidal, neurotrophic and muscle relaxing activities among others. Each liverwort biosynthesizes unique components, which are valuable for their chemotaxonomic classification. Typical chemical structures and biological activity of the selected liverwort constituents as well as the hemi- and total synthesis of some biologically active compounds are summarized. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 3-Methoxy-4-(4-nitrobenzyloxybenzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C15H13NO5, the vanillin group makes a dihedral angle of 4.95 (8° with the benzene ring of the nitrobenzene group. The packing is stabilized by weak, non-classical intermolecular C—H...O interactions which link molecules into chains running along the c axis.

  20. RESEARCH Dermatological manifestations of measles infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Measles is an acute vaccine-preventable infection common in child- hood and caused by a virus of the Paramyxoviridae family. Reports of. 'non-classic' measles syndromes1-5 include those in the setting of HIV co-infection.2 Generally, typical infections are characterised by acute onset of fever, cough, coryza and ...

  1. The entanglement evolution between two entangled atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Entanglement is an important resource for quantum information processing. [1–3] and also one of the most important nonclassical properties in quantum theory. Quan- tum entanglement is seen not only as a puzzle, but also as a resource to be manipulated for communication, information processing and quantum computing ...

  2. HLA-E expression by gynecological cancers restrains tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooden, Marloes; Lampen, Margit; Jordanova, Ekaterina S.; Leffers, Ninke; Trimbos, J. Baptist; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; Nijman, Hans; van Hall, Thorbald

    2011-01-01

    HLA-E is a nonclassical HLA class I molecule, which differs from classical HLA molecules by its nonpolymorphic, conserved nature. Expression and function of HLA-E in normal tissues and solid tumors is not fully understood. We investigated HLA-E protein expression on tissue sections of 420 ovarian

  3. Relationship between Mind and Brain: A Proposal of Solution Based on Forms of Intra- and Extra-Individual Negentropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Alberto A.; Zumaeta, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    It is proposed that the problem of the mind-brain relationship can be overcome by a non-classical materialistic model of personality based on the information defined as a special form of negentropy with a structure and activity, which in five intra-individual categories, organizes all and each of the levels of the personality, and, in an…

  4. HLA-G genotype and HLA-G expression in systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, R; Hviid, T V F; Govoni, M

    2008-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease mainly mediated by the deposit of immune complexes and defects in T lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells along with a high production of T-helper 2 cytokines. A tolerance-inducible function of nonclassical class Ib human leukocyte...

  5. Research briefing on selected opportunities in atomic, molecular, and optical sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research on the following topics: The Laser-Atom Revolution; Controlling Dynamical Pathways; Nonclassical States of Light; Transient States of Atomic Systems; New Light Generation and Handling; Clusters; Atomic Physics at User Facilities; and Impacts of AMO Sciences on Modern Technologies

  6. Apparent tunneling in chemical reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Billing, G. D.

    2000-01-01

    A necessary condition for tunneling in a chemical reaction is that the probability of crossing a barrier is non-zero, when the energy of the reactants is below the potential energy of the barrier. Due to the non-classical nature (i.e, momentum uncertainty) of vibrational states this is, however...

  7. Galectin-9: From cell biology to complex disease dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Galectins is a family of non-classically secreted, β-galactoside-binding proteins that has recently received considerableattention in the spatio-temporal regulation of surface 'signal lattice' organization, membrane dynamics, cell-adhesionand disease therapeutics. Galectin-9 is a unique member of this family, with two ...

  8. Expanding Basic Fuzzy Logic with Truth Constants for Component Delimiters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haniková, Zuzana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 197, 16 June (2012), s. 95-107 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GEICC/08/E018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : mathematics * non-classical logics * algebra * basic fuzzy logic BL * propositional constants Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.749, year: 2012

  9. From Fuzzy Logic to Fuzzy Mathematics: A Methodological Manifesto

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Běhounek, Libor; Cintula, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 5 (2006), s. 642-646 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB100300502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : non-classical logics * formal fuzzy logic * formal fuzzy mathematics * high-order fuzzy logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.181, year: 2006

  10. Dynamics of 'quantumness' measures in the decohering harmonic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... function of the state, and found that the quantum- to-classical transition occurs at a finite time, but that initially more non-classical states do not necessarily decohere faster. Dodonov et al [8] have also studied squeezing and Wigner function negativity for cat states, albeit for a parametrically excited quadratic ...

  11. A class of nonlinear coherent states and some of their properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obada, A-S F [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Nasr City 11884, Cairo (Egypt); Darwish, M [Department of Physics, Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Al-Arish (Egypt)

    2003-06-01

    Nonclassical properties such as the autocorrelation function, quadrature and amplitude-squared squeezing, the phase properties in the Pegg-Barnett formalism, the Husimi-Kano Q function and the Wigner-Moyal (W) function of a wider class of nonlinear coherent states, are calculated and discussed in this paper.

  12. Phase representation of quantum-optical systems via nonnegative quantum distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizhov, A.V.; Gusev, A.A.; Vinitskij, S.I.; Sevast'yanov, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new method for describing phase distributions of nonclassical states in optical systems based on the nonnegative quantum distribution function. A comparison of the proposed method with other known methods such as the Pegg-Barnett and operational ones is given

  13. Classical and quantum effects in noble metal and graphene plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N. Asger

    2015-01-01

    such as nonclassical electrodynamics with a nonlocal response of the plasmons. Nonlocal effects are being explored both theoretically and experimentally in different charge-conducting material systems with examples ranging from sub-10 nanometer noble metal particles to one-atom thin disks of doped graphene....

  14. Continuous-wave spatial quantum correlations of light induced by multiple scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Huck, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We present theoretical and experimental results on spatial quantum correlations induced by multiple scattering of nonclassical light. A continuous-mode quantum theory is derived that enables determining the spatial quantum correlation function from the fluctuations of the total transmittance and ...

  15. Some Practical Approaches to a Course on Paraconsistent Logic for Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Torres, Germano; de Moraes, Carlos Henrique Valerio; Coutinho, Maurilio Pereira; Martins, Helga Gonzaga; Borges da Silva, Luiz Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a non-classical logic course primarily indicated for graduate students in electrical engineering and energy engineering. The content of this course is based on the vision that it is not enough for a student to indefinitely accumulate knowledge; it is necessary to explore all the occasions to update, deepen, and enrich that…

  16. Monocyte Subsets Are Differentially Lost from the Circulation during Acute Inflammation Induced by Human Experimental Endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, T.; Groenendael, R. van; Pickkers, P.; Koenderman, L.

    2017-01-01

    Three human monocyte subsets are recognized with different functions in the immune system: CD14++/CD16- classical monocytes (CM), CD14++/CD16+ intermediate monocytes (IM) and CD14+/CD16++ non-classical monocytes (NCM). Increased IM and NCM percentages have been reported under inflammatory

  17. Plasmon-enhanced fluorescence near nonlocal metallic nanospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Stefanou, N.; Wubs, Martijn

    the study of emitterplasmon coupling (in the weak-coupling limit) as a sensitive test for the validity of stateof-the-art nonclassical models. For the regime of strong emitter-plasmon coupling, we anticipate an analogously wide importance of a description beyond classical electrodynamics, particularly once...

  18. An Introduction to Differentials Based on Hyperreal Numbers and Infinite Microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we propose to introduce the differential of a function through a non-classical way, lying on hyperreals and infinite microscopes. This approach is based on the developments of nonstandard analysis, wants to be more intuitive than the classical one and tries to emphasize the functional and geometric aspects of the differential. In…

  19. Quantum interference and diffraction of parametric down-converted ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This result also represents the non-classical nature of the biphotons generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by a grant-in-aid for Scientific Research from the Ministry of. Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan, and by the program 'Re-.

  20. Single Photon Experiments and Quantum Complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiev D. D.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Single photon experiments have been used as one of the most striking illustrations of the apparently nonclassical nature of the quantum world. In this review we examine the mathematical basis of the principle of complementarity and explain why the Englert-Greenberger duality relation is not violated in the configurations of Unruh and of Afshar.

  1. It's Not Given Us to Foretell How Our Words Will Echo through the Ages: The Reception of Novel Ideas by Scientific Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Bazhanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reveals some mostly unnoticed and unexpected trends in reception of novel ideas in science. The author formulates certain principles of the reception of these ideas by scientific communities and justifies them by examples from modern mathematics and non-classical logic.

  2. Contour Detection Operators Based on Surround Inhibition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigorescu, Cosmin; Petkov, Nicolai; Westenberg, Michel A.

    2003-01-01

    We propose a biologically motivated computational step, called non-classical receptive field (non-CRF) inhibition, to improve contour detection in images of natural scenes. We augment a Gabor energy operator with non-CRF inhibition. The resulting contour operator responds strongly to isolated lines,

  3. Back-and-forth systems for fuzzy first-order models

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dellunde, P.; García-Cerdaña, A.; Noguera, Carles

    (2018) ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GF15-34650L Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Mathematical fuzzy logic * first-order fuzzy logics * non-classical logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/MTR/noguera-0486421. pdf

  4. A new potential secretion pathway for recombinant proteins in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guangqiang; Xia, Yongjun; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Haiqin; Ai, Lianzhong; Chen, Wei

    2015-11-10

    Secretion of cytoplasmic expressed proteins into growth media has significant advantages. Due to the lack of an outer membrane, Bacillus subtilis is considered as a desirable 'cell factory' for the secretion of recombinant proteins. However, bottlenecks in the classical pathway for the secretion of recombinant proteins limit its use on a wide scale. In this study, we attempted to use four typical non-classically secreted proteins as signals to export three recombinant model proteins to the culture medium. All four non-classically secreted proteins can direct the export of the intrinsically disordered nucleoskeletal-like protein (Nsp). Two of them can guide the secretion of alkaline phosphatase (PhoA). One can lead the secretion of the thermostable β-galactosidase BgaB, which cannot be secreted with the aid of typical Sec-dependent signal peptides. Our results show that the non-classically secreted proteins lead the recombinant proteins to the culture medium, and thus non-classical protein secretion pathways can be exploited as a novel secretion pathway for recombinant proteins.

  5. Milder phenotypes of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anand, G.; Padeniya, A.; Hanrahan, D.; Scheffer, H.; Zaiwalla, Z.; Cox, D.; Mann, N.; Hewertson, J.; Price, S.; Nemeth, A.; Arsov, T.; Scheffer, I.; Jayawant, S.; Pike, M.; McShane, T.

    2011-01-01

    Glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT1DS) is a treatable condition resulting from impaired glucose transport into the brain. The classical presentation is with infantile-onset epilepsy and severe developmental delay. Non-classical phenotypes with movement disorders and early-onset

  6. Contemporary Challenges in Learning and Teaching Folk Music in a Higher Education Context: A Case Study of Hua'er Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Welch, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Literature reviews suggest that traditional approaches in folk music education are not necessarily compatible with the conventions of formal music education. Whilst many recent studies have tended to define these non-classical music learning contexts as "informal", the practice of folk transmission music appears to be much more complex…

  7. School Proximity and Child Labor: Evidence from Rural Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondylis, Florence; Manacorda, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Is improved school accessibility an effective policy tool for reducing child labor in developing countries? We address this question using microdata from rural Tanzania and a regression strategy that attempts to control for nonrandom location of households around schools as well as classical and nonclassical measurement error in self-reported…

  8. Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis and Transformations using Benign Reaction Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nonclassical heating technique using microwaves, termed as 'Bunsen burner of the 21st century, is rapidly becoming popular and is dramatically reducing the reaction times. The significant outcomes of microwave (MW)-assisted green chemistry endeavors are summarized that have r...

  9. Fuzzy t-filters and their Properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Víta, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 247, 16 July (2014), s. 127-134 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP202/10/1826 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : non-classical logics * algebra * fuzzy t-filters * t-filters * fuzzy filters * residuated lattices Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.986, year: 2014

  10. Ergocalciferol treatment and aspects of mineral homeostasis in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4-5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eva; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Lewin, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Focus on non-classical effects and possible less side effects of treatment with nutritional vitamin D, raises the expectation of possible benefits from treating chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with ergocalciferol (vitamin D2). Treatment with 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D (calcitriol) induces elevated...

  11. Nonlinear Microwave Optomechanics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shevchuk, O.

    2017-01-01

    The nonlinearity is essential for creation of non-classical states of the cavity or mechanical resonator such as squeezed or cat states. A microwave cavity can be made nonlinear by, for instance, adding Josephson junctions. The mechanical resonator is inherently nonlinear. The radiation pressure

  12. Dynamics of a pulsed continuous-variable quantum memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Cviklinski, Jean; Pinard, Michel

    2006-01-01

    We study the transfer dynamics of nonclassical fluctuations of light to the ground-state collective spin components of an atomic ensemble during a pulsed quantum memory sequence, and evaluate the relevant physical quantities to be measured in order to characterize such a quantum memory. We show...... transmission—that accounts for the behavior of the atomic quantum memory....

  13. On Product Logic with Truth-Constants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Savický, Petr; Cignoli, R.; Esteva, F.; Godo, L.; Noguera, C.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2006), s. 205-225 ISSN 0955-792X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0545 Keywords : non-classical logic * fuzzy logic * product logic * truth-constants * standard completeness Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.840, year: 2006

  14. Renin-angiotensin system: an old player with novel functions in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Morales, María Gabriela; Rivera, Juan Carlos; Cabrera, Daniel; Simon, Felipe

    2015-05-01

    Skeletal muscle is a tissue that shows the most plasticity in the body; it can change in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. Among the diseases that affect skeletal muscle are myopathy-associated fibrosis, insulin resistance, and muscle atrophy. A common factor in these pathologies is the participation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). This system can be functionally separated into the classical and nonclassical RAS axis. The main components of the classical RAS pathway are angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (Ang-II), and Ang-II receptors (AT receptors), whereas the nonclassical axis is composed of ACE2, angiotensin 1-7 [Ang (1-7)], and the Mas receptor. Hyperactivity of the classical axis in skeletal muscle has been associated with insulin resistance, atrophy, and fibrosis. In contrast, current evidence supports the action of the nonclassical RAS as a counter-regulator axis of the classical RAS pathway in skeletal muscle. In this review, we describe the mechanisms involved in the pathological effects of the classical RAS, advances in the use of pharmacological molecules to inhibit this axis, and the beneficial effects of stimulation of the nonclassical RAS pathway on insulin resistance, atrophy, and fibrosis in skeletal muscle. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Clinical indicators of mycobacteraemia in adults admitted to hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2000-05-02

    May 2, 2000 ... chest x—ray changes (cavities, pulmonary fibrosis, upper lobe or bilateral infiltrates, or pleural effusion not otherwise explained);. 'non-classical' chest x-ray changes (other infiltrates or intratho- racic adenopathy) together with chronic (21 month) cough or chronic fever; miliary pattern on chest x-ray; ...

  16. Phase control of the quantum statistics of collective emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleinert, M.-O.; von Zanthier, J.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2018-02-01

    We report nonclassical aspects of the collective behavior of two atoms in a cavity by investigating the photon statistics and photon distribution over a very broad domain of parameters. Starting with the dynamics of two atoms radiating in phase into the cavity, we study the photon statistics for arbitrary interatomic phases as revealed by the second-order intensity correlation function at zero time, g(2 )(0 ) , and the Mandel Q parameter. We find that the light field can be tuned from antibunched to (super-)bunched as well as nonclassical to classical behavior by merely modifying the atomic position. The highest nonclassicality in the sense of the smallest Q parameter is found when spontaneous emission, cavity decay, coherent pumping, and atom-cavity coupling are of comparable magnitude. We introduce a quantum version of the negative binomial distribution with its parameters directly related to Q and g(2 )(0 ) and discuss its range of applicability. We also examine the Klyshko parameter, which highlights the nonclassicality of the photon distribution.

  17. Hydrogen research and development in Hawaii: Hawaii natural energy institute's hydrogen from renewable resources research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, K.R.; Rocheleau, R.E.; Takahashi, P.K.; Jensen, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Hawaii, an energy-vulnerable state, has launched a Renewable Resources Research Program, focusing on hydrogen production and storage; the main tasks of this effort are: photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen through the use of coated silicon electrodes; solar conversion and the production of hydrogen with cyanobacteria; improved hydrogen storage through the use of nonclassical poly-hydride metal complexes. 10 refs

  18. Siloxanes : A new class of candidate Bethe-Zel’dovich-Thompson fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colonna, P.; Guardone, A.; Nannan, N.R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a new class of Bethe-Zel’dovich-Thompson fluids, which are expected to exhibit nonclassical gasdynamic behavior in the single-phase vapor region. These are the linear and cyclic siloxanes, light silicon oils currently employed as working fluids in organic Rankine cycle turbines.

  19. Electron Rydberg wave packets in one-dimensional atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transient phase-space localization of the wave packet produced ... that the atom undergoes a free evolution from a classical, to a nonclassical, and back to ... for the weight factors in superposing energy eigenstates to construct the wave packet for a 1D atom. In terms of these transition amplitudes the Rydberg wave packet.

  20. Da Costa on ontology: a naturalistic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mariano Nogueira Coelho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Da Costa's conception of being modifies that of Quine to incorporate relativization to non-classical logics. A naturalistic view of this conception is discussed. This view tries to extend to logic some ideas of Maddy's naturalism concerning mathematics.

  1. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pp 25-37 General Article. A Stroll down Kármán Street · Raghuraman N Govardhan O N Ramesh · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 38-48 General Article. Classical Sets and Non-Classical Sets: An Overview · Sumita Basu · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 49-66 General Article. Brownian Motion Problem: Random Walk and ...

  2. Journal of Chemical Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Investigation on reactivity of non-classical carbenes with sterically hindered Lewis acid, B(C6F5)3 under inert and open conditions. Arunabha Thakur, Pavan K Vardhanapu, Gonela Vijaykumar and Sushil Ranjan Bhatta. 613–620. Interactions between metal cations with H2 in the M+- H2 complexes: Performance of DFT ...

  3. Multi-Interpretation Operators and Approximate Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, J.; Treur, J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper non-classical logical techniques are introduced to formalize the analysis of multi-interpretable observation information, in particular in approximate classification processes where information on attributes of an object is to be inferred on the basis of observable properties of the

  4. Concepts and bounded rationality: An application of Niestegge's approach to conditional quantum probabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blutner, R.

    2009-01-01

    Recently, Gerd Niestegge developed a new approach to quantum mechanics via conditional probabilities developing the well-known proposal to consider the Lüders-von Neumann measurement as a non-classical extension of probability conditionalization. I will apply his powerful and rigorous approach to

  5. To the theory of volterra integral equations of the first kind with discontinuous kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apartsin, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    A nonclassical Volterra linear integral equation of the first kind describing the dynamics of an developing system with allowance for its age structure is considered. The connection of this equation with the classical Volterra linear integral equation of the first kind with a piecewise-smooth kernel is studied. For solving such equations, the quadrature method is applied.

  6. Students, Please Turn to YouTube for Your Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Using the Flipped Classroom approach, the teacher "flips" the presentation of the material, the lesson, to non-class time by preparing a video that compresses the material and posting it on a website, such as YouTube, which the students can view at home or anywhere they choose. The teacher, in this case a Math teacher, is then free to…

  7. Differential cross sections for the one electron two center symmetric systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maidagan, J.M.; Piacentini, R.D. (Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina). Dept. de Fisica); Rivarola, R.D. (Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France). Lab. d' Astrophysique; Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Cuantica)

    1982-03-01

    We use the two-state atomic expansion with variable nuclear charge to study charge-exchange differential cross sections for symmetrical one-electron systems at intermediate energy. The nonclassical small angle diffraction scattering is discussed. Our results are compared with data for H/sup +/-H collisions.

  8. Myositis ossificans circumscripta, secondary to high-velocity gunshot and fragment wound that causes sciatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokkus, Kemal; Sagtas, Ergin; Suslu, Feride Ekimler; Aydin, Ahmet Turan

    2013-10-17

    This report concerns an unusual cause of sciatica. The case presented is of a young man with myositis ossificans that resulted in sciatica and was treated with en bloc excision and low-dose radiotherapy and indomethacine. The aim of this study was to explain the different diagnostic properties of myositis ossificans around the hip and non-classic causes of sciatica.

  9. Observations on the Monoidal t-norm Logic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájek, Petr

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 132, č. 1 (2002), s. 107-112 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030004 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : non-classical logics * basic fuzzy logic * monoidal t-norm logic * product logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.550, year: 2002

  10. 75 FR 63840 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... response of colitis by modulating IL-13 and Natural Killer T cell (NKT) activity and (2) methods for... obtained that is histologically similar to human ulcerative colitis. Studies show that NKT cells, rather... shown to contain increased numbers of nonclassical NKT cells that produce markedly increased amounts of...

  11. 75 FR 66108 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... that Natural Killer T (NKT) cells, rather than conventional CD4+T cells, mediate oxazolone colitis and... nonclassical NKT cells that produce markedly increased amounts of IL-13 and that in keeping with epithelial damage being a key factor in UC, these NKT cells are cytotoxic for epithelial cells. Building on their...

  12. Curbing Digital Distractions in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemiller, Corey

    2017-01-01

    Whether banking, communicating, watching television, or shopping, people can now do nearly anything on their personal digital devices. This digital access even extends to the college classroom where students use their personal devices for a multitude of non-class related purposes. Findings from a survey of 193 college undergraduates found that…

  13. Entanglement in optical parametric down-conversion with losses and noise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina, Jan; Křepelka, Jaromír

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 19 (2009), 3918-3923 ISSN 0030-4018 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002; GA AV ČR IAA100100713 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : quantum measurement * parametric down-conversion * nonclassical light Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2009

  14. Shape recovery mechanism observed in single crystals of shape memory alloys

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Sedlák, Petr; Landa, Michal

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 81, č. 6 (2008), s. 537-551 ISSN 0141-1594 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : shape memory alloy s * shape recovery process * martensitic microstructure * non-classical boundaries Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.201, year: 2008

  15. Niels Bohr and the Atomic Structure

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    that succeeded in explaining the spectral features of hydrogen atom. In the process, he incorporated some non-classical features such as discrete energy levels for the bound electrons, and quantization of their angular ... element in the periodic table is determined by the nuclear charge. The particle has a mass of four ...

  16. Sublinear Expectation Nonlinear Regression for the Financial Risk Measurement and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunquan Song

    2013-01-01

    normality of the estimation and the mini-max property of the prediction are obtained. Finally, simulation study and real data analysis are carried out to illustrate the new model and methods. In this paper, the notions and methodological developments are nonclassical and original, and the proposed modeling and inference methods establish the foundations for nonlinear expectation statistics.

  17. Decay of superfluid currents in the interacting one-dimensional Bose gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherny, A.Y.; Caux, J.S.; Brand, J.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the superfluid properties of a one-dimensional (1D) Bose gas in a ring trap based on the model of Lieb and Liniger. While the 1D Bose gas has nonclassical rotational inertia and exhibits quantization of velocities, the metastability of currents depends sensitively on the strength of

  18. Theory of superfluidity and drag force in the one-dimensional Bose gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherny, A.Y.; Caux, J.-S.; Brand, J.

    2012-01-01

    The one-dimensional Bose gas is an unusual superfluid. In contrast to higher spatial dimensions, the existence of non-classical rotational inertia is not directly linked to the dissipationless motion of infinitesimal impurities. Recently, experimental tests with ultracold atoms have begun and

  19. Neutron scattering study of the excitation spectrum of solid helium at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. There has been a resurgence of interest in the properties of solid helium due to the recent discovery of non-classical rotational inertia (NCRI) in solid 4He by Chan and coworkers below 200 mK which they have interpreted as a transition to a 'supersolid' phase. We have carried out a series of elastic and inelastic ...

  20. Disentanglement, Bell-nonlocality violation and teleportation capacity of the decaying tripartite states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Ming-Liang, E-mail: mingliang0301@163.com

    2012-09-15

    Dynamics of disentanglement as measured by the tripartite negativity and Bell nonlocality as measured by the extent of violation of the multipartite Bell-type inequalities are investigated in this work. It is shown definitively that for the initial three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) or W class state preparation, the Bell nonlocality suffers sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoirs. Moreover, all the Bell-nonlocal states are useful for nonclassical teleportation, while there are entangled states that do not violate any Bell-type inequalities, but still yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Comparison of different aspects of quantum correlations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Robustness of the initial tripartite GHZ and W class states against decoherence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bell-nonlocality sudden death under the influence of thermal reservoir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A nonzero minimum tripartite negativity is needed for nonclassical teleportation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All the Bell-nonlocal states yield nonclassical teleportation fidelity.

  1. 2-Chloroquinazolin-4(3H-one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lei Cao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C8H5ClN2O, the quinazoline system is approximately planar with a maximum deviation from the least-squares plane of 0.034 (2 Å. In the crystal, classical N—H...O and weak non-classical C—H...N hydrogen bonds link the molecules.

  2. Phenotype, function, and differentiation potential of human monocyte subsets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B Boyette

    Full Text Available Human monocytes have been grouped into classical (CD14++CD16-, non-classical (CD14dimCD16++, and intermediate (CD14++CD16+ subsets. Documentation of normal function and variation in this complement of subtypes, particularly their differentiation potential to dendritic cells (DC or macrophages, remains incomplete. We therefore phenotyped monocytes from peripheral blood of healthy subjects and performed functional studies on high-speed sorted subsets. Subset frequencies were found to be tightly controlled over time and across individuals. Subsets were distinct in their secretion of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-1β in response to TLR agonists, with classical monocytes being the most producers and non-classical monocytes the least. Monocytes, particularly those of the non-classical subtype, secreted interferon-α (IFN-α in response to intracellular TLR3 stimulation. After incubation with IL-4 and GM-CSF, classical monocytes acquired monocyte-derived DC (mo-DC markers and morphology and stimulated allogeneic T cell proliferation in MLR; intermediate and non-classical monocytes did not. After incubation with IL-3 and Flt3 ligand, no subset differentiated to plasmacytoid DC. After incubation with GM-CSF (M1 induction or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF (M2 induction, all subsets acquired macrophage morphology, secreted macrophage-associated cytokines, and displayed enhanced phagocytosis. From these studies we conclude that classical monocytes are the principal source of mo-DCs, but all subsets can differentiate to macrophages. We also found that monocytes, in particular the non-classical subset, represent an alternate source of type I IFN secretion in response to virus-associated TLR agonists.

  3. Th1-Induced CD106 Expression Mediates Leukocytes Adhesion on Synovial Fibroblasts from Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Laura; Margheri, Francesca; Luciani, Cristina; Capone, Manuela; Rossi, Maria Caterina; Chillà, Anastasia; Santarlasci, Veronica; Mazzoni, Alessio; Cimaz, Rolando; Liotta, Francesco; Maggi, Enrico; Cosmi, Lorenzo; Del Rosso, Mario; Annunziato, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that subsets of human T helper cells can orchestrate leukocyte adhesion to synovial fibroblasts (SFbs), thus regulating the retention of leukocytes in the joints of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients. Several cell types, such as monocytes/macrophages, granulocytes, T and B lymphocytes, SFbs and osteoclasts participate in joint tissue damage JIA. Among T cells, an enrichment of classic and non-classic Th1 subsets, has been found in JIA synovial fluid (SF), compared to peripheral blood (PB). Moreover, it has been shown that IL-12 in the SF of inflamed joints mediates the shift of Th17 lymphocytes towards the non-classic Th1 subset. Culture supernatants of Th17, classic and non-classic Th1 clones, have been tested for their ability to stimulate proliferation, and to induce expression of adhesion molecules on SFbs, obtained from healthy donors. Culture supernatants of both classic and non-classic Th1, but not of Th17, clones, were able to induce CD106 (VCAM-1) up-regulation on SFbs. This effect, mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, was crucial for the adhesion of circulating leukocytes on SFbs. Finally, we found that SFbs derived from SF of JIA patients expressed higher levels of CD106 than those from healthy donors, resembling the phenotype of SFbs activated in vitro with Th1-clones supernatants. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that classic and non-classic Th1 cells induce CD106 expression on SFbs through TNF-α, an effect that could play a role in leukocytes retention in inflamed joints.

  4. Generating continuous variable entangled states for quantum teleportation using a superposition of number-conserving operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhar Dhar, Himadri; Chatterjee, Arpita; Ghosh, Rupamanjari

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the states generated in continuous variable (CV) optical fields by operating them with a number-conserving operator of the type s\\hat{a}{\\hat{a}}\\dagger +t{\\hat{a}}\\dagger \\hat{a}, formed by the generalized superposition of products of field annihilation (\\hat{a}) and creation ({\\hat{a}}\\dagger ) operators, with {s}2+{t}2=1. Such an operator is experimentally realizable and can be suitably manipulated to generate nonclassical optical states when applied on single- and two-mode coherent, thermal and squeezed input states. At low intensities, these nonclassical states can interact with a secondary mode via a linear optical device to generate two-mode discrete entangled states, which can serve as a resource in quantum information protocols. The advantage of these operations are tested by applying the generated entangled states as quantum channels in CV quantum teleportation, under the Braunstein and Kimble protocol. We observe that, under these operations, while the average fidelity of CV teleportation is enhanced for the nonclassical channel formed using input squeezed states, it remains at the classical threshold for input coherent and thermal states. This is due to the fact that though these operations can introduce discrete entanglement in all input states, it enhances the Einstein-Podolosky-Rosen correlations only in the nonclassical squeezed state inputs, leading to an advantage in CV teleportation. This shows that nonclassical optical states generated using the above operations on classical coherent and thermal state inputs are not useful for CV teleportation. This investigation could prove useful for the efficient implementation of noisy non-Gaussian channels, formed by linear operations, in future teleportation protocols.

  5. A Csf1r-EGFP Transgene Provides a Novel Marker for Monocyte Subsets in Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridans, Clare; Davis, Gemma M; Sauter, Kristin A; Lisowski, Zofia M; Corripio-Miyar, Yolanda; Raper, Anna; Lefevre, Lucas; Young, Rachel; McCulloch, Mary E; Lillico, Simon; Milne, Elspeth; Whitelaw, Bruce; Hume, David A

    2016-09-15

    Expression of Csf1r in adults is restricted to cells of the macrophage lineage. Transgenic reporters based upon the Csf1r locus require inclusion of the highly conserved Fms-intronic regulatory element for expression. We have created Csf1r-EGFP transgenic sheep via lentiviral transgenesis of a construct containing elements of the mouse Fms-intronic regulatory element and Csf1r promoter. Committed bone marrow macrophage precursors and blood monocytes express EGFP in these animals. Sheep monocytes were divided into three populations, similar to classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes in humans, based upon CD14 and CD16 expression. All expressed EGFP, with increased levels in the nonclassical subset. Because Csf1r expression coincides with the earliest commitment to the macrophage lineage, Csf1r-EGFP bone marrow provides a tool for studying the earliest events in myelopoiesis using the sheep as a model. Copyright © 2016 The Authors.

  6. Strange scaling and relaxation of finite-size fluctuation in thermal equilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y

    2016-07-01

    We numerically exhibit two strange phenomena of finite-size fluctuation in thermal equilibrium of a paradigmatic long-range interacting system having a second-order phase transition. One is a nonclassical finite-size scaling at the critical point, which differs from the prediction by statistical mechanics. With the aid of this strange scaling, the scaling theory for infinite-range models conjectures the nonclassical values of critical exponents for the correlation length. The other is relaxation of the fluctuation strength from one level to another in spite of being in thermal equilibrium. A scenario is proposed to explain these phenomena from the viewpoint of the Casimir invariants and their nonexactness in finite-size systems, where the Casimir invariants are conserved in the Vlasov dynamics describing the long-range interacting systems in the limit of large population. This scenario suggests appearance of the reported phenomena in a wide class of isolated long-range interacting systems.

  7. Atom probe tomography of secondary γ′ precipitation in a single crystal Ni-based superalloy after isothermal aging at 1100 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, X.P., E-mail: xptan1985@gmail.com [IM 2NP, UMR 7334 CNRS, Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Mangelinck, D.; Perrin-Pellegrino, C. [IM 2NP, UMR 7334 CNRS, Université Aix-Marseille, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Rougier, L. [LSMX, MXG, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Gandin, Ch.-A. [CEMEF, UMR 7635 CNRS, MINES ParisTech, 06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Jacot, A. [LSMX, MXG, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ponsen, D.; Jaquet, V. [Snecma-SAFRAN Group, Service YQGC, 92702 Colombes (France)

    2014-10-25

    Highlights: • Bimodal size distribution of γ′ precipitates occurs after isothermal aging at 1100 °C. • Characterization of secondary γ′ by atom probe tomography. • It is proposed that the secondary γ′ occurs via a non-classical nucleation. • The coarsening of secondary γ′ precipitates well obeys the classical LSW theory. - Abstract: Secondary γ′ precipitation in a commercial single crystal Ni-based superalloy after the 1100 °C isothermal aging has been investigated by atom probe tomography. After the isothermal aging for 300 s, 1800 s and 3600 s, a bimodal size distribution of larger primary γ′ precipitates and numerous smaller secondary γ′ precipitates was obtained. It is proposed that the secondary γ′ precipitated via a non-classical nucleation mode. The coarsening of secondary γ′ precipitates well obeys the classical LSW theory.

  8. Robustness of the far-field response of nonlocal plasmonic ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Maack, Johan Rosenkrantz; Liu, Zhaowei

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to classical predictions, the optical response of few-nm plasmonic particles depends on particle size due to effects such as nonlocality and electron spill-out. Ensembles of such nanoparticles are therefore expected to exhibit a nonclassical inhomogeneous spectral broadening due to size...... to a lesser extent when the homogeneous size-dependent broadening of individual nanoparticles is taken into account, either through a local size-dependent damping model or through the Generalized Nonlocal Optical Response theory. The role of ensemble averaging is further explored in realistic distributions...... of isolated or weakly-interacting noble-metal nanoparticles, as encountered in experiments, while an analytical expression to evaluate the importance of inhomogeneous broadening through measurable quantities is developed. Our findings are independent of the specific nonclassical theory used, thus providing...

  9. Semiclassical asymptotic behavior and the rearrangement mechanisms for Coulomb particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, A.V.; Gevorkyan, A.S.; Dubrovskii, G.V.

    1986-01-01

    The semiclassical asymptotic behavior of the eikonal amplitude of the resonance rearrangement in a system of three Coulomb particles is studied. It is shown that the general formula for the amplitude correctly describes two classical mechanisms (pickup and knockout) and one nonclassical mechanism (stripping). The classical mechanisms predominate at high energies, while the stripping mechanism predominates at lower energies. In the region of medium energies the dominant mechanism is the pickup (or Thomas) mechanism, which is realized by nonclassical means. For such transitions the classical cross section diverges, and the amplitude must be computed on a complex trajectory. The physical reasons for introducing the approximate complex trajectories are discussed. The contributions of all the mechanisms to the rearrangement cross section are found in their analytic forms

  10. Quantifying quantumness and the quest for Queens of Quantum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, Olivier; Braun, Daniel; Braun, Petr

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a measure of 'quantumness' for any quantum state in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space, based on the distance between the state and the convex set of classical states. The latter are defined as states that can be written as a convex sum of projectors onto coherent states. We derive the general properties of this measure of non-classicality and use it to identify, for a given dimension of Hilbert space, the 'Queen of Quantum' (QQ) states, i.e. the most non-classical quantum states. In three dimensions, we obtain the QQ state analytically and show that it is unique up to rotations. In up to 11-dimensional Hilbert spaces, we find the QQ states numerically, and show that in terms of their Majorana representation they are highly symmetric bodies, which for dimensions 5 and 7 correspond to Platonic bodies.

  11. Neoclassical theory of electromagnetic interactions a single theory for macroscopic and microscopic scales

    CERN Document Server

    Babin, Anatoli

    2016-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors present their recently developed theory of electromagnetic interactions. This neoclassical approach extends the classical electromagnetic theory down to atomic scales and allows the explanation of various non-classical phenomena in the same framework. While the classical Maxwell–Lorentz electromagnetism theory succeeds in describing the physical reality at macroscopic scales, it struggles at atomic scales. Here, quantum mechanics traditionally takes over to describe non-classical phenomena such as the hydrogen spectrum and de Broglie waves. By means of modifying the classical theory, the approach presented here is able to consistently explain quantum-mechanical effects, and while similar to quantum mechanics in some respects, this neoclassical theory also differs markedly from it. In particular, the newly developed framework omits probabilistic interpretations of the wave function and features a new fundamental spatial scale which, at the size of the free electron, is much lar...

  12. Quantifying quantumness and the quest for Queens of Quantum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraud, Olivier; Braun, Daniel [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (IRSAMC), F-31062 Toulouse (France); Braun, Petr, E-mail: olivier.giraud@lptms.u-psud.f [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    We introduce a measure of 'quantumness' for any quantum state in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space, based on the distance between the state and the convex set of classical states. The latter are defined as states that can be written as a convex sum of projectors onto coherent states. We derive the general properties of this measure of non-classicality and use it to identify, for a given dimension of Hilbert space, the 'Queen of Quantum' (QQ) states, i.e. the most non-classical quantum states. In three dimensions, we obtain the QQ state analytically and show that it is unique up to rotations. In up to 11-dimensional Hilbert spaces, we find the QQ states numerically, and show that in terms of their Majorana representation they are highly symmetric bodies, which for dimensions 5 and 7 correspond to Platonic bodies.

  13. Quantum Correlations in Mixed-State Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavan Modi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the effects of quantum correlations, such as entanglement and discord, on the efficiency of phase estimation by studying four quantum circuits that can be readily implemented using NMR techniques. These circuits define a standard strategy of repeated single-qubit measurements, a classical strategy where only classical correlations are allowed, and two quantum strategies where nonclassical correlations are allowed. In addition to counting space (number of qubits and time (number of gates requirements, we introduce mixedness as a key constraint of the experiment. We compare the efficiency of the four strategies as a function of the mixedness parameter. We find that the quantum strategy gives sqrt[N] enhancement over the standard strategy for the same amount of mixedness. This result applies even for highly mixed states that have nonclassical correlations but no entanglement.

  14. Molecular fluorescence enhancement in plasmonic environments: exploring the role of nonlocal effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Stefanou, Nikolaos; Wubs, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    strongly affected. In this respect, experimental measurements of fluorescence, the theoretical description of which requires a precise concurrent evaluation of far- and near-field properties of the system, constitute a novel, more sensitive probe for assessing the validity of state-of-the-art nonclassical...... in the nanoparticle vicinity. Here we explore the influence of hitherto disregarded nonclassical effects in the description of emitter-plasmon hybrids, focusing on the roles of metal nonlocal response and especially size-dependent plasmon damping. Through extensive modelling of metallic nanospheres and nanoshells...... coupled to dipole emitters, we show that within a purely classical description a remarkable fluorescence enhancement can be achieved. However, once departing from the local-response approximation, and particularly by implementing the recent generalised nonlocal optical response theory, which provides...

  15. HLA-F and MHC class I open conformers are ligands for NK cell Ig-like receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodridge, Jodie P; Burian, Aura; Lee, Ni; Geraghty, Daniel E

    2013-10-01

    Killer Ig-like receptors (KIRs) are innate immune receptors expressed by NK and T cells classically associated with the detection of missing self through loss of their respective MHC ligand. Some KIR specificities for allelic classical class I MHC (MHC-I) have been described, whereas other KIR receptor-ligand relationships, including those associated with nonclassical MHC-I, have yet to be clearly defined. We report in this article that KIR3DL2 and KIR2DS4 and the nonclassical Ag HLA-F, expressed as a free form devoid of peptide, physically and functionally interact. These interactions extend to include classical MHC-I open conformers as ligands, defining new relationships between KIR receptors and MHC-I. The data collectively suggest a broader, previously unrecognized interaction between MHC-I open conformers--including prototypical HLA-F--and KIR receptors, acting in an immunoregulatory capacity centered on the inflammatory response.

  16. Quantum memory with strong and controllable Rydberg-level interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Kuzmich, A

    2016-11-21

    Realization of distributed quantum systems requires fast generation and long-term storage of quantum states. Ground atomic states enable memories with storage times in the range of a minute, however their relatively weak interactions do not allow fast creation of non-classical collective states. Rydberg atomic systems feature fast preparation of singly excited collective states and their efficient mapping into light, but storage times in these approaches have not yet exceeded a few microseconds. Here we demonstrate a system that combines fast quantum state generation and long-term storage. An initially prepared coherent state of an atomic memory is transformed into a non-classical collective atomic state by Rydberg-level interactions in less than a microsecond. By sheltering the quantum state in the ground atomic levels, the storage time is increased by almost two orders of magnitude. This advance opens a door to a number of quantum protocols for scalable generation and distribution of entanglement.

  17. Quantum Correlations in Nonlocal Boson Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahandeh, Farid; Lund, Austin P; Ralph, Timothy C

    2017-09-22

    Determination of the quantum nature of correlations between two spatially separated systems plays a crucial role in quantum information science. Of particular interest is the questions of if and how these correlations enable quantum information protocols to be more powerful. Here, we report on a distributed quantum computation protocol in which the input and output quantum states are considered to be classically correlated in quantum informatics. Nevertheless, we show that the correlations between the outcomes of the measurements on the output state cannot be efficiently simulated using classical algorithms. Crucially, at the same time, local measurement outcomes can be efficiently simulated on classical computers. We show that the only known classicality criterion violated by the input and output states in our protocol is the one used in quantum optics, namely, phase-space nonclassicality. As a result, we argue that the global phase-space nonclassicality inherent within the output state of our protocol represents true quantum correlations.

  18. Negative values of quasidistributions and quantum wave and number statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peřina, J.; Křepelka, J.

    2018-04-01

    We consider nonclassical wave and number quantum statistics, and perform a decomposition of quasidistributions for nonlinear optical down-conversion processes using Bessel functions. We show that negative values of the quasidistribution do not directly represent probabilities; however, they directly influence measurable number statistics. Negative terms in the decomposition related to the nonclassical behavior with negative amplitudes of probability can be interpreted as positive amplitudes of probability in the negative orthogonal Bessel basis, whereas positive amplitudes of probability in the positive basis describe classical cases. However, probabilities are positive in all cases, including negative values of quasidistributions. Negative and positive contributions of decompositions to quasidistributions are estimated. The approach can be adapted to quantum coherence functions.

  19. Mitochondrial Stat3, the Need for Design Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Rincon, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Stat3 has been studied extensively as a transcription factor, however the finding that Stat3 also localizes to mitochondria has opened a new area to discover non-classical functions. Here we review the current knowledge of mitochondrial Stat3 as a regulator of the electron transport chain (ETC) and its impact on mitochondrial production of ATP and ROS. We also describe recent findings identifying Stat3 as a regulator of mitochondrial Ca(2+) homeostasis through its effect on the ETC. It is becoming evident that these non-classical functions of Stat3 can have a major impact on cancer progression, cardiovascular diseases, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, mitochondrial Stat3 functions challenge the current design of therapies that solely target Stat3 as a transcription factor and suggest the need for "design thinking," which leads to the development of novel strategies, to intervene the Stat3 pathway.

  20. Experimental Fock-State Superradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Gutiérrez, L.; Muñoz-Martínez, L. F.; Barros, D. F.; Morales, J. E. O.; Moreira, R. S. N.; Alves, N. D.; Tieco, A. F. G.; Saldanha, P. L.; Felinto, D.

    2018-02-01

    Superradiance in an ensemble of atoms leads to the collective enhancement of radiation in a particular mode shared by the atoms in their spontaneous decay from an excited state. The quantum aspects of this phenomenon are highlighted when such collective enhancement is observed in the emission of a single quantum of light. Here we report a further step in exploring experimentally the nonclassical features of superradiance by implementing the process not only with single excitations, but also in a two-excitation state. Particularly, we measure and theoretically model the wave packets corresponding to superradiance in both the single-photon and two-photon regimes. Such progress opens the way to the study and future control of the interaction of nonclassical light modes with collective quantum memories at higher photon numbers.