The demagnetizing field of a non-uniform rectangular prism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smith, Anders; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Christensen, Dennis
2010-01-01
is solved by an analytical calculation and the coupling between applied field, the demagnetization tensor field and spatially varying temperature is solved through iteration. We show that the demagnetizing field is of great importance in many cases and that it is necessary to take into account the non......The effect of demagnetization on the magnetic properties of a rectangular ferromagnetic prism under non-uniform conditions is investigated. A numerical model for solving the spatially varying internal magnetic field is developed, validated and applied to relevant cases. The demagnetizing field...
Demagnetizing effects in stacked rectangular prisms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Dennis; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden;
2011-01-01
A numerical, magnetostatic model of the internal magnetic field of a rectangular prism is extended to the case of a stack of rectangular prisms. The model enables the calculation of the spatially resolved, three-dimensional internal field in such a stack given any magnetic state function, stack...... configuration, temperature distribution and applied magnetic field. In this paper the model is applied to the case of a stack of parallel, ferromagnetic rectangular prisms and the resulting internal field is found as a function of the orientation of the applied field, the number of prisms in the stack...... a direct impact on the design of, e.g., active magnetic regenerators made of stacked rectangular prisms in terms of optimizing the internal field....
Li, Jichun
2014-12-02
For decades, the widely used finite difference method on staggered grids, also known as the marker and cell (MAC) method, has been one of the simplest and most effective numerical schemes for solving the Stokes equations and Navier–Stokes equations. Its superconvergence on uniform meshes has been observed by Nicolaides (SIAM J Numer Anal 29(6):1579–1591, 1992), but the rigorous proof is never given. Its behavior on non-uniform grids is not well studied, since most publications only consider uniform grids. In this work, we develop the MAC scheme on non-uniform rectangular meshes, and for the first time we theoretically prove that the superconvergence phenomenon (i.e., second order convergence in the (Formula presented.) norm for both velocity and pressure) holds true for the MAC method on non-uniform rectangular meshes. With a careful and accurate analysis of various sources of errors, we observe that even though the local truncation errors are only first order in terms of mesh size, the global errors after summation are second order due to the amazing cancellation of local errors. This observation leads to the elegant superconvergence analysis even with non-uniform meshes. Numerical results are given to verify our theoretical analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ngendakumana Gaspard
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Simulating and modeling configurations of Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antennas (RMPA are dealt with in this paper. Microstrip Non Uniform Transmission Lines (MNUTL are used to feed the RMPA leading to ultrawideband impedance matching. Microstrip linear and sinus tapered characteristic impedance lines and Microstrip uniform lines are both taken to feed the same antenna patch and finally to compare their performances. The analysis is based upon the Finite Difference Time Domain method FDTD combined with the Absorbing Boundary Conditions Perfectly Matched Layers (ABC PML. An RMPA whose resonance frequency is 7.5 GHz is analyzed over a frequency band from 5GHz to 16GHz by calculating the return loss and the input impedance from the time-domain simulated data.
El-Amin, Mohamed
2010-12-01
In most of real-world applications, such as the case of heat stores, inlet is not kept at a constant temperature but it may vary with time during charging process. In this paper, a vertical water jet injected into a rectangular storage tank is measured experimentally and simulated numerically. Two cases of study are considered; one is a hot water jet with uniform inlet temperature (UIT) injected into a cold water tank, and the other is a cold water jet with non-uniform inlet temperature (NUIT) injected into a hot water tank. Three different temperature differences and three different flow rates are studied for the hot water jet with UIT which is injected into a cold water tank. Also, three different initial temperatures with constant flow rate as well as three different flow rates with constant initial temperature are considered for the cold jet with NUIT which is injected into a hot water tank. Turbulence intensity at the inlet as well as Reynolds number for the NUIT cases are therefore functions of inlet temperature and time. Both experimental measurements and numerical calculations are carried out for the same measured flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k-ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank are analyzed. The simulated results are compared to the measured results, and they show a good agreement at low temperatures. © 2010 IEEE.
Elastic stability of non-uniform columns
Lee, S. Y.; Kuo, Y. H.
1991-07-01
A simple and efficient method is proposed to investigate the elastic stability of three different tapered columns subjected to uniformly distributed follower forces. The influences of the boundary conditions and taper ratio on critical buckling loads are investigated. The critical buckling loads of columns of rectangular cross section with constant depth and linearly varied width ( T1), constant width and linearly varied depth ( T2) and double taper ( T3) are investigated. Among the three different non-uniform columns considered, taper ratio has the greatest influence on the critical buckling load of column T3 and the lowest influence on that of column T1. The types of instability mechanisms for hinged-hinged and cantilever non-uniform columns are divergence and flutter respectively. However, for clamped-hinged and clamped-clamped non-uniform columns, the type of instability mechanism for column T1 is divergence, while that for columns T2 and T3 is divergence only when the taper ratio of the columns is greater than certain critical values and flutter for the rest value of taper ratio. When the type of instability mechanism changes from divergence to flutter, there is a finite jump for the critical buckling load. The influence of taper ratio on the elastic stability of cantilever column T3 is very sensitive for small values of the taper ratio and there also exist some discontinieties in the critical buckling loads of flutter instability. For a hinged-hinged non-uniform column ( T2 or T3) with a rotational spring at the left end of the column, when the taper ratio is less than the critical value the instability mechanism changes from divergence to flutter as the rotational spring constant is increased. For a clamped-elastically supported non-uniform column, when the taper ratio is greater than the critical value the instability mechanism changes from flutter to divergence as the translational spring constant is increased.
Non-uniform sediment incipient velocity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Haitao XU; Jinyou LU; Xiaobin LIU
2008-01-01
Based on the mechanism of non-uniform sediment incipient motion,the dragging force and uplift force coefficient expressions are put forward for the non-uniform bed material exposure and close alignment state.The incipient veiocity formula of the non-uniform sediment is then established.It is shown that the formula structure is reasonable,and fine particles of the non-uniform sediment are more difficult to set into motion than the same sized uniform particles,whereas coarser particles are easier to set into motion than their uniform equivalents.The validity of the formula is verified by field and experiment data.
Shimada, Kenji; Ishihara, Takeshi
2012-01-01
It is well known that a bluff body cross-section exhibits various kinds of aerodynamic instabilities such as vortex-induced vibration, galloping and torsional flutter. Since these cross-sections are used in long-span bridges and tall buildings, it is important to predict their occurrence in wind resistant structural design. In this paper, the authors make a series of comparisons of unsteady wind forces, unsteady pressure distributions and free vibration responses between previously conducted studies and an unsteady two-dimensional k-ɛ model for rectangular cross-sections with cross-sectional ratios of 2 and 4 in a smooth uniform flow in order to verify computational predictability of aerodynamic instabilities. As a result, the computation successfully predicted the onset velocities and responses of these aerodynamic instabilities for these cross-sectional ratios, which are common to tall buildings and long bridges.
Stone stability under non-uniform flow
Hoan, N.T.; Booij, R.; Hofland, B.; Stive, M.J.F.; Verhagen, H.J.
2007-01-01
The current research is aimed at finding a dimensionless stability parameter for non-uniform flow in which the effect of turbulence is incorporated. To this end, experiments were carried out in which both the bed response (quantified by a dimensionless entrainment rate) and the flow field (velocity
Non-uniform sampled scalar diffraction calculation using non-uniform fast Fourier transform
Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Oikawa, Minoru; Okada, Naohisa; Endo, Yutaka; Hirayama, Ryuji; Ito, Tomoyoshi
2013-01-01
Scalar diffraction calculations such as the angular spectrum method (ASM) and Fresnel diffraction, are widely used in the research fields of optics, X-rays, electron beams, and ultrasonics. It is possible to accelerate the calculation using fast Fourier transform (FFT); unfortunately, acceleration of the calculation of non-uniform sampled planes is limited due to the property of the FFT that imposes uniform sampling. In addition, it gives rise to wasteful sampling data if we calculate a plane having locally low and high spatial frequencies. In this paper, we developed non-uniform sampled ASM and Fresnel diffraction to improve the problem using the non-uniform FFT.
Non-Uniform Tube Representation of Proteins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mikael Sonne
Treating the full protein structure is often neither computationally nor physically possible. Instead one is forced to consider various reduced models capturing the properties of interest. Previous work have used tubular neighborhoods of the C-alpha backbone. However, assigning a unique radius...... might not correctly capture volume exclusion - of crucial importance when trying to understand a protein's 3d-structure. We propose a new reduced model treating the protein as a non-uniform tube with a radius reflecting the positions of atoms. The tube representation is well suited considering X......-ray crystallographic resolution ~ 3Å while a varying radius accounts for the different sizes of side chains. Such a non-uniform tube better captures the protein geometry and has numerous applications in structural/computational biology from the classification of protein structures to sequence-structure prediction....
Non-uniform tube representation of proteins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mikael Sonne
Treating the full protein structure is often neither computationally nor physically possible. Instead one is forced to consider various reduced models capturing the properties of interest. Previous work have used tubular neighborhoods of the C-alpha backbone. However, assigning a unique radius...... might not correctly capture volume exclusion - of crucial importance when trying to understand a proteins $3$d-structure. We propose a new reduced model treating the protein as a non-uniform tube with a radius reflecting the positions of atoms. The tube representation is well suited considering X......-ray crystallographic resolution ~ 3Å while a varying radius accounts for the different sizes of side chains. Such a non-uniform tube better capture the protein geometry and has numerous applications in structural/computational biology from the classification of protein structures to sequence-structure prediction....
Non-uniform tube representation of proteins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mikael Sonne
might not correctly capture volume exclusion - of crucial importance when trying to understand a proteins $3$d-structure. We propose a new reduced model treating the protein as a non-uniform tube with a radius reflecting the positions of atoms. The tube representation is well suited considering X......Treating the full protein structure is often neither computationally nor physically possible. Instead one is forced to consider various reduced models capturing the properties of interest. Previous work have used tubular neighborhoods of the C-alpha backbone. However, assigning a unique radius......-ray crystallographic resolution ~ 3Å while a varying radius accounts for the different sizes of side chains. Such a non-uniform tube better capture the protein geometry and has numerous applications in structural/computational biology from the classification of protein structures to sequence-structure prediction....
Non-Uniform Tube Representation of Proteins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mikael Sonne
might not correctly capture volume exclusion - of crucial importance when trying to understand a protein's 3d-structure. We propose a new reduced model treating the protein as a non-uniform tube with a radius reflecting the positions of atoms. The tube representation is well suited considering X......Treating the full protein structure is often neither computationally nor physically possible. Instead one is forced to consider various reduced models capturing the properties of interest. Previous work have used tubular neighborhoods of the C-alpha backbone. However, assigning a unique radius......-ray crystallographic resolution ~ 3Å while a varying radius accounts for the different sizes of side chains. Such a non-uniform tube better captures the protein geometry and has numerous applications in structural/computational biology from the classification of protein structures to sequence-structure prediction....
Downsampling Non-Uniformly Sampled Data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fredrik Gustafsson
2007-10-01
Full Text Available Decimating a uniformly sampled signal a factor D involves low-pass antialias filtering with normalized cutoff frequency 1/D followed by picking out every Dth sample. Alternatively, decimation can be done in the frequency domain using the fast Fourier transform (FFT algorithm, after zero-padding the signal and truncating the FFT. We outline three approaches to decimate non-uniformly sampled signals, which are all based on interpolation. The interpolation is done in different domains, and the inter-sample behavior does not need to be known. The first one interpolates the signal to a uniformly sampling, after which standard decimation can be applied. The second one interpolates a continuous-time convolution integral, that implements the antialias filter, after which every Dth sample can be picked out. The third frequency domain approach computes an approximate Fourier transform, after which truncation and IFFT give the desired result. Simulations indicate that the second approach is particularly useful. A thorough analysis is therefore performed for this case, using the assumption that the non-uniformly distributed sampling instants are generated by a stochastic process.
The non-uniformity of fossil preservation.
Holland, Steven M
2016-07-19
The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.
Field emission from non-uniform carbon nanotube arrays.
Dall'agnol, Fernando F; den Engelsen, Daniel
2013-07-10
Regular arrays of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are frequently used in studies on field emission. However, non-uniformities are always present like dispersions in height, radius, and position. In this report, we describe the effect of these non-uniformities in the overall emission current by simulation. We show that non-uniform arrays can be modeled as a perfect array multiplied by a factor that is a function of the CNTs spacing.
Resonant-state expansion of light propagation in non-uniform waveguides
Lobanov, S V; Langbein, W; Muljarov, E A
2016-01-01
A new rigorous approach for precise and efficient calculation of light propagation along non-uniform waveguides is presented. Resonant states of a uniform waveguide, which satisfy outgoing-wave boundary conditions, form a natural basis for expansion of the local electromagnetic field. Using such an expansion at fixed frequency, we convert the light propagation along a non-uniform waveguide into an ordinary second-order matrix differential equation for the expansion coefficients along the waveguide. We illustrate the method on examples of planar waveguides with rectangular holes and evaluate its efficiency compared to the aperiodic Fourier modal method and the finite element method, showing improvements of one to two orders of magnitude. A similar improvement can be expected also for applications in other fields of physics showing wave phenomena, such as acoustics and quantum mechanics.
Non-uniform sampling of NMR relaxation data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schwarz-Linnet, Troels; Teilum, Kaare
2016-01-01
The use of non-uniform sampling of NMR spectra may give significant reductions in the data acquisition time. For quantitative experiments such as the measurement of spin relaxation rates, non-uniform sampling is however not widely used as inaccuracies in peak intensities may lead to errors...
Calibration of ACS Prism Slitless Spectroscopy Modes
Larsen, S S; Walsh, J R
2005-01-01
The Advanced Camera for Surveys is equipped with three prisms in the Solar Blind (SBC) and High Resolution (HRC) Channels, which together cover the 1150 - 3500 A range, albeit at highly non-uniform spectral resolution. We present new wavelength- and flux calibrations of the SBC (PR110L and PR130L) and HRC (PR200L) prisms, based on calibration observations obtained in Cycle 13. The calibration products are available to users via the ST-ECF/aXe web pages, and can be used directly with the aXe package. We discuss our calibration strategy and some caveats specific to slitless prism spectroscopy.
Practical Non-Uniform Channelization for Multistandard Base Stations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Alvaro Palomo Navarro; Rudi Villing; Ronan J. Farrell
2011-01-01
A multistandard software-defined radio base station must perform non-uniform channelization of multiplexed frequency bands. Non-uniform channelization accounts for a significant portion of the digital signal processing workload in the base station receiver and can be difficult to realize in a physical implementation. In non-uniform channelization methods based on generalized DFT filter banks, large prototype filter orders are a significant issue for implementation. In this paper, a multistage filter design is applied to two different non-uniform generalized DFT-based channelizers in order to reduce their filter orders. To evaluate the approach, a TETRA and TEDS base station is used. Experimental results show that the new multistage design reduces both the number of coefficients and operations and leads to a more feasible design and practical physical implementation.
Non-uniform sampling of NMR relaxation data
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Linnet, Troels E.; Teilum, Kaare, E-mail: kaare.teilum@bio.ku.dk [University of Copenhagen, SBiNLab and the Linderstrøm-Lang Centre for Protein Science, Department of Biology (Denmark)
2016-02-15
The use of non-uniform sampling of NMR spectra may give significant reductions in the data acquisition time. For quantitative experiments such as the measurement of spin relaxation rates, non-uniform sampling is however not widely used as inaccuracies in peak intensities may lead to errors in the extracted dynamic parameters. By systematic reducing the coverage of the Nyquist grid of {sup 15}N Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) relaxation dispersion datasets for four different proteins and performing a full data analysis of the resulting non-uniform sampled datasets, we have compared the performance of the multi-dimensional decomposition and iterative re-weighted least-squares algorithms in reconstructing spectra with accurate peak intensities. As long as a single fully sampled spectrum is included in a series of otherwise non-uniform sampled two-dimensional spectra, multi-dimensional decomposition reconstructs the non-uniform sampled spectra with high accuracy. For two of the four analyzed datasets, a coverage of only 20 % results in essentially the same results as the fully sampled data. As exemplified by other data, such a low coverage is in general not enough to produce reliable results. We find that a coverage level not compromising the final results can be estimated by recording a single full two-dimensional spectrum and reducing the spectrum quality in silico.
Assessment indices for uniform and non-uniform thermal environments
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
Different assessment indices for thermal environments were compared and selected for proper assessment of indoor thermal environments.30 subjects reported their overall thermal sensation,thermal comfort,and thermal acceptability in uniform and non-uniform conditions.The results show that these three assessment indices provide equivalent evaluations in uniform environments.However,overall thermal sensation differs from the other two indices and cannot be used as a proper index for the evaluation of non-uniform environments.The relationship between the percentage and the mean vote for each index is established.
Transverse vibrations of arbitrary non-uniform beams
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭树起; 杨绍普
2014-01-01
Free and steady state forced transverse vibrations of non-uniform beams are investigated with a proposed method, leading to a series solution. The obtained series is verified to be convergent and linearly independent in a convergence test and by the non-zero value of the corresponding Wronski determinant, respectively. The obtained solution is rigorous, which can be reduced to a classical solution for uniform beams. The proposed method can deal with arbitrary non-uniform Euler-Bernoulli beams in principle, but the methods in terms of special functions or elementary functions can only work in some special cases.
Longitudinal waves in one dimensional non-uniform waveguides
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2011-01-01
Wave approach is used to analyze the longitudinal wave motion in one dimensional non-uniform waveguides.With assumptions of constant wave velocity and no wave conversion,there exist four types of non-uniform rods and corresponding traveling wave solutions are investigated.The obtained results indicate that the kinetic energy is preserved as a constant and the wave amplitude is inversely proportional to square root of the cross-sectional area of the rod.Under certain condition,there exists a cut-off frequ...
Leveraging Non-Uniform Resources for Parallel Query Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mayr, Tobias; Bonnet, Philippe; Gehrke, Johannes
2003-01-01
Modular clusters are now composed of non- uniform nodes with different CPUs, disks or network cards so that customers can adapt the cluster configuration to the changing technologies and to their changing needs. This challenges dataflow parallelism as the primary load balancing technique of exist......Modular clusters are now composed of non- uniform nodes with different CPUs, disks or network cards so that customers can adapt the cluster configuration to the changing technologies and to their changing needs. This challenges dataflow parallelism as the primary load balancing technique...
Non-uniform Euler-Bernoulli beams’ natural frequencies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hugo Aya
2011-05-01
Full Text Available This paper has studied the problem of natural frequencies for Euler-Bernoulli beams having non-uniform cross-section. The numerically-obtained solutions were compared to asymptotic solutions obtained by the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB method. It was established that WKB formula precision was higher than 3% for high frequencies (≥ 4 mode.
Experimental data on Stone Stability under non-uniform flow
Hoan, N.T.
2007-01-01
Previous research (e.g., Jongeling et al 2003; Hofland 2005) has shown that turbulence has an important influence on stone stability and in non-uniform flow it should be modeled explicitly. The dimensionless entrainment rate should be used to describe the bed response because of its complete
Free-surface flow of liquid oxygen under non-uniform magnetic field
Bao, Shi-Ran; Zhang, Rui-Ping; Wang, Kai; Zhi, Xiao-Qin; Qiu, Li-Min
2017-01-01
The paramagnetic property of oxygen makes it possible to control the two-phase flow at cryogenic temperatures by non-uniform magnetic fields. The free-surface flow of vapor-liquid oxygen in a rectangular channel was numerically studied using the two-dimensional phase field method. The effects of magnetic flux density and inlet velocity on the interface deformation, flow pattern and pressure drop were systematically revealed. The liquid level near the high-magnetic channel center was lifted upward by the inhomogeneous magnetic field. The interface height difference increased almost linearly with the magnetic force. For all inlet velocities, pressure drop under 0.25 T was reduced by 7-9% due to the expanded local cross-sectional area, compared to that without magnetic field. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of employing non-uniform magnetic field to control the free-surface flow of liquid oxygen. This non-contact method may be used for promoting the interface renewal, reducing the flow resistance, and improving the flow uniformity in the cryogenic distillation column, which may provide a potential for enhancing the operating efficiency of cryogenic air separation.
Non-Conservative Instability of Non-uniform Beams Resting on an Elastic Foundation
Lee, S. Y.; Yang, C. C.
1994-01-01
The influence of a Winkler elastic foundation and the slenderness ratio on the non-conservative instability of cantilever non-uniform beams of rectangular cross-section with constant height and linearly varied breadth (T1), constant breadth and linearly varied height (T2) and double taper (T3), subjected to an end concentrated follower force is investigated. It is found that without the elastic foundation the critical flutter load of the non-uniform beam decreases as the taper ratio of the beam is increased. However, when the elastic foundation modulus is greater than a critical value, the critical flutter load of the taper beams is always greater than that of uniform beams. Within the domain considered, when the taper ratio of the beam lies in a certain range, several critical turning points, including a jump phenomenon, may exist for the critical flutter load. The jump mechanism and the influence of the elastic foundation modulus and the slenderness ratio on the jump phenomenon of Timoshenko beams is explored.
Non-Uniform Heat Transfer in Thermal Regenerators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Buch
This thesis presents investigations on the heat transfer in complex heat ex- changers in general and in regenerative heat exchangers (regenerators) in par- ticular. The motivation for this work is a result of inconsistencies obeserved in the results from a series of experiments on active magnetic...... regenerators (AMRs) with parallel plates. The results suggest that random variations in the regenerator geometries causes maldistributed fluid flow inside the regener- ators, which affects the regenerator performance. In order to study the heat transfer processes in regenerators with non-uniform geometries......, a numerical model, which simulates a single-blow operation in a parallel-plate regenerator, was developed and used to model the heat transfer under various conditions. In addition to the modeling of the heat transfer, a series of experiments on passive regenerators with non-uniform, but precisely controlled...
Capacitated Vehicle Routing with Non-Uniform Speeds
Gortz, Inge Li; Nagarajan, Viswanath; Ravi, R
2010-01-01
The capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP) involves distributing (identical) items from a depot to a set of demand locations, using a single capacitated vehicle. We study a generalization of this problem to the setting of multiple vehicles having non-uniform speeds (that we call Heterogenous CVRP), and present a constant-factor approximation algorithm. The technical heart of our result lies in achieving a constant approximation to the following TSP variant (called Heterogenous TSP). Given a metric denoting distances between vertices, a depot r containing k vehicles with possibly different speeds, the goal is to find a tour for each vehicle (starting and ending at r), so that every vertex is covered in some tour and the maximum completion time is minimized. This problem is precisely Heterogenous CVRP when vehicles are uncapacitated. The presence of non-uniform speeds introduces difficulties for employing standard tour-splitting techniques. In order to get a better understanding of this technique in our con...
Leveraging Non-Uniform Resources for Parallel Query Processing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mayr, Tobias; Bonnet, Philippe; Gehrke, Johannes;
2003-01-01
of existing parallel database systems. We show in this paper that dataflow parallelism alone is ill suited for modular clusters because running the same operation on different subsets of the data can not fully utilize non-uniform hardware resources. We propose and evaluate new load balancing techniques......Modular clusters are now composed of non- uniform nodes with different CPUs, disks or network cards so that customers can adapt the cluster configuration to the changing technologies and to their changing needs. This challenges dataflow parallelism as the primary load balancing technique...... that confirms the feasibility and effectiveness of the new techniques in a parallel execution engine prototype based on the open-source DBMS Predator....
Modified Richardson Number in Non-Uniform Saturated Moist Flow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YANG Shuai; GAO Shou-Ting
2006-01-01
@@ As a useful index, I.e. The Richardson number Ri, is modified in non-uniform saturated moist flow, based on the fact that liquid water is partially dropped out in parcel air. This is more realistic in real moist atmosphere,especially in the rainfall process. The modified Ri presents adequately the influence of numerator, I.e. Brunt-Vaisala frequency (BVF), on instability. Compared to several former formulae generalized by Durran and Klemp,the modified Ri evidently decreases the stability in rainy regions. In theory, the modified BVF and Ri fix the discontinuity of latent heat release in the transition areas between saturated and unsaturated air by introducing the condensation probability function. Furthermore, the diagnostic analysis of the modilied Ri validates the rationality of its application in the non-uniform saturated moist process.
On random flights with non-uniformly distributed directions
De Gregorio, Alessandro
2011-01-01
This paper deals with a new class of random flights $\\underline{\\bf X}_d(t),t>0,$ defined in the real space $\\mathbb{R}^d, d\\geq 2,$ characterized by non-uniform probability distributions on the multidimensional sphere. These random motions differ from similar models appeared in literature which take directions according to the uniform law. The family of angular probability distributions introduced in this paper depends on a parameter $\
Non-uniform plastic deformation of micron scale objects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.
2003-01-01
Significant increases in apparent flow strength are observed when non-uniform plastic deformation of metals occurs at the scale ranging from roughly one to ten microns. Several basic plane strain problems are analyzed numerically in this paper based on a new formulation of strain gradient plastic...... in the numerical analysis of the higher order gradient theory will be discussed and related to prior formulations having some of the same features....
Non-Uniform Electromagnetic Fields in the SAMURAI TPC
Estee, J.; Barney, J.; Chajecki, Z.; Chan, C. F.; Dunn, J. W.; Gilbert, J.; Lu, F.; Lynch, W. G.; Shane, R.; Tsang, M. B.; McIntosh, A. B.; Yennello, S. J.; Famiano, M.; Isobe, T.; Sakurai, H.; Taketani, A.; Murakami, T.; Samurai-Tpc Collaboration
2011-10-01
A Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is being developed for the SAMURAI dipole magnet at RIKEN. The main scientific objective for the TPC is to provide constraints on the nuclear symmetry at supra-saturation density. The poster presentation will discuss the design of the TPC field cage and the external electrodes that shape the high electric fields near the cathode. Garfield calculations of the electric field as well as TOSCA calculations of the magnetic field of the SAMURAI dipole will be shown and the impact of the non-uniformity of both fields on electron transport will be discussed. These non-uniformities can introduce components into the electron drift velocity in directions other than the expected vertical direction. This poster presentation will discuss the initial design of a laser calibration system, which will be used to calibrate away the influence of these non-uniformities in the electric and magnetic fields. This work is supported by the DOE under Grant DE-SC0004835.
Continuity of non-uniform recursive subdivision surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
Since Doo-Sabin and Catmull-Clark surfaces were proposed in 1978, eigenstructure, convergence and continuity analyses of stationary subdivision have been performed very well, but it has been very difficult to prove the convergence and continuity of non-uniform recursive subdivision surfaces (NURSSes, for short) of arbitrary topology. In fact, so far a problem whether or not there exists the limit surface as well as G1 continuity of a non-uniform Catmull-Clark subdivision has not been solved yet. Here the concept of equivalent knot spacing is introduced. A new technique for eigenanalysis, convergence and continuity analyses of non-uniform Catmull-Clark surfaces is proposed such that the convergence and G1 continuity of NURSSes at extraordinary points are proved. In addition, slightly improved rules for NURSSes are developed. This offers us one more alternative for modeling free-form surfaces of arbitrary topologies with geometric features such as cusps, sharp edges, creases and darts, while elsewhere maintaining the same order of continuity as B-spline surfaces.
Continuity of non-uniform recursive subdivision surfaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
秦开怀; 王华维
2000-01-01
Since Doo-Sabin and Catmull-Clark surfaces were proposed in 1978, eigenstructure, convergence and continuity analyses of stationary subdivision have been performed very well, but it has been very difficult to prove the convergence and continuity of non-uniform recursive subdivision surfaces (NURSSes, for short) of arbitrary topology. In fact, so far a problem whether or not there exists the limit surface as well as G1 continuity of a non-uniform Catmull-Clark subdivision has not been solved yet. Here the concept of equivalent knot spacing is introduced. A new technique for eigenanaly-sis, convergence and continuity analyses of non-uniform Catmull-Clark surfaces is proposed such that the convergence and G1 continuity of NURSSes at extraordinary points are proved. In addition, slightly improved rules for NURSSes are developed. This offers us one more alternative for modeling free-form surfaces of arbitrary topologies with geometric features such as cusps, sharp edges, creases and darts, while elsewhere ma
Naturalness preserved enhancement algorithm for non-uniform illumination images.
Wang, Shuhang; Zheng, Jin; Hu, Hai-Miao; Li, Bo
2013-09-01
Image enhancement plays an important role in image processing and analysis. Among various enhancement algorithms, Retinex-based algorithms can efficiently enhance details and have been widely adopted. Since Retinex-based algorithms regard illumination removal as a default preference and fail to limit the range of reflectance, the naturalness of non-uniform illumination images cannot be effectively preserved. However, naturalness is essential for image enhancement to achieve pleasing perceptual quality. In order to preserve naturalness while enhancing details, we propose an enhancement algorithm for non-uniform illumination images. In general, this paper makes the following three major contributions. First, a lightness-order-error measure is proposed to access naturalness preservation objectively. Second, a bright-pass filter is proposed to decompose an image into reflectance and illumination, which, respectively, determine the details and the naturalness of the image. Third, we propose a bi-log transformation, which is utilized to map the illumination to make a balance between details and naturalness. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can not only enhance the details but also preserve the naturalness for non-uniform illumination images.
FAST ALGORITHM FOR NON-UNIFORMLY SAMPLED SIGNAL SPECTRUM RECONSTRUCTION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhu Zhenqian; Zhang Zhimin; Wang Yu
2013-01-01
In this paper,a fast algorithm to reconstruct the spectrum of non-uniformly sampled signals is proposed.Compared with the original algorithm,the fast algorithm has a higher computational efficiency,especially when sampling sequence is long.Particularly,a transformation matrix is built,and the reconstructed spectrum is perfectly synthesized from the spectrum of every sampling channel.The fast algorithm has solved efficiency issues of spectrum reconstruction algorithm,and making it possible for the actual application of spectrum reconstruction algorithm in multi-channel Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR).
Non-uniform impact excitation of a cylindrical bar
Karp, Baruch; Dorogoy, Avraham; Wang, Zonggang
2009-06-01
An experimental and numerical study of a non-uniform impact excitation of a circular bar is reported. In experiments, nine strikers with different contact area were accelerated against a circular bar. Axial surface strain of the impacted bar was measured at several distances from the impinged end to include the near and the far fields. The same experimental conditions were solved numerically using a commercial finite element code. It was demonstrated that the far-field response is insensitive to both the size and the form of the striker's colliding end. The distance at which such insensitivity is set is estimated to be approximately one and a half bar diameters.
Non-uniform Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buzdin, A., E-mail: a.bouzdine@cpmoh.u-bordeaux1.fr [LOMA, University of Bordeaux, 351 cours de la Liberation, F-33405 Talence (France)
2012-06-01
We provide a general review of the properties of the non-uniform superconducting Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase. Special emphasis is made on the orbital and crystal structure effects which may result in the quantum transitions between the higher Landau level states and should be responsible for the strong modification of the anisotropy of the critical field. The FFLO-type instability may be also expected in ultracold Fermi gases. In these systems it is caused not by the Zeeman interaction but by the tuning of the population imbalance between two lowest hyperfine states of the atoms. We also briefly discuss their properties.
Non-uniform Braneworld Stars: an Exact Solution
Ovalle, J
2008-01-01
The first exact interior solution to Einstein's field equations for a static and non-uniform braneworld star with local and non-local bulk terms is presented. It is shown that the bulk Weyl scalar ${\\cal U}(r)$ is always negative inside the stellar distribution, in consequence it reduces both the effective density and the effective pressure. It is found that the anisotropy generated by bulk gravity effect has an acceptable physical behaviour inside the distribution. Using a Reissner-N\\"{o}rdstrom-like exterior solution, the effects of bulk gravity on pressure and density are found through matching conditions.
Elastic deformations driven by non-uniform lubrication flows
Rubin, Shimon; Tulchinsky, Arie; Gat, Amir D.; Bercovici, Moran
2017-02-01
The ability to create dynamic deformations of micron-sized structures is relevant to a wide variety of applications such as adaptable optics, soft robotics, and reconfigurable microfluidic devices. In this work we examine non-uniform lubrication flow as a mechanism to create complex deformation fields in an elastic plate. We consider a Kirchoff-Love elasticity model for the plate and Hele-Shaw flow in a narrow gap between the plate and a parallel rigid surface. Based on linearization of the Reynolds equation, we obtain a governing equation which relates elastic deformations to gradients in non-homogenous physical properties of the fluid (e.g. body forces, viscosity, and slip velocity). We then focus on a specific case of non-uniform Helmholtz-Smoluchowski electroosmotic slip velocity, and provide a method for determining the zeta-potential distribution necessary to generate arbitrary static and quasi-static deformations of the elastic plate. Extending the problem to time-dependent solutions, we analyze transient effects on asymptotically static solutions, and finally provide a closed form solution for a Green's function for time periodic actuations.
Asynchronous signal-dependent non-uniform sampler
Can-Cimino, Azime; Chaparro, Luis F.; Sejdić, Ervin
2014-05-01
Analog sparse signals resulting from biomedical and sensing network applications are typically non-stationary with frequency-varying spectra. By ignoring that the maximum frequency of their spectra is changing, uniform sampling of sparse signals collects unnecessary samples in quiescent segments of the signal. A more appropriate sampling approach would be signal-dependent. Moreover, in many of these applications power consumption and analog processing are issues of great importance that need to be considered. In this paper we present a signal dependent non-uniform sampler that uses a Modified Asynchronous Sigma Delta Modulator which consumes low-power and can be processed using analog procedures. Using Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions (PSWF) interpolation of the original signal is performed, thus giving an asynchronous analog to digital and digital to analog conversion. Stable solutions are obtained by using modulated PSWFs functions. The advantage of the adapted asynchronous sampler is that range of frequencies of the sparse signal is taken into account avoiding aliasing. Moreover, it requires saving only the zero-crossing times of the non-uniform samples, or their differences, and the reconstruction can be done using their quantized values and a PSWF-based interpolation. The range of frequencies analyzed can be changed and the sampler can be implemented as a bank of filters for unknown range of frequencies. The performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated with an electroencephalogram (EEG) signal.
Longitudinal oscillations in a non-uniform spatially dispersive plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calogeracos, Alex, E-mail: a.calogeracos@yahoo.co.uk
2015-03-15
Longitudinal oscillations of the electron fluid in the hydrodynamic model of a metal are examined with pressure effects taken into account. It is well-known that this entails spatial dispersion. The equilibrium electron number density is taken to be non-uniform and a non-self-adjoint fourth order differential equation obeyed by the electric potential is derived. A velocity potential necessary for the description of sound waves is introduced in the standard fashion and the generalized version of Bloch orthogonality appropriate to a non-uniform background is deduced. We observe a duality between electric and velocity potentials in the sense that the respective differential operators are adjoint to each other. The spectrum is calculated in the special case of an exponential profile for the equilibrium electron number density. The surface plasmons are connected with the analytic properties of the scattering amplitude in the complex plane. The phase shift at threshold is expressed in terms of the number of surface plasmon modes via an expression reminiscent of Levinson’s statement in quantum mechanics.
Elastic deformations driven by non-uniform lubrication flows
Rubin, Shimon; Gat, Amir; Bercovici, Moran
2016-01-01
The ability to create dynamic deformations of micron-sized structures is relevant to a wide variety of applications such as adaptable optics, soft robotics, and reconfigurable microfluidic devices. In this work we examine non-uniform lubrication flow as a mechanism to create complex deformation fields in an elastic plate. We consider a Kirchoff-Love elasticity model for the plate and Hele-Shaw flow in a narrow gap between the plate and a parallel rigid surface. Based on linearization of the Reynolds equation, we obtain a governing equation which relates elastic deformations to gradients in non-homogenous physical properties of the fluid (e.g. body forces, viscosity, and slip velocity). We then focus on a specific case of non-uniform Helmholtz-Smoluchowski electroosmotic slip velocity, and provide a method for determining the zeta-potential distribution necessary to generate arbitrary static and quasi-static deformations of the elastic plate. Extending the problem to time-dependent solutions, we analyze transi...
Periodic envelopes of waves over non-uniform depth
Rajan, Girish K.; Bayram, Saziye; Henderson, Diane M.
2016-04-01
The envelope of narrow-banded, periodic, surface-gravity waves propagating in one dimension over water of finite, non-uniform depth may be modeled by the Djordjević and Redekopp ["On the development of packets of surface gravity waves moving over an uneven bottom," Z. Angew. Math. Phys. 29, 950-962 (1978)] equation (DRE). Here we find five approximate solutions of the DRE that are in the form of Jacobi-elliptic functions and discuss them within the framework of ocean swell. We find that in all cases, the maximum envelope-amplitude decreases/increases when the wave group propagates on water of decreasing/increasing depth. In the limit of the elliptic modulus approaching one, three of the solutions reduce to the envelope soliton solution. In the limit of the elliptic modulus approaching zero, two of the solutions reduce to an envelope-amplitude that is uniform in an appropriate reference frame.
Multifractal analysis of non-uniformly contracting iterated function systems
Ye, Yuan-Ling
2017-05-01
Let X = [0,1]. Given a non-uniformly contracting conformal iterated function system (IFS) ≤ft\\{{{w}j}\\right\\}j=1m and a family of positive Dini continuous potential functions ≤ft\\{ {{p}j}\\right\\}j=1m , the triple system ≤ft(X,≤ft\\{{{w}j}\\right\\}j=1m,≤ft\\{ {{p}j}\\right\\}j=1m\\right) , under some conditions, determines uniquely a probability invariant measure, denoted by μ. In this paper, we study the pressure function of the system and multifractal structure of μ. We prove that the pressure function is Gateaux differentiable and the multifractal formalism holds, if the IFS ≤ft\\{{{w}j}\\right\\}j=1m has non-overlapping.
Single image non-uniformity correction using compressive sensing
Jian, Xian-zhong; Lu, Rui-zhi; Guo, Qiang; Wang, Gui-pu
2016-05-01
A non-uniformity correction (NUC) method for an infrared focal plane array imaging system was proposed. The algorithm, based on compressive sensing (CS) of single image, overcame the disadvantages of "ghost artifacts" and bulk calculating costs in traditional NUC algorithms. A point-sampling matrix was designed to validate the measurements of CS on the time domain. The measurements were corrected using the midway infrared equalization algorithm, and the missing pixels were solved with the regularized orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm. Experimental results showed that the proposed method can reconstruct the entire image with only 25% pixels. A small difference was found between the correction results using 100% pixels and the reconstruction results using 40% pixels. Evaluation of the proposed method on the basis of the root-mean-square error, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and roughness index (ρ) proved the method to be robust and highly applicable.
A Thermal Field Theory with Non-uniform Chemical Potential
Arai, Masato; Sasaki, Shin
2013-01-01
We investigate thermal one-loop effective potentials in multi-flavor models with chemical potentials. We study four-dimensional models in which each flavor have different global U(1) charges. Accordingly they have different chemical potentials. We call these "non-uniform chemical potentials," which are organized into a diagonal matrix \\mu. The mass matrix at a vacuum does not commute with \\mu. We find that the effective potential is divided into three parts. The first part is the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The UV divergence resides only in this part. The second is the correction to the Coleman-Weinberg potential that is independent of temperature, and the third depends on both temperature and \\mu. Our result is a generalization of the thermal potentials in previous studies for models with single and multi-flavors with (uniform) chemical potentials and reproduces all the known results correctly.
Langevin Simulation of Non-Uniform Granular Gases
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张端明; 雷雅洁; 潘贵军; 郁伯铭
2003-01-01
We present and study a fractal model of a non-uniform granular system for the first time, based on which we numerically solve the dynamics actions in the system successfully in one-dimensional case. The multi-mixture is composed of N different particles, whose granularity distribution has the fractal characteristic. The particles are subject to inelastic mutual collisions and obey to Langevin equation between collisions. Far from the equilibrium,i.e. the given typical relaxation time T of the driving Brownian process is much larger than the mean collision time Tc, the results of simulation indicate that the degree of inhomogeneity in the granularity distribution signed by the fractal dimension D of size distribution has great influence on the dynamics actions of the system. The velocity distribution deviates obviously from the Gaussian distribution and the particles cluster more pronouncedly with the larger value of D in the system. The velocity distribution and spatial clusterization change with D are presented.
Highly Deformed Non-uniform Black Strings in Six Dimensions
Kalisch, Michael
2015-01-01
We construct numerically static non-uniform black string solutions in six dimensions by using pseudo-spectral methods. An appropriately designed adaptation of the methods in regard of the specific behaviour of the field quantities in the vicinity of our numerical boundaries provides us with extremely accurate results, that allows us to get solutions with an unprecedented deformation of the black string horizon. Consequently, we are able to investigate in detail a critical regime within a suitable parameter diagram. In particular, we observe a clearly pronounced maximum in the mass curve, which is in accordance with the results of Kleihaus, Kunz and Radu from 2006. Interestingly, by looking at extremely distorted black strings, we find two further turning points of the mass, resulting in a spiral curve in the black string's phase diagram.
Validation of a heat conduction model for finite domain, non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies
Desgrosseilliers, Louis; Kabbara, Moe; Groulx, Dominic; White, Mary Anne
2016-07-01
Infrared thermographic validation is shown for a closed-form analytical heat conduction model for non-uniformly heated, laminate bodies with an insulated domain boundary. Experiments were conducted by applying power to rectangular electric heaters and cooled by natural convection in air, but also apply to constant-temperature heat sources and forced convection. The model accurately represents two-dimensional laminate heat conduction behaviour giving rise to heat spreading using one-dimensional equations for the temperature distributions and heat transfer rates under steady-state and pseudo-steady-state conditions. Validation of the model with an insulated boundary (complementing previous studies with an infinite boundary) provides useful predictions of heat spreading performance and simplified temperature uniformity calculations (useful in log-mean temperature difference style heat exchanger calculations) for real laminate systems such as found in electronics heat sinks, multi-ply stovetop cookware and interface materials for supercooled salt hydrates. Computational determinations of implicit insulated boundary condition locations in measured data, required to assess model equation validation, were also demonstrated. Excellent goodness of fit was observed (both root-mean-square error and R 2 values), in all cases except when the uncertainty of low temperatures measured via infrared thermography hindered the statistical significance of the model fit. The experimental validation in all other cases supports use of the model equations in design calculations and heat exchange simulations.
The Effect of Non-Uniform Wetting Properties on Contact Line Dynamics
Grivel, Morgane; Jeon, David; Gharib, Morteza
2015-11-01
Surfaces with non-uniform wetting properties have been shown to modify contact line dynamics and induce passive displacements of shallow flows. These surfaces are patterned with alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic stripes of a certain width, spacing and orientation. A thin rectangular wall jet impinges on the surfaces and Fourier Transform Profilometry is used to reconstruct the 3D profile of the low to medium Reynolds number flows. Our previous work reported the development of intriguing roller structures at the contact line near hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces and the effect of varying the stripes' dimensions and orientation on these flows. Our present work extends the study to the effects of flow rate and plate inclination angle (with respect to the horizontal). The current work also studies air entrainment by the roller structures of the modified contact line. We will also discuss potential uses of this technique for modifying contact line dynamics and bow waves near surface-piercing bodies. Work is funded by the Office of Naval Research (grant N00014-11-1-0031) and the National Science Foundation's GRFP.
Deformations of a pre-stretched elastic membrane driven by non-uniform electroosmotic flow
Bercovici, Moran; Boyko, Evgeniy; Gat, Amir
2016-11-01
We study viscous-elastic dynamics of fluid confined between a rigid plate and a pre-stretched elastic membrane subjected to non-uniform electroosmotic flow, and focus on the case of a finite-size membrane clamped at its boundaries. Considering small deformations of a strongly pre-stretched membrane, and applying the lubrication approximation for the flow, we derive a linearized leading-order non-homogenous 4th order diffusion equation governing the deformation and pressure fields. We derive a time-dependent Green's function for a rectangular domain, and use it to obtain several basic solutions for the cases of constant and time varying electric fields. In addition, defining an asymptotic expansion where the small parameter is the ratio of the induced to prescribed tension, we obtain a set of four one-way coupled equations providing a first order correction for the deformation field. Funded by the European Research Council (ERC) under the Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme, Grant agreement No. 678734 (MetamorphChip).
Liquid jets injected into non-uniform crossflow
Tambe, Samir
An experimental study has been conducted with liquid jets injected transversely into a crossflow to study the effect of non-uniformities in the crossflow velocity distribution to the jet behavior. Two different non-uniform crossflows were created during this work, a shear-laden crossflow and a swirling crossflow. The shear-laden crossflow was generated by merging two independent, co-directional, parallel airstreams creating a shear mixing layer at the interface between them. The crossflow exhibited a quasi-linear velocity gradient across the height of the test chamber. By varying the velocities of the two airstreams, the sense and the slope of the crossflow velocity gradient could be changed. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) studies were conducted to characterize the crossflow. The parameter, UR, is defined as the ratio of the velocities of the two streams and governs the velocity gradient. A positive velocity gradient was observed for UR > 1 and a negative velocity gradient for UR 1), jet penetration increased and the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) distribution became more uniform. For low UR (designed axial swirlers. Three swirlers were used, with vane exit angles of 30°, 45° and 60°. Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) was used to study the crossflow velocities. The axial (Ux) and the tangential (Utheta) components of the crossflow velocity were observed to decrease with increasing radial distance away from the centerbody. The flow angle of the crossflow was smaller than the vane exit angle, with the difference increasing with the vane exit angle. Water jets were injected from a 0.5 mm diameter orifice located on a cylindrical centerbody. Multi-plane PIV measurements were conducted to study the penetration and droplet velocity distribution of the jets. The jets were observed to follow a path close to the helical trajectory of the crossflow with a flow angle slightly less than the crossflow. This deficit in flow angle is attributed to the centrifugal acceleration
Generalized quantum counting algorithm for non-uniform amplitude distribution
Tan, Jianing; Ruan, Yue; Li, Xi; Chen, Hanwu
2017-03-01
We give generalized quantum counting algorithm to increase universality of quantum counting algorithm. Non-uniform initial amplitude distribution is possible due to the diversity of situations on counting problems or external noise in the amplitude initialization procedure. We give the reason why quantum counting algorithm is invalid on this situation. By modeling in three-dimensional space spanned by unmarked state, marked state and free state to the entire Hilbert space of n qubits, we find Grover iteration can be regarded as improper rotation in the space. This allows us to give formula to solve counting problem. Furthermore, we express initial amplitude distribution in the eigenvector basis of improper rotation matrix. This is necessary to obtain mathematical analysis of counting problem on various situations. Finally, we design four simulation experiments, the results of which show that compared with original quantum counting algorithm, generalized quantum counting algorithm wins great satisfaction from three aspects: (1) Whether initial amplitude distribution is uniform; (2) the diversity of situations on counting problems; and (3) whether phase estimation technique can get phase exactly.
The Non-uniform Fast Fourier Transform in Computed Tomography
Tang, Junqi
2016-01-01
This project is aimed at designing the fast forward projection algorithm and also the backprojection algorithm for cone beam CT imaging systems with circular X-ray source trajectory. The principle of the designs is based on utilizing the potential computational efficiency which the Fourier Slice Theorem and the Non-uniform Fast Fourier Transform (NUFFT) will bring forth. In this Masters report, the detailed design of the NUFFT based forward projector including a novel 3D (derivative of) Radon space resampling method will be given. Meanwhile the complexity of the NUFFT based forward projector is analysed and compared with the non-Fourier based CT projector, and the advantage of the NUFFT based forward projection in terms of the computational efficiency is demonstrated in this report. Base on the design of the forward algorithm, the NUFFT based 3D direct reconstruction algorithm will be derived. The experiments will be taken to test the performance of the forward algorithm and the backprojection algorithm to sh...
A non-uniform distribution of the nearest brown dwarfs
Bihain, G
2016-01-01
The census of solar neighbours is still complemented by new discoveries, mainly of very low-mass, faint dwarfs, close to or within the substellar domain. These discoveries contribute to a better understanding of the field population; its origin in terms of Galactic dynamics and (sub)stellar formation and evolution. Also, the nearest stars and brown dwarfs at any given age allow the most precise direct characterization, including the search for planetary companions. We aim to further assess the substellar census on the Galactic plane. We projected the 136 stars and 26 brown dwarfs known at <6.5 pc on the Galactic plane and evaluated their distributions. Stars present a uniform- and brown dwarfs a non-uniform distribution, with 21 objects behind the Sun and only five ahead relative to the direction of rotation of the Galaxy. This substellar configuration has a probability of 0.098$^{+10.878}_{-0.098}$% relative to uniformity. The helio- and geocentric nature of the distribution suggests it might result in pa...
Nanomagnetic logic with non-uniform states of clocking
Puliafito, Vito; Giordano, Anna; Azzerboni, Bruno; Finocchio, Giovanni
2016-04-01
Nanomagnetic logic transmits information along a path of nanomagnets. The basic mechanism to drive such a transmission, known as clocking, can be achieved by exploiting the spin-Hall effect (SHE), as recently observed in experiments on Ta/CoFeB/MgO multilayers (Bhowmik et al 2014 Nat. Nano 9 59). This paper shows the fundamental mechanism of the spin-Hall driven clocking by using a full micromagnetic framework and considering two different devices, Ta/CoFeB/MgO and Pt/CoFeB/MgO. The former is used for a direct comparison of the numerical results with the experiments while the latter permits the effect of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) in the clocking mechanism to be predicted. Results show that the clocking state is non-uniform and it is characterized by the presence of domains separated by Bloch (Néel) domain walls depending on the absence (presence) of the DMI. Our findings point out that for the design of nanomagnetic logic a full micromagnetic approach is necessary.
Finite Element Analysis of Non-uniform Beam Element Based on the MATLAB%基于MATLAB的变截面梁单元有限元分析
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马志贵; 施文龙
2015-01-01
变截面梁在工程实践中被广泛应用.给出常用的梁高呈线性变化及抛物线性变化的矩形截面梁单元,根据有限元基本原理,借助于MATLAB强大的符号运算功能建立该类变截面梁单元的刚度矩阵,并给出一个变截面悬臂梁的算例,所得结果更加逼近于精确解.结果表明运用该方法可以使变截面梁的分析大大简化.%The non-uniform beam is widely used in engineering practice. This paper presents the commonly used non-uniform rectangular beam element with both linear and parabolic variation heights of the transverse section. Based on the basic principle of finite element method, by means of MATLAB powerful symbolic operation, it is convenient to establish its stiffness matrix. A non-uniform cantilever beam is presented as an example, which show that the results are more accurate solutions and the present elements can apparently simplify the analysis of non-uniform beams.
Irreversible Flow of Particle Suspensions with Non-uniform Strain
Gollub, J. P.; Guasto, Jeffrey S.; Ross, Andrew S.
2010-03-01
Despite the time reversibility of their governing equations (Stokes equations), particle trajectories in concentrated, periodically-sheared suspensions are irreversible above a critical strain amplitude [Pine et al., Nature (2005)]. Many-body interactions between particles are responsible for the chaotic dynamics, and a phase transition is observed between reversible and irreversible states [Corte et al., Nature Physics (2008)]. We extend previous experiments to a system with inhomogeneous strain: an oscillatory, rectangular channel flow. Deviations from reversible particle trajectories are parameterized by the mean square particle displacements sampled once per cycle, and by the particle fluctuation relaxation time, studied as a function of strain amplitude. We find that irreversibility increases roughly exponentially with the wall strain, and strikingly, the particle motions across the entire channel become irreversible simultaneously, despite the spatially varying strain. Random particle motion and shear-induced migration apparently produce reorganization of the suspension leading to a global onset of irreversibility.
Control of fuel target implosion non-uniformity in heavy ion inertial fusion
Iinuma, T; Kondo, S; Kubo, T; Kato, H; Suzuki, T; Kawata, S; Ogoyski, A I
2016-01-01
In inertial fusion, one of scientific issues is to reduce an implosion non-uniformity of a spherical fuel target. The implosion non-uniformity is caused by several factors, including the driver beam illumination non-uniformity, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) growth, etc. In this paper we propose a new control method to reduce the implosion non-uniformity; the oscillating implosion acceleration dg(t) is created by pulsating and dephasing heavy ion beams (HIBs) in heavy ion inertial fusion (HIF). The dg(t) would reduce the RTI growth effectively. The original concept of the non- uniformity control in inertial fusion was proposed in (Kawata, et al., 1993). In this paper it was found that the pulsating and dephasing HIBs illumination provide successfully the controlled dg(t) and that dg(t) induced by the pulsating HIBs reduces well the implosion non-uniformity. Consequently the pulsating HIBs improve a pellet gain remarkably in HIF.
Investigation of multiple spindle characteristics under non-uniform bearing preload
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanfei Zhang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The non-uniform distribution load during machining and assembly process is crucial for spindle system, especially in complex working conditions. The conception of non-uniform preload adjustment approach was proposed and experimentally investigated in this article. Based on the mechanical equivalent principle, the non-uniform preload was theoretically transformed to the combination of uniform preload and an extra moment. Then, the non-uniform preload of rolling bearing was experimentally measured and analyzed via a spacer with 15-µm wear loss on the end face. The spindle performance factors, such as rotation accuracy, temperature rising, acceleration, and vibration, were all monitored. The rotation center of spindle was deviated in different non-uniform preload conditions. Meanwhile, the temperature and vibration performance of non-uniform preload are superior to those of uniform bearing preload.
Collaborative Filtering in a Non-Uniform World: Learning with the Weighted Trace Norm
Salakhutdinov, Ruslan
2010-01-01
We show that matrix completion with trace-norm regularization can be significantly hurt when entries of the matrix are sampled non-uniformly. We introduce a weighted version of the trace-norm regularizer that works well also with non-uniform sampling. Our experimental results demonstrate that the weighted trace-norm regularization indeed yields significant gains on the (highly non-uniformly sampled) Netflix dataset.
Dynamics of Non-Uniformity Loads of Afc Drives
Dolipski, Marian; Remiorz, Eryk; Sobota, Piotr
2014-03-01
The length of armoured face conveyors currently used in hard coal mines most often ranges between 200 m and 300 m. The machines are equipped with a main and auxiliary drive. Asynchronous motors mounted in conveyor drives feature the capacity of several hundreds of kilowatts. The non-uniform distribution of loads onto individual drives is observed in practice. The numerical value of loads distribution onto the individual armoured face conveyor drives is represented by a drive load distribution factor. It is defined as a ratio between the load of an electric motor installed in a given drive and the total conveyor load. The article presents a physical armoured face conveyor model intended for examining dynamic phenomena influencing the load non-uniformity of drives. Motion in this physical model is described with the system of (4 · j + 5) non-linear ordinary differential quotations of the second order. A mathematical model is obtained by adding functions describing the interwork of sprocket drums with chains and functions approximating the mechanical characteristics of asynchronous motors powered by means of frequency inverters. A large number of computer simulations was performed using this model enabling to study the impact on the load non-uniformity of drives of such parameters as motor slip, motor supply voltage drop, variations in supply voltage frequency, differences in the gear ratio of transmissions and differentiation in the pitch of scraper chain links along the chain contour. Długość przenośników zgrzebłowych ścianowych stosowanych obecnie w kopalniach węgla kamiennego najczęściej mieści się w przedziale od 200 m do 300 m. Maszyny te wyposażone są zawsze w napęd główny i pomocniczy, przy czym pierwszy z nich wyniesiony jest do chodnika podścianowego. Silniki napędowe o mocy kilkuset kilowatów napędzają bęben łańcuchowy przez sprzęgło i przekładnię zębatą. Z kolei bębny łańcuchowe poruszają łańcuch zgrzebłowy, kt
Settlement of a foundation slab, non-uniform in depth
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ter-Martirosyan Zaven
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes the formulation and solution of problems for the quantitative evaluation of settlements and bearing capacity of rectangular and circular foundation slabs constructed on the base with deformation (K, G or E, ν properties of continuously varying heterogeneity in the depth due to the conditions of its formation. It is shown that the inhomogeneity of the deformation properties of the foundation soils over depths has a significant effect on the formation of additional stress and strain states under the influence of a uniformly distributed external load over the area of a rectangle and circle, where, with growth of loading area (A relative settlement (S/√A depends nonlinearly on √A and decreases with growth of √A up to two or more times. As a computational model for the soil base, the paper considers the nonlinear geomechanical Klein model, according to which the stress-strain modulus of soils increases with depth according to the law of a power function of the form: E(z = E1zn, where n≤1. The solution of the SSC problems for an inhomogeneous ground half-space under the influence of a local load was obtained by an analytical method using the Mathcad software complex on the basis of the Boussinesq-Frohlich concentrated force problem. The results of the solution are presented in tables and distribution diagrams σ(zand S(z, as well as S = f2(√A, n.
Jin, Minglei; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Yiyang; Li, Shuo
2015-08-01
In this paper, we propose a novel scene-based non-uniformity correction algorithm for infrared image processing-temporal high-pass non-uniformity correction algorithm based on grayscale mapping (THP and GM). The main sources of non-uniformity are: (1) detector fabrication inaccuracies; (2) non-linearity and variations in the read-out electronics and (3) optical path effects. The non-uniformity will be reduced by non-uniformity correction (NUC) algorithms. The NUC algorithms are often divided into calibration-based non-uniformity correction (CBNUC) algorithms and scene-based non-uniformity correction (SBNUC) algorithms. As non-uniformity drifts temporally, CBNUC algorithms must be repeated by inserting a uniform radiation source which SBNUC algorithms do not need into the view, so the SBNUC algorithm becomes an essential part of infrared imaging system. The SBNUC algorithms' poor robustness often leads two defects: artifacts and over-correction, meanwhile due to complicated calculation process and large storage consumption, hardware implementation of the SBNUC algorithms is difficult, especially in Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform. The THP and GM algorithm proposed in this paper can eliminate the non-uniformity without causing defects. The hardware implementation of the algorithm only based on FPGA has two advantages: (1) low resources consumption, and (2) small hardware delay: less than 20 lines, it can be transplanted to a variety of infrared detectors equipped with FPGA image processing module, it can reduce the stripe non-uniformity and the ripple non-uniformity.
Subband image coding using filter banks with non-uniform passband distribution
Lu, Xiqun; Chen, Li; Chan, KwokPing
1997-01-01
In this paper, subband filter banks with non-uniform passband distribution in frequency domain are studied. Several design examples are presented and compared with conventional uniform bandwidth filter banks. Image coding results show that filter banks with non-uniform bandwidth outperform filter banks with uniform bandwidth, especially in low bit rate coding.
Electromagnetic performance analysis of reflector antennas with non-uniform errors along radius
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Peiyuan Lian; Congsi Wang; Wei Wang; Binbin Xiang
2016-01-01
Based on the works of Greve and Rahmat-Sami , the electromagnetic (EM) performance of the reflector antenna with non-uniform surface errors along radius is further addressed. A mathematical model is developed to describe the weighting func-tion for the non-uniform surface errors along radius. Then, some discussions on the peak gain loss (PGL) and the first sidelobe level increase (SLLI) caused by the non-uniform surface errors are presented and several significant radiation characteristics of the reflector with non-uniform errors are pointed out. Last, based on the proposed model, the weighted root mean square (RMS) value of the surface errors is produced to evaluate the EM performance and several representative cases with different non-uniform errors are presented with good results. Results show that the weighted RMS value should be taken into account for a better quality evalu-ation of the reflector surface.
VARIABLE NON-UNIFORM QUANTIZED BELIEF PROPAGATION ALGORITHM FOR LDPC DECODING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Binbin; Bai Dong; Mei Shunliang
2008-01-01
Non-uniform quantization for messages in Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) decoding can reduce implementation complexity and mitigate performance loss. But the distribution of messages varies in the iterative decoding. This letter proposes a variable non-uniform quantized Belief Propaga- tion (BP) algorithm. The BP decoding is analyzed by density evolution with Gaussian approximation. Since the probability density of messages can be well approximated by Gaussian distribution, by the unbiased estimation of variance, the distribution of messages can be tracked during the iteration. Thus the non-uniform quantization scheme can be optimized to minimize the distortion. Simulation results show that the variable non-uniform quantization scheme can achieve better error rate performance and faster decoding convergence than the conventional non-uniform quantization and uniform quantization schemes.
Flip-chip assembly of VCSELs to silicon grating couplers via laser fabricated SU8 prisms.
Kaur, K S; Subramanian, A Z; Cardile, P; Verplancke, R; Van Kerrebrouck, J; Spiga, S; Meyer, R; Bauwelinck, J; Baets, R; Van Steenberge, G
2015-11-02
This article presents the flip-chip bonding of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) to silicon grating couplers (GCs) via SU8 prisms. The SU8 prisms are defined on top of the GCs using non-uniform laser ablation process. The prisms enable perfectly vertical coupling from the bonded VCSELs to the GCs. The VCSELs are flip-chip bonded on top of the silicon GCs employing the laser-induced forward transfer (LIFT)-assisted thermocompression technique. An excess loss of transmission experiments performed on the bonded assemblies with clear eye openings up to 20 Gb/s are also presented.
Vovk, Uros; Pernus, Franjo; Likar, Bostjan
2003-05-01
In MRI, image intensity non-uniformity is an adverse phenomenon that increases inter-tissue overlapping. The aim of this study was to provide a novel general framework, named regularized feature condensing (RFC), for condensing the distribution of image features and apply it to correct intensity non-uniformity via spatial regularization. The proposed RCF method is an iterative procedure, which consists of four basic steps. First, creation of a feature space, which consists of multi-spectral image intensities and corresponding second derivatives. Second, estimation of the intensity condensing map in feature space, i.e. the estimation of the increase of feature probability densities by a well-established mean shift procedure. Third, regularization of intensity condensing map in image space, which yields the estimation of intensity non-uniformity. Fourth, applying the estimation of non-uniformity correction to the input image. In this way, the intensity distributions of distinct tissues are gradually condensed via spatial regularization. The method was tested on simulated and real MR brain images for which gold standard segmentations were available. The results showed that the method did not induce additional intensity variations in simulated uniform images and efficiently removed intensity non-uniformity in real MR brain images. The proposed RCF method is a powerful fully automated intensity non-uniformity correction method that makes no a prior assumptions on the image intensity distribution and provides non-parametric non-uniformity correction.
Buckling of un-stiffened cylindrical shell under non-uniform axial conpressive stress
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宋昌永
2002-01-01
This paper provides a review of recent research advances and trends in the area of stability of un-stiffened circular cylindrical shells subjected to general non-uniform axial compressive stresses. Only the more important and interesting aspects of the research, judged from a personal viewpoint, are discussed. They can be crudely classified into four categories: (1) shells subjected to non-uniform loads; (2) shells on discrete supports; (3) shells with intended cutouts/holes; and (4) shells with non-uniform settlements.
On Basic Parameters and Radiation Theory of Non-Uniform Channel DMOS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Ze- hong
2005-01-01
@@ Researching the non-uniform channel DMOS is the basic knowledge of the new generation high voltage power MOS devices and the important domain of the IC, smart power ICs. This dissertation investigates the basic parameters and the radiation theory of non-uniform channel DMOS. The threshold voltage model of micron and deep sub-micron non-uniform channel DMOS, the radiation threshold voltage model,the radiation mobility model and the transient response model of single ion radiation are internationally proposed for the first time.
Decentralized PD Control for Non-uniform Motion of a Hamiltonian Hybrid System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mingcong Deng; Hongnian Yu; Akira Inoue
2008-01-01
In this paper, a decentralized proportional-derivative (PD) controller design for non-uniform motion of a Hamiltonian hybrid system is considered. A Hamiltonian hybrid system with the capability of producing a non-uniform motion is developed. The structural properties of the system are investigated by means of the theory of Hamiltonian systems. A relationship between the parameters of the system and the parameters of the proposed decentralized PD controller is shown to ensure local stability and tracking performance. Simulation results are included to show the obtained non-uniform motion.
The magnetostriction in a superconductor-magnet system under non-uniform magnetic field
Li, Xueyi; Jiang, Lang; Wu, Hao; Gao, Zhiwen
2017-03-01
This paper describes a numerical model to examine the magnetostriction of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) under non-uniform magnetic field in conjunction with finite element analysis. Through this model, the magnetostriction of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous HTS can be implemented under non-uniform magnetic field. Further, the effects of critical current density, applied field frequency and amplitude are also considered. The computational study can provide a fundamental mechanistic understanding the effects of non-uniform magnetic field on magnetostriction of HTS.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Faria, J.A. B. (Centro de Electrotecnia da Univ. Tecnica de Lisboa, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Inst. Superior Tecnico, 1096 Lisboa Codex (PT))
1992-01-01
High frequency resonance effects due to shield wires grounding may affect carrier transmission performance at the vicinity of certain critical frequencies. In this paper the authors investigate if non-uniformities in soil conductivity and in tower footing resistances along the power line may lead to the suppression of such resonance effects. The simulation results the authors have obtained point towards a negative conclusion.
A Synthesis Instance Pruning Approach Based on Virtual Non-uniform Replacements
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Wei; LING Zhenhua; HU Guoping; WANG Renhua
2008-01-01
The employment of non-uniform processes assists greatly in the corpus-based text-to-speech (TTS) system to synthesize natural speech.However,tailoring a TTS voice font,or pruning redundant syn-thesis instances,usually results in loss of non-uniform synthesis instances.In order to solve this problem,we propose the concept of virtual non-uniform instances.According to this concept and the synthesis fre-quency of each instance,the algorithm named StaRp-VPA is constructed to make up for the loss of non-uniform instances.In experimental testing,the naturalness scored by the mean opinion score (MOS) re-mains almost unchanged when less than 50% instances are pruned,and the MOS is only slightly degraded for reduction rates above 50%.The test results show that the algorithm StaRp-VPA is effective.
Impact of non-uniform surface magnetic fields on stellar winds
Holzwarth, V R
2005-01-01
Observations of active stars reveal highly non-uniform surface distributions of magnetic flux. Theoretical models considering magnetised stellar winds however often presume uniform surface magnetic fields, characterised by a single magnetic field strength. The present work investigates the impact of non-uniform surface magnetic field distributions on the stellar mass and angular momentum loss rates. The approach of Weber & Davis (1967) is extended to non-equatorial latitudes to quantify the impact of latitude-dependent magnetic field distributions over a large range of stellar rotation rates and thermal wind properties. The analytically prescribed field patterns are dominated by magnetic flux concentrations at intermediate and high latitudes. The global stellar mass loss rates are found to be rather insensitive to non-uniformities of the surface magnetic field. Depending on the non-uniformity of the field distribution, the angular momentum loss rates deviate in contrast at all rotation rates between -60% ...
The magnetostriction in a superconductor-magnet system under non-uniform magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Xueyi; Jiang, Lang; Wu, Hao [Key Laboratory of Mechanics on Disaster and Environment in Western China attached to the Ministry of Education of China, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China); Gao, Zhiwen, E-mail: gaozhw@lzu.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, College of Civil Engineering and Mechanics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, Gansu 730000 (China)
2017-03-15
Highlights: • We studied firstly magnetostriction in HTS under non-uniform magnetic field. • The superconductors may be homogeneous and nonhomogeneous. • The magnetostrictions response of the HTS is sensitive to the critical current density and amplitude of the applied magnetic field. • The magnetostriction of nonhomogeneous HTS is larger than that of homogeneous HTS. - Abstract: This paper describes a numerical model to examine the magnetostriction of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) under non-uniform magnetic field in conjunction with finite element analysis. Through this model, the magnetostriction of homogeneous and nonhomogeneous HTS can be implemented under non-uniform magnetic field. Further, the effects of critical current density, applied field frequency and amplitude are also considered. The computational study can provide a fundamental mechanistic understanding the effects of non-uniform magnetic field on magnetostriction of HTS.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The complex potentials method is used to develop a solution for a screw dislocation interacting with an elliptical piezoelectric inhomogeneity in piezoelectric materials under remote non-uniform antiplane shear and non-uniform inplane electric field. The theoretical analysis result is formulated via the conformal mapping and Laurent series expansion in the transformed plane by using complex variable method. The general expression of the complex variables is dirived explicitly in both the elliptical inhomogeneity and the surrounding matrix
Resonant-state expansion of light propagation in non-uniform waveguides
Lobanov, S. V.; Zoriniants, G.; Langbein, W.; Muljarov, E. A.
2016-01-01
A new rigorous approach for precise and efficient calculation of light propagation along non-uniform waveguides is presented. Resonant states of a uniform waveguide, which satisfy outgoing-wave boundary conditions, form a natural basis for expansion of the local electromagnetic field. Using such an expansion at fixed frequency, we convert the light propagation along a non-uniform waveguide into an ordinary second-order matrix differential equation for the expansion coefficients along the wave...
Parallel Programming Methodologies for Non-Uniform Structured Problems in Materials Science
1993-10-01
COVERED 1 10/93 _ Interim 12/01/92 - 09/30/93 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Parallel Programming Methodologies for Non-Uniform Structured...Dear Dr. van Tilborg, Enclosed you will find the annual report for " Parallel Programming Methodolo- gies for Non-Uniform Structured Problems in...Quincy Street Arlington, VA 22217-5660 Dear Dr. van Tilborg, Enclosed you will find the annual report for " Parallel Programming Methodolo- gies for Non
Influence of Non-Uniform Magnetic Field on Quantum Teleportation in Heisenberg XY Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHAO Bin; YANG Tie-jian; ZHAO Yue-hong; ZOU Jian
2007-01-01
By considering the intrinsic decoherence, the validity of quantum teleportation of a two-qubit 1D Heisenberg XY chain in a non-uniform external magnetic field is studied. The fidelity as the measurement of a possible quantum teleportation is calculated and the effects of the non-uniform magnetic field and the intrinsic decoherence are discussed. It is found that anti-parallel magnetic field is more favorable for teleportation and the fidelity is suppressed by the intrinsic decoherence.
Locally adaptive regression filter-based infrared focal plane array non-uniformity correction
Li, Jia; Qin, Hanlin; Yan, Xiang; Huang, He; Zhao, Yingjuan; Zhou, Huixin
2015-10-01
Due to the limitations of the manufacturing technology, the response rates to the same infrared radiation intensity in each infrared detector unit are not identical. As a result, the non-uniformity of infrared focal plane array, also known as fixed pattern noise (FPN), is generated. To solve this problem, correcting the non-uniformity in infrared image is a promising approach, and many non-uniformity correction (NUC) methods have been proposed. However, they have some defects such as slow convergence, ghosting and scene degradation. To overcome these defects, a novel non-uniformity correction method based on locally adaptive regression filter is proposed. First, locally adaptive regression method is used to separate the infrared image into base layer containing main scene information and the detail layer containing detailed scene with FPN. Then, the detail layer sequence is filtered by non-linear temporal filter to obtain the non-uniformity. Finally, the high quality infrared image is obtained by subtracting non-uniformity component from original image. The experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly eliminate the ghosting and the scene degradation. The results of correction are superior to the THPF-NUC and NN-NUC in the aspects of subjective visual and objective evaluation index.
Assessment of heating rate and non-uniform heating in domestic microwave ovens.
Pitchai, Krishnamoorthy; Birla, Sohan L; Jones, David; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan
2012-01-01
Due to the inherent nature of standing wave patterns of microwaves inside a domestic microwave oven cavity and varying dielectric properties of different food components, microwave heating produces non-uniform distribution of energy inside the food. Non-uniform heating is a major food safety concern in not-ready-to-eat (NRTE) microwaveable foods. In this study, we present a method for assessing heating rate and non-uniform heating in domestic microwave ovens. In this study a custom designed container was used to assess heating rate and non-uniform heating of a range of microwave ovens using a hedgehog of 30 T-type thermocouples. The mean and standard deviation of heating rate along the radial distance and sector of the container were measured and analyzed. The effect of the location of rings and sectors was analyzed using ANOVA to identify the best location for placing food on the turntable. The study suggested that the best location to place food in a microwave oven is not at the center but near the edge of the turntable assuming uniform heating is desired. The effect of rated power and cavity size on heating rate and non-uniform heating was also studied for a range of microwave ovens. As the rated power and cavity size increases, heating rate increases while non-uniform heating decreases. Sectors in the container also influenced heating rate (p heating rate. In general, sectors close to the magnetron tend to heat slightly faster than sectors away from the magnetron. However, the variation in heating rate among sectors was only 2 degrees C/min and considered not practically important. Overall heating performance such as mean heating rate and non-uniform heating did not significantly vary between the two replications that were performed 4 h apart. However, microwave ovens were inconsistent in producing the same heating patterns between the two replications that were performed 4 h apart.
Magnetohydrodynamics and heat transfer benchmark problems for liquid-metal flow in rectangular ducts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sidorenkov, S.I. [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hua, T.Q. [Fusion Power Program, Technology Development Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Araseki, Hideo [Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry, 1646 Abiko, Abiko-shi, 270-11 (Japan)
1995-03-01
This paper describes four benchmark problems to validate magnetohydrodynamic and heat transfer computer codes. The problems include rectangular duct geometry with uniform and non-uniform magnetic fields, with and without surface heat flux, and various rectangular cross-sections. Two of the problems are based on experiments. Participants in this benchmarking activity come from three countries: Russia, USA and Japan. The solution methods to the problems are described. Results from the different computer codes are presented and compared. (orig.).
A curvature filter and PDE based non-uniformity correction algorithm
Cheng, Kuanhong; Zhou, Huixin; Qin, Hanlin; Zhao, Dong; Qian, Kun; Rong, Shenghui; Yin, Shimin
2016-10-01
In this paper, a curvature filter and PDE based non-uniformity correction algorithm is proposed, the key point of this algorithm is the way to estimate FPN. We use anisotropic diffusion to smooth noise and Gaussian curvature filter to extract the details of original image. Then combine these two parts together by guided image filter and subtract the result from original image to get the crude approximation of FPN. After that, a Temporal Low Pass Filter (TLPF) is utilized to filter out random noise and get the accurate FPN. Finally, subtract the FPN from original image to achieve non-uniformity correction. The performance of this algorithm is tested with two infrared image sequences, and the experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a better non-uniformity correction performance.
Investigation and modeling of the avalanche effect in MOSFETs with non-uniform finger spacing
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Jun; Sun Lingling; Marissa Condon
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the effect of a non-uniform gate-finger spacing layout structure on the avalanche breakdown performance of RF CMOS technology.Compared with a standard multi-finger device with uniform gate-finger spacing,a device with non-uniform gate-finger spacing represents an improvement of 8.5% for the drain-source breakdown voltage(BVds)and of 20% for the thermally-related drain conductance.A novel compact model is proposed to accurately predict the variation of BVds with the total area of devices,which is dependent on the different finger spacing sizes.The model is verified and validated by the excellent match between the measured and simulated avalanche breakdown characteristics for a set of uniform and non-uniform gate-finger spacing arranged nMOSFETs.
On natural frequencies of non-uniform beams modulated by finite periodic cells
Xu, Yanlong; Zhou, Xiaoling; Wang, Wei; Wang, Longqi; Peng, Fujun; Li, Bin
2016-09-01
It is well known that an infinite periodic beam can support flexural wave band gaps. However, in real applications, the number of the periodic cells is always limited. If a uniform beam is replaced by a non-uniform beam with finite periodicity, the vibration changes are vital by mysterious. This paper employs the transfer matrix method (TMM) to study the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with modulation by finite periodic cells. The effects of the amounts, cross section ratios, and arrangement forms of the periodic cells on the natural frequencies are explored. The relationship between the natural frequencies of the non-uniform beams with finite periodicity and the band gap boundaries of the corresponding infinite periodic beam is also investigated. Numerical results and conclusions obtained here are favorable for designing beams with good vibration control ability.
SHEAR STRESS FOR INITIATION OF MOTION OF NON-UNIFORM SEDIMENT MIXTURES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Experiments on initiation of motion of different fractions of non-uniform sediment mixtures are reported. Four sediment mixes and reference transport method to define the threshold of bed particle movement are used in this analysis. Factors controlling the initiation of motion are analyzed. It is found that relative size of different grains with respect to a median size greatly affects the initiation of movement. The incipient motion of non-uniform sediment is very much dependent on the absolute size for coarser fractions.Considering the factors controlling the initiation of motion the experimental data sets along with the other available data yield a new relationship for the calculation of critical shear stress of non-uniform sediments. A set of equations have found that all the data points fall into a single line for the finer and for coarser fractions.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Joginder Singh Dhiman; Rajni Sharma
2016-03-01
The self-gravitating instability of an infinitely extending axisymmetric cylinder of viscoelastic medium permeated with non uniform magnetic field and rotation is studied for both the strongly coupled plasma (SCP) and weakly coupled plasma (WCP). The non uniform magnetic field and rotation are considered to act along the axial direction of the cylinder. The normal mode method of perturbations is applied to obtain the dispersion relation. The condition for the onset of gravitational instability has been derived from the dispersion relation under both strongly and weakly coupling limits. It is found that the Jeans criterion for gravitational collapse gets modified due to the presence of shear and bulk viscosities for the SCP, however, the magnetic field and rotation whether uniform or non uniform has no effect on the Jeans criterion of an infinitely extending axisymmetric cylinder of a self-gravitating viscoelastic medium.
Research of improved sparse grid non-uniformity correction technologies for infrared resistor array
Du, Hui-jie; Zhao, Hong-ming; Gao, Yang; Yu, Hong; Zhang, Yi
2015-10-01
Infrared resistor arrays perform a vital role in the hardware in the loop testing of infrared seekers. Infrared resistor arrays composed of large numbers of suspended resistor elements are commonly used to produce dynamic two-dimensional images of infrared radiation. Due to inconsistencies in the fabrication process of the resistor arrays, the temperature each resistor elements reaches for a given input voltage is variable and this leads to more significant radiance differences, these differences result in spatially-distributed radiance non-uniformity. Therefore, in order to obtain an available infrared image, non-uniformity correction (NUC) is necessary. In this paper, the non-uniformity characters of the infrared resistor arrays are analyzed base on measured data and then an improved sparse grid method for engineering are discussed and analyzed. First of all, the NUC camera has a strong influence on the effectiveness of the infrared resistor arrays NUC procedure. According to the actual fact and the laboratory condition, we presented an alternative method for collecting resistor arrays intended to reduce the influence causing by the NUC camera. Secondly, based on the measured non-uniformity data, we obtain the response characteristics of the infrared resistor arrays. In each gray level, we take two points or several points correction algorithm to calculate the gain data and the offset data, and then the linear look-up table is established. Finally, through MATLAB we develop the correction software, and we can obtain the driving output conveniently. The result shows that the image quality has a remarkable improvement after non-uniformity correction, the non-uniformity correction flow and algorithm preferably satisfies the requirement of the high confidence infrared imaging simulation.
Shemer, A.; Schwarz, A.; Gur, E.; Cohen, E.; Zalevsky, Z.
2015-04-01
In this paper, the authors describe a novel technique for image nonlinearity and non-uniformity corrections in imaging systems based on gamma detectors. The limitation of the gamma detector prevents the producing of high quality images due to the radionuclide distribution. This problem causes nonlinearity and non-uniformity distortions in the obtained image. Many techniques have been developed to correct or compensate for these image artifacts using complex calibration processes. The presented method is based on the Papoulis - Gerchberg(PG) iterative algorithm and is obtained without need of detector calibration, tuning process or using any special test phantom.
Modeling of pancake frying with non-uniform heating source applied to domestic cookers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sanz-Serrano, F.; Sagues, C.; Feyissa, Aberham Hailu
2016-01-01
. In this work we propose a model of contact frying of pancakes in domestic cookers, particularly in induction hobs and radiant cookers, in which the heating of the cooking vessels can be non-uniform. This non-uniformity is unavoidable in practice, but it can be reduced by optimizing the design of the cooker......The design of domestic cooking stoves is usually optimized by performing time-consuming cooking experiments, often using frying of pancakes as a standard. Simulation of cooking processes may reduce the number of experiments used in the development of the cooking stoves, saving time and resources...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopes, B; Branco, P J C [Institute Superior Tecnico, DEEC - Energia, Lisboa 1096-001 (Portugal)], E-mail: pbranco@ist.utl.pt
2008-08-15
Research on electromechanical characterization of non-uniformly charged IPMCs is quasi-absent. This has limited their use to only those devices where the IPMC is completely covered with electrode surfaces (uniformly charged). In this paper, we develop a theoretical study for electromechanical characterization of non-uniformly charged IPMCs. A continuum model taking into account the gravitational forces, important for large IPMCs, is presented. Based on this approach, FEM analysis of IPMC devices using Comsol Multiphysics is introduced in a very simple way. Three devices have been studied, comparing the analytical model results with those ones obtained from a FEM analysis.
Lossy Source Compression of Non-Uniform Binary Sources Using GQ-LDGM Codes
Cappellari, Lorenzo
2010-01-01
In this paper, we study the use of GF(q)-quantized LDGM codes for binary source coding. By employing quantization, it is possible to obtain binary codewords with a non-uniform distribution. The obtained statistics is hence suitable for optimal, direct quantization of non-uniform Bernoulli sources. We employ a message-passing algorithm combined with a decimation procedure in order to perform compression. The experimental results based on GF(q)-LDGM codes with regular degree distributions yield performances quite close to the theoretical rate-distortion bounds.
Compression gain of spin wave signals in a magnonic YIG waveguide with thermal non-uniformity
Kolokoltsev, O.; Gómez-Arista, Ivan; Qureshi, N.; Acevedo, A.; Ordóñez-Romero, César L.; Grishin, A.
2015-03-01
We report on the observation of the compression gain of the signals carried by surface spin waves (MSSWs) in yittrium iron garnet films as a result of non-uniform optical heating of the spin wave medium. Efficient gain takes place if a frequency downshift of the spin wave spectrum induced by the heating is compensated by the corresponding non-uniformity of the bias magnetic field. It is proposed that the effect can be understood in part as an interaction between spin waves and a thermally induced potential well in the sample.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongwei MA; Baihe LI
2008-01-01
This paper presents a numerical investigation of effects of axial non-uniform tip clearances on the aerodynamic performance of a transonic axial compressor rotor (NASA Rotor 37). The three-dimensional steady flow field within the rotor passage was simulated with the datum tip clearance of 0.356 mm at the design wheel speed of 17188.7 rpm. The simulation results are well consistent with the measurement results, which verified the numeri-cal method. Then the three-dimensional steady flow field within the rotor passage was simulated respectively with different axial non-uniform tip clearances. The calculation results showed that optimal axial non-uniform tip clearances could improve the compressor performance, while the efficiency and the pressure ratio of the com-pressor were increased. The flow mechanism is that the axial non-uniform tip clearance can weaken the tip leak-age vortex, blow down low-energy fluids in boundary layers and reduce both flow blockage and tip loss.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We study the effect of electrodes with varying thickness on thickness-twist vibration of a piezoelectric plate resonator of crystals of 6 mm symmetry. An exact theoretical analysis is performed. Results show that non-uniform electrodes have a strong effect on mode shapes, and suggest the possibility of using nonuniform electrodes for strong energy trapping.
Photocatalytic oxidation activity of titanium dioxide film enhanced by Mn non-uniform doping
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Kai-jian; XU Wei; LI Xin-jun; ZHENG Shao-jian; XU Gang; WANG Jian-hua
2006-01-01
The thin films of TiO2 doped by Mn non-uniformly were prepared by sol-gel method under process control. Each film was characterized by XPS, SEM, UV-vis spectrophotometry and electrochemistry workstation analysis.The activity of the photocatalyst was evaluated by the kinetics of photocatalytic degradation of aqueous methyl orange under the UV radiation. The results show that Mn non-uniform doping evidently enhances the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin film. In 80 min, the degradation rates of aqueous methyl orange are 62%, 12% and 34% for Mn non-uniformly doped film (0.7%), the uniformly doped film (0.7%) and pure titanium dioxide film, respectively. The characteristic of PN junction in the film was proved by electrochemical characterization. A mechanism for enhanced photocatalytic activity of Mn non-uniformly doped titanium dioxide film was discussed based on the effective separation of the photon-generated carrier because of the existence of the PN junction.
Face recognition across non-uniform motion blur, illumination, and pose.
Punnappurath, Abhijith; Rajagopalan, Ambasamudram Narayanan; Taheri, Sima; Chellappa, Rama; Seetharaman, Guna
2015-07-01
Existing methods for performing face recognition in the presence of blur are based on the convolution model and cannot handle non-uniform blurring situations that frequently arise from tilts and rotations in hand-held cameras. In this paper, we propose a methodology for face recognition in the presence of space-varying motion blur comprising of arbitrarily-shaped kernels. We model the blurred face as a convex combination of geometrically transformed instances of the focused gallery face, and show that the set of all images obtained by non-uniformly blurring a given image forms a convex set. We first propose a non-uniform blur-robust algorithm by making use of the assumption of a sparse camera trajectory in the camera motion space to build an energy function with l1 -norm constraint on the camera motion. The framework is then extended to handle illumination variations by exploiting the fact that the set of all images obtained from a face image by non-uniform blurring and changing the illumination forms a bi-convex set. Finally, we propose an elegant extension to also account for variations in pose.
Analysis on Non-Uniform Flow in Steam Generator During Steady State Natural Circulation Cooling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Susyadi
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Investigation on non uniform flow behavior among U-tube in steam generator during natural circulation cooling has been conducted using RELAP5. The investigation is performed by modeling the steam generator into multi channel models, i.e. 9-tubes model. Two situations are implemented, high pressure and low pressure cases. Using partial model, the calculation simulates situation similar to the natural circulation test performed in LSTF. The imposed boundary conditions are flow rate, quality, pressure of the primary side, feed water temperature, steam generator liquid level, and pressure in the secondary side. Calculation result shows that simulation using model with nine tubes is capable to capture important non-uniform phenomena such as reverse flow, fill-and-dump, and stagnant vertical stratification. As a result of appropriate simulation of non uniform flow, the calculated steam generator outlet flow in the primary loop is stable as observed in the experiments. The results also clearly indicate the importance of simulation of non-uniform flow in predicting both the flow stability and heat transfer between the primary and secondary side. In addition, the history of transient plays important role on the selection of the flow distribution among tubes. © 2007 Atom Indonesia. All rights reserved
Kim, Inkang
2012-01-01
In this note, we study deformations of a non-uniform real hyperbolic lattice in quaternionic hyperbolic spaces. Specially we show that the representations of the fundamental group of the figure eight knot complement into PU(2,1) cannot be deformed in $PSp(2,1)$ out of PU(2,1) up to conjugacy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Si, Haiqing; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun
2013-01-01
Acoustic propagation in the presence of a non-uniform mean flow is studied numerically by using two different acoustic propagating models, which solve linearized Euler equations (LEE) and acoustic perturbation equations (APE). As noise induced by turbulent flows often propagates from near field t...
Phase Transitions in a Non-Uniformly Stressed Iron Borate Single Crystal
Dzhuraev, D. R.; Niyazov, L. N.; Sokolov, B. Yu.
2016-05-01
Based on the Landau thermodynamic theory, phase transformations observed in a FeBO3 single crystal subject to spatially non-uniform mechanical stresses are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the main results of theoretical consideration of structural and magnetic phase transitions in the examined crystal do not contradict with the available experimental data.
Wu, C.; de Jong, J. R.; van Andel, H. A. Gratama; van der Have, F.; Vastenhouw, B.; Laverman, P.; Boerman, O. C.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; Beekman, F. J.
2011-01-01
Attenuation of photon flux on trajectories between the source and pinhole apertures affects the quantitative accuracy of reconstructed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. We propose a Chang-based non-uniform attenuation correction (NUA-CT) for small-animal SPECT/CT with focusi
Wu, C.; Jong, J.R. de; Gratama van Andel, H.A.; Have, F. van der; Vastenhouw, B.; Laverman, P.; Boerman, O.C.; Dierckx, R.A.; Beekman, F.J.
2011-01-01
Attenuation of photon flux on trajectories between the source and pinhole apertures affects the quantitative accuracy of reconstructed single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. We propose a Chang-based non-uniform attenuation correction (NUA-CT) for small-animal SPECT/CT with focusi
Kenjeres, S.
2008-01-01
The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier–Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell’s equations (Bio
Non-uniform sampling in EPR--optimizing data acquisition for HYSCORE spectroscopy.
Nakka, K K; Tesiram, Y A; Brereton, I M; Mobli, M; Harmer, J R
2014-08-21
Non-uniform sampling combined with maximum entropy reconstruction is a powerful technique used in multi-dimensional NMR spectroscopy to reduce sample measurement time. We adapted this technique to the pulse EPR experiment hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) and show that experimental times can be shortened by approximately an order of magnitude as compared to conventional linear sampling with negligible loss of information.
Kenjeres, S.
2008-01-01
The paper reports on a comprehensive mathematical model for simulations of blood flow under the presence of strong non-uniform magnetic fields. The model consists of a set of Navier–Stokes equations accounting for the Lorentz and magnetisation forces, and a simplified set of Maxwell’s equations (Bio
Constructing iterative non-uniform B-spline curve and surface to fit data points
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Hongwei; WANG Guojin; DONG Chenshi
2004-01-01
In this paper, based on the idea of profit and loss modification, we present the iterative non-uniform B-spline curve and surface to settle a key problem in computer aided geometric design and reverse engineering, that is, constructing the curve (surface)fitting (interpolating) a given ordered point set without solving a linear system. We start with a piece of initial non-uniform B-spline curve (surface) which takes the given point set as its control point set. Then by adjusting its control points gradually with iterative formula,we can get a group of non-uniform B-spline curves (surfaces) with gradually higher precision. In this paper, using modern matrix theory, we strictly prove that the limit curve (surface) of the iteration interpolates the given point set. The non-uniform B-spline curves (surfaces) generated with the iteration have many advantages, such as satisfying the NURBS standard, having explicit expression, gaining locality, and convexity preserving,etc.
Pondermotive absorption of a short intense laser pulse in a non-uniform plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, A.A.; Platonov, K.Yu. [Inst. for Laser Physics, SC `Vavilov State Optical Inst.` 12, Birzhevaya line, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.A.
1998-03-01
An analytical description of the pondermotive absorption mechanism at a short high intense laser pulse interaction with a strong inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The optimal conditions for the maximum of resonance absorption of laser pulse interaction with non-uniform plasma at normal incidence are founded. (author)
Analysis of the origins of content non-uniformity in high-shear wet granulation.
Oka, Sarang; Smrčka, David; Kataria, Anjali; Emady, Heather; Muzzio, Fernando; Štěpánek, František; Ramachandran, Rohit
2017-08-07
In this study, the origins of granule content non-uniformity in the high-shear wet granulation of a model two-component pharmaceutical blend were investigated. Using acetaminophen as the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and microcrystalline cellulose as the excipient, the distribution of the API across the granule size classes was measured for a range of conditions that differed in the duration of the initial dry mixing stage, the overall composition of the blend and the wet massing time. The coarse granule fractions were found to be systematically sub-potent, while the fines were enriched in the API. The extent of content non-uniformity was found to be dependent on two factors - powder segregation during dry mixing and redistribution of the API between the granule size fractions during the wet massing phase. The latter was demonstrated in an experiment where the excipient was pre-granulated, the API was added later and wet massed. The content non-uniformity in this case was comparable to that obtained when both components were present in the granulator from the beginning. With increasing wet massing time, the extent of content non-uniformity decreased, indicating that longer wet massing times might be a solution for systems with a natural tendency for component segregation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Experiments with non-uniform sediment in case of bed-load transport
Ribberink, J.S.
1983-01-01
An experimental study was carried out in the framework of a research project concerning the development of a mathematical model for morphological computations in rivers in case of non-uniform sediment. The study consists of a series of laboratory experiments in a straight flume under steady, uniform
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shen Pei; Zhang Wanrong; Huang Lu; Jin Dongyue; Xie Hongyun, E-mail: shenpei1@126.com [School of Electronic Information and Control Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100024 (China)
2011-06-15
An improved inductor layout with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform spacing is proposed to increase the quality factor (Q factor). For this inductor layout, from outer coil to inner coil, the metal width is reduced by an arithmetic-progression step, while the metal spacing is increased by a geometric-progression step. An improved layout with variable width and changed spacing is of benefit to the Q factor of RF spiral inductor improvement (approximately 42.86%), mainly due to the suppression of eddy-current loss by weakening the current crowding effect in the center of the spiral inductor. In order to increase the Q factor further, for the novel inductor, a patterned ground shield is used with optimized layout together. The results indicate that, in the range of 0.5 to 16 GHz, the Q factor of the novel inductor is at an optimum, which improves by 67% more than conventional inductors with uniform geometry dimensions (equal width and equal spacing), is enhanced by nearly 23% more than a PGS inductor with uniform geometry dimensions, and improves by almost 20% more than an inductor with an improved layout. (semiconductor devices)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shen Pe; Zhang Wanrong; Huang Lu; Jin Dongyue; Xie Hongyun
2011-01-01
An improved inductor layout with non-uniform metal width and non-uniform spacing is proposed to increase the quality factor (Q factor). For this inductor layout, from outer coil to inner coil, the metal width is reduced by an arithmetic-progression step, while the metal spacing is increased by a geometric-progression step.An improved layout with variable width and changed spacing is of benefit to the Q factor of RF spiral inductor improvement (approximately 42.86％), mainly due to the suppression of eddy-current loss by weakening the current crowding effect in the center of the spiral inductor. In order to increase the Q factor further, for the novel inductor,a patterned ground shield is used with optimized layout together. The results indicate that, in the range of 0.5 to 16 GHz, the Q factor of the novel inductor is at an optimum, which improves by 67％ more than conventional inductors with uniform geometry dimensions (equal width and equal spacing), is enhanced by nearly 23％ more than a PGS inductor with uniform geometry dimensions, and improves by almost 20％ more than an inductor with an improved layout.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yonggang Huang; D. Ngo; A.J. Rosakis
2005-01-01
Current methodologies used for the inference of thin film stress through curvature measurements are strictly restricted to stress and curvature states which are assumed to remain uniform over the entire film/substrate system. By considering a circular thin film/substrate system subject to non-uniform, but axisymmetric misfit strain distributions in the thin film, we derived relations between the film stresses and the misfit strain, and between the plate system's curvatures and the misfit strain. These relations feature a "local"part which involves a direct dependence of the stress or curvature components on the misfit strain at the same point, and a "non-local" part which reflects the effect of misfit strain of other points on the location of scrutiny. Most notably, we also derived relations between the polar components of the film stress and those of system curvatures which allow for the experimental inference of such stresses from full-field curvature measurements in the presence of arbitrary radial non-uniformities. These relations also feature a "non-local"dependence on curvatures making a full-field measurement a necessity. Finally, it is shown that the interfacial shear tractions between the film and the substrate are proportional to the radial gradients of the first curvature invariant and can also be inferred experimentally.
Geometric formula for prism deflection
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Apoorva G Wagh; Veer Chand Rakhecha
2004-08-01
While studying neutron deflections produced by a magnetic prism, we have stumbled upon a simple `geometric' formula. For a prism of refractive index close to unity, the deflection simply equals the product of the refractive power − 1 and the base-to-height ratio of the prism, regardless of the apex angle. The base and height of the prism are measured respectively along and perpendicular to the direction of beam propagation within the prism. The geometric formula greatly simplifies the optimisation of prism parameters to suit any specific experiment.
A Computer Method of Steady Non-Uniform Gradually Varied Flow in Open Channel & in River
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
1999-01-01
Most of water flow in open channel or in river belongs to steady non-uniform flow. The surface profiles are caused by changes of channel section. It is very important to analyze its computation. According to the regularity of its surface change, the suitable sectional dimensions of open channel or flood control work can be designed. Commonly, computation of non-uniform flow adopts the traditional methods by hand or by graphic method. The speed and precision of computation are restricted. In this paper, a software to calculate water surface profile is introduced. The software is put forward by using C++ .By means of interpolate method and dialogue between user and computer, we can calculate the water surface profile much more quickly and exactly.
Geometry Modeling of Ship Hull Based on Non-uniform B-spline
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Hu; ZOU Zao-jian
2008-01-01
In order to generate the three-dimensional (3-D) hull surface accurately and smoothly, a mixed method which is made up of non-uniform B-spline together with an iterative procedure was developed. By using the iterative method the data points on each section curve are calculated and the generalized waterlines and transverse section curves are determined. Then using the non-uniform B-spline expression, the control vertex net of the hull is calculated based on the generalized waterlines and section curves. A ship with tunnel stern was taken as test case. The numerical results prove that the proposed approach for geometry modeling of 3-D ship hull surface is accurate and effective.
Characteristics of Mesh Wave Impedance in FDTD Non-Uniform Mesh
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
REN Wu; LIU Bo; GAO Ben-qing
2005-01-01
In order to increase the evaluating precision of mesh reflection wave, the mesh wave impedance(MWI) is extended to the non-uniform mesh in 1-D and 2-D cases for the first time on the basis of the Yee's positional relation for electromagnetic field components. Lots of characteristics are obtained for different mesh sizes and frequencies. Then the reflection coefficient caused by the non-uniform mesh can be calculated according to the theory of equivalent transmission line. By comparing it with that calculated by MWI in the uniform mesh, it is found that the evaluating error can be largely reduced and is in good agreement with that directly computed by FDTD method. And this extension of MWI can be used in the error analysis of complex mesh.
Pellegrini, Yves-Patrick
2016-01-01
This work introduces original explicit solutions for the elastic fields radiated by non-uniformly moving, straight, screw or edge dislocations in an isotropic medium, in the form of time-integral representations in which acceleration-dependent contributions are explicitly separated out. These solutions are obtained by applying an isotropic regularization procedure to distributional expressions of the elastodynamic fields built on the Green tensor of the Navier equation. The obtained regularized field expressions are singularity-free, and depend on the dislocation density rather than on the plastic eigenstrain. They cover non-uniform motion at arbitrary speeds, including faster-than-wave ones. A numerical method of computation is discussed, that rests on discretizing motion along an arbitrary path in the plane transverse to the dislocation, into a succession of time intervals of constant velocity vector over which time-integrated contributions can be obtained in closed form. As a simple illustration, it is app...
Tunable pinning effects produced by non-uniform antidot arrays in YBCO thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
George, J.; Jones, A.; Al-Qurainy, M. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Fedoseev, S.A. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Rosenfeld, A. [Centre for Medical Radiation Physics, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); Pan, A.V. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, NSW (Australia); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-04-15
Uniform, graded and spaced arrays of 3 μm triangular antidots in pulsed laser deposited YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) superconducting thin films are compared by examining the improvements in the critical current density J{sub c} they produced. The comparison is made to establish the role of their lithographically defined (non-)uniformity and the effectiveness to control and/or enhance the critical current density. It is found that almost all types of non-uniform arrays, including graded ones enhance J{sub c} over the broad applied magnetic field and temperature range due to the modified critical state. Whereas uniform arrays of antidots either reduce or produce no effect on J{sub c} compared to the original (as-deposited) thin films. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Peristaltic Pumping of Blood in micro-vessels of Non-uniform Cross-section
Misra, J C
2010-01-01
The paper is devoted to a study of the peristaltic motion of blood in the micro-circulatory system. The vessel is considered of non-uniform cross-section. The progressive peristaltic waves are taken to be of sinusoidal nature. The Reynolds number is considered to be small. Blood is considered to be a Herschel-Bulkley fluid. Of particular concern here is to investigate the effects of amplitude ratio, mean pressure gradient, yield stress and the power law index on the velocity distribution, streamline pattern and wall shear stress. Basing upon the study, extensive numerical calculations has been made. The study reveals that peristaltic pumping as well as velocity and wall shear stress are appreciably affected due to the non-uniform geometry of blood vessels. They are also highly sensitive to the magnitude of the amplitude of the amplitude ratio and the value of the fluid index.
Correcting LCD luminance non-uniformity for threshold Saccadic Vector Optokinetic Perimetry (SVOP).
Perperidis, Antonios; Murray, Ian; Brash, Harry; McTrusty, Alice; Cameron, Lorraine; Fleck, Brian; Minns, Robert
2013-01-01
The accurate assessment of visual field function can provide valuable information on a range of visual disorders. Saccadic Vector Optokinetic Perimetry (SVOP) is a novel instrument for measuring supra-threshold visual fields in young children who are otherwise unable to perform Automated Static Perimetry (ASP). However, limitations in Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) technology restrict the ability of SVOP to determine threshold values at various points in the visual field, often required in detailed perimetry examinations. This paper introduces a purpose-specific LCD luminance non-uniformity compensation approach to address this limitation. Thorough quantitative evaluation identifies the effectiveness of the proposed approach in (i) compensating for luminance non-uniformities across an LCD, and (ii) enabling SVOP to perform accurate and precise threshold visual field tests. The findings demonstrate that SVOP provides a promising alternative to the current threshold ASP standard (Humphrey Field Analyser).
The Thermal Conductivity Theory of Non-uniform Granular Flow and the Mechanism Analysis
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANGDuan-Ming; LEIYa-Jie; YUBo-Ming; PANGui-Jun
2003-01-01
According to the fractal characteristics appearing in non-uniform granular system, we found the fractal model to study the effective thermal conductivity in the mixed system. Considering the quasi-equilibrium, we bring forward the fractal velocity probability distribution function. The equipartition of energy is employed to the non-uniform granular system, and the granular temperature is derived. We investigate the thermal conductivity in granular flow due to the movement of the particles, namely the heat transfer induced by the streaming mode only. The thermal conductivity in the mixed system changes with the fractal parameters such as the solid fraction v, structural character parameter η, and fractal dimension D of size distribution. These parameters depict the characteristics of the thermal conductivity in the actual complex granular system. Comparing our conclusion with the correlative experimental data and the theoretical conclusion of binary mixture of granular materials, the results can qualitatively confirm the generality of our prediction on the granular system.
Extension of the non-uniform warping theory to an orthotropic composite beam
Ghazouani, Nejib; El Fatmi, Rached
2010-12-01
This Note proposes an extension to composite section of the non-uniform (out-of-plane) warping beam theory recently established for homogeneous and isotropic beam by R. El Fatmi (C. R. Mecanique 335 (2007) 467-474). For the present work, which constitutes a first step of this extension, the cross-section is assumed to be symmetric and made by orthotropic materials; however, Poisson's effects (called here in-plane warping) are also taken into account. Closed form results are given for the structural behavior of the composite beam and for the expressions of the 3D stresses; these ones, easy to compare with 3D Saint Venant stresses, make clear the additional contribution of the new internal forces induced by the non-uniformity of the (in and out) warpings. As first numerical applications, results on torsion and shear-bending of a cantilever sandwich beam are presented.
A rotating universe outside a Schwarzschild black hole where spacetime itself non-uniformly rotates
Saw, Vee-Liem
2014-01-01
We study a non-uniformly rotating universe outside a Schwarzschild black hole by generating a time-dependent manifold of revolution around a straight line. In this simple model where layers of spherical shells of the universe non-uniformly rotate, the Einstein field equations require this phenomenon to be caused by a static mass-energy distribution with time-dependent $T^{\\phi\\phi}$ (quadratic with time) and $T^{r\\phi}=T^{\\phi r}$ (linear with time). This indicates that a time-dependent stress along a certain direction results in a spacetime shift in that direction. For this model however, such material violates the null energy condition. Incidentally, the various coordinate systems describing the Schwarzschild solution can be viewed as arising from the freedom in parametrising the straight line and the radial function in the general method of constructing spacetime by generating manifolds of revolution around a given curve.
Extension of the modal wave-front reconstruction algorithm to non-uniform illumination.
Ma, Xiaoyu; Mu, Jie; Rao, ChangHui; Yang, Jinsheng; Rao, XueJun; Tian, Yu
2014-06-30
Attempts are made to eliminate the effects of non-uniform illumination on the precision of wave-front measurement. To achieve this, the relationship between the wave-front slope at a single sub-aperture and the distributions of the phase and light intensity of the wave-front were first analyzed to obtain the relevant theoretical formulae. Then, based on the principle of modal wave-front reconstruction, the influence of the light intensity distribution on the wave-front slope is introduced into the calculation of the reconstruction matrix. Experiments were conducted to prove that the corrected modal wave-front reconstruction algorithm improved the accuracy of wave-front reconstruction. Moreover, the correction is conducive to high-precision wave-front measurement using a Hartmann wave-front sensor in the presence of non-uniform illumination.
An non-uniformity voltage model for proton exchange membrane fuel cell
Li, Kelei; Li, Yankun; Liu, Jiawei; Guo, Ai
2017-01-01
The fuel cell used in transportation has environmental protection, high efficiency and no line traction power system which can greatly reduce line construction investment. That makes it a huge potential. The voltage uniformity is one of the most important factors affecting the operation life of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). On the basis of principle and classical model of the PEMFC, single cell voltage is calculated and the location coefficients are introduced so as to establish a non-uniformity voltage model. These coefficients are estimated with the experimental datum at stack current 50 A. The model is validated respectively with datum at 60 A and 100 A. The results show that the model reflects the basic characteristics of voltage non-uniformity and provides the beneficial reference for fuel cell control and single cell voltage detection.
Non-uniform phenotyping of D12S391 resolved by second generation sequencing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dalsgaard, S; Rockenbauer, E; Buchard, A
2014-01-01
Non-uniform phenotyping of five case work samples were observed in the D12S391 locus. The samples were typed at least twice with the AmpFℓSTR(®) NGM SElect™ PCR Amplification Kit and different alleles were called with GeneMapper(®) ID-X in the different experiments. Detailed analyses of the elect......Non-uniform phenotyping of five case work samples were observed in the D12S391 locus. The samples were typed at least twice with the AmpFℓSTR(®) NGM SElect™ PCR Amplification Kit and different alleles were called with GeneMapper(®) ID-X in the different experiments. Detailed analyses...
The Gregory–Laflamme instability and non-uniform generalizations of NUT strings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen
2014-02-05
We explore via linearized perturbation theory the Gregory–Laflamme instability of the NUT string (i.e. the D=4 Lorentzian NUT solution uplifted to five dimensions). Our results indicate that the Gregory–Laflamme instability persists in the presence of a NUT charge n, the critical length of the extra-dimension increasing with n for the same value of mass. The non-uniform branch of NUT strings is numerically extended into the full nonlinear regime.
Detection in polarimetric images in the presence of additive noise and non-uniform illumination
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beniere, A; Goudail, F [Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l' Institut d' Optique, CNRS, Univ Paris-Sud, Campus Polytechnique, RD 128, 91127 Palaiseau (France); Alouini, M [Institut de physique de Rennes, CNRS, Univ Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes (France); Dolfi, D, E-mail: arnaud.beniere@institutoptique.f [Thales Research and Technology - France, 1 Av. Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau Cedex (France)
2010-02-01
Active polarimetric imaging systems yield information about the intensity contrast and the Orthogonal State Contrast (OSC) in the scene. However, in real systems, the illumination is often spatially or temporally non uniform which creates artificial intensity contrasts that can lead to false alarms. We derive the Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test (GLRT) detectors when intensity information is taken into account or not. These results are used to determine in which cases considering intensity information in addition to polarimetric information is relevant or not.
Influence of Non-uniform Temperature Field on Spectra of Fibre Bragg Grating
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Yan; HE Xing-Fang; YUAN Jie; YIN Li-Qun; FANG Xiao-Yong; CAO Mao-Sheng
2009-01-01
We simulate the spectrum characteristics of fibre Bragg grating (FBG) with non-uniform temperature using the transmission matrix method, and the results are analysed. It is found that firstly the modulated coefficient of average refractive index is a very important parameter that influences the spectrum characteristic of the fibre Bragg grating, and secondly the spectrum curves are different in different temperature fields at the same parameter. Hence, we can determine the metrical temperature by analysing the spectrum of fibre Bragg grating.
The Influence of Non-Uniform High Heat Flux on Thermal Stress of Thermoelectric Power Generator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tingzhen Ming
2015-11-01
Full Text Available A thermoelectric generator (TEG device which uses solar energy as heat source would achieve higher efficiency if there is a higher temperature difference between the hot-cold ends. However, higher temperature or higher heat flux being imposed upon the hot end will cause strong thermal stress, which will have a negative influence on the life cycle of the thermoelectric module. Meanwhile, in order to get high heat flux, a Fresnel lens is required to concentrate solar energy, which will cause non-uniformity of heat flux on the hot end of the TEG and further influence the thermal stress of the device. This phenomenon is very common in solar TEG devices but seldom research work has been reported. In this paper, numerical analysis on the heat transfer and thermal stress performance of a TEG module has been performed considering the variation on the power of the heat flux being imposed upon the hot-end; the influence of non-uniform high heat flux on thermal stress has also been analyzed. It is found that non-uniformity of high heat flux being imposed upon the hot end has a significant effect on the thermal stress of TEG and life expectation of the device. Taking the uniformity of 100% as standard, when the heating uniformity is 70%, 50%, 30%, and 10%, respectively, the maximum thermal stress of TEG module increased by 3%, 6%, 12%, and 22% respectively. If we increase the heat flux on the hot end, the influence of non-uniformity on the thermal stress will be more remarkable.
Deterministic Schedules for Robust and Reproducible Non-uniform Sampling in Multidimensional NMR
Eddy, Matthew T.; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G.; Herzfeld, Judith
2011-01-01
We show that a simple, general, and easily reproducible method for generating non-uniform sampling (NUS) schedules preserves the benefits of random sampling, including inherently reduced sampling artifacts, while removing the pitfalls associated with choosing an arbitrary seed. Sampling schedules are generated from a discrete cumulative distribution function (CDF) that closely fits the continuous CDF of the desired probability density function. We compare random and deterministic sampling usi...
Analysis of single blow effectiveness in non-uniform parallel plate regenerators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jesper Buch; Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Engelbrecht, Kurt;
2011-01-01
Non-uniform distributions of plate spacings in parallel plate regenerators have been found to induce loss of performance. In this paper, it has been investigated how variations of three geometric parameters (the aspect ratio, the porosity, and the standard deviation of the plate spacing) affects...... this loss in a single blow model of a parallel-plate regenerator. Simple analytical functions for the magnitude and the time scale of the reduction of performance are presented and compared to numerical results....
Entanglement in Anisotropic Heisenberg Model with Non-Uniform External Fields
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Yuan-Feng; CAO Jun-Peng; WANG Yu-Peng
2005-01-01
@@ We study entanglement properties of the three-qubit anisotropic Heisenberg model with both uniform and nonuniform external magnetic fields. Analytic expressions for the measures of entanglement at the ground state are obtained. We show that the pairwise entanglement and global entanglement of the system at the ground state clearly depend on the strength and configuration of external fields. The entanglement between some pairs can be enhanced by non-uniform external fields.
3D colloid migration in a non-uniform slot fracture
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, A.J.; Grindrod, P.
1997-12-01
The performance assessment of underground radioactive waste disposal facilities depends on being able to predict the possible migration of contaminants in rock fractures. In this study the migration of colloids due to advection and diffusion in symmetrical, non-uniform 3-D fractures using the Legrange 3-D particle tracking algorithm is considered. Using the algorithm theoretical and experimental predictions are compared. The algorithm has been verified against analytical forms in the case of uniform fractures. (UK).
A Fractal Model for the Effective Thermal Conductivity of Granular Flow with Non-uniform Particles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Duan-Ming; LEI Ya-Jie; YU Bo-Ming; ZHANG Mei-Jun; HUANG Ming-Tao; LI Zhi-Hua; GUAN Li
2002-01-01
The equipartition of energy applied in binary mixture of granular flow is extended to granular flow withnon-uniform particles. Based on the fractal characteristic of granular flow with non-uniform particles as well as energyequipartition, a fractal velocity distribution function and a fractal model of effective thermal conductivity are derived.Thermal conduction resulted from motions of particles in the granular flow, as well as the effect of fractal dimension oneffective thermal conductivity, is discussed.
Dhanoop K Dhanpal; Ajit Joseph; Asha Panicker
2015-01-01
Abstract Clustering is an efficient method for increasing the lifetime of wireless sensor network systems. The current clustering algorithms generate clusters of almost equal size. This will cause hot spot problem in multi-hop sensor networks. In this paper an energy efficient varying sized clustering algorithm EEVSCA and routing protocol are introduced for non-uniform node distributed wireless sensor network system. EEVSCA helps for the construction of clusters of varying size at the same ti...
Greenslade, Thomas B.
2010-04-01
Students all know that reflection from a plane mirror produces an image that is reversed right to left and so cannot be read by anyone but Leonardo da Vinci, who kept his notes in mirror writing. A useful counter-example is the Porro prism, which produces an image that is not reversed.
The magneto-optical properties of non-uniform graphene nanoribbons
Chung, Hsien-Ching; Lin, Ming-Fa
2015-03-01
When synthesizing few-layer graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), non-uniform GNRs would be made simultaneously. Recently, the non-uniform GNRs, which is a stack of two GNRs with unequal widths, have been fabricated by mechanically exfoliated from bulk graphite. Some theoretical predictions have been reported, such as gap opening and transport properties. Under the influence of magnetic fields, magnetic quantization takes place and drastically changes the electronic properties. By tuning the geometric configuration, four categories of magneto-electronic spectra are exhibited. (1) The spectrum is mostly contributed by quasi-Landau levels (QLLs) of monolayer GNRs. (2) The spectrum displays two groups of QLLs, and the non-uniform GNR behaves like a bilayer one. (3) An intermediate category, the spectrum is composite disordered. (4) The spectrum presents the coexistence of monolayer and bilayer spectra. In this work, the magneto-electronic and optical properties for different geometric configurations are given, such as energy dispersions, density of states, wave functions, and magneto-absorption spectra are presented. Furthermore, the transformation between monolayer and bilayer spectra as well as the coexistence of monolayer and bilayer spectra are discussed in detail. One of us (Hsien-Ching Chung) thanks Ming-Hui Chung and Su-Ming Chen for financial support. This work was supported in part by the National Science Council of Taiwan under Grant Number 98-2112-M-006-013-MY4.
Dynamic Modeling of a Non-Uniform Flexible Tail for a Robotic Fish
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Phi Luan Nguyen; Van Phu Do; Byung Ryong Lee
2013-01-01
In this paper,a non-uniform flexible tail of a fish robot was presented and the dynamic model was developed.In this model,the non-uniform flexible tail was modeled by a rotary slender beam.The hydrodynamics forces,including the reactive force and resistive force,were analyzed in order to derive the governing equation.This equation is a fourth-order in space and second-order in time Partial Differential Equation (PDE) of the lateral movement function.The coefficients of this PDE were not constants because of the non-uniform beams,so they were approximated by exponential functions in order to obtain an analytical solution.This solution describes the lateral movement of the flexible tail as a function of material,geometrical and actuator properties.Experiments were then carried out and compared to simulations.It was proved that the proposed model is suitable for predicting the real behavior of fish robots.
Non-Equispaced Grid Sampling in Photoacoustics with a Non-Uniform FFT
Schmid, Julian; Zabihian, Behrooz; Liu, Mengyang; Drexler, Wolfgang; Scherzer, Otmar
2015-01-01
To obtain the initial pressure from the collected data on a planar sensor arrangement in photoacoustic tomography, there exists an exact analytic frequency domain reconstruction formula. An efficient realization of this formula needs to cope with the evaluation of the data's Fourier transform on a non-equispaced mesh. In this paper, we use the non-uniform fast Fourier transform to handle this issue and show its feasibility in 3D experiments with real and synthetic data. This is done in comparison to the standard approach that uses linear, polynomial or nearest neighbor interpolation. Moreover, we investigate the effect and the utility of flexible sensor location to make optimal use of a limited number of sensor points. The computational realization is accomplished by the use of a multi-dimensional non-uniform fast Fourier algorithm, where non-uniform data sampling is performed both in frequency and spatial domain. Examples with synthetic and real data show that both approaches improve image quality.
Krupiński, Michał; Bareła, Jaroslaw; Firmanty, Krzysztof; Kastek, Mariusz
2013-10-01
Uneven response of particular detectors (pixels) to the same incident power of infrared radiation is an inherent feature of microbolometer focal plane arrays. As a result an image degradation occurs, known as Fixed Pattern Noise (FPN), which distorts the thermal representation of an observed scene and impairs the parameters of a thermal camera. In order to compensate such non-uniformity, several NUC correction methods are applied in digital data processing modules implemented in thermal cameras. Coefficients required to perform the non-uniformity correction procedure (NUC coefficients) are determined by calibrating the camera against uniform radiation sources (blackbodies). Non-uniformity correction is performed in a digital processing unit in order to remove FPN pattern in the registered thermal images. Relevant correction coefficients are calculated on the basis of recorded detector responses to several values of radiant flux emitted from reference IR radiation sources (blackbodies). The measurement of correction coefficients requires specialized setup, in which uniform, extended radiation sources with high temperature stability are one of key elements. Measurement stand for NUC correction developed in Institute of Optoelectronics, MUT, comprises two integrated extended blackbodies with the following specifications: area 200×200 mm, stabilized absolute temperature range +15 °C÷100 °C, and uniformity of temperature distribution across entire surface +/-0.014 °C. Test stand, method used for the measurement of NUC coefficients and the results obtained during the measurements conducted on a prototype thermal camera will be presented in the paper.
Schneiderman, Steven; Varadaraju, Hemanthram; Zhang, Lifeng; Fong, Hao; Menkhaus, Todd J
2011-12-23
A mathematical model has been investigated to predict protein breakthrough during membrane adsorption/chromatography operations. The new model incorporates a non-uniform boundary condition at the column inlet to help describe the deviation from plug flow within real membrane adsorption devices. The model provides estimated breakthrough profiles of a binding protein while explicitly accounting for non-uniform flow at the inlet of the separation operation by modeling the flow distribution by a polynomial. We have explored experimental breakthrough curves produced using commercial membrane adsorption devices, as well as novel adsorption media of nanolayered nanofiber membranes, and compare them to model predictions. Further, the impact of using various simplifying assumptions is considered, which can have a dramatic effect on the accuracy and predictive ability of the proposed models. The new model, using only simple batch equilibrium and kinetic uptake rate data, along with membrane properties, is able to accurately predict the non-uniform and unsymmetrical shape for protein breakthrough during operation of membrane adsorption/chromatography devices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leonhard eLücken
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Several brain diseases are characterized by abnormalneuronal synchronization. Desynchronization of abnormal neural synchronyis theoretically compelling because of the complex dynamical mechanismsinvolved. We here present a novel type of coordinated reset (CR stimulation.CR means to deliver phase resetting stimuli at different neuronalsub-populations sequentially, i.e. at times equidistantly distributedin a stimulation cycle. This uniform timing pattern seems to be intuitiveand actually applies to the neural network models used for the studyof CR so far. CR resets the population to an unstable cluster statefrom where it passes through a desynchronized transient, eventuallyresynchronizing if left unperturbed. In contrast, we show that theoptimal stimulation times are nonuniform. Using the model of weaklypulse-coupled neurons with phase response curves, we provide an approachthat enables to determine optimal stimulation timing patterns thatsubstantially maximize the desynchronized transient time followingthe application of CR stimulation. This approach includes an optimizationsearch for clusters in a low-dimensional pulse coupled map. As a consequence,model-specific non-uniformly spaced cluster states cause considerablylonger desynchronization transients. Intriguingly, such a desynchronizationboost with non-uniform CR stimulation can already be achieved by onlyslight modifications of the uniform CR timing pattern. Our resultssuggest that the non-uniformness of the stimulation times can be amedically valuable parameter in the calibration procedure for CR stimulation,where the latter has successfully been used in clinical and pre-clinicalstudies for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and tinnitus.
Effect of non-uniform surface resistance on the quality factor of superconducting niobium cavity
Tan, Weiwei; Lu, Xiangyang; Yang, Ziqin; Zhao, Jifei; Yang, Deyu; Yang, Yujia
2016-08-01
The formula Rs = G /Q0 is commonly used in the calculation of the surface resistance of radio frequency niobium superconducting cavities. The applying of such equation is under the assumption that surface resistance is consistent over the cavity. However, the distribution of the magnetic field varies over the cavity. The magnetic field in the equator is much higher than that in the iris. According to Thermal Feedback Theory, it leads non-uniform distribution of the density of heat flux, which results in a different temperature distribution along the cavity inter surface. The BCS surface resistance, which depends largely on the temperature, is different in each local inner surface. In this paper, the effect of surface non-uniform resistance on the quality factor has been studied, through the calculation of Q0 in the original definition of it. The results show that it is necessary to consider the non-uniform distribution of magnetic field when the accelerating field is above 20 MV/m for TESLA cavities. Also, the effect of inhomogeneity of residual resistance on the quality factor is discussed. Its distribution barely affects the quality factor.
Particle Simulation of the Blob Propagation in Non-Uniform Plasmas
Hasegawa, Hiroki; Ishiguro, Seiji
2014-10-01
The kinetic dynamics on blob propagation in non-uniform plasmas have been studied with a three dimensional electrostatic plasma particle simulation code. In our previous studies, we assumed that grad-B is uniform in the toroidal and poloidal directions. In scrape-off layer (SOL) plasmas of real magnetic confinement devices, however, the direction of grad-B is different between the inside and the outside of torus. In this study, we have investigated the blob kinetic dynamics in the system where grad-B is spatially non-uniform. We observe different potential and particle flow structures from those shown in our previous studies. Thus, it is found that propagation properties of blobs in non-uniform grad-B plasmas are also distinct. These properties depend on the initial blob location in the toroidal directions. We will also discuss the application of this study to pellet dynamics. Supported by NIFS Collaboration Research programs (NIFS13KNSS038 and NIFS14KNXN279) and a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (KAKENHI 23740411).
Developed ‘laminar’ bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
Bubbles with different sizes have different dynamic and kineticbehavior in a two-phase bubbly flow. A common two-fluid model based on the uniform bubble size assumption is not suitable for a bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes. To deal with non-uniform bubbly flows, a multi-fluid model is established, with which bubbles are divided into several groups according to their sizes and a set of basic equations is derived for each group of bubbles with almost the same size. Through analyzing the bubble-bubble and bubble-pipe wall interactions, two new constitutive laws for the wall-force and pressure difference between the liquid phase and interface are developed to close the averaged basic equations. The respective phase distributions for each group of bubbles measured by a specially designed three-dimensional photographic method are used to check the model. Comparison between model-predicted values and experimental data shows that the model can describe laminar bubbly flow with non-uniform bubble sizes.
Bridge density functional approximation for non-uniform hard core repulsive Yukawa fluid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Shi-Qi
2008-01-01
In this work,a bridge density functional approximation(BDFA)(J.Chem.Phys.112,8079(2000))for a non-uniform hard-sphere fluid is extended to a non-uniform hard-core repulsive Yukawa(HCRY)fluid.It is found that the choice of a bulk bridge functional approximation is crucial for both a uniform HCRY fluid and a non-uniform HCRY fluid.A new bridge functional approximation is proposed,which can accurately predict the radial distribution function of the bulk HCRY fluid.With the new bridge functional approximation and its associated bulk second order direct correlation function as input,the BDFA can be used to well calculate the density profile of the HCRY fluid subjected to the influence of varying external fields,and the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the corresponding simulation data.The calculated results indicate that the present BDFA captures quantitatively the phenomena such as the coexistence of solid-like high density phase and low density gas phase,and the adsorption properties of the HCRY fluid,which qualitatively differ from those of the fluids combining both hard-core repulsion and an attractive tail.
Sharma, Pratibha; Walker, Alex; Wheeldon, Jeff; Schriemer, Henry; Hinzer, Karin
2013-10-01
Concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) technology has come a long way, with multi-junction solar cell efficiencies now reaching up to 44.4%. Front contact grid design, crucial for improving efficiency, is typically performed for uniform illumination, but this does not account for the real world conditions of non-homogeneous irradiance distributions. In this work, we aim to optimize finger spacing for a linear grid under non-uniform illumination by using Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) analysis. A two-dimensional distributed resistance model is used to simulate a lattice matched, triple-junction solar cell whose design parameters are determined by curve-fitting current-voltage curves from each sub-cell to a two-diode equivalent-circuit model. Cell efficiency is considered to be a unimodal function that varies with finger spacing so a golden-section search optimization algorithm is used to determine the optimal spacing. Various Gaussian profiles are used to simulate non-uniform illumination and their effects on device performance. Designs based on optimal spacing for non-uniform illumination show an efficiency increase of more than 0.5% absolute at concentrations greater than 500 suns.
Well-balanced numerical modelling of non-uniform sediment transport in alluvial rivers
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Honglu Qian; Zhixian Cao; Gareth Pender; Huaihan Liu; Peng Hu
2015-01-01
abstract The last two decades have witnessed the development and application of well-balanced numerical models for shallow flows in natural rivers. However, until now there have been no such models for flows with non-uniform sediment transport. This paper presents a 1D well-balanced model to simulate flows and non-capacity transport of non-uniform sediment in alluvial rivers. The active layer formulation is adopted to resolve the change of bed sediment composition. In the framework of the finite volume Slope LImiter Centred (SLIC) scheme, a surface gradient method is incorporated to attain well-balanced solutions to the governing equations. The proposed model is tested against typical cases with irregular topography, including the refilling of dredged trenches, aggradation due to sediment overloading and flood flow due to landslide dam failure. The agreement between the computed results and measured data is encouraging. Compared to a non-well-balanced model, the well-balanced model features improved performance in reproducing stage, velocity and bed deformation. It should find general applications for non-uniform sediment transport modelling in alluvial rivers, especially in mountain areas where the bed topography is mostly irregular.
Fu, Jianyu; Shang, Haiping; Shi, Haitao; Li, Zhigang; Ou, Yi; Chen, Dapeng; Zhang, Qingchuan
2016-02-01
An optical readout focal plane array (FPA) usually has a differently tilted reflector/absorber at the initial state due to the micromachining technique. The angular deviation of the reflector/absorber has a strong impact on the optical sensitivity non-uniformity, which is a key factor which affects the imaging uniformity. In this study, a theoretical analysis has been developed, and it is found that the stress matching in SiO2-Aluminum (Al) bilayer leg could make a contribution towards reducing the optical sensitivity non-uniformity. Ion implantation of phosphorus (P) has been utilized to control the stress in SiO2 film. By controlling the implantation energy and dose, the stress and stress stability are modified. The optical readout FPA has been successfully fabricated with the stress-control technique based on P+ implantation. It is demonstrated that the gray response non-uniformity of optical readout FPA has decreased from 25.69% to 10.7%.
A crosstalk and non-uniformity correction method for the space-borne Compton polarimeter POLAR
Xiao, Hualin; Hajdas, Wojtek; Wu, Bobing; Produit, Nicolas; Bao, Tianwei; Batsch, Tadeusz; Cadoux, Franck; Chai, Junying; Dong, Yongwei; Kong, Minnan; Kong, Siwei; Rybka, Dominik K.; Leluc, Catherine; Li, Lu; Liu, Jiangtao; Liu, Xin; Marcinkowski, Radoslaw; Paniccia, Mercedes; Pohl, Martin; Rapin, Divic; Shi, Haoli; Song, Liming; Sun, Jianchao; Szabelski, Jacek; Wang, Ruijie; Wen, Xing; Xu, Hanhui; Zhang, Laiyu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Shuangnan; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Yongjie; Zwolinska, Ania
2016-10-01
In spite of extensive observations and numerous theoretical studies in the past decades several key questions related with Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRB) emission mechanisms are still to be answered. Precise detection of the GRB polarization carried out by dedicated instruments can provide new data and be an ultimate tool to unveil their real nature. A novel space-borne Compton polarimeter POLAR onboard the Chinese space station TG2 is designed to measure linear polarization of gamma-rays arriving from GRB prompt emissions. POLAR uses plastics scintillator bars (PS) as gamma-ray detectors and multi-anode photomultipliers (MAPMTs) for readout of the scintillation light. Inherent properties of such detection systems are crosstalk and non-uniformity. The crosstalk smears recorded energy over multiple channels making both non-uniformity corrections and energy calibration more difficult. Rigorous extraction of polarization observables requires to take such effects properly into account. We studied influence of the crosstalk on energy depositions during laboratory measurements with X-ray beams. A relation between genuine and recorded energy was deduced using an introduced model of data analysis. It postulates that both the crosstalk and non-uniformities can be described with a single matrix obtained in calibrations with mono-energetic X- and gamma-rays. Necessary corrections are introduced using matrix based equations allowing for proper evaluation of the measured GRB spectra. Validity of the method was established during dedicated experimental tests. The same approach can be also applied in space utilizing POLAR internal calibration sources. The introduced model is general and with some adjustments well suitable for data analysis from other MAPMT-based instruments.
Turbulence of non-uniform open channel flows and mean velocity scaling
Stewart, R.; Fox, J.
2014-12-01
Turbulence and mean velocity distributions are well studied for uniform flows, however fully turbulent non-uniform open channel flows over rough gravel beds are an understudied class of realistic flows with significant geomorphologic importance. The two-fold objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of flow deceleration on multi-layer turbulence and determine velocity scales that produce self-similar profiles using turbulent boundary layer theory. Turbulence statistics were calculated from data collected using a three-dimensional acoustic Doppler velocimeter in backwater region produced by placing cylindrical obstruction downstream of measuring location. Results indicate inner turbulent processes are set according to shear velocity while outer layer of turbulence is not. Mean streamwise velocity profiles of 101 published datasets including 2211 data points from non-uniform decelerating rivers and laboratory flumes are scaled using inner, outer and 2 mixed methods. Theoretical arguments indicate the outer velocity scale determined from the AIP definition of equilibrium provides a more appropriate scaling for the velocity deficit of non-uniform open channel flows than inner scaling determined from Clauser equilibrium. Scaling results of mean profiles show outer scaling collapses data better than inner scaling. Mixed scaling approaches, which account for upstream conditions and the effect of bed roughness felt throughout the flow, provide a better scaling choice for this class of flows than either inner or outer scales alone. Results of this analysis provide insight on the behavior of turbulence in decelerating fully turbulent open channel flow over a rough gravel bed and provides a scaling useful for predicting velocity distributions.
An Applied Method for Designing Maximally Decimating Non-uniform Filter Banks
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
Assembling individual line phase filters to form a multi-channel filter bank allows the synthesis filter to be similar to corresponding analysis filters, and the design calculation can be simple. The appropriate relations between synthesis filters and analysis filters eliminate most aliasing resulting from decimation in non-uniform maximally decimating filter banks, and LS algorithm and Remez algorithm are used to optimize the composite character. This design method can achieve approximate Perfect-Reconstruction. An example is given in which the general parameter filters with approximate line phase are used as units of a filter bank.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zaunbrecher, K.; Johnston, S.; Yan, F.; Sites, J.
2011-07-01
It is the purpose of this research to develop specific imaging techniques that have the potential to be fast, in-line tools for quality control in thin-film CdTe solar cells. Electroluminescence (EL) and photoluminescence (PL) are two techniques that are currently under investigation on CdTe small area devices made at Colorado State University. It is our hope to significantly advance the understanding of EL and PL measurements as applied to CdTe. Qualitative analysis of defects and non-uniformities is underway on CdTe using EL, PL, and other imaging techniques.
Pull-in analysis of non-uniform microcantilever beams under large deflection
Singh, Sajal Sagar; Pal, Prem; Pandey, Ashok Kumar
2015-11-01
Cantilever beams under the influence of electrostatic force form an important subclass of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical system. Most of the studies concerning these micro-nano resonators are centered around uniform cantilever beams. In this paper, we have investigated another class of micro-resonators consisting of non-uniform cantilever beams. The study is focused around investigating pull-in voltage and resonance frequency of non-uniform cantilever beams when they operate in the linear regime about different static equilibriums. In this paper, we term this frequency as "linear frequency." Calculation of the linear frequency is done at different static equilibriums corresponding to different DC voltages. We have studied two classes of beams, one with increasing cross sectional area from the clamped edge (diverging beam) and other with decreasing cross sectional area from the clamped edge (converging beam). Within each class, we have investigated beams with linear as well as quartic variation in width. We start by obtaining Euler beam equation for non-uniform cantilever beams considering large deflection and their corresponding exact mode shapes from the linear equation. Subsequently, using the Galerkin method based on single mode approximation, we obtain static and dynamic modal equations for finding pull-in voltage and resonance frequency as a function of DC voltage, respectively. We found that the linear frequency of converging beams increases with increase in non-uniform parameter (α) while those of diverging beams decreases with α. A similar trend is observed for pull-in voltage. Within the converging class, beams with quartic variation in width show significant increase in both frequency and pull-in voltage as compared to corresponding linearly tapered beams. In quantitative terms, converging beams with quartic variation in width and α=-0.6 showed an increase in linear frequency by a factor of 2.5 times and pull-in voltage
A front-end ASIC design for non-uniformity correction
Shen, X.; Ding, R. J.; Lin, J. M.; Liu, F.
2008-12-01
A front-end design of an ASIC that implements calibration and correction for IRFPA non-uniformity is presented. An algorithm suitable for ASIC implementation is introduced, and one kind of architecture that implements this algorithm has been designed. We map the architecture to TSMC 0.25um process. After evaluating the chip area and operation speed, we confirm that this architect will also be effective when the FPA scale in enlarged to 1Kby1K. Finally the flow of circuit implementation and method of verification are introduced briefly.
Investigation of Dynamic Behavior in 1D Non-uniform Granular System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
We present a non-uniform granular system in one-dimensional case, whose granularity distribution has the fractal characteristic. The particles are subject to inelastic mutual collisions and obey Langevin equation between collisions. By Monte Carlo simulation we study the dynamic actions of the system. Far from the equilibrium, i.e.,τ > τc, the results of simulation indicate that the inhomogeneity of the system and the inelasticity of the particles have great influences on the dynamic properties of the system, and correspondingly the influence of the inhomogeneity is more significant.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez-Nodarse, R [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Sevilla, Apdo. 1160, E-41080 Sevilla (Spain); Atakishiyev, N M [Instituto de Matematicas, UNAM, Apartado Postal 273-3, CP 62210 Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico (Germany); Costas-Santos, R S [Departamento de Matematicas, EPS, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Ave. Universidad 30, E-28911, Leganes, Madrid (Spain)
2005-01-07
We argue that one can factorize the difference equation of hypergeometric type on non-uniform lattices in the general case. It is shown that in the most cases of q-linear spectrum of the eigenvalues, this directly leads to the dynamical symmetry algebra su{sub q}(1, 1), whose generators are explicitly constructed in terms of the difference operators, obtained in the process of factorization. Thus all models with the q-linear spectrum (some of them, but not all, previously considered in a number of publications) can be treated in a unified form.
Mitigating the effect of non-uniform loss on time reversal mirrors
Taddese, Biniyam Tesfaye; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven M
2012-01-01
Time reversal mirrors work perfectly only for lossless wave propagation. Here, the performance of time-reversal mirrors is quantitatively defined, and the adverse effect of dissipation on their performance is investigated. The technique of exponential amplification is proposed to overcome the effect of dissipation in the case of uniform loss distributions, and, to some extent, in the case of non-uniform loss distributions. A numerical model of a star graph was employed to test the applicability of this technique on realizations with various random spatial distributions of loss. The numerical results are also verified by an experimental result from an electromagnetic time-reversal mirror.
RELOCATION ALGORITHM FOR NON-UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION IN MOBILE SENSOR NETWORK
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Pei Zhiqiang; Xu Changqing; Teng Jing
2009-01-01
Energy is the determinant factor for the survival of Mobile Sensor Networks (MSN). Based on the analysis of the energy distribution in this paper, a two-phase relocation algorithm is proposed based on the balance between the energy provision and energy consumption distribution. Our main objectives are to maximize the coverage percentage and to minimize the total distance of node movements. This algorithm is designed to meet the requirement of non-uniform distribution network applications, to extend the lifetime of MSN and to simplify the design of the routing protocol. In addition, test results show the feasibility of our proposed relocation algorithm.
Beam Focusing by a Non-Uniformly-Spaced Nanoslit Array in a Metallic Film
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIAO Xiao-Jin; WANG Pei; ZHANG Dou-Guo; LU Yong-Hua; XIE Jian-Ping; MING Hai
2006-01-01
@@ A finite difference time domain simulation has been performed to analyse the optical transmission through a non-uniformly-spaced nanoslit array in silver film. The phase change of surface plasmons propagating on the silver film is used to modulate the initial phase of the output beam. The beam deflection and focusing function are designed, and the focal depth of the focusing metallic structure are mainly considered. It is found that the focal depth can be controlled by altering the effective width of this structure, i.e. the number of slits, when the relative spacing is fixed.
A NON-UNIFORM SEDIMENT TRANSPORT MODEL WITH THE BOUNDARY-FITTING ORTHOGONAL COORDINATE SYSTEM
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
A 2-D non-uniform sediment mathmatical model in the boundary-fitting orthogonal coordinate system was developed in this paper. The governing equations, the numerical scheme, the boundary conditions, the movable boundary technique and the numerical solutions were presented. The model was verified by the data of the reach 25km upstream the Jialingjiang estuary and the 44km long main stream of the Chongqing reach of the Yangtze river. The calculated results show that, the water elevation, the velocity distribution and the river bed deformation are in agreement with the measured data.
Deep convolutional neural networks for dense non-uniform motion deblurring
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Cronje, J
2015-11-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info Cronje_2015_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 885 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Cronje_2015_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Computer... Vision and Pattern Recognition Deep Convolutional Neural Networks for Dense Non- Uniform Motion Deblurring Jaco Cronje Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria, South Africa Email: jcronje@csir.co.za Abstract The work...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
The azimuth sampling of multiple-receiver SAS systems is non-uniform,which causes standard wavenumber algorithm(ω—κ) can't be applied to multiple-receiver SAS image reconstruction.To solve the problem,two methods are presented,which can adapt the standardω—κalgorithm to multiple-receiver SAS system.One method named Non-uniform Separate Fourier Transform(NSFFT) converts the Fourier Transform(FT) of the non-uniform samples in azimuth direction into several uniform FTs on the assumption that the sonar array...
Non-Uniform Contrast and Noise Correction for Coded Source Neutron Imaging
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Bingham, Philip R [ORNL
2012-01-01
Since the first application of neutron radiography in the 1930s, the field of neutron radiography has matured enough to develop several applications. However, advances in the technology are far from concluded. In general, the resolution of scintillator-based detection systems is limited to the $10\\mu m$ range, and the relatively low neutron count rate of neutron sources compared to other illumination sources restricts time resolved measurement. One path toward improved resolution is the use of magnification; however, to date neutron optics are inefficient, expensive, and difficult to develop. There is a clear demand for cost-effective scintillator-based neutron imaging systems that achieve resolutions of $1 \\mu m$ or less. Such imaging system would dramatically extend the application of neutron imaging. For such purposes a coded source imaging system is under development. The current challenge is to reduce artifacts in the reconstructed coded source images. Artifacts are generated by non-uniform illumination of the source, gamma rays, dark current at the imaging sensor, and system noise from the reconstruction kernel. In this paper, we describe how to pre-process the coded signal to reduce noise and non-uniform illumination, and how to reconstruct the coded signal with three reconstruction methods correlation, maximum likelihood estimation, and algebraic reconstruction technique. We illustrates our results with experimental examples.
Water-vortex stabilized electric arc: II. Effect of non-uniform evaporation of water
Jenista, Jirí
1999-11-01
The paper deals with a numerical model of an electric arc stabilized by a water vortex. The axisymmetric model involves the area between the cathode and the output nozzle of the arc. The rate of evaporation of water (production of water plasma) is determined from radial conduction and radiation heat fluxes near the water-water-vapour phase transition. The influence of non-uniform evaporation rate along the discharge coordinate on the outlet arc parameters is studied for the currents 300 and 600 A. It is found from calculations that part of the power spent on evaporation is in the range 1.4-3.1% of the total input power. The dominant source of power losses from the arc is plasma radiation, which exceeds conduction losses by a factor of two to four. Since the majority of the arc discharge is nearly thermally fully-developed, the effect of non-uniformity of evaporation on the overall arc performance is minor. The calculated arc outlet characteristics are in good agreement with our data published previously, as well as with experiments carried out on the water plasma torch operating at our Institute.
Mixed convection flow with non-uniform heat source/sink in a doubly stratified magnetonanofluid
Mehmood, K.; Hussain, S.; Sagheer, M.
2016-06-01
In this study, we explore the unsteady flow of viscous nanofluid driven by an inclined stretching sheet. The novelty of the present study is to account for the effect of a non-uniform heat source/sink in a thermally and solutally stratified magnetonanofluid. Governing system of nonlinear partial differential equations is converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. Solution of the transformed system is obtained using RK4 method with shooting technique. It is observed that increase in the values of thermal and mass stratification parameter reduce the velocity profile and increase in the values of variable thermal conductivity parameter and non-uniform heat source/sink parameters enhance the temperature distribution. Moreover, skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are discussed. Obtained results are displayed both graphically and in tabular form to illustrate the effect of different parameters on the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles. Numerical results are compared with previous published results and found to be in good agreement for special cases of the emerging parameters.
Lazar, Markus; Pellegrini, Yves-Patrick
2016-11-01
This work introduces original explicit solutions for the elastic fields radiated by non-uniformly moving, straight, screw or edge dislocations in an isotropic medium, in the form of time-integral representations in which acceleration-dependent contributions are explicitly separated out. These solutions are obtained by applying an isotropic regularization procedure to distributional expressions of the elastodynamic fields built on the Green tensor of the Navier equation. The obtained regularized field expressions are singularity-free, and depend on the dislocation density rather than on the plastic eigenstrain. They cover non-uniform motion at arbitrary speeds, including faster-than-wave ones. A numerical method of computation is discussed, that rests on discretizing motion along an arbitrary path in the plane transverse to the dislocation, into a succession of time intervals of constant velocity vector over which time-integrated contributions can be obtained in closed form. As a simple illustration, it is applied to the elastodynamic equivalent of the Tamm problem, where fields induced by a dislocation accelerated from rest beyond the longitudinal wave speed, and thereafter put to rest again, are computed. As expected, the proposed expressions produce Mach cones, the dynamic build-up and decay of which is illustrated by means of full-field calculations.
Filippov, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.
2015-01-01
One of the important problems appearing in experimental realizations of artificial adhesives inspired by gecko foot hair is so-called clusterization. If an artificially produced structure is flexible enough to allow efficient contact with natural rough surfaces, after a few attachment–detachment cycles, the fibres of the structure tend to adhere one to another and form clusters. Normally, such clusters are much larger than original fibres and, because they are less flexible, form much worse adhesive contacts especially with the rough surfaces. Main problem here is that the forces responsible for the clusterization are the same intermolecular forces which attract fibres to fractal surface of the substrate. However, arrays of real gecko setae are much less susceptible to this problem. One of the possible reasons for this is that ends of the seta have more sophisticated non-uniformly distributed three-dimensional structure than that of existing artificial systems. In this paper, we simulated three-dimensional spatial geometry of non-uniformly distributed branches of nanofibres of the setal tip numerically, studied its attachment–detachment dynamics and discussed its advantages versus uniformly distributed geometry. PMID:25657843
Gravitational Influences on Flame Propagation through Non-Uniform, Premixed Gas Systems
Miller, Fletcher J.; Easton, John; Ross, Howard D.; Marchese, Anthony; Perry, David; Kulis, Michael
2001-01-01
Flame propagation through non-uniformly premixed (or layered) gases has importance both in useful combustion systems and in unintentional fires. As summarized previously, non-uniform premixed gas combustion receives scant attention compared to the more usual limiting cases of diffusion or uniformly premixed flames, especially regarding the role gravity plays. This paper summarizes our progress on furthering the knowledge of layered combustion, in which a fuel concentration gradient exists normal to the direction of flame spread. We present experimental and numerical results for flame spread through propanol-air layers formed near the flash point temperature (25 C) or near the stoichiometric temperature (33 C). Both the model and experimental results show that the removal of gravity results in a faster spreading flame, by as much as 80% depending on conditions. This is exactly the opposite effect as that predicted by an earlier model reported. We also found that having a gallery lid results in faster flame spread, an effect more pronounced at normal gravity, demonstrating the importance of enclosure geometry. Also reported here is the beginning of our spectroscopic measurements of fuel vapor.
Water-in-oil emulsification in a non-uniform alternating electric field
Choi, Suhwan; Saveliev, Alexei
2015-11-01
The emulsification of a water microdroplet placed in castor oil was performed using a non-uniform alternating electric field formed in the pin-to-plate geometry. A non-uniform electric field of ~40 kV/mm alternating with a frequency of 6.7 kHz was generated near the pin electrode. The applied frequency exceeded charge relaxation frequency of castor oil (0.3 Hz) and was below charge relaxation frequency of deionized water (7.8 kHz) used in the experiments. The emulsification process was captured with a CCD camera. The emulsification process started with entrainment of the water droplet in the high electric filed region near the pin electrode under the dielectrophoretic force. Upon touching the pin, the microdroplet was disintegrated in numerous channels and secondary droplets. The process continued by entrainment of secondary droplets and continuous size reduction. Three droplet breakup mechanisms were identified: drop elongation and capillary breakup, ac electrospraying of individual droplets, chain and bridge formation and decay. The quasi-steady narrow size distribution of emulsified water droplets with diameters close to 1 μm was formed after a few minutes. The generated emulsion was confined near the needle electrode due to the dielectrophoretic force. The emulsion had a well-defined boundary with a shape resembling a pendant drop suspended on the pin electrode.
Numerical simulation on bearing force of propeller for machining errors in non-uniform inflow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
YU Anbin
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In order to study the bearing force caused by the machining errors of composite material propeller in non-uniform flow, the propeller was computed by changing the machining error of the propeller in six degrees of freedom, in which the main blade translates and rotates along the coordinate axis artificially by way of the statistical method. The bearing force of a DTMB P4119 propeller with a machining error was calculated according to the SST k-ω model and sliding meshing non-uniform flow to figure out the impact of various machining errors on the propeller, enabling a fundamental rule about the impact of various machining errors on a propeller's bearing force to be formed. The results show that vertical bearing force and horizontal bearing force increase linearly, and first-order blade frequency bearing force rarely changes with the increase of machining errors in each freedom; machining errors along the directions of diameter and pitch have a great impact on the propeller shaft's frequency bearing force. Therefore, we can put forward a more refined principle about the machining accuracy of propellers.
The effect of non-uniform attenuation compensation on myocardial SPECT defect analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manglos, S.H.; Thomas, F.D.; Hellwig, B.J. (State Univ. of New York, Syracuse, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology)
1993-07-01
In SPECT myocardial imaging, the measurement of defect size helps to evaluate the existence and severity of suspected cardiovascular disease. To determine whether non-uniform attenuation and its compensation alter the apparent defect size, and thus potentially impact clinical evaluations, phantom studies were performed with defects in a ''myocardium''. Non-uniform attenuation compensation was performed with weighted backprojection and a cone-beam CT attenuation map. Polar maps with defects were compared to maps without defects but otherwise identically acquired and processed. Attenuation compensation generally altered the defect size by no more than 10%, except that (i) a truncated attenuation map altered the size of some defects, and (ii) the size was increased when the polar map with a defect was more attenuated than the defect-free polar map (simulating the comparison of a large patient to a smaller one). This increase was removed by attenuation, which also produced much more circularly symmetric polar maps. (Author).
The Influence of Non-Uniform Cloud Cover on Transit Transmission Spectra
Line, Michael R
2015-01-01
We model the impact of non-uniform cloud cover on transit transmission spectra. Patchy clouds exist in nearly every solar system atmosphere, brown dwarfs, and transiting exoplanets. Our major findings suggest that fractional cloud coverage can exactly mimic high-metallicity atmospheres and vice-versa over certain wavelength regions, in particular, over the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) bandpass (1.1-1.7 $\\mu$m). We also find that patchy cloud coverage exhibits a signature that is different from uniform global clouds. We explore the additional degeneracy of non-uniform cloud coverage in atmospheric retrievals on both synthetic and real planets. We find from retrievals on a synthetic solar composition hot Jupiter with patchy clouds and a cloud free high mean molecular weight warm Neptune, that both cloud free high mean molecular weight atmospheres and partially cloudy atmospheres can explain the data equally well. Another key find is that the HST WFC3 transit transmission spectra of tw...
Effects of magnetic field on the interaction between terahertz wave and non-uniform plasma slab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tian, Yuan; Han, YiPing; Guo, LiXin [School of physics and optoelectronic engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China); Ai, Xia [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Test Physics and Numerical Mathematical, Beijing 100076 (China)
2015-10-15
In this paper, the interaction between terahertz electromagnetic wave and a non-uniform magnetized plasma slab is investigated. Different from most of the published literatures, the plasma employed in this work is inhomogeneous in both collision frequency and electron density. Profiles are introduced to describe the non-uniformity of the plasma slab. At the same time, magnetic field is applied to the background of the plasma slab. It came out with an interesting phenomenon that there would be a valley in the absorption band as the plasma's electromagnetic characteristic is affected by the magnetic field. In addition, the valley located just near the middle of the absorption peak. The cause of the valley's appearance is inferred in this paper. And the influences of the variables, such as magnetic field strength, electron density, and collision frequency, are discussed in detail. The objective of this work is also pointed out, such as the applications in flight communication, stealth, emissivity, plasma diagnose, and other areas of plasma.
Compression gain of spin wave signals in a magnonic YIG waveguide with thermal non-uniformity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kolokoltsev, O.; Gómez-Arista, Ivan; Qureshi, N.; Acevedo, A. [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Ordóñez-Romero, César L. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, CU 04510 D.F. (Mexico); Grishin, A. [Condensed Matter Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-164 40 Stockholm, Kista (Sweden)
2015-03-01
We report on the observation of the compression gain of the signals carried by surface spin waves (MSSWs) in yittrium iron garnet films as a result of non-uniform optical heating of the spin wave medium. Efficient gain takes place if a frequency downshift of the spin wave spectrum induced by the heating is compensated by the corresponding non-uniformity of the bias magnetic field. It is proposed that the effect can be understood in part as an interaction between spin waves and a thermally induced potential well in the sample. - Highlights: • In this manuscript we describe the case when thermal control of the magnetization profile leads to significant improvement of characteristics of a spin wave delay line element. • We believe that this technology can be used to realize reconfigurable magnonic crystals or waveguiding structures induced in the ferromagnets by scanning optic systems integrated with a semiconductor lasers. • It should be noted, in metallic systems thermal response times are of order of picoseconds.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Majumdar Bishnu
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to derive the non-uniformity correction factor for the two therapy ionization chambers for the dose measurement near the brachytherapy source. The two ionization chambers of 0.6 cc and 0.1 cc volume were used. The measurement in air was performed for distances between 0.8 cm and 20 cm from the source in specially designed measurement jig. The non-uniformity correction factors were derived from the measured values. The experimentally derived factors were compared with the theoretically calculated non-uniformity correction factors and a close agreement was found between these two studies. The experimentally derived non-uniformity correction factor supports the anisotropic theory.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Hang Zhou; Yuehong Su; Michele Bottarelli; Marco Bortoloni; Shenyi Wu
2015-01-01
This study presents a numerical validation of a new approach to model single junction PV cell under non-uniform illumination for low-concentration solar collectors such as compound parabolic concentrators (CPC...
High precision prism scanning system
García-Torales, G.; Flores, J. L.; Muñoz, Roberto X.
2007-03-01
Risley prisms are commonly used in continuous scanning manner. Each prism is capable of rotating separately about a common axis at different speeds. Scanning patterns are determined by the ratios of the wedge angles, the speed and direction of rotation of both prisms. The use of this system is conceptually simple. However, mechanical action in most applications becomes a challenge often solved by the design of complex control algorithms. We propose an electronic servomotor system that controls incremental and continuous rotations of the prisms wedges by means of an auto-tuning PID control using a Adaline Neural Network Algorithm, NNA.
Non-uniform phases in a three-flavour 't Hooft extended Nambu-Jona--Lasinio model
Moreira, J; Broniowski, W; Osipov, A A; Blin, A H
2014-01-01
The possible existence of non-uniform phases in cold dense quark matter in the light quark sector ($u$, $d$ and $s$) is addressed using the Nambu-Jona--Lasinio Model extended to include flavour-mixing 't Hooft determinant. The effect of changes in the coupling strengths of the model is discussed. It is seen that the inclusion of the strange sector catalyses the appearance of these non-uniform phases extending the domain for their appearance.
Kong, Xiangqiang; Luo, Zhen; Dong, Hezhong; Eneji, A Egrinya; Li, Weijiang
2012-03-01
A new split-root system was established through grafting to study cotton response to non-uniform salinity. Each root half was treated with either uniform (100/100 mM) or non-uniform NaCl concentrations (0/200 and 50/150 mM). In contrast to uniform control, non-uniform salinity treatment improved plant growth and water use, with more water absorbed from the non- and low salinity side. Non-uniform treatments decreased Na(+) concentrations in leaves. The [Na(+)] in the '0' side roots of the 0/200 treatment was significantly higher than that in either side of the 0/0 control, but greatly decreased when the '0' side phloem was girdled, suggesting that the increased [Na(+)] in the '0' side roots was possibly due to transportation of foliar Na(+) to roots through phloem. Plants under non-uniform salinity extruded more Na(+) from the root than those under uniform salinity. Root Na(+) efflux in the low salinity side was greatly enhanced by the higher salinity side. NaCl-induced Na(+) efflux and H(+) influx were inhibited by amiloride and sodium orthovanadate, suggesting that root Na(+) extrusion was probably due to active Na(+)/H(+) antiport across the plasma membrane. Improved plant growth under non-uniform salinity was thus attributed to increased water use, reduced leaf Na(+) concentration, transport of excessive foliar Na(+) to the low salinity side, and enhanced Na(+) efflux from the low salinity root.
Kim, Kyoung-Bo; Park, Hye-Hyang; Kwon, Ohseob; Kim, Moojin; Lee, Ki-Yong; Park, Yongwoo; Choi, JongHyun; Yu, CheolHo; Kim, Hye-Dong; Kim, Sung Chul; Chung, Ho-Kyoon
2008-01-01
We recently improved the brightness non-uniformity in active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) regarding non-uniform laser energy distribution by applying a “shot mixing” technique in sequential lateral solidification (SLS) method. Although the new SLS technique was employed, another brightness non-uniformity that appeared as oblique lines on AMOLED panels became a crucial issue. In this work, we attempted to investigate the origins of the non-uniformity. Our systematic analysis on the oblique lines revealed that the line type non-uniformity was attributed to both the SLS process and the thin-film transistor (TFT) fabrication processes. In particular, we found that such oblique patterns might be related to moiré patterns that appear when primary grain boundaries aligned in a repetitive pattern is placed over other repetitive TFT patterns such as metal lines. We adopted a method to diminish the moiré pattern type non-uniformity by applying top emission TFT structure.
Instability of Non-uniform Toroidal Magnetic Fields in Accretion Disks
Hirabayashi, Kota
2016-01-01
A new type of instability that is expected to drive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence from a purely toroidal magnetic field in an accretion disk is presented. It is already known that in a differentially rotating system, the uniform toroidal magnetic field is unstable due to a magnetorotational instability (MRI) under a non-axisymmetric and vertical perturbation, while it is stable under a purely vertical perturbation. Contrary to the previous study, this paper proposes an unstable mode completely confined to the equatorial plane, driven by the expansive nature of the magnetic pressure gradient force under a non-uniform toroidal field. The basic nature of this growing eigenmode, to which we give a name "magneto-gradient driven instability", is studied using linear analysis, and the corresponding nonlinear evolution is then investigated using two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations. Although a single localized magnetic field channel alone cannot provide sufficient Maxwell stress to contribute significantly to...
L-dwarf variability Magnetic star spots or non-uniform clouds?
Gelino, C R; Holtzmann, J A; Ackerman, A S; Lodders, K; Gelino, Christopher R.; Marley, Mark S.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Lodders, Katharina
2001-01-01
The recent discovery of photometric variations in L dwarfs has opened a discussion on the cause of the variations. We argue against the existence of magnetic spots in these atmospheres and favor the idea that non-uniform condensate coverage (i.e. clouds) is responsible for the variations. The magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) in the atmosphere of L dwarfs, which describes how well the gas couples with the magnetic field, is too small (<<1) to support the formation of magnetic spots. In constrast silicate and iron clouds form in the photospheres of L dwarfs. Inhomogeneities in such cloud decks can plausibly produce the observed photometric variations. Further evidence in support of clouds is the tendency for variable L dwarfs to be bluer in J-Ks than the average L dwarf of a given spectral type. This color effect is expected if clear holes appear in an otherwise uniform cloud layer.
Sampling-interval-dependent stability for linear sampled-data systems with non-uniform sampling
Shao, Hanyong; Lam, James; Feng, Zhiguang
2016-09-01
This paper is concerned with the sampling-interval-dependent stability of linear sampled-data systems with non-uniform sampling. A new Lyapunov-like functional is constructed to derive sampling-interval-dependent stability results. The Lyapunov-like functional has three features. First, it depends on time explicitly. Second, it may be discontinuous at the sampling instants. Third, it is not required to be positive definite between sampling instants. Moreover, the new Lyapunov-like functional can make use of the information fully of the sampled-data system, including that of both ends of the sampling interval. By making a new proposition for the Lyapunov-like functional, a sampling-interval-dependent stability criterion with reduced conservatism is derived. The new sampling-interval-dependent stability criterion is further extended to linear sampled-data systems with polytopic uncertainties. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the reduced conservatism of the stability criteria.
Swept source optical coherence tomography based on non-uniform discrete fourier transform
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tong Wu; Zhihua Ding; Kai Wang; Chuan Wang
2009-01-01
A high-speed high-sensitivity swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system using a high speed swept laser source is developed.Non-uniform discrete fourier transform (NDFT) method is introduced in the SSOCT system for data processing.Frequency calibration method based on a Mach-Zender interferometer (MZI) and conventional data interpolation method is also adopted in the system for comparison.Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images from SSOCT based on the NDFT method,the MZI method,and the interpolation method are illustrated.The axial resolution of the SSOCT based on the NDFT method is comparable to that of the SSOCT system using MZI calibration method and conventional data interpolation method.The SSOCT system based on the NDFT method can achieve higher signal intensity than that of the system based on the MZI calibration method and conventional data interpolation method because of the better utilization of the power of source.
Force-free collisionless current sheet models with non-uniform temperature and density profiles
Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.; Allanson, O.
2017-09-01
We present a class of one-dimensional, strictly neutral, Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium distribution functions for force-free current sheets, with magnetic fields defined in terms of Jacobian elliptic functions, extending the results of Abraham-Shrauner [Phys. Plasmas 20, 102117 (2013)] to allow for non-uniform density and temperature profiles. To achieve this, we use an approach previously applied to the force-free Harris sheet by Kolotkov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 112902 (2015)]. In one limit of the parameters, we recover the model of Kolotkov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 112902 (2015)], while another limit gives a linear force-free field. We discuss conditions on the parameters such that the distribution functions are always positive and give expressions for the pressure, density, temperature, and bulk-flow velocities of the equilibrium, discussing the differences from previous models. We also present some illustrative plots of the distribution function in velocity space.
Electron Transport Behavior in a Mirror Magnetic Field and a Non-uniform Electric Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Yan-Hong; LIU Zu-Li; YAO Kai-Lun; WEI He-Lin; LIU Hong-Xiang
2001-01-01
The behaviors of electrons as they move under the influence of mirror magnetic field and non-uniform electric field in a positive column of helium radio frequency gas discharge are studied by Monte Carlo simulation. Some types of collisions (elastic, excitation and ionization collisions) are considered. Graphs showing how the electron density,electron energy, electron current density, collision rate and the electron-scattering angular distribution are affected by the mirror magnetic field are presented. The results indicate that the mirror magnetic field can control the electron transport behavior in the positive column. In the presence of the mirror magnetic field, the electrons are restricted in the middle part of the positive column, and the electron density is greatly increased. The electron collision rate and the electron current density are enhanced in the middle region, and the electron-scattering angles are extended by the mirror magnetic tields. These results are in good agreement with experimental results.
CdTe microwire-based ultraviolet photodetectors aligned by a non-uniform electric field
Park, Hyunik; Yang, Gwangseok; Chun, Seungju; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Jihyun
2013-07-01
We report on ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors fabricated by positioning Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) microwires (μWs) precisely by dielectrophoretic (DEP) force, where CdTe μWs were grown using an Au-catalyst-assisted closed-space-sublimation (CSS) method. The optical properties of CSS-grown CdTe μWs were characterized by micro-photoluminescence and micro-Raman spectroscopies. Optoelectronic characteristics were obtained after CdTe μWs were aligned on a pre-patterned SiO2/Si substrate by a non-uniform electric field. Photocurrents were increased with increasing the light intensities. Fast and reliable photoresponse and recovery were observed when CdTe μWs were exposed to UV illuminations. We demonstrated that high quality CdTe μWs grown by the CSS method have significant potentials as optoelectronic devices.
Tunnel FET with non-uniform gate capacitance for improved device and circuit level performance
Alper, C.; De Michielis, L.; Dağtekin, N.; Lattanzio, L.; Bouvet, D.; Ionescu, A. M.
2013-06-01
We report the significant improvement obtained by a non-uniform gate capacitance made by appropriate combination of high-k and low-k regions over the tunneling and the channel regions of a heterostucture TFET (called HKLKTFET). In addition to significantly enhanced ION and subthreshold swing, we find that this structure offers great improvements for the dynamic switching energy (66% saving) and propagation delay (˜3× fast operation) compared to a heterostructure TFET (HeTFET) due to the reduction of the Miller effect. We compare and benchmark the proposed device against a 65 nm low stand-by power (LSTP) CMOS technology, and we show that at a supply voltage of VDD = 0.4 V, TFETs can have smaller propagation delays compared to CMOS operating in the subthreshold region. Higher cut-off frequency (˜3×) and bandwidth for analog applications is observed in circuit-level simulations.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Dynamical formation and growth of cavity in a sphere composed of two incompressible thermal-hyperelastic Gent-Thomas materials were discussed under the case of a non-uniform temperature field and the surface dead loading. The mathematical model was first presented based on the dynamical theory of finite deformations. An exact differential relation between the void radius and surface load was obtained by using the variable transformation method. By numerical computation, critical loads and cavitation growth curves were obtained for different temperatures. The influence of the temperature and material parameters of the composed sphere on the void formation and growth was considered and compared with those for static analysis. The results show that the cavity occurs suddenly with a finite radius and its evolvement with time displays a non-linear periodic vibration and that the critical load decreases with the increase of temperature and also the dynamical critical load is lower than the static critical load under the same conditions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiang Ji-Jian; Meng Qing-Miao; Wang Shuai
2009-01-01
Using entropy density of Dirac field near the event horizon of a rectilinear non-uniformly accelerating Kinnersley black hole, the law for the thermal radiation of black hole is studied and the instantaneous radiation energy density is obtained. It is found that the instantaneous radiation energy density of a black hole is always proportional to the quartic of the temperature on event horizon in the same direction. That is to say, the thermal radiation of a black hole always satisfies the generalized Stefan Boltzmann law. In addition, the derived generalized Stefan-Boltzmann coefficient is no longer a constant, but a dynamic coefficient related to the space-time metric near the event horizon and the changing rate of the event horizon in black holes.
Deterministic schedules for robust and reproducible non-uniform sampling in multidimensional NMR.
Eddy, Matthew T; Ruben, David; Griffin, Robert G; Herzfeld, Judith
2012-01-01
We show that a simple, general, and easily reproducible method for generating non-uniform sampling (NUS) schedules preserves the benefits of random sampling, including inherently reduced sampling artifacts, while removing the pitfalls associated with choosing an arbitrary seed. Sampling schedules are generated from a discrete cumulative distribution function (CDF) that closely fits the continuous CDF of the desired probability density function. We compare random and deterministic sampling using a Gaussian probability density function applied to 2D HSQC spectra. Data are processed using the previously published method of Spectroscopy by Integration of Frequency and Time domain data (SIFT). NUS spectra from deterministic sampling schedules were found to be at least as good as those from random schedules at the SIFT critical sampling density, and significantly better at half that sampling density. The method can be applied to any probability density function and generalized to greater than two dimensions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Low voltage transflective blue-phase liquid crystal display with a non-uniform etching substrate
Wang, Jian; Mao, Jiang-Lin; Fan, Hao-Xiang; Wang, Qiong-Hua
2016-09-01
A transflective polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal display (BP-LCD) with a non-uniform etching substrate is proposed. In-plane switching (IPS) electrodes on the bottom substrate are put on the different gaps, and the bottom substrate between the electrodes is etched into different depths in transmissive (T) and reflective (R) regions. This structure can balance the optical phase retardation in the two regions and is helpful to achieve well-matched voltag-dependent transmittance and reflectance curves. This transflective display has high optical efficiency, a wide viewing angle, and low operating voltage (approximately 6 V). Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61535007 and 61320106015) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB328802).
Effect of disjoining pressure in a thin film equation with non-uniform forcing
MOULTON, D. E.
2013-08-02
We explore the effect of disjoining pressure on a thin film equation in the presence of a non-uniform body force, motivated by a model describing the reverse draining of a magnetic film. To this end, we use a combination of numerical investigations and analytical considerations. The disjoining pressure has a regularizing influence on the evolution of the system and appears to select a single steady-state solution for fixed height boundary conditions; this is in contrast with the existence of a continuum of locally attracting solutions that exist in the absence of disjoining pressure for the same boundary conditions. We numerically implement matched asymptotic expansions to construct equilibrium solutions and also investigate how they behave as the disjoining pressure is sent to zero. Finally, we consider the effect of the competition between forcing and disjoining pressure on the coarsening dynamics of the thin film for fixed contact angle boundary conditions. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2013.
Non-uniform FFT for the finite element computation of the micromagnetic scalar potential
Exl, Lukas
2013-01-01
We present a linear in-time P1 finite element method for the computation of the micromagnetic scalar potential based on the ansatz of Garc\\'{i}a-Cervera and Roma for the interface problem. The potential is determined by solving a Dirichlet problem and evaluation of the single layer potential by a fast approximation technique based on Fourier approximation of the kernel function. The latter approximation leads to a generalization of the well-known convolution theorem used in finite difference methods. We address it by a non-uniform FFT approach. Overall, our method scales O(M+N) for N nodes and M surface triangles. We confirm our approach by several numerical tests.
Optimising SD and LSD in Presence of Non-uniform Probabilities of Revocation
D'Arco, Paolo; de Santis, Alfredo
Some years ago two efficient broadcast encryption schemes for stateless receivers, referred to as SD (Subset Difference Method) [NNL01] and LSD (Layered Subset Difference Method) [HS02] , were proposed. They represent one of the most suitable solution to broadcast encryption. In this paper we focus on the following issue: both schemes assume uniform probabilities of revocation of the receivers. However, in some applications, such an assumption might not hold: receivers in a certain area, due to historical and legal reasons, can be considered trustworthy, while receivers from others might exhibit more adversarial behaviours. Can we modify SD and LSD to better fit settings in which the probabilities of revocation are non-uniform?
Finding the buckling load of non-uniform columns using the iteration perturbation method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aref Afsharfard
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to calculate the critical load of variable inertia columns. The example studied in this paper can be used as a paradigm for other non-uniform columns. The wavelength of equivalent vibratory system is used to calculate the critical load of the trigonometrically varied inertia column. In doing so, the equilibrium equation of the column is theoretically studied using the perturbation method. Accuracy of the calculated results is evaluated by comparing the solution with numerical results. Effect of improving the initial guess on the solution accuracy is investigated. Effects of varying parameters of the trigonometrically varied inertia and the uniformly tapered columns on their stability behavior are studied. Finally, using the so-called “perfectibility” parameter, two design goals, i.e., being lightweight and being strong, are studied for the discussed columns.
McCanney, J. M.
2009-05-01
Most earth weather and ionosphere-space environment coupling studies separate the problems into distinct groups. Heliosphere to solar wind - solar storm activity to ionospheric coupling - thermosphere and mid- altitude to the ionosphere and electrical effects such as elves and sprites and thunderstorms in another group - additionally mid and high latitude weather systems are many times separated also. The theoretical work here shows that not only are these areas coupled and related, but it also shows that without the constant electrical and resulting magnetic driving forces from space environments, earth would have little if no weather variability at all below the ionosphere. With only solar light energy as input, earth (and the other planets) would have little weather at all. The realization that extensive electrical activates occur in and above the troposphere, extending to the ionosphere and ultimately coupling to the magnetosphere have raised the theoretical and experimental questions regarding the sources of EMF which create the observed effects. The current work has identified 17 Local Electrical Batteries (LEBs), which provide the electrical EMF that can be linked to the observed effects the jet streams and lower atmospheric weather phenomenon. The path of the sources of EMF can be followed from the passing solar wind through "tunnels" that end in electrical currents that pass into the atmosphere via the ionosphere to storm cloud systems in the lower atmosphere. However the source of energy comes from localized plasma discharging of a non-uniform plasma environment that powers the electrical systems of the entire solar system. These are ultimately the sources of electrical energy that power the severe lower atmospheric storm systems such as westerly moving hurricanes at low latitudes and associated tornadoes. The connection is made theoretically with the solar wind that drives the 17 identified LEBs. The ultimate source of driving energy is the result of an
Implementation of non-uniform FFT based Ewald summation in Dissipative Particle Dynamic method
Wang, Yong-Lei; Lu, Zhong-Yuan; 10.1016/j.jcp.2012.09.023
2013-01-01
The ENUF method, i.e., Ewald summation based on the Non-Uniform FFT technique (NFFT), is implemented in Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation scheme to fast and accurately calculate the electrostatic interactions at mesoscopic level. In a simple model electrolyte system, the suitable ENUF-DPD parameters, including the convergence parameter $\\alpha$, the NFFT approximation parameter $p$, and the cut-offs for real and reciprocal space contributions, are carefully determined. With these optimized parameters, the ENUF-DPD method shows excellent efficiency and scales as $\\mathcal{O}(N\\log N)$. The ENUF-DPD method is further validated by investigating the effects of charge fraction of polyelectrolyte, ionic strength and counterion valency of added salts on polyelectrolyte conformations. The simulations in this paper, together with a separately published work of dendrimer-membrane complexes, show that the ENUF-DPD method is very robust and can be used to study charged complex systems at mesoscopic level.
Propeller Cavitation in Non-Uniform Flow and Correlation with the Near Pressure Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francisco Alves Pereira
2016-11-01
Full Text Available An experimental study is carried out in a cavitation tunnel on a propeller operating downstream of a non-uniform wake. The goal of this work is to establish quantitative correlations between the near pressure field and the cavitation pattern that takes place on the propeller blades. The pressure field is measured at the walls of the test section and in the near wake of the propeller and is combined with quantitative high-speed image recording of the cavitation pattern. Through harmonic analysis of the pressure data and image processing techniques that allow retrieving the cavitation extension and volume, we discuss the potential sources that generate the pressure fluctuations. Time correlations are unambiguously established between pressure peak fluctuations and cavitation collapse events, based on the Rayleigh collapse time. Finally, we design a model to predict the cavitation-induced pressure fluctuations from the derivation of the cavitation volume acceleration. A remarkable agreement is observed with the actual pressure field.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Guoxiang; CHEN Yinchao; SHEN Guoqiang
2001-01-01
The paper presents an efficient andfast non-uniform, orthogonal mesh generation algo-rithm for the analysis and design of cylindrical mi-crowave devices and integrated circuits using thecylindrical finite-difference time-domain (CFDTD)methods. By using this algorithm, we can easily gen-erate a suitable CFDTD grid fitting for the devel-oped CFDTD Maxwell's solver. In the paper, wewill introduce in detail the algorithm and the graph-ical functions of the corresponding software package,CylinMesh. In addition, we will illustrate the algo-rithm by demonstrating various one, two, and three-dimensional grid patterns for a double-layered cylin-drical microstrip stepped-impedance low pass filter.
Source digital camcorder identification using sensor photo response non-uniformity
Chen, Mo; Fridrich, Jessica; Goljan, Miroslav; Lukáš, Jan
2007-02-01
Photo-response non-uniformity (PRNU) of digital sensors was recently proposed [1] as a unique identification fingerprint for digital cameras. The PRNU extracted from a specific image can be used to link it to the digital camera that took the image. Because digital camcorders use the same imaging sensors, in this paper, we extend this technique for identification of digital camcorders from video clips. We also investigate the problem of determining whether two video clips came from the same camcorder and the problem of whether two differently transcoded versions of one movie came from the same camcorder. The identification technique is a joint estimation and detection procedure consisting of two steps: (1) estimation of PRNUs from video clips using the Maximum Likelihood Estimator and (2) detecting the presence of PRNU using normalized cross-correlation. We anticipate this technology to be an essential tool for fighting piracy of motion pictures. Experimental results demonstrate the reliability and generality of our approach.
Neutron-diffraction measurement of the evolution of strain for non-uniform plastic deformation
Rogge, R B; Boyce, D
2002-01-01
Neutrons are particularly adept for the validation of modeling predictions of stress and strain. In recent years, there has been a significant effort to model the evolution of both the macroscopic stresses and the intergranular stress during plastic deformation. These have had broad implications with regard to understanding the evolution of residual stress and to diffraction-based measurements of strain. Generally the modeling and associated measurements have been performed for simple uniaxial tension, leaving questions with regard to plastic deformation under multi-axial stress and non-uniform stress. Extensive measurements of the strain profile across a plastic hinge for each of a series of loading and unloading cycles to progressively higher degrees of plastic deformation are presented. These measurements are used to assess multiple-length-scale finite-element modeling (FEM) of the plastic hinge, in which the elements will range in size from single crystallites (as used in successful simulations of uniaxia...
A New Uniform Phase Bridge Functional: Test and Its Application to Non-uniform Phase Fluid
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Shi-Qi; CHEN Hong; ZHANG Xiao-Qi
2003-01-01
A new bridge functional as a function of indirect correlation function was proposed, which was basedon analysis on the asymptotic behavior of the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation system and a series expansion whoserenormalization resulted in an adjustable parameter determined by the thermodynamics consistency condition. Theproposed bridge functional was tested by applying it to bulk hard sphere and hard core Yukawa fluid for the predictionof structure and thermodynamics properties based on the OZ equation. As an application, the present bridge functionalwas employed for non-uniform fluid of the above two kinds by means of the density functional theory methodology, theresulting density distribution profiles were in good agreement with the available computer simulation data.
Non-uniform interhemispheric temperature trends over the past 550 years
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duncan, Richard P. [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln (New Zealand); Lincoln University, Bio-Protection Research Centre, PO Box 84, Lincoln (New Zealand); Fenwick, Pavla; Palmer, Jonathan G. [Gondwana Tree-ring Laboratory, PO Box 14, Canterbury (New Zealand); McGlone, Matt S. [Landcare Research, PO Box 40, Lincoln (New Zealand); Turney, Chris S.M. [University of Exeter, School of Geography, Exeter (United Kingdom)
2010-12-15
The warming trend over the last century in the northern hemisphere (NH) was interrupted by cooling from ad 1940 to 1975, a period during which the southern hemisphere experienced pronounced warming. The cause of these departures from steady warming at multidecadal timescales are unclear; the prevailing explanation is that they are driven by non-uniformity in external forcings but recent models suggest internal climate drivers may play a key role. Paleoclimate datasets can help provide a long-term perspective. Here we use tree-rings to reconstruct New Zealand mean annual temperature over the last 550 years and demonstrate that this has frequently cycled out-of-phase with NH mean annual temperature at a periodicity of around 30-60 years. Hence, observed multidecadal fluctuations around the recent warming trend have precedents in the past, strongly implicating natural climate variation as their cause. We consider the implications of these changes in understanding and modelling future climate change. (orig.)
Numerical Prediction of Marine Propeller Noise in Non-Uniform Inflow
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
PAN Yu-cun; ZHANG Huai-xin
2013-01-01
A numerical study on the acoustic radiation of a propeller interacting with non-uniform inflow has been conducted.Real geometry of a marine propeller DTMB 4118 is used in the calculation,and sliding mesh technique is adopted to deal with the rotational motion of the propeller.The performance of the DES (Detached Eddy Simulation) approach at capturing the unsteady forces and moments on the propeller is compared with experiment.Far-field sound radiation is predicted by the formation 1A developed by Farassat,an integral solution of FW-H (Ffowes Williams-Hawkings)equation in time domain.The sound pressure and directivity patterns of the propeller operating in two specific velocity distributions are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ashwini M. Deshpande
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Considering the sparseness property of images, a sparse representation based iterative deblurring method is presented for single image deblurring under uniform and non-uniform motion blur. The approach taken is based on sparse and redundant representations over adaptively training dictionaries from single blurred-noisy image itself. Further, the K-SVD algorithm is used to obtain a dictionary that describes the image contents effectively. Comprehensive experimental evaluation demonstrate that the proposed framework integrating the sparseness property of images, adaptive dictionary training and iterative deblurring scheme together significantly improves the deblurring performance and is comparable with the state-of-the art deblurring algorithms and seeks a powerful solution to an ill-conditioned inverse problem.
Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection with a Non-Uniform Guide Field
Wilson, Fiona; Hesse, Michael; Harrison, Michael G; Stark, Craig R
2015-01-01
Results are presented of a first study of collisionless magnetic reconnection starting from a recently found exact nonlinear force-free Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium. The initial state has a Harris sheet magnetic field profile in one direction and a non-uniform guide field in a second direction, resulting in a spatially constant magnetic field strength as well as a constant initial plasma density and plasma pressure. It is found that the reconnection process initially resembles guide field reconnection, but that a gradual transition to anti-parallel reconnection happens as the system evolves. The time evolution of a number of plasma parameters is investigated, and the results are compared with simulations starting from a Harris sheet equilibrium and a Harris sheet plus constant guide field equilibrium.
Non-uniform Mutation Rates for Problems with Unknown Solution Lengths
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cathabard, Stephan; Lehre, Per Kristian; Yao, Xin
2011-01-01
that flips each bit with a probability that is inversely proportional to the bit position, rather than the bitstring length. The runtime of the (1+1) EA using this mutation operator is analysed rigorously on standard example func- tions. Furthermore, the behaviour of the new mutation op- erator......Many practical optimisation problems allow candidate solu- tions of varying lengths, and where the length of the opti- mal solution is thereby a priori unknown. We suggest that non-uniform mutation rates can be beneficial when solving such problems. In particular, we consider a mutation oper- ator...... distribution, and show that the new operator can yield exponentially faster runtimes for some parameters of this distribution. The experimental results show that the new mutation operator leads to dramatically shorter runtimes on a class of instances of the software engi- neering problem that is conjectured...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhanoop K Dhanpal
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Clustering is an efficient method for increasing the lifetime of wireless sensor network systems. The current clustering algorithms generate clusters of almost equal size. This will cause hot spot problem in multi-hop sensor networks. In this paper an energy efficient varying sized clustering algorithm EEVSCA and routing protocol are introduced for non-uniform node distributed wireless sensor network system. EEVSCA helps for the construction of clusters of varying size at the same time unequal cluster based routing algorithm forces each cluster head to choose node with higher energy as their next hop. The unequal size of clusters can balance the energy consumption among clusters. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that EECSVA balance energy consumption well among the cluster heads and increase the network lifetime effectively.
Direction of Arrival Estimation Based on MUSIC Algorithm Using Uniform and Non-Uniform Linear Arrays
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Kwizera
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In signal processing, the direction of arrival (DOA estimation denotes the direction from which a propagating wave arrives at a point, where a set of antennas is located. Using the array antenna has an advantage over the single antenna in achieving an improved performance by applying Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC algorithm. This paper focuses on estimating the DOA using uniform linear array (ULA and non-uniform linear array (NLAof antennas to analyze the performance factors that affect the accuracy and resolution of the system based on MUSIC algorithm. The direction of arrival estimation is simulated on a MATLAB platform with a set of input parameters such as array elements, signal to noise ratio, number of snapshots and number of signal sources. An extensive simulation has been conducted and the results show that the NLA with DOA estimation for co-prime array can achieve an accurate and efficient DOA estimation
Low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform magnetized dusty plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S S Duha; S K Paul; A K Banerjee; A A Mamun
2004-11-01
A self-consistent and general description of obliquely propagating low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform magnetized dusty plasma system has been presented. A number of different situations, which correspond to different low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes, namely, dust-acoustic mode, dust-drift mode, dust-cyclotron mode, dust-lower-hybrid mode, and other associated modes (such as, accelerated and retarded dust-acoustic modes, accelerated and retarded dust-lower-hybrid modes, etc.), have also been investigated. It has been shown that the effects of obliqueness and inhomogeneities in plasma particle number densities introduce new electrostatic dust modes as well as significantly modify the dispersion properties of the other low-frequency electrostatic dust associated modes. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical dusty plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems and cometary tails, are briefly mentioned.
The effects of non-uniform loss on time reversal mirrors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Biniyam Tesfaye Taddese
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Time reversal mirrors work perfectly only for lossless wave propagation; dissipation destroys time-reversal invariance and limits the performance of time-reversal mirrors. Here, a new measure of time-reversal mirror performance is introduced and the adverse effect of dissipation on this performance measure is investigated. The technique of exponential amplification is employed to partially overcome the effect of non-uniform loss distributions, and its success is tested quantitatively using the new performance measure. A numerical model of a star graph is employed to test the applicability of this technique on realizations with various random spatial distributions of loss. A subset of the numerical results are also verified by experimental results from an electromagnetic time-reversal mirror. The exponential amplification technique is a simple way to improve the performance of emerging technologies based on time-reversed wave propagation such as directed communication and wireless power transfer.
Multibeam collimator uses prism stack
Minott, P. O.
1981-01-01
Optical instrument creates many divergent light beams for surveying and machine element alignment applications. Angles and refractive indices of stack of prisms are selected to divert incoming laser beam by small increments, different for each prism. Angles of emerging beams thus differ by small, precisely-controlled amounts. Instrument is nearly immune to vibration, changes in gravitational force, temperature variations, and mechanical distortion.
Eye safety analysis for non-uniform retinal scanning laser trajectories
Schelinski, Uwe; Dallmann, Hans-Georg; Grüger, Heinrich; Knobbe, Jens; Pügner, Tino; Reinig, Peter; Woittennek, Franziska
2016-03-01
Scanning the retinae of the human eyes with a laser beam is an approved diagnosis method in ophthalmology; moreover the retinal blood vessels form a biometric modality for identifying persons. Medical applied Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopes (SLOs) usually contain galvanometric mirror systems to move the laser spot with a defined speed across the retina. Hence, the load of laser radiation is uniformly distributed and eye safety requirements can be easily complied. Micro machined mirrors also known as Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are interesting alternatives for designing retina scanning systems. In particular double-resonant MEMS are well suited for mass fabrication at low cost. However, their Lissajous-shaped scanning figure requires a particular analysis and specific measures to meet the requirements for a Class 1 laser device, i.e. eye-safe operation. The scanning laser spot causes a non-uniform pulsing radiation load hitting the retinal elements within the field of view (FoV). The relevant laser safety standards define a smallest considerable element for eye-related impacts to be a point source that is visible with an angle of maximum 1.5 mrad. For non-uniform pulsing expositions onto retinal elements the standard requires to consider all particular impacts, i.e. single pulses, pulse sequences in certain time intervals and cumulated laser radiation loads. As it may be expected, a Lissajous scanning figure causes the most critical radiation loads at its edges and borders. Depending on the applied power the laser has to be switched off here to avoid any retinal injury.
Improvement of brain segmentation accuracy by optimizing non-uniformity correction using N3.
Zheng, Weili; Chee, Michael W L; Zagorodnov, Vitali
2009-10-15
Smoothly varying and multiplicative intensity variations within MR images that are artifactual, can reduce the accuracy of automated brain segmentation. Fortunately, these can be corrected. Among existing correction approaches, the nonparametric non-uniformity intensity normalization method N3 (Sled, J.G., Zijdenbos, A.P., Evans, A.C., 1998. Nonparametric method for automatic correction of intensity nonuniformity in MRI data. IEEE Trans. Med. Imag. 17, 87-97.) is one of the most frequently used. However, at least one recent study (Boyes, R.G., Gunter, J.L., Frost, C., Janke, A.L., Yeatman, T., Hill, D.L.G., Bernstein, M.A., Thompson, P.M., Weiner, M.W., Schuff, N., Alexander, G.E., Killiany, R.J., DeCarli, C., Jack, C.R., Fox, N.C., 2008. Intensity non-uniformity correction using N3 on 3-T scanners with multichannel phased array coils. NeuroImage 39, 1752-1762.) suggests that its performance on 3 T scanners with multichannel phased-array receiver coils can be improved by optimizing a parameter that controls the smoothness of the estimated bias field. The present study not only confirms this finding, but additionally demonstrates the benefit of reducing the relevant parameter values to 30-50 mm (default value is 200 mm), on white matter surface estimation as well as the measurement of cortical and subcortical structures using FreeSurfer (Martinos Imaging Centre, Boston, MA). This finding can help enhance precision in studies where estimation of cerebral cortex thickness is critical for making inferences.
Spontaneous formation of non-uniform double helices for elastic rods under torsion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hongyuan [Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Zhao, Shumin, E-mail: zhaosm@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Xia, Minggang [Department of Optical Information Science and Technology, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); Laboratory of Nanostructure and Physics Properties, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, 710049 (China); He, Siyu [Department of Applied Physics, School of Science, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Yang, Qifan [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Yan, Yuming [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, School of Electrical Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Zhao, Hanqiao [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Life Science and Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Shaanxi 710049 (China)
2017-02-19
The spontaneous formation of double helices for filaments under torsion is common and significant. For example, the research on the supercoiling of DNA is helpful for understanding the replication and transcription of DNA. Similar double helices can appear in carbon nanotube yarns, cables, telephone wires and so forth. We noticed that non-uniform double helices can be produced due to the surface friction induced by the self-contact. Therefore an ideal model was presented to investigate the formation of double helices for elastic rods under torque. A general equilibrium condition which is valid for both the smooth surface and the rough surface situations is derived by using the variational method. By adding further constraints, the smooth and rough surface situations are investigated in detail respectively. Additionally, the model showed that the specific process of how to twist and slack the rod can determine the surface friction and hence influence the configuration of the double helix formed by rods with rough surfaces. Based on this principle, a method of manufacturing double helices with designed configurations was proposed and demonstrated. Finally, experiments were performed to verify the model and the results agreed well with the theory. - Highlights: • An ideal model is conceived to investigate the spontaneous formation of double helices for rods under torsion. • Variational method is used to obtain a universal result for the double helix formation process • Self-contact and surface friction is considered to analyze the non-uniform double helix. • A novel method of producing double helix with arbitrary configuration is proposed and demonstrated. • The experiment results agree well with the theory.
Influence of Signal Intensity Non-Uniformity on Brain Volumetry Using an Atlas-Based Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Takao, Hidemasa; Kunimatsu, Akira; Mori, Harushi [University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); and others
2012-07-15
Many studies have reported pre-processing effects for brain volumetry; however, no study has investigated whether non-parametric non-uniform intensity normalization (N3) correction processing results in reduced system dependency when using an atlas-based method. To address this shortcoming, the present study assessed whether N3 correction processing provides reduced system dependency in atlas-based volumetry. Contiguous sagittal T1-weighted images of the brain were obtained from 21 healthy participants, by using five magnetic resonance protocols. After image preprocessing using the Statistical Parametric Mapping 5 software, we measured the structural volume of the segmented images with the WFU-PickAtlas software. We applied six different bias-correction levels (Regularization 10, Regularization 0.0001, Regularization 0, Regularization 10 with N3, Regularization 0.0001 with N3, and Regularization 0 with N3) to each set of images. The structural volume change ratio (%) was defined as the change ratio (%) = (100 X[measured volume - mean volume of five magnetic resonance protocols] / mean volume of five magnetic resonance protocols) for each bias-correction level. A low change ratio was synonymous with lower system dependency. The results showed that the images with the N3 correction had a lower change ratio compared with those without the N3 correction. The present study is the first atlas-based volumetry study to show that the precision of atlas-based volumetry improves when using N3-corrected images. Therefore, correction for signal intensity non-uniformity is strongly advised for multi-scanner or multi-site imaging trials.
Numerical Prediction of Tip Vortex Cavitation for Marine Propellers in Non-uniform Wake
Zhu, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Fang; Li, Dan
2017-07-01
Tip vortex cavitation is the first type of cavitation to take place around most marine propellers. But the numerical prediction of tip vortex cavitation is one of the challenges for propeller wake because of turbulence dissipation during the numerical simulation. Several parameters of computational mesh and numerical algorithm are tested by mean of the predicted length of tip vortex cavtiation to validate a developed method. The predicted length of tip vortex cavtiation is on the increase about 0.4 propeller diameters using the developed numerical method. The predicted length of tip vortex cavtiation by RNG k - ɛ model is about 3 times of that by SST k - ω model. Therefore, based on the validation of the present approach, the cavitating flows generated by two rotating propellers under a non-uniform inflow are calculated further. The distributions of axial velocity, total pressure and vapor volume fraction in the transversal planes across tip vortex region are shown to be useful in analyzing the feature of the cavitating flow. The strongest kernel of tip vortex cavitation is not at the position most close to blade tip but slightly far away from the region. During the growth of tip vortex cavitation extension, it appears short and thick, and then it becomes long and thin. The pressure fluctuations at the positions inside tip vortex region also validates the conclusion. A key finding of the study is that the grids constructed especially for tip vortex flows by using separated computational domain is capable of decreasing the turbulence dissipation and correctly capturing the feature of propeller tip vortex cavitation under uniform and non-uniform inflows. The turbulence model and advanced grids is important to predict tip vortex cavitation.
Modeling and reconfiguration of solar photovoltaic arrays under non-uniform shadow conditions
Nguyen, Dung Duc
Mass production and use of electricity generated from solar energy has become very common recently because of the environmental threats arising from the production of electricity from fossil fuels and nuclear power. The obvious benefits of solar energy are clean energy production and infinite supply of daylight. The main disadvantage is the high cost. In these photovoltaic systems, semiconductor materials convert the solar light into electrical energy. Current versus voltage characteristics of the solar cells are nonlinear, thus leading to technical control challenges. In the first order approximation, output power of a solar array is proportional to the irradiance of sunlight. However, in many applications, such as solar power plants, building integrated photovoltaic or solar tents, the solar photovoltaic arrays might be illuminated non-uniformly. The cause of non-uniform illumination may be the shadow of clouds, the trees, booms, neighbor's houses, or the shadow of one solar array on the other, etc. This further leads to nonlinearities in characteristics. Because of the nature of the electrical characteristics of solar cells, the maximum power losses are not proportional to the shadow, but magnify nonlinearly [1]. Further, shadows of solar PV array can cause other undesired effects: (1) The power actually generated from the solar PV array is much less than designed. At some systems, the annual losses because of the shadow effects can be reached 10%. Thus, the probability for "loss of load" increases [2]. (2) The local hot spot in the shaded part of the solar PV array can damage the solar cells. The shaded solar cells may be work on the negative voltage region and become a resistive load and absorb power. Bypass diodes are sometimes connected parallel to solar cells to protect them from damage. However, in most cases, just one diode is connected in parallel to group of solar cells [3], and this hidden the potential power output of the array. This proposed research
Compensation for z-directional non-uniformity of a monopole antenna at 7T MRI
Kim, Nambeom; Woo, Myung-Kyun; Kang, Chang-Ki
2016-06-01
The research was conducted to find ways to compensate for z-directional non-uniformity at a monopole antenna array (MA) coil by using a tilted optimized non-saturating excitation (TONE) pulse and to evaluate the feasibility of using the MA coil with the TONE pulse for anatomical and angiographic imaging. The sensitivity of a MA coil along the z-direction was measured by using an actual flip angle imaging pulse sequence with an oil phantom to evaluate the flip angle distributions of the MA coil for 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The effects on the z-directional uniformity were examined by using slow and fast TONE pulses, i.e., TONE SLOW and TONE FAST. T1- and T2* -weighted images of the human brain were also examined. The z-directional profiles of the TONE pulses were analyzed by using the average signal intensity throughout the brain. The effect of the TONE pulses on cerebral vessels was further examined by analyzing maximal intensity projections of T1-weighted images. With increasing the applied flip angles, the sensitivity slope slightly increased (0.044 per degree). For the MA coil, the TONE SLOWpulse yielded a compensated profile along the z-direction while the TONE HIGH pulse, which has a flat excitation profile along the z-direction, exhibited a tilted signal intensity toward the coil end, clearly indicating an intrinsic property of the MA coil. Similar to the phantom study, human brain images revealed z-directional symmetry around the peak value for the averaged signal intensity of the TONE SLOW pulse while the TONE HIGH pulse exhibited a tilted signal intensity toward the coil end. In vascular system imaging, the MA coil also clearly demonstrated a beneficial effect on the cerebral vessels, either with or without the TONE pulses. This study demonstrates that TONE pulses could compensate for the intrinsic z-directional non-uniformity of MA coils that exhibit strong uniformity in the x-y plane. Furthermore, tilted pulses, such as TONE pulses, were
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Đorđe Vujčić
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Print quality is very important for every printing technique. It depends on many different quality attributes. This research included analysis of macro non-uniformities and line reproduction. 16 different paper substrates printed by electrophotographic process were analyzed. They were separated in two groups: coated and uncoated papers. Analysis of macro non-uniformity showed that print mottle has lower values when printed on coated papers than on uncoated papers. Line reproduction analysis showed that the toner spreaded, during melting and fixation, on line edges for both types of paper. According to these results it can be concluded that paper substrate affects the macro non-uniformity and line reproduction, thus overall print quality.
Zhang, Guangle; Liu, Jianguo; Xu, Zhenyu; He, Yabai; Kan, Ruifeng
2016-01-01
A novel technique for characterizing temperature non-uniformity has been investigated based on measurements of line-of-sight tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. It utilized two fiber-coupled distributed feedback diode lasers at wavelengths around 1339 and 1392 nm as light sources to probe the field at multiple absorptions lines of water vapor and applied a temperature binning strategy combined with Gauss-Seidel iteration method to explore the temperature non-uniformity of the field in one dimension. The technique has been applied to a McKenna burner, which produced a flat premixed laminar CH4-air flame. The flame and its adjacent area formed an atmospheric field with significant non-uniformity of temperature and water vapor concentration. The effect of the number of temperature bins on column-density and temperature results has also been explored.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schunk, Peter Randall; King, William P. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Sun, Amy Cha-Tien; Rowland, Harry D. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA)
2007-08-01
This paper presents continuum simulations of viscous polymer flow during nanoimprint lithography (NIL) for embossing tools having irregular spacings and sizes. Simulations varied non-uniform embossing tool geometry to distinguish geometric quantities governing cavity filling order, polymer peak deformation, and global mold filling times. A characteristic NIL velocity predicts cavity filling order. In general, small cavities fill more quickly than large cavities, while cavity spacing modulates polymer deformation mode. Individual cavity size, not total filling volume, dominates replication time, with large differences in individual cavity size resulting in non-uniform, squeeze flow filling. High density features can be modeled as a solid indenter in squeeze flow to accurately predict polymer flow and allow for optimization of wafer-scale replication. The present simulations make it possible to design imprint templates capable of distributing pressure evenly across the mold surface and facilitating symmetric polymer flow over large areas to prevent mold deformation and non-uniform residual layer thickness.
Best connected rectangular arrangements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishnendra Shekhawat
2016-03-01
Full Text Available It can be found quite often in the literature that many well-known architects have employed either the golden rectangle or the Fibonacci rectangle in their works. On contrary, it is rare to find any specific reason for using them so often. Recently, Shekhawat (2015 proved that the golden rectangle and the Fibonacci rectangle are one of the best connected rectangular arrangements and this may be one of the reasons for their high presence in architectural designs. In this work we present an algorithm that generates n-4 best connected rectangular arrangements so that the proposed solutions can be further used by architects for their designs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Hu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available High-speed blades are often prone to fatigue due to severe blade vibrations. In particular, synchronous vibrations can cause irreversible damages to the blade. Blade tip-timing methods (BTT have become a promising way to monitor blade vibrations. However, synchronous vibrations are unsuitably monitored by uniform BTT sampling. Therefore, non-equally mounted probes have been used, which will result in the non-uniformity of the sampling signal. Since under-sampling is an intrinsic drawback of BTT methods, how to analyze non-uniformly under-sampled BTT signals is a big challenge. In this paper, a novel reconstruction method for non-uniformly under-sampled BTT data is presented. The method is based on the periodically non-uniform sampling theorem. Firstly, a mathematical model of a non-uniform BTT sampling process is built. It can be treated as the sum of certain uniform sample streams. For each stream, an interpolating function is required to prevent aliasing in the reconstructed signal. Secondly, simultaneous equations of all interpolating functions in each sub-band are built and corresponding solutions are ultimately derived to remove unwanted replicas of the original signal caused by the sampling, which may overlay the original signal. In the end, numerical simulations and experiments are carried out to validate the feasibility of the proposed method. The results demonstrate the accuracy of the reconstructed signal depends on the sampling frequency, the blade vibration frequency, the blade vibration bandwidth, the probe static offset and the number of samples. In practice, both types of blade vibration signals can be particularly reconstructed by non-uniform BTT data acquired from only two probes.
Effect of non-uniform magnetic field on crystal growth by floating-Zone method in microgravity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李凯; 胡文瑞
2001-01-01
The magnetic damping effect of the non-uniform magnetic field on the floating-zone crystal growth process in microgravity is studied by numerical simulation. The results show that the non-uni-form magnetic field with designed configuration can effectively reduce the flow near the free surface and then in the melt zone. At the same time, the designed magnetic field can improve the impurity concen-tration non-uniformity along the solidification interface. The primary principles of the magnetic field con-figuration design are also discussed.
Performance of Strengthened Non-Uniformly Corroded Reinforced SCC-RAP Members
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed Abdel-Mohti
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This research examines the performance of strengthened non-uniformly corroded reinforced self-consolidating concrete (SCC members. This paper focuses on three aspects of concrete including corrosion, concrete cover loss, and repair technique. Up to a 50% corrosion level is considered in this study. Corrosion was experimentally induced and was simulated in other cases. Twenty-six reinforced concrete (RC members with various corrosion levels or simulated corrosion levels were constructed and investigated. The beams with corrosion problems including those that had experimentally induced corrosion or simulated corrosion, with or without concrete cover, were repaired using carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP sheets and U-wraps. Two line loads were applied to all of the non-repaired and repaired beams constructed in this study until failure. It was found that it is conservative to model the actual corrosion by simulating the equivalent area of steel reinforcing for up to a 20% level of corrosion. For corrosion levels over 20%, the simulated corrosion over predicts the load capacity of the actual corrosion cases. When the concrete cover was lost and for a corrosion level larger than 10%, the repaired beam did not reach similar performance to that of a repaired beam with a concrete cover that was still intact. It appears that using two layers of CFRP sheet did not improve the load capacity further, but rather improved the ductility of the deteriorated RC member.
3D MHD Jet in a Non-Uniform Magnetic Field
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Huang Hulin; Han Dong
2005-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to present a two-phase 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) flow model that combines the volume of fluid (VOF) method with the technique derived from induced-magnetic-field equations for liquid metal free surface MHD-jet-flow. Analogy between the induced-magnetic-filed equation and the conventional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) equation is made, so that the equation can be conveniently accounted for by CFD. A penalty factor numerical method is introduced in order to force the local divergence-free condition of the magnetic fields and an extension of the void insulating calculation domain is applied to ensure that the induced-magnetic field at its boundaries is null. These simulation results for lithium liquid metal jets under magnetic field configurations of Magnetic Torus (Mtor) and National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) outboard divertor have shown that three dimensional jet can not be annihilated by magnetic braking and its cross-section will deform in such a way that the momentum flux of the jet is conserved. 3D MHD effects from a magnetic field gradient cause return currents to interact with applied magnetic fields and produce unfavorable Lorentz forces.Under 3D applied non-uniform magnetic fields of the divertor, unfavorable Lorentz forces lead to a substantial change in flow pattern and a reduction in flow velocity, with the jet cross-section moving to one side of the jet space. These critical phenomena can not be revealed by 2D models.
Mourtzios, Ch.; Siakavara, K.
2015-08-01
A method to design hybrid antenna configurations with very low profile, suitable for smart and Multiple Input-Multiple Output antenna systems is proposed. The antennas are incorporated with novel Electromagnetic Band Gap (EBG) surfaces with non-similar cells. These non-uniform EBG surfaces have been properly designed to cause focusing, of the incident waves, thus enhancing the characteristics of operation of antenna elements positioned in close proximity to the surface and also to increase the isolation between them. Theoretical analysis of the reflection mechanism of this type of lattices as well as the prediction of the resulting performance of the antenna is presented. All these considerations are validated with implementation and simulation of the hybrid structures inside the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System frequency band. The results show that increment of the gain and isolation between the antenna elements can be obtained. Moreover, results for the correlation coefficient between the elements, for Gaussian distribution of the incoming waves have been received and the tolerance of the antennas to the variation of the polarization characteristics of the incoming waves has been investigated. A Genetic Algorithm has been constructed and applied to find the proper geometry of the hybrid antennas in order the correlation coefficient to be minimized and get almost independent from the polarization of incident waves.
New method for solving inductive electric fields in the non-uniformly conducting ionosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Vanhamäki
2006-10-01
Full Text Available We present a new calculation method for solving inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. The time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field, together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances serves as the input to this method. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition, no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called the Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS. This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfvén wave reflection from a uniformly conducting ionosphere.
New method for solving inductive electric fields in the non-uniformly conducting ionosphere
Vanhamäki, H.; Amm, O.; Viljanen, A.
2006-10-01
We present a new calculation method for solving inductive electric fields in the ionosphere. The time series of the potential part of the ionospheric electric field, together with the Hall and Pedersen conductances serves as the input to this method. The output is the time series of the induced rotational part of the ionospheric electric field. The calculation method works in the time-domain and can be used with non-uniform, time-dependent conductances. In addition, no particular symmetry requirements are imposed on the input potential electric field. The presented method makes use of special non-local vector basis functions called the Cartesian Elementary Current Systems (CECS). This vector basis offers a convenient way of representing curl-free and divergence-free parts of 2-dimensional vector fields and makes it possible to solve the induction problem using simple linear algebra. The new calculation method is validated by comparing it with previously published results for Alfvén wave reflection from a uniformly conducting ionosphere.
Blaya, S; Acebal, P; Carretero, L; Murciano, A; Madrigal, R F; Fimia, A
2010-01-18
The recent results reported in reference 1 have produced an increased interest in explaining deviations from the ideal behavior of the energetic variation of the diffraction efficiency of holographic gratings. This ideal behavior occurs when uniform gratings are recorded, and the index modulation is proportional to the energetic exposure. As a result, a typical sin(2) curve is obtained reaching a maximum diffraction efficiency and saturation at or below this value. However, linear deviations are experimentally observed when the first maximum on the curve is lower than the second. This effect does not correspond to overmodulation and recently in PVA/acrylamide photopolymers of high thickness it has been explained by the dye concentration in the layer and the resulting molecular weight of the polymer chains generated in the polymerization process. In this work, new insights into these deviations are gained from the analysis of the non-uniform gratings recorded. Therefore, we show that deviations from the linear response can be explained by taking into account the energetic evolution of the index modulation as well as the fringe bending in the grating.
Spectral non-uniform temperature and non-local heat transfer in the spin Seebeck effect.
Tikhonov, Konstantin S; Sinova, Jairo; Finkel'stein, Alexander M
2013-01-01
Recently discovered spin-dependent thermoelectric effects have merged spin, charge, and thermal physics, known as spin caloritronics, of which the spin Seebeck effect is its most puzzling. Here we present a theory of this effect driven by subthermal non-local phonon heat transfer and spectral non-uniform temperature. The theory explains its non-local behaviour from the fact that phonons that store the energy (thermal) and the phonons that transfer it (subthermal) are located in different parts of the spectrum and have different kinetics. This gives rise to a spectral phonon distribution that deviates from local equilibrium along the substrate and is sensitive to boundary conditions. The theory also predicts a non-magnon origin of the effect in ferromagnetic metals in agreement with observations in recent experiments. Equilibration of the heat flow from the substrate to the Pt probe and backwards leads to a vertical spin current produced by the spin-polarized electrons dragged by the thermal phonons.
Peristaltic flow in non-uniform vessels of the micro-circulatory system
Maiti, S
2013-01-01
Of concern in the paper is generalized a theoretical study concerning the peristaltic flow of blood in the micro-circulatory system. The vessel is considered to be of non-uniform cross-section and blood to be a non-Newtonian fluid. The progressive wave front of the peristaltic flow is supposed sinusoidal/straight section dominated (SSD) (expansion/contraction type); Reynolds number is considered to be small with reference to the flow of physiological fluids. The non-Newtonian behaviour of blood is illustrated by considering the Herschel-Bulkley fluid model. The objective of the study has been to examine the effect of the effects of amplitude ratio, mean pressure gradient, yield stress and the power law index on the velocity distribution, wall shear stress, streamline pattern and trapping. Considerable quantitative differences between the results obtained for transport in two dimensional channel and an axisymmetric circular tube are noticed. The study shows that peristaltic pumping, flow velocity and wall shea...
Connell, Mark A.; Bowyer, Paul J.; Adam Bone, P.; Davis, Adrian L.; Swanson, Alistair G.; Nilsson, Mathias; Morris, Gareth A.
2009-05-01
Pulsed field gradient NMR is a well-established technique for the determination of self-diffusion coefficients. However, a significant source of systematic error exists in the spatial variation of the applied pulsed field gradient. Non-uniform pulsed field gradients cause the decay of peak amplitudes to deviate from the expected exponential dependence on gradient squared. This has two undesirable effects: the apparent diffusion coefficient will deviate from the true value to an extent determined by the choice of experimental parameters, and the error estimated by the nonlinear least squares fitting will contain a significant systematic contribution. In particular, the apparent diffusion coefficient determined by exponential fitting of the diffusional attenuation of NMR signals will depend both on the exact pulse widths used and on the range of gradient amplitudes chosen. These problems can be partially compensated for if experimental attenuation data are fitted to a function corrected for the measured spatial dependence of the gradient and signal strength. This study describes a general alternative to existing methods for the calibration of NMR diffusion measurements. The dominant longitudinal variation of the pulsed field gradient amplitude and the signal strength are mapped by measuring pulsed field gradient echoes in the presence of a weak read gradient. These data are then used to construct a predicted signal decay function for the whole sample, which is parameterised as the exponential of a power series. Results are presented which compare diffusion coefficients obtained using the new calibration method with previous literature values.
EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF ENTERPRISE INFORMATION SYSTEMS WITH NON-UNIFORM LOAD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Kalinin
2015-09-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of characteristics evaluation for enterprise information systems at the design stage. In the design of ERP-systems the most interest characteristic is not the average time, but the probability of timely delivery of different type messages (for example, command, service, multimedia, files, etc. from the sender to the recipient. In addition,the possibility of using the priority information management built on the basis of service disciplines of general form with mixed priorities needs to be considered. An open queuing network with non-uniform data flow is used for solution of this problem. The method for calculation of information systems characteristics is proposed based on the decomposition of the network model. The end results obtained with this approach and by means of priority management are approximate because different classes of message streams at the output and input nodes of the computer system differ from the simple ones. However, result errors of the proposed analytical method are in acceptable limits for engineering calculations as it was shown by simulation in a wide range of parameters corresponding to real systems. Obtained results are usable for optimization problem solution of data transmission networks in modern information systems, involving routing algorithm definition and priorities specification for different classes of messages to provide given delivery time.
Non-uniform Solar Temperature Field on Large Aperture, Fully-Steerable Telescope Structure
Liu, Yan
2016-09-01
In this study, a 110-m fully steerable radio telescope was used as an analysis platform and the integral parametric finite element model of the antenna structure was built in the ANSYS thermal analysis module. The boundary conditions of periodic air temperature, solar radiation, long-wave radiation shadows of the surrounding environment, etc. were computed at 30 min intervals under a cloudless sky on a summer day, i.e., worstcase climate conditions. The transient structural temperatures were then analyzed under a period of several days of sunshine with a rational initial structural temperature distribution until the whole set of structural temperatures converged to the results obtained the day before. The non-uniform temperature field distribution of the entire structure and the main reflector surface RMS were acquired according to changes in pitch and azimuth angle over the observation period. Variations in the solar cooker effect over time and spatial distributions in the secondary reflector were observed to elucidate the mechanism of the effect. The results presented here not only provide valuable realtime data for the design, construction, sensor arrangement and thermal deformation control of actuators but also provide a troubleshooting reference for existing actuators.
Non-uniform shrinkage of multiple-walled carbon nanotubes under in situ electron beam irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Lunxiong [South China Normal University, Brain Science Institute, Guangzhou (China); Xiamen University, China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Functional Nanomaterials and Physics Department, Xiamen (China); Su, Jiangbin [Xiamen University, China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Functional Nanomaterials and Physics Department, Xiamen (China); Chang Zhou University, School of Mathematics and Physics, Changzhou (China); Zhu, Xianfang [Xiamen University, China-Australia Joint Laboratory for Functional Nanomaterials and Physics Department, Xiamen (China)
2016-10-15
Instability of multiple-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was investigated by in situ transmission electron microscopy at room temperature. Specially, the non-uniform shrinkage of tubes was found: The pristine MWCNT shrank preferentially in its axial direction from the most curved free cap end of the tube, but the shrinkage of the tube diameter was offset by the axial shrinkage: For the complex MWCNT, the two inner MWCNTs also preferentially axially shrank from their most curved cap ends and separated from each other. However, for the effect of the radial pressure from the out walls which enveloped the two inner tubes and the tube amorphization, the two inner tubes were extruded to come close to each other and finally touched again. The new ''evaporation'' and ''diffusion'' mechanisms of carbon atoms as driven by the nano-curvature of CNT and the electron beam-induced athermal activation were suggested to explain the above phenomena. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yi, Wei [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); School of Dentistry, The University of Western Australia, WA 6009 (Australia); Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Hu, Xiaozhi, E-mail: xiao.zhi.hu@uwa.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Ichim, Paul [School of Dentistry, The University of Western Australia, WA 6009 (Australia); Sun, Xudong [Key Laboratory for Anisotropy and Texture of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)
2012-12-15
Brittle low-strength and low-toughness pressable dental ceramic can be reinforced by ductile elongated gold-particles (GP). A customized crown structure can be adequately strengthened by distributing GP only in critical sections of the crown, where high tensile stresses are experienced. In the present study, a non-uniformly structured ceramic-matrix composite with excellent interfacial bonding, twofold fracture toughness and strength at desired locations, is fabricated using pressable dental ceramic and GP. The layout pattern and sequence of different GP/ceramic powder mixtures, high-temperature flow properties of these mixtures during hot-pressing and the sample mold geometry are used to control the distribution and locations of GP for selective toughening and strengthening. Nano-crystalline structures of the pressable ceramic-matrix and the nano-scaled interfacial region around GP have been revealed by high-magnification field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Toughening and strengthening mechanisms of the elongated GP including residual stresses from composite processing and ductile fracture of GP are discussed together with SEM observations. Bulk flexural strength and local micro-indentation fracture and deformation characteristics of the selective-toughened ceramic/metal composite have been compared to those of the monolithic pressable ceramic to validate the toughening and strengthening mechanisms.
Modeling and Compensating Temperature-Dependent Non-Uniformity Noise in IR Microbolometer Cameras.
Wolf, Alejandro; Pezoa, Jorge E; Figueroa, Miguel
2016-07-19
Images rendered by uncooled microbolometer-based infrared (IR) cameras are severely degraded by the spatial non-uniformity (NU) noise. The NU noise imposes a fixed-pattern over the true images, and the intensity of the pattern changes with time due to the temperature instability of such cameras. In this paper, we present a novel model and a compensation algorithm for the spatial NU noise and its temperature-dependent variations. The model separates the NU noise into two components: a constant term, which corresponds to a set of NU parameters determining the spatial structure of the noise, and a dynamic term, which scales linearly with the fluctuations of the temperature surrounding the array of microbolometers. We use a black-body radiator and samples of the temperature surrounding the IR array to offline characterize both the constant and the temperature-dependent NU noise parameters. Next, the temperature-dependent variations are estimated online using both a spatially uniform Hammerstein-Wiener estimator and a pixelwise least mean squares (LMS) estimator. We compensate for the NU noise in IR images from two long-wave IR cameras. Results show an excellent NU correction performance and a root mean square error of less than 0.25 ∘ C, when the array's temperature varies by approximately 15 ∘ C.
Effect of Non-Uniform Divertor Target Properties on Scrape-off Layer Plasma Equilibrium
Subba, Fabio; Tskhakaya, David; Holzmueller-Steinacker, Ulrike; Schupfer, Nikolaus; Stanojevic, Mladen; Kuhn, Siegbert
2000-10-01
It is well known that plasma in contact with a solid wall develops a boundary layer, which typically consists of a thin Debye sheath adjacent to the wall and a more extended presheath providing the transition to the unperturbed plasma [1,2]. As the physical interaction of the plasma with the surrounding universe is mainly localized in this region, it may be expected that this boundary layer, which sensitively controls particle and energy fluxes to and from the plasma, plays an important role in determining the properties of the overall plasma equilibrium. On the other hand, it is generally assumed that the details of the adopted boundary-layer models do not influence dramatically the overall SOL behavior. However, little quantitative literature is actually available on the subject [3]. The purpose of this paper is to make a contribution towards clarifying this issue. In particular, we will use the B2.5 code [4] for studying the influence of non-uniformity of the effective secondary-electron emission coefficient (ESEEC) on the plasma parameters in the SOL.
N-dimensional non uniform rational B-splines for metamodeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, Cameron J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crawford, Richard H [UT - AUSTIN
2008-01-01
Non Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBs) have unique properties that make them attractive for engineering metamodeling applications. NURBs are known to accurately model many different continuous curve and surface topologies in 1-and 2-variate spaces. However, engineering metamodels of the design space often require hypervariate representations of multidimensional outputs. In essence, design space metamodels are hyperdimensional constructs with a dimensionality determined by their input and output variables. To use NURBs as the basis for a metamodel in a hyperdimensional space, traditional geometric fitting techniques must be adapted to hypervariate and hyperdimensional spaces composed of both continuous and discontinuous variable types. In this paper, we describe the necessary adaptations for the development of a NURBs-based metamodel called a Hyperdimensional Performance Model or HyPerModel. HyPerModels are capable of accurately and reliably modeling nonlinear hyperdimensional objects defined by both continuous and discontinuous variables of a wide variety of topologies, such as those that define typical engineering design spaces. We demonstrate this ability by successfully generating accurate HyPerModels of 10 trial functions laying the foundation for future work with N-dimensional NURBs in design space applications.
n-dimensional non uniform rational b-splines for metamodeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turner, Cameron J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Crawford, Richard H [UT-AUSTIN
2008-01-01
Non Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBs) have unique properties that make them attractive for engineering metamodeling applications. NURBs are known to accurately model many different continuous curve and surface topologies in 1- and 2-variate spaces. However, engineering metamodels of the design space often require hypervariate representations of multidimensional outputs. In essence, design space metamodels are hyperdimensional constructs with a dimensionality determined by their input and output variables. To use NURBs as the basis for a metamodel in a hyperdimensional space, traditional geometric fitting techniques must be adapted to hypervariate and hyperdimensional spaces composed of both continuous and discontinuous variable types. In this paper, they describe the necessary adaptations for the development of a NURBs-based metamodel called a Hyperdimensional Performance Model or HyPerModel. HyPerModels are capable of accurately and reliably modeling nonlinear hyperdimensional objects defined by both continuous and discontinuous variables of a wide variety of topologies, such as those that define typical engineering design spaces. They demonstrate this ability by successfully generating accurate HyPerModels of 10 trial functions laying the foundation for future work with N-dimensional NURBs in design space applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Ali Abbas
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this present analysis, three dimensional peristaltic flow of hyperbolic tangent fluid in a non-uniform channel has been investigated. We have considered that the pressure is uniform over the whole cross section and the interial effects have been neglected. For this purpose we consider laminar flow under the assumptions of long wavelength (λ→∞ and creeping flow (Re→0 approximations. The attained highly nonlinear equations are solved with the help of Homotopy perturbation method. The influence of various physical parameters of interest is demonstrated graphically for wall tension, mass characterization, damping nature of the wall, wall rigidity, wall elastance, aspect ratio and the Weissenberg number. In this present investigation we found that the magnitude of the velocity is maximum in the center of the channel whereas it is minimum near the walls. Stream lines are also drawn to discuss the trapping mechanism for all the physical parameters. Comparison has also been presented between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. G. Zhu
2013-04-01
Full Text Available A small size elliptically tapered slot antenna (ETSA fed by coplanar waveguide (CPW for ultra-wideband (UWB applications is proposed. It is printed on an FR4 substrate and occupies a size of 37×34×0.8 mm^3. A pair of quarter circular shapes is etched on the radiator to reduce the size. To overcome the limitation of uniform corrugation, non-uniform corrugation is utilized to reduce the cross-polarization level. A parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of circular cut and corrugations. In order to validate the design, a prototype is fabricated and measured. Both simulated and measured results confirm that the proposed antenna achieves a good performance of a reflection coefficient below -10 dB from 3.1 GHz to 10.6 GHz, including a maximum antenna gain of 8.1dBi, directional patterns in the end-fire direction, low cross-polarization level below -20 dB and linear phase response. The antenna is promising for applications in UWB impulse radar imaging.
Computational imaging from non-uniform degradation of staggered TDI thermal infrared imager.
Sun, Tao; Liu, Jian Guo; Shi, Yan; Chen, Wangli; Qin, Qianqing; Zhang, Zijian
2015-09-21
For the Time Delay Integration (TDI) staggered line-scanning thermal infrared imager, a Computational Imaging (CI) approach is developed to achieve higher spatial resolution images. After a thorough analysis of the causes of non-uniform image displacement and degradation for multi-channel staggered TDI arrays, the study aims to approach one-dimensional (1D) sub-pixel displacement estimation and superposition of images from time-division multiplexing scanning lines. Under the assumption that a thermal image is 2D piecewise C(2) smooth, a sparse-and-smooth deconvolution algorithm with L1-norm regularization terms combining the first and second order derivative operators is proposed to restore high frequency components and to suppress aliasing simultaneously. It is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated, with simulation and airborne thermal infrared images, that this is a state-of-the-art practical CI method to reconstruct clear images with higher frequency components from raw thermal images that are subject to instantaneous distortion and blurring.
Temperature model for process impact non-uniformity in genipin recovery by high pressure processing.
Ramos-de-la-Peña, Ana Mayela; Montañez, Julio C; Reyes-Vega, María de la Luz; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan Carlos
2015-11-15
A model for the process impact temperature non-uniformity during high pressure processing (HPP) of genipap fruit purees was found during genipin recovery. Purees were subjected to HPP (130-530 MPa) under quasi-isobaric non-isothermal conditions (15 min; 0, 4.6 and 9.3mg pectinases/g fruit). Genipin and protein concentration was determined, and pH was measured. Polygalacturonase activity was quantified indirectly by protein content (mg/g fruit). First order kinetics described temperature changes (0-4 min). Polygalacturonase was activated at 130 MPa, inactivated reversibly at 330 MPa and activated again at 530 MPa. Enzyme reaction rate constant (k) was placed in the 0-4 min model and temperature from 2 to 15 min was described. Protein content and pH characterization in terms of decimal reduction time improved highly the 2-15 min model. Since temperature changes were modeled, more insight of its behavior in an HPP reactor was obtained, avoiding uniformity assumptions, making easier the industrial scale HPP implementation.
Optimized design of thermo-mechanically loaded non-uniform bars by using a variational method
Nayak, P.; Saha, K. N.
2016-08-01
The present paper evaluates the axial strain and stress of a thermo-mechanically loaded non-uniform bar by using a numerical method based on a variational principle. The solutions are obtained up to the elastic limit of the material based on the assumptions that material properties are independent of temperature variation and plane cross-sections remain plane maintaining axisymmetry. This approximation is carried out by Galerkin's principle, using a linear combination of sets of orthogonal co-ordinate functions which satisfy prescribed boundary conditions. The solution algorithm is implemented with the help of MATLAB® computational simulation software. Some numerical results of thermoelastic field are presented and discussed for different bar materials such as mild steel, copper, aluminium alloy 6061 (Al alloy 6061), aluminium alloy 7075 (Al alloy 7075) and diamond. The effect of geometry parameters like aspect ratio, slenderness ratio and the type of taperness is investigated and the relevant results are obtained in dimensional form. The term bar used in this paper is in generic sense and hence the formulation is applicable for all one dimensional elements, e.g., rods, pipes, truss members, etc.
Structure and adsorption of water in non-uniform cylindrical nanopores
Lakatos, Greg; Torrie, Glenn; Patey, Gren
2010-03-01
Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations are used to examine the adsorption and structure of water in the interior of cylindrical nanopores with non-uniform surfaces. Nanopores with radii in the range of 0.45 to 1.2nm are considered, and the axial symmetry of the nanopores is broken by varying the radius as a function of position along the pore axis, or by introducing regions where the strength of the water-nanopore interaction is reduced. Water in filled pores with a 0.6nm radius, exists in either a weakly structured fluid-like state, or a structured polarized state, with a pentagonal cross section. This structured state can be disrupted by creating hydrophobic regions on the nanopore surface, and the degree of disruption can be controlled by adjusting the size of these regions. Similarly, spatial variation in the nanopore radius can produce two condensation transitions, and vapor-liquid, and solid-liquid co-existences at points along the filling isotherm. This ability to control water structure through nanopore surface modification holds promise for the development of tunable nanoscale fluid conduits and storage devices.
Advances in iterative non-uniformity correction techniques for infrared scene projection
Danielson, Tom; Franks, Greg; LaVeigne, Joe; Prewarski, Marcus; Nehring, Brian
2015-05-01
Santa Barbara Infrared (SBIR) is continually developing improved methods for non-uniformity correction (NUC) of its Infrared Scene Projectors (IRSPs) as part of its comprehensive efforts to achieve the best possible projector performance. The most recent step forward, Advanced Iterative NUC (AI-NUC), improves upon previous NUC approaches in several ways. The key to NUC performance is achieving the most accurate possible input drive-to-radiance output mapping for each emitter pixel. This requires many highly-accurate radiance measurements of emitter output, as well as sophisticated manipulation of the resulting data set. AI-NUC expands the available radiance data set to include all measurements made of emitter output at any point. In addition, it allows the user to efficiently manage that data for use in the construction of a new NUC table that is generated from an improved fit of the emitter response curve. Not only does this improve the overall NUC by offering more statistics for interpolation than previous approaches, it also simplifies the removal of erroneous data from the set so that it does not propagate into the correction tables. AI-NUC is implemented by SBIR's IRWindows4 automated test software as part its advanced turnkey IRSP product (the Calibration Radiometry System or CRS), which incorporates all necessary measurement, calibration and NUC table generation capabilities. By employing AI-NUC on the CRS, SBIR has demonstrated the best uniformity results on resistive emitter arrays to date.
Spontaneous formation of non-uniform double helices for elastic rods under torsion
Li, Hongyuan; Zhao, Shumin; Xia, Minggang; He, Siyu; Yang, Qifan; Yan, Yuming; Zhao, Hanqiao
2017-02-01
The spontaneous formation of double helices for filaments under torsion is common and significant. For example, the research on the supercoiling of DNA is helpful for understanding the replication and transcription of DNA. Similar double helices can appear in carbon nanotube yarns, cables, telephone wires and so forth. We noticed that non-uniform double helices can be produced due to the surface friction induced by the self-contact. Therefore an ideal model was presented to investigate the formation of double helices for elastic rods under torque. A general equilibrium condition which is valid for both the smooth surface and the rough surface situations is derived by using the variational method. By adding further constraints, the smooth and rough surface situations are investigated in detail respectively. Additionally, the model showed that the specific process of how to twist and slack the rod can determine the surface friction and hence influence the configuration of the double helix formed by rods with rough surfaces. Based on this principle, a method of manufacturing double helices with designed configurations was proposed and demonstrated. Finally, experiments were performed to verify the model and the results agreed well with the theory.
Statistical Mechanics Approach for Uniform and Non-uniform Fluid with Hard Core and Interaction Tail
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Shi-Qi; CHEN Hong; LING Si-Li; XIANG Xian-Wei; ZHANG Xiao-Qi
2003-01-01
One recently proposed self-consistent hard sphere bridge functional was combined with an exponential function exp(-cr) and a re-normalized indirect correlation function to construct the bridge function for fluid with hard core and interaction tail. In the present approach, the adjustable parameter α was determined by the thermodynamic consistency realized on the compressibility modulus, the re-normalization of the indirect correlation function was realized by a modified Mayer function with the interaction potential replaced by the perturbative part of the interaction potential. As an example, the present bridge function was combined with the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation to predict structure and thermodynamics properties in very good agreement with the simulation data available for Lennard-Jones (L J). Based on the universality principle of the free energy density functional and the test particle trick, the numerical solution of the OZ equation was employed to construct the first order direct correlation function of the non-uniform fluid as a functional of the density distribution by means of the indirect correlation function. In the framework of the density functional theory, the numerically obtained functional predicted the density distribution of LJ fluid confined in two planar hard walls that is in good agreement with the simulation data.
Concave pulse shaping of a circularly polarized laser pulse from non-uniform overdense plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hur, Min Sup [School of Natural Science, UNIST, BanYeon-Ri 100, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Kulagin, Victor V. [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Universitetsky prosp. 13, Moscow, 119992 (Russian Federation); Suk, Hyyong, E-mail: hysuk@gist.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Photon Science, GIST, 123 Cheomdan-gwangiro, Buk-gu, Gwangju, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-03-20
Pulse shaping of circularly polarized laser pulses in nonuniform overdense plasmas are investigated numerically. Specifically we show by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations the generation of a concave pulse front of a circularly polarized, a few tens of petawatt laser pulse from a density-tapered, overdense plasma slab. The concept used for the transverse-directional shaping is the differential transmittance depending on the plasma density, and the laser intensity. For suitable selection of the slab parameters for the concave pulse shaping, we studied numerically the pulse transmittance, which can be used for further parameter design of the pulse shaping. The concavely shaped circularly polarized pulse is expected to add more freedom in controlling the ion-beam characteristics in the RPDA regime. - Highlights: • Laser pulse shaping for a concave front by non-uniform overdense plasma was studied. • Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations were used for the investigation. • A laser pulse can be shaped by a density-tapered overdense plasma. • The concave and sharp pulse front are useful in many laser–plasma applications. • They are important for ion acceleration, especially in the radiation pressure dominant regime.
Non-Uniformity of the Combustor Exit Flow Temperature in Front of the Gas Turbine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Błachnio Józef
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Various types of damages to gas-turbine components, in particular to turbine blades, may occur in the course of gas turbine operation. The paper has been intended to discuss different forms of damages to the blades due to non-uniformity of the exit flow temperature. It has been shown that the overheating of blade material and thermal fatigue are the most common reasons for these damages. The paper presents results from numerical experiments with use of the computer model of the aero jet engine designed for simulations. The model has been purposefully modified to take account of the assumed non-homogeneity of the temperature field within the working agent at the turbine intake. It turned out that such non-homogeneity substantially affects dynamic and static properties of the engine considered as an object of control since it leads to a lag of the acceleration time and to increase in fuel consumption. The summarized simulation results demonstrate that the foregoing properties of a jet engine are subject to considerable deterioration in pace with gradual increase of the assumed non-homogeneity of the temperature field. The simulations made it possible to find out that variations of the temperature field nonhomogeneity within the working agent at the turbine intake lead to huge fluctuation of the turbine rpm for the idle run.
Intensity non-uniformity correction of aerothermal images via ℓsub>psub>-regularized minimization.
Liu, Li; Zhang, Tianxu
2016-11-01
Aerothermal-induced intensity non-uniformity (NU) effects severely influence the effective performance of infrared (IR) imaging systems in high-speed flight. In this paper we propose a ℓsub>psub>-regularized minimization method to remove intensity NU in IR images. Different from the existing NU correction methods, we consider and study important priors from the NU noise and the IR image, respectively. We assume spatial smoothness of the NU noise and piecewise continuity of the IR image, where the ℓsub>psub> regularization term is employed in the correction model. A computationally efficient numerical algorithm based on half-quadratic regularization is adopted to solve the optimization problem. To tackle the non-convex ℓsub>psub>-norm minimization sub-problem in this scheme, a generalized iterated shrinkage algorithm is used. Significant improvement on the image quality is obtained on both simulation and experimental studies. Both quantitative and qualitative comparisons to specialized state-of-the-art algorithms demonstrate its superiority.
Vibration and Noise Characteristics of Elliptical Gears due to Non-Uniform Rotation
Liu, Xing; Nagamura, Kazuteru; Ikejo, Kiyotaka
Elliptical gear is a typical non-circular gear, which transmits a variable-ratio rotation and power simultaneously. Due to the non-uniform rotation, the vibration and noise of elliptical gears demonstrate particular characteristics which should be paid attention to in practical application. In this paper, two elliptical gears, which are a single elliptical gear and a double elliptical gear, have been investigated to analyze the vibration and noise characteristics of elliptical gears. The corresponding circular gears for comparison are also investigated. General factors including the torque, the rotation speed, the gear vibration acceleration and the gear noise of the four test gears are measured by running test. The root mean square of the Circumferential Vibration Acceleration (CVA) and the sound pressure level of the noise of elliptical gears are obtained from the measured results and compared with those of circular gears to clarify the vibration and noise characteristics of elliptical gears. Furthermore, the frequency analysis of the CVA of elliptical gears is conducted by Fast Fourier Transform Algorithm (FFT) and compared with that of circular gears. The main vibration component of elliptical gear is uncovered according to the obtained frequency spectra. In addition, the Critical Rotation Speeds of Tooth Separation (CRSTS) of elliptical gear is obtained and its relation with load torque is unveiled.
One-dimensional numerical simulation of non-uniform sediment transport under unsteady flows
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hongwei FANG; Minghong CHEN; Qianhai CHEN
2008-01-01
One-dimensional numerical models are popularly used in sediment transport research because they can be easily programmed and cost less time compared with two-and three-dimensional numerical models.In particular,they possess greater capacity to be applied in large river basins with many tributaries.This paper presents a one-dimensional numerical model capable of calculating total-load sediment transport.The cross-section-averaged sediment transport capacity and recovery coefficient are addressed in the suspended load model.This one-dimensional model,therefore,can be applied to fine suspended loads and to hyperconcentrated flows in the Yellow River.Moreover,a new discretization scheme for the equation of unsteady non-uniform suspended sediment transport is proposed.The model is calibrated using data measured from the Yantan Reservoir on the Hongshui River and the Sanmenxia Reservoir on the Yellow River.A comparison of the calculated water level and river bed deformation with field measurements shows that the improved numerical model is capable of predicting flow,sediment transport,bed changes,and bed-material sorting in various situations,with reasonable accuracy and reliability.
Photoionization microscopy of Rydberg hydrogen atom in a non-uniform electrical field
Shao-Hao, Cheng; De-Hua, Wang; Zhao-Hang, Chen; Qiang, Chen
2016-06-01
In this paper, we investigate the photoionization microscopy of the Rydberg hydrogen atom in a gradient electric field for the first time. The observed oscillatory patterns in the photoionization microscopy are explained within the framework of the semiclassical theory, which can be considered as a manifestation of interference between various electron trajectories arriving at a given point on the detector plane. In contrast with the photoionization microscopy in the uniform electric field, the trajectories of the ionized electron in the gradient electric field will become chaotic. An infinite set of different electron trajectories can arrive at a given point on the detector plane, which makes the interference pattern of the electron probability density distribution extremely complicated. Our calculation results suggest that the oscillatory pattern in the electron probability density distribution depends sensitively on the electric field gradient, the scaled energy and the position of the detector plane. Through our research, we predict that the interference pattern in the electron probability density distribution can be observed in an actual photoionization microscopy experiment once the external electric field strength and the position of the electron detector plane are reasonable. This study provides some references for the future experimental research on the photoionization microscopy of the Rydberg atom in the non-uniform external fields. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374133) and the Project of Shandong Provincial Higher Educational Science and Technology Program, China (Grant No. J13LJ04).
Hydromagnetic Blood Flow of Sisko Fluid in a Non-uniform Channel Induced by Peristaltic Wave
Zeeshan, A.; Bhatti, M. M.; Akbar, N. S.; Sajjad, Y.
2017-07-01
In this paper, a smooth repetitive oscillating wave traveling down the elastic walls of a non-uniform two-dimensional channels is considered. It is assumed that the fluid is electrically conducting and a uniform magnetic field is perpendicular to flow. The Sisko fluid is grease thick non-Newtonian fluid can be considered equivalent to blood. Taking long wavelength and low Reynolds number, the equations are reduced. The analytical solution of the emerging non-linear differential equation is obtained by employing Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM). The outcomes for dimensionless flow rate and dimensionless pressure rise have been computed numerically with respect to sundry concerning parameters amplitude ratio ϕ, Hartmann number M, and Sisko fluid parameter b 1. The behaviors for pressure rise and average friction have been discussed in details and displayed graphically. Numerical and graphical comparison of Newtonian and non-Newtonian has also been evaluated for velocity and pressure rise. It is observed that the magnitude of pressure rise is maximum in the middle of the channel whereas for higher values of fluid parameter it increases. Further, it is also found that the velocity profile shows converse behavior along the walls of the channel against multiple values of fluid parameter.
Dynamic strain measurements of marine propellers under non-uniform inflow
Tian, Jin; Croaker, Paul; Zhang, Zhiyi; Hua, Hongxing
2016-09-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the dynamic strain characteristics of marine propellers under non-uniform inflow. Two 7-bladed highly skewed model propellers of identical geometries, but different elastic characteristics were tested at various rotational speeds and free stream velocities in the water tunnel. Two kinds of wire mesh wake screens located 400mm upstream of the propeller plane were used to generate four-cycle and six-cycle inflows. A laser doppler velocimetry (LDV) system located 100mm downstream of the wake screen plane was used to measure the axial velocity distributions produced by the wake screens. Strain gauges were bonded onto the propeller blades in different positions. A customized underwater data acquisition system which can record data off-line was used to record the dynamic strain. The results show that the frequency properties of the blade dynamic strain are determined by the harmonics of the inflow and that the stiffness of the propeller has an essential effect on the dynamic strain amplitudes.
Change of Tensile Strength due to Non-uniform Thermal Deterioration of XLPE Sheets
Kurihara, Takashi; Takahashi, Toshihiro; Homma, Hiroya; Okamoto, Tatsuki
Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) sheets were thermally deteriorated in atmospheric air at 180°C for at most 100 hours, and their depth profiles of the oxidation degrees were investigated with a micro FT-IR, and the relationships between the oxidation degree and mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break were examined. The oxidation degree was defined as the ratio of the IR absorption peak for the C=O bond to that for the C-H bond. When tensile strength and elongation at break of XLPE sheets decreased, the oxidation degree increased and the oxidation degree distributed non-uniformly with depth. That is, the oxidation degree was the largest on the upper surface of XLPE sheets where air supply was sufficient during heating, and it was the smallest on the lower surface that contacted with a metal plate during heating. Since the mechanical characteristics such as the hardness and the Young's modulus decreased in the oxidized region of XLPE sheets, it was pointed out that the oxidized region became a weak point against the mechanical stress. It was also pointed out that the micro FT-IR was useful in evaluating the depth profile of oxidation in polymer materials.
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Anindita Adikaputri Vinaya
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Sebuah kapal yang berlayar pada dasarnya telah memiliki tujuan pelayaran. Tujuan pelayaran dari sebuah kapal telah ditetapkan sebelumnya dan direpresentasikan oleh suatu bentuk trajectory. Pada dasarnya, apabila kondisi gangguan relatif kecil, kapal masih dapat memenuhi trajectory-nya. Akan tetapi, apabila kondisi gangguan di laut secara mendadak berubah sewaktu-waktu (non uniform, maka kapal tidak dapat memenuhi trajectory-nya. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk merancang sebuah kriteria sistem kontrol trajectory pada kondisi gangguan arus laut tidak statis di Ketapang-Gilimanuk. Perancangan sistem berdasarkan spesifikasi kapal Ferry Ro-Ro 1000GT. Kontrol logika fuzzy (KLF yang digunakan adalah Sugeno-Takagi dengan masukan berupa error yaw, dan yaw rate sedangkan keluaran berupa aksi command rudder. Jumlah aturan pada KLF adalah 49 aturan dengan 7 fungsi keanggotaan pada masing-masing masukannya. Berdasarkan hasil simulasi secara keseluruhan, KLF yang dirancang mampu mengontrol dinamika kapal sehingga kapal tersebut mampu melawan arus yang ada dan mengikuti desire sesuai skenario yang telah dibuat dengan rata-rata error lintasan terkecil yaitu 0,328 m dengan nilai ITAE sebesar 246,016 pada saat kapal berlayar tanpa ada gangguan dan rata-rata error lintasan terbesar yaitu 7,43m dengan nilai ITAE sebesar 302615,11 pada saat kecepatan arus rata-rata mencapai 7knot.
Electron Beam Dose Distribution in the Presence of Non-Uniform Magnetic Field
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Mohamad Javad Tahmasebi-Birgani
2014-04-01
Full Text Available Introduction Magnetic fields are capable of altering the trajectory of electron beams andcan be used in radiation therapy.Theaim of this study was to produce regions with dose enhancement and reduction in the medium. Materials and Methods The NdFeB permanent magnets were arranged on the electron applicator in several configurations. Then, after the passage of the electron beams (9 and 15 MeV Varian 2100C/D through the non-uniform magnetic field, the Percentage Depth Dose(PDDs on central axis and dose profiles in three depths for each energy were measured in a 3D water phantom. Results For all magnet arrangements and for two different energies, the surface dose increment and shift in depth of maximum dose (dmax were observed. In addition, the pattern of dose distribution in buildup region was changed. Measurement of dose profile showed dose localization and spreading in some other regions. Conclusion The results of this study confirms that using magnetic field can alter the dose deposition patterns and as a result can produce dose enhancement as well as dose reduction in the medium using high-energy electron beams. These effects provide dose distribution with arbitrary shapes for use in radiation therapy.
Bed Slope Effect on Non-uniform Flow through Porous Media
Bhanu Prakasham Reddy, N.; Krishnaiah, S.; Ramakrishna Reddy, M.
2016-09-01
The tilting angle or bed slope (φ) effect on piezometric head was studied in a tilting angle converging permeameter for different rate of flows and for different bed slopes or tilting angles (φ) and the equipotential lines of piezometric head are depicted pictorially to establish the suitability of the convergent flow assumption and have a proper insight into the subject of seepage flow. The porosity effect is considered while computing seepage velocity (V), linear parameter, non-linear parameter, increases with decrease of porosity (N) and increases with decrease of angle of inclination. In order to meet the objective of this study, a crushed rock of size 7.30 mm was used as media and water as fluid, to develop curves relating friction factor (FR) and Reynolds number (RR) for different ratios of width using hydraulic radius (R) as characteristic length for different bed slopes or tilting angles (φ). The effect of varying tilting angles (φ) on head loss of fluid flow through porous media when packed between convergent boundaries for different ratios of width (B1/B2) was studied and inferred that tilting angles (φ) have a significant effect on the non uniform flow.
Regional paleofire regimes affected by non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers
Blarquez, Olivier; Ali, Adam A.; Girardin, Martin P.; Grondin, Pierre; Fréchette, Bianca; Bergeron, Yves; Hély, Christelle
2015-09-01
Climate, vegetation and humans act on biomass burning at different spatial and temporal scales. In this study, we used a dense network of sedimentary charcoal records from eastern Canada to reconstruct regional biomass burning history over the last 7000 years at the scale of four potential vegetation types: open coniferous forest/tundra, boreal coniferous forest, boreal mixedwood forest and temperate forest. The biomass burning trajectories were compared with regional climate trends reconstructed from general circulation models, tree biomass reconstructed from pollen series, and human population densities. We found that non-uniform climate, vegetation and human drivers acted on regional biomass burning history. In the open coniferous forest/tundra and dense coniferous forest, the regional biomass burning was primarily shaped by gradual establishment of less climate-conducive burning conditions over 5000 years. In the mixed boreal forest an increasing relative proportion of flammable conifers in landscapes since 2000 BP contributed to maintaining biomass burning constant despite climatic conditions less favourable to fires. In the temperate forest, biomass burning was uncoupled with climatic conditions and the main driver was seemingly vegetation until European colonization, i.e. 300 BP. Tree biomass and thus fuel accumulation modulated fire activity, an indication that biomass burning is fuel-dependent and notably upon long-term co-dominance shifts between conifers and broadleaf trees.
Reducing Call Blocks in Cellular Network with Non-Uniform Traffic Conditions
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Sharma Abhijit
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In cellular networks, while the motivation behind all basic channel assignment strategies is the better utilization of the available frequency spectrum with the consequent reduction of the call blocking probability in each cell, very few of them deal with the problem of non-uniform traffic demand in different cells which may lead to a gross imbalance in the system performance. Mobile users in hot cells (the cells with heavy traffic loads may suffer from low throughput due to the load imbalance problem. In this paper, we propose a cost effective and simple load balancing scheme that can effectively reduce the overall call blocking. A common set of channels are determined dynamically which can be used simultaneously in all the cells. Cell tiers with different radii are used to cope with the interference introduced by using same set of channels simultaneously in all cells. The performance of the proposed scheme is presented in terms of call blocking probability and channel utilization. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can reduce the call blocking significantly in highly congested cell.
Prism Window for Optical Alignment
Tang, Hong
2008-01-01
A prism window has been devised for use, with an autocollimator, in aligning optical components that are (1) required to be oriented parallel to each other and/or at a specified angle of incidence with respect to a common optical path and (2) mounted at different positions along the common optical path. The prism window can also be used to align a single optical component at a specified angle of incidence. Prism windows could be generally useful for orienting optical components in manufacture of optical instruments. "Prism window" denotes an application-specific unit comprising two beam-splitter windows that are bonded together at an angle chosen to obtain the specified angle of incidence.
Sheng-Hui, Rong; Hui-Xin, Zhou; Han-Lin, Qin; Rui, Lai; Kun, Qian
2016-05-01
Imaging non-uniformity of infrared focal plane array (IRFPA) behaves as fixed-pattern noise superimposed on the image, which affects the imaging quality of infrared system seriously. In scene-based non-uniformity correction methods, the drawbacks of ghosting artifacts and image blurring affect the sensitivity of the IRFPA imaging system seriously and decrease the image quality visibly. This paper proposes an improved neural network non-uniformity correction method with adaptive learning rate. On the one hand, using guided filter, the proposed algorithm decreases the effect of ghosting artifacts. On the other hand, due to the inappropriate learning rate is the main reason of image blurring, the proposed algorithm utilizes an adaptive learning rate with a temporal domain factor to eliminate the effect of image blurring. In short, the proposed algorithm combines the merits of the guided filter and the adaptive learning rate. Several real and simulated infrared image sequences are utilized to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. The experiment results indicate that the proposed algorithm can not only reduce the non-uniformity with less ghosting artifacts but also overcome the problems of image blurring in static areas.
Zupančič, Matevž; Može, Matic; Gregorčič, Peter; Golobič, Iztok
2017-03-01
Microstructured uniformly and non-uniformly wettable surfaces were created on 25-μm-thin stainless steel foils by laser texturing using a marking nanosecond Nd:YAG laser (λ = 1064 nm) and utilizing various laser fluences and scan line separations. High-speed photography and high-speed IR thermography were used to investigate nucleate boiling heat transfer on the microstructured surfaces. The most pronounced results were obtained on a surface with non-uniform microstructure and non-uniform wettability. The obtained results show up to a 110% higher heat transfer coefficients and 20-40 times higher nucleation site densities compared to the untextured surface. We show that the number of active nucleation sites is significantly increased in the vicinity of microcavities that appeared in areas with the smallest (10 μm) scan line separation. Furthermore, this confirms the predictions of nucleation criteria and proves that straightforward, cost-effective nanosecond laser texturing allows the production of cavities with diameters of up to a few micrometers and surfaces with non-uniform wettability. Additionally, this opens up important possibilities for a more deterministic control over the complex boiling process.
Advanced GF(32) nonbinary LDPC coded modulation with non-uniform 9-QAM outperforming star 8-QAM.
Liu, Tao; Lin, Changyu; Djordjevic, Ivan B
2016-06-27
In this paper, we first describe a 9-symbol non-uniform signaling scheme based on Huffman code, in which different symbols are transmitted with different probabilities. By using the Huffman procedure, prefix code is designed to approach the optimal performance. Then, we introduce an algorithm to determine the optimal signal constellation sets for our proposed non-uniform scheme with the criterion of maximizing constellation figure of merit (CFM). The proposed nonuniform polarization multiplexed signaling 9-QAM scheme has the same spectral efficiency as the conventional 8-QAM. Additionally, we propose a specially designed GF(32) nonbinary quasi-cyclic LDPC code for the coded modulation system based on the 9-QAM non-uniform scheme. Further, we study the efficiency of our proposed non-uniform 9-QAM, combined with nonbinary LDPC coding, and demonstrate by Monte Carlo simulation that the proposed GF(23) nonbinary LDPC coded 9-QAM scheme outperforms nonbinary LDPC coded uniform 8-QAM by at least 0.8dB.
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Hang Zhou
2015-05-01
Full Text Available This study presents a numerical validation of a new approach to model single junction PV cell under non-uniform illumination for low-concentration solar collectors such as compound parabolic concentrators (CPC. The simulation is achieved by finite element modelling (FEM. To characterize the results, the model is simulated with five different non-uniform illumination profiles. The results indicate that increasing the non-uniformity of concentrated light will introduce more resistive losses and lead to a significant attenuation in the PV cell short-circuit current. The FEM modelling results are then used to validate the array modelling approach, in which a single junction PV cell is considered equivalent to a parallel-connected array of several cell splits. A comparison between the FEM and array modelling approaches shows good agreement. Therefore, the array modelling approach is a fast way to investigate the PV cell performance under non-uniform illumination, while the FEM approach is useful in optimizing design of fingers and bus-bars on a PV.
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G. Revathi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Non-similar solutions are found numerically to a system of coupled non-linear partial differential equations indicating, unsteady laminar water boundary layer flow over yawed cylinder using implicit finite difference scheme along with Quasi-linearization technique. The fluid properties such as viscosity and Prandtl number are considered as an inverse function of temperature. Unsteadiness is caused by upstream velocity in and directions and non-uniform mass transfer (suction/injection which is applied through slot on the surface of the geometry. The effect of yaw angle, variable fluid properties and non-uniform mass transfer on skin friction and heat transfer coefficients is analyzed. It is found that non-uniform slot suction and downstream movement of the slot cause the point of vanishing skin friction moves downstream, but non-uniform slot injection produces the opposite result of that corresponding to the suction case. When the yaw angle increases, both the skin friction coefficient in the – direction and the heat transfer coefficient decrease but the skin friction coefficient in the – direction increases for all times. The effect of the yaw angle is very little on the point of vanishing skin friction.
Investigation of non-uniform airflow signal oscillation during high frequency chest compression
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Lee Jongwon
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background High frequency chest compression (HFCC is a useful and popular therapy for clearing bronchial airways of excessive or thicker mucus. Our observation of respiratory airflow of a subject during use of HFCC showed the airflow oscillation by HFCC was strongly influenced by the nonlinearity of the respiratory system. We used a computational model-based approach to analyse the respiratory airflow during use of HFCC. Methods The computational model, which is based on previous physiological studies and represented by an electrical circuit analogue, was used for simulation of in vivo protocol that shows the nonlinearity of the respiratory system. Besides, airflow was measured during use of HFCC. We compared the simulation results to either the measured data or the previous research, to understand and explain the observations. Results and discussion We could observe two important phenomena during respiration pertaining to the airflow signal oscillation generated by HFCC. The amplitudes of HFCC airflow signals varied depending on spontaneous airflow signals. We used the simulation results to investigate how the nonlinearity of airway resistance, lung capacitance, and inertance of air characterized the respiratory airflow. The simulation results indicated that lung capacitance or the inertance of air is also not a factor in the non-uniformity of HFCC airflow signals. Although not perfect, our circuit analogue model allows us to effectively simulate the nonlinear characteristics of the respiratory system. Conclusion We found that the amplitudes of HFCC airflow signals behave as a function of spontaneous airflow signals. This is due to the nonlinearity of the respiratory system, particularly variations in airway resistance.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Non-uniform Current-Vortex Sheets in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows
Matsuoka, C.; Nishihara, K.; Sano, T.
2016-10-01
A theoretical model is proposed to describe fully nonlinear dynamics of interfaces in two-dimensional MHD flows based on an idea of non-uniform current-vortex sheet. Application of vortex sheet model to MHD flows has a crucial difficulty because of non-conservative nature of magnetic tension. However, it is shown that when a magnetic field is initially parallel to an interface, the concept of vortex sheet can be extended to MHD flows (current-vortex sheet). Two-dimensional MHD flows are then described only by a one-dimensional Lagrange parameter on the sheet. It is also shown that bulk magnetic field and velocity can be calculated from their values on the sheet. The model is tested by MHD Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with sinusoidal vortex sheet strength. Two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations show that the nonlinear dynamics of a shocked interface with density stratification agrees fairly well with that for its corresponding potential flow. Numerical solutions of the model reproduce properly the results of the ideal MHD simulations, such as the roll-up of spike, exponential growth of magnetic field, and its saturation and oscillation. Nonlinear evolution of the interface is found to be determined by the Alfvén and Atwood numbers. Some of their dependence on the sheet dynamics and magnetic field amplification are discussed. It is shown by the model that the magnetic field amplification occurs locally associated with the nonlinear dynamics of the current-vortex sheet. We expect that our model can be applicable to a wide variety of MHD shear flows.
Non-uniform electric field-induced yeast cell electrokinetic behavior
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Flavio Humberto Fernández Morales
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Common dielectrophoresis (c-DEP, i.e. neutral matter motion induced by non-uniform electric fields has become a basic pheno-menon of biochips intended for medical, biological and chemical assays, especially when they imply bioparticle handling. This paper deals with modelling and experimental verification of a castellated, c-DEP-based, microelectrode array intended to handle biological objects. The proposed microsystem was developed employing platinum electrodes patterned by lift-off, silicon micro-machining and photoresin patterning techniques. Saccharomyces cerevisiae were used as test bioparticles for experimental verifi-cation. Yeast cells were repelled toward electrode bays and toward interelectrodic gaps tor frequencies around 20 MHz where there is minimum electric field strength, corresponding to a negative dielectrophoretic phenomenon. Yeast cell agglomerations were observed around electrode edges for frequencies of around 2 MHz where there is maximum electric field strength, thereby verifying the positive dielectrophoretic phenomenon. Bioparticles were separated from the electrode edges when the working fre-quency was reduced and they were dragged towards the electrode centre, remaining there while the frequency was low enough. Such atypical pattern may be explained due to the occurrence of positive dielectrophoresis overlap with electrohydrodynamic effects (i.e. the viscous drag force acting on the particles was greater than the dielectrophoretic force at frequencies where positi-ve dielectrophoresis should occur. The experiments illustrated microsystem convenience in microhandling biological objects, the-reby providing these microarrays’ possible use with other cells. Liquid motion resulting from electrohydrodynamic effects must also be taken into account when designing bioparticle micromanipulators, and could be used as a mechanism for cleaning electrode surfaces.
A continuous latitudinal energy balance model to explore non-uniform climate engineering strategies
Bonetti, F.; McInnes, C. R.
2016-12-01
Current concentrations of atmospheric CO2 exceed measured historical levels in modern times, largely attributed to anthropogenic forcing since the industrial revolution. The required decline in emissions rates has never been achieved leading to recent interest in climate engineering for future risk-mitigation strategies. Climate engineering aims to offset human-driven climate change. It involves techniques developed both to reduce the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere (Carbon Dioxide Removal (CDR) methods) and to counteract the radiative forcing that it generates (Solar Radiation Management (SRM) methods). In order to investigate effects of SRM technologies for climate engineering, an analytical model describing the main dynamics of the Earth's climate has been developed. The model is a time-dependent Energy Balance Model (EBM) with latitudinal resolution and allows for the evaluation of non-uniform climate engineering strategies. A significant disadvantage of climate engineering techniques involving the management of solar radiation is regional disparities in cooling. This model offers an analytical approach to design multi-objective strategies that counteract climate change on a regional basis: for example, to cool the Artic and restrict undesired impacts at mid-latitudes, or to control the equator-to-pole temperature gradient. Using the Green's function approach the resulting partial differential equation allows for the computation of the surface temperature as a function of time and latitude when a 1% per year increase in the CO2 concentration is considered. After the validation of the model through comparisons with high fidelity numerical models, it will be used to explore strategies for the injection of the aerosol precursors in the stratosphere. In particular, the model involves detailed description of the optical properties of the particles, the wash-out dynamics and the estimation of the radiative cooling they can generate.
Groundwater Mounding in Non-uniform Aquifers with Implications for Managed Aquifer Recharge
Zlotnik, V. A.; Noel, P.; Kacimov, A. R.; Al Maktoumi, A. K.
2015-12-01
Many areas of the world (e.g. the Middle East and North Africa countries) are deficient in observation networks and hydrogeological data needed for Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) design. Therefore, diagnostic analytical approaches are appropriate for feasibility studies of MAR. It was found that the common assumption of aquifer thickness uniformity often does not hold, especially in mountainous watersheds. However, the only practical result available for non-uniform aquifers was developed for well hydraulics applications (point sinks or sources) by Hantush (1962), while the recharge zones may cover large areas on the scale of kilometers, such as temporarily filled impoundments (natural and engineered reservoirs in wadis, depressions, trenches, etc.) or perennial streams accepting massive treated wastewater discharge. To address these important, but overlooked MAR problems in sloping aquifers, a set of new closed-form analytical solutions for water table elevations were obtained. Interestingly, the 2D groundwater flow equation acquires the advection-dispersion equation form in these cases. The quadratures in closed-form solutions obtained by the Green's function method converge rapidly. These models account for both shapes and orientations of sources with respect to the direction of the aquifer base gradient. Qualitatively, solutions in sloping aquifers have an important trait: the mounding is limited in time and space, unlike in aquifers with a horizontal base. Aquifers with the greater slopes have the lesser potential of waterlogging from the rising water table and different storage characteristics (height and volume of locally stored water). Computational aspects of these solutions for MAR analyses are illustrated by example utilizing regional aquifer properties near Az Zarqa River, Jordan. (This study was supported by a grant from USAID-FABRI, project contract: AID-OAA-TO-11-00049, Subcontract: 1001624 -12S-19745).
Supersonic Mass Flux Measurements via Tunable Diode Laser Absorption and Non-Uniform Flow Modeling
Chang, Leyen S.; Strand, Christopher L.; Jeffries, Jay B.; Hanson, Ronald K.; Diskin, Glenn S.; Gaffney, Richard L.; Capriotti, Diego P.
2011-01-01
Measurements of mass flux are obtained in a vitiated supersonic ground test facility using a sensor based on line-of-sight (LOS) diode laser absorption of water vapor. Mass flux is determined from the product of measured velocity and density. The relative Doppler shift of an absorption transition for beams directed upstream and downstream in the flow is used to measure velocity. Temperature is determined from the ratio of absorption signals of two transitions (lambda(sub 1)=1349 nm and lambda(sub 2)=1341.5 nm) and is coupled with a facility pressure measurement to obtain density. The sensor exploits wavelength-modulation spectroscopy with second-harmonic detection (WMS-2f) for large signal-to-noise ratios and normalization with the 1f signal for rejection of non-absorption related transmission fluctuations. The sensor line-of-sight is translated both vertically and horizontally across the test section for spatially-resolved measurements. Time-resolved measurements of mass flux are used to assess the stability of flow conditions produced by the facility. Measurements of mass flux are within 1.5% of the value obtained using a facility predictive code. The distortion of the WMS lineshape caused by boundary layers along the laser line-of-sight is examined and the subsequent effect on the measured velocity is discussed. A method for correcting measured velocities for flow non-uniformities is introduced and application of this correction brings measured velocities within 4 m/s of the predicted value in a 1630 m/s flow.
Nonlinear Dynamics of Non-uniform Current-Vortex Sheets in Magnetohydrodynamic Flows
Matsuoka, C.; Nishihara, K.; Sano, T.
2017-04-01
A theoretical model is proposed to describe fully nonlinear dynamics of interfaces in two-dimensional MHD flows based on an idea of non-uniform current-vortex sheet. Application of vortex sheet model to MHD flows has a crucial difficulty because of non-conservative nature of magnetic tension. However, it is shown that when a magnetic field is initially parallel to an interface, the concept of vortex sheet can be extended to MHD flows (current-vortex sheet). Two-dimensional MHD flows are then described only by a one-dimensional Lagrange parameter on the sheet. It is also shown that bulk magnetic field and velocity can be calculated from their values on the sheet. The model is tested by MHD Richtmyer-Meshkov instability with sinusoidal vortex sheet strength. Two-dimensional ideal MHD simulations show that the nonlinear dynamics of a shocked interface with density stratification agrees fairly well with that for its corresponding potential flow. Numerical solutions of the model reproduce properly the results of the ideal MHD simulations, such as the roll-up of spike, exponential growth of magnetic field, and its saturation and oscillation. Nonlinear evolution of the interface is found to be determined by the Alfvén and Atwood numbers. Some of their dependence on the sheet dynamics and magnetic field amplification are discussed. It is shown by the model that the magnetic field amplification occurs locally associated with the nonlinear dynamics of the current-vortex sheet. We expect that our model can be applicable to a wide variety of MHD shear flows.
Study of entropy generation in a slab with non-uniform internal heat generation
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El Haj Assad Mamdouh
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Analysis of entropy generation in a rectangular slab with a nonuniform internal heat generation is presented. Dimensionless local and total entropy generation during steady state heat conduction through the slab are obtained. Two different boundary conditions have been considered in the analysis, the first with asymmetric convection and the second with constant slab surface temperature. Temperature distribution within the slab is obtained analytically. The study investigates the effect of some relevant dimensionless heat transfer parameters on entropy generation. The results show that there exists a minimum local entropy generation but there does not exist a minimum total entropy generation for certain combinations of the heat transfer parameters. The results of calculations are presented graphically.
Non-uniformity of Clinical Head, Head and Neck, and Body Coils in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI
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Mahmood Nazarpoor
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Introduction Signal intensity uniformity in a magnetic resonance (MR image indicates how well the MR imaging (MRI system represents an object. One of the major sources of image non-uniformity in high-field MRI scanners is inhomogeneity of radio-frequency coil. The aim of this study was to investigate non-uniformity in head, head and neck, and body coils and compare the obtained results to determine the best clinical coil for future clinical application. Materials and Methods A phantom was designed to investigate the non-uniformity of coils. All evaluations were carried out using a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. T1-weighted inversion recovery sequence (linear phase encoding and turbo fast low angle shot (TurboFLASH images were used to find non-uniformity in the clinical coils. For testing the uniformity of coils, signal intensity profiles in parts of the coronal image of phantom were measured over X and Y axes. Results The results showed that body coil was the most uniform coil of all; in addition, the head and neck coil was more uniform than the head coil. The results also indicated that signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of the head and neck coil was higher than the head and body coils. Moreover, SNR of the head coil was higher than that of the body coil. Conclusion In order to accurately find or apply an image signal intensity for measuring organ blood flow or perfusion, coil non-uniformity corrections are required.
Koishiyev, Galymzhan T.
Clean and environmentally friendly photovoltaic (PV) technologies are now generally recognized as an alternative solution to many global-scale problems such as energy demand, pollution, and environment safety. The cost ($/kWh) is the primary challenge for all PV technologies. In that respect, thin-film polycrystalline PV technology (CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, etc), due to its fast production line, large area panels and low material usage, is one of the most promising low-cost technologies. Due to their granular structure, thin-film solar cells are inherently non-uniform. Also, inevitable fluctuations during the multistep deposition process of large area thin-film solar panels and specific manufacturing procedures such as scribing result in non-uniformities. Furthermore, non-uniformities can occur, become more severe, or increase in size during the solar-panel's life cycle due to various environmental conditions (i.e. temperature variation, shading, hail impact, etc). Non-uniformities generally reduce the overall efficiency of solar cells and modules, and their effects therefore need to be well understood. This thesis focuses on the analysis of the effect of non-uniformities on small size solar cells and modules with the help of numerical simulations. Even though the 2-D model developed here can analyze the effect of non-uniformities of any nature, only two specific types of microscopic non-uniformities were addressed here: shunts and weak-diodes. One type of macroscopic non-uniformity, partial shading, was also addressed. The circuit model developed here is a network of diodes, current-sources, and transparent-conductive-oxide (TCO) resistors. An analytic relation between the TCO-resistor, which is the primary model parameter, and TCO sheet resistance rhoS, which is the corresponding physical parameter, was derived. Based on the model several useful general results regarding a uniform cell were deduced. In particular, a global parameter delta, which determines the
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Krishnendu Bhattacharyya
2013-01-01
In this paper,the effect of non-uniform heat flux on heat transfer in boundary layer stagnation-point flow over a shrinking sheet is studied.The variable boundary heat fluxes are considered of two types:direct power-law variation with the distance along the sheet and inverse power-law variation with the distance.The governing partial differential equations (PDEs) are transformed into non linear self-similar ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by similarity transformations,and then those are solved using very efficient shooting method.The direct variation and inverse variation of heat flux along the sheet have completely different effects on the temperature distribution.Moreover,the heat transfer characteristics in the presence of non-uniform heat flux for several values of physical parameters are also found to be interesting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shimul Chandra SAHA
2008-11-01
Full Text Available We have presented a model for spring constant and pull-down voltage of a non-uniform radio frequency microelectromechanical systems (RF MEMS cantilever that works on electrostatic actuation. The residual stress gradient in the beam material that may arise during the fabrication process is also considered in the model. Using basic force deflection calculation of the suspended beam, a stand-alone model for the spring constant and pull-down voltage of the non-uniform cantilever is developed. To compare the model, simulation is performed using standard Finite Element Method (FEM analysis tolls from CoventorWare. The model matches very well with the FEM simulation results. The model will offer an efficient means of design, analysis, and optimization of RF MEMS cantilever switches.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈出新; 郭孝城
2003-01-01
Magnetoconvective instabilities in a rapidly rotating, electrically conducting fluid layer heated from below in the presence of a non-uniform, horizontal magnetic field are investigated. It was first shown by Chandrasekhar that an overall minimum of the Rayleigh number may be reached at the onset of magnetoconvection when a uniform basic magnetic field is imposed. In this paper, we show that the properties of instability can be quite different when a non-uniform basic magnetic field is applied. It is shown that there is an optimum value of the Elsasser number provided that the basic magnetic field is a monotonically decreasing or increasing function of the vertical coordinate. However,there exist no optimum values of the Elsasser number that can give rise to an overall minimum of the Rayleigh number at the onset of magnetoconvection if the imposed basic magnetic field has an infiexion point.
Xiao, Hualin; Wu, Bobing; Produit, Nicolas
2015-01-01
POLAR is a space-borne Compton polarimeter desired to measure linear polarization of 50 -- 500 keV gamma rays arriving from prompt emission of of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). Reconstruction of energy deposition produced by gamma rays on scintillator bars is required to determine modulation curves, from which the linear polarization can be revealed. However, crosstalk between neighbor scintillator bars and non-uniformities of multi-anode photomultipliers (MaPMT) make the energy reconstruction complicated. We present a model to describe relation between recorded energy signal and visible energy deposited (real deposited energy) on detector modules and energy response matrix is de- duced from the model. According to the model, crosstalk and non-uniformities can be corrected by performing a linear transformation of recorded energy de- position with inverse matrix of the response matrix, whose elements can be also obtained by measuring Compton edges and analyzing crosstalk between recorded signal produced by gamma ray...
Li, Hongye; Wan, Hongdan; Zhang, Zuxing; Sun, Bing; Zhang, Lin
2016-10-01
This paper investigates optical properties of few-mode fiber with non-uniform refractive index, namely: the few mode fiber with U-shape refractive index and the two-mode and four-mode few-mode fiber with bent radius. Finite element method is used to analyze the mode distributions based on their non-uniform refractive index. Effective mode control can be achieved through these few mode fibers to achieve vector beam generation. Finally, reflection spectra of a few-mode fiber Bragg grating are calculated theoretically and then measured under different bending conditions. Experimental results are in good accordance with the theoretical ones. These few mode fibers show potential applications in generation of cylindrical vector beam both for optical lasing and sensing systems.
Decker, J.; Fricke, J.; Maaßdorf, A.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.; Crump, P.
2017-02-01
Monolithic spectral stabilization is demonstrated in narrow-stripe broad-area lasers (NBA) with high power (5W), conversion efficiency (50%) and high brightness, by using optimized high-order surface-etched DFB gratings. However, surface etched gratings introduce a high index contrast into the semiconductor, leading to the scattering losses increasing rapidly with groove etch depth, limiting efficiency and yield. We therefore review progress in the exploitation of novel, non-uniform grating configurations for improved performance. Devices with non-uniform gratings whose groove etch depth decreases toward the front facet (apodized grating) are shown to operate with enhanced spectrally stable power (6W) compared to devices with uniform gratings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dulal Pal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study an unsteady mixed convection boundary layer flow of an electrically conduct- ing fluid over an stretching permeable sheet in the presence of transverse magnetic field, thermal radiation and non-uniform heat source/sink effects is investigated. The unsteadiness in the flow and temperature fields is due to the time-dependent nature of the stretching velocity and the surface temperature. Both opposing and assisting flows are considered. The dimensionless governing or- dinary non-linear differential equations are solved numerically by applying shooting method using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method. The effects of unsteadiness parameter, buoyancy parameter, thermal radiation, Eckert number, Prandtl number and non-uniform heat source/sink parameter on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined. Comparisons of the present results with previously published results for the steady case are found to be excellent.
S/N Ratio of 4-Channel A/D Geological Radar Non-uniform Sampling Signals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
Using the quantitative error probability density method we studied the S/N ratio of alternately sampled signals digitized by a 4-channel A/D.A complete expression for the S/N ratio of a 4-channel A/D non-uniform sampling signal was deduced.First we obtained an expression for the S/N ratio of a 1-channel A/D uniform sampling signal when the sampling frequency was equal to or greater than 2 times the frequency of the sampled signal.Based on the S/N ratio of a 2-channel A/D, alternating, non-uniform sampling signal, we analyzed the distribution of quantitative error using the quantitative error probability density method and the distribution convolution formula.From this the S/N ratio expression of a 4-channel A/D sampling signal was deduced.The simulation result shows that the deduced expression is correct.
Biologically adapted radiotherapy and evaluation of non-uniform dose distributions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soevik, Aaste
2007-07-01
Radiation therapy plays an integral part in cancer management. Over the last decade, the fraction of patients in the Nordic countries receiving radiation therapy at some stage in their disease has increased by around 50%, and approximately half of the treatments arc given with curative intent. While only 20% of patients with primary tumors receive radiation therapy as the only form of treatment, curative radiation therapy given in combination with other treatment modalities has been shown to be of benefit for the majority of the most common cancers. The future requirements for radiation therapy are expected to increase along with the increase in cancer incidence. The aim of curing the patient is not always achieved, due to distant metastasis and/or lack of locoregional control. Locoregional failure occurs when the delivered tumor dose fails to eradicate the cancer cells, and can result from a radioresistant subpopulation of tumor cells. As the tumor dose is limited by the probability of inducing normal tissue complications, novel treatment strategies are needed to improve locoregional tumor control. Over the recent years, there has been an increasing interest in complex treatment delivery strategies in radiation therapy. Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be used to provide a distribution of radiation dose that conforms closely to irregularly shaped tumors, while sparing the surrounding normal tissues. However, IMRT can also be used to deliver non-uniform dose distributions, based on patient specific biological information, i.e. biologically conformal radiation therapy (BCRT). Functional and molecular imaging can be used to demonstrate both the distribution of and the extent of heterogeneity in parameters that influence tumor radiation sensitivity. Non-invasive images of radiobiological parameters form the basis of biologically conformal radiation therapy and are needed to create individually optimized radiation therapy plans. Recent advances in the
Miyawaki, Shinjiro; Tawhai, Merryn H.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Lin, Ching-Long
2014-11-01
The authors have developed a method to automatically generate non-uniform CFD mesh for image-based human airway models. The sizes of generated tetrahedral elements vary in both radial and longitudinal directions to account for boundary layer and multiscale nature of pulmonary airflow. The proposed method takes advantage of our previously developed centerline-based geometry reconstruction method. In order to generate the mesh branch by branch in parallel, we used the open-source programs Gmsh and TetGen for surface and volume meshes, respectively. Both programs can specify element sizes by means of background mesh. The size of an arbitrary element in the domain is a function of wall distance, element size on the wall, and element size at the center of airway lumen. The element sizes on the wall are computed based on local flow rate and airway diameter. The total number of elements in the non-uniform mesh (10 M) was about half of that in the uniform mesh, although the computational time for the non-uniform mesh was about twice longer (170 min). The proposed method generates CFD meshes with fine elements near the wall and smooth variation of element size in longitudinal direction, which are required, e.g., for simulations with high flow rate. NIH Grants R01-HL094315, U01-HL114494, and S10-RR022421. Computer time provided by XSEDE.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abiru, K.; Honda, Y.; Inoue, M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Systems Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Kiss, T., E-mail: kiss@sc.kyushu-u.ac.j [Department of Electrical and Electronic Systems Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Iijima, Y.; Kakimoto, K.; Saitoh, T. [Fujikura Ltd., Tokyo 135-8512 (Japan); Nakao, K.; Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)
2009-10-15
We have visualized non-uniform current flow in RE123 coated conductors by using a scanning Hall-probe magnetic microscopy (SHPM). Newly developed SHPM system allows us to measure two-dimensional magnetic field distribution with high spatial resolution in micro-meter scale. Corresponding current density distribution can be obtained from the magnetic field image by solving inverted Biot-Savart's law. One of the most important advantages of the present system is to visualize the current density distribution in practical high transport current and also in wide scanning area. For example, the system has current leads with large capacity up to 500 A, and the operating distance can be 15 cm by 15 cm with a micro-meter step distance. Using the SHPM system, we have successfully visualized current density distributions in the coated conductor, and clarified different kinds of non-uniform current flow. Those insights are very useful to identify local defects as well as non-uniform tape quality. These results indicate that the SHPM system is a powerful diagnostic tool not only to observe spatial inhomogeneities of transport property but also to understand their reason in practical coated conductors.
Park, Yong Min; Kim, Byeong Hee; Seo, Young Ho
2016-06-01
This paper presents a selective aluminum anodization technique for the fabrication of microstructures covered by nanoscale dome structures. It is possible to fabricate bulging microstructures, utilizing the different growth rates of anodic aluminum oxide in non-uniform electric fields, because the growth rate of anodic aluminum oxide depends on the intensity of electric field, or current density. After anodizing under a non-uniform electric field, bulging microstructures covered by nanostructures were fabricated by removing the residual aluminum layer. The non-uniform electric field induced by insulative micropatterns was estimated by computational simulations and verified experimentally. Utilizing computational simulations, the intensity profile of the electric field was calculated according to the ratio of height and width of the insulative micropatterns. To compare computational simulation results and experimental results, insulative micropatterns were fabricated using SU-8 photoresist. The results verified that the shape of the bottom topology of anodic alumina was strongly dependent on the intensity profile of the applied electric field, or current density. The one-step fabrication of nanostructure-covered microstructures can be applied to various fields, such as nano-biochip and nano-optics, owing to its simplicity and cost effectiveness.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sadeghi-Goughari, Moslem [Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini, Mohammad [Sirjan University of Technology, Sirjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2015-02-15
The vibrational behavior of a viscous nanoflow-conveying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) was investigated. The nonuniformity of the flow velocity distribution caused by the viscosity of fluid and the small-size effects on the flow field was considered. Euler-Bernoulli beam model was used to investigate flow-induced vibration of the nanotube, while the non-uniformity of the flow velocity and the small-size effects of the flow field were formulated through Knudsen number (Kn), as a discriminant parameter. For laminar flow in a circular nanotube, the momentum correction factor was developed as a function of Kn. For Kn = 0 (continuum flow), the momentum correction factor was found to be 1.33, which decreases by the increase in Kn may even reach near 1 for the transition flow regime. We observed that for passage of viscous flow through a nanotube with the non-uniform flow velocity, the critical continuum flow velocity for divergence decreased considerably as opposed to those for the uniform flow velocity, while by increasing Kn, the difference between the uniform and non-uniform flow models may be reduced. In the solution part, the differential transformation method (DTM) was used to solve the governing differential equations of motion.
Xu, Daguang; Huang, Yong; Kang, Jin U
2014-06-16
We implemented the graphics processing unit (GPU) accelerated compressive sensing (CS) non-uniform in k-space spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Kaiser-Bessel (KB) function and Gaussian function are used independently as the convolution kernel in the gridding-based non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) algorithm with different oversampling ratios and kernel widths. Our implementation is compared with the GPU-accelerated modified non-uniform discrete Fourier transform (MNUDFT) matrix-based CS SD OCT and the GPU-accelerated fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based CS SD OCT. It was found that our implementation has comparable performance to the GPU-accelerated MNUDFT-based CS SD OCT in terms of image quality while providing more than 5 times speed enhancement. When compared to the GPU-accelerated FFT based-CS SD OCT, it shows smaller background noise and less side lobes while eliminating the need for the cumbersome k-space grid filling and the k-linear calibration procedure. Finally, we demonstrated that by using a conventional desktop computer architecture having three GPUs, real-time B-mode imaging can be obtained in excess of 30 fps for the GPU-accelerated NUFFT based CS SD OCT with frame size 2048(axial) × 1,000(lateral).
Schlueter, Anne; Lemke, Ulrike; Kollmeier, Birger; Holube, Inga
2014-03-01
For assessing hearing aid algorithms, a method is sought to shift the threshold of a speech-in-noise test to (mostly positive) signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) that allow discrimination across algorithmic settings and are most relevant for hearing-impaired listeners in daily life. Hence, time-compressed speech with higher speech rates was evaluated to parametrically increase the difficulty of the test while preserving most of the relevant acoustical speech cues. A uniform and a non-uniform algorithm were used to compress the sentences of the German Oldenburg Sentence Test at different speech rates. In comparison, the non-uniform algorithm exhibited greater deviations from the targeted time compression, as well as greater changes of the phoneme duration, spectra, and modulation spectra. Speech intelligibility for fast Oldenburg sentences in background noise at different SNRs was determined with 48 normal-hearing listeners. The results confirmed decreasing intelligibility with increasing speech rate. Speech had to be compressed to more than 30% of its original length to reach 50% intelligibility at positive SNRs. Characteristics influencing the discrimination ability of the test for assessing effective SNR changes were investigated. Subjective and objective measures indicated a clear advantage of the uniform algorithm in comparison to the non-uniform algorithm for the application in speech-in-noise tests.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
亚敏; 戴福隆; 谢惠民; 吕坚
2003-01-01
Hole-drilling method is one of the most convenient methods for engineering residual ment data, hole-drilling technique can be used to solve non-uniform residual stress problems, both (MIIHD) for non-uniform residual stress measurement is introduced. Three dimensional finite element model is constructed by ABAQUS to obtain the coefficients for the residual stress calculation.An experimental system including real-time measurement, automatic data processing and residual stresses calculation is established. Two applications for non-uniform in-depth residual stress of surface nanocrystalline material and non-uniform in-plane residual stress of friction stir welding are presented.Experimental results show that MIIHD is effective for both non-uniform in-depth and in-plane residual stress measurements.
Non-uniform thickness in Europa's icy shell: implications for astrobiology mission design
Fairén, A.; Amils, R.
zero shell thickness [12]) with liquid water at shallow depths [5], allowing for bolide penetration, diapirism and the extrusion of water to the surface. The heterogeneity in shell's thickness may be originated in spatial variations in tidal heating [13] and/or warm water upwellings from the silicate interior capable of melt-through the ice from below [12,14]. This thickness heterogeneity can be embedded in a general equatorward thickening trending, due to tidal dissipation and surface temperature variations [15]. A major constraint must be addressed at this point: the dynamism of ductile ice near the base of the shell may drive to decay in lateral thickness contrasts. But this effect has been examined both assuming ice as a Newtonian [16,17,18] and a non-Newtonian material [19], broadly reaching to similar conclusions: global shell thickness variations may survive for up to 100 Myr. In addition, lateral pressure gradients may not decay if they comprise only shallow depths [19]. Therefore, our results point to a dynamic non-uniform Europa's icy shell, displaying some regional and temporal heterogeneity in thickness. As thin/thick ice distribution is as time dependent as the surface ice features are (both are reshaped in periods ˜ 100 Myr), the analysis performed here offers an estimation of the current thickness distribution in the ice shell, estimation that cannot be extrapolated to ancient (e.g., >100 Myr) times. The astrobiological potential the shell and ocean below possess is highlighted by these results: a somewhere thin outer crust allows the possibility for some exogenous materials delivered by asteroids and comets to reach the inner liquid water ocean by breaching the brittle lithosphere [20], and so join to those generated in the interior of Europa via volcanic and hydrothermal activity [21]. In addition, pressure gradients driving the ductile ice at the base of the shell to flow laterally may help to redistribute such materials among the inner ice shell and
Rectangular spectral collocation
Driscoll, Tobin A.
2015-02-06
Boundary conditions in spectral collocation methods are typically imposed by removing some rows of the discretized differential operator and replacing them with others that enforce the required conditions at the boundary. A new approach based upon resampling differentiated polynomials into a lower-degree subspace makes differentiation matrices, and operators built from them, rectangular without any row deletions. Then, boundary and interface conditions can be adjoined to yield a square system. The resulting method is both flexible and robust, and avoids ambiguities that arise when applying the classical row deletion method outside of two-point scalar boundary-value problems. The new method is the basis for ordinary differential equation solutions in Chebfun software, and is demonstrated for a variety of boundary-value, eigenvalue and time-dependent problems.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
S Muthulingam; B N Rao
2015-06-01
Corrosion of embedded rebars is a classical deterioration mechanism that remains as one of the most significant problems limiting the service life of concrete structures exposed to chloride-laden environments. The primary objective of this study is to propose and verify a numerical framework that can efficiently quantify non-uniform corrosion penetration depth along the perimeter of the rebar in concrete exposed to chloride environment. This framework investigates the corrosion process during both the corrosion initiation and propagation phases by exploring the effects of not only the rebar existence but also its sizes and locations. The corrosion initiation phase is examined through a comprehensive chloride ingress model that identifies the most important parameters that influence the intrusion of chlorides into RC. The corrosion propagation phase is studied based on a decisive parameter, namely, the corrosion rate. In addition, the framework evaluates the non-uniform corrosion states that correspond to two scenarios of corrosion penetration depth: corrosion of segment of the rebar and uneven corrosion along the rebar perimeter. Numerical solution shows that, in general, chloride build-up along the perimeter of the corner bar is not only faster but also higher than that of the middle bar. Moreover, for the given values of cover thickness and water-to-binder ratio, time-to-corrosion initiation for the corner bar is faster than that for the middle bar. Furthermore, the larger the rebar, in general, the bigger the obstruction, and therefore, the higher the chloride build-up. Qualitative comparisons of the evaluated non-uniform corrosion scenarios with the variety of available laboratory and field data show good agreement.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Tian Yifeng; Liu Hu; Luo Mingqiang; Huang Jun
2016-01-01
To balance the contradiction between comprehensiveness of system-of-systems (SoS) description and cost of modeling and simulation, a non-uniform hybrid strategy (NUHYS) is pro-posed. NUHYS groups elements of an SoS operation into system community or relatively indepen-dent system based on contributors complexity and focus relationship according to the focus of SoS problem. Meanwhile, modeling methods are categorized based on details attention rate and dynamic attention rate, seeking for matching contributors. Taking helicopter rescue in earthquake relief as an example, the procedure of applying NUHYS and its effectiveness are verified.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ayan, H; Staack, D; Mukhin, Y; Starikovskii, A; Fridman, A [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, College of Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Fridman, G [School of Biomedical Engineering, Science, and Health Systems, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Gutsol, A [Chevron Energy Technology Company, Richmond, CA 94802 (United States); Friedman, G [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)
2009-06-21
Antimicrobial effectiveness of a nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) was investigated and compared with that of a microsecond-pulsed DBD. Experiments were conducted on the Escherichia coli bacteria covering a topographically non-uniform agar surface acting as one of the DBD electrodes. They reveal that the nanosecond-pulsed DBD can inactivate bacteria in recessed areas whereas the microsecond-pulsed and conventional DBDs fail to do so. Charged species (electrons and ions) appear to play the major role in the bacteria inactivation with the nanosecond-pulsed DBD. Moreover, the nanosecond-pulsed DBD kills bacteria significantly faster than its microsecond-pulsed counterpart.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Yifeng
2016-02-01
Full Text Available To balance the contradiction between comprehensiveness of system-of-systems (SoS description and cost of modeling and simulation, a non-uniform hybrid strategy (NUHYS is proposed. NUHYS groups elements of an SoS operation into system community or relatively independent system based on contributors complexity and focus relationship according to the focus of SoS problem. Meanwhile, modeling methods are categorized based on details attention rate and dynamic attention rate, seeking for matching contributors. Taking helicopter rescue in earthquake relief as an example, the procedure of applying NUHYS and its effectiveness are verified.
Some calculated effects of non-uniform inflow on the radiated noise of a large wind turbine
Greene, G. C.; Hubbard, H. H.
1980-01-01
Far field computations were performed for a large wind turbine to evaluate the effects of non-uniform aerodynamic loading over the rotor disk. A modified version of the Farassat/Nystrom propeller noise prediction program was applied to account for the variations in loading due to inflow interruption by the upstream support tower. The computations indicate that for the uniform inflow case, relatively low noise levels are generated and the first rotational harmonic dominated the spectrum. For cases representing wake flow deficiences due to the tower structure, subtantially increased noise levels for all harmonics are indicated, the greatest increases being associated with the higher order harmonics.
THERMAL POST-BUCKLING OF AN ELASTIC BEAMS SUBJECTED TO A TRANSVERSELY NON-UNIFORM TEMPERATURE RISING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李世荣; 程昌钧; 周又和
2003-01-01
Based on the nonlinear geometric theory of axially extensible beams and by usingthe shooting method, the thermal post-buckling responses of an elastic beams, withimmovably simply supported ends and subjected to a transversely non-uniformly distributedtemperature rising, were investigated. Especially, the influences of the transversetemperature change on the thermal post-buckling deformations were examined and thecorresponding characteristic curves were plotted. The numerical results show that theequilibrium paths of the beam are similar to what of an initially deformed beam because ofthe thermal bending moment produced in the beam by the transverse temperature change.
Luzzatto, Stefano; Takahasi, Hiroki
2006-07-01
We formulate and prove a Jakobson-Benedicks-Carleson-type theorem on the occurrence of non-uniform hyperbolicity (stochastic dynamics) in families of one-dimensional maps, based on computable starting conditions and providing explicit, computable, lower bounds for the measure of the set of selected parameters. As a first application of our results we show that the set of parameters corresponding to maps in the quadratic family fa(x) = x2 - a which have an absolutely continuous invariant probability measure is at least 10-5000.
Jing, Ze; Yong, Huadong; Zhou, Youhe
2016-10-01
In this paper, the anisotropic flux avalanche processes in thin square-shaped type-II superconducting films are numerically investigated by solving the coupled nonlinear Maxwell’s equations and the thermal diffusion equations. Influences of the non-uniformities and intrinsic critical current density anisotropies originate from the manufacturing process are considered in the simulation. In addition, we also studied the effect of the extrinsic anisotropy induced by the in-plane magnetic field. The results demonstrate that the non-uniformities and anisotropies of the critical current density play significant roles in the flux avalanche process of the thin film superconductors. Slight anisotropy (either intrinsic or extrinsic) can dramatically change the propagation direction of avalanches in the superconducting film, which is consistent with the experimental results. Simulations on the thin square-shaped isotropic superconducting films show that the threshold magnetic field for the flux avalanches increases with the angle between the applied field and the superconducting film-plane. In addition, the flux avalanche patterns change with the angular variation of the in-plane component of external magnetic field. When the in-plane magnetic field component is along the diagonal lines of the superconducting square, symmetric flux avalanche penetration patterns occur to the film.
Qian, Shizhi; Joo, Sang W; Ai, Ye; Cheney, Marcos A; Hou, Wensheng
2009-01-15
The electrokinetic ionic-current rectification in a conical nanopore with linearly varying surface-charge distributions is studied theoretically by using a continuum model composed of a coupled system of the Nernst-Planck equations for the ionic-concentration field and the Poisson equation for the electric potential in the electrolyte solution. The numerical analysis includes the electrochemistry inside reservoirs connected to the nanopore, neglected in previous studies, and more precise accounts of the ionic current are provided. The surface-charge distribution, especially near the tip of the nanopore, significantly affects the ionic enrichment and depletion, which, in turn, influence the resulting ionic current and the rectification. It is shown that non-uniform surface-charge distribution can reverse the direction, or sense, of the rectification. Further insights into the ionic-current rectification are provided by discussing the intriguing details of the electric potential and ionic-concentration fields, leading to the rectification. Rationale for future studies on ionic-current rectification, associated with other non-uniform surface-charge distributions and electroosmotic convection for example, is discussed.
Vašina, P; Hytková, T; Eliáš, M
2009-05-01
The majority of current models of the reactive magnetron sputtering assume a uniform shape of the discharge current density and the same temperature near the target and the substrate. However, in the real experimental set-up, the presence of the magnetic field causes high density plasma to form in front of the cathode in the shape of a toroid. Consequently, the discharge current density is laterally non-uniform. In addition to this, the heating of the background gas by sputtered particles, which is usually referred to as the gas rarefaction, plays an important role. This paper presents an extended model of the reactive magnetron sputtering that assumes the non-uniform discharge current density and which accommodates the gas rarefaction effect. It is devoted mainly to the study of the behaviour of the reactive sputtering rather that to the prediction of the coating properties. Outputs of this model are compared with those that assume uniform discharge current density and uniform temperature profile in the deposition chamber. Particular attention is paid to the modelling of the radial variation of the target composition near transitions from the metallic to the compound mode and vice versa. A study of the target utilization in the metallic and compound mode is performed for two different discharge current density profiles corresponding to typical two pole and multipole magnetics available on the market now. Different shapes of the discharge current density were tested. Finally, hysteresis curves are plotted for various temperature conditions in the reactor.
Sher Akbar, Noreen; Ayub, Ayesha; Wahid Butt, Adil
2017-04-01
An analytical investigation is presented to study the unsteady peristaltic transport of nanofluids. Carbon nanotubes analysis is taken into account. The flow geometry is taken as a non-uniform channel of finite length to explore our model for a wide range of biomedical applications. Exact solutions are obtained for the non-dimensional governing equations subject to physically realistic boundary conditions. The effects of carbon nanotubes on effective thermal conductivity, axial velocity, transverse velocity, temperature, and pressure difference distributions along the length of a non-uniform channel with the variation of different flow parameters are discussed with the help of graphical illustrations. An inherent property of peristaltic transport, i.e., trapping is also discussed. We have noticed that MWCnt's have this exceptional quality to increase the axial velocity as well as the transverse velocity of the governing fluids. This model is applicable in drugs delivery system where different geometries of drugs are delivered and it is also applicable to design a microperistaltic pump for transportation of nanofluids.
Investigation of the novel 4Hsbnd SiC trench MOSFET with non-uniform doping floating islands
Song, Qingwen; Tang, Xiaoyan; Tian, Ruiyan; Zhang, Yimeng; Guo, Tao; Tang, Guannan; Yang, Shuai; Yuan, Hao; He, Yanjing
2016-11-01
In this paper, a novel 4Hsbnd SiC trench metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) with non-uniform doping floating islands is proposed, using a Gaussian doping profile in the floating islands. The feature of the non-uniform doping floating island is that the doping concentration of upper part is higher than the lower part. The electric field between the floating island and drift region can be reduced by the decrease in the doping concentration of the lower part. At the same time, the high doping concentration for the upper part of the floating island is utilized, so that gate oxide layer at the sharp corner of the trench gate bottom cannot be broken down in advance. The simulation results indicate that the breakdown voltage of the novel structure can increase by 48%, compared with the structure with the uniform doping (6 × 1017 cm-3) floating island. Furthermore, the switching and gate charge characteristics of the UMOSFETs with uniform and Gaussian doping floating islands have been simulated using two simple switching circuits. The results indicate that changing the doping concentration of the floating islands has no negative effect on the switching characteristics.
Chan, Poh Kam; Oikawa, Shun-ichi; Kosaka, Wataru
2016-08-01
We have solved the Heisenberg equation of motion for the time evolution of the position and momentum operators for a non-relativistic spinless charged particle in the presence of a weakly non-uniform electric and magnetic field. It is shown that the drift velocity operator obtained in this study agrees with the classical counterpart, and that, using the time dependent operators, the variances in position and momentum grow with time. The expansion rate of variance in position and momentum are dependent on the magnetic gradient scale length, however, independent of the electric gradient scale length. In the presence of a weakly non-uniform electric and magnetic field, the theoretical expansion rates of variance expansion are in good agreement with the numerical analysis. It is analytically shown that the variance in position reaches the square of the interparticle separation, which is the characteristic time much shorter than the proton collision time of plasma fusion. After this time, the wavefunctions of the neighboring particles would overlap, as a result, the conventional classical analysis may lose its validity. The broad distribution of individual particle in space means that their Coulomb interactions with other particles become weaker than that expected in classical mechanics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dafen Chen
2016-10-01
Full Text Available A battery model that has the capability of analyzing the internal non-uniformity of local state variables, including the state of charge (SOC, temperature and current density, is proposed in this paper. The model is built using a set of distributed parameter equivalent circuits. In order to validate the accuracy of the model, a customized battery with embedded T-type thermocouple sensors inside the battery is tested. The simulated temperature conforms well with the measured temperature at each test point, and the maximum difference is less than 1 °C. Then, the model is applied to analyze the evolution processes of local state variables’ distribution inside the battery during the discharge process. The simulation results demonstrate drastic distribution changes of the local state variables inside the battery during the discharge process. The internal non-uniformity is originally caused by the resistance of positive and negative foils, while also influenced by the change rate of open circuit voltage and the total resistance of the battery. Hence, the factors that affect the distribution of the local state variables are addressed.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Kh. H. EL-SHORBAGY
2008-01-01
The effect of a high frequency (HF) electric field on the propagation of electrostatic wave in a 2D non-uniform relativistic plasma waveguide is investigated. A variable separation method is applied to the two-fluid plasma model. An analytical study of the reflection of electro-static wave propagation along a magnetized non-uniform relativistic plasma slab subjected to an intense HF electric field is presented and compared with the case of a non relativistic plasma. It is found that, when the frequency of the incident wave is close to the relativistic electron plasma frequency, the plasma is less reflective due to the presence of both an HF field and the effect of rel-ativistic electrons. On the other hand, for a low-frequency incident wave the reflection coefficient is directly proportional to the amplitude of the HF field. Also, it is shown that the relativistic electron plasma leads to a decrease in the value of reflection coefficient in comparison with the case of the non relativistic plasma.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frank Pesta
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Landsat 8 is the first satellite in the Landsat mission to acquire spectral imagery of the Earth using pushbroom sensor instruments. As a result, there are almost 70,000 unique detectors on the Operational Land Imager (OLI alone to monitor. Due to minute variations in manufacturing and temporal degradation, every detector will exhibit a different behavior when exposed to uniform radiance, causing a noticeable striping artifact in collected imagery. Solar collects using the OLI’s on-board solar diffuser panels are the primary method of characterizing detector level non-uniformity. This paper reports on an approach for using a side-slither maneuver to estimate relative detector gains within each individual focal plane module (FPM in the OLI. A method to characterize cirrus band detector-level non-uniformity using deep convective clouds (DCCs is also presented. These approaches are discussed, and then, correction results are compared with the diffuser-based method. Detector relative gain stability is assessed using the side-slither technique. Side-slither relative gains were found to correct streaking in test imagery with quality comparable to diffuser-based gains (within 0.005% for VNIR/PAN; 0.01% for SWIR and identified a 0.5% temporal drift over a year. The DCC technique provided relative gains that visually decreased striping over the operational calibration in many images.
Ma, Liu Hao; Lau, Lok Yin; Ren, Wei
2017-03-01
We report in situ measurements of non-uniform temperature, H2O and CO2 concentration distributions in a premixed methane-air laminar flame using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). A mid-infrared, continuous-wave, room-temperature interband cascade laser (ICL) at 4183 nm was used for the sensitive detection of CO2 at high temperature.The H2O absorption lines were exploited by one distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser at 1343 nm and one ICL at 2482 nm to achieve multi-band absorption measurements with high species concentration sensitivity, high temperature sensitivity, and immunity to variations in ambient conditions. A novel profile-fitting function was proposed to characterize the non-uniform temperature and species concentrations along the line-of-sight in the flame by detecting six absorption lines of CO2 and H2O simultaneously. The flame temperature distribution was measured at different heights above the burner (5-20 mm), and compared with the thermocouple measurement with heat-transfer correction. Our TDLAS measured temperature of the central flame was in excellent agreement (<1.5% difference) with the thermocouple data.The TDLAS results were also compared with the CFD simulations using a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism (GRI 3.0) and considering the heat loss to the surroundings.The current CFD simulation overpredicted the flame temperature in the gradient region, but was in excellent agreement with the measured temperature and species concentration in the core of the flame.
Tian, Pengyi; Tao, Dashuai; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Tian, Yu
2016-09-01
Comprehension of stick-slip motion is very important for understanding tribological principles. The transition from creep-dominated to inertia-dominated stick-slip as the increase of sliding velocity has been described by researchers. However, the associated micro-contact behavior during this transition has not been fully disclosed yet. In this study, we investigated the stick-slip behaviors of two polymethyl methacrylate blocks actively modulated from the creep-dominated to inertia-dominated dynamics through a non-uniform loading along the interface by slightly tilting the angle of the two blocks. Increasing the tilt angle increases the critical transition velocity from creep-dominated to inertia-dominated stick-slip behaviors. Results from finite element simulation disclosed that a positive tilt angle led to a higher normal stress and a higher temperature on blocks at the opposite side of the crack initiating edge, which enhanced the creep of asperities during sliding friction. Acoustic emission (AE) during the stick-slip has also been measured, which is closely related to the different rupture modes regulated by the distribution of the ratio of shear to normal stress along the sliding interface. This study provided a more comprehensive understanding of the effect of tilted non-uniform loading on the local stress ratio, the local temperature, and the stick-slip behaviors.
Huang, Sheng; Zhao, Yixi; He, Chunfeng
2013-12-01
The phenomenon "Shear fracture" is often observed in the stretch-bending process of stamping over small radius with advanced high strength steels (AHSS). It occurs parallel to and near the die radius in the stretch-bending test. Since traditional Forming Limit Diagram (FLD) is unable to describe this type of failure, experimental and simulation works were constructed in this paper to investigate and predict the shear fracture. Fracture experiments were carried out through a stretch-bending test system, and failure mode was observed. There is no obviously thinning at the shear fracture surface. Further research shows that the initial crack of shear fracture occurs at the outer layer of specimen at die radius position. Finite element (FE) models were built for stretch-bending test with 3D element. The non-uniform local deformation through thickness corresponding to bending position was obtained and analyzed. Cockcroft & Latham fracture criterion is used. The outer layer of specimen at bending position reaches the critical fracture state firstly, which agrees well with experiments. Different fracture criteria are also compared and selected to determine this fracture. Results show that based on the non-uniform local deformation, the initial crack location of shear fracture at small radius can be effectively predicted by fracture criteria related to the maximum principle stress.
Gain calculation of a free-electron laser operating with a non-uniform ion-channel guide
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
A.Hasanbeigi; H. Mehdian; S. Jafari
2011-01-01
Amplification of an electromagnetic wave by a free electron laser (FEL) with a helical wiggler and an ion channel with a periodically varying ion density is examined. The relativistic equation of motion for a single electron in the combined wiggler and the periodic ion-channel fields is solved and the classes of possible trajectories in this configuration are discussed. The gain equation for the FEL in the low-gain-per-pass limit is obtained by adding the effect of the periodic ion channel. Numerical calculation is employed to analyse the gain induced by the effects of the non-uniform ion density.The variation of gain with ion-channel density is demonstrated. It is shown that there is a gain enhancement for group I orbits in the presence of a non-uniform ion-channel but not in a uniform one. It is also shown that periodic ion-channel guiding is used to reach the maximum peals gain in a low ion-channel frequency (low ion density).
Korayem, M. H.; Korayem, A. H.; Hosseini Hashemi, Sh.
2016-02-01
Nowadays, to enhance the performance of atomic force microscopy (AFM) micro-cantilevers (MCs) during imaging, reduce costs and increase the surface topography precision, advanced MCs equipped with piezoelectric layers are utilized. Using the modified couple stress (MCS) theory not only makes the modeling more exhaustive, but also increases the accuracy of prediction of the vibration behavior of the system. In this paper, Hamilton's principle by consideration of the MCS theory has been used to extract the equations. In addition, to discretize the equations, differential quadrature method has been adopted. Analysis of the hysteresis effect on the vibration behavior of the AFM MC is of significant importance. Thus, to model the hysteresis effect, Bouc-Wen method, which is solved simultaneously with the vibration equations of non-uniform Timoshenko beam, has been utilized. Furthermore, a bimodal excitation of the MC has been considered. The results reveal that the hysteresis effect appears as a phase difference in the time response. Finally, the effect of the geometric parameters on the vibration frequency of the system which is excited by combination of the first two vibration modes of the non-uniform piezoelectric MC has been examined. The results indicate the considerable effect of the MC length in comparison with other geometric parameters such as the MC width and thickness.
A Mechanism of the Effect of Non-uniform Current on the Spectrum of Short Wind Waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Guizhen; SHENG Lifang; CONG Peixiu
2004-01-01
A mechanism is suggested in this paper concerning the effect of non-uniform current on the spectrum of short wind waves. According to this mechanism, a non-uniform current brings changes to the breaking criteria of short wind waves through modulating the surface drift, and hence enhances or weakens wave breaking. Some modification is proposed to the source term, which represents the spectral rate of wave energy dissipation due to wave breaking so that the source term can incorporate this mechanism. In order to illustrate whether this mechanism is significant, a real case is studied, in which the wind waves propagate on a tidal current flowing over the sea bottom covered with sand waves. Finally, the effect of the new mechanism on the equilibrium spectrum of small scale gravity waves is discussed. Numerical estimates suggest that, for water depths less than 50 m and wavelengths less than 1 m, this current field may result in distinct spatial variations of the wave breaking criteria, the spectral rate of wave energy dissipation and the equilibrium spectrum of short gravity waves.
Kumar, K Pradheep
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a new scheduler applying the concept of non-uniform laxity to Earliest deadline first (EDF) approach for aperiodic tasks. This scheduler improves task utilisation (Execution time / deadline) and also increases the number of tasks that are being scheduled. Laxity is a measure of the spare time permitted for the task before it misses its deadline, and is computed using the expression (deadline - (current time + execution time)). Weight decides the priority of the task and is defined by the expression (quantum slice time / allocated time)*total core time for the task. Quantum slice time is the time actually used, allocated time is the time allocated by the scheduler, and total core time is the time actually reserved by the core for execution of one quantum of the task. Non-uniform laxity enables scheduling of tasks that have higher priority before the normal execution of other tasks and is computed by multiplying the weight of the task with its laxity. The algorithm presented in the paper has...
Estrada, Ernesto
2015-01-01
A generalization of the random geometric graph (RGG) model is proposed by considering a set of points uniformly and independently distributed on a rectangle of unit area instead of on a unit square \\left[0,1\\right]^{2}. The topological properties, such as connectivity, average degree, average path length and clustering, of the random rectangular graphs (RRGs) generated by this model are then studied as a function of the rectangle sides lengths a and b=1/a, and the radius r used to connect the nodes. When a=1 we recover the RGG, and when a\\rightarrow\\infty the very elongated rectangle generated resembles a one-dimensional RGG. We provided computational and analytical evidence that the topological properties of the RRG differ significantly from those of the RGG. The connectivity of the RRG depends not only on the number of nodes as in the case of the RGG, but also on the side length of the rectangle. As the rectangle is more elongated the critical radius for connectivity increases following first a power-law an...
Bongolan, Vena Pearl; Lupiano, Valeria; D'Ambrosio, Donato; Rongo, Rocco; Spataro, William; Iovine, Giulio
2013-04-01
The hazard induced by dangerous flow-type phenomena - e.g. lava flows, earth flows, debris flows, and debris avalanches - can be assessed by analysing a proper set of simulations of hypothetical events. Non-uniform grids are commonly used to study particular areas of interest in computational domains. Examples of application concern, for instance, the turbulence in a boundary layer. While non-uniform grids frequently appear in adaptive methods, they may also be used in a "static" environment. A purposive sampling method, based on a non-uniform grid of sources coupled with numerical simulations of independent events, has recently been employed to evaluate the hazard induced by flow-type phenomena. An example of application to lava-flows at Mount Etna (Italy) is described in this study. The method aims at refining the spatial distribution of hypothetical eruptive vents with respect to an original uniform grid. The density of eruptive vents has been determined by considering the historical distribution of lateral and eccentric vents, and the distribution of the main faults/structures on the volcano. A higher number of sources marks higher-probability zones of vent opening, based on classes of activation: the number of vents in each class has been set proportionally to the probability of activation of the class. By considering the different types of eruption expected from the considered volcano, based on the historical activity of the past 400 years, a set of simulations per each vent has been performed. The employed model is SCIARA-fv2, a Cellular Automata numerical code recently applied to the same study area for preliminary hazard analyses. In this work, calibration could therefore be skipped, by taking advantage from such experience of tuning of the parameters. Performed simulations have been analysed by a GIS, to verify the number of events affecting each cell of the domain. A probability of occurrence could be assigned to each simulation, based on statistics of
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Liang; Zhang Wan-Rong; Jin Dong-Yue; Shen Pei; Xie Hong-Yun; Ding Chun-Bao; Xiaa Ying; Sun Bo-Tao; Wang Ren-Qing
2011-01-01
method of non-uniform finger spacing is proposed to enhance thermal stability of a multiple finger power SiGe hererojunction bipolar transistor under different power dissipations. Temperature distribution on the emitter fingers of a multi-finger SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor is studied using a numerical electro-thermal model. The results show that the SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor with non-uniform finger spacing has a small temperature difference between fingers compared with a traditional uniform finger spacing heterojunction bipolar transistor at the same power dissipation. What is most important is that the ability to improve temperature non-uniformity is not weakened as power dissipation increases. So the method of non-uniform finger spacing is very effective in enhancing the thermal stability and the power handing capability of power device. Experimental results verify our conclusious.
Neutron forward diffraction by single crystal prisms
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sohrab Abbas; Apoorva G Wagh; Markus Strobl; Wolfgang Treimer
2008-11-01
We have derived analytic expressions for the deflection as well as transmitted fraction of monochromatic neutrons forward diffracted by a single crystal prism. In the vicinity of a Bragg reflection, the neutron deflection deviates sharply from that for an amorphous prism, exhibiting three orders of magnitude greater sensitivity to the incidence angle. We have measured the variation of neutron deflection and transmission across a Bragg reflection, for several single crystal prisms. The results agree well with theory.
An efficient rectangular plate element
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
A new 12-parameter rectangular plate element is presented by useof the double set parameter method. The error in the energy norm is of order O(h2), one order higher than the commonly used Adini nonconforming element.
Zhang, Wencan; Chen, Jiqing; Lan, Fengchong
2014-03-01
The existing investigations on thermal comfort mostly focus on the thermal environment conditions, especially of the air-flow field and the temperature distributions in vehicle cabin. Less attention appears to direct to the thermal comfort or thermal sensation of occupants, even to the relationship between thermal conditions and thermal sensation. In this paper, a series of experiments were designed and conducted for understanding the non-uniform conditions and the occupant's thermal responses in vehicle cabin during the heating period. To accurately assess the transient temperature distribution in cabin in common daily condition, the air temperature at a number of positions is measured in a full size vehicle cabin under natural winter environment in South China by using a discrete thermocouples network. The occupant body is divided into nine segments, the skin temperature at each segment and the occupant's local thermal sensation at the head, body, upper limb and lower limb are monitored continuously. The skin temperature is observed by using a discrete thermocouples network, and the local thermal sensation is evaluated by using a seven-point thermal comfort survey questionnaire proposed by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc(ASHRAE) Standard. The relationship between the skin temperature and the thermal sensation is discussed and regressed by statistics method. The results show that the interior air temperature is highly non-uniform over the vehicle cabin. The locations where the occupants sit have a significant effect on the occupant's thermal responses, including the skin temperature and the thermal sensation. The skin temperature and thermal sensation are quite different between body segments due to the effect of non-uniform conditions, clothing resistance, and the human thermal regulating system. A quantitative relationship between the thermal sensation and the skin temperature at each body segment of occupant in
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
QUAN Ji; WANG Xian-Jia
2013-01-01
Traditional evolutionary games assume uniform interaction rate,which means that the rate at which individuals meet and interact is independent of their strategies.But in some systems,especially biological systems,the players interact with each other discriminately.Taylor and Nowak (2006) were the first to establish the corresponding non-uniform interaction rate model by allowing the interaction rates to depend on strategies.Their model is based on replicator dynamics which assumes an infinite size population.But in reality,the number of individuals in the population is always finite,and there will be some random interference in the individuals' strategy selection process.Therefore,it is more practical to establish the corresponding stochastic evolutionary model in finite populations.In fact,the analysis of evolutionary games in a finite size population is more difficult.Just as Taylor and Nowak said in the outlook section of their paper,"The analysis of non-uniform interaction rates should be extended to stochastic game dynamics of finite populations." In this paper,we are exactly doing this work.We extend Taylor and Nowak's model from infinite to finite case,especially focusing on the influence of non-uniform connection characteristics on the evolutionary stable state of the system.We model the strategy evolutionary process of the population by a continuous ergodic Markov process.Based on the fimit distribution of the process,we can give the evolutionary stable state of the system.We make a complete classification of the symmetric 2 × 2 games.For each case game,the corresponding limit distribution of the Markov-based process is given when noise intensity is small enough.In contrast with most literatures in evolutionary games using the simulation method,all our results obtained are analytical.Especially,in the dominant-case game,coexistence of the two strategies may become evolutionary stable states in our model.This result can be used to explain the emergence of
Grinstein, S; Boscardin, M; Christophersen, M; Da Via, C; Betta, G -F Dalla; Darbo, G; Fadeyev, V; Fleta, C; Gemme, C; Grenier, P; Jimenez, A; Lopez, I; Micelli, A; Nelist, C; Parker, S; Pellegrini, G; Phlips, B; Pohl, D L; Sadrozinski, H F -W; Sicho, P; Tsiskaridze, S
2013-01-01
Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.
Zhu, Chunzhang; Guo, Wanlin
2011-07-01
The mechanism of phase transition and evolution in graphite under uniform compression and spherical nanoindentation along the c-direction is investigated through systematical molecular dynamics simulations. Under both the loading conditions, the soft graphite phase can sustain pressure up to 16-20 GPa, beyond which it transforms into a new phase characterized by a much higher stiffness. More and more interlayer bonds will be created in the new hard phase with the increase of the pressure until an unstable state is reached. The critical pressure to produce the quenchable hard phase with a permanent sp 3 bonding remaining after unloading is shown to be as high as ∼880 GPa under uniform compression, as opposed to only ∼75 GPa under nanoindentation. Therefore, application of non-uniform pressure is significantly more helpful for creating diamond-like sp 3 structures in graphite by cold-compressive technique.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shivakumara I S,
2011-05-01
Full Text Available The linear stability analysis of Marangoni convection in a fluid layer with a boundary slab of finite conductivity is considered. The effects of various non uniform temperature gradients are investigated. The lower boundary is a considered to be a thin slab of finite conductivity instead of a regular rigid surface. At the contact surface between the thin slab and the fluid layer the thermalboundary conditions are used and the upper surface is considered to be free and insulating to temperature perturbation and also surface tension effects are allowed. The resulting eigen value problem is solved exactly. The critical values of the Marangoni numbers for the onset of Marangoni convection are calculated for different temperature profile and the latter is found to be critically dependent on the depth ratio and conductivity ratio. The effects of the thermal conductivity and the thickness of the solid plate on the onset of convective instability with different temperature profile arestudied in detail.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jeong, Cheol-Ho
2010-01-01
intensity distributions above 1 kHz were similar for all studied cases, but some variations in low frequency intensity distributions were observed. If the non-uniform intensity distribution and a finite size effect are taken into account for correcting the theoretical absorption coefficients, a good......Measured absorption coefficients in reverberation chambers often differ from theoretical random incidence absorption coefficients, because ideal assumptions for the theoretical random incidence absorption coefficient are not fulfilled during measurements in actual reverberation chambers. Therefore...... sound intensity distributions on absorber under measurement conditions have been simulated using a phased beam tracing, and used as correction functions for reducing discrepancies between the measured and theoretical absorption coefficients. Two reverberation rooms were investigated by assuming...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grinstein, S., E-mail: sgrinstein@ifae.es [ICREA and Institut de Física d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); Baselga, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, FBK-CMM, Trento (Italy); Christophersen, M. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington (United States); Da Via, C. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Trento (Italy); Darbo, G. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Fadeyev, V. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States); Fleta, C. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Gemme, C. [Universita degli Studi di Trento and INFN, Trento (Italy); Grenier, P. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park (United States); Jimenez, A.; Lopez, I.; Micelli, A. [ICREA and Institut de Física d' Altes Energies (IFAE), Barcelona (Spain); Nelist, C. [INFN Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Parker, S. [University of Hawaii, c/o Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley (United States); Pellegrini, G. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, CNM-IMB (CSIC), Barcelona (Spain); Phlips, B. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington (United States); Pohl, D.-L. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Sadrozinski, H.F.-W. [Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz (United States); and others
2013-12-01
Pixel detectors with cylindrical electrodes that penetrate the silicon substrate (so called 3D detectors) offer advantages over standard planar sensors in terms of radiation hardness, since the electrode distance is decoupled from the bulk thickness. In recent years significant progress has been made in the development of 3D sensors, which culminated in the sensor production for the ATLAS Insertable B-Layer (IBL) upgrade carried out at CNM (Barcelona, Spain) and FBK (Trento, Italy). Based on this success, the ATLAS Forward Physics (AFP) experiment has selected the 3D pixel sensor technology for the tracking detector. The AFP project presents a new challenge due to the need for a reduced dead area with respect to IBL, and the in-homogeneous nature of the radiation dose distribution in the sensor. Electrical characterization of the first AFP prototypes and beam test studies of 3D pixel devices irradiated non-uniformly are presented in this paper.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gardi, Jonathan Eyal; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb
2008-01-01
of its entirely different sampling strategy, based on known but non-uniform sampling probabilities, the proportionator for the first time allows the real CE at the section level to be automatically estimated (not just predicted), unbiased - for all estimators and at no extra cost to the user.......The proportionator is a novel and radically different approach to sampling with microscopes based on well-known statistical theory (probability proportional to size - PPS sampling). It uses automatic image analysis, with a large range of options, to assign to every field of view in the section......, the desired number of fields are sampled automatically with probability proportional to the weight and presented to the expert observer. Using any known stereological probe and estimator, the correct count in these fields leads to a simple, unbiased estimate of the total amount of structure in the sections...
Kalisch, Michael
2016-01-01
In this paper, we describe in detail a scheme for the construction of highly accurate numerical solutions to Einstein's field equations in five and six spacetime dimensions corresponding to non-uniform black strings. The scheme consists of a sophistically adapted multi-domain pseudo-spectral method which incorporates a detailed understanding of the solution's behavior at the domain boundaries and at critical points. In particular, the five-dimensional case is exceedingly demanding as logarithmic terms appear which need to be treated with special care. The scheme resolves these issues and permits the investigation of unprecedentedly strong deformations of the black string horizon. As a consequence, we are able to study in detail the critical regime in phase diagrams displaying characteristic thermodynamic quantities such as mass and entropy. Our results show typical spiral curves in such diagrams which provides a strong support of previous numerical works.
Van Reeth, T; Aerts, C; Papics, P I; Degroote, P; Debosscher, J; Zwintz, K; Bloemen, S; De Smedt, K; Hrudkova, M; Raskin, G; Van Winckel, H
2014-01-01
Context. The analysis of stellar oscillations is one of the most reliable ways to probe stellar interiors. Recent space missions such as Kepler have provided us with an opportunity to study these oscillations with unprecedented detail. For many multi-periodic pulsators such as {\\gamma} Doradus stars, this led to the detection of dozens to hundreds of oscillation frequencies that could not be found from ground-based observations. Aims. We aim to detect non-uniform period spacings in the Fourier spectra of a sample of {\\gamma} Doradus stars observed by Kepler. Such detection is complicated by both the large number of significant frequencies in the space photometry and by overlapping non-equidistant rotationally split multiplets. Methods. Guided by theoretical properties of gravity-mode oscillation of {\\gamma} Doradus stars, we developed a period-spacing detection method and applied it to Kepler observations of a few stars, after having tested the performance from simulations. Results. The application of the tec...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Otake, Hidenori; Yukihiro, Masashi; Fukushima, Yumi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others
1996-03-01
Simultaneous transmission emission protocol (STEP), developed for the non-uniform attenuation correction of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was evaluated using the cardiac phantom prepared with and without a myocardial wall defect. Emission computed tomography (ECT) of the cardiac phantom using {sup 201}Tl was acquired. Transmission data (TCT) were taken using a line source of {sup 99m}Tc. Myocardial images with STEP method were superior in the homogeneity of intramyocardial radioactivity and spatial resolution to the conventional SPECT images. This is an excellent method because of the accurate matching position between TCT and ECT images and shortening the examination time by simultaneous data acquisition. It would be clinically useful for diagnosing various myocardial diseases. (author).
Otake, H; Yukihiro, M; Fukushima, Y; Imai, T; Hosono, K; Hatori, N; Watanabe, N; Hirano, T; Inoue, T; Takahashi, M; Ban, R; Endo, K
1996-03-01
Simultaneous transmission emission protocol (STEP), developed for the non-uniform attenuation correction of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was evaluated using the cardiac phantom prepared with and without a myocardial wall defect. Emission computed tomography (ECT) of the cardiac phantom using 201Tl was acquired. Transmission data (TCT) were taken using a line source of 99mTc. Myocardial images with STEP method were superior in the homogeneity of intramyocardial radioactivity and spatial resolution to the conventional SPECT images. This is an excellent method because of the accurate matching position between TCT and ECT images and shortening the examination time by simultaneous data acquisition. It would be clinically useful for diagnosing various myocardial diseases.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hramov, Alexander E., E-mail: aeh@nonlin.sgu.r [Faculty of Nonlinear Processes, Saratov State University, 83, Astrakhanskaya, Saratov, 410012 (Russian Federation); Koronovskii, Alexey A., E-mail: alkor@nonlin.sgu.r [Faculty of Nonlinear Processes, Saratov State University, 83, Astrakhanskaya, Saratov, 410012 (Russian Federation); Kurkin, Semen, E-mail: KurkinSA@nonlin.sgu.r [Faculty of Nonlinear Processes, Saratov State University, 83, Astrakhanskaya, Saratov, 410012 (Russian Federation)
2010-07-05
In this Letter the results of theoretical investigations of the chaotic microwave oscillator based on the electron beam with a virtual cathode are presented. Nonlinear non-stationary processes in these electron systems are studied by means of numerical analysis of 2.5D model. It was discovered that the non-uniform external magnetic field value controls the dynamical regime of oscillations in the virtual cathode oscillator. The processes of the chaotization of output microwave radiation are described and interpreted from the point of view of the formation and interaction of electron structures (bunches) in the electron beams. The numerical results have shown that the investigated electron system with virtual cathode could be considered as a promising controlled source of wideband chaotic oscillations in the microwave range.
Cailing, Wang; Renke, Kang; Zhuji, Jin; Dongming, Guo
2010-12-01
Based on the Preston equation, the mathematical model of the material removal rate (MRR), aiming at a line-orbit chemical mechanical polisher, is established. The MRR and the material removal non-uniformity (MRNU) are numerically calculated by MATLAB, and the effects of the reciprocating parameters on the MRR and the MRNU are discussed. It is shown that the smaller the inclination angle and the larger the amplitude, the higher the MRR and the lower the MRNU. The reciprocating speed of the carrier plays a minor role to improve the MRR and decrease the MRNU. The results provide a guide for the design of a polisher and the determination of a process in line-orbit chemical mechanical polishing.
Kitayabu, Toru; Hagiwara, Mao; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Shirai, Hiroshi
A novel delta-sigma modulator that employs a non-uniform quantizer whose spacing is adjusted by reference to the statistical properties of the input signal is proposed. The proposed delta-sigma modulator has less quantization noise compared to the one that uses a uniform quantizer with the same number of output values. With respect to the quantizer on its own, Lloyd proposed a non-uniform quantizer that is best for minimizing the average quantization noise power. The applicable condition of the method is that the statistical properties of the input signal, the probability density, are given. However, the procedure cannot be directly applied to the quantizer in the delta-sigma modulator because it jeopardizes the modulator's stability. In this paper, a procedure is proposed that determine the spacing of the quantizer with avoiding instability. Simulation results show that the proposed method reduces quantization noise by up to 3.8dB and 2.8dB with the input signal having a PAPR of 16dB and 12dB, respectively, compared to the one employing a uniform quantizer. Two alternative types of probability density function (PDF) are used in the proposed method for the calculation of the output values. One is the PDF of the input signal to the delta-sigma modulator and the other is an approximated PDF of the input signal to the quantizer inside the delta-sigma modulator. Both approaches are evaluated to find that the latter gives lower quantization noise.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher Martinez
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Hashing algorithms long have been widely adopted to design a fast address look-up process which involves a search through a large database to find a record associated with a given key. Hashing algorithms involve transforming a key inside each target data to a hash value hoping that the hashing would render the database a uniform distribution with respect to this new hash value. The close the final distribution is to uniform, the less search time would be required when a query is made. When the database is already key-wise uniformly distributed, any regular hashing algorithm, such as bit-extraction, bit-group XOR, etc., would easily lead to a statistically perfect uniform distribution after the hashing. On the other hand, if records in the database are instead not uniformly distributed as in almost all known practical applications, then even different regular hash functions would lead to very different performance. When the target database has a key with a highly skewed distributed value, performance delivered by regular hashing algorithms usually becomes far from desirable. This paper aims at designing a hashing algorithm to achieve the highest probability in leading to a uniformly distributed hash result from a non-uniformly distributed database. An analytical pre-process on the original database is first performed to extract critical information that would significantly benefit the design of a better hashing algorithm. This process includes sorting on the bits of the key to prioritize the use of them in the XOR hashing sequence, or in simple bit extraction, or even a combination of both. Such an ad hoc hash design is critical to adapting to all real-time situations when there exists a changing (and/or expanding database with an irregular non-uniform distribution. Significant improvement from simulation results is obtained in randomly generated data as well as real data.
Cao, Yanpeng; Tisse, Christel-Loic
2013-06-01
In uncooled LWIR microbolometer imaging systems, temperature fluctuations of FPA (Focal Plane Array) as well as lens and mechanical components placed along the optical path result in thermal drift and spatial non-uniformity. These non-idealities generate undesirable FPN (Fixed-Pattern-Noise) that is difficult to remove using traditional, individual shutterless and TEC-less (Thermo-Electric Cooling) techniques. In this paper we introduce a novel single-image based processing approach that marries the benefits of both statistical scene-based and calibration-based NUC algorithms, without relying neither on extra temperature reference nor accurate motion estimation, to compensate the resulting temperature-dependent non-uniformities. Our method includes two subsequent image processing steps. Firstly, an empirical behavioral model is derived by calibrations to characterize the spatio-temporal response of the microbolometric FPA to environmental and scene temperature fluctuations. Secondly, we experimentally establish that the FPN component caused by the optics creates a spatio-temporally continuous, low frequency, low-magnitude variation of the image intensity. We propose to make use of this property and learn a prior on the spatial distribution of natural image gradients to infer the correction function for the entire image. The performance and robustness of the proposed temperature-adaptive NUC method are demonstrated by showing results obtained from a 640×512 pixels uncooled LWIR microbolometer imaging system operating over a broad range of temperature and with rapid environmental temperature changes (i.e. from -5°C to 65°C within 10 minutes).
Riauka, Terence A.; Hooper, H. Richard; Gortel, Zbigniew W.
1996-07-01
Experimental tests for non-uniform attenuating media are performed to validate theoretical expressions for the photon detection kernel, obtained from a recently proposed analytical theory of photon propagation and detection for SPECT. The theoretical multi-dimensional integral expressions for the photon detection kernel, which are computed numerically, describe the probability that a photon emitted from a given source voxel will trigger detection of a photon at a particular projection pixel. The experiments were performed using a cylindrical water-filled phantom with large cylindrical air-filled inserts to simulate inhomogeneity of the medium. A point-like, a short thin cylindrical and a large cylindrical radiation source of were placed at various positions within the phantom. The values numerically calculated from the theoretical kernel expressions are in very good agreement with the experimentally measured data. The significance of Compton-scattered photons in planar image formation is discussed and highlighted by these results. Using both experimental measurements and the calculated values obtained from the theory, the kernel's size is investigated. This is done by determining the square pixel neighbourhood of the gamma camera that must be connected to a particular radiation source voxel to account for a specific fraction of all counts recorded at all camera pixels. It is shown that the kernel's size is primarily dependent upon the source position and the properties of the attenuating medium through Compton scattering events, with 3D depth-dependent collimator resolution playing an important but secondary role, at least for imaging situations involving parallel hole collimation. By considering small point-like sources within a non-uniform elliptical phantom, approximating the human thorax, it is demonstrated that on average a area of the camera plane is required to collect 85% of the total count recorded. This is a significantly larger connectivity than the area
A model to non-uniform Ni Schottky contact on SiC annealed at elevated temperatures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pristavu, G.; Brezeanu, G.; Badila, M. [Electronics, Telecommunications and Information Technology, University Politehnica Bucharest, Bucharest 061071 (Romania); Pascu, R. [Electronics, Telecommunications and Information Technology, University Politehnica Bucharest, Bucharest 061071 (Romania); National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, Erou Iancu Nicolae Street 126A, 077190 Bucharest (Romania); Danila, M. [National Institute for Research and Development in Microtechnologies, Erou Iancu Nicolae Street 126A, 077190 Bucharest (Romania); Godignon, P. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica, C/del Tillers, Campus Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)
2015-06-29
Ni Schottky contacts on SiC have a nonideal behavior, with strong temperature dependence of the electrical parameters, caused by a mixed barrier on the contact area and interface states. A simple analytical model that establishes a quantitative correlation between Schottky contact parameter variation with temperature and barrier height non-uniformity is proposed. A Schottky contact surface with double Schottky barrier is considered. The main model parameters are the lower barrier (Φ{sub Bn,l}) and a p factor which quantitatively evaluates the barrier non-uniformity on the Schottky contact area. The model is validated on Ni/4H-SiC Schottky contacts, post metallization sintered at high temperatures. The measured I{sub F}–V{sub F}–T characteristics, selected so as not to be affected by interface states, were used for model correlation. An inhomogeneous double Schottky barrier (with both nickel silicide and Ni droplets at the interface) is formed by a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 750 °C. High values of the p parameter are obtained from samples annealed at this temperature, using the proposed model. A significant improvement in the electrical properties occurs following RTA at 800 °C. The expansion of the Ni{sub 2}Si phase on the whole contact area is evinced by an X-Ray diffraction investigation. In this case, the p factor is much lower, attesting the uniformity of the contact. The model makes it possible to evaluate the real Schottky barrier, for a homogenous Schottky contact. Using data measured on samples annealed at 800 °C, a true barrier height of around 1.73 V has been obtained for Ni{sub 2}Si/4H-SiC Schottky contacts.
A model to non-uniform Ni Schottky contact on SiC annealed at elevated temperatures
Pristavu, G.; Brezeanu, G.; Badila, M.; Pascu, R.; Danila, M.; Godignon, P.
2015-06-01
Ni Schottky contacts on SiC have a nonideal behavior, with strong temperature dependence of the electrical parameters, caused by a mixed barrier on the contact area and interface states. A simple analytical model that establishes a quantitative correlation between Schottky contact parameter variation with temperature and barrier height non-uniformity is proposed. A Schottky contact surface with double Schottky barrier is considered. The main model parameters are the lower barrier (ΦBn,l) and a p factor which quantitatively evaluates the barrier non-uniformity on the Schottky contact area. The model is validated on Ni/4H-SiC Schottky contacts, post metallization sintered at high temperatures. The measured IF-VF-T characteristics, selected so as not to be affected by interface states, were used for model correlation. An inhomogeneous double Schottky barrier (with both nickel silicide and Ni droplets at the interface) is formed by a rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 750 °C. High values of the p parameter are obtained from samples annealed at this temperature, using the proposed model. A significant improvement in the electrical properties occurs following RTA at 800 °C. The expansion of the Ni2Si phase on the whole contact area is evinced by an X-Ray diffraction investigation. In this case, the p factor is much lower, attesting the uniformity of the contact. The model makes it possible to evaluate the real Schottky barrier, for a homogenous Schottky contact. Using data measured on samples annealed at 800 °C, a true barrier height of around 1.73 V has been obtained for Ni2Si/4H-SiC Schottky contacts.
Waveguide Prism Based on Porous Silicon
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JIA Zhen-hong
2004-01-01
The fabrication of the oxidized porous silicon waveguide prism is reported by selectively electrochemical anodisation process. The direction changes of light beams in TE and TM polarization out of this waveguide prism were respectively measured,and the experimental results were analyzed.
The Prism Plastic Calorimeter (PPC)
2002-01-01
This proposal supports two goals: \\\\ \\\\ First goal:~~Demonstrate that current, widely used plastic technologies allow to design Prism Plastic Calorimeter~(PPC) towers with a new ``liquid crystal'' type plastic called Vectra. It will be shown that this technique meets the requirements for a LHC calorimeter with warm liquids: safety, hermeticity, hadronic compensation, resolution and time response. \\\\ \\\\ Second goal:~~Describe how one can design a warm liquid calorimeter integrated into a LHC detector and to list the advantages of the PPC: low price, minimum of mechanical structures, minimum of dead space, easiness of mechanical assembly, accessibility to the electronics, possibility to recirculate the liquid. The absorber and the electronic being outside of the liquid and easily accessible, one has maximum flexibility to define them. \\\\ \\\\ The R&D program, we define here aims at showing the feasibility of these new ideas by building nine towers of twenty gaps and exposing them to electron and hadron beams.
Estimating the magnetization distribution within rectangular rock samples
Reis, A. L. A.; Oliveira, V. C.; Yokoyama, E.; Bruno, A. C.; Pereira, J. M. B.
2016-08-01
Over the last decades, scanning magnetic microscopy techniques have been increasingly used in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism. Different from standard paleomagnetic magnetometers, scanning magnetic microscopes produce high-resolution maps of the vertical component of the magnetic induction field (flux density) on a plane located over the sample. These high-resolution magnetic maps can be used for estimating the magnetization distribution within a rock sample by inversion. Previous studies have estimated the magnetization distribution within rock samples by inverting the magnetic data measured on a single plane above the sample. Here we present a new spatial domain method for inverting the magnetic induction measured on four planes around the sample in order to retrieve its internal magnetization distribution. We have presumed that the internal magnetization distribution of the sample varies along one of its axes. Our method approximates the sample geometry by an interpretation model composed of a one-dimensional array of juxtaposed rectangular prisms with uniform magnetization. The Cartesian components of the magnetization vector within each rectangular prism are the parameters to be estimated by solving a linear inverse problem. Our method automatically deals with the averaging of the measured magnetic data due to the finite size of the magnetic sensor, preventing the application of a deconvolution before the inversion. Tests with synthetic data show the performance of our method in retrieving complex magnetization distributions even in the presence of magnetization heterogeneities. Moreover, they show the advantage of inverting the magnetic data on four planes around the sample and how this new acquisition scheme improves the estimated magnetization distribution within the rock sample. We have also applied our method to invert experimentally measured magnetic data produced by a highly magnetized synthetic sample that was manufactured in the laboratory. The
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Finn, John M., E-mail: finn@lanl.gov [T-5, Applied Mathematics and Plasma Physics, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)
2015-03-15
Properties of integration schemes for solenoidal fields in three dimensions are studied, with a focus on integrating magnetic field lines in a plasma using adaptive time stepping. It is shown that implicit midpoint (IM) and a scheme we call three-dimensional leapfrog (LF) can do a good job (in the sense of preserving KAM tori) of integrating fields that are reversible, or (for LF) have a “special divergence-free” (SDF) property. We review the notion of a self-adjoint scheme, showing that such schemes are at least second order accurate and can always be formed by composing an arbitrary scheme with its adjoint. We also review the concept of reversibility, showing that a reversible but not exactly volume-preserving scheme can lead to a fractal invariant measure in a chaotic region, although this property may not often be observable. We also show numerical results indicating that the IM and LF schemes can fail to preserve KAM tori when the reversibility property (and the SDF property for LF) of the field is broken. We discuss extensions to measure preserving flows, the integration of magnetic field lines in a plasma and the integration of rays for several plasma waves. The main new result of this paper relates to non-uniform time stepping for volume-preserving flows. We investigate two potential schemes, both based on the general method of Feng and Shang [Numer. Math. 71, 451 (1995)], in which the flow is integrated in split time steps, each Hamiltonian in two dimensions. The first scheme is an extension of the method of extended phase space, a well-proven method of symplectic integration with non-uniform time steps. This method is found not to work, and an explanation is given. The second method investigated is a method based on transformation to canonical variables for the two split-step Hamiltonian systems. This method, which is related to the method of non-canonical generating functions of Richardson and Finn [Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 54, 014004 (2012
Van Reeth, T.; Tkachenko, A.; Aerts, C.; Pápics, P. I.; Degroote, P.; Debosscher, J.; Zwintz, K.; Bloemen, S.; De Smedt, K.; Hrudkova, M.; Raskin, G.; Van Winckel, H.
2015-02-01
Context. The analysis of stellar oscillations is one of the most reliable ways to probe stellar interiors. Recent space missions such as Kepler have provided us with an opportunity to study these oscillations with unprecedented detail. For many multi-periodic pulsators such as γ Doradus stars, this led to the detection of dozens to hundreds of oscillation frequencies that could not be found from ground-based observations. Aims: We aim to detect non-uniform period spacings in the Fourier spectra of a sample of γ Doradus stars observed by Kepler. Such detection is complicated by both the large number of significant frequencies in the space photometry and by overlapping non-equidistant rotationally split multiplets. Methods: Guided by theoretical properties of gravity-mode oscillation of γ Doradus stars, we developed a period-spacing detection method and applied it to Kepler observations of a few stars, after having tested the performance from simulations. Results: The application of the technique resulted in the clear detection of non-uniform period spacing series for three out of the five treated Kepler targets. Disadvantages of the technique are also discussed, and include the disability to distinguish between different values of the spherical degree and azimuthal order of the oscillation modes without additional theoretical modelling. Conclusions: Despite the shortcomings, the method is shown to allow solid detections of period spacings for γ Doradus stars, which will allow future asteroseismic analyses of these stars. Based on data gathered with the NASA Discovery mission Kepler and the HERMES spectrograph, which is installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of KU Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Joginder S. Dhiman; Rekha Dadwal
2012-12-01
The problem of self-gravitational instability of an infinite, homogeneous stratified gaseous medium with finite thermal conductivity and infinite electrical conductivity, in the presence of non-uniform rotation and magnetic field in the Chandrasekhar’s frame of reference, is studied. It is found that the magnetic field, whether uniform or non-uniform, has no effect on the Jeans’ criterion for gravitational instability and remains essentially unaffected. However, the thermal conductivity has the usual stabilizing effect on the criterion that the adiabatic sound velocity occurring in the Jeans criterion is replaced by the isothermal sound velocity. Thus, the present analysis extends the results of Chandrasekhar for the case of heat conducting medium and for non-uniform rotation and magnetic field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohammadpourfard, M., E-mail: Mohammadpour@azaruniv.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Tabriz 53751-71379 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aminfar, H., E-mail: hh_aminfar@tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, K., E-mail: khajeh.k.2005@gmail.com [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-04-01
In this paper, the concentration polarization phenomena in a two dimensional tube under steady state conditions containing ferrofluid (blood and 4 vol% Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. Lumen-wall model has been used for solving the mass transport equation. Hemodynamics parameters such as flow rate, viscosity, wall shear stress (WSS) and the macromolecules surface concentration which accumulate on the blood vessel wall, influenced the formation and progression of atherosclerosis disease. Effective parameters on the low density lipoprotein (LDL) surface concentration (LSC) such as: the wall filtration velocity, inlet Reynolds number and WSS under applied non-uniform magnetic field have been examined. Numerical solution of governing equations of the flow field have been obtained by using the single-phase model and the control volume technique. Magnetic field is generated by an electric current going through a thin and straight wire oriented perpendicular to the tube. Results show WSS in the vicinity of magnetic field source increased and LSC decreased along the wall. - Highlights: • In this paper the concentration polarization phenomena of blood flow is reported in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. • In presence of non-uniform magnetic field LSC will decrease along the wall due to the increasing the velocity gradients near the magnetic source. • When non-uniform magnetic field intensity increases, LSC along the wall becomes lower. • Non-uniform magnetic field can affects the flow more in low Reynolds numbers.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XUZenyu; KANGWeishan; PANChuanjie; DENHongyin; ZHANGYanxu
2003-01-01
In lost paper of magneto-hydrodynamic instability analysis of liquid metal free surface jet flow (Part Ⅰ), the magneto-hydrodynamic instability was analyzed for the jet flow in a transverse non-uniform magnetic field, BT. But, as all known, for the real conditions of liquid metal limiter-divertor plasma-facing components are in toroidal and poloidal fields. So, we try to analyze the magneto-hydrodynamic instability of the jet flow (hereby only for circular shape cross section jet flow) in the zone of non-uniform magnetic fields,
Chen, Zaigao; Wang, Jianguo; Wang, Yue
2015-01-01
This letter optimizes synchronously 18 parameters of a relativistic backward wave oscillator with non-uniform slow wave structure (SWS) and a resonant reflector by using the parallel genetic algorithms and particle-in-cell simulation. The optimization results show that the generation efficiency of microwave from the electron beam has increased 32% compared to that of the original device. After optimization, the electromagnetic mode propagating in the resonant changes from the original TM020 mode of reflector to higher-order TM021 mode, which has a high reflection coefficient in a broader frequency range than that of the former. The modulation of current inside the optimized device is much deeper than that in the original one. The product of the electric field and current is defined. Observing this product, it is found that the interaction of the electron beam with the electromagnetic wave in the optimized device is much stronger than that in the original device, and at the rear part of SWS of the optimized device, the electron beam dominantly gives out the energy to the electromagnetic wave, leading to the higher generation efficiency of microwave than that of the original device.
Hsu, Wei-Lun; Harvie, Dalton J E; Davidson, Malcolm R; Jeong, Helen; Goldys, Ewa M; Inglis, David W
2014-09-21
The simultaneous concentration gradient focusing and separation of proteins in a silica nanofluidic channel of various geometries is investigated experimentally and theoretically. Previous modelling of a similar device [Inglis et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 7546] assumed a uniform velocity profile along the length of the nanochannel. Using detailed numerical analysis incorporating charge regulation and viscoelectric effects, we show that in reality the varying axial electric field and varying electric double layer thickness caused by the concentration gradient, induce a highly non-uniform velocity profile, fundamentally altering the protein trapping mechanism: the direction of the local electroosmotic flow reverses and two local vortices are formed near the centreline of the nanochannel at the low salt concentration end, enhancing trapping efficiency. Simulation results for yellow/red fluorescent protein R-PE concentration enhancement, peak focusing position and peak focusing width are in good agreement with experimental measurements, validating the model. The predicted separation of yellow/red (R-PE) from green (Dyl-Strep) fluorescent proteins mimics that from a previous experiment [Inglis et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2011, 50, 7546] conducted in a slightly different geometry. The results will inform the design of new class of matrix-free particle focusing and separation devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo, Y.Z., E-mail: guoyazhou@nwpu.edu.cn [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Behm, N.A. [Nanoscale Science PhD Program, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States); Ligda, J.P. [WMRD, US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD 21005 (United States); Li, Y.L. [School of Aeronautics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710072 (China); Pan, Z. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States); Horita, Z. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); WPI, International Institute for Carbon-Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Wei, Q., E-mail: qwei@uncc.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223-0001 (United States)
2013-12-01
Nanoindentation is a powerful tool for characterizing the mechanical properties of materials at small length scales. Since the loading rate can be accurately recorded and controlled during a nanoindentation test, the strain rate dependence of these properties can also be determined. However, there are still a few problems that need to be addressed when it is applied to some special materials. High pressure torsion (HPT) processed metals are examples of these materials with non-uniform microstructures and mechanical properties. In this work, commercially pure niobium disks with diameter of ∼10.0 mm and thickness of ∼1.0 mm were processed by HPT. Grain sizes from a few nanometers to a few micrometers were generated due to a strong radial strain gradient in the disk. Instrumented nanoindentation tests were conducted at different radial locations of the HPT niobium disk. During each test, the loading rate was controlled so that the indentation strain rate was kept constant. Some key issues associated with the nanoindentation experiment, such as contact stiffness, contact area and the effect of pile-up or sink-in were evaluated and discussed carefully. The work-based method was used in data processing and it was compared with other approaches. The effects of indentation location, i.e., grain size, as well as indentation strain rate were characterized.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdelrasoul, Amira; Doan, Huu; Lohi, Ali; Cheng, Chil-Hung [Ryerson University, 350 Victoria Street, Toronto (Canada)
2016-03-15
Tha aim of the present study was to develop a series of numerical models for an accurate prediction of the power consumption in ultrafiltration of simulated latex effluent. The developed power consumption model incorporated fouling attachment, as well as chemical and physical factors in membrane fouling, in order to ensure accurate prediction and scale-up. This model was applied to heterogeneous membranes with non-uniform pore sizes at a given operating conditions and membrane surface charges. Polysulfone flat membrane, with a membrane molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) of 60,000 dalton, at different surface charges was used under a constant flow rate and cross-flow mode. In addition, the developed models were examined using various membranes at a variety of surface charges so as to test the overall reliability and accuracy of these models. The power consumption predicted by the models corresponded to the calculated values from the experimental data for various hydrophilic and hydrophobic membranes with an error margin of 6.0% up to 19.1%.
Synthesis of Non-uniformly Pr-doped SrTiO3 Ceramics and Their Thermoelectric Properties
Mehdizadeh Dehkordi, Arash
2015-08-15
We demonstrate a novel synthesis strategy for the preparation of Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics via a combination of solid state reaction and spark plasma sintering techniques. Polycrystalline ceramics possessing a unique morphology can be achieved by optimizing the process parameters, particularly spark plasma sintering heating rate. The phase and morphology of the synthesized ceramics were investigated in detail using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy It was observed that the grains of these bulk Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics were enhanced with Pr-rich grain boundaries. Electronic and thermal transport properties were also investigated as a function of temperature and doping concentration Such a microstructure was found to give rise to improved thermoelectric properties. Specifically, it resulted in a significant improvement in carrier mobility and the thermoelectric power factor. Simultaneously, it also led to a marked reduction in the thermal conductivity. As a result, a significant improvement (> 30%) in the thermoelectric figure of merit was achieved for the whole temperature range over all previously reported maximum values for SrTiO3-based ceramics. This synthesis demonstrates the steps for the preparation of bulk polycrystalline ceramics of non-uniformly Pr-doped SrTiO3.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
We present a model of non-uniform granular gases in one-dimensional case, whose granularity distribution has the fractal characteristic. We have studied the nonequilibrium properties of the system by means of Monte Carlo method. When the typical relaxation time Τ of the Brownian process is greater than the mean collision time Τc, the energy evolution of the system exponentially decays, with a tendency to achieve a stable asymptotic value, and the system finally reaches a nonequilibrium steady state in which the velocity distribution strongly deviates from the Gaussian one. Three other aspects have also been studied for the steady state: the visualized change of the particle density, the entropy of the system and the correlations in the velocity of particles. And the results of simulations indicate that the system has strong spatial clustering; Furthermore, the influence of the inelasticity and inhomogeneity on dynamic behaviors have also been extensively investigated, especially the dependence of the entropy and the correlations in the velocity of particles on the restitute coefficient e and the fractal dimension D.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Sulochana
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We analyzed the momentum and heat transfer characteristics of unsteady MHD flow of a dusty nanofluid over a vertical stretching surface in presence of volume fraction of dust and nano particles with non uniform heat source/sink. We considered two types of nanofluids namely Ag-water and Cu-water embedded with conducting dust particles. The governing equations are transformed in to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using Shooting technique. The effects of non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity and temperature profiles for fluid and dust phases are discussed and presented through graphs. Also, the skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are discussed and presented for two dusty nanofluids separately in tabular form. Results indicate that an increase in the volume fraction of dust particles enhances the heat transfer in Cu-water nanofluid compared with Ag-water nanofluid and a raise in the volume fraction of nano particles shows uniform heat transfer in both Cu-water and Ag-water nanofluids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Islam Md. Tasbirul
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents reverse engineering (RE of a complex automobile structural part, B-pillar. As a major part of the automobile body-in white (BiW, B-pillar has substantial opportunity for weight reduction by introducing variable thickness across its sections. To leverage such potential, an existing B-pillar was reverse engineered with a 3D optical scanner and computer aided design (CAD application. First, digital data (i.e. in meshes of exiting B-pillar was obtained by the scanner, and subsequently, this information was utilized in developing a complete 3D CAD model. CATIA V5 was used in the modeling where some of the essential work benches were “Digitized Shape Editor”, “Quick Surface Reconstruction”, “Wireframe and Surface Design”, “Freestyle”, “Generation Shape Design” and “Part design”. In the final CAD design, five different thicknesses were incorporated successfully in order to get a B-pillar with non-uniform sections. This research opened opportunities for thickness optimization and mold tooling design in real time manufacturing.
DIGITAL VIDEO SOURCE IDENTIFICATION BASED ON GREEN-CHANNEL PHOTO RESPONSE NON-UNIFORMITY (G-PRNU
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.Al-Athamneh
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a simple but yet an effective new method for the problem of digital video camera identification. It is known that after an exposure time of 0.15 seconds, the green channel is the noisiest of the three RGB colour channels [5]. Based on this observation, the digital camera pattern noise reference, which is extracted using only the green channel of the frames and is called Green-channel Photo Response Non-Uniformity (G-PRNU, is exploited as a fingerprint of the camera. The green channels are first resized to a standard frame size (512x512 using bilinear interpolation. Then the camera fingerprint is obtained by a wavelet based denoising filter described in [4] and averaged over the frames. 2-D correlation coefficient is used in the detection test. This method has been evaluated using 290 video sequences taken by four consumer digital video cameras and two mobile phones. The results show G-PRNU has potential to be a reliable technique in digital video camera identification, and gives better results than PRNU.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huanxiong Xia
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Low-temperature plasma technique is one of the critical techniques in IC manufacturing process, such as etching and thin-film deposition, and the uniformity greatly impacts the process quality, so the design for the plasma uniformity control is very important but difficult. It is hard to finely and flexibly regulate the spatial distribution of the plasma in the chamber via controlling the discharge parameters or modifying the structure in zero-dimensional space, and it just can adjust the overall level of the process factors. In the view of this problem, a segmented non-uniform dielectric module design solution is proposed for the regulation of the plasma profile in a CCP chamber. The solution achieves refined and flexible regulation of the plasma profile in the radial direction via configuring the relative permittivity and the width of each segment. In order to solve this design problem, a novel simulation-based auto-design approach is proposed, which can automatically design the positional sequence with multi independent variables to make the output target profile in the parameterized simulation model approximate the one that users preset. This approach employs an idea of quasi-closed-loop control system, and works in an iterative mode. It starts from initial values of the design variable sequences, and predicts better sequences via the feedback of the profile error between the output target profile and the expected one. It never stops until the profile error is narrowed in the preset tolerance.
Parseghian, M H; Clark, R F; Hauser, L J; Dvorkin, N; Harris, D A; Hamkalo, B A
1993-07-01
Four histone H1 subtypes and H1(0) were fractionated from human placental nuclei and purified to homogeneity by a combination of Bio-Rex 70 chromatography and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). Polyclonal antibodies were generated in rabbits against one of these subtypes designated H1-3. Antibodies reacted only against this subtype in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and Western assays; subtype specificity was documented further by Western blotting of cell and nuclear extracts. They crossreacted with monkey H1, but not with H1 from other vertebrates tested. The epitope(s) recognized were mapped by immunoblotting against peptides prepared by cleavage with N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) and alpha-chymotrypsin; it includes the variant amino-terminal tail of the protein as well as a portion of the globular domain. The antibody stains mitotic chromosomes weakly but uniformly and, unlike antibodies that recognize total H1 which show uniform nuclear staining after indirect immunofluorescence localization, anti-H1-3 exhibits preferential labelling of the nuclear periphery. This non-uniform staining suggests compartmentalization of this subtype which may have functional significance with respect to differential chromatin condensation.
Hardcastle, M J
2013-01-01
I investigate the effect of non-uniform magnetic fields in the extended structures of radio galaxies on the observed synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission. On the assumption of an isotropic field, with a given power spectrum and a Gaussian distribution of the Cartesian components of the magnetic field strength, I derive a simple integral that can be used numerically to calculate the synchrotron emissivity from any electron population. In the case of power-law spectra, I show that it is possible to estimate the difference between the synchrotron emissivity from a region with such a field and that from the commonly assumed arrangement where $B$ is constant everywhere, though fully tangled, and that this difference is small, though it increases if the electron energy density scales with the field. An aged electron spectrum in such a field produces a characteristic curved synchrotron spectrum which differs significantly from the classical Jaffe-Perola spectrum, and I discuss some effects that this might have o...
Hsuen, Hsiao-Kuo
The performance equations for cathodes of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) that describe the dependence of cathode potential on current density are developed. Formulation of the performance equations starts from the reduction of a one-dimensional model that considers, in detail, the potential losses pertinent to the limitations of electron conduction, oxygen diffusion, proton migration, and the oxygen reduction reaction. In particular, non-uniform accumulation of liquid water in the gas diffuser, which partially blocks the gas channels and imposes a greater resistance for oxygen transport, is taken into account. Reduction of the one-dimensional model is implemented by approximating the oxygen concentration profile in the catalyst layer with a parabolic polynomial or a piecewise parabolic one determined by the occurrence of oxygen depletion. The final forms of the equations are obtained by applying the method of weighted residuals over the catalyst layer. The weighting function is selected in such a way that the weighted residuals can be analytically integrated. Potential losses caused by the various limiting processes can be quantitatively estimated by the performance equations. Thus, they provide a convenient diagnostic tool for the cathode performance. Computational results reveal that the performance equations agree well with the original one-dimensional model over an extensive range of parameter values. This indicates that the present performance equations can be used as a substitute for the one-dimensional model to provide quantitatively correct predictions for the cathode performance of PEFCs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Sooyoung; Choe, Jiwon; Lee, Deokjung [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
STREAM uses a pin-based slowing-down method (PSM) which solves pointwise energy slowing-down problems with sub-divided fuel pellet, and shows a great performance in calculating effective cross-section (XS). Various issues in the conventional resonance treatment methods (i.e., approximations on resonance scattering source, resonance interference effect, and intrapellet self-shielding effect) were successfully resolved by PSM. PSM assumes that a fuel rod has a uniform material composition and temperature even though PSM calculates spatially dependent effective XSs of fuel subregions. When the depletion calculation or thermal/hydraulic (T/H) coupling are performed with sub-divided material meshes, each subregion has its own material condition depending on position. It was reported that the treatment of distributed temperature is important to calculate an accurate fuel temperature coefficient (FTC). In order to avoid the approximation in PSM, the collision probability method (CPM) has been incorporated as a calculation option. The resonance treatment method, PSM, used in the transport code STREAM has been enhanced to accurately consider a non-uniform material condition. The method incorporates CPM in computing collision probability of isolated fuel pin. From numerical tests with pin-cell problems, STREAM with the method showed very accurate multiplication factor and FTC results less than 83 pcm and 1.43 % differences from the references, respectively. The original PSM showed larger differences than the proposed method but still has a high accuracy.
Synthesis of Non-uniformly Pr-doped SrTiO3 Ceramics and Their Thermoelectric Properties.
Mehdizadeh Dehkordi, Arash; Bhattacharya, Sriparna; Darroudi, Taghi; Zeng, Xiaoyu; Alshareef, Husam N; Tritt, Terry M
2015-08-15
We demonstrate a novel synthesis strategy for the preparation of Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics via a combination of solid state reaction and spark plasma sintering techniques. Polycrystalline ceramics possessing a unique morphology can be achieved by optimizing the process parameters, particularly spark plasma sintering heating rate. The phase and morphology of the synthesized ceramics were investigated in detail using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microcopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It was observed that the grains of these bulk Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics were enhanced with Pr-rich grain boundaries. Electronic and thermal transport properties were also investigated as a function of temperature and doping concentration. Such a microstructure was found to give rise to improved thermoelectric properties. Specifically, it resulted in a significant improvement in carrier mobility and the thermoelectric power factor. Simultaneously, it also led to a marked reduction in the thermal conductivity. As a result, a significant improvement (> 30%) in the thermoelectric figure of merit was achieved for the whole temperature range over all previously reported maximum values for SrTiO3-based ceramics. This synthesis demonstrates the steps for the preparation of bulk polycrystalline ceramics of non-uniformly Pr-doped SrTiO3.
Verma, Gaurav; Chawla, Sanjeev; Nagarajan, Rajakumar; Iqbal, Zohaib; Albert Thomas, M.; Poptani, Harish
2017-04-01
Two-dimensional localized correlated spectroscopy (2D L-COSY) offers greater spectral dispersion than conventional one-dimensional (1D) MRS techniques, yet long acquisition times and limited post-processing support have slowed its clinical adoption. Improving acquisition efficiency and developing versatile post-processing techniques can bolster the clinical viability of 2D MRS. The purpose of this study was to implement a non-uniformly weighted sampling (NUWS) scheme for faster acquisition of 2D-MRS. A NUWS 2D L-COSY sequence was developed for 7T whole-body MRI. A phantom containing metabolites commonly observed in the brain at physiological concentrations was scanned ten times with both the NUWS scheme of 12:48 duration and a 17:04 constant eight-average sequence using a 32-channel head coil. 2D L-COSY spectra were also acquired from the occipital lobe of four healthy volunteers using both the proposed NUWS and the conventional uniformly-averaged L-COSY sequence. The NUWS 2D L-COSY sequence facilitated 25% shorter acquisition time while maintaining comparable SNR in humans (+0.3%) and phantom studies (+6.0%) compared to uniform averaging. NUWS schemes successfully demonstrated improved efficiency of L-COSY, by facilitating a reduction in scan time without affecting signal quality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raju CSK
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the momentum and heat transfer characteristics of MHD boundary layer flow over an exponentially stretching surface in porous medium in the presence of radiation, non-uniform heat source/sink, external pressure and suction/injection. Dual solutions are presented for both suction and injection cases. The heat transfer analysis is carried out for both prescribed surface temperature (PST and prescribed heat flux (PHF cases. The governing equations of the flow are transformed into system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using bvp4c Matlab package. The impact of various non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity, temperature profiles for both PST and PHF cases, friction factor and rate of heat transfer is discussed and presented with the help of graphs and tables. Results indicate that dual solutions exist only for certain range of suction or injection parameters. It is also observed that the exponential parameter have tendency to increase the heat transfer rate for both PST and PHF cases.
Donor impurity states in a non-uniform quantum strip: Geometrical and electro-magnetic field effects
Suaza, Y. A.; Fonnegra-García, D.; Fulla, M. R.; Salazar-Santa, J. D.; Marín, J. H.
2017-03-01
The neutral donor energy structure in non-uniform height quantum strip under the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is studied. The quantum strip height has been modeled by including a phenomenological two-parametric function. The first of these parameters is related to the number of structural hills present on the nano-strip, while the second one allows us to control the hills height. We solve the Schrödinger equation by considering specific quantum strips whose height-to-base aspect ratio is very small, which makes possible to calculate numerically the energy structure trough the adiabatic approximation and the exact diagonalization method. In limit cases, our results are in good agreement with those ones previously reported. Periodic oscillations of the ground state energy with magnetic field strength can be tuned by applied electric field which also yields an anti-crossing of the energy levels in a quantum strip with two hills. The energy level structure are strongly sensitive to changes of nano-strip geometrical factors.
Long-range weight functions in fundamental measure theory of the non-uniform hard-sphere fluid
Hansen-Goos, Hendrik
2016-06-01
We introduce long-range weight functions to the framework of fundamental measure theory (FMT) of the non-uniform, single-component hard-sphere fluid. While the range of the usual weight functions is equal to the hard-sphere radius R, the modified weight functions have range 3R. Based on the augmented FMT, we calculate the radial distribution function g(r) up to second order in the density within Percus’ test particle theory. Consistency of the compressibility and virial routes on this level allows us to determine the free parameter γ of the theory. As a side result, we obtain a value for the fourth virial coefficient B 4 which deviates by only 0.01% from the exact result. The augmented FMT is tested for the dense fluid by comparing results for g(r) calculated via the test particle route to existing results from molecular dynamics simulations. The agreement at large distances (r > 6R) is significantly improved when the FMT with long-range weight functions is used. In order to improve agreement close to contact (r = 2R) we construct a free energy which is based on the accurate Carnahan-Starling equation of state, rather than the Percus-Yevick compressibility equation underlying standard FMT.
Thériault Lauzier, Pascal; Tang, Jie; Chen, Guang-Hong
2012-03-01
Myocardial perfusion scans are an important tool in the assessment of myocardial viability following an infarction. Cardiac perfusion analysis using CT datasets is limited by the presence of so-called partial scan artifacts. These artifacts are due to variations in beam hardening and scatter between different short-scan angular ranges. In this research, another angular range dependent effect is investigated: non-uniform noise spatial distribution. Images reconstructed using filtered backprojection (FBP) are subject to this effect. Statistical image reconstruction (SIR) is proposed as a potential solution. A numerical phantom with added Poisson noise was simulated and two swines were scanned in vivo to study the effect of FBP and SIR on the spatial uniformity of the noise distribution. It was demonstrated that images reconstructed using FBP often show variations in noise on the order of 50% between different time frames. This variation is mitigated to about 10% using SIR. The noise level is also reduced by a factor of 2 in SIR images. Finally, it is demonstrated that the measurement of quantitative perfusion metrics are generally more accurate when SIR is used instead of FBP.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, S.K.; Chun, S.Y.; Choi, K.Y.; Yang, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
2001-07-01
An experimental study on transient critical heat flux (CHF) under flow coast-down has been performed for water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical annulus under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the effect of the flow transient on the CHF and to compare the transient CHF with steady state CHF. The transient CHF experiments have been performed for three kinds of flow transient modes based on the coast-down data of the Kori 3/4 nuclear power plant reactor coolant pump. Most of the CHFs occurred in the annular-mist flow regime. Thus, it means that the possible CHF mechanism might be the liquid film dryout in the annular-mist flow regime. For flow transient mode with the smallest flow reduction rate, the time-to-CHF is the largest. At the same inlet subcooling, system pressure and heat flux, the effect of the initial mass flux on the critical mass flux can be negligible. However, the effect of the initial mass flux on the time-to-CHF becomes large as the heat flux decreases. Usually, the critical mass flux is large for slow flow reduction. There is a pressure effect on the ratio of the transient CHF data to steady state CHF data. Some conventional correlations show relatively better CHF prediction results for high system pressure, high quality and slow transient modes than for low system pressure, low quality and fast transient modes. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO Zhiqiu; BIAN Lingen; CHEN Zhigang; Michael SPARROW; ZHANG Jiahua
2006-01-01
This paper describes the application of the variance method for flux estimation over a mixed agricultural region in China. Eddy covariance and flux variance measurements were conducted in a near-surface layer over a non-uniform land surface in the central plain of China from 7 June to 20 July 2002. During this period, the mean canopy height was about 0.50 m. The study site consisted of grass (10% of area), beans (15%), corn (15%) and rice (60%). Under unstable conditions, the standard deviations of temperature and water vapor density (normalized by appropriate scaling parameters), observed by a single instrument,followed the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The similarity constants for heat (CT) and water vapor (Cq) were 1.09 and 1.49, respectively. In comparison with direct measurements using eddy covariance techniques, the flux variance method, on average, underestimated sensible heat flux by 21% and latent heat flux by 24%, which may be attributed to the fact that the observed slight deviations (20% or 30% at most) of the similarity "constants" may be within the expected range of variation of a single instrument from the generally-valid relations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi Liu
Full Text Available DNA microarray analysis is an effective method to detect unintended effects by detecting differentially expressed genes (DEG in safety assessment of genetically modified (GM crops. With the aim to reveal the distribution of DEG of GM crops under different conditions, we performed DNA microarray analysis using transgenic rice Huahui 1 (HH1 and its non-transgenic parent Minghui 63 (MH63 at different developmental stages and environmental conditions. Considerable DEG were selected in each group of HH1 under different conditions. For each group of HH1, the number of DEG was different; however, considerable common DEG were shared between different groups of HH1. These findings suggested that both DEG and common DEG were adequate for investigation of unintended effects. Furthermore, a number of significantly changed pathways were found in all groups of HH1, indicating genetic modification caused everlasting changes to plants. To our knowledge, our study for the first time provided the non-uniformly distributed pattern for DEG of GM crops at different developmental stages and environments. Our result also suggested that DEG selected in GM plants at specific developmental stage and environment could act as useful clues for further evaluation of unintended effects of GM plants.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ZHAOJUN ZONG; FENG HU
2016-08-01
In this paper, by using $L_p$ ($1 \\lt p \\leq 2$) weak convergence method on backward stochastic differential equations (BSDEs) with non-uniformly Lipschitz coefficients, we obtain the limit theorem of $g$-supersolutions. As applications of this theorem, we study the decomposition theorem of $\\epsilon_g$-supermartingale, the nonlinear decomposition theorem of Doob-Meyer’s type and so on. Furthermore, by using the decomposition theorem of $\\epsilon_g$-supermartingale, we provide some useful characterizations of an $\\epsilon^g$-evaluation by the generating function $g(t; ω; y; z)$ without the assumption that $g$ is continuous with respect to $t$. Our results generalize the known results in Ph. Briand et al., Electronic Commun. Probab. {\\bf 5} (2000) 101–117; L Jiang, Ann. Appl. Probab. {\\bf 18} (2008) 245–258; S Peng, Probab. Theory Relat. Fields {\\bf 113} (1999) 473–499; S Peng, Modelling derivatives pricing with their generating functions (2006) http://arxiv.org/abs/math/0605599 and E Rosazza Gianin, Insur. Math. Econ. {\\bf 39} (2006) 19–34.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mirkov Nikola S.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we validate an improved finite volume approximation of Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations for simulation of wind flows in body-fitted grids generated by algebraic extrusion from digital terrain elevation data, proposed in N. Mirkov et. al. J. Comput. Phys. 287, 18-45(2015, [1]. The approach is based on second-order accurate finite volume method with collocated variable arrangement and pressure-velocity coupling trough SIMPLE algorithm. The main objective is the attenuation of spurious pressure field oscillations in regions with discontinuity in grid line slopes, as encountered in grids representing highly non-uniform terrains. Moreover, the approach relaxes the need for grid generation based on elliptic PDEs or grid smoothing by applying fixed point iterations (i.e. Gauss-Seidel to initial grid node positions resulting from algebraic grid generators. Drawbacks of previous approaches which ignored treatment of finite volume grid cell cases with intersection point offset in non-orthogonality corrections are removed. Application to real-life wind farm project at Dobrič (Srvljig, Serbia is used to assess the effectiveness of the method. The results validate the view in which accurate discretization of governing equations play more important role than the choice of turbulence modelling closures. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33036
Chan, Kenny K H; Tang, Shuo
2011-12-19
Gridding based non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) has recently been shown as an efficient method of processing non-linearly sampled data from Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT). This method requires selecting design parameters, such as kernel function type, oversampling ratio and kernel width, to balance between computational complexity and accuracy. The Kaiser-Bessel (KB) and Gaussian kernels have been used independently on the NUFFT algorithm for FD-OCT. This paper compares the reconstruction error and speed for the optimization of these design parameters and justifies particular kernel choice for FD-OCT applications. It is found that for on-the-fly computation of the kernel function, the simpler Gaussian function offers a better accuracy-speed tradeoff. The KB kernel, however, is a better choice in the pre-computed kernel mode of NUFFT, in which the processing speed is no longer dependent on the kernel function type. Finally, the algorithm is used to reconstruct in-vivo images of a human finger at a camera limited 50k A-line/s.
Quino, Gustavo
2014-11-01
Characterizing the change in toughness of polymers subjected to wet aging is challenging because of the heterogeneity of the testing samples. Indeed, as wet aging is guided by a diffusion/reaction process, compact tension samples (defined by the ASTM D5045 standard), which are relevant for toughness characterization but are somewhat thick, display a non-uniform moisture content over the bulk material. We define here a rigorous procedure to extract meaningful data from such tests. Our results showed that the relation between the moisture uptake of the whole sample and the measured toughness was not a meaningful material property. In fact, we found that the measured toughness depended on the locally varying moisture uptake over the cracking path. Here, we propose a post-processing technique that relies on a validated reaction/diffusion model to predict the three-dimensional moisture state of the epoxy. This makes identification of the variation in toughness with respect to the local moisture content possible. In addition, we analyze the fracture surface using micrography and roughness measurements. The observed variations in toughness are correlated with the roughness in the vicinity of the crack tip. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights rese.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jiansong WAN; Zhufeng YUE
2003-01-01
The stress characteristics in the anisotropic bicrystal and tricrystal specimens were analyzed using the anisotropic elastic model, orthotropic Hill's model and rate-dependent crystallographic model. The finite element analysis results show that non-uniform stresses are induced by the grain boundary. For bicrystal specimens in different crystallographic orientations, there exist stress concentrations and high stress gradients nearby the boundaries. The activation and slipping of the slip systems are dependent on the crystallographic orientations of the grains and also on the relative crystallographic orientations of the two adjoining grains. For the tricrystal specimens, there is not always any stress concentrations in the triple junction, and the concentration degree depends on the relative crystallographic orientations of the three grains. Different from the bicrystal specimens, there may be or no stress concentration in the vicinity of grain boundaries for the tricrystal specimens, which depends on the relative crystallographic orientations of the three grains. The stress concentration near to the grain boundaries and triple junction can be high enough for the local plastic deformation, damage and voiding or cracking even when the whole specimen is still under the elastic state.It can be further concluded that homogeneous assumption for polycrystalline materials is not suitable to study the detailed meso- or micro-mechanisms for damaging and fracturing.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jingchun Min; Bingqiang Zhang
2014-01-01
Numerical calculations were conducted to simulate the flow and mass transfer in narrow membrane channels with and without flow disturbers. The channel consists of an impermeable solid wall and a membrane surface with a spacing of 2.0 mm. The flow disturbers studied include rectangular winglets, which are often used as lon-gitudinal vortex generators to enhance heat transfer in heat exchanger applications, as wel as square prism, tri-angular prism, and circular cylinder, which are used here to mimic the traditional spacer filaments for comparison of their abilities in enhancing the convective mass transfer near the membrane surface to al eviate the concentration polarization. The disturber performance was evaluated in terms of concentration polarization factor versus consumed pumping power, with a larger factor meaning a more serious concentration polarization. Calculations were carried out for NaCl solution flow with Reynolds numbers ranging from 400 to 1000. The results show that the traditional flow disturbers can considerably reduce the concentration polarization but cause a substantial pressure drop, while the rectangular winglets can effectively reduce the concentration polarization with a much less pressure drop penalty. The rectangular winglets were optimized in geometry under equal pumping power condition.
Portable Remote Imaging Spectrometer (PRISM) Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an UV-NIR (350nm to 1050 nm) portable remote imaging spectrometer (PRISM) for flight on a variety of airborne platforms with high SNR and response...
The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction
H. Dowsett; M. Robinson; Haywood, A. M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; L. E. Sohl; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K; D. K. Stoll
2010-01-01
The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additio...
OPERA: Objective Prism Enhanced Reduction Algorithms
Universidad Complutense de Madrid Astrophysics Research Group
2015-09-01
OPERA (Objective Prism Enhanced Reduction Algorithms) automatically analyzes astronomical images using the objective-prism (OP) technique to register thousands of low resolution spectra in large areas. It detects objects in an image, extracts one-dimensional spectra, and identifies the emission line feature. The main advantages of this method are: 1) to avoid subjectivity inherent to visual inspection used in past studies; and 2) the ability to obtain physical parameters without follow-up spectroscopy.
Analysis of transverse field distributions in Porro prism resonators
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Litvin, IA
2007-01-01
Full Text Available at the apexes of the porro prisms. Experimental work on a particular system showed some interested correlations between the time domain behavior of the resonator and the transverse field output. These findings are presented and discussed. Key words: porro... prism resonator, petal (spot) transverse field distribution, second pulse 1. INTRODUCTION Right angle prisms, often referred to as Porro prisms, have the useful property that all incident rays on the prism are reflected back parallel to the initial...
Neutron energy analysis by silicon prisms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulz, J., E-mail: jennifer.schulz@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Ott, F. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, Bât 563 CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Hülsen, Ch.; Krist, Th. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)
2013-11-21
Neutron energy analysing by refraction with prisms allows to measure different wavelengths at the same time thus avoiding losses due to monochromatization. We built and tested a refractive energy analysing device made from small prisms, where losses only occur due to the attenuation in the material. We measured the refraction and the transmission of MgF{sub 2} and Si prisms at the V14 reflectometer in Berlin at 4.9 Å to check their applicability. The experimentally determined linear attenuation coefficients are 0.055 cm{sup −1} for the MgF{sub 2} and 0.03 cm{sup −1} for the Si prisms. An energy analyser consisting of silicon prism layers was measured at the EROS reflectometer at the LLB in a white neutron beam. The useful wavelength band was 2.4–7.6 Å. At 6.7 Å a wavelength resolution of 5% and a transmission of 53% were achieved. The surface roughness of the prisms could be determined to be (0.011±0.006)deg.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Combustion chamber components (cylinder head-cylinder liner-piston assembly-fuel film) were treated as a coupled body. Based on the three-dimensional numerical simulation of heat transfer of the coupled body, the multi-dimensional simulation computation coupling flow and solid on working process and combustion chamber components of internal combustion engine was performed using Discrete Transfer Radiation Model (DTRM) radiation heat transfer model, zoning solution method and boundary coupling method. The simulation was applied to the influence investigation of the space non-uniformity in radiation heat transfer among combustion chamber components on the generation of in-cylinder soot emissions. The results show that the space non-uniformity in heat transfer among the combustion chamber components has great influence on the generation of in-cylinder NOx emissions. The difference value of total soot in cylinder when exhaust valves are opened is 1.3% (no radiation), 0.8% (radiation). So the effect of radiation heat transfer space non-uniformity of combustion chamber components on total soot production can be ignored. While in local area radiation heat transfer space non-uniformity has certain effect on soot production inside whole combustion chamber space, and has less effect on soot production in the area near the wall of combustion chamber components.
Laloue, A.; Camiade, M.; Valenza, M; Vildeuil, J.C.; Nallatamby, J. C.; Prigent, M.; Obregon, J.; Quéré, R.
2000-01-01
For the first time, a fully measurement based extraction procedure of non linear and non uniform transmission line model of FET devices is proposed. This model describes accurately the distributed nature under the device gate which allows a good distortion prediction (IM3) and promises good perspectives for simulation of noise characteristics in non linear circuits.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. I. Ryazhskikh
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Based on the of the integral Fourier transforms the problem of stationary temperature fields distribution of heat-generating fluid in a square area is analytically solved under non-uniform first kind boundary conditions for the conductive heat transfer mode.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Sunita Rani; Ram Chander Verma
2013-08-01
The solution of the static deformation of a homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-space caused by uniform movement along a long vertical tensile fracture is well known. In this paper, we study the problem of static deformation of a homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic half-space caused by a nonuniform movement along a long vertical tensile fracture of infinite length and finite depth. Four movement profiles are considered: linear, parabolic, elliptic and cubic. The deformation corresponding to the four non-uniform movement profiles is compared numerically with the deformation due to a uniform case, assuming the source potency to be the same. The equality in source potency is achieved in two ways: One, by varying the depth of fracture and keeping the surface discontinuity constant and the other way, by keeping the depth of fracture constant and varying the surface discontinuity. It is found that the effect of non-uniformity in movement in the near field is noteworthy. The far field is not affected significantly by the non-uniformity in movement. In the first case, horizontal displacement is significantly affected rather than vertical displacement. In the second case, non-uniformity in movement changes the magnitude of the displacement at the surface. Also, the displacements around a long vertical tensile fracture for different movement profiles are plotted in three dimensions.
Nazarian, N.; Kleissl, J. P.
2014-12-01
As urbanization progresses, microclimate modifications are also aggravated and the increasing environmental concerns call for more sophisticated methods of urban microclimate analysis. Comprehensive numerical simulations for a clear summer day in southern California are performed in a compact low-rise urban environment. The effect of realistic unsteady, non-uniform thermal forcing, that is caused by solar insolation and inter-building shadowing on thermal and flow conditions are analyzed based on Algebraic Wall-Modeled Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model. The urban thermal field is influenced by urban density, material properties and local weather conditions, as well as urban canyon flow. Urban canyon conditions are translated into vertical and horizontal bulk Richardson numbers indicating atmospheric instability and solar tilt with respect to the momentum forcing of the canyon vortex, respectively. The effect of roof heating is found to be critical on the vortex formation between buildings when the vertical bulk Richardson number is low. Variations of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficients (CHTCs) along building walls are studied and the street canyon ventilation performance is characterized by the mean of air exchange rate (ACH). It is found that volumetric air exchange from street canyons, as well as the distribution of heat transfer along the wall depends strongly on the three-dimensional orientation of the heated wall in relation to wind direction. For example, air removal increases by surface heating and is larger when the leeward wall is heated. In summary, we demonstrate the importance of considering complex realistic conditions on 3-dimensional thermal and momentum fields in Urban Environments.
Wietholt, Christian; Hsiao, Ing-Tsung; Chen, Chin-Tu
2007-03-01
Small animal SPECT using low energy photons of I-125 and approaching resolutions of microscopic levels, imaging parameters such as pinhole edge penetration, detector blur, geometric response, detector and pinhole misalignment, and gamma photon attenuation and scatter can have increasingly noticeable and/or adverse effects on reconstructed image quality. Iterative reconstruction algorithms, the widelyaccepted standard for emission tomography, allow modeling of such parameters through a system matrix. For this Monte Carlo simulation study, non-uniform attenuation correction was added to the existing system model. The model was constructed using ray-tracing and further included corrections for edge penetration, detector blur, and geometric aperture response. For each ray passing through different aperture locations, this method attenuates a voxel's contribution to a detector element along the photon path, which is then weighted according to a pinhole penetration model. To lower the computational and memory expenses, symmetry along the detector axes and an incremental storage scheme for the system model were used. For evaluating the nonuniform attenuation correction method, 3 phantoms were designed of which projection images were simulated using Monte Carlo methods. The first phantom was used to examined skin artifacts, the second to simulate attenuation by bone, and the third to generate artifacts of an air-filled space surrounded by soft tissue. In reconstructions without attenuation correction, artifacts were observed with up to a 40% difference in activity. These could be corrected using the implemented method, although in one case overcorrection occurred. Overall, attenuation correction improved reconstruction accuracy of the radioisotope distribution in the presence of structural differences.
The Magnetic Field of L1544. I. Near-infrared Polarimetry and the Non-uniform Envelope
Clemens, Dan P.; Tassis, K.; Goldsmith, Paul F.
2016-12-01
The magnetic field (B-field) of the starless dark cloud L1544 has been studied using near-infrared (NIR) background starlight polarimetry (BSP) and archival data in order to characterize the properties of the plane-of-sky B-field. NIR linear polarization measurements of over 1700 stars were obtained in the H band and 201 of these were also measured in the K band. The NIR BSP properties are correlated with reddening, as traced using the Rayleigh-Jeans color excess (H-M) method, and with thermal dust emission from the L1544 cloud and envelope seen in Herschel maps. The NIR polarization position angles change at the location of the cloud and exhibit their lowest dispersion there, offering strong evidence that NIR polarization traces the plane-of-sky B-field of L1544. In this paper, the uniformity of the plane-of-sky B-field in the envelope region of L1544 is quantitatively assessed. This allows evaluation of the approach of assuming uniform field geometry when measuring relative mass-to-flux ratios in the cloud envelope and core based on averaging of the radio Zeeman observations in the envelope, as done by Crutcher et al. In L1544, the NIR BSP shows the envelope B-field to be significantly non-uniform and likely not suitable for averaging Zeeman properties without treating intrinsic variations. Deeper analyses of the NIR BSP and related data sets, including estimates of the B-field strength and testing how it varies with position and gas density, are the subjects of later papers in this series.
Burns, Brian; Wilson, Neil E; Furuyama, Jon K; Thomas, M Albert
2014-02-01
The four-dimensional (4D) echo-planar correlated spectroscopic imaging (EP-COSI) sequence allows for the simultaneous acquisition of two spatial (ky, kx) and two spectral (t2, t1) dimensions in vivo in a single recording. However, its scan time is directly proportional to the number of increments in the ky and t1 dimensions, and a single scan can take 20–40 min using typical parameters, which is too long to be used for a routine clinical protocol. The present work describes efforts to accelerate EP-COSI data acquisition by application of non-uniform under-sampling (NUS) to the ky–t1 plane of simulated and in vivo EP-COSI datasets then reconstructing missing samples using maximum entropy (MaxEnt) and compressed sensing (CS). Both reconstruction problems were solved using the Cambridge algorithm, which offers many workflow improvements over other l1-norm solvers. Reconstructions of retrospectively under-sampled simulated data demonstrate that the MaxEnt and CS reconstructions successfully restore data fidelity at signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) from 4 to 20 and 5× to 1.25× NUS. Retrospectively and prospectively 4× under-sampled 4D EP-COSI in vivo datasets show that both reconstruction methods successfully remove NUS artifacts; however, MaxEnt provides reconstructions equal to or better than CS. Our results show that NUS combined with iterative reconstruction can reduce 4D EP-COSI scan times by 75% to a clinically viable 5 min in vivo, with MaxEnt being the preferred method. 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
In order to improve airfoil performance under different flight conditions and to make the performance insensitive to off-design condition at the same time,a multi-objective optimization approach considering robust design has been developed and applied to airfoil design. Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) representation is adopted in airfoil design process,control points and related weights around airfoil are used as design variables. Two airfoil representation cases show that the NURBS method can get airfoil geometry with max geometry error less than 0.0019. By using six-sigma robust approach in multi-objective airfoil design,each sub-objective function of the problem has robustness property. By adopting multi-objective genetic algorithm that is based on non-dominated sorting,a set of non-dominated airfoil solutions with robustness can be obtained in the design. The optimum robust airfoil can be traded off and selected in these non-dominated solutions by design tendency. By using the above methods,a multi-objective robust optimization was conducted for NASA SC0712 airfoil. After performing robust airfoil optimization,the mean value of drag coefficient at Ma0.7-0.8 and the mean value of lift coefficient at post stall regime (Ma0.3) have been improved by 12.2% and 25.4%. By comparing the aerodynamic force coefficients of optimization result,it shows that: different from single robust airfoil design which just improves the property of drag divergence at Ma0.7-0.8,multi-objective robust design can improve both the drag divergence property at Ma0.7-0.8 and stall property at low speed. The design cases show that the multi-objective robust design method makes the airfoil performance robust under different off-design conditions.
Tarao, Hiroo; Miyamoto, Hironobu; Korpinen, Leena; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Isaka, Katsuo
2016-06-01
Most results regarding induced current in the human body related to electric field dosimetry have been calculated under uniform field conditions. We have found in previous work that a contact current is a more suitable way to evaluate induced electric fields, even in the case of exposure to non-uniform fields. If the relationship between induced currents and external non-uniform fields can be understood, induced electric fields in nervous system tissues may be able to be estimated from measurements of ambient non-uniform fields. In the present paper, we numerically calculated the induced electric fields and currents in a human model by considering non-uniform fields based on distortion by a cubic conductor under an unperturbed electric field of 1 kV m-1 at 60 Hz. We investigated the relationship between a non-uniform external electric field with no human present and the induced current through the neck, and the relationship between the current through the neck and the induced electric fields in nervous system tissues such as the brain, heart, and spinal cord. The results showed that the current through the neck can be formulated by means of an external electric field at the central position of the human head, and the distance between the conductor and the human model. As expected, there is a strong correlation between the current through the neck and the induced electric fields in the nervous system tissues. The combination of these relationships indicates that induced electric fields in these tissues can be estimated solely by measurements of the external field at a point and the distance from the conductor.
Single-lens stereovision system using a prism: position estimation of a multi-ocular prism.
Cui, Xiaoyu; Lim, Kah Bin; Zhao, Yue; Kee, Wei Loon
2014-05-01
In this paper, a position estimation method using a prism-based single-lens stereovision system is proposed. A multifaced prism was considered as a single optical system composed of few refractive planes. A transformation matrix which relates the coordinates of an object point to its coordinates on the image plane through the refraction of the prism was derived based on geometrical optics. A mathematical model which is able to denote the position of an arbitrary faces prism with only seven parameters is introduced. This model further extends the application of the single-lens stereovision system using a prism to other areas. Experimentation results are presented to prove the effectiveness and robustness of our proposed model.
The PRISM3D paleoenvironmental reconstruction
Dowsett, H.; Robinson, M.; Haywood, A.M.; Salzmann, U.; Hill, Daniel; Sohl, L.E.; Chandler, M.; Williams, Mark; Foley, K.; Stoll, D.K.
2010-01-01
The Pliocene Research, Interpretation and Synoptic Mapping (PRISM) paleoenvironmental reconstruction is an internally consistent and comprehensive global synthesis of a past interval of relatively warm and stable climate. It is regularly used in model studies that aim to better understand Pliocene climate, to improve model performance in future climate scenarios, and to distinguish model-dependent climate effects. The PRISM reconstruction is constantly evolving in order to incorporate additional geographic sites and environmental parameters, and is continuously refined by independent research findings. The new PRISM three dimensional (3D) reconstruction differs from previous PRISM reconstructions in that it includes a subsurface ocean temperature reconstruction, integrates geochemical sea surface temperature proxies to supplement the faunal-based temperature estimates, and uses numerical models for the first time to augment fossil data. Here we describe the components of PRISM3D and describe new findings specific to the new reconstruction. Highlights of the new PRISM3D reconstruction include removal of Hudson Bay and the Great Lakes and creation of open waterways in locations where the current bedrock elevation is less than 25m above modern sea level, due to the removal of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet and the reduction of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The mid-Piacenzian oceans were characterized by a reduced east-west temperature gradient in the equatorial Pacific, but PRISM3D data do not imply permanent El Niño conditions. The reduced equator-to-pole temperature gradient that characterized previous PRISM reconstructions is supported by significant displacement of vegetation belts toward the poles, is extended into the Arctic Ocean, and is confirmed by multiple proxies in PRISM3D. Arctic warmth coupled with increased dryness suggests the formation of warm and salty paleo North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) and a more vigorous thermohaline circulation system that may
Guha, Abhijit; Sengupta, Sayantan
2014-03-01
In this article, the fluid dynamics of work transfer within the narrow spacing (usually of the order of 100 μm) of multiple concentric discs of a Tesla disc turbomachine (turbine or compressor) has been analysed theoretically and computationally. Both the overall work transfer and its spatial development have been considered. It has been established that the work transfer mechanism in a Tesla disc turbomachine is very different from that in a conventional turbomachine, and the formulation of the Euler's work equation for the disc turbomachine contains several conceptual subtleties because of the existence of complex, three dimensional, non-uniform, viscous flow features. A work equivalence principle has been enunciated, which establishes the equality between the magnitudes of work transfer determined rigorously from two different approaches—one based on the shear stress acting on the disc surfaces and the other based on the change in angular momentum of the fluid. Care is needed in identifying the shear stress components that are responsible for the generation or absorption of useful power. It is shown from the Reynolds transport theorem that mass-flow-averaged tangential velocities (as opposed to the normally used area-averaged values) must be used in determining the change in angular momentum; the calculation has to be carefully formulated since both radial velocity (that determines throughput) and tangential velocity (that generates torque) depend strongly on the coordinate perpendicular to the disc surfaces. The principle of work transfer has been examined both in the absolute and relative frames of reference, revealing the subtle role played by Coriolis force. The concept of a new non-dimensional quantity called the torque potential fraction (Δ tilde H) is introduced. The value of Δ tilde H at any radial position increases with a decrease in inter-disc spacing. The computational fluid dynamic analysis shows that, for small value of inter-disc spacing and
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wels, Michael; Hornegger, Joachim [Pattern Recognition Lab, Department of Computer Science, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Martensstr. 3, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Zheng Yefeng; Comaniciu, Dorin [Corporate Research and Technologies, Siemens Corporate Technology, 755 College Road East, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Huber, Martin, E-mail: michael.wels@informatik.uni-erlangen.de [Corporate Research and Technologies, Siemens Corporate Technology, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)
2011-06-07
We describe a fully automated method for tissue classification, which is the segmentation into cerebral gray matter (GM), cerebral white matter (WM), and cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), and intensity non-uniformity (INU) correction in brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes. It combines supervised MRI modality-specific discriminative modeling and unsupervised statistical expectation maximization (EM) segmentation into an integrated Bayesian framework. While both the parametric observation models and the non-parametrically modeled INUs are estimated via EM during segmentation itself, a Markov random field (MRF) prior model regularizes segmentation and parameter estimation. Firstly, the regularization takes into account knowledge about spatial and appearance-related homogeneity of segments in terms of pairwise clique potentials of adjacent voxels. Secondly and more importantly, patient-specific knowledge about the global spatial distribution of brain tissue is incorporated into the segmentation process via unary clique potentials. They are based on a strong discriminative model provided by a probabilistic boosting tree (PBT) for classifying image voxels. It relies on the surrounding context and alignment-based features derived from a probabilistic anatomical atlas. The context considered is encoded by 3D Haar-like features of reduced INU sensitivity. Alignment is carried out fully automatically by means of an affine registration algorithm minimizing cross-correlation. Both types of features do not immediately use the observed intensities provided by the MRI modality but instead rely on specifically transformed features, which are less sensitive to MRI artifacts. Detailed quantitative evaluations on standard phantom scans and standard real-world data show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method. They also demonstrate relative superiority in comparison to other state-of-the-art approaches to this kind of computational task: our method achieves average
Gardi, J E; Nyengaard, J R; Gundersen, H J G
2008-03-01
The proportionator is a novel and radically different approach to sampling with microscopes based on the well-known statistical theory (probability proportional to size-PPS sampling). It uses automatic image analysis, with a large range of options, to assign to every field of view in the section a weight proportional to some characteristic of the structure under study. A typical and very simple example, examined here, is the amount of color characteristic for the structure, marked with a stain with known properties. The color may be specific or not. In the recorded list of weights in all fields, the desired number of fields is sampled automatically with probability proportional to the weight and presented to the expert observer. Using any known stereological probe and estimator, the correct count in these fields leads to a simple, unbiased estimate of the total amount of structure in the sections examined, which in turn leads to any of the known stereological estimates including size distributions and spatial distributions. The unbiasedness is not a function of the assumed relation between the weight and the structure, which is in practice always a biased relation from a stereological (integral geometric) point of view. The efficiency of the proportionator depends, however, directly on this relation to be positive. The sampling and estimation procedure is simulated in sections with characteristics and various kinds of noises in possibly realistic ranges. In all cases examined, the proportionator is 2-15-fold more efficient than the common systematic, uniformly random sampling. The simulations also indicate that the lack of a simple predictor of the coefficient of error (CE) due to field-to-field variation is a more severe problem for uniform sampling strategies than anticipated. Because of its entirely different sampling strategy, based on known but non-uniform sampling probabilities, the proportionator for the first time allows the real CE at the section level to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juhua Luo
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The total nitrogen concentration (NC, g/100 g of wetland plants is an important parameter to estimate the wetland health status and to calculate the nitrogen storage of wetland plants. Remote sensing has been widely used to estimate biophysical, physiological, and biochemical parameters of plants. However, current studies place little emphasis on NC estimations by only taking nitrogen’s vertical distribution into consideration, resulting in limited accuracy and decreased practical value of the results. The main goal of this study is to develop a model, considering a non-uniform vertical nitrogen distribution to estimate the total NC of the reed canopy, which is one of the wetland’s dominant species, using hyperspectral data. Sixty quadrats were selected and measured based on an experimental design that considered vertical layer divisions within the reed canopy. Using the measured NCs of different leaf layers and corresponding spectra from the quadrats, the results indicated that the vertical distribution law of the NC was distinct, presenting an initial increase and subsequent decrease from the top layer to the bottom layer. The spectral indices MCARI/MTVI2, TCARI/OSAVI, MMTCI, DCNI, and PPR/NDVI had high R2 values when related to NC (R2 > 0.5 and low R2 when related to LAI (R2 < 0.2 and could minimize the influence of LAI and increase the sensitivity to changes in NC of the reed canopy. The relative variation rates (Rv, % of these spectral indices, calculated from each quadrat, also indicated that the top three layers of the reed canopy were an effective depth to estimate NCs using hyperspectral data. A model was developed to estimate the total NC of the whole reed canopy based on PPR/DNVI with R2 = 0.88 and RMSE = 0.37%. The model, which considered the vertical distribution patterns of the NC and the effective canopy layers, has demonstrated great potential to estimate the total NC of the whole reed canopy.
Sengupta, T. K.; Bhaumik, S.; Shameem, U.
2011-03-01
A single-parameter family of self-adjoint compact difference (SACD) schemes is developed for discretizing the Laplacian operator in self-adjoint form. Developed implicit scheme is formally second-order accurate (with respect to truncation error) with a free parameter, α which helps control the numerical properties in the spectral plane. The SACD scheme is analyzed in the spectral plane for its resolution properties for both periodic and non-periodic problems using the matrix spectral analysis [T.K. Sengupta, G. Ganeriwal, S. De, Analysis of central and upwind schemes, J. Comput. Phys. 192 (2) (2003) 677-694]. The major objective here is to identify the advantages of the new scheme over the traditional explicit second order CD2 scheme, in discretizing the Laplacian operator in self-adjoint form. This appears in Navier-Stokes equation and in other transport equations and boundary value problems (bvp) expressed in orthogonal co-ordinate systems, either in physical or in transformed plane. We also compare the developed method with the higher order compact schemes for non-uniform grids. To demonstrate the accuracy of SACD scheme we have tested it for: (i) bi-directional wave propagation problem, given by the second order wave equation and (ii) an elliptic bvp, as in the Stommel ocean model for the stream function. These examples help infer the properties of SACD scheme when solving different types of partial differential equations. Most importantly the effects of grid-stretching and choice of value of the free parameter ( α) are investigated here. We also compare the present implicit compact method with explicit compact method known as the higher order compact (HOC) method. Also, the practical applications of the SACD scheme are explored by solving the Navier-Stokes equation for the cases of: (a) a flow inside a lid-driven cavity and (b) the receptivity and instability of an external adverse pressure gradient flow over a flat plate. In the former, unsteadiness of the
An improved prism energy analyzer for neutrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schulz, J., E-mail: jennifer.schulz@helmholtz-berlin.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Ott, F. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, Bât 563 CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Krist, Th. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)
2014-04-21
The effects of two improvements of an existing neutron energy analyzer consisting of stacked silicon prism rows are presented. First we tested the effect of coating the back of the prism rows with an absorbing layer to suppress neutron scattering by total reflection and by refraction at small angles. Experiments at HZB showed that this works perfectly. Second the prism rows were bent to shift the transmitted wavelength band to larger wavelengths. At HZB we showed that bending increased the transmission of neutrons with a wavelength of 4.9 Å. Experiments with a white beam at the EROS reflectometer at LLB showed that bending of the energy analyzing device to a radius of 7.9 m allows to shift the transmitted wavelength band from 0 to 9 Å to 2 to 16 Å.
Wickramasooriya, Thiwanka; Vaidyanathan, Raj; Kar, Aravinda
2016-06-01
An analytic solution is obtained for three-dimensional quasi-steady state temperature distribution during laser heating of moving thin wires. The wire moves at a constant speed through a vacuum chamber, which is back-filled with an inert gas such as argon, and a laser beam of rectangular cross-section is incident on the wire. The ambient gas provides a convection heat transfer mechanism, which yields a Biot number, Bi, for the heating process to determine whether the temperature distribution would be uniform or nonuniform in the cross-section of the wire. Generally, the criterion of Bi less than 0.1 is applied to assume spatially uniform temperature distribution in a solid. The temperature distribution is determined for different Bi numbers and the variation of the temperature in the azimuthal direction is analyzed. The method of solution involves the Fourier transform in the azimuthal direction and the Hankel transform in the radial direction for a three-dimensional quasi-steady state heat conduction equation containing an advection term that accounts for the motion of the wire. The thermal and optical properties of the material is assumed to be constant in the temperature range of this study. The heat loss due to radiation heat transfer between the wire surface and the surrounding environment is neglected due to the small laser-heated surface area. Using this model, the temperature profile is studied for different process parameters such as the incident laser power, laser beam profile, Biot number, and wire speed.
Raheimpour Angeneh, Saeid; Aktas, Murat Kadri
2016-11-01
Effects of the acoustic streaming motion on convective heat transfer in a rectangular shallow enclosure with sinusoidal spatial bottom wall temperature distribution are investigated numerically. Acoustic excitation is generated by the periodic vibration of left wall. The top wall of the enclosure is isothermal while the side walls are adiabatic. A FORTRAN code is developed to predict the oscillatory and mean flow fields by considering the compressible form of the Navier -Stokes equation and solved by flux-corrected transport algorithm. In order to validate the results of the simulations, a case with an unheated bottom wall is considered and compared with the existing literature. Applying the sinusoidal temperature profile to the bottom wall provides axial and transverse temperature gradients. In return these gradients strongly affect the flow pattern in the enclosure. Heat transfer depends on the flow structure considerably. This is the first time that the effect of nonzero mean vibrational flow on thermal convection from a surface with sinusoidal temperature profile investigated. Results of this study may lead up to design of new heat removal applications.
A new formula of the Gravitational Curvature for the prism
Grazia D'Urso, Maria
2017-04-01
formulas for computing a third-order gravitational tensor from volumetric mass density, disturbing gravitational potential, gravity anomaly and gravity disturbance. J Geod 89:141-157 [6] Šprlák M, Novák P (2016) Spherical gravitational curvature boundary-value problem. J Geod 90:727-739 [7] Hamáčková E, Šprlák M , Pitoňák M, Novák P (2016) Non-singular expressions for the spherical harmonic synthesis of gravitational curvatures in a local north-oriented reference frame. Comp & Geosc 88: 152-162 [8] D'Urso MG (2012) New expressions of the gravitational potential and its derivates for the prism. In Hotine-Marussi International Symposium on Mathematical Geodesy, 7rd. Sneeuw N, Novak P, Crespi M, Sansò F. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg pp. 251-256 [9] D'Urso MG (2013) On the evaluation of the gravity effects of polyhedral bodies and a consistent treatment of related singularities. J Geod 87:239-252 [10] D'Urso MG (2014)Analytical computation of gravity effects for polyhedral bodies. J Geod 88:13-29 [11] Nagy D, Papp G, Benedek J (2000) The gravitational potential and its derivatives for the prism. J Geod 74:552-560 [12] Holstein H, Fitzgerald DJ, H. Stefanov H (2013) Gravimagnetic similarity for homogeneous rectangular prisms. 75th EAGE Conference & Exhibition, London
Dispersion compensation based on prism compressor
Liu, Hongying; Lan, Tian; Chen, Xiaomei; Ni, Guoqiang
2017-04-01
A prism compressor can compensate dispersion of femtosecond light pulses travelling in air for laser ranging. An accurate expression of the group delay dispersion (GDD) of a prism compressor at arbitrary incident angle and at arbitrary incident point is obtained, which is of benefit to finely compensating dispersion of femtosecond pulses. Influences of several parameters on group delay dispersion are analyzed for the active compensation of dispersion of femtosecond pulses. These expressions are convenient to applications of intra- and extra-cavity dispersion compensation of ultra-short laser pulses, as well as fine compensation of satellite laser ranging and laser altimetry.
ANDRE, Frédéric; HOU, Longfeng; SOLOVJOV, Vladimir P.
2016-01-01
The main restriction of k-distribution approaches for applications in radiative heat transfer in gaseous media arises from the use of a scaling or correlation assumption to treat non-uniform situations. It is shown that those cases can be handled exactly by using a multidimensional k-distribution that addresses the problem of spectral correlations without using any simplifying assumptions. Nevertheless, the approach cannot be suggested for engineering applications due to its computational cost. Accordingly, a more efficient method, based on the so-called Multi-Spectral Framework, is proposed to approximate the previous exact formulation. The model is assessed against reference LBL calculations and shown to outperform usual k-distribution approaches for radiative heat transfer in non-uniform media.
André, L; Durante, M; Pauss, A; Lespinard, O; Ribeiro, T; Lamy, E
2015-09-01
The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify non-uniform water flow during dry AD and its implication for biogas production. Laboratory tracer experiments were performed on cattle manure over the course of AD. The evolution of the permeability, the dry bulk density, the dry porosity, the total and volatile solid contents of cattle manure at different stages of AD, revealed waste structure changes, impacting water flow and methane production. Tracer experiments and numerical modeling performed by using a physical non-equilibrium model indicated non-uniform preferential flow patterns during degradation. According to literature, the increase of inoculum recirculation frequency improved methane production rate. However, these results demonstrated that this improvement occurs only at the beginning of manure degradation. After 19 days of degradation the inoculum recirculation and the flow patterns modification had no effect on methane production rate.
[Research on improving spectrum resolution of optimized Wollaston prism array].
Zhang, Peng; Wang, Jian-Rong; Zhang, Guo-Chen; Hou, Wen
2011-11-01
In order to not affect the image quality of interference fringes on the basis of the structure by increasing the structure angle of Wollaston prism to improve spectrum resolution, the authors optimized the structure of Wollaston prism. Calculating the function of the splitting angle and the structure angle, analysis indicated that taking the isosceles triangle prism with the same nature of the second wedge-shaped prism after the Wollaston prism, which makes the o and e light parallel to the optical axis, and alpha=0 degrees, the imaging interference fringes are no longer affected by changes in the splitting angle. Several optimized Wollaston prisms were made as an array to improve the spectral resolution. Experiments used traditional and optimized Wollaston prism array to detect the spectrum of the 980 nm laser. Experimental data showed that using optimized Wollaston prism array gets a clearer contrast of interference fringes, and the spectral data with Fourier transform are more accurate with DSP.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kouchaki, Alireza; Iman-Eini, H.; Asaei, B.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a new algorithm based on characteristic equation of solar cells to determine the Maximum Power Point (MPP) of PV modules under partially shaded conditions (PSC). To achieve this goal, an analytic condition is introduced to determine uniform or non-uniform atmospheric condition...... to verify the accuracy and validity of the proposed method, different simulations are carried out in MATLAB-Simulink environment for various atmospheric conditions. © 2012 IEEE....
2012-01-01
In this paper a new system identification algorithm is introduced for Hammerstein systems based on observational input/output data. The nonlinear static function in the Hammerstein system is modelled using a non-uniform rational B-spline (NURB) neural network. The proposed system identification algorithm for this NURB network based Hammerstein system consists of two successive stages. First the shaping parameters in NURB network are estimated using particle swarmoptimization (PSO) procedure. ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M Zabihzadeh
2013-12-01
Conclusion: increase of atomic number and concentrations of NPs enhance the absorbed dose due to increased possibility of photoelectric phenomena. Non-uniform distribution of NPs underestimated dose compared to uniform distribution; therefore, considering accurate NPs distribution inside the tumor volume is crucial to calculation of dose enhancement. Targeted labeling of NPs for the maximum absorption by tumor and for the minimal penetration into peripheral tissues has potential to increase radiation therapeutic ratio.
Symbolic Algorithmic Analysis of Rectangular Hybrid Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hai-Bin Zhang; Zhen-Hua Duan
2009-01-01
This paper investigates symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems. To deal with the symbolic reachability problem, a restricted constraint system called hybrid zone is formalized for the representation and manipulation of rectangular automata state-spaces. Hybrid zones are proved to be closed over symbolic reachability operations of rectangular hybrid systems. They are also applied to model-checking procedures for verifying some important classes of timed computation tree logic formulas. To represent hybrid zones, a data structure called difference constraint matrix is defined.These enable us to deal with the symbolic algorithmic analysis of rectangular hybrid systems in an efficient way.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adnan M.F.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Non-uniform thickness section section is considered one of the most effective approaches to reduce automotive part weight. Reduction in term of mass and size result in less fuel consumption and greenhouse gases. Thickness is the most significant parameter to formability, therefore forming a section with non-uniform thickness becomes a great challenge. Improper process and incorrect decision may lead to severe defect and one of the main concerns is the springback. This study will focus on springback behaviour of non-uniform thickness AA6061 strip with complex profile using Taguchi Method. Profile projector (PC 3000 is used to measure the spring back and two-line technique is applied to measure angles (after loading between two lines. Three parameters (i.e. annealing temperature, thickness ratio and bend angle are studied, and results determine that the most significant parameter is bend angle, followed by thickness ratio, and then by the annealing temperature of the specimen during bending process.
Montes Bajo, M.; Dunn, G.; Stephen, A.; Khalid, Ata; Cumming, D. R. S.; Oxley, C. H.; Glover, J.; Kuball, M.
2013-03-01
When biased in the negative differential resistance regime, electroluminescence (EL) is emitted from planar GaAs heterostructure Gunn diodes. This EL is due to the recombination of electrons in the device channel with holes that are generated by impact ionisation when the Gunn domains reach the anode edge. The EL forms non-uniform patterns whose intensity shows short-range intensity variations in the direction parallel to the contacts and decreases along the device channel towards the cathode. This paper employs Monte Carlo models, in conjunction with the experimental data, to analyse these non-uniform EL patterns and to study the carrier dynamics responsible for them. It is found that the short-range lateral (i.e., parallel to the device contacts) EL patterns are probably due to non-uniformities in the doping of the anode contact, illustrating the usefulness of EL analysis on the detection of such inhomogeneities. The overall decreasing EL intensity towards the anode is also discussed in terms of the interaction of holes with the time-dependent electric field due to the transit of the Gunn domains. Due to their lower relative mobility and the low electric field outside of the Gunn domain, freshly generated holes remain close to the anode until the arrival of a new domain accelerates them towards the cathode. When the average over the transit of several Gunn domains is considered, this results in a higher hole density, and hence a higher EL intensity, next to the anode.
Kim, Yoon-Jee; Cho, Sung-Eun; Um, Ji-Yong; Chae, Min-Kyun; Bang, Jihoon; Song, Jongkeun; Jeon, Taeho; Kim, Byungsub; Sim, Jae-Yoon; Park, Hong-June
2017-02-01
A 64-channel RX digital beamformer was implemented in a single chip for 3-D ultrasound medical imaging using 2-D phased-array transducers. The RX beamformer chip includes 64 analog front-end branches including 64 non-uniform sampling ADCs, a FIFO/Adder, and an on-chip look-up table (LUT). The LUT stores the information on the rising edge timing of the non-uniform ADC sampling clocks. To include the LUT inside the beamformer chip, the LUT size was reduced by around 240 times by approximating an ADC-sample-time profile w.r.t. focal points (FP) along a scanline (SL) for a channel into a piece-wise linear form. The maximum error between the approximated and accurate sample times of ADC is eight times the sample time resolution (Ts) that is 1/32 of the ultrasound signal period in this work. The non-uniform sampling reduces the FIFO size required for digital beamforming by around 20 times. By applying a 9-dot image from Field-II program and 2-D ultrasound phantom images to the fabricated RX beamformer chip, the original images were successfully reconstructed from the measured output. The chip in a 0.13-um CMOS occupies 30.25 [Formula: see text] and consumes 605 mW.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hong-Cheng Zeng
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In this work, the staggered SAR technique is employed for high-speed platform highly-squint SAR by varying the pulse repetition interval (PRI as a linear function of range-walk. To focus the staggered SAR data more efficiently, a low-complexity modified Omega-k algorithm is proposed based on a novel method for optimal azimuth non-uniform interpolation, avoiding zero padding in range direction for recovering range cell migration (RCM and saving in both data storage and computational load. An approximate model on continuous PRI variation with respect to sliding receive-window is employed in the proposed algorithm, leaving a residual phase error only due to the effect of a time-varying Doppler phase caused by staggered SAR. Then, azimuth non-uniform interpolation (ANI at baseband is carried out to compensate the azimuth non-uniform sampling (ANS effect resulting from continuous PRI variation, which is further followed by the modified Omega-k algorithm. The proposed algorithm has a significantly lower computational complexity, but with an equally effective imaging performance, as shown in our simulation results.
21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine position...
Comparing Volumes of Prisms and Pyramids
Vinogradova, Natalya
2012-01-01
Students' experience in using formulas for volumes is often limited to substituting numbers into given formulas. An activity presented in this article may help students make connections between the formulas for volumes of prisms and volumes of pyramids. In addition, some interesting facts from number theory arise, demonstrating strong connections…
Prisms Throw Light on Developmental Disorders
Brookes, Rebecca L.; Nicolson, Roderick I.; Fawcett, Angela J.
2007-01-01
Prism adaptation, in which the participant adapts to prismatic glasses that deflect vision laterally, is a specific test of cerebellar function. Fourteen dyslexic children (mean age 13.5 years); 14 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD): 6 of whom had comorbid dyslexia; and 12 control children matched for age and IQ underwent…
Boolean Operations with Prism Algebraic Patches
Bajaj, Chandrajit; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Portuesi, Simone; Lei, Na; Zhao, Wenqi
2009-01-01
In this paper we discuss a symbolic-numeric algorithm for Boolean operations, closed in the algebra of curved polyhedra whose boundary is triangulated with algebraic patches (A-patches). This approach uses a linear polyhedron as a first approximation of both the arguments and the result. On each triangle of a boundary representation of such linear approximation, a piecewise cubic algebraic interpolant is built, using a C1-continuous prism algebraic patch (prism A-patch) that interpolates the three triangle vertices, with given normal vectors. The boundary representation only stores the vertices of the initial triangulation and their external vertex normals. In order to represent also flat and/or sharp local features, the corresponding normal-per-face and/or normal-per-edge may be also given, respectively. The topology is described by storing, for each curved triangle, the two triples of pointers to incident vertices and to adjacent triangles. For each triangle, a scaffolding prism is built, produced by its extreme vertices and normals, which provides a containment volume for the curved interpolating A-patch. When looking for the result of a regularized Boolean operation, the 0-set of a tri-variate polynomial within each such prism is generated, and intersected with the analogous 0-sets of the other curved polyhedron, when two prisms have non-empty intersection. The intersection curves of the boundaries are traced and used to decompose each boundary into the 3 standard classes of subpatches, denoted in, out and on. While tracing the intersection curves, the locally refined triangulation of intersecting patches is produced, and added to the boundary representation. PMID:21516262
Chen, J.-S.; Lai, G.-X.
2009-04-01
The morphological evolution of a chemical dissolution front is an important topic in geological processes and engineering practices. Although previous studies have extensively presented a number of numerical models which couples a system of nonlinear governing equations of porosity change due to mineral dissolution, the conservations of groundwater flow and transport of chemical species to investigate the morphological pattern of a chemical dissolution front within a fluid-saturated porous medium, whereas the mechanical dispersion effect has generally been neglected in the model development. This study addresses the effects of mechanical dispersion on the morphological evolution of a chemical dissolution front for a variety of cases. Mechanical dispersion processes is incorporated with the coupled nonlinear governing equation system so as to rebuild a newly numerical model. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that mechanical dispersion has pronounced impacts on the morphological pattern of the chemical dissolution front. For single local non-uniformity case, mechanical dispersion reduces the finger length of an unstable single-fingering front or retains the shape of a stable planar front while speeding up the front advancement. In the case of two local non-uniformities, adding mechanical dispersion with different flow conditions can yield one of the following results: (1) the shape of the stable planar front is maintained but its advancement is accelerated; (2) the shape of the unstable single-fingering front is maintained but its length is reduced; (3) the unstable double-fingering front is merged into an unstable single-fingering front; and (4) the shape of the unstable double-fingering front is preserved but its fingering length is reduced.. A comparison between the behavior diagrams of dissolution front morphology (with and without considering mechanical dispersion) shows that the double-fingering front occurs under condition where the upstream
光照不均QR码图像二值化研究%Study on QR-Coded Image Binarization Method under Non-uniformed Illumination
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
路阳; 高慧敏
2012-01-01
Ostu算法因其具有算法实现简单等特点成为常用的一种图像二值化算法，但其对于不均匀光照下的QR码图像二值化处理效果不佳。针对Ostu算法这一缺点，提出一种解决方法：首先使用改进的同态滤波去除QR图像的不均匀光照的影响，然后采用Ostu算法对QR图像进行二值化。实验表明，使用该算法能有效克服不均匀光照的影响，二值化效果良好，条码识别率提高。%Ostu algorithm has become commonly used as image binarization algorithm because of its simplicity in realization, but it can not deal with the QR-Coded image under non-uniformed illumination. This paper puts forward a solution to overcome this disadvantage. Firstly, it adopts the improved homomorphic filtering algorithm to enhance the QR-Coded image quality to eliminate the negative effect of the non-uniformed illumination, then the QR-Coded image is binarized by the Ostu algorithm. Experimental results show that this algorithm can effectively overcomes the influence of non-uniformed illumination, and the recognition rate of the OR code can be improved.
Bolotnikov, A. E.; Camarda, G. S.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G.; Eger, J.; Emerick, A.; Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; Roy, U.; Salwen, C.; Soldner, S.; Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; James, R. B.
2016-01-01
Following our successful demonstration of the position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, we investigated the feasibility of using high-granularity position sensing to correct response non-uniformities caused by the crystal defects in CdZnTe (CZT) pixelated detectors. The development of high-granularity detectors able to correct response non-uniformities on a scale comparable to the size of electron clouds opens the opportunity of using unselected off-the-shelf CZT material, whilst still assuring high spectral resolution for the majority of the detectors fabricated from an ingot. Here, we present the results from testing 3D position-sensitive 15×15×10 mm3 pixelated detectors, fabricated with conventional pixel patterns with progressively smaller pixel sizes: 1.4, 0.8, and 0.5 mm. We employed the readout system based on the H3D front-end multi-channel ASIC developed by BNL's Instrumentation Division in collaboration with the University of Michigan. We use the sharing of electron clouds among several adjacent pixels to measure locations of interaction points with sub-pixel resolution. By using the detectors with small-pixel sizes and a high probability of the charge-sharing events, we were able to improve their spectral resolutions in comparison to the baseline levels, measured for the 1.4-mm pixel size detectors with small fractions of charge-sharing events. These results demonstrate that further enhancement of the performance of CZT pixelated detectors and reduction of costs are possible by using high spatial-resolution position information of interaction points to correct the small-scale response non-uniformities caused by crystal defects present in most devices.
Kamizuru, Kohei; Nakamura, Kazuya; Kawasaki, Hiroshi; Ono, Satoshi
2017-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) codes are widely used for various fields such as production, logistics, and marketing thanks to their larger capacity than one-dimensional barcodes. However, they are subject to distortion when printed on non-rigid materials, such as papers and clothes. Although general 2D code decoders correct uniform distortion such as perspective distortion, it is difficult to correct non-uniform and irregular distortion of the 2D code itself. This paper proposes a decoding method for the 2D code, which models monochrome auxiliary line recognition as Markov random field, and solves it using belief propagation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sygut P.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of theoretical studies influence of non-uniform temperature distribution along the feedstock length to the unit friction force working on the metal contact surface with the roll change during the round bars 70 mm in diameter continuous rolling process. This value is one of the major factors affecting the grooves wear during the rolling process. The studies were carried out based on the actual engineering data for 160 × 160 mm square cross-section feedstock of steel S355J0. Numerical modelling of the rolling process was performed using Forge2008®, a finite-element based computer program.
导线风压不均匀系数的取值探讨%DISCUSSION ON NON-UNIFORM FACTOR OF WIND PRESSURE OF CONDUCTOR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张宏杰; 杨风利; 杨靖波; 丁平; 陈建伟
2016-01-01
导线风压不均匀系数用于表征在较大档距内不均匀分布的风荷载。当前国内外采用的导线风压不均匀系数计算方法大致分为两类：一类不区分脉动风与平均风对风压不均匀系数的影响，笼统地采用一个系数予以表征；一类仅考虑脉动风不均匀性的影响。在对美国ASCE的导线阵风响应系数、Davenport档距系数以及中日德三国风压不均匀系数的计算方法对比分析的基础上，结合实测数据，首先证明了平均风不均匀性的存在，随后以Davenport档距系数计算理论为基础，提出了一种新的风压不均匀系数计算方法。该方法明确区分了平均风与脉动风不均匀性对整档导线风压的影响，考虑影响因素全面，物理意义更为明确。%Non-uniform factor of wind pressure of conductor is used for description of non-uniform distribution wind in a large span.The calculation method of non-uniform factor can be divided into two kinds.One method doesn’ t distinguish nonuniformity of smooth flow and turbulent flow, and only one coefficient was used.The other method only takes nonuniformity of turbulent flow into consideration.This paper did contrastive research on gust response factor of American load code, Davenport span factor and non-uniform factor of China, Germany and Japan.Integrating with field test data, the nonuniformity of smooth flow was confirmed.And then, on the basis of the theory of Davenport span factor, a novel method which can divide the influence of smooth flow and turbulent flow, and take more influence factors into consideration was provided.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schellen, L.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; de Wit, M.H.;
2012-01-01
, thermal comfort and productivity in response to thermal non-uniform environmental conditions. Twenty healthy subjects (10 males and 10 females, age 20–29years) were exposed to two different experimental conditions: a convective cooling situation (CC) and a radiant cooling situation (RC). During...... the experiments physiological responses, thermal comfort and productivity were measured. The results show that under both experimental conditions the actual mean thermal sensation votes significantly differ from the PMV-index; the subjects are feeling colder than predicted. Furthermore, the females are more...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Miha Brojan; Matjaz Cebron; Franc Kosel
2012-01-01
This work studies large deflections of slender,non-prismatic cantilever beams subjected to a combined loading which consists of a non-uniformly distributed continuous load and a concentrated load at the free end of the beam.The material of the cantilever is assumed to be nonlinearly elastic.Different nonlinear relations between stress and strain in tensile and compressive domain are considered.The accuracy of numerical solutions is evaluated by comparing them with results from previous studies and with a laboratory experiment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abbassi, Yasser; Shirani, Amir Saeed [Shahid Beheshti Univ., Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Engineering
2016-11-15
Results of a numerical investigation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Water nanofluid heat transfer are presented. The two-phase mixture model is used to study the effects of Reynolds number and nanoparticle concentrations on nanofluid heat transfer in flow around an annulus test section. Non-uniform heat flux is assumed as heat boundary condition on annuli inner wall. Annuli wall and bulk temperature profiles, Local and averaged heat transfer coefficient profiles, local and averaged Nusselt number profiles are presented as functions of nanoparticle volume concentrations and Reynolds numbers. Both laminar and turbulent flow regimes are simulated.
Prism. Volume 1, Number 1, December 2009
2009-12-01
Susan B. Epstein , U.S. Embassy in Iraq (Washington, DC: CRS, October 24, 2006), figure 1. 18 The “clear-hold-build” approach to counterinsurgency is...staff of other agencies, such as the Coast Guard, Central Intelligence Agency, and National Security Agency. See Edward F. Bruner, “Military Forces...Reconstruction Roles, ed. Joseph Cerami and Jay Boggs (Carlisle, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 2007). 102 | leSSoNS leaRNed PRISM 1, no. 1 10
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhevandrov Petr
2011-05-01
Full Text Available
En el presente trabajo se estudia el problema de frecuencias propias de la viga Euler-Bernoulli de sección no uniforme; se comparan las soluciones del problema obtenidas numéricamente con la solución asintótica lograda mediante el método Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB. Se establece que la precisión de las fórmulas WKB es mayor del 3% para frecuencias altas (número de modo ≥ 4.
This paper has studied the problem of natural frequencies for Euler-Bernoulli beams having non-uniform cross-section. The numerically-obtained solutions were compared to asymptotic solutions obtained by the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB method. It was established that WKB formula precision was higher than 3% for high frequencies (Prisms to Shift Pain Away: Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Exploration of CRPS with Prism Adaptation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Laure Christophe
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS is an invalidating chronic condition subsequent to peripheral lesions. There is growing consensus for a central contribution to CRPS. However, the nature of this central body representation disorder is increasingly debated. Although it has been repeatedly argued that CRPS results in motor neglect of the affected side, visual egocentric reference frame was found to be deviated toward the pain, that is, neglect of the healthy side. Accordingly, prism adaptation has been successfully used to normalize this deviation. This study aimed at clarifying whether 7 CRPS patients exhibited neglect as well as exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms of this manifestation and of the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation. Pain and quality of life, egocentric reference frames (visual and proprioceptive straight-ahead, and neglect tests (line bisection, kinematic analyses of motor neglect and motor extinction were repeatedly assessed prior to, during, and following a one-week intense prism adaptation intervention. First, our results provide no support for visual and motor neglect in CRPS. Second, reference frames for body representations were not systematically deviated. Third, intensive prism adaptation intervention durably ameliorated pain and quality of life. As for spatial neglect, understanding the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation deserves further investigations.
Volckmann, Pierre; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie
2016-01-01
Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) is an invalidating chronic condition subsequent to peripheral lesions. There is growing consensus for a central contribution to CRPS. However, the nature of this central body representation disorder is increasingly debated. Although it has been repeatedly argued that CRPS results in motor neglect of the affected side, visual egocentric reference frame was found to be deviated toward the pain, that is, neglect of the healthy side. Accordingly, prism adaptation has been successfully used to normalize this deviation. This study aimed at clarifying whether 7 CRPS patients exhibited neglect as well as exploring the pathophysiological mechanisms of this manifestation and of the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation. Pain and quality of life, egocentric reference frames (visual and proprioceptive straight-ahead), and neglect tests (line bisection, kinematic analyses of motor neglect and motor extinction) were repeatedly assessed prior to, during, and following a one-week intense prism adaptation intervention. First, our results provide no support for visual and motor neglect in CRPS. Second, reference frames for body representations were not systematically deviated. Third, intensive prism adaptation intervention durably ameliorated pain and quality of life. As for spatial neglect, understanding the therapeutic effects of prism adaptation deserves further investigations. PMID:27668094
Evaluations of 1990 PRISM design revisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Chan, B.C.; Aronson, A.L.; Kennett, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
1992-03-01
Analyses of the 1990 version of the PRISM Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design are presented and discussed. Most of the calculations were performed using BNL computer codes, particularly SSC and MINET. In many cases, independent BNL calculations were compared against analyses presented by General Electric when they submitted the PRISM design revisions for evaluation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The current PRISM design utilizes the metallic fuel developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) which facilitates the passive/``inherent`` shutdown mechanism that acts to shut down reactor power production whenever the system overheats. There are a few vulnerabilities in the passive shutdown, with the most worrisome being the positive feedback from sodium density decreases or sodium voiding. Various postulated unscrammed events were examined by GE and/or BNL, and much of the analysis discussed in this report is focused on this category of events. For the most part, the BNL evaluations confirm the information submitted by General Electric. The principal areas of concern are related to the performance of the ternary metal fuel, and may be resolved as ANL continues with its fuel development and testing program.
Evaluations of 1990 PRISM design revisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Van Tuyle, G.J.; Slovik, G.C.; Chan, B.C.; Aronson, A.L.; Kennett, R.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)
1992-03-01
Analyses of the 1990 version of the PRISM Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) design are presented and discussed. Most of the calculations were performed using BNL computer codes, particularly SSC and MINET. In many cases, independent BNL calculations were compared against analyses presented by General Electric when they submitted the PRISM design revisions for evaluation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The current PRISM design utilizes the metallic fuel developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) which facilitates the passive/``inherent`` shutdown mechanism that acts to shut down reactor power production whenever the system overheats. There are a few vulnerabilities in the passive shutdown, with the most worrisome being the positive feedback from sodium density decreases or sodium voiding. Various postulated unscrammed events were examined by GE and/or BNL, and much of the analysis discussed in this report is focused on this category of events. For the most part, the BNL evaluations confirm the information submitted by General Electric. The principal areas of concern are related to the performance of the ternary metal fuel, and may be resolved as ANL continues with its fuel development and testing program.
an asymmetrically heated rectangular minichannel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Strąk Kinga
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses test results concerning flow boiling heat transfer in a minichannel 1.7 mm in depth, 16 mm in width and 180 mm in length. The essential part of the experimental stand was a vertically oriented rectangular minichannel, which was heated asymmetrically with a plate made of Haynes-230 alloy. Distilled water was used as the cooling fluid. Changes in the temperature on the outer side of the heated plate in the central, axially symmetric part of the channel were measured using infrared thermography. Simultaneously, the other side of the heated plate in contact with the fluid was observed through a glass pane to identify the two-phase flow patterns. The one-dimensional model used for the heat transfer analysis took into account the heat flow direction, which was perpendicular to the direction of the fluid flow in the minichannel. The study involved determining local values of the heat transfer coefficient and generating boiling curves. The data for water were compared with the findings reported for the FC-72 fluid.
Compound prism design principles, III: linear-in-wavenumber and optical coherence tomography prisms
Hagen, Nathan; Tkaczyk, Tomasz S.
2011-01-01
We extend the work of the first two papers in this series [Appl. Opt. 50, 4998–5011 (2011), Appl. Opt. 50, 5012–5022 (2011)] to design compound prisms for linear-in-wavenumber dispersion, especially for application in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). These dispersive prism designs are believed to be the first to meet the requirements of high resolution OCT systems in direct-view geometry, where they can be used to shrink system size, to improve light throughput, to reduce stray light, and to reduce errors resulting from interpolating between wavelength- and wavenumber-sampled domains. We show prism designs that can be used for thermal sources or for wideband superluminescent diodes centered around wavelengths 850, 900, 1300, and 1375 nm. PMID:22423147
Tarao, Hiroo; Korpinen, Leena H; Kuisti, Harri A; Hayashi, Noriyuki; Elovaara, Jarmo A; Isaka, Katsuo
2013-01-01
An ungrounded human, such as a substation worker, receives contact currents when touching a grounded object in electric fields. In this article, contact currents and internal electric fields induced in the human when exposed to non-uniform electric fields at 50 Hz are numerically calculated. This is done using a realistic human model standing at a distance of 0.1-0.5 m from the grounded conductive object. We found that the relationship between the external electric field strength and the contact current obtained by calculation is in good agreement with previous measurements. Calculated results show that the contact currents largely depend on the distance, and that the induced electric fields in the tissues are proportional to the contact current regardless of the non-uniformity of the external electric field. Therefore, it is concluded that the contact current, rather than the spatial average of the external electric field, is more suitable for evaluating electric field dosimetry of tissues. The maximum induced electric field appears in the spinal cord in the central nervous system tissues, with the induced electric field in the spinal cord approaching the basic restriction (100 mV/m) of the new 2010 International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines for occupational exposure, if the contact current is 0.5 mA. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Malaeke, Hasan; Moeenfard, Hamid
2016-03-01
The objective of this paper is to study large amplitude flexural-extensional free vibration of non-uniform cantilever beams carrying a both transversely and axially eccentric tip mass. The effects of variable axial force is also taken into account. Hamilton's principle is utilized to obtain the partial differential equations governing the nonlinear vibration of the system as well as the corresponding boundary conditions. A numerical finite difference scheme is proposed to find the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system which is validated specifically for a beam with linearly varying cross section. Using a single mode approximation in conjunction with the Lagrange method, the governing equations are reduced to a set of two nonlinear ordinary differential equations in terms of end displacement components of the beam which are coupled due to the presence of the transverse eccentricity. These temporal coupled equations are then solved analytically using the multiple time scales perturbation technique. The obtained analytical results are compared with the numerical ones and excellent agreement is observed. The qualitative and quantitative knowledge resulting from this research is expected to enable the study of the effects of eccentric tip mass and non-uniformity on the large amplitude flexural-extensional vibration of beams for improved dynamic performance.
Rahmati, A. H.; Mohammadimehr, M.
2014-05-01
Electro-thermo-mechanical vibration analysis of non-uniform and non-homogeneous boron nitride nanorod (BNNR) embedded in elastic medium is presented. The steady state heat transfer equation without external heat source for non-homogeneous rod is developed and temperature distribution is derived. Using Maxwell's equation and nonlocal elasticity theory the coupled displacement and electrical potential equations are presented. Differential quadrature method (DQM) is implemented to evaluate the natural frequencies. The effects of attached mass, lower and higher vibrational mode, elastic medium, piezoelectric coefficient, dielectric coefficient, cross section coefficient, non-homogeneity parameter and small scale parameter on the natural frequency are investigated. The appropriate values for Winkler and Pasternak modulus in axial vibration of boron nitride nanorod are reported. The mass sensitivity limit of 10-1 (zg) is derived for BNNR-based nano-electro-mechanical sensors. The results show that the C-F boundary condition of BNNRs are more sensitive to attached mass than the C-C boundary condition and also the sensitivity range for BNNRs. It is concluded that frequency ratio decreases considering electro-thermal loadings and electrical loadings are more effective in non-uniform nanorods, in comparison with uniform nanorod. The natural frequency of BNNRs can be varied using different cross section coefficient and non-homogeneity parameter. This fact can be employed for practical tools to design and control nano-devices and nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) to prevent resonance phenomenon.
Hariri, Saman; Mokhtari, Mojtaba; Gerdroodbary, M. Barzegar; Fallah, Keivan
2017-02-01
In this article, a three-dimensional numerical investigation is performed to study the effect of a magnetic field on a ferrofluid inside a tube. This study comprehensively analyzes the influence of a non-uniform magnetic field in the heat transfer of a tube while a ferrofluid (water with 0.86 vol% nanoparticles (Fe3O4) is let flow. The SIMPLEC algorithm is used for obtaining the flow and heat transfer inside the tube. The influence of various parameters, such as concentration of nanoparticles, intensity of the magnetic field, wire distance and Reynolds number, on the heat transfer is investigated. According to the obtained results, the presence of a non-uniform magnetic field significantly increases the Nusselt number (more than 300%) inside the tube. Also, the magnetic field induced by the parallel wire affects the average velocity of the ferrofluid and forms two strong eddies in the tube. Our findings show that the diffusion also raises as the concentration of the nanoparticle is increased.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pourmehran, O., E-mail: oveis87@yahoo.com; Rahimi-Gorji, M.; Gorji-Bandpy, M., E-mail: gorji@nit.ac.ir; Gorji, T.B.
2015-11-01
Drug delivery technologies are an important area within biomedicine. Targeted drug delivery aims to reduce the undesired side effects of drug usage by directing or capturing the active agents near a desired site within the body. Herein, a numerical investigation of magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using aerosol drugs named polystyrene particle (PMS40) in human lung is presented considering one-way coupling on the transport and capture of the magnetic particle. A realistic 3D geometry based on CT scan images is provided for CFD simulation. An external non-uniform magnetic field is applied. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of particle diameter, magnetic source position, and magnetic number (Mn) on the deposition efficiency and particle behavior is reported. According to the results, the magnetic field increased deposition efficiency of particles in a target region, the efficiency of deposition and MDT technique has a direct relation with increasing the particle diameter for magnetic number of 1 Tesla (T) and lower (Mn≤1(T)). Also it can be seen that there is an inverse relation between the particle diameter and deposition efficiency when Mn is more than 1 (T). - Highlights: • A realistic 3D geometry of human tracheobronchial airway based on CT scan image. • External non-uniform magnetic field applied to target the magnetic drug career. • Lagrangian particle tracking using discrete phase model applied. • The efficiency of deposition is dependent of magnetic number and particle diameter.
Ghosh, Sourov; Ohashi, Hidenori; Tabata, Hiroshi; Hashimasa, Yoshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Takeo
2017-09-01
The impact of electrochemical carbon corrosion via potential cycling durability tests mimicking start-stop operation events on the microstructure of the cathode catalyst layer in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) is investigated using focused ion beam (FIB) fabrication without/with the pore-filling technique and subsequent scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations. FIB/SEM investigations without pore-filling reveals that the durability test induces non-uniform cathode shrinking across the in-plane direction; the thickness of the catalyst layer decreases more under the gas flow channel compared to the area under the rim of the flow field. Furthermore, FIB/SEM investigations with the pore-filling technique reveal that the durability test also induces non-uniform cathode shrinking in the through-plane direction; the pores in the area close to the membrane are more shrunken compared with those close to the microporous layer. In particular, a thin area (1-1.5 μm) close to the membrane is found to be severely damaged; it includes closed pores that hinder mass transport through the catalyst layer. It is suggested that uneven carbon corrosion and catalyst layer compaction are responsible for the performance loss during potential cycling operation of PEFCs.
Superconvergence for rectangular serendipity finite elements
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN; Chuanmiao(陈传淼)
2003-01-01
Based on an orthogonal expansion and orthogonality correction in an element, superconvergenceat symmetric points for any degree rectangular serendipity finite element approximation to second order ellipticproblem is proved, and its behaviour up to the boundary is also discussed.
Thermal Impedance of Rectangular Microwave Oven Linings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SHIShang－zhao; XUFu－qiu; 等
1996-01-01
Amodel was preseted for calcultaing the thermal impedance of the insulation and refractory linings of rectangular microwave ovens,of which the oven cavity's dimensions are relatively small,while the linings re relatively thick.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farid, K.; Caillat-Vigneron, N. [Hotel-Dieu de Paris, Service de medecine nucleaire, 75 (France); Habert, M.O. [Hopital de la Pitie-Salpetriere, service de medecine nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Martineau, A. [Hopital Saint-Louis, service de medecine nucleaire, 75 - Paris (France); Sibon, I. [CHU de Bordeaux, service de neurologie, 33 (France)
2010-07-01
Brain perfusion scintigraphy is a functional imaging currently used for the evaluation of patients with cognitive impairment. Although widely available, this technique is known as less sensitive than {sup 18}FDG-PET. The optimization of technical parameters for images acquiring and processing using a non uniform attenuation correction (A.C.) and a correction of distributed (C.D.) could improve its performance. The objective of this study is to compare the non uniform correction obtained by attenuation map of computed tomography (CT) combined with CT-C.D. and C.D. + CT uniform C.A. using the Chang method considering the distributed alone (coefficient = 0.09 cm{sup -1})
Fluid in Rectangular Tank – Frequency Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kotrasová Kamila
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Ground-supported tanks are used to store a variety of liquids. During earthquake activity the liquid exerts impulsive and convective pressures (sloshing on the walls and bottom of the rectangular tank. This paper provides theoretical background for analytical calculating of circular frequencies and hydrodynamic pressures developed during an earthquake in rectangular container. Analytical results of first natural frequency are compared with experiment.
Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël
We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....
Evaluation of TEP Deaeration Tower Rectangular Flange
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG; Zhi-hao
2013-01-01
The rectangular flange is adapted in the heater of TEP deaeration tower(Fig.1).The rectangular flange is no-round type flange,the evaluation of which is worked on equivalent round flange method.Thecalculation is based on no-round type flange evaluation chapter in HGT 20582—2011 Steel chemical vessel strength calculation code.The loads on the flange are inner pressure,nozzle loads and seismic loads.The nozzle loads is
Random Young diagrams in a Rectangular Box
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beltoft, Dan; Boutillier, Cédric; Enriquez, Nathanaël
We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape.......We exhibit the limit shape of random Young diagrams having a distribution proportional to the exponential of their area, and confined in a rectangular box. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck bridge arises from the fluctuations around the limit shape....
Effect of Channel Sidewalls on Joule Heating Induced Sample Dispersion in Rectangular Ducts.
Dutta, Debashis
2016-02-01
In this article, we analyze the effect of channel sidewalls on the broadening of analyte bands resulting from Joule heating during their electrokinetic migration through a rectangular conduit. A method-of-moments formulation has been used to numerically evaluate the Taylor-Aris dispersivity of sample zones under these conditions for thin electrical double layers applicable to a majority of microfluidic assays. Our analysis shows that the larger surface area to volume ratio around the side regions of a rectangular channel causes these corners to stay cooler than the rest of the conduit. While such a thermal profile does not modify the electroosmotic flow in the system for a fixed temperature at the channel walls, it reduces the electrophoretic transport rate by about 10% for small temperature differentials across the channel cross-section (effect of these thermal gradients on the hydrodynamic dispersion of analyte bands is more significant however, increasing such band broadening by nearly an order of magnitude in large aspect ratio designs. Our analyses further show that the trends noted above are magnified when a fixed heat transfer coefficient is assumed at the channel walls, in which case, the temperature along this boundary is no longer constant. The non-isothermal channel walls combined with the temperature dependence of zeta potential and other material properties in this situation leads to a non-uniform electroosmotic slip velocity in the system modifying both fluid and analyte transport rates. Again, while the resulting solute flow profile reduces the migration velocity of sample zones only to a moderate extent, it is found to increase the hydrodynamic dispersion of analyte bands by several orders of magnitude in large aspect ratio rectangular channels.
Optimized design of parallel beam-splitting prism
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Peitao Zhao(赵培涛); Guohua Li(李国华)
2004-01-01
A large lateral shearing distance of parallel beam-splitting prism is often needed in laser modulation and polarization interference. In this letter, we present an optimized design of parallel beam-splitting prism and list some different cases in detail. The optimized design widens the use range of parallel beam-splitting prism. At the wavelength of 632.8 nm, the law that the enlargement ratio changes with the refractive index and the apex angle is verified.
Resistor Array Non-uniformity Test Based on PSF Estimation%基于PSF估计的电阻阵列非均匀性测试
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苏德伦; 廖守亿; 张金生
2015-01-01
电阻阵列的非均匀性是一种固定模式的空间噪声，是影响红外图像质量的主要因素。测试数据的准确性对非均匀性校正效果是至关重要的，全屏测试时辐射能量的扩散是导致测试误差的重要原因。分析了经典图像复原方法的局限性，提出一种新的基于PSF粗估计的迭代测试方法。分析了不同PSF估计误差对新方法收敛速度和测试精度的影响，评估了不同PSF条件下的测试效果。数值仿真结果表明，新的方法计算量更低，收敛速度更快，且能够适应更宽的平滑因子参数范围。新方法可有效地从退化图像中复原电阻阵列的实际非均匀性图像，取得较好的校正效果。%The non-uniformity of resistor array dynamic infrared scene projector is a kind of fixed pattern spatial noise which makes a great impact on the quality of the output infrared image. The accuracy of the test data is vitally important for the non-uniformity correction. The spread of the radiant energy is a main source of error in flood test. The limitation of classical image restoration method was analyzed. A new iterative test method based on PSF rough estimation was presented. The impact of estimation error on convergence speed and test accuracy was analyzed and the method effect under different PSF condition was evaluated. Numerical simulation indicates that the new method has features of reducing calculation complexity, fast convergence speed and adaptability of more widely range of smooth factors. The new method can effectively restore the degraded image to extract the true non-uniformity image and attain good correction result.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolotnikov, A.E., E-mail: bolotnik@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11793 (United States); Camarda, G.S.; Cui, Y.; De Geronimo, G. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11793 (United States); Eger, J.; Emerick, A. [eV Products Inc., Saxonburg, PA 16056 (United States); Fried, J.; Hossain, A.; Roy, U.; Salwen, C. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11793 (United States); Soldner, S. [eV Products Inc., Saxonburg, PA 16056 (United States); Vernon, E.; Yang, G.; James, R.B. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11793 (United States)
2016-01-01
Following our successful demonstration of the position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, we investigated the feasibility of using high-granularity position sensing to correct response non-uniformities caused by the crystal defects in CdZnTe (CZT) pixelated detectors. The development of high-granularity detectors able to correct response non-uniformities on a scale comparable to the size of electron clouds opens the opportunity of using unselected off-the-shelf CZT material, whilst still assuring high spectral resolution for the majority of the detectors fabricated from an ingot. Here, we present the results from testing 3D position-sensitive 15×15×10 mm{sup 3} pixelated detectors, fabricated with conventional pixel patterns with progressively smaller pixel sizes: 1.4, 0.8, and 0.5 mm. We employed the readout system based on the H3D front-end multi-channel ASIC developed by BNL's Instrumentation Division in collaboration with the University of Michigan. We use the sharing of electron clouds among several adjacent pixels to measure locations of interaction points with sub-pixel resolution. By using the detectors with small-pixel sizes and a high probability of the charge-sharing events, we were able to improve their spectral resolutions in comparison to the baseline levels, measured for the 1.4-mm pixel size detectors with small fractions of charge-sharing events. These results demonstrate that further enhancement of the performance of CZT pixelated detectors and reduction of costs are possible by using high spatial-resolution position information of interaction points to correct the small-scale response non-uniformities caused by crystal defects present in most devices. - Highlights: • We investigated performances of 3D position sensitive CdZnTe pixelated detectors. • We employed the readout electronics based on H3D ASIC and data processing. • We demonstrated the feasibility of correcting response nonuniformities in CdZnTe pixelated detectors.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duan, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); He, S., E-mail: s.he@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Buoyancy may greatly redistribute the flow in a non-uniform channel. • Flow structures in the narrow gap are greatly changed when buoyancy is strong. • Large flow structures exist in wider gap, which is enhanced when heat is strong. • Buoyancy reduces mixing factor caused by large flow structures in narrow gap. - Abstract: It has been a long time since the ‘abnormal’ turbulent intensity distribution and high inter-sub-channel mixing rates were observed in the vicinity of the narrow gaps formed by the fuel rods in nuclear reactors. The extraordinary flow behaviour was first described as periodic flow structures by Hooper and Rehme (1984). Since then, the existences of large flow structures were demonstrated by many researchers in various non-uniform flow channels. It has been proved by many authors that the Strouhal number of the flow structure in the isothermal flow is dependent on the size of the narrow gap, not the Reynolds number once it is sufficiently large. This paper reports a numerical investigation on the effect of buoyancy on the large flow structures. A buoyancy-aided flow in a tightly-packed rod-bundle-like channel is modelled using large eddy simulation (LES) together with the Boussinesq approximation. The behaviour of the large flow structures in the gaps of the flow passage are studied using instantaneous flow fields, spectrum analysis and correlation analysis. It is found that the non-uniform buoyancy force in the cross section of the flow channel may greatly redistribute the velocity field once the overall buoyancy force is sufficiently strong, and consequently modify the large flow structures. The temporal and axial spatial scales of the large flow structures are influenced by buoyancy in a way similar to that turbulence is influenced. These scales reduce when the flow is laminarised, but start increasing in the turbulence regeneration region. The spanwise scale of the flow structures in the narrow gap remains more or
Resultant vertical prism in toric soft contact lenses.
Sulley, Anna; Hawke, Ryan; Lorenz, Kathrine Osborn; Toubouti, Youssef; Olivares, Giovanna
2015-08-01
Rotational stability of toric soft contact lenses (TSCLs) is achieved using a range of designs. Designs utilising prism or peripheral ballast may result in residual prism in the optic zone. This study quantifies the vertical prism in the central 6mm present in TSCLs with various stabilisation methods. Vertical prism was computed using published refractive index and vertical thickness changes in the central optic zone on a full lens thickness map. Thickness maps were measured using scanning transmission microscopy. Designs tested were reusable, silicone hydrogel and hydrogel TSCLs: SofLens(®) Toric, PureVision(®)2 for Astigmatism, PureVision(®) Toric, Biofinity(®) Toric, Avaira(®) Toric, clariti(®) toric, AIR OPTIX(®) for ASTIGMATISM and ACUVUE OASYS(®) for ASTIGMATISM; with eight parameter combinations for each lens (-6.00DS to +3.00DS, -1.25DC, 90° and 180° axes). All TSCL designs evaluated had vertical prism in the optic zone except one which had virtually none (0.01Δ). Mean prism ranged from 0.52Δ to 1.15Δ, with three designs having prism that varied with sphere power. Vertical prism in ACUVUE OASYS(®) for ASTIGMATISM was significantly lower than all other TSCLs tested. TSCL designs utilising prism-ballast and peri-ballast for stabilisation have vertical prism in the central optic zone. In monocular astigmats fitted with a TSCL or those wearing a mix of toric designs, vertical prism imbalance could create or exacerbate disturbances in binocular vision function. Practitioners should be aware of this potential effect when selecting which TSCL designs to prescribe, particularly for monocular astigmats with pre-existing binocular vision anomalies, and when managing complaints of asthenopia in monocular astigmats. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Badin, Gualtiero
2015-01-01
The role of short-wave instabilities on geostrophic turbulence is studied in a simplified model consisting of three layers in the quasi-geostrophic approximation. The linear stability analysis shows that short-wave instabilities are created by the interplay between the shear in the upper and the lower layers. If the stratification is non-uniform, in particular surface intensified, the linear growth rate is larger for short-wave instabilities than for long-wave instabilities and the layers are essentially decoupled, with the small scales growing independently. The fully developed homogeneous turbulence is studied in a number of numerical experiments. Results show that in both the case of equal layer depths and surface intensified stratification an inverse cascade in kinetic energy is observed. The modal kinetic energy spectra for the case with surface intensified stratification show higher energy for higher baroclinic numbers at small scales, due to the decoupling of the layers. As a result, while the case wit...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandeep N
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the influence of radiation and aligned magneticfield on the flow of ferrofluids over a flat plate in presence of non-uniform heat source/sink and slip velocity. We considered Fe3O4 magnetic nano particles embedded within the two types of base fluids namely water and kerosene. The governing partial differential equations are transformed into nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and solved numerically using bvp5c Matlab package. The effects of dimensionless quantities on the flow and temperature profiles along with the friction factor and Nusselt number is discussed and presented through graphs and tables. It is found that present results have an excellent agreement with the existed studies under some special assumptions. Results indicate that a raise in the aligned angle enhances the skin friction coefficient and heat transfer rate.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Sandeep
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the influence of non-uniform heat source/sink, mass transfer and chemical reaction on an unsteady mixed convection boundary layer flow of a magneto-micropolar fluid past a stretching/shrinking sheet in the presence of viscous dissipation and suction/injection. The governing equations of the flow, heat and mass transfer are transformed into system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformation and then solved numerically using Shooting technique with Matlab Package. The influence of non-dimensional governing parameters on velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed and presented with the help of their graphical representations. Also, friction factor, heat and mass transfer rates have been computed and presented through tables. Under some special conditions, present results are compared with the existed results to check the accuracy and validity of the present study. An excellent agreement is observed with the existed results.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. K. Ramesh
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the study of momentum and heat transfer characteristics in a hydromagnetic flow of dusty fluid over an inclined stretching sheet with non-uniform heat source/sink, where the flow is generated due to a linear stretching of the sheet. Using a similarity transformation, the governing equations of the problem are reduced to a coupled third-order nonlinear ordinary differential equations and are solved numerically by Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg fourth-fifth-order method using symbolic software Maple. Our numerical solutions are shown to agree with the available results in the literature and then employ the numerical results to bring out the effects of the fluid-particle interaction parameter, local Grashof number, angle of inclination, heat source/sink parameter, Chandrasekhar number, and the Prandtl number on the flow and heat transfer characteristics. The results have possible technological applications in liquid-based systems involving stretchable materials.
Rashidi, Moslem
2010-01-01
Sampling theories lie at the heart of signal processing devices and communication systems. To accommodate high operating rates while retaining low computational cost, efficient analog-to digital (ADC) converters must be developed. Many of limitations encountered in current converters are due to a traditional assumption that the sampling state needs to acquire the data at the Nyquist rate, corresponding to twice the signal bandwidth. In this thesis a method of sampling far below the Nyquist rate for sparse spectrum multiband signals is investigated. The method is called periodic non-uniform sampling, and it is useful in a variety of applications such as data converters, sensor array imaging and image compression. Firstly, a model for the sampling system in the frequency domain is prepared. It relates the Fourier transform of observed compressed samples with the unknown spectrum of the signal. Next, the reconstruction process based on the topic of compressed sensing is provided. We show that the sampling parame...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R. RAVINDRAN; N. SAMYUKTHA
2015-01-01
The article examines the unsteady mixed convection flow over a vertical stretching sheet in the presence of chemical reaction and heat generation or absorption with non-uniform mass transfer. The unsteadiness is caused by the time dependent free stream velocity varying arbitrarily with time. Non-similar solutions are obtained nu-merically by solving the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations using the quasi-linearization technique in combination with an implicit finite difference scheme. To reveal the tendency of the solutions, typical results for the local skin friction coeﬃcient and the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are presented for different values of parameters. The effects of various parameters on the velocity, temperature, and concentration distributions are discussed here. The present numerical results are compared with the previously pub-lished work, and the results are found to be in excellent agreement.
Mobli, Mehdi; Stern, Alan S.; Bermel, Wolfgang; King, Glenn F.; Hoch, Jeffrey C.
2010-05-01
One of the stiffest challenges in structural studies of proteins using NMR is the assignment of sidechain resonances. Typically, a panel of lengthy 3D experiments are acquired in order to establish connectivities and resolve ambiguities due to overlap. We demonstrate that these experiments can be replaced by a single 4D experiment that is time-efficient, yields excellent resolution, and captures unique carbon-proton connectivity information. The approach is made practical by the use of non-uniform sampling in the three indirect time dimensions and maximum entropy reconstruction of the corresponding 3D frequency spectrum. This 4D method will facilitate automated resonance assignment procedures and it should be particularly beneficial for increasing throughput in NMR-based structural genomics initiatives.
Boyko, Evgeniy; Bercovici, Moran; Gat, Amir
2016-11-01
We analyze flow of a non-Newtonian fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell, subjected to spatially non-uniform electroosmotic flow. We specifically focus on power-law fluids with wall depletion properties and derive a p-Poisson equation governing the pressure field, as well as a set of linearized equations representing its asymptotic approximation for weakly non-Newtonian behavior. To investigate the effect of non-Newtonian properties on the resulting fluidic pressure and velocity, we consider several configurations in one and two dimensions, and calculate both exact and approximate solutions. We show that the asymptotic approximation is in good agreement with exact solutions even for fluids with significant non-Newtonian behavior. The asymptotic model thus enables prediction of the flow and pressure fields for non-Newtonian fluids, and may be particularly useful for the analysis and design of microfluidic systems involving electro-kinetic transport of such fluids.
Boyko, Evgeniy; Gat, Amir D
2016-01-01
We analyze flow of non-Newtonian fluids in a Hele-Shaw cell, subjected to spatially non-uniform electroosmotic slip. Motivated by their potential use for increasing the characteristic pressure fields, we specifically focus on power-law fluids with wall depletion properties. We derive a p-Poisson equation governing the pressure field, as well as a set of linearized equations representing its asymptotic approximation for weakly non-Newtonian behavior. To investigate the effect of non-Newtonian properties on the resulting fluidic pressure and velocity, we consider several configurations in one- and two-dimensions, and calculate both exact and approximate solutions. We show that the asymptotic approximation is in good agreement with exact solutions even for fluids with significant non-Newtonian behavior, allowing its use in the analysis and design of microfluidic systems involving electro-kinetic transport of such fluids.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A.K. Abdul Hakeem
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this present article heat transfer in a Walter’s liquid B fluid over an impermeable stretching sheet with non-uniform heat source/sink, elastic deformation and radiation are reported. The basic boundary layer equations for momentum and heat transfer, which are non-linear partial differential equations, are converted into non-linear ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. The dimensionless governing equations for this investigation are solved analytically using hyper geometric functions. The results are carried out for prescribed surface temperature (PST and prescribed power law surface heat flux (PHF. The effects of viscous dissipation, Prandtl number, Eckert number, heat source/sink parameter with elastic deformation and radiation are shown in the several plots and addressed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tasawar Hayat
Full Text Available This study investigates the unsteady flow of Powell-Eyring fluid past an inclined stretching sheet. Unsteadiness in the flow is due to the time-dependence of the stretching velocity and wall temperature. Mathematical analysis is performed in the presence of thermal radiation and non-uniform heat source/sink. The relevant boundary layer equations are reduced into self-similar forms by suitable transformations. The analytic solutions are constructed in a series form by homotopy analysis method (HAM. The convergence interval of the auxiliary parameter is obtained. Graphical results displaying the influence of interesting parameters are given. Numerical values of skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed.
Non-uniform oxygen diffusion in epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-δ film on SrTiO3 substrate
Nikolaenko, Yu M.; Artemov, A. N.; Medvedev, Yu V.; Efros, N. B.; Zhikharev, I. V.; Reshidova, I. Yu; Tikhii, A. A.; Kara-Murza, S. V.
2016-09-01
The diffusion mechanism of oxygen transport in the epitaxial La0.7Sr0.3MnO3-δ films was examined for different practically significant conditions of annealing. An indirect method based on the interrelation between the phase transition temperature and the oxygen index was used for stepwise monitoring of the oxygen content in the film. Using a serial procedure of film annealing at different temperatures, we have revealed the abnormal behavior of diffusion transport of oxygen. The analysis of experimental data using numerical simulations demonstrates non-uniformity of the diffusion coefficient across the film thickness. The nature of the spatial dependence of the diffusion coefficient is associated with the lattice distortions of the film material.
Haiming, Gu; Liyang, Pan; Peng, Zhu; Dong, Wu; Zhigang, Zhang; Jun, Xu
2010-10-01
In order to overcome the bit-to-bit interference of the traditional multi-level NAND type device, this paper firstly proposes a novel multi-bit non-uniform channel charge trapping memory (NUC-CTM) device with virtual-source NAND-type array architecture, which can effectively restrain the second-bit effect (SBE) and provide 3-bit per cell capability. Owing to the n- buffer region, the SBE induced threshold voltage window shift can be reduced to less than 400 mV and the minimum threshold voltage window between neighboring levels is larger than 750 mV for reliable 3-bit operation. A silicon-rich SiON is also investigated as a trapping layer to improve the retention reliability of the NUC-CTM.
Poinapen, Danny; Brown, Daniel C W; Beeharry, Girish K
2013-09-15
Different factors (e.g., light, humidity, and temperature) including exposure to static magnetic fields (SMFs), referred here as critical factors, can significantly affect horticultural seed performance. However, the link between magnetic field parameters and other interdependent factors affecting seed viability is unclear. The importance of these critical factors affecting tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) var. MST/32 seed performance was assessed after performing several treatments based on a L9 (3(4)) (four factors at three levels) orthogonal array (OA) design. The variable factors in the design were magnetic flux density (R1=332.1±37.8mT; R2=108.7±26.9mT; and R3=50.6±10.5mT), exposure time (1, 2, and 24h), seed orientation (North polarity, South polarity, and control - no magnetic field), and relative humidity (RH) (7.0, 25.5, and 75.5%). After seed moisture content stabilisation at the different chosen RH, seeds were exposed in dark under laboratory conditions to several treatments based on the OA design before performance evaluation. Treatments not employing magnetic field exposure were used as controls. Results indicate that electrolyte leakage rate was reduced by a factor of 1.62 times during seed imbibition when non-uniform SMFs were employed. Higher germination (∼11.0%) was observed in magnetically-exposed seeds than in non-exposed ones, although seedlings emerging from SMF treatments did not show a consistent increase in biomass accumulation. The respective influence of the four critical factors tested on seed performance was ranked (in decreasing order) as seed orientation to external magnetic fields, magnetic field strength, RH, and exposure time. This study suggests a significant effect of non-uniform SMFs on seed performance with respect to RH, and more pronounced effects are observed during seed imbibition rather than during later developmental stages.
Rana, Vijay; Gill, Kamaljit; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.
2012-03-01
The current version of the real-time skin-dose-tracking system (DTS) we have developed assumes the exposure is contained within the collimated beam and is uniform except for inverse-square variation. This study investigates the significance of factors that contribute to beam non-uniformity such as the heel effect and backscatter from the patient to areas of the skin inside and outside the collimated beam. Dose-calibrated Gafchromic film (XR-RV3, ISP) was placed in the beam in the plane of the patient table at a position 15 cm tube-side of isocenter on a Toshiba Infinix C-Arm system. Separate exposures were made with the film in contact with a block of 20-cm solid water providing backscatter and with the film suspended in air without backscatter, both with and without the table in the beam. The film was scanned to obtain dose profiles and comparison of the profiles for the various conditions allowed a determination of field non-uniformity and backscatter contribution. With the solid-water phantom and with the collimator opened completely for the 20-cm mode, the dose profile decreased by about 40% on the anode side of the field. Backscatter falloff at the beam edge was about 10% from the center and extra-beam backscatter decreased slowly with distance from the field, being about 3% of the beam maximum at 6 cm from the edge. Determination of the magnitude of these factors will allow them to be included in the skin-dose-distribution calculation and should provide a more accurate determination of peak-skin dose for the DTS.
Improved Kalman Filtering Algorithm in Non-Uniformity Correction%改进的卡尔曼滤波非均匀性校正算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李晶; 朱斌; 郭立新; 龙波; 王小珂
2012-01-01
针对基于卡尔曼滤波(Kalman filtering,KF)的红外焦平面非均匀性校正算法的计算量和存储量较大,不利于实时性校正的缺点,提出一种改进的卡尔曼滤波非均匀性校正算法.该算法通过线性递归滤波器修正了观测方程,用每一帧块图像的统计均值来代替卡尔曼滤波校正算法中的观测矩阵,使增益矩阵得到简化.Matlab仿真实验结果证明:该算法的校正效果与传统的卡尔曼滤波校正算法相当,但大大减少了计算量和存储空间.%Aiming at the big computational complexity and memory requirement of infrared focal plane non-uniformity correction algorithm based on Kalman filtering, it cannot realize real-time correction shortage, an improved Kalman filtering non-uniformity correction algorithm is given. The proposed algorithm modified the observation model by applying linear recursion filter that the observation was instead of the mean value of every block image, then the matrix will be simplified. The simulation of Matlab proves that the computational complexity and memory requirements are significantly reduced, while the correction result is similar.
Modeling laser brightness from cross porro prism resonators
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Forbes, A
2006-07-01
Full Text Available . In this study a cross Porro prism resonator is considered; crossed Porro prism resonators have been known for some time, but until recently have not been modeled as a complete physical optics system that allows the modal output to be determined as a function...
Electric Field Enhancement of Nano Gap of Silver Prisms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
KENZO Yamaguchi; TOMOHIRO Inoue; MASAMITSU Fujii; MASANOBU Haraguchi; TOSHIHIRO Okamoto; MASUO Fukui; SHU Seki; SEIICHI Tagawa
2007-01-01
Using numerical calculation, we examine the effects of gap distance of a pair of nano gap silver prisms with rounded corners on the local light intensity enhancement. Two peaks due to localized surface plasmon (LSP) excitation are observed in a wavelength range from 900nm to 300nm. The results demonstrate that peaks at a longer and a shorter wavelength corresponded to dipole-like and quadrupole-like LSP resonances, respectively. It is found that a gap distance up to 20nm provides larger light intensity enhancement than that of a single silver nano prism with rounded corners. Furthermore, nano gap silver prisms are fabricated by direct focused ion beam processing, and we measure the scattering light spectrum of a pair of nano prisms by a confocal optical system.However, the two LSP peaks are not observed in visible range because the sizes of the nano gap and prisms are too large.
Experimental Investigation of a Rectangular Airlift Pump
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. I. Esen
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Hydraulic performance of an airlift pump having a rectangular cross-section 20 mm × 80 mm was investigated through an experimental program. The pump was operated at six different submergence ratios and the liquid flow rate was measured at various flowrates of air injected. The effectiveness of the pump, defined as the ratio of the mass of liquid pumped to the mass of air injected, was determined as a function of the mass of air injected for different submergence ratios. Results obtained were compared with those for circular airlift pumps using an analytical model for circular pumps. Effectiveness of the rectangular airlift pump was observed to be comparable to that of the circular pumps. Hydraulic performance of the rectangular airlift pump investigated was then described by a set of semilogarithmic empirical equations.
Topology optimization design of space rectangular mirror
Qu, Yanjun; Wang, Wei; Liu, Bei; Li, Xupeng
2016-10-01
A conceptual lightweight rectangular mirror is designed based on the theory of topology optimization and the specific structure size is determined through sensitivity analysis and size optimization in this paper. Under the load condition of gravity along the optical axis, compared with the mirrors designed by traditional method using finite element analysis method, the performance of the topology optimization reflectors supported by peripheral six points are superior in lightweight ratio, structure stiffness and the reflective surface accuracy. This suggests that the lightweight method in this paper is effective and has potential value for the design of rectangular reflector.
Rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CUI; Licheng; (崔立成); YANG; Hongsheng; (杨鸿生)
2003-01-01
Mode matching method is used to analyze the scattering characteristics of the rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction. Firstly, the scattering matrix equation is obtained by matching the electromagnetic fields at the boundary of the junction. The scattering coefficients can be obtained from the equation. Secondly the scattering characteristics of the iris with rectangular window positioned in circular groove waveguide are briefly analyzed. Thirdly, the convergent problem is discussed and the numerical results are given. At last experiment is made and good agreement is found between the calculated results and the measured results.
Electrochemical apparatus comprising modified disposable rectangular cuvette
Dattelbaum, Andrew M; Gupta, Gautam; Morris, David E
2013-09-10
Electrochemical apparatus includes a disposable rectangular cuvette modified with at least one hole through a side and/or the bottom. Apparatus may include more than one cuvette, which in practice is a disposable rectangular glass or plastic cuvette modified by drilling the hole(s) through. The apparatus include two plates and some means of fastening one plate to the other. The apparatus may be interfaced with a fiber optic or microscope objective, and a spectrometer for spectroscopic studies. The apparatus are suitable for a variety of electrochemical experiments, including surface electrochemistry, bulk electrolysis, and flow cell experiments.
Lossy-Transmission-Line Analysis of Frequency Reconfigurable Rectangular-Ring Microstrip Antenna
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bambang Setia Nugroho
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An analytical model for a frequency reconfigurable rectangular-ring microstrip antenna is proposed. The resonant frequencies and input impedance of the reconfigurable antenna are analyzed using a lossy-transmission-line (LTL model. By making use of Y-admittance matrices, a formulation for the input impedance is analytically derived. The structure of the frequency reconfigurable antenna consists of a rectangular-ring shaped microstrip antenna which is loaded with a rectangular patch in the middle of the rectangular-ring antenna and fed by a microstrip line. RF switches are applied to connect the load to the antenna in order to reconfigure the operating frequencies. By modeling the antenna into a multiport equivalent circuit, the total input impedance is analytically derived to predict the resonant frequencies. To verify the analysis, the model input impedance and reflection coefficient calculation have been compared with the full-wave simulation and measurement results. The proposed model shows good agreement with full-wave simulated and measured results in the range of 1–3 GHz.
Prisms and neglect: what have we learned?
Newport, Roger; Schenk, Thomas
2012-05-01
Since Rossetti et al. (1998) reported that prism adaptation (PA) can lead to a substantial reduction of neglect symptoms PA has become a hot topic in neglect-research. More than 280 articles have been published in this area. Not all of those studies investigated the therapeutic potential of this technique, many studies examined the responsiveness to PA as a way to subdivide neglect into separate subsyndromes, other studies focussed on the process of PA itself in an effort to illuminate its underlying neurobiological mechanisms. In this article we will review research in all of these three areas to determine whether and to what extent research on PA in neglect patients has fulfilled its promise as a new way to improve the treatment of neglect, enhance our understanding of this complex syndrome and provide new insights into the neurobiology of sensorimotor learning.
Active stereo vision routines using PRISM-3
Antonisse, Hendrick J.
1992-11-01
This paper describes work in progress on a set of visual routines and supporting capabilities implemented on the PRISM-3 real-time vision system. The routines are used in an outdoor robot retrieval task. The task requires the robot to locate a donor agent -- a Hero2000 -- which holds the object to be retrieved, to navigate to the donor, to accept the object from the donor, and return to its original location. The routines described here will form an integral part of the navigation and wide-area search tasks. Active perception is exploited to locate the donor using real-time stereo ranging directed by a pan/tilt/verge mechanism. A framework for orchestrating visual search has been implemented and is briefly described.
一种光照不均匀图像的二值化方法%BINARISATION METHOD FOR IMAGES ACQUIRED UNDER NON-UNIFORM ILLUMINATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郭佳; 刘晓玉; 吴冰; 付晓薇
2014-01-01
In image processing and analysing,binarisation method can be used to extract the features or targets from images for identification.But in actual shooting images,it is difficult to determine the binarisation threshold due to the non-uniform illumination on the image.To solve the binarisation problem of a class of non-uniform illumination,we propose a binarisation method which is based on single-column processing and improved OSTU.By analysing the distribution character of non-uniform illumination in such class of images,the scheme of single-column binarisation processing is firstly applied,while eliminating the step of specialised illumination uniformity processing, the losing information problem caused by the unified threshold binarisation method is overcome.During column by column binarisation processing,classical OSTU method is firstly used to obtain initial binarisation threshold values of each column of the image,then according to the illumination intensity of each column,the adaptive fine-tune value of the binarisation threshold of this column is calculated,thus we implement the optimisation on initial binarisation threshold.The method has been proved to be effective by the image processing results of a group of defective billet images.%在图像处理与分析中，二值化方法能把特征或目标从图像中分割出来，以便识别。在实际拍摄的图像中，图像光照不均匀使得图像二值化阈值确定困难。针对一类光照不均匀图像的二值化问题，提出一种单列处理及改进 OSTU 的二值化方法，通过分析该类图像上不均匀光照的分布特点，首先应用单列二值化处理方案，在省去专门光照均匀化处理步骤的同时，解决统一阈值二值化方法所造成的信息丢失问题。在逐列二值化处理过程中，首先采用传统 OSTU 方法获取图像各列的初始二值化阈值，然后根据各列的光照强度计算出该列二值化阈值的自适应微调量，