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Sample records for non-traumatic olfactory stimuli

  1. Women with a history of childhood maltreatment exhibit more activation in association areas following non-traumatic olfactory stimuli: a fMRI study.

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    Ilona Croy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigating how women with a history of childhood maltreatment (CM process non-threatening and non-trauma related olfactory stimuli. The focus on olfactory perception is based on the overlap of brain areas often proposed to be affected in CM patients and the projection areas of the olfactory system, including the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, insula and hippocampus.Twelve women with CM and 10 controls participated in the study. All participants were, or have been, patients in a psychosomatic clinic. Participants underwent a fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with a neutral (coffee and a pleasant (peach odor. Furthermore, odor threshold and odor identification (Sniffin' Sticks were tested.Both groups showed normal activation in the olfactory projection areas. However, in the CM-group we found additionally enhanced activation in multiple, mainly neocortical, areas that are part of those involved in associative networks. These include the precentral frontal lobe, inferior and middle frontal structures, posterior parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and the posterior cingulate cortex.The results indicate that in this group of patients, CM was associated with an altered processing of olfactory stimuli, but not development of a functional olfactory deficit. This complements other studies on CM insofar as we found the observed pattern of enhanced activation in associative and emotional regions even following non-traumatic olfactory cues.

  2. Teaching children with autism spectrum disorder to tact olfactory stimuli.

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    Dass, Tina K; Kisamore, April N; Vladescu, Jason C; Reeve, Kenneth F; Reeve, Sharon A; Taylor-Santa, Catherine

    2018-05-28

    Research on tact acquisition by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has often focused on teaching participants to tact visual stimuli. It is important to evaluate procedures for teaching tacts of nonvisual stimuli (e.g., olfactory, tactile). The purpose of the current study was to extend the literature on secondary target instruction and tact training by evaluating the effects of a discrete-trial instruction procedure involving (a) echoic prompts, a constant prompt delay, and error correction for primary targets; (b) inclusion of secondary target stimuli in the consequent portion of learning trials; and (c) multiple exemplar training on the acquisition of item tacts of olfactory stimuli, emergence of category tacts of olfactory stimuli, generalization of category tacts, and emergence of category matching, with three children diagnosed with ASD. Results showed that all participants learned the item and category tacts following teaching, participants demonstrated generalization across category tacts, and category matching emerged for all participants. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  3. Olfactory stimuli as context cues in human memory.

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    Cann, A; Ross, D A

    1989-01-01

    Olfactory stimuli were used as context cues in a recognition memory paradigm. Male college students were exposed to 50 slides of the faces of college females while in the presence of a pleasant or an unpleasant odor. During the acquisition phase, ratings of physical attractiveness of the slides were collected. After a 48-hr delay, a recognition test was given using the original 50 slides and 50 new slides. The recognition test was conducted with either the original odor or the alternative odor present. A no-odor control group did not receive olfactory cues. The attractiveness ratings indicated that the odor variations had no effect on these social judgments. Analyses of d' scores, hits, and false alarms for the recognition performance indicated support for the predicted interaction in which presence of the same odor at both sessions led to better overall performance.

  4. The Feasibility of Gelatin-Based Retronasal Stimuli to Assess Olfactory Perception

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    Daniel Shepherd

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Links between some psychological disorders and olfactory deficits are well documented, and screening tests have been developed to exploit these associations. Odors can take one of two routes to the olfactory receptors in the nasal epithelium, the orthonasal or retronasal route. This article discusses the potential use of the retronasal route to assess olfaction using gelatin-based stimuli delivered orally. Using a relatively new psychophysical method, the Single-Interval Adjustment Matrix task, we estimated vanillin thresholds for five healthy participants sampling small vanillin flavored gels. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of using solid-state gustatory stimuli to assess retronasal perception.

  5. Consequences of a human TRPA1 genetic variant on the perception of nociceptive and olfactory stimuli.

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    Michael Schütz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: TRPA1 ion channels are involved in nociception and are also excited by pungent odorous substances. Based on reported associations of TRPA1 genetics with increased sensitivity to thermal pain stimuli, we therefore hypothesized that this association also exists for increased olfactory sensitivity. METHODS: Olfactory function and nociception was compared between carriers (n = 38 and non-carriers (n = 43 of TRPA1 variant rs11988795 G>A, a variant known to enhance cold pain perception. Olfactory function was quantified by assessing the odor threshold, odor discrimination and odor identification, and by applying 200-ms pulses of H2S intranasal. Nociception was assessed by measuring pain thresholds to experimental nociceptive stimuli (blunt pressure, electrical stimuli, cold and heat stimuli, and 200-ms intranasal pulses of CO2. RESULTS: Among the 11 subjects with moderate hyposmia, carriers of the minor A allele (n = 2 were underrepresented (34 carriers among the 70 normosmic subjects; p = 0.049. Moreover, carriers of the A allele discriminated odors significantly better than non-carriers (13.1±1.5 versus 12.3±1.6 correct discriminations and indicated a higher intensity of the H2S stimuli (29.2±13.2 versus 21±12.8 mm VAS, p = 0.006, which, however, could not be excluded to have involved a trigeminal component during stimulation. Finally, the increased sensitivity to thermal pain could be reproduced. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are in line with a previous association of a human TRPA1 variant with nociceptive parameters and extend the association to the perception of odorants. However, this addresses mainly those stimulants that involve a trigeminal component whereas a pure olfactory effect may remain disputable. Nevertheless, findings suggest that future TRPA1 modulating drugs may modify the perception of odorants.

  6. Projections from the posterolateral olfactory amygdala to the ventral striatum: neural basis for reinforcing properties of chemical stimuli

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    Lanuza Enrique

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vertebrates sense chemical stimuli through the olfactory receptor neurons whose axons project to the main olfactory bulb. The main projections of the olfactory bulb are directed to the olfactory cortex and olfactory amygdala (the anterior and posterolateral cortical amygdalae. The posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus mainly projects to other amygdaloid nuclei; other seemingly minor outputs are directed to the ventral striatum, in particular to the olfactory tubercle and the islands of Calleja. Results Although the olfactory projections have been previously described in the literature, injection of dextran-amines into the rat main olfactory bulb was performed with the aim of delimiting the olfactory tubercle and posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus in our own material. Injection of dextran-amines into the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus of rats resulted in anterograde labeling in the ventral striatum, in particular in the core of the nucleus accumbens, and in the medial olfactory tubercle including some islands of Calleja and the cell bridges across the ventral pallidum. Injections of Fluoro-Gold into the ventral striatum were performed to allow retrograde confirmation of these projections. Conclusion The present results extend previous descriptions of the posterolateral cortical amygdaloid nucleus efferent projections, which are mainly directed to the core of the nucleus accumbens and the medial olfactory tubercle. Our data indicate that the projection to the core of the nucleus accumbens arises from layer III; the projection to the olfactory tubercle arises from layer II and is much more robust than previously thought. This latter projection is directed to the medial olfactory tubercle including the corresponding islands of Calleja, an area recently described as critical node for the neural circuit of addiction to some stimulant drugs of abuse.

  7. Olfactory cues are subordinate to visual stimuli in a neotropical generalist weevil.

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    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects.

  8. Extracting Behaviorally Relevant Traits from Natural Stimuli: Benefits of Combinatorial Representations at the Accessory Olfactory Bulb.

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    Anat Kahan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For many animals, chemosensation is essential for guiding social behavior. However, because multiple factors can modulate levels of individual chemical cues, deriving information about other individuals via natural chemical stimuli involves considerable challenges. How social information is extracted despite these sources of variability is poorly understood. The vomeronasal system provides an excellent opportunity to study this topic due to its role in detecting socially relevant traits. Here, we focus on two such traits: a female mouse's strain and reproductive state. In particular, we measure stimulus-induced neuronal activity in the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB in response to various dilutions of urine, vaginal secretions, and saliva, from estrus and non-estrus female mice from two different strains. We first show that all tested secretions provide information about a female's receptivity and genotype. Next, we investigate how these traits can be decoded from neuronal activity despite multiple sources of variability. We show that individual neurons are limited in their capacity to allow trait classification across multiple sources of variability. However, simple linear classifiers sampling neuronal activity from small neuronal ensembles can provide a substantial improvement over that attained with individual units. Furthermore, we show that some traits are more efficiently detected than others, and that particular secretions may be optimized for conveying information about specific traits. Across all tested stimulus sources, discrimination between strains is more accurate than discrimination of receptivity, and detection of receptivity is more accurate with vaginal secretions than with urine. Our findings highlight the challenges of chemosensory processing of natural stimuli, and suggest that downstream readout stages decode multiple behaviorally relevant traits by sampling information from distinct but overlapping populations of AOB neurons.

  9. Selective attention to affective value alters how the brain processes olfactory stimuli.

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    Rolls, Edmund T; Grabenhorst, Fabian; Margot, Christian; da Silva, Maria A A P; Velazco, Maria Ines

    2008-10-01

    How does selective attention to affect influence sensory processing? In a functional magnetic resonance imaging investigation, when subjects were instructed to remember and rate the pleasantness of a jasmine odor, activations were greater in the medial orbito-frontal and pregenual cingulate cortex than when subjects were instructed to remember and rate the intensity of the odor. When the subjects were instructed to remember and rate the intensity, activations were greater in the inferior frontal gyrus. These top-down effects occurred not only during odor delivery but started in a preparation period after the instruction before odor delivery, and continued after termination of the odor in a short-term memory period. Thus, depending on the context in which odors are presented and whether affect is relevant, the brain prepares itself, responds to, and remembers an odor differently. These findings show that when attention is paid to affective value, the brain systems engaged to prepare for, represent, and remember a sensory stimulus are different from those engaged when attention is directed to the physical properties of a stimulus such as its intensity. This differential biasing of brain regions engaged in processing a sensory stimulus depending on whether the cognitive demand is for affect-related versus more sensory-related processing may be an important aspect of cognition and attention. This has many implications for understanding the effects not only of olfactory but also of other sensory stimuli.

  10. The sensory channel of presentation alters subjective ratings and autonomic responses towards disgusting stimuli -Blood pressure, heart rate and skin conductance in response to visual, auditory, haptic and olfactory presented disgusting stimuli-

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    Ilona eCroy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Disgust causes specific reaction patterns, observable in mimic responses and body reactions. Most research on disgust deals with visual stimuli. However, pictures may cause another disgust experience than sounds, odors or tactile stimuli. Therefore disgust experience evoked by four different sensory channels was compared.A total of 119 participants received 3 different disgusting and one control stimulus, each presented through the visual, auditory, tactile and olfactory channel. Ratings of evoked disgust as well as responses of the autonomic nervous system (heart rate, skin conductance level, systolic blood pressure were recorded and the effect of stimulus labeling and of repeated presentation was analyzed. Ratings suggested that disgust could be evoked through all senses; they were highest for visual stimuli. However, autonomic reaction towards disgusting stimuli differed according to the channel of presentation. In contrast to the other, olfactory disgust stimuli provoked a strong decrease of systolic blood pressure. Additionally, labeling enhanced disgust ratings and autonomic reaction for olfactory and tactile, but not for visual and auditory stimuli. Repeated presentation indicated that participant’s disgust rating diminishes to all but olfactory disgust stimuli. Taken together we argue that the sensory channel through which a disgust reaction is evoked matters.

  11. Flexible responses to visual and olfactory stimuli by foraging Manduca sexta: larval nutrition affects adult behaviour.

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    Goyret, Joaquín; Kelber, Almut; Pfaff, Michael; Raguso, Robert A

    2009-08-07

    Here, we show that the consequences of deficient micronutrient (beta-carotene) intake during larval stages of Manduca sexta are carried across metamorphosis, affecting adult behaviour. Our manipulation of larval diet allowed us to examine how developmental plasticity impacts the interplay between visual and olfactory inputs on adult foraging behaviour. Larvae of M. sexta were reared on natural (Nicotiana tabacum) and artificial laboratory diets containing different concentrations of beta-carotene (standard diet, low beta-carotene, high beta-carotene and cornmeal). This vitamin-A precursor has been shown to be crucial for photoreception sensitivity in the retina of M. sexta. After completing development, post-metamorphosis, starved adults were presented with artificial feeders that could be either scented or unscented. Regardless of their larval diet, adult moths fed with relatively high probabilities on scented feeders. When feeders were unscented, moths reared on tobacco were more responsive than moths reared on beta-carotene-deficient artificial diets. Strikingly, moths reared on artificial diets supplemented with increasing amounts of beta-carotene (low beta and high beta) showed increasing probabilities of response to scentless feeders. We discuss these results in relationship to the use of complex, multi-modal sensory information by foraging animals.

  12. Case of bilateral non-traumatic subperiosteal orbital haematomas

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    Lee, Daniel K.; Tran, Phillip V.; Lau, Kenneth K.

    2013-01-01

    Subperiosteal orbital haematoma is an uncommon entity, usually unilateral and caused by trauma. We present a unique case of bilateral non-traumatic subperiosteal orbital haematomas caused by thrombolysis and anticoagulation.

  13. Acute Renal Failure due to Non-Traumatic Rhabdomyolysis

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    Nagehan Aslan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyolysis is a musculoskeletal clinical and biochemical syndrome which is seen associated with traumatic and non-traumatic causes and is known as muscular dystrophy. Rhabdomyolysis which develops following crush-type trauma (Crush syndrome is rarely seen but is a well-known clinical event in the etiology of acute renal failure. Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis is rare. The case is here presented of a patient who was diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis on presentation with acute renal failure and to whom repeated dialysis was applied.

  14. Imaging of acquired non-traumatic cochlear lesions: iconographic essay

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    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Gonzaga, Juliana Gontijo

    2006-01-01

    Different non-traumatic acquired cochlear lesions are shown in this article with imaging methods. They may be responsible for neuro sensorial hearing loss or vertigo. The method of choice is computed tomography when evaluating the osseous labyrinth whereas magnetic resonance imaging has superior resolution in the studies of the membranaceous labyrinth. (author)

  15. Non-traumatic spinal cord compression at Parirenyatwa Hospital in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compression of the spinal cord by encroachment on its space is of major importance as a cause of injury to its tissues, with serious neurological consequences. Patients with non-traumatic spinal cord compression represent a significant proportion of paraplegic/paretic individuals attended to in the neurosurgical units in ...

  16. Non Traumatic Intracranial Infections at the University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Non traumatic intracranial infections are a well recognized disease process encountered in neurosurgery and otolaryngology practices. In this case series study, we analyze the patients that presented with this condition to the neurosurgical unit of the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods: ...

  17. Non-traumatic injury profile of amateur cyclists

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in respondents who experienced neck, back, hand/wrist, buttock/perineum and foot/ankle problems. Conclusion. Non-traumatic injuries in amateur cyclists are common, with back, hand/wrist and buttock/perineal symptoms the most frequent problems. Knee problems caused the greatest need to stop training and seek ...

  18. NON-TRAUMATIC COMA- INCIDENCE, AETIOLOGY AND OUTCOME

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    Mallikarjun R. Patil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Acute non-traumatic coma is one of the most common paediatric emergencies, which arouses much anxiety and apprehension in both parents and physicians. Due to heterogeneity of causes in these patients, prediction of outcome is difficult and unfortunately no single clinical, laboratory or electrophysiological parameters singly predict their outcome. Aetiology of nontraumatic coma varies depending on different geographical area. We have attempted to find the incidence, aetiology and outcome and delineate neurological signs to predict the prognosis in this study. The aim of this study is to study the incidence, aetiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS 100 consecutive cases of non-traumatic coma between 5months and 15 years of age were selected for the study. Clinical signs and findings were recorded at admission (‘0’ Hr and after ‘48’ Hrs. of hospital stay. Aetiology of coma is determined on the basis of clinical history, examination and relevant laboratory investigations by the treating physician. These children were followed up till the death in the hospital or discharged from the hospital. Discharged patients were asked for followup after 4 weeks. During this period, all of them were evaluated by formal neurological examination and for special sensory involvement. The neurological outcomes were categorised into 6 groups (I-VI based on the severity of neurological involvement. Chisquare test was applied to determine the predictors of outcome. RESULTS 1. The incidence of non-traumatic coma in our hospital based study was 8.02% of all paediatric admissions and 21.64% of all PICU admissions. 2. CNS infections contributed the majority (58% of cases. (Dengue encephalitis-28%, viral encephalitis-12%, TB meningitis-8%, pyogenic meningitis- 6%, Shigella encephalopathy-3% and cerebral malaria-1%. 3. Other non-infectious aetiologies were toxic and metabolic group- 21%, post status epilepticus- 9

  19. Non-traumatic Thickening of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament

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    Oh, Hyun Jun; Park, Jin Gyoon; Song, Sang Gook [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of non-traumatic thickening of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to evaluate the associated lesions. Between January 2003 and August 2005, 44 knees of 44 patients who had thickened ACLs on MR images and had no history of knee trauma were analyzed retrospectively. The normal thickness of the ACL was measured on axial T2-weighted images of 40 healthy adult knees. The MR imaging findings of the thickened ACLs and associated lesions were analyzed. In 40 cases of healthy knees, the thickness of the proximal ACL was 3-6 mm. In 44 cases of non-traumatic thickening of the ACL, the thickness of the proximal ACL was 8-14 mm. There was an increased signal intensity and ill-defined border in all cases of thickened ACLs, linear low-signal intensity fibers parallel to the long axis of the thickened ACL (celery stalk appearance) in 24 cases, and entrapment in 10 cases. With respect to associated lesions, there was osteoarthritis in 40 cases, meniscal tears in 42 cases, and degeneration of the posterior cruciate ligament in 7 cases. Non-traumatic thickening of the ACL was associated with osteoarthritis and meniscal tears in almost all cases and showed increased signal intensity and ill-defined borders simulating acute ligamentous tears

  20. Giant non traumatic intradiploic arachnoid cyst in a young male

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    Sharma, Rajesh [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, ASCOMS Hospital, Sidhra, Jammu (India); Gupta, Puneet; Mahajan, Manik, E-mail: puneetgupta619@yahoo.com [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi (India); Sharma, Poonam [Department of Pathology, GMC, Jammu (India); Gupta, Anchal; Khurana, Arti [Department of Radiodiagnosis and Imaging, GMC, Jammu (J and K) (India)

    2016-09-15

    Intradiploic arachnoid cysts have scarcely been reported in the literature, most reported cases being secondary to trauma. Non traumatic arachnoid cysts are quite rare and have been reported mostly in adults. Here, we report the case of a 16-year-old male presenting with a slowly growing mass in the occipital region and intermittent headaches. On the basis of the findings of X-rays, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head, the mass was diagnosed as a giant intradiploic arachnoid cyst. Keywords: Arachnoid cysts; Cerebrospinal fluid; Headache/diagnosis. (author)

  1. Non-traumatic spinal extradural haematoma: magnetic resonance findings

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    Law, E.M.; Smith, P.J.; Fitt, G.; Hennessy, O.F. [St. Vincent`s Hospital, Fitzroy, VIC (Australia). University of Melbourne, Department of Medical Imaging

    1999-05-01

    Non-traumatic extradural spinal haematoma is an uncommon condition that is usually associated with a poor outcome. It may present acutely with signs and symptoms of major neurological dysfunction secondary to cord compression, or subacutely over a number of days or weeks with fluctuating symptoms. The exact aetiology of this condition is incompletely understood, but it is believed that the blood is venous in origin, as distinct from the arterial origin of intracranial extradural haematomas. Causes of non-traumatic extradural spinal haematoma include anticoagulation, vasculitis such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and spinal arteriovenous malformations. Conditions that may mimic an acute spinal haematoma include extradural abscess and extradural metastatic infiltration. It is important to make a diagnosis of extradural compression because surgery may offer the best hope in restoring neurological function in these patients. Imaging modalities used for the investigation of extradural haematomas include myelography, CT myelography (CTM) and MRI with or without gadolinium enhancement. The MR appearances of acute extradural abscess and extradural tumour can mimic an extradural haematoma. In subacute haematoma, owing to the magnetic properties of blood degradation products, MR is more specific in diagnosing and ageing of the haematoma. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 11 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Olfactory dreams, olfactory interest, and imagery : Relationships to olfactory memory

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    Arshamian, Artin

    2007-01-01

    Existing evidence for olfactory imagery is mixed and mainly based on reports from hallucinations and volitional imagery. Using a questionnaire, Stevenson and Case (2005) showed that olfactory dreams provided a good source for olfactory imagery studies. This study applied an extended version of the same questionnaire and examined olfactory dreams and their relation to real-life experienced odors, volitional imagery, and olfactory interest. Results showed that olfactory dreams were similar to r...

  3. Induction of associative olfactory memory by targeted activation of single olfactory neurons in Drosophila larvae.

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    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Yoshida-Kasikawa, Maki; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2014-04-25

    It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by ChR2-mediated optical activation of a specific class of olfactory neurons. We show that targeted activation of the olfactory receptor and the octopaminergic neurons is indeed sufficient for the formation of associative olfactory memory in the larval brain. We also show that targeted stimulation of only a single type of olfactory receptor neurons is sufficient to induce olfactory memory that is indistinguishable from natural memory induced by the activation of multiple olfactory receptor neurons.

  4. PRESENT SCENARIO OF NON TRAUMATIC QUADRIPARESIS IN A TEACHING HOSPITAL

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    Radha Krishnan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS & OBJECTIVES: Patients presenting with acute quadriparesis may pose therapeutic challenge to the treating physician especially the development of bulbar palsy and respiratory paralysis and require intensive monitoring and treatment in acute clinical and respiratory care units. So this study was conducted to know the etiology of cases of non - traumatic Quadriparesis and its outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 50 adult patients admitted in medical and neurology wards with non - traumatic quadriparesis were prospectively studied b etween October ’2012 to September ’2014at Government General Hospital, Kakinada, a teaching hospital with rural referrals. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS: In the study cohort of 50 cases the age of patients ranged from 13 to 80 years with more number of male patients. 29 patients (58% presented with flaccid and 21 cases (42% with spastic quadriparesis. Guillian barre syndrome with 18 (36% cases was the most common cause of quadriparesis followed by Spondylotic myelopathy 11 cases ( 22% and Hypokalemic perio dic paralysis in 8 cases (16%. Transverse Myelitis. Caries spine. Secondaries cervical spine, spinal epidural abscess were in other cases.7 (14% patients had cranial nerve dysfunction. 4(8% patients had facial nerve palsy . CONCLUSION: Guillian barre syn drome constituted the most common cause of nontraumatic quadriparesis, followed by Spondylotic myelopathy, Transverse Myelitis. Caries spine. S econdaries cervical spine, spinal epidural abscess . AIDP and Hypokalemic periodic paralysis were the most frequen t causes of flaccid quadriparesis while Spondylotic myelopathy was the most common cause of spastic quadriparesis . M.R.I was the most useful and appropriate investigation . Severity of paralysis and need for ventilator support were associated with poor prog nosis in patients with acute flaccid quadriparesis . Decompressive surgery in spondylotic myelopathy had good recovery after surgery. Patient recovery was

  5. Olfactory Fear Conditioning Induces Field Potential Potentiation in Rat Olfactory Cortex and Amygdala

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    Messaoudi, Belkacem; Granjon, Lionel; Mouly, Anne-Marie; Sevelinges, Yannick; Gervais, Remi

    2004-01-01

    The widely used Pavlovian fear-conditioning paradigms used for studying the neurobiology of learning and memory have mainly used auditory cues as conditioned stimuli (CS). The present work assessed the neural network involved in olfactory fear conditioning, using olfactory bulb stimulation-induced field potential signal (EFP) as a marker of…

  6. Duration and specificity of olfactory nonassociative memory.

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    Freedman, Kaitlin G; Radhakrishna, Sreya; Escanilla, Olga; Linster, Christiane

    2013-05-01

    Olfactory habituation is a simple form of nonassociative memory in which responsiveness to stable but behaviorally nonsignificant stimuli is decreased. Olfactory habituation has recently become a paradigm widely used to probe the neural substrate underlying olfactory perception and memory. This simple behavioral paradigm has been used successfully used to probe many aspects of olfactory processing, and it has recently become clear that the neural processes underlying olfactory habituation can depend on the task parameters used. We here further investigate memory specificity and duration using 2 variations in task parameters: the number of habituation trials and the time delay between habituation and cross-habituation testing. We find that memory specificity increases with the number of habituation trials but decreases with time after the last habituation trial.

  7. Genetic basis of olfactory cognition: extremely high level of DNA sequence polymorphism in promoter regions of the human olfactory receptor genes revealed using the 1000 Genomes Project dataset.

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    Ignatieva, Elena V; Levitsky, Victor G; Yudin, Nikolay S; Moshkin, Mikhail P; Kolchanov, Nikolay A

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of olfactory cognition is very complicated. Olfactory cognition is initiated by olfactory receptor proteins (odorant receptors), which are activated by olfactory stimuli (ligands). Olfactory receptors are the initial player in the signal transduction cascade producing a nerve impulse, which is transmitted to the brain. The sensitivity to a particular ligand depends on the expression level of multiple proteins involved in the process of olfactory cognition: olfactory receptor proteins, proteins that participate in signal transduction cascade, etc. The expression level of each gene is controlled by its regulatory regions, and especially, by the promoter [a region of DNA about 100-1000 base pairs long located upstream of the transcription start site (TSS)]. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms using human whole-genome data from the 1000 Genomes Project and revealed an extremely high level of single nucleotide polymorphisms in promoter regions of olfactory receptor genes and HLA genes. We hypothesized that the high level of polymorphisms in olfactory receptor promoters was responsible for the diversity in regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of olfactory receptor proteins. Such diversity of regulatory mechanisms may cause the great variability of olfactory cognition of numerous environmental olfactory stimuli perceived by human beings (air pollutants, human body odors, odors in culinary etc.). In turn, this variability may provide a wide range of emotional and behavioral reactions related to the vast variety of olfactory stimuli.

  8. Genetic basis of olfactory cognition: extremely high level of DNA sequence polymorphism in promoter regions of the human olfactory receptor genes revealed using the 1000 Genomes Project dataset

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    Elena V. Ignatieva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of olfactory cognition is very complicated. Olfactory cognition is initiated by olfactory receptor proteins (odorant receptors, which are activated by olfactory stimuli (ligands. Olfactory receptors are the initial player in the signal transduction cascade producing a nerve impulse, which is transmitted to the brain. The sensitivity to a particular ligand depends on the expression level of multiple proteins involved in the process of olfactory cognition: olfactory receptor proteins, proteins that participate in signal transduction cascade, etc. The expression level of each gene is controlled by its regulatory regions, and especially, by the promoter (a region of DNA about 100–1000 base pairs long located upstream of the transcription start site. We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms using human whole-genome data from the 1000 Genomes Project and revealed an extremely high level of single nucleotide polymorphisms in promoter regions of olfactory receptor genes and HLA genes. We hypothesized that the high level of polymorphisms in olfactory receptor promoters was responsible for the diversity in regulatory mechanisms controlling the expression levels of olfactory receptor proteins. Such diversity of regulatory mechanisms may cause the great variability of olfactory cognition of numerous environmental olfactory stimuli perceived by human beings (air pollutants, human body odors, odors in culinary etc.. In turn, this variability may provide a wide range of emotional and behavioral reactions related to the vast variety of olfactory stimuli.

  9. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons

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    Ahuja, Gaurav; Nia, Shahrzad Bozorg; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2014-01-01

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons ar...

  10. Olfactory neuroblastoma

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    Rashid, D.; Ahmed, B.; Malik, S.M.; Khan, M.

    2000-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma/esthesioneuroblastoma in a rare malignant tumour of the olfactory neuroepithelium. This is a report of 5 cases managed over the last 10 years at Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi. Age of the patients at presentation ranged from 27 to 70 years. The main symptoms were unilateral nasal obstruction and intermittent epistaxis. The mean duration of symptoms at presentation was 11 months. Two patients were staged as B and 3 as C at presentation. The stage of the disease correlated with the duration of symptoms. All the cases were diagnosed on histopathology. Three were offered combination of surgery and radiotherapy. One patient received only surgical treatment and one patient received radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Combination of surgery and radiotherapy showed best results. (author)

  11. Olfactory Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenbaum, Howard; Robitsek, R. Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Odor-recognition memory in rodents may provide a valuable model of cognitive aging. In a recent study we used signal detection analyses to distinguish odor recognition based on recollection versus that based on familiarity. Aged rats were selectively impaired in recollection, with relative sparing of familiarity, and the deficits in recollection were correlated with spatial memory impairments. These results complement electro-physiological findings indicating age-associated deficits in the ability of hippocampal neurons to differentiate contextual information, and this information-processing impairment may underlie the common age-associated decline in olfactory and spatial memory. PMID:19686208

  12. Insect olfactory memory in time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Davis, Ronald L

    2006-12-01

    Recent studies using functional optical imaging have revealed that cellular memory traces form in different areas of the insect brain after olfactory classical conditioning. These traces are revealed as increased calcium signals or synaptic release from defined neurons, and include a short-lived trace that forms immediately after conditioning in antennal lobe projection neurons, an early trace in dopaminergic neurons, and a medium-term trace in dorsal paired medial neurons. New molecular genetic tools have revealed that for normal behavioral memory performance, synaptic transmission from the mushroom body neurons is required only during retrieval, whereas synaptic transmission from dopaminergic neurons is required at the time of acquisition and synaptic transmission from dorsal paired medial neurons is required during the consolidation period. Such experimental results are helping to identify the types of neurons that participate in olfactory learning and when their participation is required. Olfactory learning often occurs alongside crossmodal interactions of sensory information from other modalities. Recent studies have revealed complex interactions between the olfactory and the visual senses that can occur during olfactory learning, including the facilitation of learning about subthreshold olfactory stimuli due to training with concurrent visual stimuli.

  13. Assessment of Olfactory Memory in Olfactory Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollndorfer, Kathrin; Reichert, Johanna; Braunsteiner, Josephine; Schöpf, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    To assess all clinically relevant components of olfactory perception, examinations for olfactory sensitivity, discrimination, and identification are performed. Besides the standard perceptual test battery, episodic olfactory memory might offer additional information about olfactory abilities relative to these standard clinical tests. As both olfactory deficits and memory deficits are early symptoms in neurodegenerative disorders, olfactory memory may be of particular interest. However, to date little is known about episodic olfactory memory performance in patients with decreased olfactory function. This study includes the investigation of olfactory memory performance in 14 hyposmic patients (8 female, mean age 52.6 years) completing two episodic odor memory tests (Sniffin' Test of Odor Memory and Odor Memory Test). To control for a general impairment in memory function, a verbal and a figural memory test were carried out. A regression model with multiple predictors was calculated for both odor memory tests separately. Odor identification was identified as the only significant predictor for both odor memory tasks. From our results, we conclude that currently available olfactory memory tests are highly influenced by odor identification abilities, implying the need for the development and validation of additional tests in this field which could serve as additional olfactory perception variables for clinical assessment.

  14. Usefulness of MR angiography in patients with non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhagic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Hyun Ung; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Moon, Woong Jae; Kim, Jae Kyu; Kang, Heoung Keun

    1994-01-01

    We assessed the usefulness of magnetic resonance angiography(MRA) and its techniques for differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic causes in patients with non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhagic diseases. We retrospectively reviewed 74 patients with non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhagic diseases, which were confirmed by radiological examinations(36 cases) and operations(38 cases). We compared the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) alone from MRI with MRA in evaluation of hemorrhagic causes. MRA was obtained by Time-of-Flight(TOF) and Phase Contrast(PC) technique. We investigated the usefulness of TOF and PC technique. MRI with MRA for detection of hemorrhagic causes(89%, 66 cases) was better than MRI only (64%, 47 cases). PC was better than TOF for evaluation of arteriovenous malformation and aneurysm due to subtraction of background noise(hemorrhage). MRI with MRA is more useful than MRI alone for evaluation of non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhagic causes

  15. A second look at the structure of human olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Theresa L

    2009-07-01

    How do we remember olfactory information? Is the architecture of human olfactory memory unique compared with that of memory for other types of stimuli? Ten years ago, a review article evaluated these questions, as well as the distinction between long- and short-term olfactory memory, with three lines of evidence: capacity differences, coding differences, and neuropsychological evidence, though serial position effects were also considered. From the data available at the time, the article preliminarily suggested that olfactory memory was a two-component system that was not qualitatively different from memory systems for other types of stimuli. The decade that has elapsed since then has ushered in considerable changes in theories of memory structure and provided huge advances in neuroscience capabilities. Not only have many studies exploring various aspects of olfactory memory been published, but a model of olfactory perception that includes an integral unitary memory system also has been presented. Consequently, the structure of olfactory memory is reevaluated in the light of further information currently available with the same theoretical lines of evidence previously considered. This evaluation finds that the preponderance of evidence suggests that, as in memory for other types of sensory stimuli, the short-term-long-term distinction remains a valuable dissociation for conceptualizing olfactory memory, though perhaps not as architecturally separate systems.

  16. Nested Expression Domains for Odorant Receptors in Zebrafish Olfactory Epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weth, Franco; Nadler, Walter; Korsching, Sigrun

    1996-11-01

    The mapping of high-dimensional olfactory stimuli onto the two-dimensional surface of the nasal sensory epithelium constitutes the first step in the neuronal encoding of olfactory input. We have used zebrafish as a model system to analyze the spatial distribution of odorant receptor molecules in the olfactory epithelium by quantitative in situ hybridization. To this end, we have cloned 10 very divergent zebrafish odorant receptor molecules by PCR. Individual genes are expressed in sparse olfactory receptor neurons. Analysis of the position of labeled cells in a simplified coordinate system revealed three concentric, albeit overlapping, expression domains for the four odorant receptors analyzed in detail. Such regionalized expression should result in a corresponding segregation of functional response properties. This might represent the first step of spatial encoding of olfactory input or be essential for the development of the olfactory system.

  17. Non-traumatic perforation of the small bowel | Eid | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... medical records of four patients who have presented with non-traumatic perforation of the small bowel and were treated at Al-Ain Hospital during the last 5 years were studied retrospectively. Results: The presenting symptoms of all patients were similar. Erect chest X-ray has shown free air under diaphragm in 3 patients.

  18. Kappe neurons, a novel population of olfactory sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Gaurav; Bozorg Nia, Shahrzad; Zapilko, Veronika; Shiriagin, Vladimir; Kowatschew, Daniel; Oka, Yuichiro; Korsching, Sigrun I

    2014-02-10

    Perception of olfactory stimuli is mediated by distinct populations of olfactory sensory neurons, each with a characteristic set of morphological as well as functional parameters. Beyond two large populations of ciliated and microvillous neurons, a third population, crypt neurons, has been identified in teleost and cartilaginous fishes. We report here a novel, fourth olfactory sensory neuron population in zebrafish, which we named kappe neurons for their characteristic shape. Kappe neurons are identified by their Go-like immunoreactivity, and show a distinct spatial distribution within the olfactory epithelium, similar to, but significantly different from that of crypt neurons. Furthermore, kappe neurons project to a single identified target glomerulus within the olfactory bulb, mdg5 of the mediodorsal cluster, whereas crypt neurons are known to project exclusively to the mdg2 glomerulus. Kappe neurons are negative for established markers of ciliated, microvillous and crypt neurons, but appear to have microvilli. Kappe neurons constitute the fourth type of olfactory sensory neurons reported in teleost fishes and their existence suggests that encoding of olfactory stimuli may require a higher complexity than hitherto assumed already in the peripheral olfactory system.

  19. Olfactory Neuroblastoma: Diagnostic Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya MN,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant tumor of sinonasal tract arising from the olfactory neuro epithelium. The olfactory neuroblastomas presenting with divergent histomorphologies like, epithelial appearance of cells, lacking a neuro fibrillary background and absence of rosettes are difficult to diagnose. Such cases require immunohistochemistry to establish the diagnosis. We describe the clinical features, pathological and immunohistochemical findings of grade IV Olfactory neuroblastoma in a 57 year old man

  20. Olfactory stimulation modulates the blood glucose level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tadataka; Tanaka, Susumu; Bakhshishayan, Sanam; Kogo, Mikihiko; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2018-01-01

    In both humans and animals, chemosensory stimuli, including odors and tastes, induce a variety of physiologic and mental responses related to energy homeostasis, such as glucose kinetics. The present study examined the importance of olfactory function in glucose kinetics following ingestion behavior in a simplified experimental scenario. We applied a conventional glucose tolerance test to rats with and without olfactory function and analyzed subsequent blood glucose (BG) curves in detail. The loss of olfactory input due to experimental damage to the olfactory mucosa induced a marked decrease in the area under the BG curve. Exposure to grapefruit odor and its main component, limonene, both of which activate the sympathetic nerves, before glucose loading also greatly depressed the BG curve. Pre-loading exposure to lavender odor, a parasympathetic activator, stabilized the BG level. These results suggest that olfactory function is important for proper glucose kinetics after glucose intake and that certain fragrances could be utilized as tools for controlling BG levels.

  1. Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee: a non-traumatic injury with prolonged recovery time

    OpenAIRE

    Gourlay, Margaret L; Renner, Jordan B; Spang, Jeffrey T; Rubin, Janet E

    2015-01-01

    Subchondral insufficiency fractures are non-traumatic fractures that occur immediately below the cartilage of a joint. Although low bone density may be present concurrently, it is not the underlying cause of subchondral insufficiency fractures in the majority of patients. Patients with subchondral insufficiency fracture characteristically have unremarkable plain radiographs, while MRI examination may reveal extensive bone marrow oedema and subchondral bone collapse. This article presents a 51...

  2. Non-traumatic limping in Paediatric Emergencies: Epidemiology, evaluation and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro Carreño, M I; Fraile Currius, R; García Clemente, A

    Non-traumatic limping is a common reason for consultation in paediatric emergencies. Although transient synovitis of the hip (TS) is the most frequent diagnosis, there are cases of limping secondary to serious pathologies. The aim of this review is to describe the variables related to non-traumatic limp that come to the paediatric emergency department to establish the best management protocol, making the most of resources and speeding up emergency care. A prospective study was conducted, selecting all children less than 15 years old who consulted aspaediatric emergencies for non-traumatic limping during the 2014. Clinical variables, complementary examinations and diagnoses were collected in the emergency room consultation and 6 months after the consultation RESULTS: During 2014, 146 patients (0.69% of the emergencies) were included in the non-traumatic limping study. Four cases of severe limping were diagnosed: 2 leukaemias, 1 septic arthritis and 1 acetabular bone tumour. The most frequent diagnosis was TS (53.16%). At 6 months, 135 children (92.4%) had resolved lameness. The diagnosis was changed in 9 children (6.1%). Children with TS had fewer days of evolution, and 77% were between 3 and 10 years old. Children with a final diagnosis of severe pathology had a limp for longer, fever and did not weight bear on ambulation. In limping of probable hip origin, at the ages of between 3 and 10, without fever or systemic symptoms and of less than one week's onset, it is possible to make a clinical diagnosis of TS limiting the use of complementary examinations. Copyright © 2017 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Time frequency analysis of olfactory induced EEG-power change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Alexander Schriever

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the usefulness of time-frequency analysis (TFA of olfactory-induced EEG change with a low-cost, portable olfactometer in the clinical investigation of smell function.A total of 78 volunteers participated. The study was composed of three parts where olfactory stimuli were presented using a custom-built olfactometer. Part I was designed to optimize the stimulus as well as the recording conditions. In part II EEG-power changes after olfactory/trigeminal stimulation were compared between healthy participants and patients with olfactory impairment. In Part III the test-retest reliability of the method was evaluated in healthy subjects.Part I indicated that the most effective paradigm for stimulus presentation was cued stimulus, with an interstimulus interval of 18-20s at a stimulus duration of 1000ms with each stimulus quality presented 60 times in blocks of 20 stimuli each. In Part II we found that central processing of olfactory stimuli analyzed by TFA differed significantly between healthy controls and patients even when controlling for age. It was possible to reliably distinguish patients with olfactory impairment from healthy individuals at a high degree of accuracy (healthy controls vs anosmic patients: sensitivity 75%; specificity 89%. In addition we could show a good test-retest reliability of TFA of chemosensory induced EEG-power changes in Part III.Central processing of olfactory stimuli analyzed by TFA reliably distinguishes patients with olfactory impairment from healthy individuals at a high degree of accuracy. Importantly this can be achieved with a simple olfactometer.

  4. Roles for Drosophila Mushroom Body Neurons in Olfactory Learning and Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Lin; Tanaka, Nobuaki K.; Ito, Kei; Davis, Ronald L.; Akalal, David-Benjamin G.; Wilson, Curtis F.

    2006-01-01

    Olfactory learning assays in Drosophila have revealed that distinct brain structures known as mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for the associative learning and memory of olfactory stimuli. However, the precise roles of the different neurons comprising the MBs are still under debate. The confusion surrounding the roles of the different neurons…

  5. PKA increases in the olfactory bulb act as unconditioned stimuli and provide evidence for parallel memory systems: pairing odor with increased PKA creates intermediate- and long-term, but not short-term, memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Matthew T; Harley, Carolyn W; Darby-King, Andrea; McLean, John H

    2012-02-21

    Neonatal odor-preference memory in rat pups is a well-defined associative mammalian memory model dependent on cAMP. Previous work from this laboratory demonstrates three phases of neonatal odor-preference memory: short-term (translation-independent), intermediate-term (translation-dependent), and long-term (transcription- and translation-dependent). Here, we use neonatal odor-preference learning to explore the role of olfactory bulb PKA in these three phases of mammalian memory. PKA activity increased normally in learning animals 10 min after a single training trial. Inhibition of PKA by Rp-cAMPs blocked intermediate-term and long-term memory, with no effect on short-term memory. PKA inhibition also prevented learning-associated CREB phosphorylation, a transcription factor implicated in long-term memory. When long-term memory was rescued through increased β-adrenoceptor activation, CREB phosphorylation was restored. Intermediate-term and long-term, but not short-term odor-preference memories were generated by pairing odor with direct PKA activation using intrabulbar Sp-cAMPs, which bypasses β-adrenoceptor activation. Higher levels of Sp-cAMPs enhanced memory by extending normal 24-h retention to 48-72 h. These results suggest that increased bulbar PKA is necessary and sufficient for the induction of intermediate-term and long-term odor-preference memory, and suggest that PKA activation levels also modulate memory duration. However, short-term memory appears to use molecular mechanisms other than the PKA/CREB pathway. These mechanisms, which are also recruited by β-adrenoceptor activation, must operate in parallel with PKA activation.

  6. Synchronized Activity in The Main and Accessory Olfactory Bulbs and Vomeronasal Amygdala Elicited by Chemical Signals in Freely Behaving Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-Bellver, Sergio; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique; Teruel-Martí, Vicent

    2017-08-30

    Chemosensory processing in mammals involves the olfactory and vomeronasal systems, but how the activity of both circuits is integrated is unknown. In our study, we recorded the electrophysiological activity in the olfactory bulbs and the vomeronasal amygdala in freely behaving mice exploring a battery of neutral and conspecific stimuli. The exploration of stimuli, including a neutral stimulus, induced synchronic activity in the olfactory bulbs characterized by a dominant theta rhythmicity, with specific theta-gamma coupling, distinguishing between vomeronasal and olfactory structures. The correlated activation of the bulbs suggests a coupling between the stimuli internalization in the nasal cavity and the vomeronasal pumping. In the amygdala, male stimuli are preferentially processed in the medial nucleus, whereas female cues induced a differential response in the posteromedial cortical amygdala. Thus, particular theta-gamma patterns in the olfactory network modulates the integration of chemosensory information in the amygdala, allowing the selection of an appropriate behaviour.

  7. Non traumatic fractures of the lumbar spine and seizures: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Injury-induced seizures may appear clinically asymptomatic and can be easily monitored by the absence of trauma and post-ictal impairment of consciousness. Patients with epilepsy have a higher risk of compression fractures, leading to serious musculoskeletal injuries, this type of non-traumatic compression fractures of the spine secondary to seizures are rare lesions, and is produced by the severe contraction of the paraspinal muscles that can achieve the thoracic spine fracture. Seizures induced lesions may appear clinically asymptomatic and can be easily monitored by the absence of trauma and post-ictal impairment of consciousness. We present a case report.

  8. Linking adult olfactory neurogenesis to social behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia E Feierstein

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the adult brain, new neurons are added to two brain areas: the olfactory bulb and the hippocampus. Newly-generated neurons integrate into the preexisting circuits, bringing a set of unique properties, such as increased plasticity and responsiveness to stimuli. However, the functional implications of the constant addition of these neurons remain unclear, although they are believed to be important for learning and memory. The levels of neurogenesis are regulated by a variety of environmental factors, as well as during learning, suggesting that new neurons could be important for coping with changing environmental demands. Notably, neurogenesis has been shown to be physiologically regulated in relation to reproductive behavior: neurogenesis increases in female mice upon exposure to cues of the mating partners, during pregnancy and lactation, and in male mice upon exposure to their offspring. In this scenario, and because of the key contribution of olfaction to maternal behavior, we sought to investigate the contribution of adult-generated neurons in the olfactory system to maternal behavior and offspring recognition. To do so, we selectively disrupted neurogenesis in the olfactory pathway of female mice using focal irradiation. Disruption of adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb did not affect maternal behavior, or the ability of female mice to discriminate familiar from unfamiliar pups. However, reduction of olfactory neurogenesis resulted in abnormal social interaction of female mice, specifically with male conspecifics. Because the olfactory system is crucial for sex recognition, we suggest that the abnormal interaction with males could result from the inability to detect or discriminate male-specific odors and could therefore have implications for the recognition of potential mating partners. Here, I review the results of this and other studies, and discuss their implications for our understanding of the function of adult neurogenesis.

  9. Non-traumatic causes and the management of the open abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentula, P

    2011-04-01

    The open abdomen is increasingly used for the treatment and prevention of abdominal compartment syndrome. The leading non-traumatic conditions that may cause abdominal compartment syndrome requiring surgical decompression include secondary peritonitis, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm and severe acute pancreatitis. Patients may also end up with the open abdomen when the laparotomy wound cannot be closed without tension because of excessive visceral swelling. Also, surgical complications such as laparotomy wound dehiscence, may require temporary abdominal closure techniques. In critically ill surgical patients and in situations when second-look laparotomy is mandatory the open abdomen can be utilized in a preventive manner like in damage control trauma surgery. Underlying disease and the indication for the open abdomen significantly contributes to outcome of patient with open abdomen. Non-traumatic aetiology of the open abdomen is associated with lower likelihood of primary fascial closure and higher rate of open abdomen related complications compared with traumatic aetiology. A number of temporal abdominal closure techniques have been described. Ideally, temporal abdominal closure technique should prevent the development of recurrent abdominal compartment syndrome and facilitate later primary fascia closure with low complication rate. Although fascial closure rate varies between techniques, there are few evidence-based data to support one technique over another. However, recent evolution of temporary abdominal closure techniques have decreased the number of patients with frozen abdomen and reduced the need for planned hernia management. Highest fascial closure rates have been achieved with vacuum-assisted closure systems and systems that provide continuous fascial traction.

  10. Frequency of non-traumatic anterior knee pain in secondary school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, W.; Ajmad, F.; Ahmed, A.; Fatima, M.

    2017-01-01

    To find out the frequency of non-traumatic anterior knee pain in secondary school students of Lahore, Pakistan. Methodology: This observational study was conducted among 350 students of secondary school of Lahore during a 3 months period. Both males and females of age 11-17 years were included in the study. A questionnaire was completed which included demographic data, Numeric Rating scale (NRS) and Kujala Scale. The data were being analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Results: Out of 350 secondary school students, 145 (41%) had anterior knee pain (AKP). Twenty seven (19%) had pain in the left knee only, 54 (37%) had pain in right knee only while 64 (44%) had pain in both knees. The incidence of AKP was highest among 11 to 15 years old students. Moreover, the girls reported high frequency of AKP then the boys. The activities that were affected because of AKP included running, walking, stair climbing and jumping. Conclusion: Non-traumatic AKP is common among students of age 11-17 years, with a peak during adolescence (11-15). This pain not only affects the sports activities but also affects the activity of daily livings. (author)

  11. Non-traumatic brachial plexopathies, clinical, radiological and neurophysiological findings from a tertiary centre.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullins, G M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To establish the clinical characteristics, aetiology, neuro-physiological characteristics, imaging findings and other investigations in a cohort of patients with non-traumatic brachial plexopathy (BP). METHODS: A 3-year retrospective study of patients with non-traumatic BP identified by electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS). Clinical information was retrieved from patients\\' medical charts. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients were identified. Causes of BP included neuralgic amyotrophy (NA) (48%), neoplastic (16%), radiation (8%), post infectious (12%), obstetric (4%), rucksack injury (4%), thoracic outlet syndrome (4%) and iatrogenic (4%). Patients with NA presented acutely in 50%. The onset was subacute in all others. Outcome was better for patients with NA. All patients with neoplastic disease had a previous history of cancer. MRI was abnormal in 3\\/16 patients (18.8%). PET scanning diagnosed metastatic plexopathy in two cases. CONCLUSIONS: NA was the most common cause of BP in our cohort and was associated with a more favourable outcome. The authors note potentially discriminating clinical characteristics in our population that aid in the assessment of patients with brachial plexopathies. We advise NCS and EMG be performed in all patients with suspected plexopathy. Imaging studies are useful in selected patients.

  12. Olfactory Perceptual Learning Requires Action of Noradrenaline in the Olfactory Bulb: Comparison with Olfactory Associative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinera, Jennifer; Kermen, Florence; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie; Richard, Marion

    2015-01-01

    Noradrenaline contributes to olfactory-guided behaviors but its role in olfactory learning during adulthood is poorly documented. We investigated its implication in olfactory associative and perceptual learning using local infusion of mixed a1-ß adrenergic receptor antagonist (labetalol) in the adult mouse olfactory bulb. We reported that…

  13. Smelly primes – when olfactory primes do or do not work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique A Smeets

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In applied olfactory cognition the effects that olfactory stimulation can have on (human behavior are investigated. To enable an efficient application of olfactory stimuli a model of how they may lead to a change in behavior is proposed. To this end we use the concept of olfactory priming. Olfactory priming may prompt a special view on priming as the olfactory sense has some unique properties which make odors special types of primes. Examples of such properties are the ability of odors to influence our behavior outside of awareness, to lead to strong affective evaluations, to evoke specific memories, and to associate easily and quickly to other environmental stimuli. Opportunities and limitations for using odors as primes are related to these properties, and alternative explanations for reported findings are offered. Implications for olfactory semantic, construal, behavior and goal priming are given based on a brief overview of the priming literature from social psychology and from olfactory perception science. We end by formulating recommendations and ideas for a future research agenda and applications for olfactory priming.

  14. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  15. Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee: a non-traumatic injury with prolonged recovery time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourlay, Margaret L; Renner, Jordan B; Spang, Jeffrey T; Rubin, Janet E

    2015-06-08

    Subchondral insufficiency fractures are non-traumatic fractures that occur immediately below the cartilage of a joint. Although low bone density may be present concurrently, it is not the underlying cause of subchondral insufficiency fractures in the majority of patients. Patients with subchondral insufficiency fracture characteristically have unremarkable plain radiographs, while MRI examination may reveal extensive bone marrow oedema and subchondral bone collapse. This article presents a 51-year-old postmenopausal woman, a physician, who had subchondral insufficiency fractures of the knee associated with prolonged standing during clinical work. She was treated with partial weight bearing on crutches until 14 months after the injury, viscosupplementation at 4 months to treat osteoarthritis and teriparatide treatment to improve bone healing at 7 months. By 26 months after the injury, she tolerated independent walking with a fabric knee support but still experienced mild posterolateral knee pain and numbness on prolonged standing. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. Imaging of non-cardiac, non-traumatic causes of acute chest pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kienzl, Daniela, E-mail: daniela.kienzl@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Prosch, Helmut; Töpker, Michael; Herold, Christian [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna (Austria)

    2012-12-15

    Non-traumatic chest pain is a common symptom in patients who present in the emergency department. From a clinical point of view, it is important to differentiate cardiac chest pain from non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). Among the plethora of potential causes of NCCP, life-threatening diseases, such as aortic dissection, pulmonary embolism, tension pneumothorax, and esophageal rupture, must be differentiated from non-life threatening causes. The majority of NCCP, however, is reported to be benign in nature. The presentation of pain plays an important role in narrowing the differential diagnosis and initiating further diagnostic management and treatment. As the benign causes tend to recur, and may lead to patient anxiety and great costs, a meticulous evaluation of the patient is necessary to diagnose the underlying disorder or disease.

  17. Non-traumatic acute abdomen in the adult: a critical review of imaging modalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Boos, S.; Heinemann, F.; Wenz, W.

    1992-01-01

    Two different series collected at the University Hospital of Freiburg are presented as a basis for the critical appraisal of available imaging tests and their correlation with anatomic pain sites. The first series comprises 284 patients of non-traumatic acute abdomen admitted to the emergency department during 1990. The radiological approach revealed an increased use of immediate ultrasound (58%) followed by plain film radiography (53%), contrast studies (15%), and computed tomography (9.8%). Five groups of entities were identified according to the diagnostic imaging procedure prior to surgery. In a second series, the clinical presentation, the distribution and the efficacy of imaging studies for the confirmation of acute mesenteric ischemia were evaluated in 55 patients over a period of 14 years. A reduced mortality rate emphasizes the value of early and agressive diagnosis and angiographic management. (orig.)

  18. MR imaging of recent non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage: early experience at 3 T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, Paul D.; Wilkinson, Iain D.

    2006-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using 3.0 T scanners in the clinical environment is in its infancy and is only available at a limited number of sites worldwide. There is great interest amongst radiologists about the perceived benefits of clinical imaging at 3.0 T; however, it remains to be seen whether the theoretical advantages will bring real gains. MRI in patients with non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is difficult, yet, these patients benefit from non-invasive angiography. Conventional catheter angiography (CCA) remains the reference standard for excluding/confirming the presence of intracranial vascular abnormalities, but MR angiography at 3.0 T may offer opportunities for significant changes in patient management. We present our experiences of using 3.0 T MR angiography in 27 patients with acute or early subacute ICH. (orig.)

  19. Chronic neck pain patients with traumatic or non-traumatic onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ris Hansen, Inge; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Boyle, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    . The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation of chronic neck pain patients with and without traumatic onset by examining cervical mobility, sensorimotor function, cervical muscle performance and pressure pain threshold in addition to the following self-reported characteristics...... tests of cervical range of motion, gaze stability, eye movement, cranio-cervical flexion, cervical extensors, and pressure pain threshold. The participants completed the following questionnaires: physical and mental component summary of the Short Form Health Survey, EuroQol-5D, Neck Disability Index...... in the traumatic group showed worse results on all measures compared with those in the non-traumatic group, significantly on neck muscle function (cervical extension mobility p = 0.005, cranio-cervical flexion test p = 0.007, cervical extensor test p = 0.006) and cervical pressure pain threshold bilateral (p = 0...

  20. Non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis: Background, laboratory features, and acute clinical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervellin, Gianfranco; Comelli, Ivan; Benatti, Mario; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Bassi, Antonella; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-08-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a relatively rare condition, but its clinical consequences are frequently dramatic in terms of both morbidity and mortality. Although no consensus has been reached so far about the precise definition of this condition, the term rhabdomyolysis describes a rapid breakdown of striated, or skeletal, muscle. It is hence characterized by the rupture and necrosis of muscle fibers, resulting in release of cell degradation products and intracellular elements within the bloodstream and extracellular space. Notably, the percentage of patients with rhabdomyolysis who develop acute kidney injury, the most dramatic consequence, varies from 13% to over 50% according to both the cause and the clinical and organizational setting where they are diagnosed. Despite direct muscle injury (i.e., traumatic rhabdomyolysis) remains the most common cause, additional causes, frequently overlapping, include hypoxic, physical, chemical or biological factors. The conventional triad of symptoms includes muscle pain, weakness and dark urine. The laboratory diagnosis is essentially based on the measurement of biomarkers of muscle injury, being creatine kinase (CK) the biochemical "gold standard" for diagnosis, and myoglobin the "gold standard" for prognostication, especially in patients with non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis. The essential clinical management in the emergency department is based on a targeted intervention to manage the underlying cause, combined with infusion of fluids and eventually sodium bicarbonate. We will present and discuss in this article the pathophysiological and clinical features of non-traumatic rhabdomyolysis, focusing specifically on Emergency Department (ED) management. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Findings using magnetic resonance in a patient with non-traumatic anosmia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vilanova, M D; Cemillán, C A; Rodríguez-García, E; del Ser, T; Cantón, R; Domingo-García, J; Pondal, M

    The presence of alterations in the neuroimaging in patients with anosmia without traumatic antecedents is not frequent. Male aged 38 who came to surgery after having suffered, 6 months earlier, for 1 week, a picture of intense, oppressive holocranial headache, accompanied by fever. Associated with this, an acute complete anosmia also began and persisted up to the moment the patient came for consultation. It was not associated with any infection of the respiratory tract, there was no history of cranial trauma, no ingestion of medicines nor toxins, nor had he been exposed to toxic products. The exploration to which he was submitted only showed an anosmia and was otherwise found to be normal. Cranial MRI showed signal alterations in both lower (orbitary) convolutions of the frontal lobes, in the anterior region of the right temporal lobe and in both olfactory nerves. Tests for HIV serology, parotiditis, hepatitis B and C virus, HSV, VZV, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and lues were negative. The acute onset of the anosmia in midst of a picture of febricula and headaches made us suspect the presence of an infectious aetiology, and the alterations found in the neuroimaging could be due to post encephalic lesions, with a special predilection for olfactory areas. 1. MRI plays a fundamental role in the topographic and aetiological evaluation of olfactory dysfunctions of a central origin; 2. Affectation of the central olfactory passages of an infectious aetiology in a non HIV patient and with neuroimaging findings is a rare complication.

  2. Multiple reversal olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Mota

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In multiple reversal learning, animals trained to discriminate a reinforced from a non-reinforced stimulus are subjected to various, successive reversals of stimulus contingencies (e.g. A+ vs. B-, A- vs. B+, A+ vs. B-. This protocol is useful to determine whether or not animals learn to learn and solve successive discriminations faster (or with fewer errors with increasing reversal experience. Here we used the olfactory conditioning of proboscis extension reflex to study how honeybees Apis mellifera perform in a multiple reversal task. Our experiment contemplated four consecutive differential conditioning phases involving the same odors (A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+ to A+ vs. B- to A- vs. B+. We show that bees in which the weight of reinforced or non-reinforced stimuli was similar mastered the multiple olfactory reversals. Bees which failed the task exhibited asymmetric responses to reinforced and non-reinforced stimuli, thus being unable to rapidly reverse stimulus contingencies. Efficient reversers did not improve their successive discriminations but rather tended to generalize their choice to both odors at the end of conditioning. As a consequence, both discrimination and reversal efficiency decreasedalong experimental phases. This result invalidates a learning-to-learn effect and indicates that bees do not only respond to the actual stimulus contingencies but rather combine these with an average of past experiences with the same stimuli.  

  3. Olfactory dysfunction affects thresholds to trigeminal chemosensory sensations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, J; Schuster, B; Hummel, T

    2010-01-14

    Next to olfaction and gustation, the trigeminal system represents a third chemosensory system. These senses are interconnected; a loss of olfactory function also leads to a reduced sensitivity in the trigeminal chemosensory system. However, most studies so far focused on comparing trigeminal sensitivity to suprathreshold stimuli; much less data is available with regard to trigeminal sensitivity in the perithreshold range. Therefore we assessed detection thresholds for CO(2), a relatively pure trigeminal stimulus in controls and in patients with olfactory dysfunction (OD). We could show that OD patients exhibit higher detection thresholds than controls. In addition, we were able to explore the effects of different etiologies of smell loss on trigeminal detection thresholds. We could show that in younger subjects, patients suffering from olfactory loss due to head trauma are more severely impaired with regard to their trigeminal sensitivity than patients with isolated congenital anosmia. In older patients, we could not observe any differences between different etiologies, probably due to the well known age-related decrease of trigeminal sensitivity. Furthermore we could show that a betterment of the OD was accompanied by decreased thresholds. This was most evident in patients with postviral OD. In conclusion, factors such as age, olfactory status and etiology of olfactory disorder can affect responsiveness to perithreshold trigeminal chemosensory stimuli. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comorbidity/Overlapping between ADHD and PTSD in Relation to IQ among Children of Traumatized/Non-Traumatized Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Atia; Rydelius, Per-Anders

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study explores the comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and PTSD in relation to IQ among refugee children of traumatized parents (TP) and non-traumatized parents (NTP). Method: The study compares 80 refugee children, 40 with TP with 40 with NTP. ADHD and PTSD are assessed using DICA. Children's cognitive functions are measured by…

  5. Changes in olfactory bulb volume following lateralized olfactory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negoias, S; Pietsch, K; Hummel, T

    2017-08-01

    Repeated exposure to odors modifies olfactory function. Consequently, "olfactory training" plays a significant role in hyposmia treatment. In addition, numerous studies show that the olfactory bulb (OB) volume changes in disorders associated with olfactory dysfunction. Aim of this study was to investigate whether and how olfactory bulb volume changes in relation to lateralized olfactory training in healthy people. Over a period of 4 months, 97 healthy participants (63 females and 34 males, mean age: 23.74 ± 4.16 years, age range: 19-43 years) performed olfactory training by exposing the same nostril twice a day to 4 odors (lemon, rose, eucalyptus and cloves) while closing the other nostril. Before and after olfactory training, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed to measure OB volume. Furthermore, participants underwent lateralized odor threshold and odor identification testing using the "Sniffin' Sticks" test battery.OB volume increased significantly after olfactory training (11.3 % and 13.1 % respectively) for both trained and untrained nostril. No significant effects of sex, duration and frequency of training or age of the subjects were seen. Interestingly, PEA odor thresholds worsened after training, while olfactory identification remained unchanged.These data show for the first time in humans that olfactory training may involve top-down process, which ultimately lead to a bilateral increase in olfactory bulb volume.

  6. Illuminating odors: when optogenetics brings to light unexpected olfactory abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Julien; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2016-06-01

    For hundreds of years, the sense of smell has generated great interest in the world literature, oenologists, and perfume makers but less of scientists. Only recently this sensory modality has gained new attraction in neuroscience when original tools issued from physiology, anatomy, or molecular biology were available to decipher how the brain makes sense of olfactory cues. However, this move was promptly dampened by the difficulties of developing quantitative approaches to study the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensations they create. An upswing of olfactory investigations occurred when genetic tools could be used in combination with devices borrowed from the physics of light (a hybrid technique called optogenetics) to scrutinize the olfactory system and to provide greater physiological precision for studying olfactory-driven behaviors. This review aims to present the most recent studies that have used light to activate components of the olfactory pathway, such as olfactory receptor neurons, or neurons located further downstream, while leaving intact others brain circuits. With the use of optogenetics to unravel the mystery of olfaction, scientists have begun to disentangle how the brain makes sense of smells. In this review, we shall discuss how the brain recognizes odors, how it memorizes them, and how animals make decisions based on odorants they are capable of sensing. Although this review deals with olfaction, the role of light will be central throughout. © 2016 Grimaud and Lledo; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  7. Illuminating odors: when optogenetics brings to light unexpected olfactory abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Julien

    2016-01-01

    For hundreds of years, the sense of smell has generated great interest in the world literature, oenologists, and perfume makers but less of scientists. Only recently this sensory modality has gained new attraction in neuroscience when original tools issued from physiology, anatomy, or molecular biology were available to decipher how the brain makes sense of olfactory cues. However, this move was promptly dampened by the difficulties of developing quantitative approaches to study the relationship between the physical characteristics of stimuli and the sensations they create. An upswing of olfactory investigations occurred when genetic tools could be used in combination with devices borrowed from the physics of light (a hybrid technique called optogenetics) to scrutinize the olfactory system and to provide greater physiological precision for studying olfactory-driven behaviors. This review aims to present the most recent studies that have used light to activate components of the olfactory pathway, such as olfactory receptor neurons, or neurons located further downstream, while leaving intact others brain circuits. With the use of optogenetics to unravel the mystery of olfaction, scientists have begun to disentangle how the brain makes sense of smells. In this review, we shall discuss how the brain recognizes odors, how it memorizes them, and how animals make decisions based on odorants they are capable of sensing. Although this review deals with olfaction, the role of light will be central throughout. PMID:27194792

  8. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the olfactory system of an adult teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singru, Praful S; Sakharkar, Amul J; Subhedar, Nishikant

    2003-07-11

    The aim of the present study is to explore the distribution of nitric oxide synthase in the olfactory system of an adult teleost, Oreochromis mossambicus using neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) immunocytochemistry and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPHd) histochemistry methods. Intense nNOS immunoreactivity was noticed in several olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), in their axonal extensions over the olfactory nerve and in some basal cells of the olfactory epithelium. nNOS containing fascicles of the ORNs enter the bulb from its rostral pole, spread in the olfactory nerve layer in the periphery of the bulb and display massive innervation of the olfactory glomeruli. Unilateral ablation of the olfactory organ resulted in dramatic loss of nNOS immunoreactivity in the olfactory nerve layer of the ipsilateral bulb. In the olfactory bulb of intact fish, some granule cells showed intense immunoreactivity; dendrites arising from the granule cells could be traced to the glomerular layer. Of particular interest is the occurrence of nNOS immunoreactivity in the ganglion cells of the nervus terminalis. nNOS containing fibers were also encountered in the medial olfactory tracts as they extend to the telencephalon. The NADPHd staining generally coincides with that of nNOS suggesting that it may serve as a marker for nNOS in the olfactory system of this fish. However, mismatch was encountered in the case of mitral cells, while all are nNOS-negative, few were NADPHd positive. The present study for the first time revealed the occurrence of nNOS immunoreactivity in the ORNs of an adult vertebrate and suggests a role for nitric oxide in the transduction of odor stimuli, regeneration of olfactory epithelium and processing of olfactory signals.

  9. Olfactory aversive conditioning alters olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical organization of receptor neuron input into the olfactory bulb (OB allows odor information to be transformed into an odorant-specific spatial map of mitral/tufted cell glomerular activity at the upper level of the olfactory bulb. In other sensory systems, neuronal representations of stimuli can be reorganized or enhanced following learning. While the mammalian OB has been shown to undergo experience-dependent plasticity at the glomerular level, it is still unclear if similar representational change occurs within mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor representations following learning. To address this, odorant-evoked glomerular activity patterns were imaged in mice expressing a GFP-based calcium indicator (GCaMP2 in OB mitral/tufted cells. Glomerular odor responses were imaged before and after olfactory associative conditioning to aversive foot shock. Following conditioning, we found no overall reorganization of the glomerular representation. Training, however, did significantly alter the amplitudes of individual glomeruli within the representation in mice in which the odor was presented together with foot shock. Further, the specific pairing of foot shock with odor presentations lead to increased responses primarily in initially weakly activated glomeruli. Overall, these results suggest that associative conditioning can enhance the initial representation of odors within the olfactory bulb by enhancing responses to the learned odor in some glomeruli.

  10. Acetylcholine and Olfactory Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donald A.; Fletcher, Max L.; Sullivan, Regina M.

    2004-01-01

    Olfactory perceptual learning is a relatively long-term, learned increase in perceptual acuity, and has been described in both humans and animals. Data from recent electrophysiological studies have indicated that olfactory perceptual learning may be correlated with changes in odorant receptive fields of neurons in the olfactory bulb and piriform…

  11. Resilience and vulnerability among refugee children of traumatized and non-traumatized parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Atia

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to explore resilience among refugee children whose parents had been traumatized and were suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD. Methods The study comprised 80 refugee children (40 boys and 40 girls, age range 6–17 yrs, divided into two groups. The test group consisted of 40 refugee children whose parents had been tortured in Iraq before coming to Sweden. In accordance with DSM-IV criteria, these children were further divided in two sub-groups, those who were assessed as having PTSD-related symptoms (n = 31 and those who did not have PTSD-related symptoms (n = 9. The comparison group consisted of 40 children from Egypt, Syria and Morocco whose parents had not been tortured. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd edn. (WISC-III, Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents- Revised (DICA-R, Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms checklist (PTSS, "I Think I am" (ITIA and Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ were used to assess IQ; PTSD-related symptoms; self-esteem; possible resilience and vulnerability. Results Children without PTSD/PTSS in the traumatized parents group had more favorable values (ITIA and SDQ with respect to total scores, emotionality, relation to family, peer relations and prosocial behavior than the children in the same group with PTSD/PTSS and these values were similar to those the children in the comparison group (the non-traumatized parents group. The children in the non-traumatized parents group scored significantly higher on the IQ test than the children with traumatized parents, both the children with PTSD-related symptoms and those without PTSD-related symptoms. Conclusion Adequate emotional expression, supportive family relations, good peer relations, and prosociality constituted the main indicators of resilience. Further investigation is needed to explore the possible effects of these factors and the effects of IQ. The findings of this study are

  12. Humans and mice express similar olfactory preferences.

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    Nathalie Mandairon

    Full Text Available In humans, the pleasantness of odors is a major contributor to social relationships and food intake. Smells evoke attraction and repulsion responses, reflecting the hedonic value of the odorant. While olfactory preferences are known to be strongly modulated by experience and learning, it has been recently suggested that, in humans, the pleasantness of odors may be partly explained by the physicochemical properties of the odorant molecules themselves. If odor hedonic value is indeed predetermined by odorant structure, then it could be hypothesized that other species will show similar odor preferences to humans. Combining behavioral and psychophysical approaches, we here show that odorants rated as pleasant by humans were also those which, behaviorally, mice investigated longer and human subjects sniffed longer, thereby revealing for the first time a component of olfactory hedonic perception conserved across species. Consistent with this, we further show that odor pleasantness rating in humans and investigation time in mice were both correlated with the physicochemical properties of the molecules, suggesting that olfactory preferences are indeed partly engraved in the physicochemical structure of the odorant. That odor preferences are shared between mammal species and are guided by physicochemical features of odorant stimuli strengthens the view that odor preference is partially predetermined. These findings open up new perspectives for the study of the neural mechanisms of hedonic perception.

  13. Olfactory short-term memory encoding and maintenance - an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Steffen; Bluschke, Annet; Beste, Christian; Iannilli, Emilia; Rößner, Veit; Hummel, Thomas; Bender, Stephan

    2014-09-01

    This study examined whether the memory encoding and short term maintenance of olfactory stimuli is associated with neurophysiological activation patterns which parallel those described for sensory modalities such as vision and auditory. We examined olfactory event-related potentials in an olfactory change detection task in twenty-four healthy adults and compared the measured activation to that found during passive olfactory stimulation. During the early olfactory post-processing phase, we found a sustained negativity over bilateral frontotemporal areas in the passive perception condition which was enhanced in the active memory task. There was no significant lateralization in either experimental condition. During the maintenance interval at the end of the delay period, we still found sustained activation over bilateral frontotemporal areas which was more negative in trials with correct - as compared to incorrect - behavioural responses. This was complemented by a general significantly stronger frontocentral activation. Summarizing, we were able to show that olfactory short term memory involves a parallel sequence of activation as found in other sensory modalities. In addition to olfactory-specific frontotemporal activations in the memory encoding phase, we found slow cortical potentials over frontocentral areas during the memory maintenance phase indicating the activation of a supramodal memory maintenance system. These findings could represent the neurophysiological underpinning of the 'olfactory flacon', the olfactory counter-part to the visual sketchpad and phonological loop embedded in Baddeley's working memory model. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to Virtual Social Stimuli Modulates Subjective Pain Reports

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    Jacob M Vigil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Contextual factors, including the gender of researchers, influence experimental and patient pain reports. It is currently not known how social stimuli influence pain percepts, nor which types of sensory modalities of communication, such as auditory, visual or olfactory cues associated with person perception and gender processing, produce these effects.

  15. Sexual odor preference and dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens by estrous olfactory cues in sexually naïve and experienced male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Masaya; Chiba, Atsuhiko

    2018-03-01

    Sexual behavior is a natural reward that activates mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Microdialysis studies have shown that extracellular level of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) significantly increases during copulation in male rats. The NAcc DA level is also known to be increased during the presentation of a sexually receptive female before mating. This rise in DA was probably associated with sexual motivation elicited by incentive stimuli from the receptive female. These microdialysis studies, however, did not thoroughly investigated if olfactory stimuli from estrous females could significantly increase the extracellular DA in the NAcc of male rats. The present study was designed to examine systematically the relationship between the expression of preference for the olfactory stimuli from estrous females and the effects of these stimuli on the extracellular DA levels in the NAcc measured by in vivo microdialysis in male Long-Evans (LE) rats. We used two types of olfactory stimuli, either airborne odors (volatile stimuli) or soiled bedding (volatile plus nonvolatile stimuli). The sexually experienced male rats, which experienced six ejaculations, significantly preferred both of these olfactory stimuli from estrous females as opposed to males. Exposure to these female olfactory stimuli gradually increased extracellular DA in the NAcc, which reached significantly higher level above baseline during the period following the removal of the stimuli although not during the 15-min stimulus presentation period. The sexually naïve male rats, on the other hand, showed neither preference for olfactory stimuli from estrous females nor increase in the NAcc DA after exposure to these stimuli. These data suggest that in male LE rats olfactory stimuli from estrous females in and of themselves can be conditional cues that induce both incentive motivation and a significant increase in the NAcc DA probably as a result of being associated with sexual reward through

  16. Addition of Olfactory Stimuli Reality for Medical Training Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    as the history , of both approaches. This report will also deal with the task of removal of odorants by ventilation or other methods. I will also...didn’t smell right? The history of the so-called "Turk diesel Appendix C -- 72 5% • odor kit" is worth summarizing in this regard. The increasing awareness...IawhigsO th *4 opuimlzati a zoom so M~ Ikea =tWrOAV diedefoca of dieasA.d ofview. do positioning of the teaeL ACtuly We caM notc that in Our first oPW

  17. Non-traumatic cortical subarachnoid haemorrhage: diagnostic work-up and aetiological background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spitzer, C.; Kosinski, C.M. [University Hospital of RWTH Aachen, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); Mull, M. [University Hospital of RWTH Aachen, Department of Neuroradiology, Aachen (Germany); Rohde, V. [University Hospital of RWTH Aachen, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Only 15% of all subarachnoid haemorrhages (SAHs) are not of aneurysmal origin. Among those, circumscribed SAHs along the cortical convexity are rare and have only been described in singular case reports so far. Here, we present a collection of 12 cases of SAH along the convexity, of non-traumatic origin. Over a period of 10 years, 12 cases of circumscribed SAH along the convexity were identified at our clinic. The clinical presentations, neuroradiological SAH characteristics, further diagnostic work-up to identify the underlying aetiologies, the therapy and clinical outcome were analysed. The patients' chief complaints were unspecific cephalgia, focal or generalised seizures and focal neurological deficits. Typical signs of basal SAH, such as nuchal rigidity, thunderclap-headache or alteration of consciousness, were rare. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) revealed different aetiologies, namely postpartal posterior encephalopathy (three), cerebral vasculitis (two), dural sinus thrombosis (two), cortical venous thrombosis (one), intracerebral abscesses (one) and cerebral cavernoma (one). Two cases remained unresolved. Treatment of the underlying disease and symptomatic medication led to good clinical outcome in almost all cases. On the basis of these findings, we demonstrate that the clinical presentation, localisation and aetiology of cortical SAH differ clearly from other SAHs. A diagnostic work-up with MRI and eventually DSA is essential. Mostly, the causative disease can be identified, and specific treatment allows a favourable outcome. (orig.)

  18. Challenging non-traumatic posterior urethral strictures treated with urethroplasty: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolaas Lumen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Posterior urethral strictures after prostatic radiotherapy or surgery for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH refractory to minimal invasive procedures (dilation and/or endoscopic urethrotomy are challenging to treat. Published reports of alternative curative management are extremely rare. This is a preliminary report on the treatment of these difficult strictures by urethroplasty. Materials and Methods: Seven cases were treated: 4 cases occurred after open prostatectomy or transurethral resection of the prostate for BPH, one case after external beam irradiation and 2 after brachytherapy. The 4 cases after BPH-related surgery were in fact complete obstructions at the bladder neck and the membranous urethra with the prostatic urethra still partially patent. Anastomotic repair by perineal route was done in all cases with bladder neck incision in the BPH-cases and prostatic apex resection in the radiotherapy cases. Results: Mean follow-up was 31 months (range: 12-72 months. The operation was successful, with preserved continence, in 3 of the 4 BPH-cases and in 2 of the 3 radiotherapy cases. An endoscopic incision was able to treat a short re-stricture in the BPH-patient and a longer stricture at the bulbar urethra could be managed with a perineostomy in the radiotherapy-patient. Conclusion: Posterior non-traumatic strictures refractory to minimal invasive procedures (dilation/endoscopic urethrotomy can be treated by urethroplasty using an anastomotic repair with a bladder neck incision if necessary.

  19. Very low survival rates after non-traumatic lower limb amputation in a consecutive series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Holm, Gitte; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate factors potentially influencing short- and long-term mortality in patients who had a non-traumatic lower limb amputation in a university hospital. A consecutive series of 93 amputations (16% toe/foot, 33% trans-tibial, 9% through knee and 42......% trans-femoral) were studied. Their mean age was 75.8 years; 21 (23%) were admitted from a nursing home and 87 (92%) were amputated due to a vascular disease and/or diabetes. Thirty days and 1-year mortality were 30 and 54%, respectively. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the 30-day mortality...... was associated with older age (P = 0.01), and the number of co-morbidities (P = 0.04), when adjusted for gender, previous amputations, cause of and amputation level, and residential status. Thus, a patient with 4 or 5 co-morbidities (n = 20) was seven times more likely to die within 30 days, compared...

  20. [A case of non-traumatic tension pneumocephalus 12 years after initial ventriculo-peritoneal shunt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idei, Masaru; Yamane, Kanji; Okita, Shinji; Kumano, Kiyoshi; Nakae, Ryuta; Nishizawa, Shigeru

    2009-10-01

    The authors presented a patient with non-traumatic tension pneumocephalus 12 years after initial ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. A 60-year-old man had a past history of subarachnoid hemorrhage. At ÿtime, he underwent clipping surgery and emplacement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt with a low pressure valve, and was discharged from hospital in a bedridden condition. After 12 years, he was transferred to our hospital because of dysarthria and right hemiparesis. On admission, he had multiple dimples of the scalp in the left frontal area where craniotomy had been carried out 12 years before. Head CT scan revealed air located mainly in bilateral subdural space and collapsed ventricles. We suspected that he had a tension pneumocephalus through a scalp-subdural fistula induced by long-term low intracranial pressure. Operation for closure of the fistula was intended. During the operation a subdural abscess was found so, artificial bone and the shunt system was removed. We were able to detect the fistula from the defect of the scalp to the subdural space and closed it by repairing a scalp defect, using dural plasty. Postoperative clinical course was uneventful and the patient was discharged. About 6 month after the operation, cranioplasty and lumbo-peritoneal shunt was performed. We must recognize that appropriate management of intracranial pressure after installation of a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt is necessary for prevention of tension pneumocephalus.

  1. STUDY OF AGE INCIDENCE AND SYMMETRY IN NON - TRAUMATIC AVASCULAR NECROSIS OF FEMORAL HEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harinath

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCION: Avascular necrosis of the femoral head is an increasingly common cause of musculoskeletal disability, and it poses a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The aim of diagnostic imaging procedures in avascular femoral head necrosis is to provide the patient with a stage - adapted therapy. The aim of this paper is to present the age incidence and symmetricity of involvement of the non - traumatic avascular necrosis of femoral head. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective observational study done durin g January 2013 to June 2013.The study included a total 30 patients referred to the Department of Radiology, Kurnool medical college, Kurnool, for X ray pelvis with both hips. 10 patients out of them were further investigated with MRI pelvis. RESULTS: More than half of the patients (72.6 % were within the age groups 30 - 50 years with male to female ratio of about 4:1. 60% of patients showed bilateral involvement, 20 % showed right femoral head and 20 % showed left femoral head involvement. CONCLUSION: We con clude that disease affects mostly adults within their 3rd and 5th decade and majority of the patients are being men with bilateral involvement. Our study results are comparable with previous studies. Hence we recommend MRI both hips for early identificatio n of AVN changes in asymptomatic contra-lateral hip or normal appearing hip on X-Ray.

  2. Non-traumatic acute epidural spinal hematomas diagnosed by magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, A.; Grive, E.; Pedraza, S.; Capellades, J.; Nos, C.; Alarcon, M.; Rovira, A.

    2000-01-01

    The non-traumatic spinal epidural hematoma (NTSEH) is a rare entity that can be the cause of an acute spinal compression syndrome. the objective of this review is to identify the characteristics by MRI and NTSEH and to analyze the factors that influence in its prognosis. In the years 1994 and 1999, 12 patients with NTSEH have been diagnosed in our hospital, and a MRI was performed during the acute phase. the characteristics of the lesions have been analyzed by MRI, with special emphasis on the topographic data and resonance signal and the factors that can influence in the clinical prognosis of the patients. Initially, all of the patients presented pain in the cervical dorsal or interscapular site, followed by a sensitive-motor deficit picture. The MRI showed a lesion of expansive character and posterior epidural location in every case that would produce varying degrees of compression on the spinal cord. The NTSEH should be considered as one of the causes of acute spinal cord compression. The clinical association of intense cervical, dorsal or interscapular pain followed by a sensomotor deficit picture should lead to the suspicion of this entity, that would require an immediate examination with MRI to verify its diagnosis. Both the clinical manifestations as well as the characteristics observed by MRI of the NTSEH have a prognostic value and determine the therapeutic decision. (Author) 34 refs

  3. Association of non-traumatic complex regional pain syndrome with adenocarcinoma lung on 99mTc-MDP bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damle, Nishikant A.; Tripathi, Madhavi; Singhal, Abhinav; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Praveen Kumar; Kandasamy, Devasenathipathi; Jana, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is usually associated with trauma. Rarely, it may be seen in association with malignancies. We present here the bone scan and X-ray findings in the case of a 56-year-male-patient with adenocarcinoma lung who also had non-traumatic CRPS without involvement of the stellate ganglion. The case highlights the fact that spontaneous development of reflex sympathetic dystrophy may be associated with a neoplastic etiology. (author)

  4. Utilization of Hospital Emergency Departments for non-traumatic dental care in New Hampshire, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ludmila; Cherala, Sai; Traore, Elizabeth; Martin, Nancy R

    2011-08-01

    Hospital Emergency Departments (ED) provide a variety of medical care, some of which is for non-urgent, chronic conditions. We describe the statewide use of hospital ED for selected non-traumatic dental conditions that occurred during 2001-2008 in New Hampshire. Using the administrative hospital discharge dataset for 2001-2007, and provisional 2008 data, we identified all visits for selected dental conditions and calculated age-adjusted rates per 10,000 New Hampshire residents by several socio-demographic characteristics. The Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the statistical significance for trend over time. Emergency department visits for non-traumatic dental conditions increased significantly from 11,067 in 2001 to 16,238 visits in 2007 (P dental care users. The most frequent dental complains (46%) were diseases of the teeth and supporting structures, diagnostic code ICD-9-CM-525. Dental care associated ED visits have increased in New Hampshire. Individuals seeking dental treatment in ED are not receiving definitive treatment, and they misuse limited resources. Future studies need to determine the specific barriers to timely and effective dental care in dental offices. Ongoing consistent monitoring of ED use for non-traumatic dental conditions is essential.

  5. Neural representations of novel objects associated with olfactory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghio, Marta; Schulze, Patrick; Suchan, Boris; Bellebaum, Christian

    2016-07-15

    Object conceptual knowledge comprises information related to several motor and sensory modalities (e.g. for tools, how they look like, how to manipulate them). Whether and to which extent conceptual object knowledge is represented in the same sensory and motor systems recruited during object-specific learning experience is still a controversial question. A direct approach to assess the experience-dependence of conceptual object representations is based on training with novel objects. The present study extended previous research, which focused mainly on the role of manipulation experience for tool-like stimuli, by considering sensory experience only. Specifically, we examined the impact of experience in the non-dominant olfactory modality on the neural representation of novel objects. Sixteen healthy participants visually explored a set of novel objects during the training phase while for each object an odor (e.g., peppermint) was presented (olfactory-visual training). As control conditions, a second set of objects was only visually explored (visual-only training), and a third set was not part of the training. In a post-training fMRI session, participants performed an old/new task with pictures of objects associated with olfactory-visual and visual-only training (old) and no training objects (new). Although we did not find any evidence of activations in primary olfactory areas, the processing of olfactory-visual versus visual-only training objects elicited greater activation in the right anterior hippocampus, a region included in the extended olfactory network. This finding is discussed in terms of different functional roles of the hippocampus in olfactory processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Early olfactory environment influences social behaviour in adult Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Natalia; Martínez-Harms, Jaime; Vásquez, Rodrigo A; Mpodozis, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which manipulation of early olfactory environment can influence social behaviours in the South American Hystricognath rodent Octodon degus. The early olfactory environment of newborn degus was manipulated by scenting all litter members with eucalyptol during the first month of life. The social behaviour of sexually mature animals (5-7 months old) towards conspecifics was then assessed using a y-maze to compare the response of control (naïve) and treated animals to two different olfactory configurations (experiment 1): (i) a non-familiarized conspecific impregnated with eucalyptol (eucalyptol arm) presented against (ii) a non-familiarized unscented conspecific (control arm). In addition, in dyadic encounters, we assessed the behaviour of control and eucalyptol treated animals towards a non-familiarized conspecific scented with eucalyptol (experiment 2). We found that control subjects explored and spent significantly less time in the eucalyptol arm, indicating neophobic behaviours towards the artificially scented conspecific. Treated subjects explored and spent similar time in both arms of the maze, showing the same interest for both olfactory stimuli presented. During dyadic encounters in experiment 2, an interaction effect between early experience and sex was observed. Control males escaped and avoided their scented partner more frequently than eucalyptol treated male subjects and than females. Both groups did not differ in the exploration of their scented partners, suggesting that avoidance within agonistic context does not relate to neophobic behaviours. Our results suggest that the exposure to eucalyptol during early ontogeny decreases evasive behaviours within an agonistic context as a result of olfactory learning. Altogether, these results indicate that olfactory cues learned in early ontogeny can influence olfactory-guided behaviours in adult degus.

  7. Olfactory insights into sleep-dependent learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Laura K; Gottfried, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is pervasive throughout most of the animal kingdom-even jellyfish and honeybees do it. Although the precise function of sleep remains elusive, research increasingly suggests that sleep plays a key role in memory consolidation. Newly formed memories are highly labile and susceptible to interference, and the sleep period offers an optimal window in which memories can be strengthened or modified. Interestingly, a small but growing research area has begun to explore the ability of odors to modulate memories during sleep. The unique anatomical organization of the olfactory system, including its intimate overlap with limbic systems mediating emotion and memory, and the lack of a requisite thalamic intermediary between the nasal periphery and olfactory cortex, suggests that odors may have privileged access to the brain during sleep. Indeed, it has become clear that the long-held assumption that odors have no impact on the sleeping brain is no longer tenable. Here, we summarize recent studies in both animal and human models showing that odor stimuli experienced in the waking state modulate olfactory cortical responses in sleep-like states, that delivery of odor contextual cues during sleep can enhance declarative memory and extinguish fear memory, and that olfactory associative learning can even be achieved entirely within sleep. Data reviewed here spotlight the emergence of a new research area that should hold far-reaching implications for future neuroscientific investigations of sleep, learning and memory, and olfactory system function. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. International Spinal Cord Injury Data Sets for non-traumatic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; Marshall, R

    2014-02-01

    Multifaceted: extensive discussions at workshop and conference presentations, survey of experts and feedback. Present the background, purpose and development of the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Data Sets for Non-Traumatic SCI (NTSCI), including a hierarchical classification of aetiology. International. Consultation via e-mail, presentations and discussions at ISCoS conferences (2006-2009), and workshop (1 September 2008). The consultation processes aimed to: (1) clarify aspects of the classification structure, (2) determine placement of certain aetiologies and identify important missing causes of NTSCI and (3) resolve coding issues and refine definitions. Every effort was made to consider feedback and suggestions from participants. The International Data Sets for NTSCI includes basic and an extended versions. The extended data set includes a two-axis classification system for the causes of NTSCI. Axis 1 consists of a five-level, two-tier (congenital-genetic and acquired) hierarchy that allows for increasing detail to specify the aetiology. Axis 2 uses the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) and Related Health Problems for coding the initiating diseases(s) that may have triggered the events that resulted in the axis 1 diagnosis, where appropriate. Additional items cover the timeframe of onset of NTSCI symptoms and presence of iatrogenicity. Complete instructions for data collection, data sheet and training cases are available at the websites of ISCoS (http://www.iscos.org.uk) and ASIA (http://www.asia-spinalinjury.org). The data sets should facilitate comparative research involving NTSCI participants, especially epidemiological studies and prevention projects. Further work is anticipated to refine the data sets, particularly regarding iatrogenicity.

  9. The etiology and outcome of non-traumatic coma in critical care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsting, Marlene Wb B; Franken, Mira D; Meulenbelt, Jan; van Klei, Wilton A; de Lange, Dylan W

    2015-04-29

    Non-traumatic coma (NTC) is a serious condition requiring swift medical or surgical decision making upon arrival at the emergency department. Knowledge of the most frequent etiologies of NTC and associated mortality might improve the management of these patients. Here, we present the results of a systematic literature search on the etiologies and prognosis of NTC. Two reviewers independently performed a systematic literature search in the Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane databases with subsequent reference and citation checking. Inclusion criteria were retrospective or prospective observational studies on NTC, which reported on etiologies and prognostic information of patients admitted to the emergency department or intensive care unit. Eventually, 14 studies with enough data on NTC, were selected for this systematic literature review. The most common causes of NTC were stroke (6-54%), post-anoxic coma (3-42%), poisoning (coma (54-89%) and lowest for poisoning (0-39%) and epilepsy (0-10%). NTC represents a challenge to the emergency and the critical care physicians with an important mortality and moderate-severe disability rate. Even though, included studies were very heterogeneous, the most common causes of NTC are stroke, post anoxic, poisoning and various metabolic etiologies. The best outcome is achieved for patients with poisoning and epilepsy, while the worst outcome was seen in patients with stroke and post-anoxic coma. Adequate knowledge of the most common causes of NTC and prioritizing the causes by mortality ensures a swift and adequate work-up in diagnosis of NTC and may improve outcome.

  10. Angiography in non-traumatic brain haematoma. An analysis of 100 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, P.D. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Academic Dept. of Radiology; Beveridge, C.J.; Gholkar, A. [Newcastle General Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    1997-09-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this project was to study the anatomical characteristics of intracerebral haematoma (ICH) in order to determine features that may negate the need for angiography in some patients. Material and Methods: The study was prospective and designed to investigate the underlying cause of non-traumatic ICH in 100 cases assessed by conventional angiography. Patients were excluded if there was a history of trauma or known pre-existing brain abnormality. All patients were examined with CT and angiography within 4 days of the ictus. Results: Ruptured aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were diagnosed on the initial angiogram in 49% of cases: 27 AVMs and 22 aneurysms. One case of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was also detected. Vascular abnormalities were found most frequently in the under-40 age group and in cases in which subarachnoid haemorrhage, intraventricular haemorrhage or extracerebral haematoma accompanied the ICH. The temporal lobe was the most frequent anatomical location (37%). When a temporal lobe haematoma extended into the Sylvian fissure from the inferior pole of the temporal lobe or when it was associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage, structural abnormalities were found in over 90% of cases. Conclusions: There are groups of patients with ICH in whom the CT features are highly suggestive of AVM or aneurysm rupture. If the initial angiography is negative in these cases, careful follow up by repeat angiography and/or MR imaging is essential. However, potentially treatable abnormalities cannot be excluded with certainty by the distribution of the haematoma on CT alone, even if there is a history of pre-existing hypertension. (orig.).

  11. Global maps of non-traumatic spinal cord injury epidemiology: towards a living data repository.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New, P W; Cripps, R A; Bonne Lee, B

    2014-02-01

    Literature review. Globally map non-traumatic spinal cord injury (NTSCI) incidence, prevalence, survival, level of injury and aetiology. Propose a research framework for NTSCI prevention and launch a repository of NTSCI data. Initiative of the International Spinal Cord Society Prevention Committee. Literature search of Medline and Embase (1959-June 2011). Relevant articles in any language regarding adults with NTSCI were included. Stratification of information about incidence and prevalence into green/yellow/orange/red data quality 'zones' and comparisons between World Health Organisation (WHO) regions and countries. Three hundred and seventy-seven abstracts reviewed--45 of these from 24 countries in 12 of the 21 WHO global regions had relevant information. Only one publication had survival data. Prevalence data for NTSCI existed for only two countries, India (prevalence of 2,310/million population, Kashmir region) and Canada (prevalence of 1,120/million population). The incidence rates for WHO regions were: Asia Pacific, high income 20/million population/year; Australasia (26/million population/year); Western Europe median of 6/million population/year; North America, high income median 76/million population/year (based on poor-quality studies); and Oceania 9/million population/year. Developed countries tended to have a higher proportion of cases with degenerative conditions and tumours. Developing countries, in comparison, tended to have a higher proportion of infections, particularly tuberculosis and HIV, although a number also reported tumours as a major cause. Insufficient survival, prevalence and incidence data are a predominant finding of this review. The piecemeal approach to epidemiological reporting of NTSCI, particularly failing to include sound regional population denominators, has exhausted its utility. Minimum data collection standards are required.

  12. Risk of contralateral avascular necrosis (AVN) after total hip arthroplasty (THA) for non-traumatic AVN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goker, Berna; Block, Joel A

    2006-01-01

    The risk of developing bilateral disease progressing to total hip arthroplasty (THA) among patients who undergo unilateral THA for non-traumatic avascular necrosis (AVN) remains poorly understood. An analysis of the time-course to contralateral THA, as well as the effects of underlying AVN risk factors, is presented. Forty-seven consecutive patients who underwent THA for AVN were evaluated. Peri-operative and annual post-operative antero-posterior pelvis radiographs were examined for evidence of contralateral involvement. Patient age, weight, height, underlying AVN risk factor(s), date of onset of contralateral hip pain if occurred, and date of contralateral THA if performed, were recorded. Bone scan, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging data were utilized when available. Twenty-one patients (46.6%) underwent contralateral THA for AVN within a median of 9 months after the initial THA (range 0-93, interquartile range 28.5 months). The median follow-up for patients without contralateral THA was 75 months (range 3-109, interquartile range 69 months). Thirty-four patients had radiographic findings of contralateral AVN at study entry; 25 were symptomatic bilaterally at entry and 7 developed contralateral symptoms within a mean time of 12 months (median 10 months, interquartile range 12 months). None of the 13 patients who were free of radiographic evidence of contralateral AVN at study entry developed evidence of AVN during the follow-up. AVN associated with glucocorticoid use was more likely to manifest as bilateral disease than either idiopathic AVN or ethanol-associated AVN (P=0.02 and P=0.03 respectively). Radiographically-evident AVN in the contralateral hip at THA is unlikely to remain asymptomatic for a prolonged period of time. Conversely, asymptomatic contralateral hips without radiographic evidence of AVN are unlikely to develop clinically significant AVN.

  13. Angiography in non-traumatic brain haematoma. An analysis of 100 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, P.D.; Beveridge, C.J.; Gholkar, A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this project was to study the anatomical characteristics of intracerebral haematoma (ICH) in order to determine features that may negate the need for angiography in some patients. Material and Methods: The study was prospective and designed to investigate the underlying cause of non-traumatic ICH in 100 cases assessed by conventional angiography. Patients were excluded if there was a history of trauma or known pre-existing brain abnormality. All patients were examined with CT and angiography within 4 days of the ictus. Results: Ruptured aneurysms or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) were diagnosed on the initial angiogram in 49% of cases: 27 AVMs and 22 aneurysms. One case of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis was also detected. Vascular abnormalities were found most frequently in the under-40 age group and in cases in which subarachnoid haemorrhage, intraventricular haemorrhage or extracerebral haematoma accompanied the ICH. The temporal lobe was the most frequent anatomical location (37%). When a temporal lobe haematoma extended into the Sylvian fissure from the inferior pole of the temporal lobe or when it was associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage, structural abnormalities were found in over 90% of cases. Conclusions: There are groups of patients with ICH in whom the CT features are highly suggestive of AVM or aneurysm rupture. If the initial angiography is negative in these cases, careful follow up by repeat angiography and/or MR imaging is essential. However, potentially treatable abnormalities cannot be excluded with certainty by the distribution of the haematoma on CT alone, even if there is a history of pre-existing hypertension. (orig.)

  14. Induction of Associative Olfactory Memory by Targeted Activation of Single Olfactory Neurons in Drosophila Larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Yoshida-Kasikawa, Maki; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2014-01-01

    It has been postulated that associative memory is formed by at least two sets of external stimuli, CS and US, that are transmitted to the memory centers by distinctive conversing pathways. However, whether associative memory can be induced by the activation of only the olfactory CS and a biogenic amine-mediated US pathways remains to be elucidated. In this study, we substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by C...

  15. Short-term memory in olfactory network dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Stopfer, Mark; Laurent, Gilles

    1999-01-01

    Neural assemblies in a number of animal species display self-organized, synchronized oscillations in response to sensory stimuli in a variety of brain areas. In the olfactory system of insects, odour-evoked oscillatory synchronization of antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs) is superimposed on slower and stimulus-specific temporal activity patterns. Hence, each odour activates a specific and dynamic projection neuron assembly whose evolution during a stimulus is locked to the oscillation clo...

  16. Olfactory impairment is related to REM sleep deprivation in rotenone model of Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana F. Aurich

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olfactory dysfunction affects about 85-90% of Parkinson's disease (PD patients with severe deterioration in the ability of discriminate several types of odors. In addition, studies reported declines in olfactory performances during a short period of sleep deprivation. Besides, PD is also known to strongly affect the occurrence and maintenance of rapid eye movement (REM sleep. Methods: Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms involved on discrimination of a social odor (dependent on the vomeronasal system and a non-social odor (related to the main olfactory pathway in the rotenone model of PD. Also, a concomitant impairment in REM sleep was inflicted with the introduction of two periods (24 or 48 h of REM sleep deprivation (REMSD. Rotenone promoted a remarkable olfactory impairment in both social and non-social odors, with a notable modulation induced by 24 h of REMSD for the non-social odor. Results: Our findings demonstrated the occurrence of a strong association between the density of nigral TH-ir neurons and the olfactory discrimination capacity for both odorant stimuli. Specifically, the rotenone-induced decrease of these neurons tends to elicit reductions in the olfactory discrimination ability. Conclusions: These results are consistent with the participation of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system mainly in the olfactory discrimination of a non-social odor, probably through the main olfactory pathway. Such involvement may have produce relevant impact in the preclinical abnormalities found in PD patients.

  17. The CT frequencies of various non-traumatic acute abdominal emergencies in hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis patients and the general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergün, Tarkan; Lakadamyal, Hatice

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the frequency of non-traumatic acute abdominal emergencies in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD)) patients and in the general population as diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods: The abdominal CT findings of ESRD patients with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain during the years 2001–2010 have been retrospectively evaluated. Thirty-three HD (14 females, 19 males, mean age: 62 ± 10.5) and 22 PD patients (12 females, 10 males, mean age: 59 ± 9.4) with acute abdominal pathology based on their CT scans have been included into the study. In addition, 127 individuals (68 females, 59 males, mean age: 40.7 ± 12.8) with normal renal functions who presented with non-traumatic acute abdominal pain diagnosed with an acute abdominal pathology based on their CT scans have been prospectively evaluated during the years 2009–2010. Results: While the most frequent etiology in PD patients was peritonitis (45.4%), acute pancreatitis (13.6%) and perforation (18.1), and in HD patients it was nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia (18.1%) and spontaneous intraabdominal bleeding (21.2%). The basic causes of acute abdomen in the general population were ureteral stone (34.6%) and appendicitis (18.1%). Conclusions: The causes of acute abdominal pain in ESRD patients is significantly different when compared to the general population. And within this special patient population the etiology of acute abdomen differs depending on the renal replacement therapy modality they are receiving. Thus, the causes of acute abdomen in PD patients are mostly peritonitis, acute pancreatitis, and perforation, while being mostly nonocclusive mesenteric ischemia and spontaneous intraabdominal bleeding in patients receiving HD therapy.

  18. An enhanced treatment program with markedly reduced mortality after a transtibial or higher non-traumatic lower extremity amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten T; Holm, Gitte; Krasheninnikoff, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - Historically, high 30-day and 1-year mortality post-amputation rates (> 30% and 50%, respectively) have been reported in patients with a transtibial or higher non-traumatic lower extremity amputation (LEA). We evaluated whether allocating experienced staff and implementing...... adjusted for age, sex, residential and health status, the disease that caused the amputation, and the index amputation level showed that 30-day and 1-year mortality risk was reduced by 52% (HR =0.48, 95% CI: 0.25-0.91) and by 46% (HR =0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.86), respectively, in the intervention group...

  19. Olfactory interference during inhibitory backward pairing in honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Dacher

    Full Text Available Restrained worker honey bees are a valuable model for studying the behavioral and neural bases of olfactory plasticity. The proboscis extension response (PER; the proboscis is the mouthpart of honey bees is released in response to sucrose stimulation. If sucrose stimulation is preceded one or a few times by an odor (forward pairing, the bee will form a memory for this association, and subsequent presentations of the odor alone are sufficient to elicit the PER. However, backward pairing between the two stimuli (sucrose, then odor has not been studied to any great extent in bees, although the vertebrate literature indicates that it elicits a form of inhibitory plasticity.If hungry bees are fed with sucrose, they will release a long lasting PER; however, this PER can be interrupted if an odor is presented 15 seconds (but not 7 or 30 seconds after the sucrose (backward pairing. We refer to this previously unreported process as olfactory interference. Bees receiving this 15 second backward pairing show reduced performance after a subsequent single forward pairing (excitatory conditioning trial. Analysis of the results supported a relationship between olfactory interference and a form of backward pairing-induced inhibitory learning/memory. Injecting the drug cimetidine into the deutocerebrum impaired olfactory interference.Olfactory interference depends on the associative link between odor and PER, rather than between odor and sucrose. Furthermore, pairing an odor with sucrose can lead either to association of this odor to PER or to the inhibition of PER by this odor. Olfactory interference may provide insight into processes that gate how excitatory and inhibitory memories for odor-PER associations are formed.

  20. Olfactory dysfunction in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.J.; Zhao, N.; Fu, Y.; Zhang, D.Q.; Wang, J.; Qin, W.; Zhang, N.N.N.; Wood, K.; Liu, Y.; Yu, C.S.; Shi, F.D.; Yang, L.

    2015-01-01

    Few data were available for the understanding of olfactory function in neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs). The aims of our study were to investigate the incidence of olfactory dysfunction and characterize olfactory structures, using MRI, in patients with NMOSDs. Olfactory function was

  1. Immunocytochemistry of the olfactory marker protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti-Graziadei, G A; Margolis, F L; Harding, J W; Graziadei, P P

    1977-12-01

    The olfactory marker protein has been localized, by means of immunohistochemical techniques in the primary olfactory neurons of mice. The olfactory marker protein is not present in the staminal cells of the olfactory neuroepithelium, and the protein may be regarded as indicative of the functional stage of the neurons. Our data indicate that the olfactory marker protein is present in the synaptic terminals of the olfactory neurons at the level of the olfactory bulb glomeruli. The postsynaptic profiles of both mitral and periglomerular cells are negative.

  2. Heterogeneous sensory innervation and extensive intrabulbar connections of olfactory necklace glomeruli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee E Cockerham

    Full Text Available The mammalian nose employs several olfactory subsystems to recognize and transduce diverse chemosensory stimuli. These subsystems differ in their anatomical position within the nasal cavity, their targets in the olfactory forebrain, and the transduction mechanisms they employ. Here we report that they can also differ in the strategies they use for stimulus coding. Necklace glomeruli are the sole main olfactory bulb (MOB targets of an olfactory sensory neuron (OSN subpopulation distinguished by its expression of the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and the phosphodiesterase PDE2, and by its chemosensitivity to the natriuretic peptides uroguanylin and guanylin and the gas CO(2. In stark contrast to the homogeneous sensory innervation of canonical MOB glomeruli from OSNs expressing the same odorant receptor (OR, we find that each necklace glomerulus of the mouse receives heterogeneous innervation from at least two distinct sensory neuron populations: one expressing GC-D and PDE2, the other expressing olfactory marker protein. In the main olfactory system it is thought that odor identity is encoded by a combinatorial strategy and represented in the MOB by a pattern of glomerular activation. This combinatorial coding scheme requires functionally homogeneous sensory inputs to individual glomeruli by OSNs expressing the same OR and displaying uniform stimulus selectivity; thus, activity in each glomerulus reflects the stimulation of a single OSN type. The heterogeneous sensory innervation of individual necklace glomeruli by multiple, functionally distinct, OSN subtypes precludes a similar combinatorial coding strategy in this olfactory subsystem.

  3. Childhood acute non-traumatic coma: aetiology and challenges in management in resource-poor countries of Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwer, Samson; Chacha, Clifford; Newton, Charles R; Idro, Richard

    2013-08-01

    This review examines the best available evidence on the aetiology of childhood acute non-traumatic coma in resource-poor countries (RPCs), discusses the challenges associated with management, and explores strategies to address them. Publications in English and French which reported on studies on the aetiology of childhood non-traumatic coma in RPCs are reviewed. Primarily, the MEDLINE database was searched using the keywords coma, unconsciousness, causality, aetiology, child, malaria cerebral, meningitis, encephalitis, Africa, Asia, and developing countries. 14 records were identified for inclusion in the review. Cerebral malaria (CM) was the commonest cause of childhood coma in most of the studies conducted in Africa. Acute bacterial meningitis (ABM) was the second most common known cause of coma in seven of the African studies. Of the studies in Asia, encephalitides were the commonest cause of coma in two studies in India, and ABM was the commonest cause of coma in Pakistan. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most commonly isolated organism in ABM. Japanese encephalitis, dengue fever and enteroviruses were the viral agents most commonly isolated. Accurate diagnosis of the aetiology of childhood coma in RPCs is complicated by overlap in clinical presentation, limited diagnostic resources, disease endemicity and co-morbidity. For improved outcomes, studies are needed to further elucidate the aetiology of childhood coma in RPCs, explore simple and practical diagnostic tools, and investigate the most appropriate specific and supportive interventions to manage and prevent infectious encephalopathies.

  4. Bone scintigraphy screening for osteonecrosis of the shoulder in patients with non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takashi; Sugano, Nobuhiko; Nishii, Takashi; Miki, Hidenobu; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Ohzono, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    In patients with non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH), the shoulder is one of the major affected sites secondary to the proximal and distal femur in cases of multiple osteonecrosis. The present study attempted to investigate whether technetium bone scintigraphy is useful for screening of non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the shoulder (ONS).Design and patients. A total of 170 shoulder joints in 85 patients with ONFH were evaluated by bone scintigraphy and the findings compared with those of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MR diagnosis was used as the gold standard.Results. Based on the diagnosis by MRI, ONS was detected in 43 shoulders of 27 patients (25%). All necrotic lesions were located in the humeral head. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of bone scintigraphy for ONS detection were 65%, 81%, 77%, 54% and 87%, respectively. When the necrotic angle of the lesions on the mid-coronal MRI was more than 40 , the sensitivity of bone scintigraphy for ONS detection increased to 88% (21/24 shoulders).Conclusion. Bone scintigraphy may be useful for demonstrating medium or large ONS lesions on screening of patients with ONFH. (orig.)

  5. Results of treatment in patients with non traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head by monitor assisted core decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piperovski, T.

    2001-01-01

    The authors tried to evaluate the results of treatment in 32 patients (39 hips) with non-traumatic avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head by monitor assisted core decompression. Average age - 44 years, 19 were male and 13 female. 7 patients had bilateral involvement. The diagnosis AVN has been made by anteroposterior and lateral conventional radiographs bone scintigraphy and MRI. It is also done histopathological examinations of the specimens taken during the operation in order to confirm the primary diagnosis. It is established early diagnosis in stage I, stage IIA and IIB (the modified staging system of Ficat and Arlet is used, in combination with the system of Steinberg at al.) All patients have been treated by core decompression. The operative technique used is modified Phemister, which is similar to Ficat- Arlet. After the operation periodically x-ray and MRI investigations are done. The mean follow up time is 4 years. 79.37% of the hips showed radiographic and MRI stabilization within 2-4 years after core decompression. In 10.25% the results are moderate and in the rest (10.25%) total or bi-polar hip prosthesis have been implanted. The benefit of core decompression in patients with non-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head is justified

  6. Refining the dual olfactory hypothesis: pheromone reward and odour experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Fernando; Martínez-Ricós, Joana; Agustín-Pavón, Carmen; Martínez-Hernández, Jose; Novejarque, Amparo; Lanuza, Enrique

    2009-06-25

    In rodents, sexual advertisement and gender recognition are mostly (if not exclusively) mediated by chemosignals. Specifically, there is ample evidence indicating that female mice are 'innately' attracted by male sexual pheromones that have critical non-volatile components and are detected by the vomeronasal organ. These pheromones can only get access to the vomeronasal organ by active pumping mechanisms that require close contact with the source of the stimulus (e.g. urine marks) during chemoinvestigation. We have hypothesised that male sexual pheromones are rewarding to female mice. Indeed, male-soiled bedding can be used as a reinforcer to induce conditioned place preference, provided contact with the bedding is allowed. The neural mechanisms of pheromone reward seem, however, different from those employed by other natural reinforcers, such as the sweetness or postingestive effects of sucrose. In contrast to vomeronasal-detected male sexual pheromones, male-derived olfactory stimuli (volatiles) are not intrinsically attractive to female mice. However, after repeated exposure to male-soiled bedding, intact female mice develop an acquired preference for male odours. On the contrary, in females whose accessory olfactory bulbs have been lesioned, exposure to male-soiled bedding induces aversion to male odorants. These considerations, together with data on the different properties of olfactory and vomeronasal receptors, lead us to make a proposal for the complementary roles that the olfactory and vomeronasal systems play in intersexual attraction and in other forms of intra- or inter-species communication.

  7. Introducing Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation into Olfactory Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    An olfactory display is a device that delivers various odors to the user's nose. It can be used to add special effects to movies and games by releasing odors relevant to the scenes shown on the screen. In order to provide high-presence olfactory stimuli to the users, the display must be able to generate realistic odors with appropriate concentrations in a timely manner together with visual and audio playbacks. In this paper, we propose to use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations in conjunction with the olfactory display. Odor molecules released from their source are transported mainly by turbulent flow, and their behavior can be extremely complicated even in a simple indoor environment. In the proposed system, a CFD solver is employed to calculate the airflow field and the odor dispersal in the given environment. An odor blender is used to generate the odor with the concentration determined based on the calculated odor distribution. Experimental results on presenting odor stimuli synchronously with movie clips show the effectiveness of the proposed system.

  8. Implicit and Explicit Olfactory Memory in People with and without Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Adam; Homewood, Judi; Stevenson, Richard; Taylor, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined differences in implicit and explicit memory performance between people with Down syndrome (DS), their siblings, children matched on mental age, and university undergraduates, using olfactory stimuli. The DS and mental-age matched participants were also compared on two tasks of executive function. The data revealed implicit…

  9. Are olfactory receptors really olfactive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giorgi, Franco; Maggio, Roberto; Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2011-01-01

    environmental conditions. By adopting this standpoint, the functional attribution as olfactory or chemotactic sensors to these receptors should not be seen neither as a cause conditioning receptor gene expression, nor as a final effect resulting from genetically predetermined programs, but as a direct...... and odor-decoding processes. However, this type of explanation does not entirely justify the role olfactory receptors have played during evolution, since they are also expressed ectopically in different organs and/or tissues. Homologous olfactory genes have in fact been found in such diverse cells and....../or organs as spermatozoa, testis and kidney where they are assumed to act as chemotactic sensors or renin modulators. To justify their functional diversity, homologous olfactory receptors are assumed to share the same basic role: that of conferring a self-identity to cells or tissues under varying...

  10. Discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and olfactory event related potentials in five patients with olfactory dysfunction following upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jing; Ni, Dao-feng; Wang, Jian; Gao, Zhi-qiang

    2009-07-05

    Subjective olfactory tests are easy to perform and popularly applied in the clinic, but using only these, it is difficult to diagnose all disorders of the olfactory system. The olfactory event related potentials technique offers further insight into the olfactory system and is an ideal objective test. This analysis was of subjective and objective data on the olfactory function of twelve patients with loss of smell associated with an upper respiratory infection (URI). We tested the twelve patients with URI induced olfactory loss by medical history, physical examination of the head and neck, olfactory tests and medical imaging. Olfactory function was assessed by Toyota and Takagi olfactometry including olfactory detection and recognition thresholds and olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) recorded with OEP-98C Olfactometer. An unusual phenomenon was observed in five patients in whom the subjective detection and recognition thresholds were normal, while the expected OERPs were not detectable. We suggest that the discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and OERPs might be the results of abnormal electrophysiology related with olfactory neuropathy caused by viral URI. In addition, the measurement of OERPs might play a significant role in evaluating olfactory dysfunction.

  11. Discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and olfactory event related potentials in five patients with olfactory dysfunction following upper respiratory infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Jing; NI Dao-feng; WANG Jian; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2009-01-01

    Background Subjective olfactory tests are easy to perform and popularly applied in the clinic, but using only these, it is difficult to diagnose all disorders of the olfactory system. The olfactory event related potentials technique offers further insight into the olfactory system and is an ideal objective test. This analysis was of subjective and objective data on the olfactory function of twelve patients with loss of smell associated with an upper respiratory infection (URI). Methods We tested the twelve patients with URI induced olfactory loss by medical history, physical examination of the head and neck, olfactory tests and medical imaging. Olfactory function was assessed by Toyota and Takagi olfactometry including olfactory detection and recognition thresholds and olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) recorded with OEP-98C Olfactometer. Results An unusual phenomenon was observed in five patients in whom the subjective detection and recognition thresholds were normal, while the expected OERPs were not detectable. Conclusions We suggest that the discordance between olfactory psychophysical measurements and OERPs might be the results of abnormal electrephysiology related with olfactory neuropathy caused by viral URI. In addition, the measurement of OERPs might play a significant role in evaluating olfactory dysfunction.

  12. Differences in response between traumatic and non-traumatic chronic neck pain patients in a multimodal intervention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ris Hansen, Inge; Søgaard, Karen; Gram, Bibi

    , Pain Bothersomeness, Patient-Specific Functioning Scale, Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia, Global Perceived Effect) and clinical tests (cervical Range of Motion, Pressure Pain Threshold at infraspinatus, tibialis anterior and cervical spine, Cranio-cervical Flexion, Cervical Extension muscle function......) showed statistically significant improvements in physical HR-QoL, mental HR-QoL, depression, cervical pressure pain threshold, cervical extension movement, muscle function, and oculomotion. Per protocol analyses confirmed these results with additional significant improvements in the exercise group......Abstract title: Do traumatic and non-traumatic chronic neck pain patients respond different on a combination of pain education, exercises and training? Authors: Inge Ris, Karen Søgaard, Bibi Gram, Karina Agerbo, Eleanor Boyle, Birgit Juul-Kristensen Background: Previous studies have investigated...

  13. Index to Predict In-hospital Mortality in Older Adults after Non-traumatic Emergency Department Intubations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Ouchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our goal was to develop and validate an index to predict in-hospital mortality in older adults after non-traumatic emergency department (ED intubations. Methods: We used Vizient administrative data from hospitalizations of 22,374 adults ≥75 years who underwent non-traumatic ED intubation from 2008–2015 at nearly 300 U.S. hospitals to develop and validate an index to predict in-hospital mortality. We randomly selected one half of participants for the development cohort and one half for the validation cohort. Considering 25 potential predictors, we developed a multivariable logistic regression model using least absolute shrinkage and selection operator method to determine factors associated with in-hospital mortality. We calculated risk scores using points derived from the final model’s beta coefficients. To evaluate calibration and discrimination of the final model, we used Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square test and receiver-operating characteristic analysis and compared mortality by risk groups in the development and validation cohorts. Results: Death during the index hospitalization occurred in 40% of cases. The final model included six variables: history of myocardial infarction, history of cerebrovascular disease, history of metastatic cancer, age, admission diagnosis of sepsis, and admission diagnosis of stroke/ intracranial hemorrhage. Those with low-risk scores (10 had 58% risk of in-hospital mortality. The Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square of the model was 6.47 (p=0.09, and the c-statistic was 0.62 in the validation cohort. Conclusion: The model may be useful in identifying older adults at high risk of death after ED intubation.

  14. Olfactory groove meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Stephen J; DeMonte, Franco

    2003-06-15

    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) arise over the cribriform plate and may reach very large sizes prior to presentation. They can be differentiated from tuberculum sellae meningiomas because OGMs arise more anterior in the skull base and displace the optic nerve and chiasm inferiorly rather than superiorly. The authors searched the neurosurgery database at the M. D. Anderson Cancer Center for cases of OGM treated between 1993 and 2003. The records of these patients were then reviewed retrospectively for details regarding clinical presentation, imaging findings, surgical results and complications, and follow-up status. Thirteen patients, (12 women and one man, mean age 56 years) harbored OGMs (mean size 5.7 cm). All patients underwent bifrontal craniotomies and biorbital osteotomies. There were 11 complete resections (including the hyperostotic bone and dura of the cribriform plate and any extension into the ethmoid sinuses) and two subtotal resections with minimal residual tumor left in patients with recurrent lesions. No complication directly due to the surgery occurred in any patient. There were no recurrences in a mean follow-up period of 2 years (range 0-5 years). With current microsurgical techniques, the results of OGM resection are excellent, with a high rate of total resection and a low incidence of complications. All hyperostotic bone should be removed with the dura of the anterior skull base to minimize the risk of recurrence.

  15. Expert consensus on facilitators and barriers to return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions : A Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S. E.; Johnston, V.; Ross, M.; Coppieters, M. W.

    2017-01-01

    This Delphi study aimed to reach consensus on important facilitators and barriers for return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions. In Round 1, experts (n = 42) listed 134 factors, which were appraised in Rounds 2 and 3. Consensus (3/485% agreement) was achieved for

  16. Imaging of acquired non-traumatic cochlear lesions: iconographic essay; Avaliacao por imagem das lesoes cocleares adquiridas (nao-traumaticas): ensaio iconografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Gonzaga, Juliana Gontijo [Clinica Axial - Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: cidbh@cidbh.com.br; marcelogarcia@superig.com.br

    2006-04-15

    Different non-traumatic acquired cochlear lesions are shown in this article with imaging methods. They may be responsible for neuro sensorial hearing loss or vertigo. The method of choice is computed tomography when evaluating the osseous labyrinth whereas magnetic resonance imaging has superior resolution in the studies of the membranaceous labyrinth. (author)

  17. The effectiveness of postmortem multidetector computed tomography in the detection of fatal findings related to cause of non-traumatic death in the emergency department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Naoya; Higuchi, Takeshi; Shiotani, Motoi; Hirose, Yasuo; Shibuya, Hiroyuki; Hashidate, Hideki; Yamanouchi, Haruo; Funayama, Kazuhisa

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of postmortem multidetector computed tomography (PMMDCT) for the detection of fatal findings related to causes of non-traumatic death in the emergency department (ED). 494 consecutive cases of clinically diagnosed non-traumatic death in ED involving PMMDCT were enrolled. The fatal findings were detected on PMMDCT and classified as definite or possible findings. These findings were confirmed by autopsy in 20 cases. The fatal findings were detected in 188 subjects (38.1%) including 122 with definite (24.7%) and 66 with possible finding (13.4%). Definite findings included 21 cases of intracranial vascular lesions, 84 with intra-thoracic haemorrhage, 13 with retroperitoneal haemorrhage and one with oesophagogastric haemorrhage. In three patients who had initially been diagnosed with non-traumatic death, PMMDCT revealed fatal traumatic findings. Two definite findings (two haemopericardiums) and seven possible findings (two intestinal obstructions, one each of multiple liver tumours central pulmonary artery dilatation, pulmonary congestion, peritoneal haematoma, and brain oedema) were confirmed by autopsy. The causes of death were not determined in cases with possible findings without autopsy. PMMDCT is a feasible tool for detecting morphological fatal findings in non-traumatic death in ED. It is important to know the ability and limitation of PMMDCT. (orig.)

  18. Newborn Interneurons in the Accessory Olfactory Bulb Promote Mate Recognition in Female Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livio eOboti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the olfactory bulb of adult rodents, local interneurons are constantly replaced by immature precursors derived from the subventricular zone. Whether any olfactory sensory process specifically relies on this cell renewal remains largely unclear. By using the well-known model of mating-induced imprinting, we demonstrate that this olfactory memory formation critically depends on the presence of newborn granule neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb. Accordingly, we show that, in adult female mice, exposure to male pheromones increases the number of new granule cells surviving in the accessory olfactory bulb. This neuronal addition depends on the detection of sensory cues by the vomeronasal organ and requires centrifugal feedback activity from the amygdala. The stimuli affecting neuronal survival are contained in the low molecular weight fraction of urine and are implied in pheromonal recognition during mating. By chemical depletion of newly generated bulbar interneurons, we show a direct role of renewed granule cells in the accessory olfactory bulb in preventing pregnancy block by mating male odours. Taken together, our results indicate that adult neurogenesis is essential for specific brain functions such as persistent odour learning and mate recognition.

  19. Olfactory Receptor Database: a sensory chemoreceptor resource

    OpenAIRE

    Skoufos, Emmanouil; Marenco, Luis; Nadkarni, Prakash M.; Miller, Perry L.; Shepherd, Gordon M.

    2000-01-01

    The Olfactory Receptor Database (ORDB) is a WWW-accessible database that has been expanded from an olfactory receptor resource to a chemoreceptor resource. It stores data on six classes of G-protein-coupled sensory chemoreceptors: (i) olfactory receptor-like proteins, (ii) vomeronasal receptors, (iii) insect olfactory receptors, (iv) worm chemoreceptors, (v) taste papilla receptors and (vi) fungal pheromone receptors. A complementary database of the ligands of these receptors (OdorDB) has bee...

  20. Olfactory Memory Impairment in Neurodegenerative Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Bahuleyan, Biju; Singh, Satendra

    2012-01-01

    Olfactory disorders are noted in a majority of neurodegenerative diseases, but they are often misjudged and are rarely rated in the clinical setting. Severe changes in the olfactory tests are observed in Parkinson's disease. Olfactory deficits are an early feature in Alzheimer's disease and they worsen with the disease progression. Alterations in the olfactory function are also noted after severe head injuries, temporal lobe epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and migraine. The purpose of the prese...

  1. A Systematic Review of Non-Traumatic Spinal Cord Injuries in Sub-Saharan Africa and a Proposed Diagnostic Algorithm for Resource-Limited Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdu Kisekka Musubire

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundNon-traumatic myelopathy is common in Africa and there are geographic differences in etiology. Clinical management is challenging due to the broad differential diagnosis and the lack of diagnostics. The objective of this systematic review is to determine the most common etiologies of non-traumatic myelopathy in sub-Saharan Africa to inform a regionally appropriate diagnostic algorithm.MethodsWe conducted a systemic review searching Medline and Embase databases using the following search terms: “Non traumatic spinal cord injury” or “myelopathy” with limitations to epidemiology or etiologies and Sub-Saharan Africa. We described the frequencies of the different etiologies and proposed a diagnostic algorithm based on the most common diagnoses.ResultsWe identified 19 studies all performed at tertiary institutions; 15 were retrospective and 13 were published in the era of the HIV epidemic. Compressive bone lesions accounted for more than 48% of the cases; a majority were Pott’s disease and metastatic disease. No diagnosis was identified in up to 30% of cases in most studies; in particular, definitive diagnoses of non-compressive lesions were rare and a majority were clinical diagnoses of transverse myelitis and HIV myelopathy. Age and HIV were major determinants of etiology.ConclusionCompressive myelopathies represent a majority of non-traumatic myelopathies in sub-Saharan Africa, and most were due to Pott’s disease. Non-compressive myelopathies have not been well defined and need further research in Africa. We recommend a standardized approach to management of non-traumatic myelopathy focused on identifying treatable conditions with tests widely available in low-resource settings.

  2. Cytological organization of the alpha component of the anterior olfactory nucleus and olfactory limbus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Larriva-Sahd

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the microscopic organization of a wedge-shaped area at the intersection of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, or olfactory limbus , and an additional component of the anterior olfactory nucleus or alpha accessory olfactory bulb that lies underneath of the accessory olfactory bulb. The olfactory limbus consists of a modified bulbar cortex bounded anteriorly by the main olfactory bulb and posteriorly by the accessory olfactory bulb. In Nissl-stained specimens the olfactory limbus differs from the main olfactory bulb by a progressive, antero-posterior decrease in thickness or absence of the external plexiform, mitral/tufted cell, and granule cell layers. On cytoarchitectual grounds the olfactory limbus is divided from rostral to caudal into three distinct components: a stripe of glomerular-free cortex or preolfactory area, a second or necklace glomerular area, and a wedge-shaped or interstitial area crowned by the so-called modified glomeruli that appear to belong to the anterior accessory olfactory bulb. The strategic location and interactions with the main and accessory olfactory bulbs, together with the previously noted functional and connectional evidence, suggest that the olfactory limbus may be related to both sensory modalities. The alpha component of the anterior olfactory nucleus, a slender cellular cluster (i.e., 650 x 150 µm paralleling the base of the accessory olfactory bulb, contains two neuron types: a pyramidal-like neuron and an interneuron. Dendrites of pyramidal-like cells organize into a single bundle that ascends avoiding the accessory olfactory bulb to resolve in a trigone bounded by the edge of the olfactory limbus, the accessory olfactory bulb and the dorsal part of the anterior olfactory nucleus. Utrastructurally, the neuropil of the alpha component contains three types of synaptic terminals; one of them immunoreactive to the enzyme glutamate decarboxylase, isoform 67.

  3. Sniffing and Oxytocin: Effects on Olfactory Memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoop, Ron

    2016-05-04

    In this issue of Neuron, Oettl et al. (2016) show how oxytocin can boost processing of olfactory information in female rats by a top-downregulation from the anterior olfactory nucleus onto the main olfactory bulb. As a result, interactions with juvenile conspecifics receive more attention and are longer memorized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of irradiation on olfactory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiba, Tsunemasa; Sugimoto, Midori; Matsuda, Yasuaki; Sugiura, Yoshikazu; Nakai, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Toshifumi

    1990-01-01

    The effects of therapeutic irradiation on olfactory function were investigated in 20 patients who received radiation therapy because of a malignant tumor of the nose or paranasal sinuses. The standard olfaction test with a T and T olfactometer and an intravenous olfaction test were given before the radiation therapy, during the period of radiation therapy and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months or more later. Five patients whose olfactory epithelium was outside the radiation field showed no damage to olfactory function. The olfactory function of the other 15 patients whose olfactory epithelium had been exposed to radiation was not obviously changed or damaged at the time of radiation therapy. However, 6 months after irradiation, some patients showed a decline in olfactory function, and after 12 months, 4 of 7 patients showed severe damage to olfactory function. These results suggest that a therapeutic dose of irradiation will not cause severe damage to the olfactory function during the period of radiation therapy, but could cause delayed olfactory disorders in some patients after a few years. These olfactory disorders might be caused by damage to or degeneration of the olfactory epithelium or olfactory nerve. (author)

  5. Traumatic brain injury and olfactory deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Mathilde Beaulieu; Ptito, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    . Between 40-44% of the patients showing olfactory impairments were not aware of their deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Since a significant proportion of the patients showing olfactory impairments were not aware of their deficit, it is recommended than clinicians systematically evaluate olfactory functions using...

  6. Short-term memory in olfactory network dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopfer, Mark; Laurent, Gilles

    1999-12-01

    Neural assemblies in a number of animal species display self-organized, synchronized oscillations in response to sensory stimuli in a variety of brain areas.. In the olfactory system of insects, odour-evoked oscillatory synchronization of antennal lobe projection neurons (PNs) is superimposed on slower and stimulus-specific temporal activity patterns. Hence, each odour activates a specific and dynamic projection neuron assembly whose evolution during a stimulus is locked to the oscillation clock. Here we examine, using locusts, the changes in population dynamics of projection-neuron assemblies over repeated odour stimulations, as would occur when an animal first encounters and then repeatedly samples an odour for identification or localization. We find that the responses of these assemblies rapidly decrease in intensity, while they show a marked increase in spike time precision and inter-neuronal oscillatory coherence. Once established, this enhanced precision in the representation endures for several minutes. This change is stimulus-specific, and depends on events within the antennal lobe circuits, independent of olfactory receptor adaptation: it may thus constitute a form of sensory memory. Our results suggest that this progressive change in olfactory network dynamics serves to converge, over repeated odour samplings, on a more precise and readily classifiable odour representation, using relational information contained across neural assemblies.

  7. Olfactory memory impairment in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahuleyan, Biju; Singh, Satendra

    2012-10-01

    Olfactory disorders are noted in a majority of neurodegenerative diseases, but they are often misjudged and are rarely rated in the clinical setting. Severe changes in the olfactory tests are observed in Parkinson's disease. Olfactory deficits are an early feature in Alzheimer's disease and they worsen with the disease progression. Alterations in the olfactory function are also noted after severe head injuries, temporal lobe epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and migraine. The purpose of the present review was to discuss the available scientific knowledge on the olfactory memory and to relate its impairment with neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. The Role of Bone Subtraction Computed Tomographic Angiography in Determining Intracranial Aneurysms in Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were considered to enter the study. The subtraction quality was inadequate in ten patients; thus, they were excluded, leaving 50 patients (84.4%) in the study. Bone subtracted and non-subtracted 3D images were obtained from the BSCTA raw data sets. All images obtained by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), BSCTA, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) were evaluated for the presence or absence of an aneurysm and the location, minimal sac diameter, and neck size ratio of the aneurysm. DSA was considered as the gold standard during the evaluation of the data. Of the 50 patients who participated in this study, 11 had no aneurysms as determined by both CTA and DSA. Examination of the remaining 39 patients revealed the presence of 51 aneurysms. While 3D-CTA could not detect six aneurysms that were located in the base of the skull, 3D-BSCTA easily detected them. Moreover, five aneurysms were only partially detected by 3D-CTA. According to this data, the sensitivity of 3D-BSCTA and 3D-CTA was calculated as 98% and 86.3%, respectively; the specificity was calculated as 100% and 90.9%, respectively, per aneurysm; and the sensitivity of 100% for 3D-BSCTA and 98% for 3D-CTA was achieved by using combined images with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP). BSCTA detected and characterized the aneurysms as well as DSA, and BSCTA and DSA gave concordant results in detecting aneurysms. BSCTA is easily accessible, less time consuming, and most importantly, a non

  9. The Role of Bone Subtraction Computed Tomographic Angiography in Determining Intracranial Aneurysms in Non-Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayhan, Aysegul; Koc, Osman; Keskin, Suat; Keskin, Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of blood in the subarachnoid space is an acute pathology with a serious risk of death and complications. The most common etiology (approximately 80%) is intracranial aneurysm. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the role of bone subtracted computed tomographic angiography (BSCTA), a novel and noninvasive method for determining and characterizing intracranial aneurysms. Patients and Methods: Sixty consecutive patients with clinically suspected non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were considered to enter the study. The subtraction quality was inadequate in ten patients; thus, they were excluded, leaving 50 patients (84.4%) in the study. Bone subtracted and non-subtracted 3D images were obtained from the BSCTA raw data sets. All images obtained by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), BSCTA, and computed tomographic angiography (CTA) were evaluated for the presence or absence of an aneurysm and the location, minimal sac diameter, and neck size ratio of the aneurysm. DSA was considered as the gold standard during the evaluation of the data. Results: Of the 50 patients who participated in this study, 11 had no aneurysms as determined by both CTA and DSA. Examination of the remaining 39 patients revealed the presence of 51 aneurysms. While 3D-CTA could not detect six aneurysms that were located in the base of the skull, 3D-BSCTA easily detected them. Moreover, five aneurysms were only partially detected by 3D-CTA. According to this data, the sensitivity of 3D-BSCTA and 3D-CTA was calculated as 98% and 86.3%, respectively; the specificity was calculated as 100% and 90.9%, respectively, per aneurysm; and the sensitivity of 100% for 3D-BSCTA and 98% for 3D-CTA was achieved by using combined images with multi-planar reconstruction (MPR) and maximum intensity projection (MIP). BSCTA detected and characterized the aneurysms as well as DSA, and BSCTA and DSA gave concordant results in detecting aneurysms. Conclusions: BSCTA is

  10. Acute non-traumatic marrow edema syndrome in the knee: MRI findings at presentation, correlation with spinal DEXA and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanas, Apostolos H. [Department of Radiology, University of Crete, Heraklion 711 10 Greece (Greece)], E-mail: apolsen@yahoo.com; Drakonaki, Elena [Department of Radiology, University of Crete, Heraklion 711 10 Greece (Greece); Karachalios, Theophilos [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Thessaly, Larissa 411 10 Greece (Greece); Korompilias, Anastasios V. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 451 10 (Greece); Malizos, Konstantinos [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Thessaly, Larissa 411 10 Greece (Greece)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to present the MRI findings of non-traumatic edema-like lesions presented acutely in the adult knee and to correlate them with the 3-year outcome and the bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine. Materials and methods: Ninety-eight patients (40 men, 58 women, mean age 60.1 {+-} 11 years, age range 27-82 years), were followed up clinically as well as with MR imaging, when indicated, for at least 3 years. Patients were classified according to presentation in 3 groups (A: bone marrow edema (BME), B: BME and subchondral fracture, C: BME and articular collapse) and according to outcome in 2 groups (A: reversible BME, B: articular collapse). BMD measurements of the spine were carried out in males over 70 and females over 60 years old using DEXA. Results: The isolated BME pattern was observed in 64.3% (Group A), subchondral fractures without articular collapse in 11.2% (Group B) and articular collapse in 24.5% (Group C). Significant differences were found among the 3 groups at presentation, regarding the age, sex, BMD, affected area and duration of symptoms prior to imaging (p < 0.05). Localization of the lesions in the weight-bearing areas of the knee was shown in 100% of C, in 90.9% of B and in 50.8% of A. The duration of symptoms prior to imaging was longer in C (7.6 {+-} 2.8 m) than in A (2.5 {+-} 1.7 m) and B (4.0 {+-} 3.2 m) (p < 0.05). Group B progressed to articular collapse in 45.5%, the rest demonstrating a favourable outcome. Group C showed clinical improvement in 75% and persistent symptoms that required knee arthroplasty in 25% of cases. Articular collapse was the final outcome in 29.6% and transient BME in 70.4% of patients. These two groups showed significant differences regarding the age (p {approx} 0), sex (p = 0.002), low BMD (p = 0.004), affected area (p {approx} 0), presence of subchondral sparing (p {approx} 0), duration of symptoms prior to imaging (p {approx} 0), time from onset of symptoms to the final outcome (p

  11. Acute non-traumatic marrow edema syndrome in the knee: MRI findings at presentation, correlation with spinal DEXA and outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantanas, Apostolos H.; Drakonaki, Elena; Karachalios, Theophilos; Korompilias, Anastasios V.; Malizos, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to present the MRI findings of non-traumatic edema-like lesions presented acutely in the adult knee and to correlate them with the 3-year outcome and the bone mineral density (BMD) in the spine. Materials and methods: Ninety-eight patients (40 men, 58 women, mean age 60.1 ± 11 years, age range 27-82 years), were followed up clinically as well as with MR imaging, when indicated, for at least 3 years. Patients were classified according to presentation in 3 groups (A: bone marrow edema (BME), B: BME and subchondral fracture, C: BME and articular collapse) and according to outcome in 2 groups (A: reversible BME, B: articular collapse). BMD measurements of the spine were carried out in males over 70 and females over 60 years old using DEXA. Results: The isolated BME pattern was observed in 64.3% (Group A), subchondral fractures without articular collapse in 11.2% (Group B) and articular collapse in 24.5% (Group C). Significant differences were found among the 3 groups at presentation, regarding the age, sex, BMD, affected area and duration of symptoms prior to imaging (p < 0.05). Localization of the lesions in the weight-bearing areas of the knee was shown in 100% of C, in 90.9% of B and in 50.8% of A. The duration of symptoms prior to imaging was longer in C (7.6 ± 2.8 m) than in A (2.5 ± 1.7 m) and B (4.0 ± 3.2 m) (p < 0.05). Group B progressed to articular collapse in 45.5%, the rest demonstrating a favourable outcome. Group C showed clinical improvement in 75% and persistent symptoms that required knee arthroplasty in 25% of cases. Articular collapse was the final outcome in 29.6% and transient BME in 70.4% of patients. These two groups showed significant differences regarding the age (p ∼ 0), sex (p = 0.002), low BMD (p = 0.004), affected area (p ∼ 0), presence of subchondral sparing (p ∼ 0), duration of symptoms prior to imaging (p ∼ 0), time from onset of symptoms to the final outcome (p ∼ 0) and need for

  12. Afferent activity to necklace glomeruli is dependent on external stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munger Steven D

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main olfactory epithelium (MOE is a complex organ containing several functionally distinct subpopulations of sensory neurons. One such subpopulation is distinguished by its expression of the guanylyl cyclase GC-D. The axons of GC-D-expressing (GC-D+ neurons innervate 9–15 "necklace" glomeruli encircling the caudal main olfactory bulb (MOB. Chemosensory stimuli for GC-D+ neurons include two natriuretic peptides, uroguanylin and guanylin, and CO2. However, the biologically-relevant source of these chemostimuli is unclear: uroguanylin is both excreted in urine, a rich source of olfactory stimuli for rodents, and expressed in human nasal epithelium; CO2 is present in both inspired and expired air. Findings To determine whether the principal source of chemostimuli for GC-D+ neurons is external or internal to the nose, we assessed the consequences of removing external chemostimuli for afferent activity to the necklace glomeruli. To do so, we performed unilateral naris occlusions in Gucy2d-Mapt-lacZ +/- mice [which express a β-galactosidase (β-gal reporter specifically in GC-D+ neurons] followed by immunohistochemistry for β-gal and a glomerular marker of afferent activity, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH. We observed a dramatic decrease in TH immunostaining, consistent with reduced or absent afferent activity, in both necklace and non-necklace glomeruli ipsilateral to the occluded naris. Conclusion Like other MOB glomeruli, necklace glomeruli exhibit a large decrease in afferent activity upon removal of external stimuli. Thus, we conclude that activity in GC-D+ neurons, which specifically innervate necklace glomeruli, is not dependent on internal stimuli. Instead, GC-D+ neurons, like other OSNs in the MOE, primarily sense the external world.

  13. Olfactory sensitivity in CD-1 mice for the sperm-attractant odorant bourgeonal and some of its structural analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Using a conditioning paradigm and an automated olfactometer, I investigated the olfactory sensitivity of five CD-1 mice for seven aromatic aldehydes. With two of the stimuli (3-phenylpropanal and canthoxal), the animals discriminated concentrations as low as 10 ppb (parts per billion) from the odorless solvent and with four of the stimuli (helional, cyclamal, lilial and lyral) they discriminated concentrations as low as 1 ppb, with single individuals even scoring better. All five animals yiel...

  14. An Olfactory Cinema: Smelling Perfume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaying Sim

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available While technological improvements from the era of silent movies to that of sound cinema have altered and continued to affect audience’s cinematic experiences, the question is not so much how technology has increased possibility of a sensory response to cinema, rather, it is one that exposes how such technological changes only underscore the participation of our senses and the body in one’s experience of watching film, highlighting the inherently sensorial nature of the cinematic experience. This paper aims to address the above question through an olfactory cinema, by close analysis of Perfume: The Story of a Murderer (2006 by Tom Tykwer. What is an olfactory cinema, and how can such an approach better our understanding of sensorial aspects found within a cinema that ostensibly favours audio-visual senses? What can we benefit from an olfactory cinema? Perhaps, it is through an olfactory cinema that one may begin to embrace the sensual quality of cinema that has been overshadowed by the naturalized ways of experiencing films solely with our eyes and ears, so much so that we desensitize ourselves to the role our senses play in cinematic experiences altogether

  15. Olfactory memory traces in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jacob; Krause, William C; Davis, Ronald L

    2008-01-01

    In Drosophila, the fruit fly, coincident exposure to an odor and an aversive electric shock can produce robust behavioral memory. This behavioral memory is thought to be regulated by cellular memory traces within the central nervous system of the fly. These molecular, physiological, or structural changes in neurons, induced by pairing odor and shock, regulate behavior by altering the neurons' response to the learned environment. Recently, novel in vivo functional imaging techniques have allowed researchers to observe cellular memory traces in intact animals. These investigations have revealed interesting temporal and spatial dynamics of cellular memory traces. First, a short-term cellular memory trace was discovered that exists in the antennal lobe, an early site of olfactory processing. This trace represents the recruitment of new synaptic activity into the odor representation and forms for only a short period of time just after training. Second, an intermediate-term cellular memory trace was found in the dorsal paired medial neuron, a neuron thought to play a role in stabilizing olfactory memories. Finally, a long-term protein synthesis-dependent cellular memory trace was discovered in the mushroom bodies, a structure long implicated in olfactory learning and memory. Therefore, it appears that aversive olfactory associations are encoded by multiple cellular memory traces that occur in different regions of the brain with different temporal domains.

  16. Olfactory dysfunction in persian patients suffering from parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Akbar; Shams, Mehdi; Noorolahi, Hamid; Ghorbani, Askar; Fatehi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Looking in literature reveals that aging is accompanied by olfactory dysfunction and hyposmia/anosmia is a common manifestation in some neurodegenerative disorders. Olfactory dysfunction is regarded as non-motor manifestations of Parkinson disease (PD). The main goal of this study was to examine the extent of olfactory dysfunction in Persian PD patients. We used seven types of odors including rosewater, mint, lemon, garlic which were produced by Barij Essence Company in Iran. Additionally, coffee and vinegar were used. Subjects had to distinguish and name between seven previously named odors, stimuli were administered to each nostril separately. Totally, 92 patients and 40 controls were recruited. The mean (standard deviation) (SD) age patients was 64.88 (11.30) versus 61.05 (7.93) in controls. The male: female ratio in patients was 50:42 versus 22:18 in control group. Also, mean UPDRS score (SD) in patients was 24.42 (5.08) and the disease duration (SD) was 3.72 (3.53). Regarding the number of truly detected odors, there were a significant higher number of correct identified odors in control group in comparison with the PD patients. Furthermore, there was a significant negative correlation between number of correct diagnosed smells and UPDRS (Pearson Correlation= -0.27, P = 0.009); conversely, no significant correlation between the duration of Parkinson disease and number of correct diagnosed smells (P > 0.05). Smelling dysfunction is a major problem in Persian PD patients and it requires vigilant investigation for the cause of olfactory dysfunction exclusively in elder group and looking for possible PD disease.

  17. Olfactory training in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Haehner

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Decrease of olfactory function in Parkinson's disease (PD is a well-investigated fact. Studies indicate that pharmacological treatment of PD fails to restore olfactory function in PD patients. The aim of this investigation was whether patients with PD would benefit from "training" with odors in terms of an improvement of their general olfactory function. It has been hypothesized that olfactory training should produce both an improved sensitivity towards the odors used in the training process and an overall increase of olfactory function. METHODS: We recruited 70 subjects with PD and olfactory loss into this single-center, prospective, controlled non-blinded study. Thirty-five patients were assigned to the olfactory training group and 35 subjects to the control group (no training. Olfactory training was performed over a period of 12 weeks while patients exposed themselves twice daily to four odors (phenyl ethyl alcohol: rose, eucalyptol: eucalyptus, citronellal: lemon, and eugenol: cloves. Olfactory testing was performed before and after training using the "Sniffin' Sticks" (thresholds for phenyl ethyl alcohol, tests for odor discrimination, and odor identification in addition to threshold tests for the odors used in the training process. RESULTS: Compared to baseline, trained PD patients experienced a significant increase in their olfactory function, which was observed for the Sniffin' Sticks test score and for thresholds for the odors used in the training process. Olfactory function was unchanged in PD patients who did not perform olfactory training. CONCLUSION: The present results indicate that olfactory training may increase olfactory sensitivity in PD patients.

  18. A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method for screening levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in non-traumatic chest pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farthing, Don E; Sica, Domenic; Hindle, Michael; Edinboro, Les; Xi, Lei; Gehr, Todd W B; Gehr, Lynne; Farthing, Christine A; Larus, Terri L; Fakhry, Itaf; Karnes, H Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and simple chemiluminescence method was developed for detection of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma. The method utilized a microplate luminometer with direct injectors to automatically dispense reagents during sample analysis. Enzymatic conversions of inosine to hypoxanthine, followed by hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid, generated superoxide anion radicals as a useful metabolic by-product. The free radicals react with Pholasin(®) , a sensitive photoprotein used for chemiluminescence detection, to produce measurable blue-green light. The use of Pholasin(®) and a chemiluminescence signal enhancer, Adjuvant-K™, eliminated the need for plasma clean-up steps prior to analysis. The method used 20 μL of heparinized plasma, with complete analysis of total hypoxanthine levels (inosine is metabolized to hypoxanthine using purine nucleoside phosphorylase) in approximately 3.7 min. The rapid chemiluminescence method demonstrated the capability of differentiating total hypoxanthine levels between healthy individuals, and patients presenting with non-traumatic chest pain and potential acute cardiac ischemia. The results support the potential use of chemiluminescence methodology as a diagnostic tool to rapidly screen for elevated levels of inosine and hypoxanthine in human plasma, potential biomarkers of acute cardiac ischemia. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The characteristics of chronic pain after non-traumatic, non-compressive myelopathy: Focus on neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Young In; Kim, Min; Joo, In Soo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of neuropathic pain after non-traumatic, non-compressive (NTNC) myelopathy and find potential predictors for neuropathic pain. We analyzed 54 patients with NTNC myelopathy. The Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ) and the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) were used to assess pain. Health-related QOL was evaluated by the Short Form 36-item (SF-36) health survey. Out of 48 patients with pain, 16 (33.3%) patients experienced neuropathic pain. Mean age was significantly lower in patients with neuropathic pain than in patients with non-neuropathic pain (39.1 ± 12.5 vs. 49.8 ± 9.3, P = 0.002). There were no statistically significant differences in the other variables including sex, etiology of myelopathy, pain and QOL scores between the two groups. A binary logistic regression revealed that onset age under 40, and non-idiopathic etiology were independent predictors of the occurrence of neuropathic pain. Both SF-MPQ and LANSS scores were significantly correlated with SF-36 scores, adjusted by age, sex, presence of diabetes mellitus, and current EDSS scores (r = -0.624, P Neuropathic pain must be one of serious complications in patients with NTNC myelopathy and also affects their quality of life. Onset age and etiology of myelopathy are important factors in the development of neuropathic pain in NTNC myelopathy.

  20. Effects of olfactory sense on chocolate craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W; Gillette, Aubrey L; Hobbs, Taylor E; Wu, Di

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of the olfactory sense on chocolate craving in college females. Building on previous research by Kemps and Tiggemann (2013), we hypothesized that a fresh scent would decrease one's craving level for chocolate food. While the precursor study only addressed the decrease of chocolate craving, we also hypothesized that a sweet scent would increase one's craving level for chocolate foods. In the present experiment, participants rated their craving levels after viewing images of chocolate foods and inhaling essential oils: one fresh (Slique™ essence), and one sweet (vanilla). Results supported both of the hypotheses: inhaling a fresh scent reduced females' craving levels; similarly, when a sweet scent was inhaled, the participants' craving levels for chocolate food increased. These findings are particularly beneficial for women seeking weight loss and the findings can be applied in contexts such as weight loss programs, therapy, and maintenance programs, even beyond college settings. The results are particularly useful for helping women regarding stimuli that might serve as triggers for chocolate cravings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of the Drosophila lateral horn in olfactory information processing and behavioral response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultzhaus, Janna N; Saleem, Sehresh; Iftikhar, Hina; Carney, Ginger E

    2017-04-01

    Animals must rapidly and accurately process environmental information to produce the correct behavioral responses. Reactions to previously encountered as well as to novel but biologically important stimuli are equally important, and one understudied region in the insect brain plays a role in processing both types of stimuli. The lateral horn is a higher order processing center that mainly processes olfactory information and is linked via olfactory projection neurons to another higher order learning center, the mushroom body. This review focuses on the lateral horn of Drosophila where most functional studies have been performed. We discuss connectivity between the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe, and the lateral horn and mushroom body. We also present evidence for the lateral horn playing roles in innate behavioral responses by encoding biological valence to novel odor cues and in learned responses to previously encountered odors by modulating neural activity within the mushroom body. We describe how these processes contribute to acceptance or avoidance of appropriate or inappropriate mates and food, as well as the identification of predators. The lateral horn is a sexually dimorphic and plastic region of the brain that modulates other regions of the brain to ensure that insects produce rapid and effective behavioral responses to both novel and learned stimuli, yet multiple gaps exist in our knowledge of this important center. We anticipate that future studies on olfactory processing, learning, and innate behavioral responses will include the lateral horn in their examinations, leading to a more comprehensive understanding of olfactory information relay and resulting behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of the Human Olfactory Bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammalli, Manjunath; Dey, Gourav; Madugundu, Anil K; Kumar, Manish; Rodrigues, Benvil; Gowda, Harsha; Siddaiah, Bychapur Gowrishankar; Mahadevan, Anita; Shankar, Susarla Krishna; Prasad, Thottethodi Subrahmanya Keshava

    2017-08-01

    The importance of olfaction to human health and disease is often underappreciated. Olfactory dysfunction has been reported in association with a host of common complex diseases, including neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. For health, olfaction or the sense of smell is also important for most mammals, for optimal engagement with their environment. Indeed, animals have developed sophisticated olfactory systems to detect and interpret the rich information presented to them to assist in day-to-day activities such as locating food sources, differentiating food from poisons, identifying mates, promoting reproduction, avoiding predators, and averting death. In this context, the olfactory bulb is a vital component of the olfactory system receiving sensory information from the axons of the olfactory receptor neurons located in the nasal cavity and the first place that processes the olfactory information. We report in this study original observations on the human olfactory bulb proteome in healthy subjects, using a high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic approach. We identified 7750 nonredundant proteins from human olfactory bulbs. Bioinformatics analysis of these proteins showed their involvement in biological processes associated with signal transduction, metabolism, transport, and olfaction. These new observations provide a crucial baseline molecular profile of the human olfactory bulb proteome, and should assist the future discovery of biomarker proteins and novel diagnostics associated with diseases characterized by olfactory dysfunction.

  3. Involvement of emotion in olfactory responses. A fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Tominori; Wang, L.; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the olfactory 'Kansei' information processing for two kinds of smells by measuring the brain activities associated with olfactory responses in humans. In this study, the brain activities related to discrimination and recognition of odors were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In experiment 1, odor stimuli (lemon-like and banana-like) were presented using a block design in a blinded manner, and the kind of fruits was identified by its odor. The frontal and temporal lobe, inferior parietal lobule, cingulate gyrus, amygdaloid body and parahippocampal gyrus were primarily activated by each odor based on conjunction analysis. In experiment 2, as a result of performing an oddball experiment using the odors of experiment 1, the active areas were mainly found in the temporal lobe, superior and inferior parietal lobule, insula, thalamus, supramarginal gyrus, uncus and parahippocampal gyrus. Moreover, these regions overlapped with the emotional circuit. These experimental results suggest that common brain activities accompany the discrimination and cognition associated with odor stimuli, which may underlie the olfactory responses relevant to the higher brain function and emotions associated with olfactory function. (author)

  4. Olfactory dysfunction, olfactory bulb pathology and urban air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Osnaya, Norma; González-Maciel, Angelica; Reynoso-Robles, Rafael; Villarreal-Calderon, Rafael; Herritt, Lou; Brooks, Diane; Keefe, Sheyla; Palacios-Moreno, Juan; Villarreal-Calderon, Rodolfo; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Delgado-Chávez, Ricardo; Aiello-Mora, Mario; Maronpot, Robert R.; Doty, Richard L

    2010-01-01

    Mexico City (MC) residents are exposed to severe air pollution and exhibit olfactory bulb inflammation. We compared the olfactory function of individuals living under conditions of extreme air pollution to that of controls from a relatively clean environment and explore associations between olfaction scores, apolipoprotein E (APOE) status, and pollution exposure. The olfactory bulbs (OBs) of 35 MC and 9 controls 20.8 ± 8.5 y were assessed by light and electron microscopy. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) was administered to 62 MC / 25 controls 21.2 ±2.7 y. MC subjects had significantly lower UPSIT scores: 34.24 ± 0.42 versus controls 35.76 ± 0.40, p=0.03. Olfaction deficits were present in 35.5% MC and 12% of controls. MC APOE ε 4 carriers failed 2.4 ± 0.54 items in the 10-item smell identification scale from the UPSIT related to Alzheimer's disease, while APOE 2/3 and 3/3 subjects failed 1.36 ± 0.16 items, p = 0.01. MC residents exhibited OB endothelial hyperplasia, neuronal accumulation of particles (2/35), and immunoreactivity to beta amyloid βA42 (29/35) and/or α-synuclein (4/35) in neurons, glial cells and/or blood vessels. Ultrafine particles were present in OBs endothelial cytoplasm and basement membranes. Control OBs were unremarkable. Air pollution exposure is associated with olfactory dysfunction and OB pathology, APOE 4 may confer greater susceptibility to such abnormalities, and ultrafine particles could play a key role in the OB pathology. This study contributes to our understanding of the influences of air pollution on olfaction and its potential contribution to neurodegeneration. PMID:19297138

  5. Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint is a common non-traumatic musculoskeletal complaint in elite inline-speedskaters - an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhe Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design Observational study Objectives To investigate common non-traumatic musculoskeletal complaints of the low back in elite inline-speedskaters of the German national team. Summary of background data Traumatic injuries associated with falls or collisions are well documented in speedskaters but so far no studies have investigated non-traumatic low back pain. Previously, the sacroiliac joint was suspected as a frequent origin of complaint, we aimed to investigate this assumption. Methods Two chiropractors examined elite inline-speedskaters of the German national team during three sports events between summer 2010 and 2011. A test cluster of five provocative tests for the sacroiliac joint was selected based on reliability and validity. Results A total of 37 examinations were conducted on 34 athletes with low back pain during the three sport events. The reported pain intensities ranged from mild to moderate pain (VAS 23.4 ± 13.4 to 35.1 ± 19.2. About 90% of cases showed involvement of the SI joint of which again 90% presented with left sided symptoms. Conclusions Non-traumatic complaints of the low back originating from the left sacroiliac joint frequently occur in competitive inline speedskaters.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography in non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: prospective study and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamari, Muhammed; Norrman, Eva; Geijer, Mats; Jansson, Kjell; Geijer, Håkan

    2016-06-01

    Abdominal radiography is frequently used in acute abdominal non-traumatic pain despite the availability of more advanced diagnostic modalities. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography, at similar radiation dose levels. Fifty-eight patients were imaged with both methods and were reviewed independently by three radiologists. The reference standard was obtained from the diagnosis in medical records. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. A systematic review was performed after a literature search, finding a total of six relevant studies including the present. Overall sensitivity with 95 % CI for CT was 75 % (66-83 %) and 46 % (37-56 %) for radiography. Specificity was 87 % (77-94 %) for both methods. In the systematic review the overall sensitivity for CT varied between 75 and 96 % with specificity from 83 to 95 % while the overall sensitivity for abdominal radiography varied between 30 and 77 % with specificity 75 to 88 %. Based on the current study and available evidence, low-dose CT has higher diagnostic accuracy than abdominal radiography and it should, where logistically possible, replace abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain. • Low-dose CT has a higher diagnostic accuracy than radiography. • A systematic review shows that CT has better diagnostic accuracy than radiography. • Radiography has no place in the workup of acute non-traumatic abdominal pain.

  7. Odor-evoked inhibition of olfactory sensory neurons drives olfactory perception in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Li-Hui; Yang, Dong; Wu, Wei; Zeng, Xiankun; Jing, Bi-Yang; Li, Meng-Tong; Qin, Shanshan; Tang, Chao; Tu, Yuhai; Luo, Dong-Gen

    2017-11-07

    Inhibitory response occurs throughout the nervous system, including the peripheral olfactory system. While odor-evoked excitation in peripheral olfactory cells is known to encode odor information, the molecular mechanism and functional roles of odor-evoked inhibition remain largely unknown. Here, we examined Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons and found that inhibitory odors triggered outward receptor currents by reducing the constitutive activities of odorant receptors, inhibiting the basal spike firing in olfactory sensory neurons. Remarkably, this odor-evoked inhibition of olfactory sensory neurons elicited by itself a full range of olfactory behaviors from attraction to avoidance, as did odor-evoked olfactory sensory neuron excitation. These results indicated that peripheral inhibition is comparable to excitation in encoding sensory signals rather than merely regulating excitation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a bidirectional code with both odor-evoked inhibition and excitation in single olfactory sensory neurons increases the odor-coding capacity, providing a means of efficient sensory encoding.

  8. Is intra-articular pathology associated with MCL edema on MR imaging of the non-traumatic knee?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenbaker, Donna G.; De Smet, Arthur A.; Fine, Jason P.

    2005-01-01

    Edema surrounding the medial collateral ligament (MCL) is seen on MR imaging in patients with MCL injuries and in patients with radiographic osteoarthritis in the non-traumatic knee. Because we noted MCL edema in patients without prior trauma or osteoarthritis, we studied the association between intra-articular pathology and MCL edema in patients without knee trauma. We evaluated the MR examinations of 247 consecutive patients (121 male, 126 female with a mean age of 44 years) without recent trauma for the presence of edema surrounding the MCL, meniscal and ACL tears, medial meniscal extrusion, medial compartment chondromalacia, and osteoarthritis. The percentages of patients illustrating MCL edema with and without each type of pathology were compared using Fisher's exact test to determine if there was a statistically significant association. We found MCL edema in 60% of 247 patients. MCL edema was present in 67% of patients with medial meniscal tears, 35% with lateral meniscal tears, 100% with meniscal extrusion of 3 mm or more, 78% with femoral chondromalacia, 82% with tibial chondromalacia, and 50% with osteoarthritis. The percentage of patients with edema increased with the severity of the chondromalacia. These associations were all statistically significant (p <0.02). The mean age of those with MCL edema was 49.7 years compared with 34.9 years without MCL edema (p <0.001). Patient gender and ACL tear did not correlate with MCL edema. Nine (4%) of the 247 patients had MCL edema without intra-articular pathology. None of these 9 patients had MCL tenderness or joint laxity on physical examination. We confirmed that MCL edema is associated with osteoarthritis, but is also associated with meniscal tears, meniscal extrusion, and chondromalacia. In addition, MCL edema can be seen in patients without intra-articular pathology, recent trauma or MCL abnormality on physical examination. (orig.)

  9. Non-traumatic incidental findings in patients undergoing whole-body computed tomography at initial emergency admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroczek, Eduard K; Wieners, Gero; Steffen, Ingo; Lindner, Tobias; Streitparth, Florian; Hamm, Bernd; Maurer, Martin H

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the number, localisation and importance of non-traumatic incidental findings (IFs) in patients with suspected or obvious multiple trauma undergoing whole-body CT (WBCT) in a level-1 trauma centre. Between January 2009 and December 2013, a total of 2440 patients with trauma undergoing WBCT at admission to a level-1 trauma centre of a university hospital were retrospectively analysed, through imaging IFs unrelated to trauma with the radiological reports. All IFs were grouped into four categories according to their clinical relevance. Category 1: urgent treatment or further clarification needed; category 2: further examination and follow-up within 3-6 months required; category 3: findings with no immediate consequences for the treatment of the patient but of potential relevance in the future; category 4: harmless findings. Altogether, 5440 IFs in 2440 patients (1735 male, 705 female; mean age 45.1 years) were documented. In 204 patients (8.4%) urgent category 1 findings were reported, 766 patients (31.4%) had category 2 findings, 1236 patients (50.7%) had category 3 findings and 1173 patients (48.1%) had category 4 findings. Most IFs were detected in the abdomen/pelvis (42.5%). 602 (24.7%) of the patients had no IFs. WBCT scans of unrelated trauma patients demonstrate a high rate of IF. A substantial percentage (8.4%) of patients had urgent category 1IFs and a high percentage (31.4%) had category 2 IFs requiring a follow-up. This high number of patients with polytrauma undergoing WBCT, having IFs of high relevance, poses a major challenge for the level-1 trauma centre in the acute and postacute management of these patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Is intra-articular pathology associated with MCL edema on MR imaging of the non-traumatic knee?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blankenbaker, Donna G.; De Smet, Arthur A. [University of Wisconsin Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Madison (United States); Fine, Jason P. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Statistics, Madison (United States); University of Wisconsin, Department of Biostatistics and Informatics, Madison (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Edema surrounding the medial collateral ligament (MCL) is seen on MR imaging in patients with MCL injuries and in patients with radiographic osteoarthritis in the non-traumatic knee. Because we noted MCL edema in patients without prior trauma or osteoarthritis, we studied the association between intra-articular pathology and MCL edema in patients without knee trauma. We evaluated the MR examinations of 247 consecutive patients (121 male, 126 female with a mean age of 44 years) without recent trauma for the presence of edema surrounding the MCL, meniscal and ACL tears, medial meniscal extrusion, medial compartment chondromalacia, and osteoarthritis. The percentages of patients illustrating MCL edema with and without each type of pathology were compared using Fisher's exact test to determine if there was a statistically significant association. We found MCL edema in 60% of 247 patients. MCL edema was present in 67% of patients with medial meniscal tears, 35% with lateral meniscal tears, 100% with meniscal extrusion of 3 mm or more, 78% with femoral chondromalacia, 82% with tibial chondromalacia, and 50% with osteoarthritis. The percentage of patients with edema increased with the severity of the chondromalacia. These associations were all statistically significant (p <0.02). The mean age of those with MCL edema was 49.7 years compared with 34.9 years without MCL edema (p <0.001). Patient gender and ACL tear did not correlate with MCL edema. Nine (4%) of the 247 patients had MCL edema without intra-articular pathology. None of these 9 patients had MCL tenderness or joint laxity on physical examination. We confirmed that MCL edema is associated with osteoarthritis, but is also associated with meniscal tears, meniscal extrusion, and chondromalacia. In addition, MCL edema can be seen in patients without intra-articular pathology, recent trauma or MCL abnormality on physical examination. (orig.)

  11. Management of non-traumatic chest pain by the French Emergency Medical System: Insights from the DOLORES registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzo-Silberman, Stéphane; Assez, Nathalie; Vivien, Benoît; Tazarourte, Karim; Mokni, Tarak; Bounes, Vincent; Greffet, Agnès; Bataille, Vincent; Mulak, Geneviève; Goldstein, Patrick; Ducassé, Jean Louis; Spaulding, Christian; Charpentier, Sandrine

    2015-03-01

    The early recognition of acute coronary syndromes is a priority in health care systems, to reduce revascularization delays. In France, patients are encouraged to call emergency numbers (15, 112), which are routed to a Medical Dispatch Centre where physicians conduct an interview and decide on the appropriate response. However, the effectiveness of this system has not yet been assessed. To describe and analyse the response of emergency physicians receiving calls for chest pain in the French Emergency Medical System. From 16 November to 13 December 2009, calls to the Medical Dispatch Centre for non-traumatic chest pain were included prospectively in a multicentre observational study. Clinical characteristics and triage decisions were collected. A total of 1647 patients were included in the study. An interview was conducted with the patient in only 30.5% of cases, and with relatives, bystanders or physicians in the other cases. A Mobile Intensive Care Unit was dispatched to 854 patients (51.9%) presenting with typical angina chest pains and a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Paramedics were sent to 516 patients (31.3%) and a general practitioner was sent to 169 patients (10.3%). Patients were given medical advice only by telephone in 108 cases (6.6%). Emergency physicians in the Medical Dispatch Centre sent an effecter to the majority of patients who called the Emergency Medical System for chest pain. The response level was based on the characteristics of the chest pain and the patient's risk profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of radiotherapy on olfactory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelscher, Tobias; Seibt, Annedore; Appold, Steffen; Doerr, Wolfgang; Herrmann, Thomas; Huettenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Hummel, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Changes in olfactory function have been reported in patients receiving significant doses of radiation to the olfactory epithelium. Aim of this study was to investigate severity and time course of changes in olfactory function in patients irradiated for tumours of the head and neck region. Material and Methods: Forty-four patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) for tumours in the area of the head and neck participated (16 women, 28 men; age 11-81 y; mean 55 y). Olfactory function was measured before and bi-weekly during RT for 6 weeks. A subgroup (25 patients) was followed for 12 months. Patients were divided into two groups according to the dose to the olfactory epithelium. Twenty-two patients ('OLF group') had radiation doses to the olfactory epithelium between 23.7 and 79.5 Gy (median 62.2 Gy). In the 22 patients of the 'non-OLF group' the dose applied to the olfactory epithelium was significantly lower (2.9-11.1 Gy, median 5.9 Gy). Total tumour dose (30-76.8 Gy), age, sex distribution, and baseline chemosensory function were not significantly different between groups. Testing was performed for odour identification, odour discrimination, and olfactory thresholds. Results: Odour discrimination, but not odour identification or odour threshold, was significantly decreased 2-6 weeks after begin of therapy in the OLF group. In addition, a significant effect of the radiation dose was observed for odour discrimination. More than 6 months after therapy, OLF group patients had significantly lower odour identification scores compared to the non-OLF group. Conclusion: As indicated through the non-significant change of olfactory thresholds, the olfactory epithelium is relatively resistant against effects of radiation. It is hypothesized that RT has additional effects on the olfactory bulb/orbitofrontal cortex responsible for the observed changes of suprathreshold olfactory function

  13. Role of Centrifugal Projections to the Olfactory Bulb in Olfactory Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselycznyk, Carly L.; Zhang, Steven; Linster, Christine

    2006-01-01

    While there is evidence that feedback projections from cortical and neuromodulatory structures to the olfactory bulb are crucial for maintaining the oscillatory dynamics of olfactory bulb processing, it is not clear how changes in dynamics are related to odor perception. Using electrical lesions of the olfactory peduncle, sparing output from the…

  14. SLEEP AND OLFACTORY CORTICAL PLASTICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dylan eBarnes

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many systems, sleep plays a vital role in memory consolidation and synaptic homeostasis. These processes together help store information of biological significance and reset synaptic circuits to facilitate acquisition of information in the future. In this review, we describe recent evidence of sleep-dependent changes in olfactory system structure and function which contribute to odor memory and perception. During slow-wave sleep, the piriform cortex becomes hypo-responsive to odor stimulation and instead displays sharp-wave activity similar to that observed within the hippocampal formation. Furthermore, the functional connectivity between the piriform cortex and other cortical and limbic regions is enhanced during slow-wave sleep compared to waking. This combination of conditions may allow odor memory consolidation to occur during a state of reduced external interference and facilitate association of odor memories with stored hedonic and contextual cues. Evidence consistent with sleep-dependent odor replay within olfactory cortical circuits is presented. These data suggest that both the strength and precision of odor memories is sleep-dependent. The work further emphasizes the critical role of synaptic plasticity and memory in not only odor memory but also basic odor perception. The work also suggests a possible link between sleep disturbances that are frequently co-morbid with a wide range of pathologies including Alzheimer’s disease, schizophrenia and depression and the known olfactory impairments associated with those disorders.

  15. Stimuli-Adaptable Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl

    The work presented in this Thesis deals with the development of a stimuli-adaptable polymer material based on the UV-induced dimerisation of cinnamic acid and its derivatives. It is in the nature of an adhesive to adhere very well to its substrate and therefore problems can arise upon removal...

  16. Sensory sensitivity and identification and hedonic assessment ofolfactory stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Ruszpel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Conducted research had an exploratory character. It was focused on connections between temperament and olfactory functioning – in particular, identification and affective assessment of olfactory stimuli. Main research question dealt with potential correlations between sensory sensitivity (dimension of temperamental questionnaire FCZ‑KT with declarative and objective ability to identify presented odours and their assessment. Fifty four schoolgirls from one of the Warsaw sec‑ ondary schools participated in the research and they were asked for filling in the FCZ‑KT questionnaire and evaluating each of 16 smell samples. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between declared familiarity and accurate odours’ identification (odours that were subjectively known were recognized more accurately than unknown and a posi‑ tive correlation between declared familiarity and affective assessment (odours that were known were assessed as more pleasant than unknown. Sensory sensitivity was not correlated neither with declarative nor real ability to identify smells, however sensory sensitivity was positively correlated with affective assessment (the higher scores on sensory sensitivity dimension, the more pleasantly assessed odours in general. Analyses revealed a number of connections between other dimensions of FCZ‑KT questionnaire (perseverance, liveliness, stamina and the ability (both objective and subjective to correctly identify odours which were most difficult to recognize. Completed project might be perceived as a starting point for further research concerning relationships between temperament, olfactory functioning, and food preferences among patients diagnosed with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and obesity.

  17. Shoulder pain in primary care: diagnostic accuracy of clinical examination tests for non-traumatic acromioclavicular joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    .41) and four positive clinical features resulted in 95% specificity (95% CI 0.90, 0.98) and a LR+ of 4.98 (95% CI 1.69, 13.84). Conclusions In this cohort of primary care patients with predominantly subacute or chronic ACJ pain of non-traumatic onset, traditional ACJ tests were of limited diagnostic value. Combinations of other history and physical examination findings were able to more accurately identify injection-confirmed ACJ pain in this cohort. PMID:23634871

  18. Processing of Intraoral Olfactory and Gustatory Signals in the Gustatory Cortex of Awake Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsen, Chad L; Fontanini, Alfredo

    2017-01-11

    The integration of gustatory and olfactory information is essential to the perception of flavor. Human neuroimaging experiments have pointed to the gustatory cortex (GC) as one of the areas involved in mediating flavor perception. Although GC's involvement in encoding the chemical identity and hedonic value of taste stimuli is well studied, it is unknown how single GC neurons process olfactory stimuli emanating from the mouth. In this study, we relied on multielectrode recordings to investigate how single GC neurons respond to intraorally delivered tastants and tasteless odorants dissolved in water and whether/how these two modalities converge in the same neurons. We found that GC neurons could either be unimodal, responding exclusively to taste (taste-only) or odor (odor-only), or bimodal, responding to both gustatory and olfactory stimuli. Odor responses were confirmed to result from retronasal olfaction: monitoring respiration revealed that exhalation preceded odor-evoked activity and reversible inactivation of olfactory receptors in the nasal epithelium significantly reduced responses to intraoral odorants but not to tastants. Analysis of bimodal neurons revealed that they encode palatability significantly better than the unimodal taste-only group. Bimodal neurons exhibited similar responses to palatable tastants and odorants dissolved in water. This result suggested that odorized water could be palatable. This interpretation was further supported with a brief access task, where rats avoided consuming aversive taste stimuli and consumed the palatable tastants and dissolved odorants. These results demonstrate the convergence of the chemosensory components of flavor onto single GC neurons and provide evidence for the integration of flavor with palatability coding. Food perception and choice depend upon the concurrent processing of olfactory and gustatory signals from the mouth. The primary gustatory cortex has been proposed to integrate chemosensory stimuli

  19. Artificial Induction of Associative Olfactory Memory by Optogenetic and Thermogenetic Activation of Olfactory Sensory Neurons and Octopaminergic Neurons in Drosophila Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takato; Lee, Chi-Yu; Honjo, Ken; Furukubo-Tokunaga, Katsuo

    2016-01-01

    The larval brain of Drosophila melanogaster provides an excellent system for the study of the neurocircuitry mechanism of memory. Recent development of neurogenetic techniques in fruit flies enables manipulations of neuronal activities in freely behaving animals. This protocol describes detailed steps for artificial induction of olfactory associative memory in Drosophila larvae. In this protocol, the natural reward signal is substituted by thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons in the brain. In parallel, the odor signal is substituted by optogenetic activation of a specific class of olfactory receptor neurons. Association of reward and odor stimuli is achieved with the concomitant application of blue light and heat that leads to activation of both sets of neurons in living transgenic larvae. Given its operational simplicity and robustness, this method could be utilized to further our knowledge on the neurocircuitry mechanism of memory in the fly brain.

  20. Interglomerular Connectivity within the Canonical and GC-D/Necklace Olfactory Subsystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric R Uytingco

    Full Text Available The mammalian main olfactory system contains several subsystems that differ not only in the receptors they express and the glomerular targets they innervate within the main olfactory bulb (MOB, but also in the strategies they use to process odor information. The canonical main olfactory system employs a combinatorial coding strategy that represents odorant identity as a pattern of glomerular activity. By contrast, the "GC-D/necklace" olfactory subsystem-formed by olfactory sensory neurons expressing the receptor guanylyl cyclase GC-D and their target necklace glomeruli (NGs encircling the caudal MOB-is critical for the detection of a small number of semiochemicals that promote the acquisition of food preferences. The formation of these socially-transmitted food preferences requires the animal to integrate information about two types of olfactory stimuli: these specialized social chemosignals and the food odors themselves. However, the neural mechanisms with which the GC-D/necklace subsystem processes this information are unclear. We used stimulus-induced increases in intrinsic fluorescence signals to map functional circuitry associated with NGs and canonical glomeruli (CGs in the MOB. As expected, CG-associated activity spread laterally through both the glomerular and external plexiform layers associated with activated glomeruli. Activation of CGs or NGs resulted in activity spread between the two types of glomeruli; there was no evidence of preferential connectivity between individual necklace glomeruli. These results support previous anatomical findings that suggest the canonical and GC-D/necklace subsystems are functionally connected and may integrate general odor and semiochemical information in the MOB.

  1. Not all sharks are "swimming noses": variation in olfactory bulb size in cartilaginous fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yopak, Kara E; Lisney, Thomas J; Collin, Shaun P

    2015-03-01

    Olfaction is a universal modality by which all animals sample chemical stimuli from their environment. In cartilaginous fishes, olfaction is critical for various survival tasks including localizing prey, avoiding predators, and chemosensory communication with conspecifics. Little is known, however, about interspecific variation in olfactory capability in these fishes, or whether the relative importance of olfaction in relation to other sensory systems varies with regard to ecological factors, such as habitat and lifestyle. In this study, we have addressed these questions by directly examining interspecific variation in the size of the olfactory bulbs (OB), the region of the brain that receives the primary sensory projections from the olfactory nerve, in 58 species of cartilaginous fishes. Relative OB size was compared among species occupying different ecological niches. Our results show that the OBs maintain a substantial level of allometric independence from the rest of the brain across cartilaginous fishes and that OB size is highly variable among species. These findings are supported by phylogenetic generalized least-squares models, which show that this variability is correlated with ecological niche, particularly habitat. The relatively largest OBs were found in pelagic-coastal/oceanic sharks, especially migratory species such as Carcharodon carcharias and Galeocerdo cuvier. Deep-sea species also possess large OBs, suggesting a greater reliance on olfaction in habitats where vision may be compromised. In contrast, the smallest OBs were found in the majority of reef-associated species, including sharks from the families Carcharhinidae and Hemiscyllidae and dasyatid batoids. These results suggest that there is great variability in the degree to which these fishes rely on olfactory cues. The OBs have been widely used as a neuroanatomical proxy for olfactory capability in vertebrates, and we speculate that differences in olfactory capabilities may be the result of

  2. Calcium signals in olfactory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareilus, E; Noé, J; Breer, H

    1995-11-09

    Laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with the fluorescent calcium indicators Fluo-3 and Fura-Red was employed to estimate the intracellular concentration of free calcium ions in individual olfactory receptor neurons and to monitor temporal and spatial changes in the Ca(2+)-level upon stimulation. The chemosensory cells responded to odorants with a significant increase in the calcium concentration, preferentially in the dendritic knob. Applying various stimulation paradigma, it was found that in a population of isolated cells, subsets of receptor neurons display distinct patterns of responsiveness.

  3. Olfactory fingerprints for major histocompatibility complex-determined body odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, M L; Young, D A; Restrepo, D

    2001-04-01

    Recognition of individual body odors is analogous to human face recognition in that it provides information about identity. Individual body odors determined by differences at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC or H-2) have been shown to influence mate choice, pregnancy block, and maternal behavior in mice. Unfortunately, the mechanism and extent of the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) involvement in the discrimination of animals according to H-2-type has remained ambiguous. Here we study the neuronal activation patterns evoked in the MOB in different individuals on exposure to these complex, biologically meaningful sensory stimuli. We demonstrate that body odors from H-2 disparate mice evoke overlapping but distinct maps of neuronal activation in the MOB. The spatial patterns of odor-evoked activity are sufficient to be used like fingerprints to predict H-2 identity using a novel computer algorithm. These results provide functional evidence for discrimination of H-2-determined body odors in the MOB, but do not preclude a role for the AOB. These data further our understanding of the neural strategies used to decode socially relevant odors.

  4. SMELL-S and SMELL-R: Olfactory tests not influenced by odor-specific insensitivity or prior olfactory experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Julien W; Keller, Andreas; Wong, Michele; Jiang, Rong-San; Vosshall, Leslie B

    2017-10-24

    Smell dysfunction is a common and underdiagnosed medical condition that can have serious consequences. It is also an early biomarker of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, where olfactory deficits precede detectable memory loss. Clinical tests that evaluate the sense of smell face two major challenges. First, human sensitivity to individual odorants varies significantly, so test results may be unreliable in people with low sensitivity to a test odorant but an otherwise normal sense of smell. Second, prior familiarity with odor stimuli can bias smell test performance. We have developed nonsemantic tests for olfactory sensitivity (SMELL-S) and olfactory resolution (SMELL-R) that use mixtures of odorants that have unfamiliar smells. The tests can be self-administered by healthy individuals with minimal training and show high test-retest reliability. Because SMELL-S uses odor mixtures rather than a single molecule, odor-specific insensitivity is averaged out, and the test accurately distinguished people with normal and dysfunctional smell. SMELL-R is a discrimination test in which the difference between two stimulus mixtures can be altered stepwise. This is an advance over current discrimination tests, which ask subjects to discriminate monomolecular odorants whose difference in odor cannot be quantified. SMELL-R showed significantly less bias in scores between North American and Taiwanese subjects than conventional semantically based smell tests that need to be adapted to different languages and cultures. Based on these proof-of-principle results in healthy individuals, we predict that SMELL-S and SMELL-R will be broadly effective in diagnosing smell dysfunction. Published under the PNAS license.

  5. SMELL-S and SMELL-R: Olfactory tests not influenced by odor-specific insensitivity or prior olfactory experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Rong-San

    2017-01-01

    Smell dysfunction is a common and underdiagnosed medical condition that can have serious consequences. It is also an early biomarker of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, where olfactory deficits precede detectable memory loss. Clinical tests that evaluate the sense of smell face two major challenges. First, human sensitivity to individual odorants varies significantly, so test results may be unreliable in people with low sensitivity to a test odorant but an otherwise normal sense of smell. Second, prior familiarity with odor stimuli can bias smell test performance. We have developed nonsemantic tests for olfactory sensitivity (SMELL-S) and olfactory resolution (SMELL-R) that use mixtures of odorants that have unfamiliar smells. The tests can be self-administered by healthy individuals with minimal training and show high test–retest reliability. Because SMELL-S uses odor mixtures rather than a single molecule, odor-specific insensitivity is averaged out, and the test accurately distinguished people with normal and dysfunctional smell. SMELL-R is a discrimination test in which the difference between two stimulus mixtures can be altered stepwise. This is an advance over current discrimination tests, which ask subjects to discriminate monomolecular odorants whose difference in odor cannot be quantified. SMELL-R showed significantly less bias in scores between North American and Taiwanese subjects than conventional semantically based smell tests that need to be adapted to different languages and cultures. Based on these proof-of-principle results in healthy individuals, we predict that SMELL-S and SMELL-R will be broadly effective in diagnosing smell dysfunction. PMID:29073044

  6. Evaluation of reduced-dose CT for acute non-traumatic abdominal pain: evaluation of diagnostic accuracy in comparison to standard-dose CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ahmed E; Bongers, Malte Niklas; Zinsser, Dominik; Schabel, Christoph; Wichmann, Julian L; Arshid, Rami; Notohamiprodjo, Mike; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Bamberg, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    Background Patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain often undergo abdominal computed tomography (CT). However, abdominal CT is associated with high radiation exposure. Purpose To evaluate diagnostic performance of a reduced-dose 100 kVp CT protocol with advanced modeled iterative reconstruction as compared to a linearly blended 120 kVp protocol for assessment of acute, non-traumatic abdominal pain. Material and Methods Two radiologists assessed 100 kVp and linearly blended 120 kVp series of 112 consecutive patients with acute non-traumatic pain (onset diagnostic confidence. Both 100 kVp and linearly blended 120 kVp series were quantitatively evaluated regarding radiation dose and image noise. Comparative statistics and diagnostic accuracy was calculated using receiver operating curve (ROC) statistics, with final clinical diagnosis/clinical follow-up as reference standard. Results Image quality was high for both series without detectable significant differences ( P = 0.157). Image noise and artifacts were rated low for both series but significantly higher for 100 kVp ( P ≤ 0.021). Diagnostic accuracy was high for both series (120 kVp: area under the curve [AUC] = 0.950, sensitivity = 0.958, specificity = 0.941; 100 kVp: AUC ≥ 0.910, sensitivity ≥ 0.937, specificity = 0.882; P ≥ 0.516) with almost perfect inter-rater agreement (Kappa = 0.939). Diagnostic confidence was high for both dose levels without significant differences (100 kVp 5, range 4-5; 120 kVp 5, range 3-5; P = 0.134). The 100 kVp series yielded 26.1% lower radiation dose compared with the 120 kVp series (5.72 ± 2.23 mSv versus 7.75 ± 3.02 mSv, P diagnostic accuracy for the assessment of acute non-traumatic abdominal pain.

  7. Item-specific proactive interference in olfactory working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Andrew; Miles, Christopher; Elsley, Jane; Johnson, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    We examine item-specific olfactory proactive interference (PI) effects and undertake comparisons with verbal and non-verbal visual stimuli. Using a sequential recent-probes task, we show no evidence for PI with hard-to-name odours (Experiment 1). However, verbalisable odours do exhibit PI effects (Experiment 2). These findings occur despite above chance performance and similar serial position functions across both tasks. Experiments 3 and 4 apply words and faces, respectively, to our modified procedure, and show that methodological differences cannot explain the null finding in Experiment 1. The extent to which odours exhibit analogous PI effects to that of other modalities is, we argue, contingent on the characteristics of the odours employed.

  8. The value of identity: olfactory notes on orbitofrontal cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Jay A; Zelano, Christina

    2011-12-01

    Neuroscientific research has emphatically promoted the idea that the key function of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is to encode value. Associative learning studies indicate that OFC representations of stimulus cues reflect the predictive value of expected outcomes. Neuroeconomic studies suggest that the OFC distills abstract representations of value from discrete commodities to optimize choice. Although value-based models provide good explanatory power for many different findings, these models are typically disconnected from the very stimuli and commodities giving rise to those value representations. Little provision is made, either theoretically or empirically, for the necessary cooperative role of object identity, without which value becomes orphaned from its source. As a step toward remediating the value of identity, this review provides a focused olfactory survey of OFC research, including new work from our lab, to highlight the elemental involvement of this region in stimulus-specific predictive coding of both perceptual outcomes and expected values. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. A Closer Look at Acid-Base Olfactory Titrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neppel, Kerry; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.; Queen, Connie; Reed, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Olfactory titrations using raw onions and eugenol as acid-base indicators are reported. An in-depth investigation on olfactory titrations is presented to include requirements for potential olfactory indicators and protocols for using garlic, onions, and vanillin as acid-base olfactory indicators are tested.

  10. The role of main olfactory and vomeronasal systems in animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In many terrestrial tetrapod, olfactory sensory communication is mediated by two anatomically and functionally distinct sensory systems; the main olfactory system and vomeronasal system (accessory olfactory system). Recent anatomical studies of the central pathways of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems showed that ...

  11. Caffeine and the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadfield, M G

    1997-08-01

    Caffeine, a popular CNS stimulant, is the most widely used neuroactive drug. Present in coffee, tea, chocolate, and soft drinks as well as over-the-counter and prescription medications, it influences millions of users. This agent has achieved recent notoriety because its dependency consequences and addictive potential have been re-examined and emphasized. Caffeine's central actions are thought to be mediated through adenosine (A) receptors and monoamine neurotransmitters. The present article suggests that the olfactory bulb (OB) may be an important site in the brain that is responsible for caffeine's central actions in several species. This conclusion is based on the extraordinarily robust and selective effects of caffeine on norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and particularly serotonin (5HT) utilization in the OB of mice. We believe that these phenomena should be given appropriate consideration as a basis for caffeine's central actions, even in primates. Concurrently, we review a rich rodent literature concerned with A, 5HT, NE, and DA receptors in the OB and related structures along with other monoamine parameters. We also review a more limited literature concerned with the primate OB. Finally, we cite the literature that treats the dependency and addictive effects of caffeine in humans, and relate the findings to possible olfactory mechanisms.

  12. It Takes Two – Coincidence coding within the dual olfactory pathway of the honeybee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin F. Brill

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To rapidly process biologically relevant stimuli, sensory systems have developed a broad variety of coding mechanisms like parallel processing and coincidence detection. Parallel processing (e.g. in the visual system, increases both computational capacity and processing speed by simultaneously coding different aspects of the same stimulus. Coincidence detection is an efficient way to integrateinformation from different sources. Coincidence has been shown to promote associative learning and memory or stimulus feature detection (e.g. in auditory delay lines. Within the dual olfactory pathway of the honeybee both of these mechanisms might be implemented by uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs that transfer information from the primary olfactory centers, the antennal lobe (AL, to a multimodal integration center, the mushroom body (MB. PNs from anatomically distinct tracts respond to the same stimulus space, but have different physiological properties, characteristics that are prerequisites for parallel processing of different stimulus aspects. However, the PN pathways also display mirror-imaged like anatomical trajectories that resemble neuronal coincidence detectors as known from auditory delay lines. To investigate temporal processing of olfactory information, we recorded PN odor responses simultaneously from both tracts and measured coincident activity of PNs within and between tracts. Our results show that coincidence levels are different within each of the two tracts. Coincidence also occurs between tracts, but to a minor extent compared to coincidence within tracts. Taken together our findings support the relevance of spike timing in coding of olfactory information (temporal code.

  13. It takes two-coincidence coding within the dual olfactory pathway of the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Martin F; Meyer, Anneke; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    To rapidly process biologically relevant stimuli, sensory systems have developed a broad variety of coding mechanisms like parallel processing and coincidence detection. Parallel processing (e.g., in the visual system), increases both computational capacity and processing speed by simultaneously coding different aspects of the same stimulus. Coincidence detection is an efficient way to integrate information from different sources. Coincidence has been shown to promote associative learning and memory or stimulus feature detection (e.g., in auditory delay lines). Within the dual olfactory pathway of the honeybee both of these mechanisms might be implemented by uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs) that transfer information from the primary olfactory centers, the antennal lobe (AL), to a multimodal integration center, the mushroom body (MB). PNs from anatomically distinct tracts respond to the same stimulus space, but have different physiological properties, characteristics that are prerequisites for parallel processing of different stimulus aspects. However, the PN pathways also display mirror-imaged like anatomical trajectories that resemble neuronal coincidence detectors as known from auditory delay lines. To investigate temporal processing of olfactory information, we recorded PN odor responses simultaneously from both tracts and measured coincident activity of PNs within and between tracts. Our results show that coincidence levels are different within each of the two tracts. Coincidence also occurs between tracts, but to a minor extent compared to coincidence within tracts. Taken together our findings support the relevance of spike timing in coding of olfactory information (temporal code).

  14. Cross-modal interaction between visual and olfactory learning in Apis cerana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Zhen; Zhang, Shao-Wu; Wang, Zi-Long; Yan, Wei-Yu; Zeng, Zhi-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The power of the small honeybee brain carrying out behavioral and cognitive tasks has been shown repeatedly to be highly impressive. The present study investigates, for the first time, the cross-modal interaction between visual and olfactory learning in Apis cerana. To explore the role and molecular mechanisms of cross-modal learning in A. cerana, the honeybees were trained and tested in a modified Y-maze with seven visual and five olfactory stimulus, where a robust visual threshold for black/white grating (period of 2.8°-3.8°) and relatively olfactory threshold (concentration of 50-25%) was obtained. Meanwhile, the expression levels of five genes (AcCREB, Acdop1, Acdop2, Acdop3, Actyr1) related to learning and memory were analyzed under different training conditions by real-time RT-PCR. The experimental results indicate that A. cerana could exhibit cross-modal interactions between visual and olfactory learning by reducing the threshold level of the conditioning stimuli, and that these genes may play important roles in the learning process of honeybees.

  15. Seed Detection and Discrimination by Ground Beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Are Associated with Olfactory Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Sharavari S; Dosdall, Lloyd M; Spence, John R; Willenborg, Christian J

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory ability is an element of fitness in many animals, guiding choices among alternatives such as mating partners or food. Ground beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae), exhibit preferences for prey, and some species are well-known weed seed predators. We used olfactometer-based bioassays to determine if olfactory stimuli are associated with detection of Brassica napus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Thlaspi arvense L. seeds by ground beetles characteristic of agroecosystems, and whether behavioural responses to seed odors depended on seed physiological state (imbibed or unimbibed). Imbibed B.napus seeds were preferred over other weed species by two of the three carabid species tested. Only A. littoralis responded significantly to unimbibed seeds of B. napus. Sensitivity to olfactory cues appeared to be highly specific as all carabid species discriminated between the olfactory cues of imbibed brassicaceous weed seeds, but did not discriminate between weed seeds that were unimbibed. Overall, our data suggest that depending on seed physiological state, odours can play an important role in the ability of carabids to find and recognize seeds of particular weed species.

  16. Olfactory bulb as an alternative in neurotransplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Романович Новиков

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ethical and legal aspects of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue, structure of the rat olfactory bulb. It is given substantiation for its use as a possible alternative version of the embryonic neural tissue at damage in the cerebral hemispheres in the experiment.Materials and methods. Detailed description of the fault model of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain of rats, olfactory bulb biopsy procedure, cultivation of olfactory bulb suspension and fetal neural tissue, comparison of the functional aspects of transplantation of the olfactory bulb and the embryonic neural tissue.Results. The obtained data are similar to structure of olfactory bulb and fetal tissues during culturing. Recovery in the motor areas varies by the time factor and less intense in the group of the olfactory bulb and the group without tissue transplantation.Conclusions. Comparative analysis of the effectiveness of transplantation of embryonic neural tissue and olfactory bulb in the injured brain allows us to speak about the positive results of these groups to the difference in the duration of the recovery process

  17. Olfactory or auditory stimulation and their hedonic valúes differentially modulate visual working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA M DONOSO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Working memory (WM designates the retention of objects or events in conscious awareness when these are not present in the environment. Many studies have focused on the interference properties of distracter stimuli in working memory, but these studies have mainly examined the influence of the intensity of these stimuli. Little is known about the memory modulation of hedonic content of distracter stimuli as they also may affect WM performance or attentional tasks. In this paper, we have studied the performance of a visual WM task where subjects recollect from five to eight visually presented objects while they are simultaneously exposed to additional - albeit weak- auditory or olfactory distracter stimulus. We found that WM performance decreases as the number of Ítems to remember increases, but this performance was unaltered by any of the distracter stimuli. However, when performance was correlated to the subject's perceived hedonic valúes, distracter stimuli classified as negative exhibit higher error rates than positive, neutral or control stimuli. We demónstrate that some hedonic content of otherwise neutral stimuli can strongly modulate memory processes.

  18. Imaging the olfactory tract (Cranial Nerve no.1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duprez, Thierry P.; Rombaux, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    This review paper browses pros and cons of the different radiological modalities for imaging the olfactory tract and highlights the potential benefits and limitation of more recent advances in MR and CT technology. A systematic pictorial overview of pathological conditions affecting olfactory sense is given. Techniques for collecting quantitative data on olfactory bulb volume and on olfactory sulcus depth are described. At last, insights into functional imaging of olfactory sense are shown.

  19. Olfactory Functioning in First-Episode Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Vidyulata; Lasutschinkow, Patricia; Ishizuka, Koko; Sawa, Akira

    2018-04-06

    Though olfactory deficits are well-documented in schizophrenia, fewer studies have examined olfactory performance profiles across the psychosis spectrum. The current study examined odor identification, discrimination, and detection threshold performance in first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depression with psychotic features, and other psychotic conditions. FEP patients (n = 97) and healthy adults (n = 98) completed birhinal assessments of odor identification, discrimination, and detection threshold sensitivity for lyral and citralva. Participants also completed measures of anticipatory pleasure, anhedonia, and empathy. Differences in olfactory performances were assessed between FEP patients and controls and within FEP subgroups. Sex-stratified post hoc analyses were employed for a complete analysis of sex differences. Relationships between self-report measures and olfactory scores were also examined. Individuals with psychosis had poorer scores across all olfactory measures when compared to the control group. Within the psychosis cohort, patients with schizophrenia-associated psychosis had poorer odor identification, discrimination, and citralva detection threshold scores relative to controls. In schizophrenia patients, greater olfactory disturbance was associated with increased negative symptomatology, greater self-reported anhedonia, and lower self-reported anticipatory pleasure. Patients with mood-associated psychosis performed comparable to controls though men and women in this cohort showed differential olfactory profiles. These findings indicate that olfactory deficits extend beyond measures of odor identification in FEP with greater deficits observed in schizophrenia-related subgroups of psychosis. Studies examining whether greater olfactory dysfunction confers greater risk for developing schizophrenia relative to other forms of psychosis are

  20. Shared mushroom body circuits underlie visual and olfactory memories in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Katrin; Schnaitmann, Christopher; Dylla, Kristina V; Knapek, Stephan; Aso, Yoshinori; Rubin, Gerald M; Tanimoto, Hiromu

    2014-01-01

    In nature, animals form memories associating reward or punishment with stimuli from different sensory modalities, such as smells and colors. It is unclear, however, how distinct sensory memories are processed in the brain. We established appetitive and aversive visual learning assays for Drosophila that are comparable to the widely used olfactory learning assays. These assays share critical features, such as reinforcing stimuli (sugar reward and electric shock punishment), and allow direct comparison of the cellular requirements for visual and olfactory memories. We found that the same subsets of dopamine neurons drive formation of both sensory memories. Furthermore, distinct yet partially overlapping subsets of mushroom body intrinsic neurons are required for visual and olfactory memories. Thus, our results suggest that distinct sensory memories are processed in a common brain center. Such centralization of related brain functions is an economical design that avoids the repetition of similar circuit motifs. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02395.001 PMID:25139953

  1. Vomeronasal versus olfactory epithelium: is there a cellular basis for human vomeronasal perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Martin; Hummel, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) constitutes an accessory olfactory organ that receives chemical stimuli, pheromones, which elicit behavioral, reproductive, or neuroendocrine responses among individuals of the same species. In many macrosmatic animals, the morphological substrate constitutes a separate organ system consisting of a vomeronasal duct (ductus vomeronasalis, VND), equipped with chemosensory cells, and a vomeronasal nerve (nervus vomeronasalis, VNN) conducting information into the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB) in the central nervous system (CNS). Recent data require that the long-accepted dual functionality of a main olfactory system and the VNO be reexamined, since all species without a VNO are nevertheless sexually active, and species possessing a VNO also can sense other than "vomeronasal" stimuli via the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE). The human case constitutes a borderline situation, as its embryonic VNO anlage exerts a developmental track common to most macrosmatics, but later typical structures such as the VNN, AOB, and probably most of the chemoreceptor cells within the still existent VND are lost. This review also presents recent information on the VND including immunohistochemical expression of neuronal markers, intermediate filaments, lectins, integrins, caveolin, CD44, and aquaporins. Further, we will address the issue of human pheromone candidates.

  2. Clinical diagnosis and treatment of olfactory meningioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiangdong; Wang Zhong; Zhang Shiming; Zhu Fengqing; Zhou Dai; Hui Guozhen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical diagnosis and treatment of olfactory meningioma. Methods: In this group 17 olfactory meningiomas were operated, and the clinical presentations and the surgery results were obtained. Results: The symptoms of psychiatrical disorder, visual disturbances and eclipse at presentation was higher. In 16 cases the grade of resection was Simpson II, 1 case Simpson III, most of the cases had a good recovery. Conclusion: Attention should be paid to the early symptom at presentation such as psychiatrical disorder to obtain an early diagnosis. Microsurgery is useful in the treatment of olfactory meningioma. (authors)

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography in non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: prospective study and systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alshamari, Muhammed; Geijer, Haakan [Oerebro University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden); Norrman, Eva [Oerebro University, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden); Geijer, Mats [Lund University and Skaane University Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging and Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Jansson, Kjell [Oerebro University, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Oerebro (Sweden)

    2016-06-15

    Abdominal radiography is frequently used in acute abdominal non-traumatic pain despite the availability of more advanced diagnostic modalities. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography, at similar radiation dose levels. Fifty-eight patients were imaged with both methods and were reviewed independently by three radiologists. The reference standard was obtained from the diagnosis in medical records. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. A systematic review was performed after a literature search, finding a total of six relevant studies including the present. Overall sensitivity with 95 % CI for CT was 75 % (66-83 %) and 46 % (37-56 %) for radiography. Specificity was 87 % (77-94 %) for both methods. In the systematic review the overall sensitivity for CT varied between 75 and 96 % with specificity from 83 to 95 % while the overall sensitivity for abdominal radiography varied between 30 and 77 % with specificity 75 to 88 %. Based on the current study and available evidence, low-dose CT has higher diagnostic accuracy than abdominal radiography and it should, where logistically possible, replace abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain. (orig.)

  4. Active extravasation of contrast within the hemorrhage (spot sign: a multidetector computed tomography finding that predicts growth and a worse prognosis in non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rosa Junior

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH causes high rates of disability and neurological sequelae Objective To evaluate spot signs as predictors of expansion and worse prognosis in non-traumatic ICH in a Brazilian cohort. Method We used multidetector computed tomography angiography to study 65 consecutive patients (40 men, 61.5%, with ages varying from 33 to 89 years (median age 55 years. Clinical and imaging findings were correlated with the findings based on the initial imaging. Results Of the individuals who presented a spot sign, 73.7% died (in-hospital mortality, whereas in the absence of a spot sign the mortality rate was 43.0%. Although expansion of ICH was detected in 75% of the patients with a spot sign, expansion was observed in only 9.0% of the patients who did not present a spot sign. Conclusions The spot sign strongly predicted expansion in non-traumatic ICH and an increased risk of in-hospital mortality.

  5. Using external lumbar CSF drainage to treat communicating external hydrocephalus in adult patients after acute traumatic or non-traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manet, Romain; Payen, Jean-François; Guerin, Romain; Martinez, Orianne; Hautefeuille, Serge; Francony, Gilles; Gergelé, Laurent

    2017-10-01

    Despite various treatments to control intracranial pressure (ICP) after brain injury, patients may present a late onset of high ICP or a poor response to medications. External lumbar drainage (ELD) can be considered a therapeutic option if high ICP is due to communicating external hydrocephalus. We aimed at describing the efficacy and safety of ELD used in a cohort of traumatic or non-traumatic brain-injured patients. In this multicentre retrospective analysis, patients had a delayed onset of high ICP after the initial injury and/or a poor response to ICP treatments. ELD was considered in the presence of radiological signs of communicating external hydrocephalus. Changes in ICP values and side effects following the ELD procedure were reported. Thirty-three patients with a median age of 51 years (25-75th percentile: 34-61 years) were admitted after traumatic (n = 22) or non-traumatic (n = 11) brain injuries. Their initial Glasgow Coma Scale score was 8 (4-11). Eight patients underwent external ventricular drainage prior to ELD. Median time to ELD insertion was 5 days (4-8) after brain insult. In all patients, ELD was dramatically effective in lowering ICP: 25 mmHg (20-31) before versus 7 mmHg (3-10) after (p hydrocephalus has been made.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography in non-traumatic acute abdominal pain: prospective study and systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alshamari, Muhammed; Geijer, Haakan; Norrman, Eva; Geijer, Mats; Jansson, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    Abdominal radiography is frequently used in acute abdominal non-traumatic pain despite the availability of more advanced diagnostic modalities. This study evaluates the diagnostic accuracy of low-dose CT compared with abdominal radiography, at similar radiation dose levels. Fifty-eight patients were imaged with both methods and were reviewed independently by three radiologists. The reference standard was obtained from the diagnosis in medical records. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated. A systematic review was performed after a literature search, finding a total of six relevant studies including the present. Overall sensitivity with 95 % CI for CT was 75 % (66-83 %) and 46 % (37-56 %) for radiography. Specificity was 87 % (77-94 %) for both methods. In the systematic review the overall sensitivity for CT varied between 75 and 96 % with specificity from 83 to 95 % while the overall sensitivity for abdominal radiography varied between 30 and 77 % with specificity 75 to 88 %. Based on the current study and available evidence, low-dose CT has higher diagnostic accuracy than abdominal radiography and it should, where logistically possible, replace abdominal radiography in the workup of adult patients with acute non-traumatic abdominal pain. (orig.)

  7. Olfactory nerve transport of macromolecular drugs to the brain. A problem in olfactory impaired patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiga, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Junpei; Miwa, Takaki

    2012-01-01

    Nasal administration of macromolecular drugs (including peptides and nanoparticles) has the potential to enable drug delivery system beyond the blood brain barrier (BBB) via olfactory nerve transport. Basic research on drug deliver systems to the brain via nasal administration has been well reported. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is associated with the development and growth of the central nervous system. Clinical application of IGF-I with nasal administration is intended to enable drug delivery to brain through the BBB. Uptake of IGF-I in the olfactory bulb and central nervous system increased according to the dosage of nasally administered IGF-I in normal ICR mice, however IGF-I uptake in the trigeminal nerve remained unchanged. Olfactory nerve transport is important for the delivery of nasally administered IGF-I to the brain in vivo. Because a safe olfactory nerve tracer has not been clinically available, olfactory nerve transport has not been well studied in humans. Nasal thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) administration has been safely used to assess the direct pathway to the brain via the nose in healthy volunteers with a normal olfactory threshold. 201 Tl olfactory nerve transport has recently been shown to decrease in patients with hyposmia. The olfactory nerve transport function in patients with olfactory disorders will be determined using 201 Tl olfacto-scintigraphy for the exclusion of candidates in a clinical trial to assess the usefulness of nasal administration of IGF-I. (author)

  8. Olfactory cuing of autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D C; Groth, E; Goldsmith, D J

    1984-01-01

    In Experiment 1, subjects were presented with either the odors or the names of 15 common objects. In Experiment 2, subjects were presented with either the odors, photographs, or names of 16 common objects. All subjects were asked to describe an autobiographical memory evoked by each cue, to date each memory, and to rate each memory on vividness, pleasantness, and the number of times that the memory had been thought of and talked about prior to the experiment. Compared with memories evoked by photographs or names, memories evoked by odors were reported to be thought of and talked about less often prior to the experiment and were more likely to be reported as never having been thought of or talked about prior to the experiment. No other effects were consistently found, though there was a suggestion that odors might evoke more pleasant and emotional memories than other types of cues. The relation of these results to the folklore concerning olfactory cuing is discussed.

  9. Methods to measure olfactory behavior in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Junhui; Wang, Wenbin; Pan, Yung-Wei; Lu, Song; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-02-02

    Mice rely on the sense of olfaction to detect food sources, recognize social and mating partners, and avoid predators. Many behaviors of mice, including learning and memory, social interaction, fear, and anxiety are closely associated with their function of olfaction, and behavior tasks designed to evaluate those brain functions may use odors as cues. Accurate assessment of olfaction is not only essential for the study of olfactory system but also critical for proper interpretation of various mouse behaviors, especially learning and memory, emotionality and affect, and sociality. Here we describe a series of behavior experiments that offer multidimensional and quantitative assessments for mouse olfactory function, including olfactory habituation, discrimination, odor preference, odor detection sensitivity, and olfactory memory, with respect to both social and nonsocial odors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  10. Sensory memory for odors is encoded in spontaneous correlated activity between olfactory glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Roberto F; Weidert, Marcel; Menzel, Randolf; Herz, Andreas V M; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Sensory memory is a short-lived persistence of a sensory stimulus in the nervous system, such as iconic memory in the visual system. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying olfactory sensory memory. We have therefore analyzed the effect of odor stimuli on the first odor-processing network in the honeybee brain, the antennal lobe, which corresponds to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We stained output neurons with a calcium-sensitive dye and measured across-glomerular patterns of spontaneous activity before and after a stimulus. Such a single-odor presentation changed the relative timing of spontaneous activity across glomeruli in accordance with Hebb's theory of learning. Moreover, during the first few minutes after odor presentation, correlations between the spontaneous activity fluctuations suffice to reconstruct the stimulus. As spontaneous activity is ubiquitous in the brain, modifiable fluctuations could provide an ideal substrate for Hebbian reverberations and sensory memory in other neural systems.

  11. Olfactory bulb encoding during learning under anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister U Nicol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural plasticity changes within the olfactory bulb are important for olfactory learning, although how neural encoding changes support new associations with specific odours and whether they can be investigated under anaesthesia, remain unclear. Using the social transmission of food preference olfactory learning paradigm in mice in conjunction with in vivo microdialysis sampling we have shown firstly that a learned preference for a scented food odour smelled on the breath of a demonstrator animal occurs under isofluorane anaesthesia. Furthermore, subsequent exposure to this cued odour under anaesthesia promotes the same pattern of increased release of glutamate and GABA in the olfactory bulb as previously found in conscious animals following olfactory learning, and evoked GABA release was positively correlated with the amount of scented food eaten. In a second experiment, multiarray (24 electrodes electrophysiological recordings were made from olfactory bulb mitral cells under isofluorane anaesthesia before, during and after a novel scented food odour was paired with carbon disulfide. Results showed significant increases in overall firing frequency to the cued-odour during and after learning and decreases in response to an uncued odour. Analysis of patterns of changes in individual neurons revealed that a substantial proportion (>50% of them significantly changed their response profiles during and after learning with most of those previously inhibited becoming excited. A large number of cells exhibiting no response to the odours prior to learning were either excited or inhibited afterwards. With the uncued odour many previously responsive cells became unresponsive or inhibited. Learning associated changes only occurred in the posterior part of the olfactory bulb. Thus olfactory learning under anaesthesia promotes extensive, but spatially distinct, changes in mitral cell networks to both cued and uncued odours as well as in evoked glutamate and

  12. Cladistic analysis of olfactory and vomeronasal systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda-Bañon, Isabel; Pro-Sistiaga, Palma; Mohedano-Moriano, Alicia; Saiz-Sanchez, Daniel; de la Rosa-Prieto, Carlos; Gutierrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Lanuza, Enrique; Martinez-Garcia, Fernando; Martinez-Marcos, Alino

    2011-01-01

    Most tetrapods possess two nasal organs for detecting chemicals in their environment, which are the sensory detectors of the olfactory and vomeronasal systems. The seventies' view that the olfactory system was only devoted to sense volatiles, whereas the vomeronasal system was exclusively specialized for pheromone detection was challenged by accumulating data showing deep anatomical and functional interrelationships between both systems. In addition, the assumption that the vomeronasal system appeared as an adaptation to terrestrial life is being questioned as well. The aim of the present work is to use a comparative strategy to gain insight in our understanding of the evolution of chemical "cortex." We have analyzed the organization of the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices of reptiles, marsupials, and placental mammals and we have compared our findings with data from other taxa in order to better understand the evolutionary history of the nasal sensory systems in vertebrates. The olfactory and vomeronsasal cortices have been re-investigated in garter snakes (Thamnophis sirtalis), short-tailed opossums (Monodelphis domestica), and rats (Rattus norvegicus) by tracing the efferents of the main and accessory olfactory bulbs using injections of neuroanatomical anterograde tracers (dextran-amines). In snakes, the medial olfactory tract is quite evident, whereas the main vomeronasal-recipient structure, the nucleus sphaericus is a folded cortical-like structure, located at the caudal edge of the amygdala. In marsupials, which are acallosal mammals, the rhinal fissure is relatively dorsal and the olfactory and vomeronasal cortices relatively expanded. Placental mammals, like marsupials, show partially overlapping olfactory and vomeronasal projections in the rostral basal telencephalon. These data raise the interesting question of how the telencephalon has been re-organized in different groups according to the biological relevance of chemical senses.

  13. Functional neuroanatomy of Drosophila olfactory memory formation

    OpenAIRE

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying Drosophila learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive and aversive reinforcers: (1) Which neurons within the olfactory nervous system mediate the acquisition of memory? (2) What is the complete neural circuitry exten...

  14. Learning-dependent and -independent enhancement of mitral/tufted cell glomerular odor responses following olfactory fear conditioning in awake mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jordan M; Fletcher, Max L

    2018-04-18

    Associative fear learning produces fear toward the conditioned stimulus (CS) and often generalization, the expansion of fear from the CS to similar, unlearned stimuli. However, how fear learning affects early sensory processing of learned and unlearned stimuli in relation to behavioral fear responses to these stimuli remains unclear. We subjected male and female mice expressing the fluorescent calcium indicator GCaMP3 in olfactory bulb mitral and tufted cells to a classical olfactory fear conditioning paradigm. We then used awake, in vivo calcium imaging to quantify learning-induced changes in glomerular odor responses, which constitute the first site of olfactory processing in the brain. The results demonstrate that odor-shock pairing non-specifically enhances glomerular odor representations in a learning-dependent manner and increases representational similarity between the CS and non-conditioned odors, potentially priming the system towards generalization of learned fear. Additionally, CS-specific glomerular enhancements remain even when associative learning is blocked, suggesting two separate mechanisms lead to enhanced glomerular responses following odor-shock pairings. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the olfactory bulb (OB), odors are uniquely coded in a spatial map that represents odor identity, making the OB a unique model system for investigating how learned fear alters sensory processing. Classical fear conditioning causes fear of the conditioned stimulus (CS) and of neutral stimuli, known as generalization. Combining fear conditioning with fluorescent calcium imaging of OB glomeruli, we found enhanced glomerular responses of the CS as well as neutral stimuli in awake mice, which mirrors fear generalization. We report that CS and neutral stimuli enhancements are, respectively, learning- independent and learning-dependent. Together, these results reveal distinct mechanisms leading to enhanced OB processing of fear-inducing stimuli and provide important

  15. Cortical feedback control of olfactory bulb circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Alison M; Sturgill, James F; Poo, Cindy; Isaacson, Jeffry S

    2012-12-20

    Olfactory cortex pyramidal cells integrate sensory input from olfactory bulb mitral and tufted (M/T) cells and project axons back to the bulb. However, the impact of cortical feedback projections on olfactory bulb circuits is unclear. Here, we selectively express channelrhodopsin-2 in olfactory cortex pyramidal cells and show that cortical feedback projections excite diverse populations of bulb interneurons. Activation of cortical fibers directly excites GABAergic granule cells, which in turn inhibit M/T cells. However, we show that cortical inputs preferentially target short axon cells that drive feedforward inhibition of granule cells. In vivo, activation of olfactory cortex that only weakly affects spontaneous M/T cell firing strongly gates odor-evoked M/T cell responses: cortical activity suppresses odor-evoked excitation and enhances odor-evoked inhibition. Together, these results indicate that although cortical projections have diverse actions on olfactory bulb microcircuits, the net effect of cortical feedback on M/T cells is an amplification of odor-evoked inhibition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Deficits in medical counseling in olfactory dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haxel, B R; Nisius, A; Fruth, K; Mann, W J; Muttray, A

    2012-05-01

    Olfactory dysfunctions are common with a prevalence of up to 20% in the population. An impaired sense of smell can lead to specific dangers, therefore, counseling and warning of hazardous situations to raise patient awareness is an important medical function. In this study 105 patients presenting to the University of Mainz Medical Centre with dysosmia were evaluated using a questionnaire. For quantification of the olfactory dysfunction a standardized olfactory test (Sniffin' Sticks) was used. Of the patients 46% were hyposmic and 40% were functionally anosmic. The median duration of the olfactory impairment was 10 months and the main causes of dysosmia were upper respiratory tract infections and idiopathic disorders. More than 90% of the patients consulted an otorhinolaryngologist and 60% a general practitioner before presenting to the University of Mainz Medical Center. More than two thirds of the patients conducted a professional activity, 95% of patients reported that they had not received any medical counseling and 6% of the subjects were forced to discontinue their profession because of olfactory dysfunction. In patients with olfactory dysfunctions appropriate diagnostics, including olfactometry should be performed. Furthermore, correct medical counseling concerning necessary additional arrangements (e.g. installation of smoke or gas detectors, precautions while cooking or for hygiene) has to be performed. For patients in a profession an analysis of the hazards at work is crucial.

  17. CNPase Expression in Olfactory Ensheathing Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Radtke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large body of work supports the proposal that transplantation of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs into nerve or spinal cord injuries can promote axonal regeneration and remyelination. Yet, some investigators have questioned whether the transplanted OECs associate with axons and form peripheral myelin, or if they recruit endogenous Schwann cells that form myelin. Olfactory bulbs from transgenic mice expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP under the control of the 2-3-cyclic nucleotide 3-phosphodiesterase (CNPase promoter were studied. CNPase is expressed in myelin-forming cells throughout their lineage. We examined CNPase expression in both in situ in the olfactory bulb and in vitro to determine if OECs express CNPase commensurate with their myelination potential. eGFP was observed in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb. Dissociated OECs maintained in culture had both intense eGFP expression and CNPase immunostaining. Transplantation of OECs into transected peripheral nerve longitudinally associated with the regenerated axons. These data indicate that OECs in the outer nerve layer of the olfactory bulb of CNPase transgenic mice express CNPase. Thus, while OECs do not normally form myelin on olfactory nerve axons, their expression of CNPase is commensurate with their potential to form myelin when transplanted into injured peripheral nerve.

  18. Olfactory processing and odor specificity: a meta-analysis of menstrual cycle variation in olfactory sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinec Nováková Lenka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cycle-correlated variation in olfactory threshold, with women becoming more sensitive to odors mid-cycle, is somewhat supported by the literature but the evidence is not entirely consistent, with several studies finding no, or mixed, effects. It has been argued that cyclic shifts in olfactory threshold might be limited to odors relevant to the mating context.

  19. Visual and olfactory associative learning in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilaka Nora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory and learning are critical aspects of the ecology of insect vectors of human pathogens because of their potential effects on contacts between vectors and their hosts. Despite this epidemiological importance, there have been only a limited number of studies investigating associative learning in insect vector species and none on Anopheline mosquitoes. Methods A simple behavioural assays was developed to study visual and olfactory associative learning in Anopheles gambiae, the main vector of malaria in Africa. Two contrasted membrane qualities or levels of blood palatability were used as reinforcing stimuli for bi-directional conditioning during blood feeding. Results Under such experimental conditions An. gambiae females learned very rapidly to associate visual (chequered and white patterns and olfactory cues (presence and absence of cheese or Citronella smell with the reinforcing stimuli (bloodmeal quality and remembered the association for up to three days. Associative learning significantly increased with the strength of the conditioning stimuli used. Importantly, learning sometimes occurred faster when a positive reinforcing stimulus (palatable blood was associated with an innately preferred cue (such as a darker visual pattern. However, the use of too attractive a cue (e.g. Shropshire cheese smell was counter-productive and decreased learning success. Conclusions The results address an important knowledge gap in mosquito ecology and emphasize the role of associative memory for An. gambiae's host finding and blood-feeding behaviour with important potential implications for vector control.

  20. Number of test trials needed for performance stability and interrater reliability of the one leg stand test in patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Nielsen, Anni Østergaard; Madsen Topp, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Balance is beneficial for daily functioning of patients with a lower limb amputation and sometimes assessed by the one-leg stand test (OLST). The aims of the study were to examine (1) the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability, (2) the interrater reliability of the OLST in patie......Balance is beneficial for daily functioning of patients with a lower limb amputation and sometimes assessed by the one-leg stand test (OLST). The aims of the study were to examine (1) the number of trials needed to achieve performance stability, (2) the interrater reliability of the OLST...... in patients with a major non-traumatic lower limb amputation, and (3) to provide a test procedure....

  1. Resection of the lateral end of the clavicle following osteolysis, with emphasis on non-traumatic osteolysis of the acromial end of the clavicle in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavenius, M; Iversen, B F; Stürup, J

    1987-07-01

    Preoperative radiographs of 38 patients who had undergone resection of the lateral end of the clavicle were reviewed. Seven cases of osteolysis of the lateral end of the clavicle were found, of which four followed severe injury of the shoulder girdle. Three of the cases were young male athletes, with nontraumatic osteolysis. One additional patient with this disorder, in whom resection has not yet been performed, was also included. All four had practised weightlifting and benchpressing as part of their training. Hence, a feasible explanation for the osteolytic process seems to be repeated microfractures due to stresses imposed by these activities. Several conservative regimens provided only temporary relief. After resection, the symptoms ceased and the patients were able to return to competitive sport. With the increasing interest in bodybuilding, non-traumatic osteolysis of the acromial end of the clavicle should be borne in mind in cases of pain in the shoulder in athletes.

  2. Inhibition of Inflammation-Associated Olfactory Loss by Etanercept in an Inducible Olfactory Inflammation Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Gi; Lane, Andrew P

    2016-06-01

    To determine the effect of a soluble human tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) receptor blocker (etanercept) on an inducible olfactory inflammation (IOI) mouse model. An in vivo study using a transgenic mouse model. Research laboratory. To study the impact of chronic inflammation on the olfactory system, a transgenic mouse model of chronic rhinosinusitis-associated olfactory loss was utilized (IOI mouse), expressing TNF-α in a temporally controlled fashion within the olfactory epithelium. In one group of mice (n = 4), etanercept was injected intraperitoneally (100 μg/dose, 3 times/week) concurrent with a 2-week period of TNF-α expression. A second group of mice (n = 2) underwent induction of TNF-α expression for 8 weeks, with etanercept treatment administered during the final 2 weeks of inflammation. Olfactory function was assayed by elecro-olfactogram (EOG), and olfactory tissue was processed for histology and immunohistochemical staining. Each group was compared with an equal-number control group. Compared with nontreated IOI mice, etanercept-treated IOI mice showed significantly improved EOG responses after 2 weeks (P loss of olfactory epithelium and no EOG response in nontreated IOI mice. However, in etanercept-treated mice, regeneration of olfactory epithelium was observed. Concomitant administration of etanercept in IOI mice results in interruption of TNF-α-induced olfactory loss and induction of neuroepithelial regeneration. This demonstrates that etanercept has potential utility as a tool for elucidating the role of TNF-α in other olfactory inflammation models. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  3. Neurobiological correlates of visual and olfactory recognition in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, K M

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes neurophysiological and behavioural experiments which investigate the ability of sheep to recognise different individuals using visual and olfactory cues. Behavioural experiments using Y-mazes with back-projected images of faces have shown that sheep can distinguish between the faces of sheep and humans when the faces are presented in a frontal view although they have more difficulty in doing so if the faces are presented in profile, upside down or with the eyes obscured. Single-cell electrophysiological recordings made from neurones in the temporal cortex have shown that sheep, like non-human primates, have cells in this region that code preferentially for facial stimuli and that their responses are also diminished or abolished if the faces are presented upside-down, in profile, or with the eyes obscured. Different sub-populations of cells code for faces of similar social and emotional significance. Thus one population of cells codes for faces with horns and their responses are also modulated by the size of the horns, another population codes for faces of animals of the same breed, and particularly familiar animals, and a final population codes for faces of humans and dogs. Visual cues from body shape and posture are also important for recognition of different classes of individual. Field studies have shown that sheep find it difficult to recognise humans approaching them if they change their posture to quadrupedal as opposed to a bipedal one. Electrophysiological studies have also demonstrated the presence of cells in the temporal cortex which respond preferentially to the sight of a human body shape and their activity is influenced by body orientation, posture and direction of movement. In some cases alterations to the human's appearance can also influence their activity. Olfactory recognition studies have used electrophysiological, in vivo sampling and behavioural analyses to establish the mechanisms whereby a maternal ewe develops the

  4. An Olfactory Indicator for Acid-Base Titrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flair, Mark N.; Setzer, William N.

    1990-01-01

    The use of an olfactory acid-base indicator in titrations for visually impaired students is discussed. Potential olfactory indicators include eugenol, thymol, vanillin, and thiophenol. Titrations performed with each indicator with eugenol proved to be successful. (KR)

  5. Disentangling the role of floral sensory stimuli in pollination networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantsa, Aphrodite; Raguso, Robert A.; Dyer, Adrian G.

    2018-01-01

    Despite progress in understanding pollination network structure, the functional roles of floral sensory stimuli (visual, olfactory) have never been addressed comprehensively in a community context, even though such traits are known to mediate plant-pollinator interactions. Here, we use...... a comprehensive dataset of floral traits and a novel dynamic data-pooling methodology to explore the impacts of floral sensory diversity on the structure of a pollination network in a Mediterranean scrubland. Our approach tracks transitions in the network behaviour of each plant species throughout its flowering...... period and, despite dynamism in visitor composition, reveals significant links to floral scent, and/or colour as perceived by pollinators. Having accounted for floral phenology, abundance and phylogeny, the persistent association between floral sensory traits and visitor guilds supports a deeper role...

  6. Neural Correlates of Olfactory Learning: Critical Role of Centrifugal Neuromodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Max L.; Chen, Wei R.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system is well established for its remarkable capability of undergoing experience-dependent plasticity. Although this process involves changes at multiple stages throughout the central olfactory pathway, even the early stages of processing, such as the olfactory bulb and piriform cortex, can display a high degree of…

  7. Development of the ETOC: a European test of olfactory capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas-Danguin, T.; Rouby, C.; Sicard, G.; Vigouroux, M.; Farget, V.; Johanson, A.; Bengtzon, A.; Hall, G.; Ormel, W.; Graaf, de C.; Rousseau, F.; Dumont, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    A number of smell tests designed to evaluate human olfactory capabilities have been published, but none have been validated cross-culturally. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a reliable and quick olfactory test that could be used to evaluate efficiently the olfactory abilities of a

  8. Olfactory circuits and behaviors of nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengarajan, Sophie; Hallem, Elissa A

    2016-12-01

    Over one billion people worldwide are infected with parasitic nematodes. Many parasitic nematodes actively search for hosts to infect using volatile chemical cues, so understanding the olfactory signals that drive host seeking may elucidate new pathways for preventing infections. The free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a powerful model for parasitic nematodes: because sensory neuroanatomy is conserved across nematode species, an understanding of the microcircuits that mediate olfaction in C. elegans may inform studies of olfaction in parasitic nematodes. Here we review circuit mechanisms that allow C. elegans to respond to odorants, gases, and pheromones. We also highlight work on the olfactory behaviors of parasitic nematodes that lays the groundwork for future studies of their olfactory microcircuits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Inhibitory neurotransmission and olfactory memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hassani, Abdessalam Kacimi; Giurfa, Martin; Gauthier, Monique; Armengaud, Catherine

    2008-11-01

    In insects, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission through ligand-gated chloride channel receptors. Both GABA and glutamate have been identified in the olfactory circuit of the honeybee. Here we investigated the role of inhibitory transmission mediated by GABA and glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCls) in olfactory learning and memory in honeybees. We combined olfactory conditioning with injection of ivermectin, an agonist of GluCl receptors. We also injected a blocker of glutamate transporters (L-trans-PDC) or a GABA analog (TACA). We measured acquisition and retention 1, 24 and 48 h after the last acquisition trial. A low dose of ivermectin (0.01 ng/bee) impaired long-term olfactory memory (48 h) while a higher dose (0.05 ng/bee) had no effect. Double injections of ivermectin and L-trans-PDC or TACA had different effects on memory retention, depending on the doses and agents combined. When the low dose of ivermectin was injected after Ringer, long-term memory was again impaired (48 h). Such an effect was rescued by injection of both TACA and L-trans-PDC. A combination of the higher dose of ivermectin and TACA decreased retention at 48 h. We interpret these results as reflecting the involvement of both GluCl and GABA receptors in the impairment of olfactory long-term memory induced by ivermectin. These results illustrate the diversity of inhibitory transmission and its implication in long-term olfactory memory in honeybees.

  10. Enhanced olfactory sensitivity in autism spectrum conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Chris; Chapman, Emma; Howells, Jessica; Rhydderch, Danielle; Walker, Ian; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) report heightened olfaction. Previous sensory experiments in people with ASC have reported hypersensitivity across visual, tactile, and auditory domains, but not olfaction. The aims of the present study were to investigate olfactory sensitivity in ASC, and to test the association of sensitivity to autistic traits. We recruited 17 adult males diagnosed with ASC and 17 typical adult male controls and tested their olfactory sensitivity using the Alcohol Sniff Test (AST), a standardised clinical evaluation of olfactory detection. The AST involves varying the distance between subject and stimulus until an odour is barely detected. Participants with ASC also completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) as a measure of autism traits. The ASC group detected the odour at a mean distance of 24.1 cm (SD =11.5) from the nose, compared to the control group, who detected it at a significantly shorter mean distance of 14.4 cm (SD =5.9). Detection distance was independent of age and IQ for both groups, but showed a significant positive correlation with autistic traits in the ASC group (r =0.522). This is the first experimental demonstration, as far as the authors are aware, of superior olfactory perception in ASC and showing that greater olfactory sensitivity is correlated with a higher number of autistic traits. This is consistent with results from previous findings showing hypersensitivity in other sensory domains and may help explain anecdotal and questionnaire accounts of heightened olfactory sensitivity in ASC. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying neurophysiology.

  11. Terminal-Nerve-Derived Neuropeptide Y Modulates Physiological Responses in the Olfactory Epithelium of Hungry Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Polese, Gianluca; Marks, Nikki J.; Eisthen, Heather L.

    2007-01-01

    The vertebrate brain actively regulates incoming sensory information, effectively filtering input and focusing attention toward environmental stimuli that are most relevant to the animal's behavioral context or physiological state. Such centrifugal modulation has been shown to play an important role in processing in the retina and cochlea, but has received relatively little attention in olfaction. The terminal nerve, a cranial nerve that extends underneath the lamina propria surrounding the olfactory epithelium, displays anatomical and neurochemical characteristics that suggest that it modulates activity in the olfactory epithelium. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we demonstrate that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundantly present in the terminal nerve in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), an aquatic salamander. Because NPY plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in many vertebrates, we investigated the possibility that NPY modulates activity in the olfactory epithelium in relation to the animal's hunger level. We therefore characterized the full length NPY gene from axolotls to enable synthesis of authentic axolotl NPY for use in electrophysiological experiments. We find that axolotl NPY modulates olfactory epithelial responses evoked by L-glutamic acid, a food-related odorant, but only in hungry animals. Similarly, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that bath application of axolotl NPY enhances the magnitude of a tetrodotoxin-sensitive inward current, but only in hungry animals. These results suggest that expression or activity of NPY receptors in the olfactory epithelium may change with hunger level, and that terminal nerve-derived peptides modulate activity in the olfactory epithelium in response to an animal's changing behavioral and physiological circumstances. PMID:16855098

  12. Terminal nerve-derived neuropeptide y modulates physiological responses in the olfactory epithelium of hungry axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousley, Angela; Polese, Gianluca; Marks, Nikki J; Eisthen, Heather L

    2006-07-19

    The vertebrate brain actively regulates incoming sensory information, effectively filtering input and focusing attention toward environmental stimuli that are most relevant to the animal's behavioral context or physiological state. Such centrifugal modulation has been shown to play an important role in processing in the retina and cochlea, but has received relatively little attention in olfaction. The terminal nerve, a cranial nerve that extends underneath the lamina propria surrounding the olfactory epithelium, displays anatomical and neurochemical characteristics that suggest that it modulates activity in the olfactory epithelium. Using immunocytochemical techniques, we demonstrate that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundantly present in the terminal nerve in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), an aquatic salamander. Because NPY plays an important role in regulating appetite and hunger in many vertebrates, we investigated the possibility that NPY modulates activity in the olfactory epithelium in relation to the animal's hunger level. We therefore characterized the full-length NPY gene from axolotls to enable synthesis of authentic axolotl NPY for use in electrophysiological experiments. We find that axolotl NPY modulates olfactory epithelial responses evoked by l-glutamic acid, a food-related odorant, but only in hungry animals. Similarly, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings demonstrate that bath application of axolotl NPY enhances the magnitude of a tetrodotoxin-sensitive inward current, but only in hungry animals. These results suggest that expression or activity of NPY receptors in the olfactory epithelium may change with hunger level, and that terminal nerve-derived peptides modulate activity in the olfactory epithelium in response to an animal's changing behavioral and physiological circumstances.

  13. Method for training honeybees to respond to olfactory stimuli and enhancement of memory retention therein

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCade, Kirsten J.; Wingo, Robert M.; Haarmann, Timothy K.; Sutherland, Andrew; Gubler, Walter D.

    2015-12-15

    A specialized conditioning protocol for honeybees that is designed for use within a complex agricultural ecosystem. This method ensures that the conditioned bees will be less likely to exhibit a conditioned response to uninfected plants, a false positive response that would render such a biological sensor unreliable for agricultural decision support. Also described is a superboosting training regime that allows training without the aid of expensive equipment and protocols for training in out in the field. Also described is a memory enhancing cocktail that aids in long term memory retention of a vapor signature. This allows the bees to be used in the field for longer durations and with fewer bees trained overall.

  14. Addition of Olfactory Stimuli to Virtual Reality Simulations for Medical Training Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-11-01

    81 Newman, R.I., Hunt, D.L. and Rhodes, F. (1966) Effect of music on employee attitude and productivity in a skateboard factory. Journal of Applied...in a skateboard factory. Journal of Applied Psychology, g0, 493-496. Patterson, R. (1994) Cyberspace surgery. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1M

  15. Efficient olfactory coding in the pheromone receptor neuron of a moth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomir Kostal

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The concept of coding efficiency holds that sensory neurons are adapted, through both evolutionary and developmental processes, to the statistical characteristics of their natural stimulus. Encouraged by the successful invocation of this principle to predict how neurons encode natural auditory and visual stimuli, we attempted its application to olfactory neurons. The pheromone receptor neuron of the male moth Antheraea polyphemus, for which quantitative properties of both the natural stimulus and the reception processes are available, was selected. We predicted several characteristics that the pheromone plume should possess under the hypothesis that the receptors perform optimally, i.e., transfer as much information on the stimulus per unit time as possible. Our results demonstrate that the statistical characteristics of the predicted stimulus, e.g., the probability distribution function of the stimulus concentration, the spectral density function of the stimulation course, and the intermittency, are in good agreement with those measured experimentally in the field. These results should stimulate further quantitative studies on the evolutionary adaptation of olfactory nervous systems to odorant plumes and on the plume characteristics that are most informative for the 'sniffer'. Both aspects are relevant to the design of olfactory sensors for odour-tracking robots.

  16. Olfactory sensations produced by high-energy photon irradiation of the olfactory receptor mucosa in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagar, S.M.; Thomas, R.J.; Loverock, L.T.; Spittle, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    During irradiation of volumes that incorporate the olfactory system, a proportion of patients have complained of a pungent smell. A retrospective study was carried out to determine the prevalence of this side-effect. A questionnaire was sent to 40 patients whose treatment volumes included the olfactory region and also to a control group treated away from this region. The irradiated tumor volumes included the frontal lobe, whole brain, nasopharynx, pituitary fossa, and maxillary antrum. Of the 25 patients who replied, 60% experienced odorous symptoms during irradiation. They described the odor as unpleasant and consistent with ozone. Stimulation of olfactory receptors is considered to be caused by the radiochemical formation of ozone and free radicals in the mucus overlying the olfactory mucosa

  17. Specific olfactory receptor populations projecting to identified glomeruli in the rat olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J; Pedersen, P E; Greer, C A; Stewart, W B; Kauer, J S; Benson, T E; Shepherd, G M

    1984-08-01

    A critical gap exists in our knowledge of the topographical relationship between the olfactory epithelium and olfactory bulb. The present report describes the application to this problem of a method involving horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin. This material was iontophoretically delivered to circumscribed glomeruli in the olfactory bulb and the characteristics and distribution of retrogradely labeled receptor cells were assessed. After discrete injections into small glomerular groups in the caudomedial bulb, topographically defined populations of receptor cells were labeled. Labeled receptor cell somata appeared at several levels within the epithelium. The receptor cell apical dendrites followed a tight helical course towards the surface of the epithelium. The data thus far demonstrate that functional units within the olfactory system may include not only glomeruli as previously suggested but, in addition, a corresponding matrix of receptor cells possessing functional and topographical specificity.

  18. Olfactory disfunction and its relation olfactory bulb volume in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinayar, S; Oner, S; Can, S; Kizilay, A; Kamisli, S; Sarac, K

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is the most frequently seen non-motor symptom of Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The aim of this study is to analyze selective olfactory dysfunction, and olfactory bulb volume (OBV) in subtypes of IPD, and compare them with those of the healthy controls. Our study included 41 patients with IPD and age and gender matched 19 healthy controls. IPD patients were either tremor dominant (65.9%; TDPD) or non-tremor dominant (34.1%; NTDPD) type. All patients underwent neurological, ear, nose, and throat examinations, and orthonasal olfaction testing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique was used to measure the volume of the olfactory bulb. A significant decrease in olfactory identification scores was found in the patient group. The patients had difficulty in discriminating between odors of mothballs, chocolate, Turkish coffee and soap. OBV did not differ between the patient, and the control groups. In the TDPD group, odor identification ability was decreased when compared to the control group. However, odor test results of NTDPD, control and TDPD groups were similar. OBV estimates of the TDPD group were not different from those of the control group, while in the NTDPD group OBVs were found to be decreased. In all patients with Parkinson's disease OBV values did not vary with age of the patients, duration of the disease, age at onset of the disease, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor scores (UPDRS-m). Olfactory function is a complex process involving olfactory, and cortical structures as well. In Idiopathic Parkinson's disease, changes in OBV do not seem to be directly related to olfactory dysfunction.

  19. Learning-dependent neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb determines long-term olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, S; Mandairon, N; Kermen, F; Garcia, S; Sacquet, J; Didier, A

    2010-07-01

    Inhibitory interneurons of the olfactory bulb are subjected to permanent adult neurogenesis. Their number is modulated by learning, suggesting that they could play a role in plastic changes of the bulbar network associated with olfactory memory. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were trained in an associative olfactory task, and we analyzed long-term retention of the task 5, 30, and 90 d post-training. In parallel, we assessed the fate of these newborn cells, mapped their distribution in the olfactory bulb and measured their functional implication using the immediate early gene Zif268. In a second set of experiments, we pharmacologically modulated glutamatergic transmission and using the same behavioral task assessed the consequences on memory retention and neurogenesis. Finally, by local infusion of an antimitotic drug, we selectively blocked neurogenesis during acquisition of the task and looked at the effects on memory retention. First we demonstrated that retrieval of an associative olfactory task recruits the newborn neurons in odor-specific areas of the olfactory bulb selected to survive during acquisition of the task and that it does this in a manner that depends on the strength of learning. We then demonstrated that acquisition is not dependent on neurogenesis if long-term retention of the task is abolished by blocking neurogenesis. Adult-born neurons are thus involved in changes in the neural representation of an odor; this underlies long-term olfactory memory as the strength of learning is linked to the duration of this memory. Neurogenesis thus plays a crucial role in long-term olfactory memory.

  20. Stimuli-Responsive Polymeric Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Ying; Urban, Marek W

    2017-07-01

    There is increasing evidence that stimuli-responsive nanomaterials have become significantly critical components of modern materials design and technological developments. Recent advances in synthesis and fabrication of stimuli-responsive polymeric nanoparticles with built-in stimuli-responsive components (Part A) and surface modifications of functional nanoparticles that facilitate responsiveness (Part B) are outlined here. The synthesis and construction of stimuli-responsive spherical, core-shell, concentric, hollow, Janus, gibbous/inverse gibbous, and cocklebur morphologies are discussed in Part A, with the focus on shape, color, or size changes resulting from external stimuli. Although inorganic/metallic nanoparticles exhibit many useful properties, including thermal or electrical conductivity, catalytic activity, or magnetic properties, their assemblies and formation of higher order constructs are often enhanced by surface modifications. Section B focuses on selected surface reactions that lead to responsiveness achieved by decorating nanoparticles with stimuli-responsive polymers. Although grafting-to and grafting-from dominate these synthetic efforts, there are opportunities for developing novel synthetic approaches facilitating controllable recognition, signaling, or sequential responses. Many nanotechnologies utilize a combination of organic and inorganic phases to produce ceramic or metallic nanoparticles. One can envision the development of new properties by combining inorganic (metals, metal oxides) and organic (polymer) phases into one nanoparticle designated as "ceramers" (inorganics) and "metamers" (metallic). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Changes in Olfactory Sensory Neuron Physiology and Olfactory Perceptual Learning After Odorant Exposure in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Marley D; Guang, Stephanie A; Moberly, Andrew H; McGann, John P

    2016-02-01

    The adult olfactory system undergoes experience-dependent plasticity to adapt to the olfactory environment. This plasticity may be accompanied by perceptual changes, including improved olfactory discrimination. Here, we assessed experience-dependent changes in the perception of a homologous aldehyde pair by testing mice in a cross-habituation/dishabituation behavioral paradigm before and after a week-long ester-odorant exposure protocol. In a parallel experiment, we used optical neurophysiology to observe neurotransmitter release from olfactory sensory neuron (OSN) terminals in vivo, and thus compared primary sensory representations of the aldehydes before and after the week-long ester-odorant exposure in individual animals. Mice could not discriminate between the aldehydes during pre-exposure testing, but ester-exposed subjects spontaneously discriminated between the homologous pair after exposure, whereas home cage control mice cross-habituated. Ester exposure did not alter the spatial pattern, peak magnitude, or odorant-selectivity of aldehyde-evoked OSN input to olfactory bulb glomeruli, but did alter the temporal dynamics of that input to make the time course of OSN input more dissimilar between odorants. Together, these findings demonstrate that odor exposure can induce both physiological and perceptual changes in odor processing, and suggest that changes in the temporal patterns of OSN input to olfactory bulb glomeruli could induce differences in odor quality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Mechanisms underlying odorant-induced and spontaneous calcium signals in olfactory receptor neurons of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tizeta; Derby, Charles D; Schmidt, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We determined if a newly developed antennule slice preparation allows studying chemosensory properties of spiny lobster olfactory receptor neurons under in situ conditions with Ca(2+) imaging. We show that chemical stimuli reach the dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons but not their somata, and that odorant-induced Ca(2+) signals in the somata are sufficiently stable over time to allow stimulation with a substantial number of odorants. Pharmacological manipulations served to elucidate the source of odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons. Both Ca(2+) signals are primarily mediated by an influx of extracellular Ca(2+) through voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels that can be blocked by CoCl2 and the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil. Intracellular Ca(2+) stores contribute little to odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations. The odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients as well as the spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations depend on action potentials mediated by Na(+) channels that are largely TTX-insensitive but blocked by the local anesthetics tetracaine and lidocaine. Collectively, these results corroborate the conclusion that odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons closely reflect action potential activity associated with odorant-induced phasic-tonic responses and spontaneous bursting, respectively. Therefore, both types of Ca(2+) signals represent experimentally accessible proxies of spiking.

  3. Functional Neuroanatomy of "Drosophila" Olfactory Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying "Drosophila" learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive…

  4. Resistance to Interference of Olfactory Perceptual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.; Tomiczek, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Olfactory memory is especially persistent. The current study explored whether this applies to a form of perceptual learning, in which experience of an odor mixture results in greater judged similarity between its elements. Experiment 1A contrasted 2 forms of interference procedure, "compound" (mixture AW, followed by presentation of new mixtures…

  5. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Neuromodulation of Olfactory Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizbinski, Kristyn M; Dacks, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Neuromodulation is a ubiquitous feature of neural systems, allowing flexible, context specific control over network dynamics. Neuromodulation was first described in invertebrate motor systems and early work established a basic dichotomy for neuromodulation as having either an intrinsic origin (i.e., neurons that participate in network coding) or an extrinsic origin (i.e., neurons from independent networks). In this conceptual dichotomy, intrinsic sources of neuromodulation provide a "memory" by adjusting network dynamics based upon previous and ongoing activation of the network itself, while extrinsic neuromodulators provide the context of ongoing activity of other neural networks. Although this dichotomy has been thoroughly considered in motor systems, it has received far less attention in sensory systems. In this review, we discuss intrinsic and extrinsic modulation in the context of olfactory processing in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. We begin by discussing presynaptic modulation of olfactory sensory neurons by local interneurons (LNs) as a mechanism for gain control based on ongoing network activation. We then discuss the cell-class specific effects of serotonergic centrifugal neurons on olfactory processing. Finally, we briefly discuss the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic neuromodulation (metamodulation) as an effective mechanism for exerting global control over olfactory network dynamics. The heterogeneous nature of neuromodulation is a recurring theme throughout this review as the effects of both intrinsic and extrinsic modulation are generally non-uniform.

  6. Olfactory receptors in non-chemosensory tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaNa Kang & JaeHyung Koo*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs detect volatile chemicals that lead tothe initial perception of smell in the brain. The olfactory receptor(OR is the first protein that recognizes odorants in theolfactory signal pathway and it is present in over 1,000 genesin mice. It is also the largest member of the G protein-coupledreceptors (GPCRs. Most ORs are extensively expressed in thenasal olfactory epithelium where they perform the appropriatephysiological functions that fit their location. However, recentwhole-genome sequencing shows that ORs have been foundoutside of the olfactory system, suggesting that ORs may playan important role in the ectopic expression of non-chemosensorytissues. The ectopic expressions of ORs and their physiologicalfunctions have attracted more attention recently sinceMOR23 and testicular hOR17-4 have been found to be involvedin skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and humansperm chemotaxis, respectively. When identifying additionalexpression profiles and functions of ORs in non-olfactorytissues, there are limitations posed by the small number ofantibodies available for similar OR genes. This review presentsthe results of a research series that identifies ectopic expressionsand functions of ORs in non-chemosensory tissues toprovide insight into future research directions.

  7. The role of the ventral dentate gyrus in olfactory pattern separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Christy S S; Hu, Nathan J; Ho, Liana U N; Kesner, Raymond P

    2014-05-01

    Dorsoventral lesion studies of the hippocampus have indicated that the dorsal axis of the hippocampus is important for spatial processing and the ventral axis of the hippocampus is important for olfactory learning and memory and anxiety. There is some evidence to suggest that the ventral CA3 and ventral CA1 conduct parallel processes for pattern completion and temporal processing, respectively. Studies have indicated that the dorsal dentate gyrus (DG) is importantly involved in processes reflecting underlying pattern separation activity for spatial information. However, the ventral DG is less understood. The current study investigated the less-understood role of the ventral DG in olfactory pattern separation. A series of odor stimuli that varied on only one level, number of carbon chains (methyl groups), was used in a matching-to-sample paradigm in order to investigate ventral DG involvement in working memory for similar and less similar odors. Rats with ventral DG lesions were impaired at delays of 60 sec, but not at delays of 15 sec. A memory-based pattern separation effect was observed performance was poorest with only one carbon chain separation between trial odors and was highest for trials with four separations. The present study indicates that the ventral DG plays an important role in olfactory learning and memory processes for highly similar odors. The results also indicate a role for the ventral DG in pattern separation for odor information, which may have further implications for parallel processing across the dorsoventral axis for the DG in spatial (dorsal) and olfactory (ventral) pattern separation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Morphology and physiology of the olfactory system of blood-feeding insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidobaldi, F; May-Concha, I J; Guerenstein, P G

    2014-01-01

    Several blood-feeding (hematophagous) insects are vectors of a number of diseases including dengue, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis which persistently affect public health throughout Latin America. The vectors of those diseases include mosquitoes, triatomine bugs and sandflies. As vector control is an efficient way to prevent these illnesses it is important to understand the sensory biology of those harmful insects. We study the physiology of the olfactory system of those insects and apply that knowledge on the development of methods to manipulate their behavior. Here we review some of the latest information on insect olfaction with emphasis on hematophagous insects. The insect olfactory sensory neurons are housed inside hair-like organs called sensilla which are mainly distributed on the antenna and mouthparts. The identity of many of the odor compounds that those neurons detect are already known in hematophagous insects. They include several constituents of host (vertebrate) odor, sex, aggregation and alarm pheromones, and compounds related to egg-deposition behavior. Recent work has contributed significant knowledge on how odor information is processed in the insect first odor-processing center in the brain, the antennal lobe. The quality, quantity, and temporal features of the odor stimuli are encoded by the neural networks of the antennal lobe. Information regarding odor mixtures is also encoded. While natural mixtures evoke strong responses, synthetic mixtures that deviate from their natural counterparts in terms of key constituents or proportions of those constituents evoke weaker responses. The processing of olfactory information is largely unexplored in hematophagous insects. However, many aspects of their olfactory behavior are known. As in other insects, responses to relevant single odor compounds are weak while natural mixtures evoke strong responses. Future challenges include studying how information about odor mixtures is processed in their brain

  9. A flight sensory-motor to olfactory processing circuit in the moth Manduca sexta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samual P Bradley

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits projecting information from motor pathways to sensory pathways are common across sensory domains. These circuits typically modify sensory function as a result of motor pattern activation; this is particularly so in cases where the resultant behavior affects the sensory experience or its processing. However, such circuits have not been observed projecting to an olfactory pathway in any species despite well characterized active sampling behaviors that produce reafferent mechanical stimuli, such as sniffing in mammals and wing beating in the moth Manduca sexta. In this study we characterize a circuit that connects a flight sensory-motor center to an olfactory center in Manduca. This circuit consists of a single pair of histamine immunoreactive (HA-ir neurons that project from the mesothoracic ganglion to innervate a subset of ventral antennal lobe (AL glomeruli. Furthermore, within the AL we show that the Manduca sexta histamine B receptor (MsHisClB is exclusively expressed by a subset of GABAergic and peptidergic LNs, which broadly project to all olfactory glomeruli. Finally, the HA-ir cell pair is present in fifth stage instar larvae; however, the absence of MsHisClB-ir in the larval antennal center (LAC indicates that the circuit is incomplete prior to metamorphosis and importantly prior to the expression of flight behavior. Although the functional consequences of this circuit remain unknown, these results provide the first detailed description of a circuit that interconnects an olfactory system with motor centers driving flight behaviors including odor-guided flight.

  10. Olfactory Receptors in Non-Chemosensory Organs: The Nervous System in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Isidro; Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Carmona, Margarita; Carro, Eva; Aronica, Eleonora; Kovacs, Gabor G; Grison, Alice; Gustincich, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) and down-stream functional signaling molecules adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3), olfactory G protein α subunit (Gαolf), OR transporters receptor transporter proteins 1 and 2 (RTP1 and RTP2), receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1), and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are expressed in neurons of the human and murine central nervous system (CNS). In vitro studies have shown that these receptors react to external stimuli and therefore are equipped to be functional. However, ORs are not directly related to the detection of odors. Several molecules delivered from the blood, cerebrospinal fluid, neighboring local neurons and glial cells, distant cells through the extracellular space, and the cells' own self-regulating internal homeostasis can be postulated as possible ligands. Moreover, a single neuron outside the olfactory epithelium expresses more than one receptor, and the mechanism of transcriptional regulation may be different in olfactory epithelia and brain neurons. OR gene expression is altered in several neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD) subtypes MM1 and VV2 with disease-, region- and subtype-specific patterns. Altered gene expression is also observed in the prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia with a major but not total influence of chlorpromazine treatment. Preliminary parallel observations have also shown the presence of taste receptors (TASRs), mainly of the bitter taste family, in the mammalian brain, whose function is not related to taste. TASRs in brain are also abnormally regulated in neurodegenerative diseases. These seminal observations point to the need for further studies on ORs and TASRs chemoreceptors in the mammalian brain.

  11. The banana code – Natural blend processing in the olfactory circuitry of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSchubert

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Odor information is predominantly perceived as complex odor blends. For Drosophila melanogaster one of the most attractive blends is emitted by an over-ripe banana. To analyze how the fly’s olfactory system processes natural blends we combined the experimental advantages of gas chromatography and functional imaging (GC-I. In this way, natural banana compounds were presented successively to the fly antenna in close to natural occurring concentrations. This technique allowed us to identify the active odor components, use these compounds as stimuli and measure odor-induced Ca2+ signals in input and output neurons of the Drosophila antennal lobe (AL, the first olfactory neuropil. We demonstrate that mixture interactions of a natural blend are very rare and occur only at the AL output level resulting in a surprisingly linear blend representation. However, the information regarding single components is strongly modulated by the olfactory circuitry within the AL leading to a higher similarity between the representation of individual components and the banana blend. This observed modulation might tune the olfactory system in a way to distinctively categorize odor components and improve the detection of suitable food sources. Functional GC-I thus enables analysis of virtually any unknown natural odorant blend and its components in their relative occurring concentrations and allows characterization of neuronal responses of complete neural assemblies. This technique can be seen as a valuable complementary method to classical GC/electrophysiology techniques, and will be a highly useful tool in future investigations of insect-insect and insect-plant chemical interactions.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging of olfactory neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, Mitsuhiro; Homma, Akihiro; Furuta, Yasushi; Fukuda, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon intranasal tumor originating from olfactory neuroepithelium. Despite the development of electron microscopy and immunohistochemical testing, the pathological diagnosis of this tumor is still difficult because of the wide range of histological features. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR) of this tumor and the pattern of contrast enhancement have not been well described. The purpose of this report was to analyze the MR characteristics of olfactory neuroblastomas. The MR signal, pattern of contrast enhancement, and correlation with high-resolution computed tomography (CT) imaging were examined. Seventeen patients with olfactory neuroblastoma were treated at Hokkaido University Hospital and a related hospital during the past 25 years. MR images taken in 12 patients and CT images taken in 9 patients with histologically confirmed olfactory neuroblastoma were retrospectively reviewed. Compared with brain gray matter, 11 tumors were hypointense on T1-weighted images, 9 homogeneously and 2 heterogeneously. Eight tumors were hyperintense on T2-weighted images, 3 homogeneously and 5 heterogeneously, although their appearance was less intense than that of sinusitis. Gadolinium enhancement was moderate in one case and marked in 10 of the 11 cases, 9 homogeneously and 2 heterogeneously. Nine of the 11 tumors showed smooth regular shaped margins; 2 of these tumors exhibited irregular infiltrating margins on gadolinium-enhanced images, compared to the pre-contrast T1-weighted images. Eight of the 11 tumors had clearly demarcated margins, while 3 of the 11 tumors did not exhibit gadolinium enhancement. Six of the 12 cases (50%) exhibited intracranial cysts on the gadolinium-enhanced images. T2-weighted or gadolinium-enhanced images successfully distinguished sinusitis from tumors in 4 cases whereas the CT images failed. Gadolinium enhancement, particularly in the tangential plane, demonstrated intracranial extension not apparent on the CT images

  13. Spatial distribution of calcium-gated chloride channels in olfactory cilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Donald A; Badamdorj, Dorjsuren; Kleene, Steven J

    2010-12-30

    In vertebrate olfactory receptor neurons, sensory cilia transduce odor stimuli into changes in neuronal membrane potential. The voltage changes are primarily caused by the sequential openings of two types of channel: a cyclic-nucleotide-gated (CNG) cationic channel and a calcium-gated chloride channel. In frog, the cilia are 25 to 200 µm in length, so the spatial distributions of the channels may be an important determinant of odor sensitivity. To determine the spatial distribution of the chloride channels, we recorded from single cilia as calcium was allowed to diffuse down the length of the cilium and activate the channels. A computational model of this experiment allowed an estimate of the spatial distribution of the chloride channels. On average, the channels were concentrated in a narrow band centered at a distance of 29% of the ciliary length, measured from the base of the cilium. This matches the location of the CNG channels determined previously. This non-uniform distribution of transduction proteins is consistent with similar findings in other cilia. On average, the two types of olfactory transduction channel are concentrated in the same region of the cilium. This may contribute to the efficient detection of weak stimuli.

  14. γ neurons mediate dopaminergic input during aversive olfactory memory formation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Cressy, M.; Li, W.; Coravos, J.; Izzi, S.; Dubnau, J.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Mushroom body (MB) dependent olfactory learning in Drosophila provides a powerful model to investigate memory mechanisms. MBs integrate olfactory conditioned stimuli (CS) inputs with neuromodulatory reinforcement (unconditioned stimuli, US) [1, 2], which for aversive learning is thought to rely on dopaminergic (DA) signaling [3–6] to DopR, a D1-like dopamine receptor expressed in MB [7, 8]. A wealth of evidence suggests the conclusion that parallel and independent signaling occurs downstream of DopR within two MB neuron cell types, with each supporting half of memory performance. For instance, expression of the rutabaga adenylyl cyclase (rut) in γ neurons is sufficient to restore normal learning to rut mutants [9] whereas expression of Neurofibromatosis I (NFI) in α/β neurons is sufficient to rescue NF1 mutants [10, 11]. DopR mutations are the only case where memory performance is fully eliminated [7], consistent with the hypothesis that DopR receives the US inputs for both γ and α/β lobe traces. We demonstrate, however, that DopR expression in γ neurons is sufficient to fully support short (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). We argue that DA-mediated CS-US association is formed in γ neurons followed by communication between γ and α/β neurons to drive consolidation. PMID:22425153

  15. Emotional stimuli and motor conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voon, V.; Brezing, C.; Gallea, C.; Ameli, R.; Roelofs, K.; LaFrance, W.C.; Hallett, M.

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli,

  16. Fos Expression in the Olfactory Pathway of High- and Low-Sexually Performing Rams Exposed to Urine from Estrous or Ovariectomized Ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirto, AJ; Austin, KJ; Uthlaut, VA; Roselli, CE; Alexander, BM

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to estrous ewe urine stimulates investigation and mounting activity in sexually active but not sexually inactive rams. It was hypothesized sexual indifference may result from an inability to detect olfactory cues or an interruption of the pathway from detection of the olfactory stimulus to the motor response. Sexually active (n=4) and inactive (n=3) rams were exposed to urine from estrous ewes. An additional group of sexually active rams (n=3) were exposed to urine from ovariectomized ewes. Rams were exsanguinated following 1 h of exposure to stimulus. Neural activity was determined in tissues of interest by the presence of fos and fos-related proteins detected by immunohistochemistry procedures. Sexually active rams exposed to urine from ovariectomized ewes had more (P ≤ 0.05) fos-positive cells in the olfactory bulb, but fewer (P = 0.03) fos-positive cells in the cortical amygdala compared to sexually active rams exposed to urine from estrous ewes. Sexually inactive rams had similar (P ≥ 0.13) numbers of fos positive neurons in the olfactory bulb and medial amygdala but fewer (P ≤ 0.04) in the central amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the medial preoptic area compared to sexually active rams exposed to urine from estrous ewes. Sexual inactivity was not associated with decreased hypothalamic function since fos activity was similar (P ≥ 0.14) among groups in the suprachiasmatic and ventral medial nucleus. Sexual inactivity is not likely due to an impaired ability to detect or process olfactory stimuli by the main olfactory bulb and medial-cortical amygdala. Sexually inactive rams may have reduced attentiveness to sexual stimuli and/or decreased responsiveness of regions in the brain which regulate reproductive behaviors. PMID:28348447

  17. Topological reorganization of odor representations in the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Yaksi

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Odors are initially represented in the olfactory bulb (OB by patterns of sensory input across the array of glomeruli. Although activated glomeruli are often widely distributed, glomeruli responding to stimuli sharing molecular features tend to be loosely clustered and thus establish a fractured chemotopic map. Neuronal circuits in the OB transform glomerular patterns of sensory input into spatiotemporal patterns of output activity and thereby extract information about a stimulus. It is, however, unknown whether the chemotopic spatial organization of glomerular inputs is maintained during these computations. To explore this issue, we measured spatiotemporal patterns of odor-evoked activity across thousands of individual neurons in the zebrafish OB by temporally deconvolved two-photon Ca(2+ imaging. Mitral cells and interneurons were distinguished by transgenic markers and exhibited different response selectivities. Shortly after response onset, activity patterns exhibited foci of activity associated with certain chemical features throughout all layers. During the subsequent few hundred milliseconds, however, MC activity was locally sparsened within the initial foci in an odor-specific manner. As a consequence, chemotopic maps disappeared and activity patterns became more informative about precise odor identity. Hence, chemotopic maps of glomerular input activity are initially transmitted to OB outputs, but not maintained during pattern processing. Nevertheless, transient chemotopic maps may support neuronal computations by establishing important synaptic interactions within the circuit. These results provide insights into the functional topology of neural activity patterns and its potential role in circuit function.

  18. A computational model of conditioning inspired by Drosophila olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, Faramarz; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Heinrich, Ralf; Wörgötter, Florentin

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Drosophila melanogaster (briefly Drosophila) can successfully perform higher cognitive processes including second order olfactory conditioning. Understanding the neural mechanism of this behavior can help neuroscientists to unravel the principles of information processing in complex neural systems (e.g. the human brain) and to create efficient and robust robotic systems. In this work, we have developed a biologically-inspired spiking neural network which is able to execute both first and second order conditioning. Experimental studies demonstrated that volume signaling (e.g. by the gaseous transmitter nitric oxide) contributes to memory formation in vertebrates and invertebrates including insects. Based on the existing knowledge of odor encoding in Drosophila, the role of retrograde signaling in memory function, and the integration of synaptic and non-synaptic neural signaling, a neural system is implemented as Simulated fly. Simulated fly navigates in a two-dimensional environment in which it receives odors and electric shocks as sensory stimuli. The model suggests some experimental research on retrograde signaling to investigate neural mechanisms of conditioning in insects and other animals. Moreover, it illustrates a simple strategy to implement higher cognitive capabilities in machines including robots. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The validity of the Brain Injury Cognitive Screen (BICS) as a neuropsychological screening assessment for traumatic and non-traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Frances L; Neal, Jo Anne; Mulla, Farzana Nizam; Edwards, Barbara; Coetzer, Rudi

    2017-04-01

    The Brain Injury Cognitive Screen (BICS) was developed as an in-service cognitive assessment battery for acquired brain injury patients entering community rehabilitation. The BICS focuses on domains that are particularly compromised following TBI, and provides a broader and more detailed assessment of executive function, attention and information processing than comparable screening assessments. The BICS also includes brief assessments of perception, naming, and construction, which were predicted to be more sensitive to impairments following non-traumatic brain injury. The studies reported here examine preliminary evidence for its validity in post-acute rehabilitation. In Study 1, TBI patients completed the BICS and were compared with matched controls. Patients with focal lesions and matched controls were compared in Study 2. Study 3 examined demographic effects in a sample of normative data. TBI and focal lesion patients obtained significantly lower composite memory, executive function and attention and information processing BICS scores than healthy controls. Injury severity effects were also obtained. Logistic regression analyses indicated that each group of BICS memory, executive function and attention measures reliably differentiated TBI and focal lesion participants from controls. Design Recall, Prospective Memory, Verbal Fluency, and Visual Search test scores showed significant independent regression effects. Other subtest measures showed evidence of sensitivity to brain injury. The study provides preliminary evidence of the BICS' sensitivity to cognitive impairment caused by acquired brain injury, and its potential clinical utility as a cognitive screen. Further validation based on a revised version of the BICS and more normative data are required.

  20. Expert consensus on facilitators and barriers to return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S E; Johnston, V; Ross, M; Coppieters, M W

    2017-02-01

    This Delphi study aimed to reach consensus on important facilitators and barriers for return-to-work following surgery for non-traumatic upper extremity conditions. In Round 1, experts ( n = 42) listed 134 factors, which were appraised in Rounds 2 and 3. Consensus (⩾85% agreement) was achieved for 13 facilitators (high motivation to return-to-work; high self-efficacy for return-to-work and recovery; availability of modified/alternative duties; flexible return-to-work arrangements; positive coping skills; limited heavy work exertion; supportive return-to-work policies; supportive supervisor/management; no catastrophic thinking; no fear avoidance to return-to-work; no fear avoidance to pain/activity; return to meaningful work duties; high job satisfaction) and six barriers (mood disorder diagnosis; pain/symptoms at more than one musculoskeletal site; heavy upper extremity exertions at work; lack of flexible return-to-work arrangements; lack of support from supervisor/management; high level of pain catastrophizing). Future prognostic studies are required to validate these biopsychosocial factors to further improve return-to-work outcomes. V.

  1. Non-traumatic acute epidural spinal hematomas diagnosed by magnetic resonance; Hematomas espinales epidurales agudos no traumaticos: diagnostico por resonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira, A.; Grive, E.; Pedraza, S.; Capellades, J.; Nos, C.; Alarcon, M.; Rovira, A. [Hospital Universitari Vall d' Hebron. Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The non-traumatic spinal epidural hematoma (NTSEH) is a rare entity that can be the cause of an acute spinal compression syndrome. the objective of this review is to identify the characteristics by MRI and NTSEH and to analyze the factors that influence in its prognosis. In the years 1994 and 1999, 12 patients with NTSEH have been diagnosed in our hospital, and a MRI was performed during the acute phase. the characteristics of the lesions have been analyzed by MRI, with special emphasis on the topographic data and resonance signal and the factors that can influence in the clinical prognosis of the patients. Initially, all of the patients presented pain in the cervical dorsal or interscapular site, followed by a sensitive-motor deficit picture. The MRI showed a lesion of expansive character and posterior epidural location in every case that would produce varying degrees of compression on the spinal cord. The NTSEH should be considered as one of the causes of acute spinal cord compression. The clinical association of intense cervical, dorsal or interscapular pain followed by a sensomotor deficit picture should lead to the suspicion of this entity, that would require an immediate examination with MRI to verify its diagnosis. Both the clinical manifestations as well as the characteristics observed by MRI of the NTSEH have a prognostic value and determine the therapeutic decision. (Author) 34 refs.

  2. Phylogenic aspects of the amphibian dual olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Kazumi; Saito, Shouichiro; Oikawa, Toshihiro; Taniguchi, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenic significance of the subdivision of dual olfactory system is reviewed mainly on the basis of our findings by electron microscopy and lectin histochemistry in the three amphibian species. The dual olfactory system is present in common in these species and consists of the projection from the olfactory epithelium (OE) to the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and that from the vomeronasal epithelium (VNE) to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). The phylogenic significance of subdivisions in the dual olfactory system in the amphibian must differently be interpreted. The subdivision of the MOB into its dorsal region (D-MOB) and ventral region (V-MOB) in Xenopus laevis must be attributed to the primitive features in their olfactory receptors. The middle cavity epithelium lining the middle cavity of this frog possesses both ciliated sensory cells and microvillous sensory cells, reminding the OE in fish. The subdivision of the AOB into the rostral (R-AOB) and caudal part (C-AOB) in Bufo japonicus formosus must be regarded as an advanced characteristic. The lack of subdivisions in both MOB and AOB in Cynops pyrrhogaster may reflect their phylogenic primitiveness. Since our lectin histochemistry to detect glycoconjugates expressed in the olfactory pathway reveals the subdivisions in the dual olfactory system in the amphibian, the glycoconjugates may deeply participate in the organization and function of olfactory pathways in phylogeny.

  3. Sevoflurane impairs post-operative olfactory memory but preserves olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopanagiotou, Georgia; Kalimeris, Konstantinos; Kesidis, Kyriakos; Matsota, Paraskevi; Dima, Cleanthi; Economou, Maria; Papageorgiou, Charalambos

    2011-01-01

    The effect of anaesthesia on olfaction has not been systematically studied. Our aim is to compare the effects of general and regional anaesthesia on olfactory acuity and memory in the immediate post-operative period. Sixty adult patients with the American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II status scheduled for elective minor surgery were included. Exclusion criteria were smoking, alcoholism, psychiatric disease and recent or past airway infection with resulting hyposmia. Patients were randomly allocated to one of three groups (in the analysis, n = 16 in each group): epidural anaesthesia (group E), general anaesthesia with propofol (group P) and general anaesthesia with sevoflurane (group S) of 40-120 min duration. The evening before surgery, at 0.5 and at 3 h post-operatively olfactory acuity and memory were tested, along with blood sampling to measure plasma melatonin and oxytocin levels. Olfactory acuity was tested with successive dilutions of n-butyl-alcohol, and olfactory memory (interpretation of odours) with the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Patient characteristics did not differ between groups. Olfactory acuity was intact in all patients, before and after anaesthesia. Olfactory memory deteriorated in group S compared to groups P and E at both post-operative time-points. This was accompanied by a significant post-operative reduction of plasma melatonin levels in group S. Oxytocin levels remained constant in all groups. Our results manifest a specific effect of sevoflurane on olfactory memory, not observed with neuraxial or total intravenous anaesthesia. The misinterpretation of odours in the immediate post-operative period by sevoflurane could be mediated by the decreased levels of melatonin.

  4. Olfactory bulb proteins linked to olfactory memory in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Mauric, Veronika; Zheng, Jun-Fang; Kang, Sung Ung; Patil, Sudarshan; Höger, Harald; Lubec, Gert

    2010-08-01

    Information on systematic analysis of olfactory memory-related proteins is poor. In this study, the odor discrimination task to investigate olfactory recognition memory of adult male C57BL/6J mice was used. Subsequently, olfactory bulbs (OBs) were taken, proteins extracted, and run on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with in-gel-protein digestion, followed by mass spectrometry and quantification of differentially expressed proteins. Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1), dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 1 (DRP1), and fascin are related with Lemon odor memory. Microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 3 is related to Rose odor memory. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase is related with both Lemon and Rose odors memory. MEK1 and DRP1 levels were increased, while microtubule-associated protein RP/EB family member 3, fascin and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase levels were decreased during olfactory memory. In summary, neurogenesis, signal transduction, cytoskeleton, and nucleotide metabolism are involved in olfactory memory formation and storage of C57BL/6J mice.

  5. File list: Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.10.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  6. File list: Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.20.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  7. File list: Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium mm9 Unclassified Others Olfactory epithelium ...SRX112960 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Unc.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium.bed ...

  8. Olfactory neuroblastoma complicated by postirradiation pneumocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fusejima, Toru; Matsumura, Kenichirou; Hayano, Makoto [Mito Saiseikai Hospital (Japan)

    1990-11-01

    A 56-year-old male was admitted with the complaints of nasal bleeding, gait disturbance, and disturbance of consciousness. Neurological examination revealed drowsiness, right hemiparesis, and choked discs. Computed tomography scan showed an enhanced mass at the frontal base, which extended to the left nasal and paranasal cavities. Angiography showed a tumor stain with a mass sign. The intracranial part of the tumor was removed completely and he was discharged ambulatorily. Two months after surgery, however, he was admitted again for the regrowth of the tumor. Ventriculoperitoneal shunting was emplaced and radiation therapy was given to the brain and nasal cavity. After 3000 rad irradiation the clinical condition suddenly became worse because of pneumocephalus. The cranial tumor disappeared after irradiation but he died of metastases and general prostration. Clinically this case was diagnosed as an olfactory groove meningioma at first, but immunohistochemical diagnosis was olfactory neuroblastoma. (author).

  9. MRI of the olfactory bulbs and sulci in human fetuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azoulay, Robin; Grabar, Sophie; Kalifa, Gabriel; Adamsbaum, Catherine; Fallet-Bianco, Catherine; Garel, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    There is limited knowledge of the MRI pattern of the development of fetal olfactory bulbs and sulci. To describe the MRI appearance of olfactory bulbs and sulci in normal in vivo fetuses according to gestational age. Olfactory bulbs and sulci were retrospectively assessed on brain MRI examinations of 88 normal fetuses between 24 and 39 weeks gestational age. Two reference centres were involved in the study and both used routine protocols that included axial and coronal T2- and T1-weighted sequences at 1.5 T. The results were compared both with the commonly used neuropathological data in the literature and with personal neuropathological data. Pearson's chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test were performed. One case of olfactory agenesis associated with CHARGE syndrome was identified. T2-weighted coronal sequences were the most sensitive for detecting olfactory bulbs and sulci. Olfactory sulci were significantly better detected from 30 weeks onwards (90.9-100%; P<0.001). MRI showed a posteroanterior development of these sulci. Olfactory bulbs were better detected from 30 to 34 weeks (80-90.9%; P<0.002). Comparison with neuropathological data confirmed the posteroanterior development of the sulci and showed an important delay in detection of the olfactory structures (bulbs and sulci). No difference was observed between the two centres involved. To date, fetal MRI can depict olfactory sulci from 30 weeks gestational age onwards and olfactory bulbs from 30 to 34 weeks gestational age. This preliminary reference standard is useful to assess the normality of the olfactory system and to diagnose olfactory agenesis. (orig.)

  10. Olfactory Information Processing in the Drosophila Antennal Lobe : Anything Goes?

    OpenAIRE

    Silbering, Ana F.; Okada, Ryuichi; Ito, Kei; Galizia, Cosmas Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    When an animal smells an odor, olfactory sensory neurons generate an activity pattern across olfactory glomeruli of the first sensory neuropil, the insect antennal lobe or the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Here, several networks of local neurons interact with sensory neurons and with output neurons-insect projection neurons, or vertebrate mitral/tufted cells. The extent and form of information processing taking place in these local networks has been subject of controversy. To investigate the ro...

  11. Early Olfactory Processing in Drosophila: Mechanisms and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Rachel I.

    2013-01-01

    In the olfactory system of Drosophila melanogaster, it is relatively straightforward to make in vivo measurements of activity in neurons corresponding to targeted processing. This, together with the numerical simplicity of the Drosophila olfactory system, has produced rapid gains in our understanding of Drosophila olfaction. This review summarizes the neurophysiology of the first two layers of this system: the peripheral olfactory receptor neurons and their postsynaptic targets in the antenna...

  12. Modeling peripheral olfactory coding in Drosophila larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available The Drosophila larva possesses just 21 unique and identifiable pairs of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs, enabling investigation of the contribution of individual OSN classes to the peripheral olfactory code. We combined electrophysiological and computational modeling to explore the nature of the peripheral olfactory code in situ. We recorded firing responses of 19/21 OSNs to a panel of 19 odors. This was achieved by creating larvae expressing just one functioning class of odorant receptor, and hence OSN. Odor response profiles of each OSN class were highly specific and unique. However many OSN-odor pairs yielded variable responses, some of which were statistically indistinguishable from background activity. We used these electrophysiological data, incorporating both responses and spontaneous firing activity, to develop a bayesian decoding model of olfactory processing. The model was able to accurately predict odor identity from raw OSN responses; prediction accuracy ranged from 12%-77% (mean for all odors 45.2% but was always significantly above chance (5.6%. However, there was no correlation between prediction accuracy for a given odor and the strength of responses of wild-type larvae to the same odor in a behavioral assay. We also used the model to predict the ability of the code to discriminate between pairs of odors. Some of these predictions were supported in a behavioral discrimination (masking assay but others were not. We conclude that our model of the peripheral code represents basic features of odor detection and discrimination, yielding insights into the information available to higher processing structures in the brain.

  13. Genetic diversity of canine olfactory receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitte Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution has resulted in large repertoires of olfactory receptor (OR genes, forming the largest gene families in mammalian genomes. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of olfactory receptors is essential if we are to understand the differences in olfactory sensory capability between individuals. Canine breeds constitute an attractive model system for such investigations. Results We sequenced 109 OR genes considered representative of the whole OR canine repertoire, which consists of more than 800 genes, in a cohort of 48 dogs of six different breeds. SNP frequency showed the overall level of polymorphism to be high. However, the distribution of SNP was highly heterogeneous among OR genes. More than 50% of OR genes were found to harbour a large number of SNP, whereas the rest were devoid of SNP or only slightly polymorphic. Heterogeneity was also observed across breeds, with 25% of the SNP breed-specific. Linkage disequilibrium within OR genes and OR clusters suggested a gene conversion process, consistent with a mean level of polymorphism higher than that observed for introns and intergenic sequences. A large proportion (47% of SNP induced amino-acid changes and the Ka/Ks ratio calculated for all alleles with a complete ORF indicated a low selective constraint with respect to the high level of redundancy of the olfactory combinatory code and an ongoing pseudogenisation process, which affects dog breeds differently. Conclusion Our demonstration of a high overall level of polymorphism, likely to modify the ligand-binding capacity of receptors distributed differently within the six breeds tested, is the first step towards understanding why Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherd Dogs have a much greater potential for use as sniffer dogs than Pekingese dogs or Greyhounds. Furthermore, the heterogeneity in OR polymorphism observed raises questions as to why, in a context in which most OR genes are highly polymorphic, a subset of

  14. Functional neuroanatomy of Drosophila olfactory memory formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven-Ozkan, Tugba; Davis, Ronald L

    2014-10-01

    New approaches, techniques and tools invented over the last decade and a half have revolutionized the functional dissection of neural circuitry underlying Drosophila learning. The new methodologies have been used aggressively by researchers attempting to answer three critical questions about olfactory memories formed with appetitive and aversive reinforcers: (1) Which neurons within the olfactory nervous system mediate the acquisition of memory? (2) What is the complete neural circuitry extending from the site(s) of acquisition to the site(s) controlling memory expression? (3) How is information processed across this circuit to consolidate early-forming, disruptable memories to stable, late memories? Much progress has been made and a few strong conclusions have emerged: (1) Acquisition occurs at multiple sites within the olfactory nervous system but is mediated predominantly by the γ mushroom body neurons. (2) The expression of long-term memory is completely dependent on the synaptic output of α/β mushroom body neurons. (3) Consolidation occurs, in part, through circuit interactions between mushroom body and dorsal paired medial neurons. Despite this progress, a complete and unified model that details the pathway from acquisition to memory expression remains elusive. © 2014 Guven-Ozkan and Davis; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Reliability of the CARE rule and the HEART score to rule out an acute coronary syndrome in non-traumatic chest pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumneh, Thomas; Richard-Jourjon, Vanessa; Friou, Emilie; Prunier, Fabrice; Soulie-Chavignon, Caroline; Choukroun, Jacques; Mazet-Guilaumé, Betty; Riou, Jérémie; Penaloza, Andréa; Roy, Pierre-Marie

    2018-03-02

    In patients consulting in the Emergency Department for chest pain, a HEART score ≤ 3 has been shown to rule out an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a low risk of major adverse cardiac event (MACE) occurrence. A negative CARE rule (≤ 1) that stands for the first four elements of the HEART score may have similar rule-out reliability without troponin assay requirement. We aim to prospectively assess the performance of the CARE rule and of the HEART score to predict MACE in a chest pain population. Prospective two-center non-interventional study. Patients admitted to the ED for non-traumatic chest pain were included, and followed-up at 6 weeks. The main study endpoint was the 6-week rate of MACE (myocardial infarction, coronary angioplasty, coronary bypass, and sudden unexplained death). 641 patients were included, of whom 9.5% presented a MACE at 6 weeks. The CARE rule was negative for 31.2% of patients, and none presented a MACE during follow-up [0, 95% confidence interval: (0.0-1.9)]. The HEART score was ≤ 3 for 63.0% of patients, and none presented a MACE during follow-up [0% (0.0-0.9)]. With an incidence below 2% in the negative group, the CARE rule seemed able to safely rule out a MACE without any biological test for one-third of patients with chest pain and the HEART score for another third with a single troponin assay.

  16. Does Pre-hospital Endotracheal Intubation Improve Survival in Adults with Non-traumatic Out-of-hospital Cardiac Arrest? A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Tiah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endotracheal intubation (ETI is currently considered superior to supraglottic airway devices (SGA for survival and other outcomes among adults with non-traumatic out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA. We aimed to determine if the research supports this conclusion by conducting a systematic review. Methods: We searched the MEDLINE, Scopus and CINAHL databases for studies published between January 1, 1980, and 30 April 30, 2013, which compared pre-hospital use of ETI with SGA for outcomes of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC; survival to hospital admission; survival to hospital discharge; and favorable neurological or functional status. We selected studies using pre-specified criteria. Included studies were independently screened for quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. We did not pool results because of study variability. Study outcomes were extracted and results presented as summed odds ratios with 95% CI. Results: We identified five eligible studies: one quasi-randomized controlled trial and four cohort studies, involving 303,348 patients in total. Only three of the five studies reported a higher proportion of ROSC with ETI versus SGA with no difference reported in the remaining two. None found significant differences between ETI and SGA for survival to hospital admission or discharge. One study reported better functional status at discharge for ETI versus SGA. Two studies reported no significant difference for favorable neurological status between ETI and SGA. Conclusion: Current evidence does not conclusively support the superiority of ETI over SGA for multiple outcomes among adults with OHCA. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:-0.

  17. Disrupted Olfactory Integration in Schizophrenia: Functional Connectivity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiparizoska, Sara; Ikuta, Toshikazu

    2017-09-01

    Evidence for olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia has been firmly established. However, in the typical understanding of schizophrenia, olfaction is not recognized to contribute to or interact with the illness. Despite the solid presence of olfactory dysfunction in schizophrenia, its relation to the rest of the illness remains largely unclear. Here, we aimed to examine functional connectivity of the olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, and piriform cortices and isolate the network that would account for the altered olfaction in schizophrenia. We examined the functional connectivity of these specific olfactory regions in order to isolate other brain regions associated with olfactory processing in schizophrenia. Using the resting state functional MRI data from the Center for Biomedical Research Excellence in Brain Function and Mental Illness, we compared 84 patients of schizophrenia and 90 individuals without schizophrenia. The schizophrenia group showed disconnectivity between the anterior piriform cortex and the nucleus accumbens, between the posterior piriform cortex and the middle frontal gyrus, and between the olfactory tract and the visual cortices. The current results suggest functional disconnectivity of olfactory regions in schizophrenia, which may account for olfactory dysfunction and disrupted integration with other sensory modalities in schizophrenia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  18. Anatomy, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry of the olfactory subsystems in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur William Barrios

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The four regions of the murine nasal cavity featuring olfactory neurons were studied anatomically and by labelling with lectins and relevant antibodies with a view to establishing criteria for the identification of olfactory subsystems that are readily applicable to other mammals. In the main olfactory epithelium and the septal organ the olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs are embedded in quasi-stratified columnar epithelium; vomeronasal OSNs are embedded in epithelium lining the medial interior wall of the vomeronasal duct and do not make contact with the mucosa of the main nasal cavity; and in Grüneberg’s ganglion a small isolated population of OSNs lies adjacent to, but not within, the epithelium. With the exception of Grüneberg’s ganglion, all the tissues expressing olfactory marker protein (OMP (the above four nasal territories, the vomeronasal and main olfactory nerves, and the main and accessory olfactory bulbs are also labelled by Lycopersicum esculentum agglutinin, while Ulex europaeus agglutinin I labels all and only tissues expressing Gi2 (the apical sensory neurons of the vomeronasal organ, their axons, and their glomerular destinations in the anterior accessory olfactory bulb. These staining patterns of UEA-I and LEA may facilitate the characterization of olfactory anatomy in other species. A 710-section atlas of the anatomy of the murine nasal cavity has been made available on line.

  19. Apolipoprotein E4 causes early olfactory network abnormalities and short-term olfactory memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Katherine Y; Mathews, Paul M; Levy, Efrat; Wilson, Donald A

    2017-02-20

    While apolipoprotein (Apo) E4 is linked to increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is growing evidence that it plays a role in functional brain irregularities that are independent of AD pathology. However, ApoE4-driven functional differences within olfactory processing regions have yet to be examined. Utilizing knock-in mice humanized to ApoE4 versus the more common ApoE3, we examined a simple olfactory perceptual memory that relies on the transfer of information from the olfactory bulb (OB) to the piriform cortex (PCX), the primary cortical region involved in higher order olfaction. In addition, we have recorded in vivo resting and odor-evoked local field potentials (LPF) from both brain regions and measured corresponding odor response magnitudes in anesthetized young (6-month-old) and middle-aged (12-month-old) ApoE mice. Young ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 mice exhibited a behavioral olfactory deficit coinciding with hyperactive odor-evoked response magnitudes within the OB that were not observed in older ApoE4 mice. Meanwhile, middle-aged ApoE4 compared to ApoE3 mice exhibited heightened response magnitudes in the PCX without a corresponding olfactory deficit, suggesting a shift with aging in ApoE4-driven effects from OB to PCX. Interestingly, the increased ApoE4-specific response in the PCX at middle-age was primarily due to a dampening of baseline spontaneous activity rather than an increase in evoked response power. Our findings indicate that early ApoE4-driven olfactory memory impairments and OB network abnormalities may be a precursor to later network dysfunction in the PCX, a region that not only is targeted early in AD, but may be selectively vulnerable to ApoE4 genotype. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Retro- and orthonasal olfactory function in relation to olfactory bulb volume in patients with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Murat; Kurt, Onuralp; Ay, Seyid Ahmet; Baskoy, Kamil; Altundag, Aytug; Saglam, Muzaffer; Deniz, Ferhat; Tekeli, Hakan; Yonem, Arif; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-08-24

    Idiopathic hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (IHH) with an olfactory deficit is defined as Kallmann syndrome (KS) and is distinct from normosmic IHH. Because olfactory perception not only consists of orthonasally gained impressions but also involves retronasal olfactory function, in this study we decided to comprehensively evaluate both retronasal and orthonasal olfaction in patients with IHH. This case-control study included 31 controls and 45 IHH patients. All participants whose olfactory and taste functions were evaluated with orthonasal olfaction (discrimination, identification and threshold), retronasal olfaction, taste function and olfactory bulb volume (OBV) measurement. The patients were separated into three groups according to orthonasal olfaction: anosmic IHH (aIHH), hyposmic IHH (hIHH) and normosmic IHH (nIHH). Discrimination, identification and threshold scores of patients with KS were significantly lower than controls. Threshold scores of patients with nIHH were significantly lower than those of controls, but discrimination and identification scores were not significantly different. Retronasal olfaction was reduced only in the aIHH group compared to controls. Identification of bitter, sweet, sour, and salty tastes was not significantly different when compared between the anosmic, hyposmic, and normosmic IHH groups and controls. OBV was lower bilaterally in all patient groups when compared with controls. The OBV of both sides was found to be significantly correlated with TDI scores in IHH patients. 1) There were no significant differences in gustatory function between controls and IHH patients; 2) retronasal olfaction was reduced only in anosmic patients but not in orthonasally hyposmic participants, possibly indicating presence of effective compensatory mechanisms; 3) olfactory bulb volumes were highly correlated with olfaction scores in the HH group. The current results indicate a continuum from anosmia to normosmia in IHH patients. Copyright © 2017

  1. Photoperiod mediated changes in olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in male white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C Walton

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, in relation to new adult mammalian neurons generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus, has been well described. However, the functional outcome of new adult olfactory neurons born in the subventricular zone of the lateral ventricles is not clearly defined, as manipulating neurogenesis through various methods has given inconsistent and conflicting results in lab mice. Several small rodent species, including Peromyscus leucopus, display seasonal (photoperiodic brain plasticity in brain volume, hippocampal function, and hippocampus-dependent behaviors; plasticity in the olfactory system of photoperiodic rodents remains largely uninvestigated. We exposed adult male P. leucopus to long day lengths (LD and short day lengths (SD for 10 to 15 weeks and then examined olfactory bulb cell proliferation and survival using the thymidine analog BrdU, olfactory bulb granule cell morphology using Golgi-Cox staining, and behavioral investigation of same-sex conspecific urine. SD mice did not differ from LD counterparts in granular cell morphology of the dendrites or in dendritic spine density. Although there were no differences due to photoperiod in habituation to water odor, SD mice rapidly habituated to male urine, whereas LD mice did not. In addition, short day induced changes in olfactory behavior were associated with increased neurogenesis in the caudal plexiform and granule cell layers of the olfactory bulb, an area known to preferentially respond to water-soluble odorants. Taken together, these data demonstrate that photoperiod, without altering olfactory bulb neuronal morphology, alters olfactory bulb neurogenesis and olfactory behavior in Peromyscus leucopus.

  2. Blocking muscarinic receptors in the olfactory bulb impairs performance on an olfactory short term memory task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha eDevore

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholinergic inputs to cortical processing networks have long been associated with attentional and top-down processing. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that cholinergic inputs to the main olfactory bulb (OB can modulate both neural and behavioral odor discrimination. Previous experiments from our laboratory and others demonstrate that blockade of nicotinic receptors directly impairs olfactory discrimination, whereas blockade of muscarinic receptors only measurably impairs olfactory perception when task demands are made more challenging, such as when very low-concentration odors are used or rats are required to maintain sensory memory over long durations. To further investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in the OB, we developed an olfactory delayed match-to-sample task using a digging-based behavioral paradigm. We find that rats are able to maintain robust short-term odor memory for tens to hundreds of seconds. To investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in task performance, we bilaterally infused scopolamine into the OB. We find that high dosages of scopolamine (38 mM impair performance on the task across all delays tested, including the baseline condition with no delay, whereas lower dosages (7.6 mM and 22.8 mM had no measureable effects. These results indicate that general execution of the match-to-sample task, even with no delay, is at least partially dependent on muscarinic signaling in the OB.

  3. Olfactory lateralization in homing pigeons: a GPS study on birds released with unilateral olfactory inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardo, Anna; Filannino, Caterina; Ioalè, Paolo; Pecchia, Tommaso; Wikelski, Martin; Vallortigara, Giorgio

    2011-02-15

    A large body of evidence has shown that pigeons rely on an olfactory-based navigational map when homing from unfamiliar locations. Previous studies on pigeons released with one nostril occluded highlighted an asymmetry in favour of the right nostril, particularly concerning the initial orientation performance of naïve birds. Nevertheless, all pigeons experiencing only unilateral olfactory input showed impaired homing, regardless of the side of the occluded nostril. So far this phenomenon has been documented only by observing the birds' vanishing bearings. In the present work we recorded the flight tracks of pigeons with previous homing experience equipped with a GPS data logger and released from an unfamiliar location with the right or the left nostril occluded. The analysis of the tracks revealed that the flight path of the birds with the right nostril occluded was more tortuous than that of unmanipulated controls. Moreover, the pigeons smelling with the left nostril interrupted their journey significantly more frequently and displayed more exploratory activity than the control birds, e.g. during flights around a stopover site. These data suggest a more important involvement of the right olfactory system in processing the olfactory information needed for the operation of the navigational map.

  4. Long-term potentiation and olfactory memory formation in the carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, M; Anzai, S; Huruno, M

    2005-05-01

    Long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission is considered to be an elementary process underlying the cellular mechanism of memory formation. In the present study we aimed to examine whether or not the dendrodendritic mitral-to-granule cell synapses in the carp olfactory bulb show plastic changes after their repeated activation. It was found that: (1) the dendrodendritic mitral-to-granule cell synapses showed three types of plasticity after tetanic electrical stimulation applied to the olfactory tract-long-term potentiation (potentiation lasting >1 h), short-term potentiation (potentiation lasting 1 h) of the odor-evoked bulbar response accompanied the electrically-induced LTP, and; (4) repeated olfactory stimulation enhanced dendrodendritic mitral-to-granule cell transmission. Based on these results, it was proposed that long-term potentiation (as well as olfactory memory) occurs at the dendrodendritic mitral-to-granule cell synapses after strong and long-lasting depolarization of granule cells, which follows repeated and simultaneous synaptic activation of both the peripheral and deep dendrites (or somata).

  5. Comparison between olfactory function of pregnant women and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A structured questionnaire was administered to obtain participants' information on socio-demographics, pregnancy history, and ability to perceive smell. They subjectively rated their olfactory function on a visual analogue scale of 0 – 100. Olfactory threshold (OT), discrimination (OD), identification (OI) scores and TDI of both ...

  6. Voltage-Dependent Intrinsic Bursting in Olfactory Bulb Golgi Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressler, R. Todd; Rozman, Peter A.; Strowbridge, Ben W.

    2013-01-01

    In the mammalian olfactory bulb (OB), local synaptic circuits modulate the evolving pattern of activity in mitral and tufted cells following olfactory sensory stimulation. GABAergic granule cells, the most numerous interneuron subtype in this brain region, have been extensively studied. However, classic studies using Golgi staining methods…

  7. Odor memories regulate olfactory receptor expression in the sensory periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudianos, Charles; Lim, Julianne; Young, Melanie; Yan, Shanzhi; Cristino, Alexandre S; Newcomb, Richard D; Gunasekaran, Nivetha; Reinhard, Judith

    2014-05-01

    Odor learning induces structural and functional modifications throughout the olfactory system, but it is currently unknown whether this plasticity extends to the olfactory receptors (Or) in the sensory periphery. Here, we demonstrate that odor learning induces plasticity in olfactory receptor expression in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. Using quantitative RT-PCR analysis, we show that six putative floral scent receptors were differentially expressed in the bee antennae depending on the scent environment that the bees experienced. Or151, which we characterized using an in vitro cell expression system as a broadly tuned receptor binding floral odorants such as linalool, and Or11, the specific receptor for the queen pheromone 9-oxo-decenoic acid, were significantly down-regulated after honeybees were conditioned with the respective odorants in an olfactory learning paradigm. Electroantennogram recordings showed that the neural response of the antenna was similarly reduced after odor learning. Long-term odor memory was essential for inducing these changes, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms involved in olfactory memory also regulate olfactory receptor expression. Our study demonstrates for the first time that olfactory receptor expression is experience-dependent and modulated by scent conditioning, providing novel insight into how molecular regulation at the periphery contributes to plasticity in the olfactory system. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital olfactory impairment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    taste identification accuracy and its neural correlates using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 12 congenitally olfactory impaired individuals and 8 normosmic controls. Results showed that taste identification was worse in congenitally olfactory impaired compared to control subjects. The fMRI...

  9. Crossmodal effect of music and odor pleasantness on olfactory quality perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eVelasco

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has demonstrated that ratings of the perceived pleasantness and quality of odors can be modulated by auditory stimuli presented at around the same time. Here, we extend these results by assessing whether the hedonic congruence between odor and sound stimuli can modulate the perception of odor intensity, pleasantness, and quality in untrained participants. Unexpectedly, our results reveal that broadband white noise, which was rated as unpleasant in a follow-up experiment, actually had a more pronounced effect on participants’ odor ratings than either the consonant or dissonant musical selections. In particular, participants rated the six smells used as being less pleasant and less sweet when they happened to be listening to white noise, as compared to any one of the other music conditions. What is more, these results also add evidence to the existence a close relationship between an odor’s hedonic character and the perception of odor quality. So, for example, independent of the sound condition, pleasant odors were rated as sweeter, less dry, and brighter than the unpleasant odors. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for the understanding of crossmodal correspondences between olfactory and auditory stimuli.

  10. Cellular registration without behavioral recall of olfactory sensory input under general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Andrew R; Brandon, Nicole R; Tang, Pei; Xu, Yan

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that sensory information is "received" but not "perceived" under general anesthesia. Whether and to what extent the brain continues to process sensory inputs in a drug-induced unconscious state remain unclear. One hundred seven rats were randomly assigned to 12 different anesthesia and odor exposure paradigms. The immunoreactivities of the immediate early gene products c-Fos and Egr1 as neural activity markers were combined with behavioral tests to assess the integrity and relationship of cellular and behavioral responsiveness to olfactory stimuli under a surgical plane of ketamine-xylazine general anesthesia. The olfactory sensory processing centers could distinguish the presence or absence of experimental odorants even when animals were fully anesthetized. In the anesthetized state, the c-Fos immunoreactivity in the higher olfactory cortices revealed a difference between novel and familiar odorants similar to that seen in the awake state, suggesting that the anesthetized brain functions beyond simply receiving external stimulation. Reexposing animals to odorants previously experienced only under anesthesia resulted in c-Fos immunoreactivity, which was similar to that elicited by familiar odorants, indicating that previous registration had occurred in the anesthetized brain. Despite the "cellular memory," however, odor discrimination and forced-choice odor-recognition tests showed absence of behavioral recall of the registered sensations, except for a longer latency in odor recognition tests. Histologically distinguishable registration of sensory processing continues to occur at the cellular level under ketamine-xylazine general anesthesia despite the absence of behavioral recognition, consistent with the notion that general anesthesia causes disintegration of information processing without completely blocking cellular communications.

  11. Inpatient rehabilitation outcomes in patients with malignant spinal cord compression compared to other non-traumatic spinal cord injury: A population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Christian D; Voth, Jennifer; Jaglal, Susan B; Craven, B Catharine

    2015-11-01

    To compare and describe demographic characteristics, clinical, and survival outcomes in patients admitted for inpatient rehabilitation following malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) or other causes of non-traumatic spinal cord injury (NT-SCI). A retrospective cohort design was employed, using data retrieved from administrative databases. Rehabilitation facilities or designated rehabilitation beds in Ontario, Canada, from April 2007 to March 2011. Patients with incident diagnoses of MSCC (N = 143) or NT-SCI (N = 1,274) admitted for inpatient rehabilitation. Demographic, impairment, functional outcome (as defined by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM)), discharge, healthcare utilization, survival, and tumor characteristics. There was a significant improvement in the FIM from admission to discharge (mean change 20.1 ± 14.3, <0.001) in the MSCC cohort. NT-SCI patients demonstrated a higher FIM efficiency (1.2 ± 1.7 vs. 0.8 ± 0.8, <0.001) and higher total (24.0 ± 14.4 vs. 20.1 ± 14.3, <0.001) FIM gains relative to MSCC cases. However, there were no differences between the MSCC and NT-SCI cohorts in length of stay (34.6 ± 30.3 vs. 37.5 ± 35.2, P = 0.8) or discharge FIM (100.7 ± 19.6 vs. 103.3 ± 18.1, P = 0.1). Three-month, 1-year, and 3-year survival rates in the MSCC and NT-SCI cohorts were 76.2% vs. 97.6%, 46.2% vs. 93.7%, and 27.3% vs. 86.7%, respectively. The majority (65.0%) of patients with MSCC was discharged home and met their rehabilitation goals (75.5%) at comparable rates to patients with NT-SCI (69.7 and 81.3%). Despite compromised survival, patients with MSCC make clinically significant functional gains and exhibit favorable discharge outcomes following inpatient rehabilitation. Current administrative data suggests the design and scope of inpatient rehabilitation services should reflect the unique survival-related prognostic factors in patients with MSCC.

  12. [Microsurgical removal of olfactory groove meningiomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ri-Sheng; Zhou, Liang-Fu; Mao, Ying; Zhang, Rong; Yang, Wei-Zhong

    2011-01-01

    To explore an effective method for further improving the surgical results of treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas. Sixty seven cases of olfactory groove meningiomas were treated by microneurosurgery, among which fifty seven were de novo cases, eight were recurrent tumors and the other two re-recurrent cases. Modified Derome approach was used in 12 cases, bilateral subfrontal approach in 28 cases, modified pterional approach in 21 cases and unilateral subfrontal approach in six cases. Tumors were resected microsurgically with radical removal of invaded dura, bone, and paranasal sinus mucosa. Reconstruction was performed in patients with skull base defect. Simpson grade I removal was accomplished in 59 cases, grade II in seven cases and grade IV in one case. Among 57 patients with de novo tumor, Simpson I resection was accomplished in 54 cases. Postoperative rhinorrhea and intracranial infection occurred in one case and was cured after temporal lumbar CSF drainage and antibiotic therapy. Two patients (2.9%) died within one month after operation, i.e.one aged patient of heart failure and the other of severe hypothalamus complication. Forty seven patients (72.3%) were followed up from one to ten years with an average of five years and four months. With the exception of two cases died, among the alive 45 patients, there were only three patients with tumor recurrence, which had undergone Simpson II or IV tumor resection. No recurrence was found in cases with Simpson I tumor removal. Previous blurred vision was not improved in three patients, hemiparalysis in two patients, and the other patients recovered well, resuming previous jobs or being able to take care themselves. Total tumor removal (Simpson I) should be the surgical goal for treatment of olfactory groove meningiomas, especially for de novo cases. An appropriate approach is fundamental in the effort to remove an OGM totally. Appropriate anterior skull base reconstruction with vascularized material is

  13. Lateral presynaptic inhibition mediates gain control in an olfactory circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Shawn R; Wilson, Rachel I

    2008-04-24

    Olfactory signals are transduced by a large family of odorant receptor proteins, each of which corresponds to a unique glomerulus in the first olfactory relay of the brain. Crosstalk between glomeruli has been proposed to be important in olfactory processing, but it is not clear how these interactions shape the odour responses of second-order neurons. In the Drosophila antennal lobe (a region analogous to the vertebrate olfactory bulb), we selectively removed most interglomerular input to genetically identified second-order olfactory neurons. Here we show that this broadens the odour tuning of these neurons, implying that interglomerular inhibition dominates over interglomerular excitation. The strength of this inhibitory signal scales with total feedforward input to the entire antennal lobe, and has similar tuning in different glomeruli. A substantial portion of this interglomerular inhibition acts at a presynaptic locus, and our results imply that this is mediated by both ionotropic and metabotropic receptors on the same nerve terminal.

  14. Evaluation of olfactory function in adults with primary hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günbey, Emre; Karlı, Rıfat; Gökosmanoğlu, Feyzi; Düzgün, Berkan; Ayhan, Emre; Atmaca, Hulusi; Ünal, Recep

    2015-10-01

    Sufficient clinical data are not available on the effect of hypothyroidism on olfactory function in adults. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the olfactory function of adult patients diagnosed with primary hypothyroidism. Forty-five patients aged between 18 and 60 years who were diagnosed with clinical primary hypothyroidism and 45 healthy controls who had normal thyroid function tests were included in the study. Sniffin' Sticks olfactory test results of the 2 groups were compared. The relationships between thyroid function tests and olfactory parameters were evaluated. Odor threshold, identification, and discrimination scores of the hypothyroid group were significantly lower than those of the control group (p adults with hypothyroidism. FT3 levels were found to have a more significant relationship with olfactory parameters than TSH or FT4 levels. © 2015 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  15. Olfactory memory formation in Drosophila: from molecular to systems neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Ronald L

    2005-01-01

    The olfactory nervous system of insects and mammals exhibits many similarities, which suggests that the mechanisms for olfactory learning may be shared. Molecular genetic investigations of Drosophila learning have uncovered numerous genes whose gene products are essential for olfactory memory formation. Recent studies of the products of these genes have continued to expand the range of molecular processes known to underlie memory formation. Recent research has also broadened the neuroanatomical areas thought to mediate olfactory learning to include the antennal lobes in addition to a previously accepted and central role for the mushroom bodies. The roles for neurons extrinsic to the mushroom body neurons are becoming better defined. Finally, the genes identified to participate in Drosophila olfactory learning have conserved roles in mammalian organisms, highlighting the value of Drosophila for gene discovery.

  16. Perceiving, imaging, and preferring physiognomic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindauer, M S

    1986-01-01

    Physiognomic color responses in perception, imagery, and affect were investigated. Maluma and taketa, nonsense stimuli defined by many investigators as physiognomic, were utilized as prototypical physiognomic stimuli, along with eight other stimuli of various sorts. In Experiment 1, 22 subjects matched the colors of the stimuli; in Experiment 2, 27 subjects reported their imagery to the stimuli; and in Experiment 3, 16 subjects gave their color preferences for the stimuli. The Munsell sets of colors were employed throughout. Significant differences between the physiognomic and other stimuli were found on the brightness and saturation of color matches, images, and preferences. Other differences (e.g., the latency of color images) were also present. Distinctions were also noted between the two physiognomic stimuli. These results support the priority of innate and perceptual processes in physiognomy over those of learning and memory, although some ambiguities still remain.

  17. Olfactory learning without the mushroom bodies: Spiking neural network models of the honeybee lateral antennal lobe tract reveal its capacities in odour memory tasks of varied complexities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MaBouDi, HaDi; Shimazaki, Hideaki; Giurfa, Martin; Chittka, Lars

    2017-06-01

    The honeybee olfactory system is a well-established model for understanding functional mechanisms of learning and memory. Olfactory stimuli are first processed in the antennal lobe, and then transferred to the mushroom body and lateral horn through dual pathways termed medial and lateral antennal lobe tracts (m-ALT and l-ALT). Recent studies reported that honeybees can perform elemental learning by associating an odour with a reward signal even after lesions in m-ALT or blocking the mushroom bodies. To test the hypothesis that the lateral pathway (l-ALT) is sufficient for elemental learning, we modelled local computation within glomeruli in antennal lobes with axons of projection neurons connecting to a decision neuron (LHN) in the lateral horn. We show that inhibitory spike-timing dependent plasticity (modelling non-associative plasticity by exposure to different stimuli) in the synapses from local neurons to projection neurons decorrelates the projection neurons' outputs. The strength of the decorrelations is regulated by global inhibitory feedback within antennal lobes to the projection neurons. By additionally modelling octopaminergic modification of synaptic plasticity among local neurons in the antennal lobes and projection neurons to LHN connections, the model can discriminate and generalize olfactory stimuli. Although positive patterning can be accounted for by the l-ALT model, negative patterning requires further processing and mushroom body circuits. Thus, our model explains several-but not all-types of associative olfactory learning and generalization by a few neural layers of odour processing in the l-ALT. As an outcome of the combination between non-associative and associative learning, the modelling approach allows us to link changes in structural organization of honeybees' antennal lobes with their behavioural performances over the course of their life.

  18. Preservation of olfaction in surgery of olfactory groove meningiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Woo-Youl; Jung, Shin; Jung, Tae-Young; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Kim, In-Young

    2013-08-01

    Olfaction is commonly considered as secondary among the sensory functions, perhaps reflecting a lack of interest in sparing olfaction after surgery for the olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM). However, considering the repercussions of olfaction for the quality of life, the assessment of post-operative olfaction should be necessary. We retrospectively reviewed the olfactory outcome in patients with OGM and investigated the factors associated with sparing the post-operative olfaction. Between 1993 and 2012, 40 patients with OGM underwent surgical resection and estimated the olfactory function using the Korean version of "Sniffin'Sticks" test (KVSS). Variable factors, such as tumor size, degree of preoperative edema, tumor consistency, preoperative olfactory function, surgical approaches, patient's age, and gender were analyzed with attention to the post-operative olfactory function. Anatomical and functional preservation of olfactory structures were achieved in 26 patients (65%) and 22 patients (55%), respectively. Among the variable factors, size of tumor was significant related to the preservation of post-operative olfaction. (78.6% in size4 cm, p=0.035). Sparing the olfaction was significantly better in patients without preoperative olfactory dysfunction (84.6%) compared with ones with preoperative olfactory dysfunction (40.7%, p=0.016). The frontolateral approach achieved much more excellent post-operative olfactory function (71.4%) than the bifrontal approach (36.8%, p=0.032). If the tumor was smaller than 4 cm and the patients did not present olfactory dysfunction preoperatively, the possibility of sparing the post-operative olfaction was high. Among the variable surgical approaches, frontolateral route may be preferable sparing the post-operative olfaction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Inducible Activation of ERK5 MAP Kinase Enhances Adult Neurogenesis in the Olfactory Bulb and Improves Olfactory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M.; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. PMID:25995470

  20. Measurement and Analysis of Olfactory Responses with the Aim of Establishing an Objective Diagnostic Method for Central Olfactory Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Tominori; Wang, Li-Qun; Miwakeichi, Fumikazu; Tonoike, Mitsuo; Kaneda, Teruo

    In order to establish a new diagnostic method for central olfactory disorders and to identify objective indicators, we measured and analyzed brain activities in the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus, region of responsibility for central olfactory disorders. The relationship between olfactory stimulation and brain response at region of responsibility can be examined in terms of fitted responses (FR). FR in these regions may be individual indicators of changes in brain olfactory responses. In the present study, in order to non-invasively and objectively measure olfactory responses, an odor oddball task was conducted on four healthy volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a odorant stimulator with blast-method. The results showed favorable FR and activation in the parahippocampal gyrus or uncus in all subjects. In some subjects, both the parahippocampal gyrus and uncus were activated. Furthermore, activation was also confirmed in the cingulate gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and insula. The hippocampus and uncus are known to be involved in the olfactory disorders associated with early-stage Alzheimer's disease and other olfactory disorders. In the future, it will be necessary to further develop the present measurement and analysis method to clarify the relationship between central olfactory disorders and brain activities and establish objective indicators that are useful for diagnosis.

  1. Gamma neurons mediate dopaminergic input during aversive olfactory memory formation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hongtao; Cressy, Michael; Li, Wanhe; Coravos, Jonathan S; Izzi, Stephanie A; Dubnau, Joshua

    2012-04-10

    Mushroom body (MB)-dependent olfactory learning in Drosophila provides a powerful model to investigate memory mechanisms. MBs integrate olfactory conditioned stimulus (CS) inputs with neuromodulatory reinforcement (unconditioned stimuli, US), which for aversive learning is thought to rely on dopaminergic (DA) signaling to DopR, a D1-like dopamine receptor expressed in MBs. A wealth of evidence suggests the conclusion that parallel and independent signaling occurs downstream of DopR within two MB neuron cell types, with each supporting half of memory performance. For instance, expression of the Rutabaga (Rut) adenylyl cyclase in γ neurons is sufficient to restore normal learning to rut mutants, whereas expression of Neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1) in α/β neurons is sufficient to rescue NF1 mutants. DopR mutations are the only case where memory performance is fully eliminated, consistent with the hypothesis that DopR receives the US inputs for both γ and α/β lobe traces. We demonstrate, however, that DopR expression in γ neurons is sufficient to fully support short- and long-term memory. We argue that DA-mediated CS-US association is formed in γ neurons followed by communication between γ and α/β neurons to drive consolidation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterizing the Input-Output Function of the Olfactory-Limbic Pathway in the Guinea Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Luca Breschi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the neuroscientific community is taking more and more advantage of the continuous interaction between engineers and computational neuroscientists in order to develop neuroprostheses aimed at replacing damaged brain areas with artificial devices. To this end, a technological effort is required to develop neural network models which can be fed with the recorded electrophysiological patterns to yield the correct brain stimulation to recover the desired functions. In this paper we present a machine learning approach to derive the input-output function of the olfactory-limbic pathway in the in vitro whole brain of guinea pig, less complex and more controllable than an in vivo system. We first experimentally characterized the neuronal pathway by delivering different sets of electrical stimuli from the lateral olfactory tract (LOT and by recording the corresponding responses in the lateral entorhinal cortex (l-ERC. As a second step, we used information theory to evaluate how much information output features carry about the input. Finally we used the acquired data to learn the LOT-l-ERC “I/O function,” by means of the kernel regularized least squares method, able to predict l-ERC responses on the basis of LOT stimulation features. Our modeling approach can be further exploited for brain prostheses applications.

  3. An Investigation on the Role of Spike Latency in an Artificial Olfactory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado eDi Natale

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies have shown that the reactions to external stimuli may appear only few hundreds of milliseconds after the physical interaction of the stimulus with the proper receptor. This behavior suggests that neurons transmit the largest meaningful part of their signal in the first spikes, and than that the spike latency is a good descriptor of the information content in biological neural networks. In this paper this property has been investigated in an artificial sensorial system where a single layer of spiking neurons is trained with the data generated by an artificial olfactory platform based on a large array of chemical sensors. The capability to discriminate between distinct chemicals and mixtures of them was studied with spiking neural networks endowed with and without lateral inhibitions and considering as output feature of the network both the spikes latency and the average firing rate. Results show that the average firing rate of the output spikes sequences shows the best separation among the experienced vapors, however the latency code is able in a shorter time to correctly discriminate all the tested volatile compounds. This behavior is qualitatively similar to those recently found in natural olfaction, and noteworthy it provides practical suggestions to tail the measurement conditions of artificial olfactory systems defining for each specific case a proper measurement time.

  4. Minimal olfactory perception during sleep: why odor alarms will not work for humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carskadon, Mary A; Herz, Rachel S

    2004-05-01

    To examine olfactory arousal threshold during sleep in comparison to an auditory tone. On night 1, participants rated odor intensity when awake and experienced olfactory stimuli during stage 1 sleep. Night 2 involved stage 2, stage 4, and rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep trials using the "staircase" threshold-detection method. Electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram, electrocardiogram, and respiration were recorded along with behavioral response. An 800-Hz tone was given on trials when odors failed to arouse. Participants slept in individual rooms. Stimulus-delivery systems were operated from a separate room, where an experimenter observed physiologic recordings and behavioral responses. Three healthy men and 3 women aged 20 to 25 years (mean, 22 years). Two odorants, peppermint and pyridine, at 4 concentrations were presented through nasal cannulas using an air-dilution olfactometer. Tones were played over a speaker. Behavioral (button press and oral) responses, electroencephalographic activation, and changes in breathing and heart rate were assessed. Participants responded to odors on 92% of stage 1 sleep trials. Peppermint was ineffective in stages 2, 4, and REM sleep. Pyridine produced behavioral threshold on 45% of stage 2 trials, none in stage 4, and one third of REM sleep trials. Tones were effective on at least 75% of trials. Heart rate increased significantly only following behavioral responses to odors or tones across sleep stages. The data indicate that human olfaction is not reliably capable of alerting a sleeper.

  5. Emotional Stimuli and Motor Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Valerie; Brezing, Christina; Gallea, Cecile; Ameli, Rezvan; Roelofs, Karin; LaFrance, W. Curt, Jr.; Hallett, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is characterized by neurological signs and symptoms related to an underlying psychological issue. Amygdala activity to affective stimuli is well characterized in healthy volunteers with greater amygdala activity to both negative and positive stimuli relative to neutral stimuli, and greater activity to negative relative to…

  6. Odorant normative data for use in olfactory memory experiments: Dimension selection and analysis of individual differences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Gordon Moss

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports normative ratings for 200 food and non-food odors. One hundred participants rated odors across measures of verbalisability, perceived descriptive ability, context availability, pleasantness, irritability, intensity, familiarity, frequency, age of acquisition, and complexity. Analysis of the agreement between raters revealed that four dimensions, those of familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and irritability, have the strongest utility as normative data. The ratings for the remaining dimensions exhibited reduced discriminability across the odor set and should therefore be used with caution. Indeed, these dimensions showed a larger difference between individuals in the ratings of the odors. Familiarity was shown to be related to pleasantness, and a non-linear relationship between pleasantness and intensity was observed which reflects greater intensity for odors that elicit a strong hedonic response. The suitability of these data for use in future olfactory study is considered, and effective implementation of the data for controlling stimuli is discussed.

  7. Odorant Normative Data for Use in Olfactory Memory Experiments: Dimension Selection and Analysis of Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Andrew G; Miles, Christopher; Elsley, Jane V; Johnson, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    The present study reports normative ratings for 200 food and non-food odors. One hundred participants rated odors across measures of verbalisability, perceived descriptive ability, context availability, pleasantness, irritability, intensity, familiarity, frequency, age of acquisition, and complexity. Analysis of the agreement between raters revealed that four dimensions, those of familiarity, intensity, pleasantness, and irritability, have the strongest utility as normative data. The ratings for the remaining dimensions exhibited reduced discriminability across the odor set and should therefore be used with caution. Indeed, these dimensions showed a larger difference between individuals in the ratings of the odors. Familiarity was shown to be related to pleasantness, and a non-linear relationship between pleasantness and intensity was observed which reflects greater intensity for odors that elicit a strong hedonic response. The suitability of these data for use in future olfactory study is considered, and effective implementation of the data for controlling stimuli is discussed.

  8. [Is olfactory function impaired in moderate height?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, M; Welsch, H; Zahnert, T; Hummel, Thomas

    2009-09-01

    The human sense of smell seems to be influenced by the surrounding barometric pressure. These factors appear to be especially important during flights, for example, in order to recognize the smell of fire etc. Thus, questions are whether pilots or passengers exhibit an impaired smell sensitivity when tested at moderate heights, or, whether changes in humidity would affect the sense of smell. Using climate chambers, odor discrimination and butanol odor thresholds were tested in 77 healthy normosmic volunteers (5 female, 72 male; aged 25+/-8 years from 18 up to 53 years) under hypobaric (2 700+/-20 m, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, rh=50+/-5%) and hyperbaric, (10+/-0.5 m (2 bar)) and different humidity conditions (30 vs. 80%, 20 degrees C+/-1 K, normobaric). During all conditions cognitive performance was tested. Among other effects, olfactory sensitivity was impaired at threshold, but not suprathreshold level, in a hypobaric compared to a hyperbaric milieu, and thresholds were lower in humid, compared to relatively dry conditions. In conclusion, environmental conditions modulate the sense of smell, and may, consecutively, influence results from olfactory tests. During flight hypobaric conditions, mild hypoxia and dry air may cause impaired sensitivity of smell. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart * New York.

  9. A model of olfactory associative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavoni, Gaia; Balasubramanian, Vijay

    We propose a mechanism, rooted in the known anatomy and physiology of the vertebrate olfactory system, by which presentations of rewarded and unrewarded odors lead to formation of odor-valence associations between piriform cortex (PC) and anterior olfactory nucleus (AON) which, in concert with neuromodulators release in the bulb, entrains a direct feedback from the AON representation of valence to a group of mitral cells (MCs). The model makes several predictions concerning MC activity during and after associative learning: (a) AON feedback produces synchronous divergent responses in a localized subset of MCs; (b) such divergence propagates to other MCs by lateral inhibition; (c) after learning, MC responses reconverge; (d) recall of the newly formed associations in the PC increases feedback inhibition in the MCs. These predictions have been confirmed in disparate experiments which we now explain in a unified framework. For cortex, our model further predicts that the response divergence developed during learning reshapes odor representations in the PC, with the effects of (a) decorrelating PC representations of odors with different valences, (b) increasing the size and reliability of those representations, and enabling recall correction and redundancy reduction after learning. Simons Foundation for Mathematical Modeling of Living Systems.

  10. Expressing exogenous functional odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fomina Alla F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic cellular environment. Results We demonstrate that cultured olfactory sensory neurons express endogenous odorant receptors. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer enables successful ectopic expression of odorant receptors. We show that the ectopically expressed mouse I7 is functional in the cultured olfactory sensory neurons. When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same olfactory sensory neurons up to 10 days in vitro. Conclusion This culture technique provided an efficient method to culture olfactory sensory neurons whose morphology, molecular characteristics and maturation progression resembled those observed in vivo. Using this system, regulation of odorant receptor expression and its ligand specificity can be studied in its intrinsic cellular environment.

  11. A spiking neural network model of self-organized pattern recognition in the early mammalian olfactory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Bernhard A.; Lansner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory sensory information passes through several processing stages before an odor percept emerges. The question how the olfactory system learns to create odor representations linking those different levels and how it learns to connect and discriminate between them is largely unresolved. We present a large-scale network model with single and multi-compartmental Hodgkin–Huxley type model neurons representing olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the epithelium, periglomerular cells, mitral/tufted cells and granule cells in the olfactory bulb (OB), and three types of cortical cells in the piriform cortex (PC). Odor patterns are calculated based on affinities between ORNs and odor stimuli derived from physico-chemical descriptors of behaviorally relevant real-world odorants. The properties of ORNs were tuned to show saturated response curves with increasing concentration as seen in experiments. On the level of the OB we explored the possibility of using a fuzzy concentration interval code, which was implemented through dendro-dendritic inhibition leading to winner-take-all like dynamics between mitral/tufted cells belonging to the same glomerulus. The connectivity from mitral/tufted cells to PC neurons was self-organized from a mutual information measure and by using a competitive Hebbian–Bayesian learning algorithm based on the response patterns of mitral/tufted cells to different odors yielding a distributed feed-forward projection to the PC. The PC was implemented as a modular attractor network with a recurrent connectivity that was likewise organized through Hebbian–Bayesian learning. We demonstrate the functionality of the model in a one-sniff-learning and recognition task on a set of 50 odorants. Furthermore, we study its robustness against noise on the receptor level and its ability to perform concentration invariant odor recognition. Moreover, we investigate the pattern completion capabilities of the system and rivalry dynamics for odor mixtures. PMID

  12. Altered olfactory processing of stress-related body odors and artificial odors in patients with panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintermann, Gloria-Beatrice; Donix, Markus; Joraschky, Peter; Gerber, Johannes; Petrowski, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Patients with Panic Disorder (PD) direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD. A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry) as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat) as non-fearful non-body odors. The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear-network which is associated with an increased severity of the psychopathology.

  13. Altered olfactory processing of stress-related body odors and artificial odors in patients with panic disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria-Beatrice Wintermann

    Full Text Available Patients with Panic Disorder (PD direct their attention towards potential threat, followed by panic attacks, and increased sweat production. Onés own anxiety sweat odor influences the attentional focus, and discrimination of threat or non-threat. Since olfactory projection areas overlap with neuronal areas of a panic-specific fear network, the present study investigated the neuronal processing of odors in general and of stress-related sweat odors in particular in patients with PD.A sample of 13 patients with PD with/ without agoraphobia and 13 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent an fMRI investigation during olfactory stimulation with their stress-related sweat odors (TSST, ergometry as well as artificial odors (peach, artificial sweat as non-fearful non-body odors.The two groups did not differ with respect to their olfactory identification ability. Independent of the kind of odor, the patients with PD showed activations in fronto-cortical areas in contrast to the healthy controls who showed activations in olfaction-related areas such as the amygdalae and the hippocampus. For artificial odors, the patients with PD showed a decreased neuronal activation of the thalamus, the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Under the presentation of sweat odor caused by ergometric exercise, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus, the supramarginal gyrus, and the cingulate cortex which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology. For the sweat odor from the anxiety condition, the patients with PD showed an increased activation in the gyrus frontalis inferior, which was positively correlated with the severity of the psychopathology.The results suggest altered neuronal processing of olfactory stimuli in PD. Both artificial odors and stress-related body odors activate specific parts of a fear-network which is associated with an increased severity of the

  14. Neurobiology of mammalian olfactory learning that occurs during sensitive periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideto KABA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the organizational principles underlying olfactory learning in three specialized contexts that occur during sensitive periods of enhanced neural plasticity and emphasizes some of their common features. All three forms of olfactory learning are associated with neural changes in the olfactory bulb (OB at the first stage of sensory processing. These changes require the association of the olfactory and somatosensory signals in the OB. They all depend on somatosensory stimulation-induced release of noradrenaline that induces structural and functional changes at mitral-granule cell reciprocal synapses in the OB, resulting in increases in inhibitory transmission. In the accessory olfactory bulb, this represents the enhanced self-inhibition of mitral cells, which selectively disrupts the transmission of the mating male’s pregnancy-blocking signal at this level. In contrast, an extensive network of secondary dendrites of mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb probably results in a sharpening of the odor-induced pattern of activity, due to increases in lateral inhibition, leading to offspring recognition in sheep and neonatal learning in rats and rabbits. These findings show that inhibitory interneurons play a critical role in olfactory learning. Further work on how these neurons shape olfactory circuit function could provide important clues to understand memory functions of interneurons in other systems. Moreover, recent research has suggested that three forms of olfactory learning are controlled by synergistic, redundant, and distributed neural mechanisms. This has general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the robustness of memories [Current Zoology 56 (6: 819–833, 2010].

  15. Gender-typical olfactory regulation of sexual behavior in goldfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makito eKobayashi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that olfaction is essential for the occurrence of sexual behavior in male goldfish. Sex pheromones from ovulatory females elicit male sexual behavior, chasing and sperm releasing act. In female goldfish, ovarian prostaglandin F2α (PGF elicits female sexual behavior, egg releasing act. It has been considered that olfaction does not affect sexual behavior in female goldfish. In the present study, we reexamined the involvement of olfaction in sexual behavior of female goldfish. Olfaction was blocked in male and female goldfish by two methods: nasal occlusion (NO which blocks the reception of olfactants, and olfactory tract section (OTX which blocks transmission of olfactory information from the olfactory bulb to the telencephalon. Sexual behavior of goldfish was induced by administration of PGF to females, an established method for inducing goldfish sexual behavior in both sexes. Sexual behavior in males was suppressed by NO and OTX as previously reported because of lack of pheromone stimulation. In females, NO suppressed sexual behavior but OTX did not affect the occurrence of sexual behavior. Females treated with both NO and OTX performed sexual behavior normally. These results indicate that olfaction is essential in female goldfish to perform sexual behavior as in males but in a different manner. The lack of olfaction in males causes lack of pheromonal stimulation, resulting in no behavior elicited. Whereas the results of female experiments suggest that lack of olfaction in females causes strong inhibition of sexual behavior mediated by the olfactory pathway. Olfactory tract section is considered to block the pathway and remove this inhibition, resulting in the resumption of the behavior. By subtract sectioning of the olfactory tract, it was found that this inhibition was mediated by the medial olfactory tracts, not the lateral olfactory tracts. Thus, it is concluded that goldfish has gender-typical olfactory regulation for sexual

  16. Interaction between age and perceptual similarity in olfactory discrimination learning in F344 rats: relationships with spatial learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Wendy M.; Gaynor, Leslie S.; Burke, Sara N.; Setlow, Barry; Smith, David W.; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that aging is associated with a reduced ability to distinguish perceptually similar stimuli in one’s environment. As the ability to accurately perceive and encode sensory information is foundational for explicit memory, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of discrimination impairments that emerge with advancing age could help elucidate the mechanisms of mnemonic decline. To this end, there is a need for preclinical approaches that robustly and reliably model age-associated perceptual discrimination deficits. Taking advantage of rodents’ exceptional olfactory abilities, the present study applied rigorous psychophysical techniques to the evaluation of discrimination learning in young and aged F344 rats. Aging did not influence odor detection thresholds or the ability to discriminate between perceptually distinct odorants. In contrast, aged rats were disproportionately impaired relative to young on problems that required discriminations between perceptually similar olfactory stimuli. Importantly, these disproportionate impairments in discrimination learning did not simply reflect a global learning impairment in aged rats, as they performed other types of difficult discriminations on par with young rats. Among aged rats, discrimination deficits were strongly associated with spatial learning deficits. These findings reveal a new, sensitive behavioral approach for elucidating the neural mechanisms of cognitive decline associated with normal aging. PMID:28259065

  17. Face detection for interactive tabletop viewscreen system using olfactory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2009-10-01

    An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  18. Neural correlates of olfactory processing in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, R; Beaulieu-Lefebvre, M; Schneider, F C

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive neuroplastic changes have been well documented in congenitally blind individuals for the processing of tactile and auditory information. By contrast, very few studies have investigated olfactory processing in the absence of vision. There is ample evidence that the olfactory system...... magnetic resonance imaging to measure changes in the blood-oxygenation level-dependent signal in congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects during a simple odor detection task. We found several group differences in task-related activations. Compared to sighted controls, congenitally blind......, linking it also to olfactory processing in addition to tactile and auditory processing....

  19. Changes of pressure and humidity affect olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Michael; Welsch, Heiko; Zahnert, Thomas; Hummel, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the question whether olfactory function changes in relation to barometric pressure and humidity. Using climate chambers, odor threshold and discrimination for butanol were tested in 75 healthy volunteers under hypobaric and hyperbaric, and different humidity conditions. Among other effects, olfactory sensitivity at threshold level, but not suprathreshold odor discrimination, was impaired in a hypobaric compared to a hyperbaric milieu, and thresholds were lower in humid, compared to relatively dry conditions. In conclusion, environmental conditions modulate the sense of smell, and may, consecutively, influence results from olfactory tests.

  20. The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone immunoreactive system in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennes, L

    1986-10-29

    The olfactory gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) system in mice was studied with immunofluorescence in combination with lesions of the olfactory bulb and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) which was administered intravascularly, intranasally or into the subarachnoid space. GnRH-positive neurons were located in the two major branches forming the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, in the ganglion terminale, within the fascicles of the nervus terminalis throughout its extent, in a conspicuous band which connects the ventral neck of the caudal olfactory bulb with the accessory olfactory bulb and in the nasal mucosa. GnRH-positive fibers were seen in all areas in which neurons were found, i.e. in the rostral septum, the ganglion and nervus terminalis and in the nasal subepithelium. In addition, a broad bundle of fibers was observed to surround the entire caudal olfactory bulb, connecting the rostral sulcus rhinalis with the ventrocaudal olfactory bulb. Fibers were seen in close association with the main and accessory olfactory bulb, with the fila olfactoria and with the nasal mucosa. Throughout the olfactory bulb and the nasal epithelium, an association of GnRH fibers with blood vessels was apparent. Intravascular and intranasal injection of HRP resulted in labeling of certain GnRH neurons in the septal roots of the nervus terminalis, the ganglion terminale, the nervus terminalis, the caudal ventrodorsal connection and in the accessory olfactory bulb. After placement of HRP into the subarachnoid space dorsal to the accessory olfactory bulb, about 50% of the GnRH neurons in the accessory olfactory bulb and in the ventrodorsal connection were labeled with HRP. Also, a few GnRH neurons in the rostral septum, the ganglion terminale and in the fascicles of the nervus terminalis had taken up the enzyme. Lesions of the nervus terminalis caudal to the ganglion terminale resulted in sprouting of GnRH fibers at both sites of the knife cut. Lesions rostral

  1. Interactions of carbon dioxide and food odours in Drosophila: olfactory hedonics and sensory neuron properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile P Faucher

    Full Text Available Behavioural responses of animals to volatiles in their environment are generally dependent on context. Most natural odours are mixtures of components that can each induce different behaviours when presented on their own. We have investigated how a complex of two olfactory stimuli is evaluated by Drosophila flies in a free-flying two-trap choice assay and how these stimuli are encoded in olfactory receptor neurons. We first observed that volatiles from apple cider vinegar attracted flies while carbon dioxide (CO2 was avoided, confirming their inherent positive and negative values. In contradiction with previous results obtained from walking flies in a four-field olfactometer, in the present assay the addition of CO2 to vinegar increased rather than decreased the attractiveness of vinegar. This effect was female-specific even though males and females responded similarly to CO2 and vinegar on their own. To test whether the female-specific behavioural response to the mixture correlated with a sexual dimorphism at the peripheral level we recorded from olfactory receptor neurons stimulated with vinegar, CO2 and their combination. Responses to vinegar were obtained from three neuron classes, two of them housed with the CO2-responsive neuron in ab1 sensilla. Sensitivity of these neurons to both CO2 and vinegar per se did not differ between males and females and responses from female neurons did not change when CO2 and vinegar were presented simultaneously. We also found that CO2-sensitive neurons are particularly well adapted to respond rapidly to small concentration changes irrespective of background CO2 levels. The ability to encode temporal properties of stimulations differs considerably between CO2- and vinegar-sensitive neurons. These properties may have important implications for in-flight navigation when rapid responses to fragmented odour plumes are crucial to locate odour sources. However, the flies' sex-specific response to the CO2-vinegar

  2. Olfactory groove meningiomas: approaches and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires de; Tahara, Adriana; Almeida, Antonio Nogueira; Simm, Renata; Silva, Arnaldo Neves da; Maldaun, Marcos Vinicius Calfatt; Panagopoulos, Alexandros Theodoros; Zicarelli, Carlos Alexandre; Silva, Pedro Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    Olfactory groove meningiomas (OGM) account for 4.5% of all intracranial meningiomas. We report 21 patients with OGMs. Tumors were operated on using three surgical approaches: bifrontal (7 patients), fronto-pterional (11 patients) and fronto-orbital (3 patients). Total tumor removal (Simpson Grade 1) was achieved in 13 patients and Simpson II in 8 patients. Perioperative mortality was 4.76%. The average size of the OGM was 4.3+/-1.1cm. The overall recurrence rate was 19%. We preferred to use the pterional approach, which provides quick access to the tumor with less brain exposure. It also allows complete drainage of cisternal cerebrospinal fluid, providing a good level of brain relaxation during surgery. However, for long, thin tumors, hemostasis can be difficult using this approach.

  3. Fault tolerant architecture for artificial olfactory system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotfivand, Nasser; Hamidon, Mohd Nizar; Abdolzadeh, Vida

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, to cover and mask the faults that occur in the sensing unit of an artificial olfactory system, a novel architecture is offered. The proposed architecture is able to tolerate failures in the sensors of the array and the faults that occur are masked. The proposed architecture for extracting the correct results from the output of the sensors can provide the quality of service for generated data from the sensor array. The results of various evaluations and analysis proved that the proposed architecture has acceptable performance in comparison with the classic form of the sensor array in gas identification. According to the results, achieving a high odor discrimination based on the suggested architecture is possible. (paper)

  4. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanai Itai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory receptors (ORs are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information.

  5. Proton-Beam Therapy for Olfactory Neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Hideki; Ogino, Takashi; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko; Nihei, Keiji; Arahira, Satoko; Onozawa, Masakatsu; Katsuta, Shoichi; Nishio, Teiji

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To analyze the feasibility and efficacy of proton-beam therapy (PBT) for olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) as a definitive treatment, by reviewing our preliminary experience. Olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare disease, and a standard treatment strategy has not been established. Radiation therapy for ONB is challenging because of the proximity of ONBs to critical organs. Proton-beam therapy can provide better dose distribution compared with X-ray irradiation because of its physical characteristics, and is deemed to be a feasible treatment modality. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review was performed on 14 patients who underwent PBT for ONB as definitive treatment at the National Cancer Center Hospital East (Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan) from November 1999 to February 2005. A total dose of PBT was 65 cobalt Gray equivalents (Gy E ), with 2.5-Gy E once-daily fractionations. Results: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 40 months. One patient died from disseminated disease. There were two persistent diseases, one of which was successfully salvaged with surgery. The 5-year overall survival rate was 93%, the 5-year local progression-free survival rate was 84%, and the 5-year relapse-free survival rate was 71%. Liquorrhea was observed in one patient with Kadish's stage C disease (widely destroying the skull base). Most patients experienced Grade 1 to 2 dermatitis in the acute phase. No other adverse events of Grade 3 or greater were observed according to the RTOG/EORTC acute and late morbidity scoring system. Conclusions: Our preliminary results of PBT for ONB achieved excellent local control and survival outcomes without serious adverse effects. Proton-beam therapy is considered a safe and effective modality that warrants further study

  6. A specialized odor memory buffer in primary olfactory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelano, Christina; Montag, Jessica; Khan, Rehan; Sobel, Noam

    2009-01-01

    The neural substrates of olfactory working memory are unknown. We addressed the questions of whether olfactory working memory involves a verbal representation of the odor, or a sensory image of the odor, or both, and the location of the neural substrates of these processes. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in the brains of subjects who were remembering either nameable or unnameable odorants. We found a double dissociation whereby remembering nameable odorants was reflected in sustained activity in prefrontal language areas, and remembering unnameable odorants was reflected in sustained activity in primary olfactory cortex. These findings suggest a novel dedicated mechanism in primary olfactory cortex, where odor information is maintained in temporary storage to subserve ongoing tasks.

  7. Surgical Management of Olfactory Groove Meningiomas | El-Naggar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To study the bifrontal approach to olfactory groove meningiomas ... in all patients was Grade I meningiomas (World Health Organization grading). ... Bifrontal approach offers excellent exposure, and when combined with modern ...

  8. Hydrodynamic Interactions Between Olfactory Appendages and Odor Plumes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koseff, Jeffrey

    2000-01-01

    .... A model lobster was then placed in the laboratory flume and we measured the odor concentration distribution around the olfactory appendage using high-speed video and laser-induced fluorescence techniques...

  9. Calcium Signaling in Mitral Cell Dendrites of Olfactory Bulbs of Neonatal Rats and Mice during Olfactory Nerve Stimulation and Beta-Adrenoceptor Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qi; Mutoh, Hiroki; Debarbieux, Franck; Knopfel, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Synapses formed by the olfactory nerve (ON) provide the source of excitatory synaptic input onto mitral cells (MC) in the olfactory bulb. These synapses, which relay odor-specific inputs, are confined to the distally tufted single primary dendrites of MCs, the first stage of central olfactory processing. Beta-adrenergic modulation of electrical…

  10. Olfactory ensheathing glia : their contribution to primary olfactory nervous system regeneration and their regenerative potential following transplantation into the injured spinal cord

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franssen, Elske H P; de Bree, Freddy M; Verhaagen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Olfactory ensheathing glia (OEG) are a specialized type of glia that guide primary olfactory axons from the neuroepithelium in the nasal cavity to the brain. The primary olfactory system is able to regenerate after a lesion and OEG contribute to this process by providing a growth-supportive

  11. Assessment of olfactory nerve by SPECT-MRI image with nasal thallium-201 administration in patients with olfactory impairments in comparison to healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Shiga

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether migration of thallium-201 ((201Tl to the olfactory bulb were reduced in patients with olfactory impairments in comparison to healthy volunteers after nasal administration of (201Tl. PROCEDURES: 10 healthy volunteers and 21 patients enrolled in the study (19 males and 12 females; 26-71 years old. The causes of olfactory dysfunction in the patients were head trauma (n = 7, upper respiratory tract infection (n = 7, and chronic rhinosinusitis (n = 7. (201TlCl was administered unilaterally to the olfactory cleft, and SPECT-CT was conducted 24 h later. Separate MRI images were merged with the SPECT images. (201Tl olfactory migration was also correlated with the volume of the olfactory bulb determined from MRI images, as well as with odor recognition thresholds measured by using T&T olfactometry. RESULTS: Nasal (201Tl migration to the olfactory bulb was significantly lower in the olfactory-impaired patients than in healthy volunteers. The migration of (201Tl to the olfactory bulb was significantly correlated with odor recognition thresholds obtained with T&T olfactometry and correlated with the volume of the olfactory bulb determined from MRI images when all subjects were included. CONCLUSIONS: Assessment of the (201Tl migration to the olfactory bulb was the new method for the evaluation of the olfactory nerve connectivity in patients with impaired olfaction.

  12. State and trait olfactory markers of major depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Naudin

    Full Text Available Nowadays, depression is a major issue in public health. Because of the partial overlap between the brain structures involved in depression, olfaction and emotion, the study of olfactory function could be a relevant way to find specific cognitive markers of depression. This study aims at determining whether the olfactory impairments are state or trait markers of major depressive episode (MDE through the study of the olfactory parameters involving the central olfactory pathway. In a pilot study, we evaluated prospectively 18 depressed patients during acute episodes of depression and 6 weeks after antidepressant treatment (escitalopram against 54 healthy volunteers, matched by age, gender and smoking status. We investigated the participants' abilities to identify odors (single odors and in binary mixture, to evaluate and discriminate the odors' intensity, and determine the hedonic valence of odors. The results revealed an "olfactory anhedonia" expressed by decrease of hedonic score for high emotional odorant as potential state marker of MDE. Moreover, these patients experienced an "olfactory negative alliesthesia", during the odor intensity evaluation, and failed to identify correctly two odorants with opposite valences in a binary iso-mixture, which constitute potential trait markers of the disease. This study provides preliminary evidence for olfactory impairments associated with MDE (state marker that are persistent after the clinical improvement of depressive symptoms (trait marker. These results could be explained by the chronicity of depression and/or by the impact of therapeutic means used (antidepressant treatment. They need to be confirmed particularly the ones obtained in complex olfactory environment which corresponds a more objective daily life situation.

  13. Effect of strong fragrance on olfactory detection threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasunla, Ayotunde James; Douglas, David Dayo; Adeosun, Aderemi Adeleke; Steinbach, Silke; Nwaorgu, Onyekwere George Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    To assess the olfactory threshold of healthy volunteers at the University College Hospital, Ibadan and to investigate the effect of perfume on their olfactory detection thresholds. A quasi-experimental study on olfactory detection thresholds of healthy volunteers from September 2013 to November 2013. Tertiary health institution. A structured questionniare was administered to the participants in order to obtain information on sociodemographics, occupation, ability to perceive smell, use of perfume, effects of perfume on appetite and self-confidence, history of allergy, and previous nasal surgery. Participants subjectively rated their olfactory performance. Subsequently, they had olfactory detection threshold testing done at baseline and after exposure to perfume with varied concentrations of n-butanol in a forced triple response and staircase fashion. Healthy volunteers, 37 males and 63 females, were evaluated. Their ages ranged from 19 to 59 years with a mean of 31 years ± 8. Subjectively, 94% of the participants had excellent olfactory function. In the pre-exposure forced triple response, 88% were able to detect the odor at ≤.25 mmol/l concentration while in the post-exposure forced triple response, only 66% were able to detect the odor at ≤.25 mmol/l concentration. There is also a statistical significant difference in the olfactory detection threshold score between the pre-exposure and post-exposure period in the participants (P fragrances affects the olfactory detection threshold. Therefore patients and clinicians should be aware of this and its effects on the outcome of test of olfaction. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  14. Expression of calmodulin mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biffo, S; Goren, T; Khew-Goodall, Y S; Miara, J; Margolis, F L

    1991-04-01

    A calmodulin (CaM) cDNA was isolated by differential hybridization screening of a lambda gt10 library prepared from rat olfactory mucosa. This cDNA fragment, containing most of the open reading frame of the rat CaMI gene, was subcloned and used to characterize steady-state expression of CaM mRNA in rat olfactory neuroepithelium and bulb. Within the bulb mitral cells are the primary neuronal population expressing CaM mRNA. The major CaM mRNA expressed in the olfactory mucosa is 1.7 kb with smaller contributions from mRNAs of 4.0 and 1.4 kb. CaM mRNA was primarily associated with the olfactory neurons and, despite the cellular complexity of the tissue and the known involvement of CaM in diverse cellular processes, was only minimally evident in sustentacular cells, gland cells or respiratory epithelium. Following bulbectomy CaM mRNA declines in the olfactory neuroepithelium as does olfactory marker protein (OMP) mRNA. In contrast to the latter, CaM mRNA makes a partial recovery by one month after surgery. These results, coupled with those from in situ hybridization, indicate that CaM mRNA is expressed in both mature and immature olfactory neurons. The program regulating CaM gene expression in olfactory neurons is distinct from those controlling expression of B50/GAP43 in immature, or OMP in mature, neurons respectively.

  15. A Specialized Odor Memory Buffer in Primary Olfactory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Zelano, Christina; Montag, Jessica; Khan, Rehan; Sobel, Noam

    2009-01-01

    Background The neural substrates of olfactory working memory are unknown. We addressed the questions of whether olfactory working memory involves a verbal representation of the odor, or a sensory image of the odor, or both, and the location of the neural substrates of these processes. Methodology/Principal Findings We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in the brains of subjects who were remembering either nameable or unnameable odorants. We found a double dissociat...

  16. Virtual reality stimuli for force platform posturography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossavainen, Timo; Juhola, Martti; Ilmari, Pyykö; Aalto, Heikki; Toppila, Esko

    2002-01-01

    People relying much on vision in the control of posture are known to have an elevated risk of falling. Dependence on visual control is an important parameter in the diagnosis of balance disorders. We have previously shown that virtual reality methods can be used to produce visual stimuli that affect balance, but suitable stimuli need to be found. In this study the effect of six different virtual reality stimuli on the balance of 22 healthy test subjects was evaluated using force platform posturography. According to the tests two of the stimuli have a significant effect on balance.

  17. Olfactory Dysfunction as an Early Biomarker in Parkinson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michelle E.Fullard; James F.Morley; John E.Duda

    2017-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD) and often predates the diagnosis by years,reflecting early deposition of Lewy pathology,the histologic hallmark of PD,in the olfactory bulb.Clinical tests are available that allow for the rapid characterization of olfactory dysfunction,including tests of odor identification,discrimination,detection,and recognition thresholds,memory,and tests assessing the build-up of odor intensity across increasing suprathreshold stimulus concentrations.The high prevalence of olfactory impairment,along with the ease and low cost of assessment,has fostered great interest in olfaction as a potential biomarker for PD.Hyposmia may help differentiate PD from other causes of parkinsonism,and may also aid in the identification of "pre-motor" PD due to the early pathologic involvement of olfactory pathways.Olfactory function is also correlated with other non-motor features of PD and may serve as a predictor of cognitive decline.In this article,we summarize the existing literature on olfaction in PD,focusing on the potential for olfaction as a biomarker for early or differential diagnosis and prognosis.

  18. Direct transport of inhaled xylene and its metabolites from the olfactory mucosa to the glomeruli of the olfactory bulbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, J.L.; Dahl, A.R.; Kracko, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium is a unique tissue in that single receptor neurons have dendrites in contact with the external environment at the nasal airway, and axon terminals that penetrate the cribriform plate and synapse in the olfactory bulb. The Central Nervous System (CNS) is protected from systematically circulating toxicants by a blood-brain barrier primarily composed of tight junctions between endothelial cells in cerebral vessels and a high metabolic capacity within these cells. No such barrier has yet been defined to protect the CNS from inhaled toxicants. Because all inhalants do not seem to access the CNS directly, a nose-brain barrier seems plausible. The purpose of the work described here is to determine whether or not a nose-brain barrier exists and to define its components. Although such a barrier is likely to be multi-faceted, the present work focuses only on the importance of gross histologic and metabolic characteristics of the olfactory epithelium in olfactory transport

  19. Type 2 diabetes impairs odour detection, olfactory memory and olfactory neuroplasticity; effects partly reversed by the DPP-4 inhibitor Linagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzau, Grazyna; Davidsson, William; Östenson, Claes-Göran; Chiazza, Fausto; Nathanson, David; Pintana, Hiranya; Skogsberg, Josefin; Klein, Thomas; Nyström, Thomas; Darsalia, Vladimer; Patrone, Cesare

    2018-02-23

    Recent data suggest that olfactory deficits could represent an early marker and a pathogenic mechanism at the basis of cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, research is needed to further characterize olfactory deficits in diabetes, their relation to cognitive decline and underlying mechanisms.The aim of this study was to determine whether T2D impairs odour detection, olfactory memory as well as neuroplasticity in two major brain areas responsible for olfaction and odour coding: the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and the piriform cortex (PC), respectively. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are clinically used T2D drugs exerting also beneficial effects in the brain. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether DPP-4i could reverse the potentially detrimental effects of T2D on the olfactory system.Non-diabetic Wistar and T2D Goto-Kakizaki rats, untreated or treated for 16 weeks with the DPP-4i linagliptin, were employed. Odour detection and olfactory memory were assessed by using the block, the habituation-dishabituation and the buried pellet tests. We assessed neuroplasticity in the MOB by quantifying adult neurogenesis and GABAergic inhibitory interneurons positive for calbindin, parvalbumin and carletinin. In the PC, neuroplasticity was assessed by quantifying the same populations of interneurons and a newly identified form of olfactory neuroplasticity mediated by post-mitotic doublecortin (DCX) + immature neurons.We show that T2D dramatically reduced odour detection and olfactory memory. Moreover, T2D decreased neurogenesis in the MOB, impaired the differentiation of DCX+ immature neurons in the PC and altered GABAergic interneurons protein expression in both olfactory areas. DPP-4i did not improve odour detection and olfactory memory. However, it normalized T2D-induced effects on neuroplasticity.The results provide new knowledge on the detrimental effects of T2D on the olfactory system. This knowledge could constitute essentials for

  20. Cardiorespiratory interactions to external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, L; Porta, C; Spicuzza, L; Sleight, P

    2005-09-01

    Respiration is a powerful modulator of heart rate variability, and of baro- or chemo-reflex sensitivity. This occurs via a mechanical effect of breathing that synchronizes all cardiovascular variables at the respiratory rhythm, particularly when this occurs at a particular slow rate coincident with the Mayer waves in arterial pressure (approximately 6 cycles/min). Recitation of the rosary prayer (or of most mantras), induces a marked enhancement of these slow rhythms, whereas random verbalization or random breathing does not. This phenomenon in turn increases baroreflex sensitivity and reduces chemoreflex sensitivity, leading to increases in parasympathetic and reductions in sympathetic activity. The opposite can be seen during either verbalization or mental stress tests. Qualitatively similar effects can be obtained even by passive listening to more or less rhythmic auditory stimuli, such as music, and the speed of the rhythm (rather than the style) appears to be one of the main determinants of the cardiovascular and respiratory responses. These findings have clinical relevance. Appropriate modulation of breathing, can improve/restore autonomic control of cardiovascular and respiratory systems in relevant diseases such as hypertension and heart failure, and might therefore help improving exercise tolerance, quality of life, and ultimately, survival.

  1. Inducible activation of ERK5 MAP kinase enhances adult neurogenesis in the olfactory bulb and improves olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbin; Lu, Song; Li, Tan; Pan, Yung-Wei; Zou, Junhui; Abel, Glen M; Xu, Lihong; Storm, Daniel R; Xia, Zhengui

    2015-05-20

    Recent discoveries have suggested that adult neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb (OB) may be required for at least some forms of olfactory behavior in mice. However, it is unclear whether conditional and selective enhancement of adult neurogenesis by genetic approaches is sufficient to improve olfactory function under physiological conditions or after injury. Furthermore, specific signaling mechanisms regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB are not fully defined. We previously reported that ERK5, a MAP kinase selectively expressed in the neurogenic regions of the adult brain, plays a critical role in adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB. Using a site-specific knock-in mouse model, we report here that inducible and targeted activation of the endogenous ERK5 in adult neural stem/progenitor cells enhances adult neurogenesis in the OB by increasing cell survival and neuronal differentiation. This conditional ERK5 activation also improves short-term olfactory memory and odor-cued associative olfactory learning under normal physiological conditions. Furthermore, these mice show enhanced recovery of olfactory function and have more adult-born neurons after a zinc sulfate-induced lesion of the main olfactory epithelium. We conclude that ERK5 MAP kinase is an important endogenous signaling pathway regulating adult neurogenesis in the SVZ/OB, and that conditional activation of endogenous ERK5 is sufficient to enhance adult neurogenesis in the OB thereby improving olfactory function both under normal conditions and after injury. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357833-17$15.00/0.

  2. Accumulation of [35S]taurine in peripheral layers of the olfactory bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, M.R.; Wysocki, C.J.; Sturman, J.A.; Wen, G.Y.

    1981-01-01

    Accumulation of [ 35 S]taurine in the laminae of the olfactory bulb of the adult cat, rat, mouse and rabbit was examined autoradiographically. [ 35 S]Taurine was administered either i.p. or i.v. and olfactory bulbs were excised 24 h post-injection. High concentrations of [ 35 S]taurine were restricted to the olfactory nerve and glomerular layers of the olfactory bulb in all species examined. Olfactory neurons are continuously renewed and the results obtained suggest that taurine may have an important role in olfactory receptor axons. (Auth.)

  3. Identification and Comparison of Candidate Olfactory Genes in the Olfactory and Non-Olfactory Organs of Elm Pest Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yinliang; Chen, Qi; Zhao, Hanbo; Ren, Bingzhong

    2016-01-01

    The leaf beetle Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a predominant forest pest that causes substantial damage to the lumber industry and city management. However, no effective and environmentally friendly chemical method has been discovered to control this pest. Until recently, the molecular basis of the olfactory system in A. quadriimpressum was completely unknown. In this study, antennae and leg transcriptomes were analyzed and compared using deep sequencing data to identify the olfactory genes in A. quadriimpressum. Moreover, the expression profiles of both male and female candidate olfactory genes were analyzed and validated by bioinformatics, motif analysis, homology analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and RT-qPCR experiments in antennal and non-olfactory organs to explore the candidate olfactory genes that might play key roles in the life cycle of A. quadriimpressum. As a result, approximately 102.9 million and 97.3 million clean reads were obtained from the libraries created from the antennas and legs, respectively. Annotation led to 34344 Unigenes, which were matched to known proteins. Annotation data revealed that the number of genes in antenna with binding functions and receptor activity was greater than that of legs. Furthermore, many pathway genes were differentially expressed in the two organs. Sixteen candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 34 odorant receptors (ORs), 20 inotropic receptors [1] and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) and their isoforms were identified. Additionally, 15 OBPs, 9 CSPs, 18 ORs, 6 IRs and 2 SNMPs were predicted to be complete ORFs. Using RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and homology analysis, AquaOBP1/2/4/7/C1/C6, AquaCSP3/9, AquaOR8/9/10/14/15/18/20/26/29/33, AquaIR8a/13/25a showed olfactory-specific expression, indicating that these genes might play a key role in olfaction-related behaviors in A. quadriimpressum such as foraging and seeking. AquaOBP4/C5, AquaOBP4/C5, AquaCSP7

  4. Identification and Comparison of Candidate Olfactory Genes in the Olfactory and Non-Olfactory Organs of Elm Pest Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae Based on Transcriptome Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinliang Wang

    Full Text Available The leaf beetle Ambrostoma quadriimpressum (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae is a predominant forest pest that causes substantial damage to the lumber industry and city management. However, no effective and environmentally friendly chemical method has been discovered to control this pest. Until recently, the molecular basis of the olfactory system in A. quadriimpressum was completely unknown. In this study, antennae and leg transcriptomes were analyzed and compared using deep sequencing data to identify the olfactory genes in A. quadriimpressum. Moreover, the expression profiles of both male and female candidate olfactory genes were analyzed and validated by bioinformatics, motif analysis, homology analysis, semi-quantitative RT-PCR and RT-qPCR experiments in antennal and non-olfactory organs to explore the candidate olfactory genes that might play key roles in the life cycle of A. quadriimpressum. As a result, approximately 102.9 million and 97.3 million clean reads were obtained from the libraries created from the antennas and legs, respectively. Annotation led to 34344 Unigenes, which were matched to known proteins. Annotation data revealed that the number of genes in antenna with binding functions and receptor activity was greater than that of legs. Furthermore, many pathway genes were differentially expressed in the two organs. Sixteen candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 10 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 34 odorant receptors (ORs, 20 inotropic receptors [1] and 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs and their isoforms were identified. Additionally, 15 OBPs, 9 CSPs, 18 ORs, 6 IRs and 2 SNMPs were predicted to be complete ORFs. Using RT-PCR, RT-qPCR and homology analysis, AquaOBP1/2/4/7/C1/C6, AquaCSP3/9, AquaOR8/9/10/14/15/18/20/26/29/33, AquaIR8a/13/25a showed olfactory-specific expression, indicating that these genes might play a key role in olfaction-related behaviors in A. quadriimpressum such as foraging and seeking. AquaOBP4/C5, Aqua

  5. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song; Li, Wengang; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2012-01-01

    applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate

  6. Instructed fear stimuli bias visual attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deltomme, Berre; Mertens, G.; Tibboel, Helen; Braem, Senne

    We investigated whether stimuli merely instructed to be fear-relevant can bias visual attention, even when the fear relation was never experienced before. Participants performed a dot-probe task with pictures of naturally fear-relevant (snake or spider) or -irrelevant (bird or butterfly) stimuli.

  7. Organization and distribution of glomeruli in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushi Kishida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although modern baleen whales (Mysticeti retain a functional olfactory system that includes olfactory bulbs, cranial nerve I and olfactory receptor genes, their olfactory capabilities have been reduced to a great degree. This reduction likely occurred as a selective response to their fully aquatic lifestyle. The glomeruli that occur in the olfactory bulb can be divided into two non-overlapping domains, a dorsal domain and a ventral domain. Recent molecular studies revealed that all modern whales have lost olfactory receptor genes and marker genes that are specific to the dorsal domain. Here we show that olfactory bulbs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus lack glomeruli on the dorsal side, consistent with the molecular data. In addition, we estimate that there are more than 4,000 glomeruli elsewhere in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb, which is surprising given that bowhead whales possess only 80 intact olfactory receptor genes. Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same olfactory receptors in rodents generally project to two specific glomeruli in an olfactory bulb, implying an approximate 1:2 ratio of the number of olfactory receptors to the number of glomeruli. Here we show that this ratio does not apply to bowhead whales, reiterating the conceptual limits of using rodents as model organisms for understanding the initial coding of odor information among mammals.

  8. Expression of olfactory signaling genes in the eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Pronin

    Full Text Available To advance our understanding how the outer eye interacts with its environment, we asked which cellular receptors are expressed in the cornea, focusing on G protein-coupled receptors.Total RNA from the mouse cornea was subjected to next-generation sequencing using the Illumina platform. The data was analyzed with TopHat and CuffLinks software packages. Expression of a representative group of genes detected by RNA-seq was further analyzed by RT-PCR and in situ hybridization using RNAscope technology and fluorescent microscopy.We generated more than 46 million pair-end reads from mouse corneal RNA. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the mouse corneal transcriptome reconstructed from these reads represents over 10,000 gene transcripts. We identified 194 GPCR transcripts, of which 96 were putative olfactory receptors. RT-PCR analysis confirmed the presence of several olfactory receptors and related genes, including olfactory marker protein and the G protein associated with olfaction, Gαolf. In situ hybridization showed that mRNA for olfactory marker protein, Gαolf and possibly some olfactory receptors were found in the corneal epithelial cells. In addition to the corneal epithelium, Gαolf was present in the ganglionic and inner nuclear layers of the retina. One of the olfactory receptors, Olfr558, was present primarily in vessels of the eye co-stained with antibodies against alpha-smooth muscle actin, indicating expression in arterioles.Several species of mRNA encoding putative olfactory receptors and related genes are expressed in the mouse cornea and other parts of the eye indicating they may play a role in sensing chemicals in the ocular environment.

  9. Integrated olfactory receptor and microarray gene expression databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crasto Chiquito J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression patterns of olfactory receptors (ORs are an important component of the signal encoding mechanism in the olfactory system since they determine the interactions between odorant ligands and sensory neurons. We have developed the Olfactory Receptor Microarray Database (ORMD to house OR gene expression data. ORMD is integrated with the Olfactory Receptor Database (ORDB, which is a key repository of OR gene information. Both databases aim to aid experimental research related to olfaction. Description ORMD is a Web-accessible database that provides a secure data repository for OR microarray experiments. It contains both publicly available and private data; accessing the latter requires authenticated login. The ORMD is designed to allow users to not only deposit gene expression data but also manage their projects/experiments. For example, contributors can choose whether to make their datasets public. For each experiment, users can download the raw data files and view and export the gene expression data. For each OR gene being probed in a microarray experiment, a hyperlink to that gene in ORDB provides access to genomic and proteomic information related to the corresponding olfactory receptor. Individual ORs archived in ORDB are also linked to ORMD, allowing users access to the related microarray gene expression data. Conclusion ORMD serves as a data repository and project management system. It facilitates the study of microarray experiments of gene expression in the olfactory system. In conjunction with ORDB, ORMD integrates gene expression data with the genomic and functional data of ORs, and is thus a useful resource for both olfactory researchers and the public.

  10. Active forgetting of olfactory memories in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jacob A; Davis, Ronald L

    2014-01-01

    Failure to remember, or forgetting, is a phenomenon familiar to everyone and despite more than a century of scientific inquiry, why we forget what we once knew remains unclear. If the brain marshals significant resources to form and store memories, why is it that these memories become lost? In the last century, psychological studies have divided forgetting into decay theory, in which memory simply dissipates with time, and interference theory, in which additional learning or mental activity hinders memory by reducing its stability or retrieval (for review, Dewar et al., 2007; Wixted, 2004). Importantly, these psychological models of forgetting posit that forgetting is a passive property of the brain and thus a failure of the brain to retain memories. However, recent neuroscience research on olfactory memory in Drosophila has offered evidence for an alternative conclusion that forgetting is an "active" process, with specific, biologically regulated mechanisms that remove existing memories (Berry et al., 2012; Shuai et al., 2010). Similar to the bidirectional regulation of cell number by mitosis and apoptosis, protein concentration by translation and lysosomal or proteomal degradation, and protein phosphate modification by kinases and phosphatases, biologically regulated memory formation and removal would be yet another example in biological systems where distinct and separate pathways regulate the creation and destruction of biological substrates. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Heightened Olfactory Sensitivity in Young Females with Recent-Onset Anorexia Nervosa and Recovered Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Mette; Guldberg, Johanne; Vangkilde, Signe

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults...

  12. No evidence for visual context-dependency of olfactory learning in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarali, Ayse; Mayerle, Moritz; Nawroth, Christian; Gerber, Bertram

    2008-08-01

    How is behaviour organised across sensory modalities? Specifically, we ask concerning the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster how visual context affects olfactory learning and recall and whether information about visual context is getting integrated into olfactory memory. We find that changing visual context between training and test does not deteriorate olfactory memory scores, suggesting that these olfactory memories can drive behaviour despite a mismatch of visual context between training and test. Rather, both the establishment and the recall of olfactory memory are generally facilitated by light. In a follow-up experiment, we find no evidence for learning about combinations of odours and visual context as predictors for reinforcement even after explicit training in a so-called biconditional discrimination task. Thus, a ‘true’ interaction between visual and olfactory modalities is not evident; instead, light seems to influence olfactory learning and recall unspecifically, for example by altering motor activity, alertness or olfactory acuity.

  13. Appetitive Olfactory Learning and Long-Term Associative Memory in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichiro N. Maruyama

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the relative simplicity of its nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a useful model organism to study learning and memory at cellular and molecular levels. For appetitive conditioning in C. elegans, food has exclusively been used as an unconditioned stimulus (US. It may be difficult to analyze neuronal circuits for associative memory since food is a multimodal combination of olfactory, gustatory, and mechanical stimuli. Here, we report classical appetitive conditioning and associative memory in C. elegans, using 1-nonanol as a conditioned stimulus (CS, and potassium chloride (KCl as a US. Before conditioning, C. elegans innately avoided 1-nonanol, an aversive olfactory stimulus, and was attracted by KCl, an appetitive gustatory stimulus, on assay agar plates. Both massed training without an intertrial interval (ITI and spaced training with a 10-min ITI induced significant levels of memory of association regarding the two chemicals. Memory induced by massed training decayed within 6 h, while that induced by spaced training was retained for more than 6 h. Animals treated with inhibitors of transcription or translation formed the memory induced by spaced training less efficiently than untreated animals, whereas the memory induced by massed training was not significantly affected by such treatments. By definition, therefore, memories induced by massed training and spaced training are classified as short-term memory (STM and long-term memory (LTM, respectively. When animals conditioned by spaced training were exposed to 1-nonanol alone, their learning index was lower than that of untreated animals, suggesting that extinction learning occurs in C. elegans. In support of these results, C. elegans mutants defective in nmr-1, encoding an NMDA receptor subunit, formed both STM and LTM less efficiently than wild-type animals, while mutations in crh-1, encoding a ubiquitous transcription factor CREB required for memory consolidation, affected

  14. Long-term memory shapes the primary olfactory center of an insect brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourcade, Benoît; Perisse, Emmanuel; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2009-10-01

    The storage of stable memories is generally considered to rely on changes in the functional properties and/or the synaptic connectivity of neural networks. However, these changes are not easily tractable given the complexity of the learning procedures and brain circuits studied. Such a search can be narrowed down by studying memories of specific stimuli in a given sensory modality and by working on networks with a modular and relatively simple organization. We have therefore focused on associative memories of individual odors and the possible related changes in the honeybee primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL). As this brain structure is organized in well-identified morpho-functional units, the glomeruli, we looked for evidence of structural and functional plasticity in these units in relation with the bees' ability to store long-term memories (LTMs) of specific odors. Restrained bees were trained to form an odor-specific LTM in an appetitive Pavlovian conditioning protocol. The stability and specificity of this memory was tested behaviorally 3 d after conditioning. At that time, we performed both a structural and a functional analysis on a subset of 17 identified glomeruli by measuring glomerular volume under confocal microscopy, and odor-evoked activity, using in vivo calcium imaging. We show that long-term olfactory memory for a given odor is associated with volume increases in a subset of glomeruli. Independent of these structural changes, odor-evoked activity was not modified. Lastly, we show that structural glomerular plasticity can be predicted based on a putative model of interglomerular connections.

  15. Sexual activity increases the number of newborn cells in the accessory olfactory bulb of male rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy ePortillo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, sexual behavior depends on the adequate detection of sexually relevant stimuli. The olfactory bulb (OB is a region of the adult mammalian brain undergoing constant cell renewal by continuous integration of new granular and periglomerular neurons in the accessory (AOB and main (MOB olfactory bulbs. The proliferation, migration, survival, maturation, and integration of these new cells to the OB depend on the stimulus that the subjects received. We have previously shown that 15 days after females control (paced the sexual interaction an increase in the number of cells is observed in the AOB. No changes are observed in the number of cells when females are not allowed to control the sexual interaction. In the present study we investigated if in male rats sexual behavior increases the number of new cells in the OB. Male rats were divided in five groups: 1 males that did not receive any sexual stimulation, 2 males that were exposed to female odors, 3 males that mated for 1 h and could not pace their sexual interaction, 4 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 1 time and 5 males that paced their sexual interaction and ejaculated 3 times. All males received three injections of the DNA synthesis marker bromodeoxyuridine at 1h intervals, starting 1h before the beginning of the behavioral test. Fifteen days later, males were sacrificed and the brains were processed to identify new cells and to evaluate if they differentiated into neurons. The number of newborn cells increased in the granular cell layer (also known as the internal cell layer of the AOB in males that ejaculated one or three times controlling (paced the rate of the sexual interaction. Some of these new cells were identified as neurons. In contrast, no significant differences were found in the mitral cell layer (also known as the external cell layer and glomerular cell layer of the AOB. In addition, no significant differences were found between groups in the MOB in

  16. Neuronal basis of innate olfactory attraction to ethanol in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Schneider

    Full Text Available The decision to move towards a mating partner or a food source is essential for life. The mechanisms underlying these behaviors are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of octopamine - the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline - in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol. We confirmed that preference is caused via an olfactory stimulus by dissecting the function of the olfactory co-receptor Orco (formally known as OR83b. Orco function is not required for ethanol recognition per se, however it plays a role in context dependent recognition of ethanol. Odor-evoked ethanol preference requires the function of Tbh (Tyramine β hydroxalyse, the rate-limiting enzyme of octopamine synthesis. In addition, neuronal activity in a subset of octopaminergic neurons is necessary for olfactory ethanol preference. Notably, a specific neuronal activation pattern of tyraminergic/octopaminergic neurons elicit preference and is therefore sufficient to induce preference. In contrast, dopamine dependent increase in locomotor activity is not sufficient for olfactory ethanol preference. Consistent with the role of noradrenaline in mammalian drug induced rewards, we provide evidence that in adult Drosophila the octopaminergic neurotransmitter functions as a reinforcer and that the molecular dissection of the innate attraction to ethanol uncovers the basic properties of a response selection system.

  17. Biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Zou, Ling; Zhao, Luhang; Wang, Ping; Wu, Chunsheng

    2014-01-01

    Biological olfactory and taste systems are natural chemical sensing systems with unique performances for the detection of environmental chemical signals. With the advances in olfactory and taste transduction mechanisms, biomimetic chemical sensors have achieved significant progress due to their promising prospects and potential applications. Biomimetic chemical sensors exploit the unique capability of biological functional components for chemical sensing, which are often sourced from sensing units of biological olfactory or taste systems at the tissue level, cellular level, or molecular level. Specifically, at the cellular level, there are mainly two categories of cells have been employed for the development of biomimetic chemical sensors, which are natural cells and bioengineered cells, respectively. Natural cells are directly isolated from biological olfactory and taste systems, which are convenient to achieve. However, natural cells often suffer from the undefined sensing properties and limited amount of identical cells. On the other hand, bioengineered cells have shown decisive advantages to be applied in the development of biomimetic chemical sensors due to the powerful biotechnology for the reconstruction of the cell sensing properties. Here, we briefly summarized the most recent advances of biomimetic chemical sensors using bioengineered olfactory and taste cells. The development challenges and future trends are discussed as well.

  18. Sad man's nose: Emotion induction and olfactory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flohr, Elena L R; Erwin, Elena; Croy, Ilona; Hummel, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Emotional and olfactory processing is frequently shown to be closely linked both anatomically and functionally. Depression, a disease closely related to the emotional state of sadness, has been shown to be associated with a decrease in olfactory sensitivity. The present study focuses on the state of sadness in n = 31 healthy subjects in order to investigate the specific contribution of this affective state in the modulation of olfactory processing. A sad or indifferent affective state was induced using 2 movies that were presented on 2 separate days. Afterward, chemosensory-evoked potentials were recorded after stimulation with an unpleasant (hydrogen sulfide: "rotten eggs") or a pleasant (phenyl ethyl alcohol: "rose") odorant. Latencies of N1 and P2 peaks were longer after induction of the sad affective state. Additionally, amplitudes were lower in a sad affective state when being stimulated with the unpleasant odorant. Processing of olfactory input has thus been reduced under conditions of the sad affective state. We argue that the affective state per se could at least partially account for the reduced olfactory sensitivity in depressed patients. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to show influence of affective state on chemosensory event-related potentials. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Autistic traits associated with food neophobia but not olfactory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Tsang, Irene; López, Beatriz; Severini, Martina; Iacomini, Silvia

    2017-09-01

    Food neophobia has been shown to be associated with a range of personality traits (including anxiety, lower sensation seeking) and additionally sensory aspects of food such as taste and texture. Running parallel to that work, research has demonstrated higher incidences of food neophobia in autistic populations and separately evidence of hypersensitivity in some sensory domains. The aim of the current study was to extend our understanding by exploring whether the broader aspects of autistic traits can predict food neophobia in a non-autistic population and whether this is mediated by differences in olfactory sensitivity. In the present study, student participants (N = 50) completed questionnaires measuring their food neophobia (FNS) and preferences for foreign cuisine, autistic traits (Autistic Quotient, AQ), and then completed an olfactory threshold test for a food related odour. The findings demonstrated a positive association between food neophobia and the magnitude of autistic traits and interestingly, an inverse relation between preference for foreign cuisine and olfactory sensitivity; those individuals less inclined toward foreign cuisine had poorer sensitivity to a food related odour. Since AQ was not related to olfactory sensitivity, these findings suggest the relation between autistic traits and food neophobia is unlikely to be mediated by olfactory sensitivity. More broadly however, our sense of smell is associated with experiencing a wider diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. From chemical neuroanatomy to an understanding of the olfactory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Oboti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory system is the appropriate model for studying several aspects of neuronal physiology spanning from the developmental stage to neural network remodelling in the adult brain. Both the morphological and physiological understanding of this system were strongly supported by classical histochemistry. It is emblematic the case of the Olfactory Marker Protein (OMP staining, the first, powerful marker for fully differentiated olfactory receptor neurons and a key tool to investigate the dynamic relations between peripheral sensory epithelia and central relay regions given its presence within olfactory fibers reaching the olfactory bulb (OB. Similarly, the use of thymidine analogues was able to show neurogenesis in an adult mammalian brain far before modern virus labelling and lipophilic tracers based methods. Nowadays, a wealth of new histochemical techniques combining cell and molecular biology approaches is available, giving stance to move from the analysis of the chemically identified circuitries to functional research. The study of adult neurogenesis is indeed one of the best explanatory examples of this statement. After defining the cell types involved and the basic physiology of this phenomenon in the OB plasticity, we can now analyze the role of neurogenesis in well testable behaviours related to socio-chemical communication in rodents.

  1. Quantum Dot Distribution in the Olfactory Epithelium After Nasal Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzotto, D.; De Marchis, S.

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are used in a wide range of human applications from industrial to bio-medical fields. However, the unique characteristics of nanoparticles, such as the small size, large surface area per mass and high reactivity raises great concern on the adverse effects of these particles on ecological systems and human health. There are several pioneer studies reporting translocation of inhaled particulates to the brain through a potential neuronal uptake mediated by the olfactory nerve (1, 2, 3). However, no direct evidences have been presented up to now on the pathway followed by the nanoparticles from the nose to the brain. In addition to a neuronal pathway, nanoparticles could gain access to the central nervous system through extracellular pathways (perineuronal, perivascular and cerebrospinal fluid paths). In the present study we investigate the localization of intranasally delivered fluorescent nanoparticles in the olfactory epithelium. To this purpose we used quantum dots (QDs), a model of innovative fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals commonly used in cell and animal biology (4). Intranasal treatments with QDs were performed acutely on adult CD1 mice. The olfactory epithelium was collected and analysed by confocal microscopy at different survival time after treatment. Data obtained indicate that the neuronal components of the olfactory epithelium are not preferentially involved in QDs uptake, thus suggesting nanoparticles can cross the olfactory epithelium through extracellular pathways.

  2. Evaluation of Olfactory and Gustatory Function of HIV Infected Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayotunde James Fasunla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Compliance with medication requires good sense of smell and taste. Objective. To evaluate the olfactory and gustatory function of HIV infected women in Ibadan, Nigeria. Methods. A case control study of women comprising 83 HIV infected women and 79 HIV uninfected women. Subjective self-rating of taste and smell function was by visual analogue scale. Olfactory function was measured via olfactory threshold (OT, olfactory discrimination (OD, olfactory identification (OI, and TDI using “Sniffin’ sticks” kits and taste function (Total Taste Strips (TTS score measurement was by taste strips. Results. The mean age of the HIV infected women was 43.67 years ± 10.72 and control was 41.48 years ± 10.99. There was no significant difference in the self-reported assessment of smell (p=0.67 and taste (p=0.84 of HIV infected and uninfected women. Although the mean OT, OD, OI, TDI, and TTS scores of HIV infected and uninfected women were within the normosmic and normogeusic values, the values were significantly higher in the controls (p<0.05. Hyposmia was in 39.7% of subjects and 12.6% of controls while hypogeusia was in 15.7% of subjects and 1.3% of controls. Conclusions. Hyposmia and hypogeusia are commoner among the HIV infected women than the HIV uninfected women and the risk increases with an increased duration of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  3. From chemical neuroanatomy to an understanding of the olfactory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oboti, L.; Peretto, P.; De Marchis, S.; Fasolo, A.

    2011-01-01

    The olfactory system of mammals is the appropriate model for studying several aspects of neuronal physiology spanning from the developmental stage to neural network remodelling in the adult brain. Both the morphological and physiological understanding of this system were strongly supported by classical histochemistry. It is emblematic the case of the Olfactory Marker Protein (OMP) staining, the first, powerful marker for fully differentiated olfactory receptor neurons and a key tool to investigate the dynamic relations between peripheral sensory epithelia and central relay regions given its presence within olfactory fibers reaching the olfactory bulb (OB). Similarly, the use of thymidine analogues was able to show neurogenesis in an adult mammalian brain far before modern virus labelling and lipophilic tracers based methods. Nowadays, a wealth of new histochemical techniques combining cell and molecular biology approaches is available, giving stance to move from the analysis of the chemically identified circuitries to functional research. The study of adult neurogenesis is indeed one of the best explanatory examples of this statement. After defining the cell types involved and the basic physiology of this phenomenon in the OB plasticity, we can now analyze the role of neurogenesis in well testable behaviours related to socio-chemical communication in rodents. PMID:22297441

  4. Properties and mechanisms of olfactory learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle T Tong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Memories are dynamic physical phenomena with psychometric forms as well as characteristic timescales. Most of our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying the neurophysiology of memory, however, derives from one-trial learning paradigms that, while powerful, do not fully embody the gradual, representational, and statistical aspects of cumulative learning. The early olfactory system -- particularly olfactory bulb -- comprises a reasonably well-understood and experimentally accessible neuronal network with intrinsic plasticity that underlies both one-trial (adult aversive, neonatal and cumulative (adult appetitive odor learning. These olfactory circuits employ many of the same molecular and structural mechanisms of memory as, for example, hippocampal circuits following inhibitory avoidance conditioning, but the temporal sequences of post-conditioning molecular events are likely to differ owing to the need to incorporate new information from ongoing learning events into the evolving memory trace. Moreover, the shapes of acquired odor representations, and their gradual transformation over the course of cumulative learning, also can be directly measured, adding an additional representational dimension to the traditional metrics of memory strength and persistence. In this review, we describe some established molecular and structural mechanisms of memory with a focus on the timecourses of post-conditioning molecular processes. We describe the properties of odor learning intrinsic to the olfactory bulb and review the utility of the olfactory system of adult rodents as a memory system in which to study the cellular mechanisms of cumulative learning.

  5. Postnatal odorant exposure induces peripheral olfactory plasticity at the cellular level

    OpenAIRE

    CADIOU , Hervé; AOUDE , Imad; Tazir , Bassim; Molinas , Adrien; Forbes Fenech , Claire; Meunier , Nicolas; Grosmaitre , Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) form the primary elements of the olfactory system. Inserted in the olfactory mucosa lining of the nasal cavity, they are exposed to the environment and their lifespan is brief. Several reports say that OSNs are regularly regenerated during the entire life and that odorant environment affects the olfactory epithelium. However, little is known about the impact of the odorant environment on OSNs at the cellular level and more precisely in the context of...

  6. Role of a Ubiquitously Expressed Receptor in the Vertebrate Olfactory System

    OpenAIRE

    DeMaria, Shannon; Berke, Allison P.; Van Name, Eric; Heravian, Anisa; Ferreira, Todd; Ngai, John

    2013-01-01

    Odorant cues are recognized by receptors expressed on olfactory sensory neurons, the primary sensory neurons of the olfactory epithelium. Odorant receptors typically obey the “one receptor, one neuron” rule, in which the receptive field of the olfactory neuron is determined by the singular odorant receptor that it expresses. Odor-evoked receptor activity across the population of olfactory neurons is then interpreted by the brain to identify the molecular nature of the odorant stimulus. In the...

  7. Left-Right Asymmetry Is Required for the Habenulae to Respond to Both Visual and Olfactory Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Dreosti, Elena; Vendrell Llopis, Nuria; Carl, Matthias; Yaksi, Emre; Wilson, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Left-right asymmetries are most likely a universal feature of bilaterian nervous systems and may serve to increase neural capacity by specializing equivalent structures on left and right sides for distinct roles [1]. However, little is known about how asymmetries are encoded within vertebrate neural circuits and how lateralization influences processing of information in the brain. Consequently, it remains unclear the extent to which lateralization of the nervous system is important fo...

  8. File list: InP.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  9. File list: InP.Oth.50.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  13. File list: Pol.Oth.05.AllAg.Olfactory_epithelium [Chip-atlas[Archive

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  14. Increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shixing; Yin, Yan; Lu, Huimin; Guo, Aike

    2008-05-23

    Dopamine is necessary for the aversive olfactory associative memory formation in Drosophila, but its effect on other stages of memory is not known. Herein, we studied the effect of enhanced dopaminergic signaling on aversive olfactory memory retention in flies. We used l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) to elevate dopamine levels: l-DOPA-treated flies exhibited a normal learning performance, but a decrease in 1-h memory. Dopamine transporter (DAT) mutant flies or flies treated with the DAT inhibitor desipramine exhibited poor memory retention. Flies subjected to heat stress after training exhibited a decrease in memory. Memory was restored by blocking dopaminergic neuronal output during heat stress, suggesting that dopamine is involved in heat stress-induced memory impairment in flies. Taken together, our findings suggest that increased dopaminergic signaling impairs aversive olfactory memory retention in flies.

  15. Evidence for a Peripheral Olfactory Memory in Imprinted Salmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevitt, Gabrielle A.; Dittman, Andrew H.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Moody, William J., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The remarkable homing ability of salmon relies on olfactory cues, but its cellular basis is unknown. To test the role of peripheral olfactory receptors in odorant memory retention, we imprinted coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to micromolar concentrations of phenyl ethyl alcohol during parr-smolt transformation. The following year, we measured phenyl ethyl alcohol responses in the peripheral receptor cells using patch clamp. Cells from imprinted fish showed increased sensitivity to phenyl ethyl alcohol compared either to cells from naive fish or to sensitivity to another behaviorally important odorant (L-serine). Field experiments verified an increased behavioral preference for phenyl ethyl alcohol by imprinted salmon as adults. Thus, some component of the imprinted olfactory homestream memory appears to be retained peripherally.

  16. Functional Neuro-Imaging and Post-Traumatic Olfactory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Richard J.; Sheehan, William; Thurber, Steven; Roberts, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate via a research literature survey the anterior neurological significance of decreased olfactory functioning following traumatic brain injuries. Materials and Methods: A computer literature review was performed to locate all functional neuro-imaging studies on patients with post-traumatic anosmia and other olfactory deficits. Results: A convergence of findings from nine functional neuro-imaging studies indicating evidence for reduced metabolic activity at rest or relative hypo-perfusion during olfactory activations. Hypo-activation of the prefrontal regions was apparent in all nine post-traumatic samples, with three samples yielding evidence of reduced activity in the temporal regions as well. Conclusions: The practical ramifications include the reasonable hypothesis that a total anosmic head trauma patient likely has frontal lobe involvement. PMID:21716782

  17. Self-grounding visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, Igor; Ljunglöf, Louise; Arshamian, Artin; Willander, Johan

    2017-07-01

    Given that autobiographical memory provides a cognitive foundation for the self, we investigated the relative importance of visual, auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories for the self. Thirty subjects, with a mean age of 35.4years, participated in a study involving a three×three within-subject design containing nine different types of autobiographical memory cues: pictures, sounds and odors presented with neutral, positive and negative valences. It was shown that visual compared to auditory and olfactory autobiographical memories involved higher cognitive and emotional constituents for the self. Furthermore, there was a trend showing positive autobiographical memories to increase their proportion to both cognitive and emotional components of the self, from olfactory to auditory to visually cued autobiographical memories; but, yielding a reverse trend for negative autobiographical memories. Finally, and independently of modality, positive affective states were shown to be more involved in autobiographical memory than negative ones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Atypical olfactory groove meningioma associated with uterine fibromatosis; case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toma I. Papacocea

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The concomitant presence of the olfactory groove meningioma with uterine fibrosis is very rare. Our report presents the case of a giant olfactory groove meningioma revealed after a uterine fibroma resection in a 44 years-old female, due to a generalized seizure 10 days after operation. Cranial CT-scan identified the tumor as an olfactory groove meningioma. The tumor was operated with a macroscopically complete resection; the endothermal coagulation of the dura attachment was performed (Simpson II with a good postoperative evolution. Laboratory results showed the presence of receptors for steroid hormones both in meningioma and uterine tumor, and the histopathological examination revealed an atypical meningioma with 17% proliferation markers. Our findings suggest that even though meningiomas are benign tumors and a complete resection usually indicates a good prognosis, the association with uterine fibromatosis and the presence of high percentage of steroid receptors creates a higher risk to relapse, imposing therefore a good monitoring.

  19. Impaired olfactory function in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Bozkurt Koseoglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is an endocrine disorder which affects 6.6% of women of child-bearing age. Although olfactory dysfunction is frequent in the population and it negatively affects quality of life, neither physicians or patients consider this important. This case-control study included 30 patients diagnosed with PCOS, and 25 healthy age-matched controls. Sniffin' sticks tests (BurghartGmbH, Wedel, Germany were used to analyze olfactory functions, and the Beck Depression Inventory was used to evaluate depressive symptoms. The total odor score was significantly lower in the PCOS group compared to the control group (p<0.005. The Beck depression score was higher in the PCOS group (p<0.005. There was a negative correlation between the total odor score and the Beck Depression Score. Patients with PCOS have impaired olfactory function. This might be related to depressive disorders that are also observed in those patients.

  20. Olfactory memory: a case study in cognitive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, J M

    1996-05-01

    Over the last decade, interest in the general applicability of psychological research has increased significantly, leading to doubts among some critics of cognitive psychology regarding the usefulness of the modern information-processing approach. In particular, current cognitive models of memory address mainly visual and verbal information processing, with little acknowledgement of the existence of other sensory modalities. However, since the mid-1970's, the literature on olfactory memory has expanded rapidly, and it has remained relatively independent of mainstream memory research. This article outlines the olfactory literature, which has focused principally on examination of the Proustian characteristics of smell. The relationship between olfactory and other types of memory is also examined. The author notes that there is evidence that models of memory intended to be general have taken insufficient account of findings from olfaction and other sensory modalities, an approach that could be considered symptomatic of dangerous tendency to base purportedly general theories on databases that are too narrow.

  1. Associative cortex features in the first olfactory brain relay station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucette, Wilder; Gire, David H; Whitesell, Jennifer; Carmean, Vanessa; Lucero, Mary T; Restrepo, Diego

    2011-03-24

    Synchronized firing of mitral cells (MCs) in the olfactory bulb (OB) has been hypothesized to help bind information together in olfactory cortex (OC). In this survey of synchronized firing by suspected MCs in awake, behaving vertebrates, we find the surprising result that synchronized firing conveys information on odor value ("Is it rewarded?") rather than odor identity ("What is the odor?"). We observed that as mice learned to discriminate between odors, synchronous firing responses to the rewarded and unrewarded odors became divergent. Furthermore, adrenergic blockage decreases the magnitude of odor divergence of synchronous trains, suggesting that MCs contribute to decision-making through adrenergic-modulated synchronized firing. Thus, in the olfactory system information on stimulus reward is found in MCs one synapse away from the sensory neuron. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The olfactory tubercle encodes odor valence in behaving mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadziola, Marie A; Tylicki, Kate A; Christian, Diana L; Wesson, Daniel W

    2015-03-18

    Sensory information acquires meaning to adaptively guide behaviors. Despite odors mediating a number of vital behaviors, the components of the olfactory system responsible for assigning meaning to odors remain unclear. The olfactory tubercle (OT), a ventral striatum structure that receives monosynaptic input from the olfactory bulb, is uniquely positioned to transform odor information into behaviorally relevant neural codes. No information is available, however, on the coding of odors among OT neurons in behaving animals. In recordings from mice engaged in an odor discrimination task, we report that the firing rate of OT neurons robustly and flexibly encodes the valence of conditioned odors over identity, with rewarded odors evoking greater firing rates. This coding of rewarded odors occurs before behavioral decisions and represents subsequent behavioral responses. We predict that the OT is an essential region whereby odor valence is encoded in the mammalian brain to guide goal-directed behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354515-13$15.00/0.

  3. Enhanced association between perceptual stimuli and trauma-related information in individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Muyu; Hofmann, Stefan G; Qian, Mingyi; Li, Songwei

    2015-03-01

    Intrusive memories in traumatized individuals are often triggered by stimuli that are perceptually (rather than conceptually) similar to those present just before or during the trauma. The present study examined whether those individuals with high levels of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms show a memory bias recall to perceptual cues and trauma target words compared to those with low levels of PTSD. The sample consisted of 30 adult participants who were involved in motor-vehicle or work-related accidents; 15 of the participants endorsed clinically elevated symptoms of PTSD, while a comparison group of 15 participants reported low levels of symptoms. Participants performed an associative recognition task with conceptual or perceptual cue words and trauma-related or neutral target words. Participants were tested for their recognition accuracy by reporting the corresponding target when a cue was given. Both groups performed better for the perceptual word pairs than for the conceptual word pairs, irrespective of the target word type. However, only the high PTSD symptoms group exhibited an additional enhancement in performance for the perceptual word pairs with trauma-related target words. A nonclinical sample was utilized for this study; although PTSD was assessed, diagnoses were not confirmed. In addition, there was lack of a healthy non-traumatized control group. These results provide partial support for the cognitive model and the notion that intrusive memories are specific to the trauma-related event rather than to a general associative learning bias.

  4. Cholinergic innervation of the zebrafish olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey G; Greig, Ann; Sakata, Yoko; Elkin, Dimitry; Michel, William C

    2007-10-20

    A number of fish species receive forebrain cholinergic input but two recent reports failed to find evidence of cholinergic cell bodies or fibers in the olfactory bulbs (OBs) of zebrafish. In the current study we sought to confirm these findings by examining the OBs of adult zebrafish for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) immunoreactivity. We observed a diffuse network of varicose ChAT-positive fibers associated with the nervus terminalis ganglion innervating the mitral cell/glomerular layer (MC/GL). The highest density of these fibers occurred in the anterior region of the bulb. The cellular targets of this cholinergic input were identified by exposing isolated OBs to acetylcholine receptor (AChR) agonists in the presence of agmatine (AGB), a cationic probe that permeates some active ion channels. Nicotine (50 microM) significantly increased the activity-dependent labeling of mitral cells and juxtaglomerular cells but not of tyrosine hydroxlase-positive dopaminergic neurons (TH(+) cells) compared to control preparations. The nAChR antagonist mecamylamine, an alpha7-nAChR subunit-specific antagonist, calcium-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid, or a cocktail of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists each blocked nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that AGB does not enter the labeled neurons through activated nAChRs but rather through activated iGluRs following ACh-stimulated glutamate release. Deafferentation of OBs did not eliminate nicotine-stimulated labeling, suggesting that cholinergic input is primarily acting on bulbar neurons. These findings confirm the presence of a functioning cholinergic system in the zebrafish OB.

  5. Multi-Functional Stimuli-Responsive Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Supramolecular polymers based on non-covalent interactions can display a wide array of stimuli-responsive attributes. They can be tailored to change shape, actuate...

  6. Newborns' Discrimination of Chromatic from Achromatic Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Russell J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Two experiments assessed the extent of newborns' ability to discriminate color. Results imply that newborns have some, albeit limited, capacity to discriminate chromatic from achromatic stimuli, and hence, are at least dichromats. (Author/DR)

  7. Generalized Habituation of Concept Stimuli in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkender, Patricia J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of selective generalization of habituation on the basis of meaningful categories of stimuli. Also explored are the sex differences in conceptual generalization of habituation. Subjects were 36 toddlers with a mean age of 40 months. (SDH)

  8. The role of dopamine in Drosophila larval classical olfactory conditioning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Selcho

    Full Text Available Learning and memory is not an attribute of higher animals. Even Drosophila larvae are able to form and recall an association of a given odor with an aversive or appetitive gustatory reinforcer. As the Drosophila larva has turned into a particularly simple model for studying odor processing, a detailed neuronal and functional map of the olfactory pathway is available up to the third order neurons in the mushroom bodies. At this point, a convergence of olfactory processing and gustatory reinforcement is suggested to underlie associative memory formation. The dopaminergic system was shown to be involved in mammalian and insect olfactory conditioning. To analyze the anatomy and function of the larval dopaminergic system, we first characterize dopaminergic neurons immunohistochemically up to the single cell level and subsequent test for the effects of distortions in the dopamine system upon aversive (odor-salt as well as appetitive (odor-sugar associative learning. Single cell analysis suggests that dopaminergic neurons do not directly connect gustatory input in the larval suboesophageal ganglion to olfactory information in the mushroom bodies. However, a number of dopaminergic neurons innervate different regions of the brain, including protocerebra, mushroom bodies and suboesophageal ganglion. We found that dopamine receptors are highly enriched in the mushroom bodies and that aversive and appetitive olfactory learning is strongly impaired in dopamine receptor mutants. Genetically interfering with dopaminergic signaling supports this finding, although our data do not exclude on naïve odor and sugar preferences of the larvae. Our data suggest that dopaminergic neurons provide input to different brain regions including protocerebra, suboesophageal ganglion and mushroom bodies by more than one route. We therefore propose that different types of dopaminergic neurons might be involved in different types of signaling necessary for aversive and appetitive

  9. Functional MRI of the olfactory system in conscious dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Jia

    Full Text Available We depend upon the olfactory abilities of dogs for critical tasks such as detecting bombs, landmines, other hazardous chemicals and illicit substances. Hence, a mechanistic understanding of the olfactory system in dogs is of great scientific interest. Previous studies explored this aspect at the cellular and behavior levels; however, the cognitive-level neural substrates linking them have never been explored. This is critical given the fact that behavior is driven by filtered sensory representations in higher order cognitive areas rather than the raw odor maps of the olfactory bulb. Since sedated dogs cannot sniff, we investigated this using functional magnetic resonance imaging of conscious dogs. We addressed the technical challenges of head motion using a two pronged strategy of behavioral training to keep dogs' head as still as possible and a single camera optical head motion tracking system to account for residual jerky movements. We built a custom computer-controlled odorant delivery system which was synchronized with image acquisition, allowing the investigation of brain regions activated by odors. The olfactory bulb and piriform lobes were commonly activated in both awake and anesthetized dogs, while the frontal cortex was activated mainly in conscious dogs. Comparison of responses to low and high odor intensity showed differences in either the strength or spatial extent of activation in the olfactory bulb, piriform lobes, cerebellum, and frontal cortex. Our results demonstrate the viability of the proposed method for functional imaging of the olfactory system in conscious dogs. This could potentially open up a new field of research in detector dog technology.

  10. Stimulus-response functions of single avian olfactory bulb neurones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan, Dorothy E F; Demmers, Theodorus G M; Wathes, Christopher M; Jones, R Bryan; Gentle, Michael J

    2002-10-25

    This study investigated olfactory processing in a functional context by examining the responses of single avian olfactory bulb neurones to two biologically important gases over relevant concentration ranges. Recordings of extracellular spike activity were made from 80 single units in the left olfactory bulb of 11 anaesthetised, freely breathing adult hens (Gallus domesticus). The units were spontaneously active, exhibiting widely variable firing rates (0.07-47.28 spikes/s) and variable temporal firing patterns. Single units were tested for their response to an ascending concentration series of either ammonia (2.5-100 ppm) or hydrogen sulphide (1-50 ppm), delivered directly to the olfactory epithelium. Stimulation with a calibrated gas delivery system resulted in modification of spontaneous activity causing either inhibition (47% of units) or excitation (53%) of firing. For ammonia, 20 of the 35 units tested exhibited a response, while for hydrogen sulphide, 25 of the 45 units tested were responsive. Approximate response thresholds for ammonia (median threshold 3.75 ppm (range 2.5-60 ppm, n=20)) and hydrogen sulphide (median threshold 1 ppm (range 1-10 ppm, n=25)) were determined with most units exhibiting thresholds near the lower end of these ranges. Stimulus response curves were constructed for 23 units; 16 (the most complete) were subjected to a linear regression analysis to determine whether they were best fitted by a linear, log or power function. No single function provided the best fit for all the curves (seven were linear, eight were log, one was power). These findings show that avian units respond to changes in stimulus concentration in a manner generally consistent with reported responses in mammalian olfactory bulb neurones. However, this study illustrates a level of fine-tuning to small step changes in concentration (<5 ppm) not previously demonstrated in vertebrate single olfactory bulb neurones.

  11. The mere exposure effect with scene stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    八木 , 善彦

    2016-01-01

     The mere exposure effect refers to the phenomenon where previous exposures to stimuli increasesubsequent affective preference for those stimuli. It has been indicated that with specific stimulus-category(i.e., paintings, matrices, and photographs of scene), repeated exposure has little or oppositeeffect on affective ratings. In this study, two experiments were conducted in order to explore theeffect of stimulus-category on the mere exposure effects. Photographs of young woman’s(Experiment1)a...

  12. Preserved olfactory cuing of autobiographical memories in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maylor, Elizabeth A; Carter, Sarah M; Hallett, Emma L

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated whether olfactory cues can facilitate memory retrieval and whether they retain their effectiveness in old age. In Phase 1, 57 young and 57 old adults (mean ages of 21 and 84 years, respectively) were asked to recall autobiographical memories associated with each of six cue words. In Phase 2, the same words were presented again with instructions to recall new memories; on this second occasion, half of the words were accompanied by their appropriate odors. Both age groups recalled more than twice as many memories in Phase 2 with the odor than without the odor, providing evidence for substantial olfactory cuing that is remarkably intact in old age.

  13. Processing of Sensory Information in the Olfactory System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The olfactory system is an attractive model system due to the easy control of sensory input and the experimental accessibility in animal studies. The odorant signals are processed from receptor neurons to a neural network of mitral and granular cells while various types of nonlinear behaviour can...... and equation-free techniques allow for a better reproduction and understanding of recent experimental findings. Talks: Olfaction as a Model System for Sensory-Processing Neural Networks (Jens Midtgaard, University of Copenhagen, Denmark) Nonlinear Effects of Signal Transduction in Olfactory Sensory Neurons...

  14. Risk factors for hazardous events in olfactory-impaired patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Taylor S; Reiter, Evan R; DiNardo, Laurence J; Costanzo, Richard M

    2014-10-01

    Normal olfaction provides essential cues to allow early detection and avoidance of potentially hazardous situations. Thus, patients with impaired olfaction may be at increased risk of experiencing certain hazardous events such as cooking or house fires, delayed detection of gas leaks, and exposure to or ingestion of toxic substances. To identify risk factors and potential trends over time in olfactory-related hazardous events in patients with impaired olfactory function. Retrospective cohort study of 1047 patients presenting to a university smell and taste clinic between 1983 and 2013. A total of 704 patients had both clinical olfactory testing and a hazard interview and were studied. On the basis of olfactory function testing results, patients were categorized as normosmic (n = 161), mildly hyposmic (n = 99), moderately hyposmic (n = 93), severely hyposmic (n = 142), and anosmic (n = 209). Patient evaluation including interview, examination, and olfactory testing. Incidence of specific olfaction-related hazardous events (ie, burning pots and/or pans, starting a fire while cooking, inability to detect gas leaks, inability to detect smoke, and ingestion of toxic substances or spoiled foods) by degree of olfactory impairment. The incidence of having experienced any hazardous event progressively increased with degree of impairment: normosmic (18.0%), mildly hyposmic (22.2%), moderately hyposmic (31.2%), severely hyposmic (32.4%), and anosmic (39.2%). Over 3 decades there was no significant change in the overall incidence of hazardous events. Analysis of demographic data (age, sex, race, smoking status, and etiology) revealed significant differences in the incidence of hazardous events based on age (among 397 patients hazardous event, vs 31 of 146 patients ≥65 years [21.3%]; P hazardous event, vs 73 of 265 men [27.6%]; P = .009), and race (among 98 African Americans, 41 [41.8%] with hazardous event, vs 134 of 434 whites [30.9%]; P = .04

  15. Lifetime olfactory memory in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Y; Mizunami, M

    2002-05-01

    The time span of olfactory memory retention in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus was studied. Third- or fourth-instar nymph crickets were trained to associate one odor with water and another odor with saline solution. At 6 weeks and 10 weeks after training, adult crickets exhibited significantly greater preferences for the odor associated with water over that associated with saline solution. The learned preference was altered when they were given reversal training at 6 weeks after training. We conclude that crickets are capable of retaining olfactory memory practically for their lifetime and of easily rewriting it in accordance with experience.

  16. Binocular Combination of Second-Order Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Yifeng; Hess, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Phase information is a fundamental aspect of visual stimuli. However, the nature of the binocular combination of stimuli defined by modulations in contrast, so-called second-order stimuli, is presently not clear. To address this issue, we measured binocular combination for first- (luminance modulated) and second-order (contrast modulated) stimuli using a binocular phase combination paradigm in seven normal adults. We found that the binocular perceived phase of second-order gratings depends on the interocular signal ratio as has been previously shown for their first order counterparts; the interocular signal ratios when the two eyes were balanced was close to 1 in both first- and second-order phase combinations. However, second-order combination is more linear than previously found for first-order combination. Furthermore, binocular combination of second-order stimuli was similar regardless of whether the carriers in the two eyes were correlated, anti-correlated, or uncorrelated. This suggests that, in normal adults, the binocular phase combination of second-order stimuli occurs after the monocular extracting of the second-order modulations. The sensory balance associated with this second-order combination can be obtained from binocular phase combination measurements. PMID:24404180

  17. Gamma Knife radiosurgery of olfactory groove meningiomas provides a method to preserve subjective olfactory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gande, Abhiram; Kano, Hideyuki; Bowden, Gregory; Mousavi, Seyed H; Niranjan, Ajay; Flickinger, John C; Lunsford, L Dade

    2014-02-01

    Anosmia is a common outcome after resection of olfactory groove meningioma(s) (OGM) and for some patients represents a significant disability. To evaluate long term tumor control rates and preservation of subjective olfaction after Gamma Knife (GK) stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of OGM. We performed a retrospective chart review and telephone assessments of 41 patients who underwent GK SRS between 1987 and 2008. Clinical outcomes were stratified by full, partial or no subjective olfaction, whereas tumor control was assessed by changes in volume greater or lesser than 25%. The median clinical and imaging follow-up were 76 and 65 months, respectively. Prior to SRS, 19 (46%) patients had surgical resections and two (5%) had received fractionated radiation therapy. Twenty four patients (59%) reported a normal sense of smell, 12 (29%) reported a reduced sense of smell and five (12%) had complete anosmia. The median tumor volume was 8.5 cm(3) (range 0.6-56.1), the mean radiation dose at the tumor margin was 13 Gy (range 10-20) and the median estimated dose to the olfactory nerve was 5.1 Gy (range 1.1-18.1). At follow-up, 27 patients (66%) reported intact olfaction (three (7%) described return to a normal sense of smell), nine (22%) described partial anosmia, and five (12%) had complete anosmia. No patient reported deterioration in olfaction after SRS. Thirteen patients (32%) showed significant tumor regression, 26 (63%) had no further growth and two (5%) had progressed. The progression free tumor control rates were 97% at 1 year and 95% at 2, 10 and 20 years. Symptomatic adverse radiation effects occurred in three (7%) patients. Stereotactic radiosurgery provided both long term tumor control and preservation of olfaction.

  18. Ulex europaeus I and glycine max bind to the human olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, M; Oka, N; Kamo, H; Akiguchi, I; Kimura, J

    1993-12-24

    The distribution of binding sites for the fucose-selective lectin Ulex europaeus I and the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine-selective lectin glycine max in the human olfactory bulb were studied. These lectins bound to primary olfactory axons in the olfactory nerve layer and the glomerular layer. They also bound to fibers located in the deeper layers such as the external plexiform layer and the granular layer. Furthermore they projected to the olfactory stalk but not in the cerebrum. The deeper projections of the lectin binding fibers may affect the function of the olfactory bulb in humans.

  19. Consolidation of an olfactory memory trace in the olfactory bulb is required for learning-induced survival of adult-born neurons and long-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Kermen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has recently been proposed that adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb, whose survival is modulated by learning, support long-term olfactory memory. However, the mechanism used to select which adult-born neurons following learning will participate in the long-term retention of olfactory information is unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of bulbar consolidation of olfactory learning on memory and neurogenesis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Initially, we used a behavioral ecological approach using adult mice to assess the impact of consolidation on neurogenesis. Using learning paradigms in which consolidation time was varied, we showed that a spaced (across days, but not a massed (within day, learning paradigm increased survival of adult-born neurons and allowed long-term retention of the task. Subsequently, we used a pharmacological approach to block consolidation in the olfactory bulb, consisting in intrabulbar infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, and found impaired learning and no increase in neurogenesis, while basic olfactory processing and the basal rate of adult-born neuron survival remained unaffected. Taken together these data indicate that survival of adult-born neurons during learning depends on consolidation processes taking place in the olfactory bulb. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We can thus propose a model in which consolidation processes in the olfactory bulb determine both survival of adult-born neurons and long-term olfactory memory. The finding that adult-born neuron survival during olfactory learning is governed by consolidation in the olfactory bulb strongly argues in favor of a role for bulbar adult-born neurons in supporting olfactory memory.

  20. Consolidation of an olfactory memory trace in the olfactory bulb is required for learning-induced survival of adult-born neurons and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermen, Florence; Sultan, Sébastien; Sacquet, Joëlle; Mandairon, Nathalie; Didier, Anne

    2010-08-13

    It has recently been proposed that adult-born neurons in the olfactory bulb, whose survival is modulated by learning, support long-term olfactory memory. However, the mechanism used to select which adult-born neurons following learning will participate in the long-term retention of olfactory information is unknown. We addressed this question by investigating the effect of bulbar consolidation of olfactory learning on memory and neurogenesis. Initially, we used a behavioral ecological approach using adult mice to assess the impact of consolidation on neurogenesis. Using learning paradigms in which consolidation time was varied, we showed that a spaced (across days), but not a massed (within day), learning paradigm increased survival of adult-born neurons and allowed long-term retention of the task. Subsequently, we used a pharmacological approach to block consolidation in the olfactory bulb, consisting in intrabulbar infusion of the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin, and found impaired learning and no increase in neurogenesis, while basic olfactory processing and the basal rate of adult-born neuron survival remained unaffected. Taken together these data indicate that survival of adult-born neurons during learning depends on consolidation processes taking place in the olfactory bulb. We can thus propose a model in which consolidation processes in the olfactory bulb determine both survival of adult-born neurons and long-term olfactory memory. The finding that adult-born neuron survival during olfactory learning is governed by consolidation in the olfactory bulb strongly argues in favor of a role for bulbar adult-born neurons in supporting olfactory memory.

  1. Generalization of the disruptive effects of alternative stimuli when combined with target stimuli in extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesnik, Christopher A; Miranda-Dukoski, Ludmila; Jonas Chan, C K; Bland, Vikki J; Bai, John Y H

    2017-09-01

    Differential-reinforcement treatments reduce target problem behavior in the short term but at the expense of making it more persistent long term. Basic and translational research based on behavioral momentum theory suggests that combining features of stimuli governing an alternative response with the stimuli governing target responding could make target responding less persistent. However, changes to the alternative stimulus context when combining alternative and target stimuli could diminish the effectiveness of the alternative stimulus in reducing target responding. In an animal model with pigeons, the present study reinforced responding in the presence of target and alternative stimuli. When combining the alternative and target stimuli during extinction, we altered the alternative stimulus through changes in line orientation. We found that (1) combining alternative and target stimuli in extinction more effectively decreased target responding than presenting the target stimulus on its own; (2) combining these stimuli was more effective in decreasing target responding trained with lower reinforcement rates; and (3) changing the alternative stimulus reduced its effectiveness when it was combined with the target stimulus. Therefore, changing alternative stimuli (e.g., therapist, clinical setting) during behavioral treatments that combine alternative and target stimuli could reduce the effectiveness of those treatments in disrupting problem behavior. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  2. Extrabulbar olfactory system and nervus terminalis FMRFamide immunoreactive components in Xenopus laevis ontogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Claudia; D'Aniello, Biagio; Polese, Gianluca; Rastogi, Rakesh K

    2004-09-01

    The extrabulbar olfactory system (EBOS) is a collection of nerve fibers which originate from primary olfactory receptor-like neurons and penetrate into the brain bypassing the olfactory bulbs. Our description is based upon the application of two neuronal tracers (biocytin, carbocyanine DiI) in the olfactory sac, at the cut end of the olfactory nerve and in the telencephalon of the developing clawed frog. The extrabulbar olfactory system was observed already at stage 45, which is the first developmental stage compatible with our techniques; at this stage, the extrabulbar olfactory system fibers terminated diffusely in the preoptic area. A little later in development, i.e. at stage 50, the extrabulbar olfactory system was maximally developed, extending as far caudally as the rhombencephalon. In the metamorphosing specimens, the extrabulbar olfactory system appeared reduced in extension; caudally, the fiber terminals did not extend beyond the diencephalon. While a substantial overlapping of biocytin/FMRFamide immunoreactivity was observed along the olfactory pathways as well as in the telencephalon, FMRFamide immunoreactivity was never observed to be colocalized in the same cellular or fiber components visualized by tracer molecules. The question whether the extrabulbar olfactory system and the nervus terminalis (NT) are separate anatomical entities or represent an integrated system is discussed.

  3. Olfactory neuroblastoma: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Marton; Osnes, Terje; Jebsen, Peter; Evensen, Jan Folkvard; Meling, Torstein R

    2018-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a potentially curable disease, despite being an aggressive malignancy with a poor natural history. Our goal was to evaluate management outcomes for patients with ONB treated at our institution. Our prospective database for brain tumors and the pathology registry of head and neck cancers at Oslo University Hospital were searched to identify all patients treated for ONB between 1998 and 2016. Variables extracted from these databases, supplemented by retrospective chart reviews, underwent thorough analysis. All cases were formally re-examined by a dedicated head and neck pathologist. Twenty patients were identified. Follow-up was 100%. Mean follow-up was 81.5 months for the entire cohort and 120.3 months for patients with no evidence of disease. Fourteen patients underwent treatment of choice including craniofacial resection (CFR) with or without radiotherapy (XRT). Six patients could only receive less extensive treatment; three patients underwent lateral rhinotomy (LR) with or without XRT after being deemed medically unsuitable for CFR, while another three patients received only supportive, non-surgical treatment (due to positive lymph node status in two and to extensive tumor size in one case). Overall and disease-specific survival rates were 100% after 10 years of follow-up when negative surgical margins were achieved by CFR. Positive margins were associated with poorer outcome with no patients surviving longer than 44 months. Long-term survival was also achieved in two cases among patients not eligible for CFR: one case after radical LR and one case after radio-chemotherapy. Advanced disease at presentation (tumor size ≥40 mm, Kadish grades C and D, or TNM IVa and IVb) and positive surgical margins were correlated to significantly dismal survival. Our study suggests that CFR with or without adjuvant XRT is safe and leads to excellent long-time overall and disease-specific survival. Negative surgical margins, tumor size <40

  4. Morphology of the olfactory system in the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Michiel; Wadman, Wytse J; Sabelis, Maurice W

    2006-01-01

    The predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis locates its prey, the two-spotted spider mite, by means of herbivore-induced plant volatiles. The olfactory response to this quantitatively and qualitatively variable source of information is particularly well documented. The mites perform this task with a peripheral olfactory system that consists of just five putative olfactory sensilla that reside in a dorsal field at the tip of their first pair of legs. The receptor cells innervate a glomerular olfactory lobe just ventral of the first pedal ganglion. We have made a 3D reconstruction of the caudal half of the olfactory lobe in adult females. The glomerular organization as well as the glomerular innervation appears conserved across different individuals. The adult females have, by approximation, a 1:1 ratio of olfactory receptor cells to olfactory glomeruli.

  5. Congenital olfactory impairment is linked to cortical changes in prefrontal and limbic brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Helena Gásdal; Vestergaard, Martin; Baaré, William F C

    2018-01-01

    differently in individuals who suffer from lifelong olfactory deprivation relative to healthy normosmic individuals. To address this question, we examined if regional variations in gray matter volume were associated with smell ability in seventeen individuals with isolated congenital olfactory impairment (COI...... in left middle frontal gyrus and right superior frontal sulcus (SFS). COI subjects with severe olfactory impairment (anosmia) had reduced grey matter volume in the left mOFC and increased volume in right piriform cortex and SFS. Within the COI group olfactory ability, measured with the "Sniffin' Sticks...... piriform cortex, while olfactory identification was negatively associated with right SFS volume. Our findings suggest that lifelong olfactory deprivation trigger changes in the cortical volume of prefrontal and limbic brain regions previously linked to olfactory memory....

  6. Newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb selected for long-term survival through olfactory learning are prematurely suppressed when the olfactory memory is erased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Sébastien; Rey, Nolwen; Sacquet, Joelle; Mandairon, Nathalie; Didier, Anne

    2011-10-19

    A role for newborn neurons in olfactory memory has been proposed based on learning-dependent modulation of olfactory bulb neurogenesis in adults. We hypothesized that if newborn neurons support memory, then they should be suppressed by memory erasure. Using an ecological approach in mice, we showed that behaviorally breaking a previously learned odor-reward association prematurely suppressed newborn neurons selected to survive during initial learning. Furthermore, intrabulbar infusions of the caspase pan-inhibitor ZVAD (benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp) during the behavioral odor-reward extinction prevented newborn neurons death and erasure of the odor-reward association. Newborn neurons thus contribute to the bulbar network plasticity underlying long-term memory.

  7. Distinct Neural Mechanisms Mediate Olfactory Memory Formation at Different Timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Ann Marie; Magidson, Phillip D.; Linster, Christiane; Wilson, Donald A.; Cleland, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    Habituation is one of the oldest forms of learning, broadly expressed across sensory systems and taxa. Here, we demonstrate that olfactory habituation induced at different timescales (comprising different odor exposure and intertrial interval durations) is mediated by different neural mechanisms. First, the persistence of habituation memory is…

  8. Virtual vision system with actual flavor by olfactory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kanazawa, Fumihiro

    2010-11-01

    The authors have researched multimedia system and support system for nursing studies on and practices of reminiscence therapy and life review therapy. The concept of the life review is presented by Butler in 1963. The process of thinking back on one's life and communicating about one's life to another person is called life review. There is a famous episode concerning the memory. It is called as Proustian effects. This effect is mentioned on the Proust's novel as an episode that a story teller reminds his old memory when he dipped a madeleine in tea. So many scientists research why smells trigger the memory. The authors pay attention to the relation between smells and memory although the reason is not evident yet. Then we have tried to add an olfactory display to the multimedia system so that the smells become a trigger of reminding buried memories. An olfactory display is a device that delivers smells to the nose. It provides us with special effects, for example to emit smell as if you were there or to give a trigger for reminding us of memories. The authors have developed a tabletop display system connected with the olfactory display. For delivering a flavor to user's nose, the system needs to recognition and measure positions of user's face and nose. In this paper, the authors describe an olfactory display which enables to detect the nose position for an effective delivery.

  9. Olfactory-Induced Synesthesias: A Review and Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Tomiczek, Caroline

    2007-01-01

    Recent reviews of synesthesia concentrate upon rare neurodevelopmental examples and exclude common olfactory-induced experiences with which they may profitably be compared. Like the neurodevelopmental synesthesias, odor-induced experiences involve different sensory modalities; are reliable, asymmetric (concurrents cannot induce), and automatic;…

  10. Rapidly acquired multisensory association in the olfactory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanayaka, Prasanna R; Wilson, Donald A; Vasavada, Megha; Wang, Jianli; Martinez, Brittany; Tobia, Michael J; Kong, Lan; Eslinger, Paul; Yang, Qing X

    2015-11-01

    The formation of an odor percept in humans is strongly associated with visual information. However, much less is known about the roles of learning and memory in shaping the multisensory nature of odor representations in the brain. The dynamics of odor and visual association in olfaction was investigated using three functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigms. In two paradigms, a visual cue was paired with an odor. In the third, the same visual cue was never paired with an odor. In this experimental design, if the visual cue was not influenced by odor-visual pairing, then the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal elicited by subsequent visual cues should be similar across all three paradigms. Additionally, intensity, a major dimension of odor perception, was used as a modulator of associative learning which was characterized in terms of the spatiotemporal behavior of the BOLD signal in olfactory structures. A single odor-visual pairing cue could subsequently induce primary olfactory cortex activity when only the visual cue was presented. This activity was intensity dependent and was also detected in secondary olfactory structures and hippocampus. This study provides evidence for a rapid learning response in the olfactory system by a visual cue following odor and visual cue pairing. The novel data and paradigms suggest new avenues to explore the dynamics of odor learning and multisensory representations that contribute to the construction of a unified odor percept in the human brain.

  11. Olfactory memories are intensity specific in larval Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dushyant; Chen, Yi-Chun; Yarali, Ayse; Oguz, Tuba; Gerber, Bertram

    2013-05-01

    Learning can rely on stimulus quality, stimulus intensity, or a combination of these. Regarding olfaction, the coding of odour quality is often proposed to be combinatorial along the olfactory pathway, and working hypotheses are available concerning short-term associative memory trace formation of odour quality. However, it is less clear how odour intensity is coded, and whether olfactory memory traces include information about the intensity of the learnt odour. Using odour-sugar associative conditioning in larval Drosophila, we first describe the dose-effect curves of learnability across odour intensities for four different odours (n-amyl acetate, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol and benzaldehyde). We then chose odour intensities such that larvae were trained at an intermediate odour intensity, but were tested for retention with either that trained intermediate odour intensity, or with respectively higher or lower intensities. We observed a specificity of retention for the trained intensity for all four odours used. This adds to the appreciation of the richness in 'content' of olfactory short-term memory traces, even in a system as simple as larval Drosophila, and to define the demands on computational models of associative olfactory memory trace formation. We suggest two kinds of circuit architecture that have the potential to accommodate intensity learning, and discuss how they may be implemented in the insect brain.

  12. Apathy and Olfactory Dysfunction in Early Parkinson’s Disease

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    Jin Yong Hong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Olfactory and emotional dysfunctions are very common in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Olfaction and emotions share common neuroanatomical substrates. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the association between olfactory and emotional dysfunctions in patients with PD. Methods Parkinson’s disease patients who had been assessed for their olfactory function and neuropsychiatric symptoms including emotional dysfunction were included. A logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between low olfaction and different neuropsychiatric symptoms. Results The patients with low olfaction (cross cultural smell identification test score ≤ 6 showed a higher prevalence of apathy when compared with those with high olfaction, whereas the frequencies of other neuropsychiatric symptoms were comparable between the two groups. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the presence of apathy/indifference [odds ratio (OR = 2.859, p = 0.007], age 70 years or more (OR = 2.281, p = 0.009, and the male gender (OR = 1.916, p = 0.030 were significantly associated with low olfaction. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that apathy/indifference is a unique emotional dysfunction associated with olfactory dysfunction in PD. The findings also suggest that PD patients with low olfaction have a high prevalence of apathy.

  13. A Robust Feedforward Model of the Olfactory System.

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    Yilun Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Most natural odors have sparse molecular composition. This makes the principles of compressed sensing potentially relevant to the structure of the olfactory code. Yet, the largely feedforward organization of the olfactory system precludes reconstruction using standard compressed sensing algorithms. To resolve this problem, recent theoretical work has shown that signal reconstruction could take place as a result of a low dimensional dynamical system converging to one of its attractor states. However, the dynamical aspects of optimization slowed down odor recognition and were also found to be susceptible to noise. Here we describe a feedforward model of the olfactory system that achieves both strong compression and fast reconstruction that is also robust to noise. A key feature of the proposed model is a specific relationship between how odors are represented at the glomeruli stage, which corresponds to a compression, and the connections from glomeruli to third-order neurons (neurons in the olfactory cortex of vertebrates or Kenyon cells in the mushroom body of insects, which in the model corresponds to reconstruction. We show that should this specific relationship hold true, the reconstruction will be both fast and robust to noise, and in particular to the false activation of glomeruli. The predicted connectivity rate from glomeruli to third-order neurons can be tested experimentally.

  14. Peripheral and Central Olfactory Tuning in a Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Rose C.

    2012-01-01

    Animals can be innately attracted to certain odorants. Because these attractants are particularly salient, they might be expected to induce relatively strong responses throughout the olfactory pathway, helping animals detect the most relevant odors but limiting flexibility to respond to other odors. Alternatively, specific neural wiring might link innately preferred odors to appropriate behaviors without a need for intensity biases. How nonpheromonal attractants are processed by the general olfactory system remains largely unknown. In the moth Manduca sexta, we studied this with a set of innately preferred host plant odors and other, neutral odors. Electroantennogram recordings showed that, as a population, olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) did not respond with greater intensity to host plant odors, and further local field potential recordings showed that no specific amplification of signals induced by host plant odors occurred between the first olfactory center and the second. Moreover, when odorants were mutually diluted to elicit equally intense output from the ORNs, moths were able to learn to associate all tested odorants equally well with food reward. Together, these results suggest that, although nonpheromonal host plant odors activate broadly distributed responses, they may be linked to attractive behaviors mainly through specific wiring in the brain. PMID:22362866

  15. True navigation in migrating gulls requires intact olfactory nerves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikelski, Martin; Arriero, Elena; Gagliardo, Anna

    2015-01-01

    debated. In this experiment we subjected adult lesser black-backed gulls migrating from their Finnish/Russian breeding grounds (from >60°N) to Africa (to ... of the trigeminal nerve sectioned oriented towards their population-specific migratory corridor. Thus, air-borne olfactory information seems to be important for migrating gulls to navigate successfully in some circumstances....

  16. Brain correlates of progressive olfactory loss in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campabadal, Anna; Uribe, Carme; Segura, Barbara; Baggio, Hugo C; Abos, Alexandra; Garcia-Diaz, Anna Isabel; Marti, Maria Jose; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Compta, Yaroslau; Bargallo, Nuria; Junque, Carme

    2017-08-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is present in a large proportion of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) upon diagnosis. However, its progression over time has been poorly investigated. The few available longitudinal studies lack control groups or MRI data. To investigate the olfactory changes and their structural correlates in non-demented PD over a four-year follow-up. We assessed olfactory function in a sample of 25 PD patients and 24 normal controls of similar age using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification test (UPSIT). Structural magnetic resonance imaging data, obtained with a 3-T Siemens Trio scanner, were analyzed using FreeSurfer software. Analysis of variance showed significant group (F = 53.882; P effects, but the group-by-time interaction was not statistically significant. UPSIT performance declined ≥1.5 standard deviations in 5 controls and 7 patients. Change in UPSIT scores of patients correlated positively with volume change in the left putamen, right thalamus, and right caudate nucleus. Olfactory loss over time in PD and controls is similar, but we have observed significant correlation between this loss and basal ganglia volumes only in patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Odor memory stability after reinnervation of the olfactory bulb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Blanco-Hernández

    Full Text Available The olfactory system, particularly the olfactory epithelium, presents a unique opportunity to study the regenerative capabilities of the brain, because of its ability to recover after damage. In this study, we ablated olfactory sensory neurons with methimazole and followed the anatomical and functional recovery of circuits expressing genetic markers for I7 and M72 receptors (M72-IRES-tau-LacZ and I7-IRES-tau-GFP. Our results show that 45 days after methimazole-induced lesion, axonal projections to the bulb of M72 and I7 populations are largely reestablished. Furthermore, regenerated glomeruli are re-formed within the same areas as those of control, unexposed mice. This anatomical regeneration correlates with functional recovery of a previously learned odorant-discrimination task, dependent on the cognate ligands for M72 and I7. Following regeneration, mice also recover innate responsiveness to TMT and urine. Our findings show that regeneration of neuronal circuits in the olfactory system can be achieved with remarkable precision and underscore the importance of glomerular organization to evoke memory traces stored in the brain.

  18. Olfactory Dysfunction in Narcolepsy with and without Cataplexy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bušková, J.; Klaschka, Jan; Šonka, K.; Nevšímalová, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2010), s. 558-561 ISSN 1389-9457 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : narcolepsy * cataplexy * narcolepsy without cataplexy * RBD * olfactory dysfunction Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2010

  19. Olfactory Imagination and Odor Processing: Three Same-Different Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, E.P.; Stelt, van der O.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Linschoten, M.R.I.; Mojet, J.; Wijk, de R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Do people who claim to have olfactory imagination process odors more efficiently? In three same–different experiments, using all possible combinations of odors and odor names as primes and targets, selected high imagers (n¿=¿12) were faster (±230 ms; P¿

  20. Mushroom body glycolysis is required for olfactory memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Chang, Ching-Ching; Wu, Jie-Kai; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Yang, Chu-Huai; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng

    2018-04-01

    Glucose catabolism, also known as glycolysis, is important for energy generation and involves a sequence of enzymatic reactions that convert a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules. The glycolysis process generates adenosine triphosphate as a byproduct. In this study, we investigated whether glycolysis plays a role in maintaining neuronal functions in the Drosophila mushroom bodies (MBs), which are generally accepted to be an olfactory learning and memory center. Our data showed that individual knockdown of glycolytic enzymes in the MBs, including hexokinase (HexA), phosphofructokinase (Pfk), or pyruvate kinase (PyK), disrupts olfactory memory. Whole-mount brain immunostaining indicated that pyruvate kinase is strongly expressed in the MB αβ, α'β', and γ neuron subsets. We conclude that HexA, Pfk, and PyK are required in each MB neuron subset for olfactory memory formation. Our data therefore indicates that glucose catabolism in the MBs is important for olfactory memory formation in Drosophila. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Olfactory and imaging features in atypical Alzheimer’s disease

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    Huihong Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognition and speech disorders are the most common symptoms of dementia in neurodegenerative disease. Here, we present a detailed clinical evaluation of a case of logopenic variant of primary progressive aphasia (lv-PPA, an atypical form of Alzheimer disease (AD, including cognitive testing over time, brain imaging, electrophysiology, and tests of olfactory function.

  2. Recall and recognition hypermnesia for Socratic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazén, Miguel; Solís-Macías, Víctor M

    2016-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigate hypermnesia, net memory improvements with repeated testing of the same material after a single study trial. In the first experiment, we found hypermnesia across three trials for the recall of word solutions to Socratic stimuli (dictionary-like definitions of concepts) replicating Erdelyi, Buschke, and Finkelstein and, for the first time using these materials, for their recognition. In the second experiment, we had two "yes/no" recognition groups, a Socratic stimuli group presented with concrete and abstract verbal materials and a word-only control group. Using signal detection measures, we found hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli-and stable performance for abstract stimuli across three recognition tests. The control group showed memory decrements across tests. We interpret these findings with the alternative retrieval pathways (ARP) hypothesis, contrasting it with alternative theories of hypermnesia, such as depth of processing, generation and retrieve-recognise. We conclude that recognition hypermnesia for concrete Socratic stimuli is a reliable phenomenon, which we found in two experiments involving both forced-choice and yes/no recognition procedures.

  3. Effects of cadmium on olfactory mediated behaviors and molecular biomarkers in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Chase R.; Gallagher, Evan P., E-mail: evang3@u.washington.edu

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: •Low Cd exposures elicited significant olfactory mediated behavioral changes independent of histological injury. •The olfactory behavioral deficits persisted following a 16-day depuration. •Olfactory molecular biomarkers expression was strongly linked to injury to the olfactory epithelium. •Cd induced a strong antioxidant response in the coho salmon olfactory system. •Results suggest a sensitivity of salmonids to waterborne Cd. -- Abstract: The olfactory system of salmonids is sensitive to the adverse effects of metals such as copper and cadmium. In the current study, we analyzed olfactory-mediated alarm responses, epithelial injury and recovery, and a suite of olfactory molecular biomarkers encoding genes critical in maintaining olfactory function in juvenile coho salmon receiving acute exposures to cadmium (Cd). The molecular biomarkers analyzed included four G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) representing the two major classes of odorant receptors (salmon olfactory receptor sorb and vomeronasal receptors svra, svrb, and gpr27), as well as markers of neurite outgrowth (nrn1) and antioxidant responses to metals, including heme oxygenase 1 (hmox1), and peroxiredoxin 1 (prdx1). Coho received acute (8–168 h) exposures to 3.7 ppb and 347 ppb Cd, and a subset of fish was analyzed following a 16-day depuration. Coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd over 48 h exhibited a reduction in freeze responses, and an extensive loss of olfaction accompanied by histological injury to the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory injury in coho exposed to 347 ppb Cd was accompanied at the gene level by significant decreases in expression of the olfactory GPCRs and increased expression of hmox1. Persistent behavioral deficits, histological injury and altered expression of a subset of olfactory biomarkers were still evident in Cd-exposed coho following a 16-day depuration in clean water. Exposure to 3.7 ppb Cd also resulted in reduced freeze responses and histological changes

  4. Effects of Subthalamic Stimulation on Olfactory Function in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Carvalho, Margarete de Jesus; Lasteros, Fernando Jeyson Lopez; Dias, Alice Estevo; Dos Santos Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela; Paiva, Anderson Rodrigues Brandão; Coutinho, Artur Martins; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Teixeira, Manoel J; Barbosa, Egberto Reis; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni

    2018-06-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is a nonmotor symptom of Parkinson disease (PD) associated with reduction in quality of life. There is no evidence on whether improvements in olfaction after subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) may be directly attributable to motor improvement or whether this reflects a direct effect of DBS on olfactory brain areas. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of DBS on olfactory function in PD, as well as to explore the correlation between these changes and changes in motor symptoms and brain metabolism. Thirty-two patients with PD were screened for STN-DBS. Patients were evaluated before and 1 year after surgery. Primary outcome was the change in olfactory function (Sniffin' Sticks odor-identification test [SST]) after surgery among the patients with hyposmia at baseline. Secondary outcomes included the relationship between motor outcomes and olfactory changes and [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography analysis between subgroups with improvement versus no improvement of smell. STN-DBS improved SST after surgery (preoperative SST, median 7.3 ± 2.4 vs. postoperative SST, median 8.2 ± 2.1; P = 0.045) in a subset of patients among 29 of 32 patients who presented with hyposmia at baseline. The improvement in SST was correlated with DBS response (r = 0.424; P = 0.035). There was also an increase in glucose metabolism in the midbrain, cerebellum, and right frontal lobe in patients with SST improvement (P < 0.001). STN-DBS improves odor identification in a subset of patients with PD. Motor improvement together with changes in the brain metabolism may be linked to this improvement. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lingering representations of stimuli influence recall organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie C.Y.; Applegate, Marissa C.; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M.; Norman, Kenneth A.

    2017-01-01

    Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli. As predicted, memories encoded with similar lingering thoughts about the category of preceding stimuli were more likely to be recalled together. Our results demonstrate that the “fading embers” of previous stimuli help to organize recall, confirming a key prediction of computational models of episodic memory. PMID:28132858

  6. Lingering representations of stimuli influence recall organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Stephanie C Y; Applegate, Marissa C; Morton, Neal W; Polyn, Sean M; Norman, Kenneth A

    2017-03-01

    Several prominent theories posit that information about recent experiences lingers in the brain and organizes memories for current experiences, by forming a temporal context that is linked to those memories at encoding. According to these theories, if the thoughts preceding an experience X resemble the thoughts preceding an experience Y, then X and Y should show an elevated probability of being recalled together. We tested this prediction by using multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI data to measure neural evidence for lingering processing of preceding stimuli. As predicted, memories encoded with similar lingering thoughts about the category of preceding stimuli were more likely to be recalled together. Our results demonstrate that the "fading embers" of previous stimuli help to organize recall, confirming a key prediction of computational models of episodic memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. VEP Responses to Op-Art Stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise O'Hare

    Full Text Available Several types of striped patterns have been reported to cause adverse sensations described as visual discomfort. Previous research using op-art-based stimuli has demonstrated that spurious eye movement signals can cause the experience of illusory motion, or shimmering effects, which might be perceived as uncomfortable. Whilst the shimmering effects are one cause of discomfort, another possible contributor to discomfort is excessive neural responses: As striped patterns do not have the statistical redundancy typical of natural images, they are perhaps unable to be encoded efficiently. If this is the case, then this should be seen in the amplitude of the EEG response. This study found that stimuli that were judged to be most comfortable were also those with the lowest EEG amplitude. This provides some support for the idea that excessive neural responses might also contribute to discomfort judgements in normal populations, in stimuli controlled for perceived contrast.

  8. VEP Responses to Op-Art Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Louise; Clarke, Alasdair D F; Pollux, Petra M J

    2015-01-01

    Several types of striped patterns have been reported to cause adverse sensations described as visual discomfort. Previous research using op-art-based stimuli has demonstrated that spurious eye movement signals can cause the experience of illusory motion, or shimmering effects, which might be perceived as uncomfortable. Whilst the shimmering effects are one cause of discomfort, another possible contributor to discomfort is excessive neural responses: As striped patterns do not have the statistical redundancy typical of natural images, they are perhaps unable to be encoded efficiently. If this is the case, then this should be seen in the amplitude of the EEG response. This study found that stimuli that were judged to be most comfortable were also those with the lowest EEG amplitude. This provides some support for the idea that excessive neural responses might also contribute to discomfort judgements in normal populations, in stimuli controlled for perceived contrast.

  9. Olfactory bulb glomerular NMDA receptors mediate olfactory nerve potentiation and odor preference learning in the neonate rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Lethbridge

    Full Text Available Rat pup odor preference learning follows pairing of bulbar beta-adrenoceptor activation with olfactory input. We hypothesize that NMDA receptor (NMDAR-mediated olfactory input to mitral cells is enhanced during training, such that increased calcium facilitates and shapes the critical cAMP pattern. Here, we demonstrate, in vitro, that olfactory nerve stimulation, at sniffing frequencies, paired with beta-adrenoceptor activation, potentiates olfactory nerve-evoked mitral cell firing. This potentiation is blocked by a NMDAR antagonist and by increased inhibition. Glomerular disinhibition also induces NMDAR-sensitive potentiation. In vivo, in parallel, behavioral learning is prevented by glomerular infusion of an NMDAR antagonist or a GABA(A receptor agonist. A glomerular GABA(A receptor antagonist paired with odor can induce NMDAR-dependent learning. The NMDA GluN1 subunit is phosphorylated in odor-specific glomeruli within 5 min of training suggesting early activation, and enhanced calcium entry, during acquisition. The GluN1 subunit is down-regulated 3 h after learning; and at 24 h post-training the GluN2B subunit is down-regulated. These events may assist memory stability. Ex vivo experiments using bulbs from trained rat pups reveal an increase in the AMPA/NMDA EPSC ratio post-training, consistent with an increase in AMPA receptor insertion and/or the decrease in NMDAR subunits. These results support a model of a cAMP/NMDA interaction in generating rat pup odor preference learning.

  10. Blocking muscarinic receptors in the olfactory bulb impairs performance on an olfactory short-term memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devore, Sasha; Manella, Laura C; Linster, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Cholinergic inputs to cortical processing networks have long been associated with attentional and top-down processing. Experimental and theoretical studies suggest that cholinergic inputs to the main olfactory bulb (OB) can modulate both neural and behavioral odor discrimination. Previous experiments from our laboratory and others demonstrate that blockade of nicotinic receptors directly impairs olfactory discrimination, whereas blockade of muscarinic receptors only measurably impairs olfactory perception when task demands are made more challenging, such as when very low-concentration odors are used or rats are required to maintain sensory memory over long durations. To further investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in the OB, we developed an olfactory delayed match-to-sample task using a digging-based behavioral paradigm. We find that rats are able to maintain robust short-term odor memory for 10-100 s. To investigate the role of muscarinic signaling in task performance, we bilaterally infused scopolamine into the OB. We find that high dosages of scopolamine (38 mM) impair performance on the task across all delays tested, including the baseline condition with no delay, whereas lower dosages (7.6 mM and 22.8 mM) had no measureable effects. These results indicate that general execution of the match-to-sample task, even with no delay, is at least partially dependent on muscarinic signaling in the OB.

  11. Regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity of olfactory inputs in mitral cells in the rat olfactory bulb.

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    Teng-Fei Ma

    Full Text Available The recent history of activity input onto granule cells (GCs in the main olfactory bulb can affect the strength of lateral inhibition, which functions to generate contrast enhancement. However, at the plasticity level, it is unknown whether and how the prior modification of lateral inhibition modulates the subsequent induction of long-lasting changes of the excitatory olfactory nerve (ON inputs to mitral cells (MCs. Here we found that the repetitive stimulation of two distinct excitatory inputs to the GCs induced a persistent modification of lateral inhibition in MCs in opposing directions. This bidirectional modification of inhibitory inputs differentially regulated the subsequent synaptic plasticity of the excitatory ON inputs to the MCs, which was induced by the repetitive pairing of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs with postsynaptic bursts. The regulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP was achieved by the regulation of the inter-spike-interval (ISI of the postsynaptic bursts. This novel form of inhibition-dependent regulation of plasticity may contribute to the encoding or processing of olfactory information in the olfactory bulb.

  12. Associations of olfactory bulb and depth of olfactory sulcus with basal ganglia and hippocampus in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanik, Nermin; Serin, Halil Ibrahim; Celikbilek, Asuman; Inan, Levent Ertugrul; Gundogdu, Fatma

    2016-05-04

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by hyposmia in the preclinical stages. We investigated the relationships of olfactory bulb (OB) volume and olfactory sulcus (OS) depth with basal ganglia and hippocampal volumes. The study included 25 patients with PD and 40 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Idiopathic PD was diagnosed according to published diagnostic criteria. The Hoehn and Yahr (HY) scale, the motor subscale of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS III), and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) were administered to participants. Volumetric measurements of olfactory structures, the basal ganglia, and hippocampus were performed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). OB volume and OS depth were significantly reduced in PD patients compared to healthy control subjects (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). The OB and left putamen volumes were significantly correlated (p=0.048), and the depth of the right OS was significantly correlated with right hippocampal volume (p=0.018). We found significant correlations between OB and putamen volumes and OS depth and hippocampal volume. Our study is the first to demonstrate associations of olfactory structures with the putamen and hippocampus using MRI volumetric measurements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Role of Adult-Born Neurons in the Constantly Changing Olfactory Bulb Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Malvaut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The adult mammalian brain is remarkably plastic and constantly undergoes structurofunctional modifications in response to environmental stimuli. In many regions plasticity is manifested by modifications in the efficacy of existing synaptic connections or synapse formation and elimination. In a few regions, however, plasticity is brought by the addition of new neurons that integrate into established neuronal networks. This type of neuronal plasticity is particularly prominent in the olfactory bulb (OB where thousands of neuronal progenitors are produced on a daily basis in the subventricular zone (SVZ and migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS towards the OB. In the OB, these neuronal precursors differentiate into local interneurons, mature, and functionally integrate into the bulbar network by establishing output synapses with principal neurons. Despite continuous progress, it is still not well understood how normal functioning of the OB is preserved in the constantly remodelling bulbar network and what role adult-born neurons play in odor behaviour. In this review we will discuss different levels of morphofunctional plasticity effected by adult-born neurons and their functional role in the adult OB and also highlight the possibility that different subpopulations of adult-born cells may fulfill distinct functions in the OB neuronal network and odor behaviour.

  14. The Role of Adult-Born Neurons in the Constantly Changing Olfactory Bulb Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvaut, Sarah; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2016-01-01

    The adult mammalian brain is remarkably plastic and constantly undergoes structurofunctional modifications in response to environmental stimuli. In many regions plasticity is manifested by modifications in the efficacy of existing synaptic connections or synapse formation and elimination. In a few regions, however, plasticity is brought by the addition of new neurons that integrate into established neuronal networks. This type of neuronal plasticity is particularly prominent in the olfactory bulb (OB) where thousands of neuronal progenitors are produced on a daily basis in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and migrate along the rostral migratory stream (RMS) towards the OB. In the OB, these neuronal precursors differentiate into local interneurons, mature, and functionally integrate into the bulbar network by establishing output synapses with principal neurons. Despite continuous progress, it is still not well understood how normal functioning of the OB is preserved in the constantly remodelling bulbar network and what role adult-born neurons play in odor behaviour. In this review we will discuss different levels of morphofunctional plasticity effected by adult-born neurons and their functional role in the adult OB and also highlight the possibility that different subpopulations of adult-born cells may fulfill distinct functions in the OB neuronal network and odor behaviour. PMID:26839709

  15. Odors pulsed at wing beat frequencies are tracked by primary olfactory networks and enhance odor detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreejoy Tripathy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Each down stroke of an insect’s wings accelerates axial airflow over the antennae. Modeling studies suggest that this can greatly enhance penetration of air and air-born odorants through the antennal sensilla thereby periodically increasing odorant-receptor interactions. Do these periodic changes result in entrainment of neural responses in the antenna and antennal lobe (AL? Does this entrainment affect olfactory acuity? To address these questions, we monitored antennal and AL responses in the moth Manduca sexta while odorants were pulsed at frequencies from 10-72 Hz, encompassing the natural wingbeat frequency. Power spectral density (PSD analysis was used to identify entrainment of neural activity. Statistical analysis of PSDs indicates that the antennal nerve tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz. Furthermore, at least 50% of AL local field potentials (LFPs and between 7-25% of unitary spiking responses also tracked pulsed odor up to 30 Hz in a frequency-locked manner. Application of bicuculline (200µM abolished pulse tracking in both LFP and unitary responses suggesting that GABAA receptor activation is necessary for pulse tracking within the AL. Finally, psychophysical measures of odor detection establish that detection thresholds are lowered when odor is pulsed at 20 Hz. These results suggest that AL networks can respond to the oscillatory dynamics of stimuli such as those imposed by the wing beat in a manner analogous to mammalian sniffing.

  16. Ammonium-acetate is sensed by gustatory and olfactory neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Frøkjaer-Jensen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans chemosensation has been successfully studied using behavioral assays that treat detection of volatile and water soluble chemicals as separate senses, analogous to smell and taste. However, considerable ambiguity has been associated with the attractive properties of the compound ammonium-acetate (NH(4Ac. NH(4Ac has been used in behavioral assays both as a chemosensory neutral compound and as an attractant.Here we show that over a range of concentrations NH(4Ac can be detected both as a water soluble attractant and as an odorant, and that ammonia and acetic acid individually act as olfactory attractants. We use genetic analysis to show that NaCl and NH(4Ac sensation are mediated by separate pathways and that ammonium sensation depends on the cyclic nucleotide gated ion channel TAX-2/TAX-4, but acetate sensation does not. Furthermore we show that sodium-acetate (NaAc and ammonium-chloride (NH(4Cl are not detected as Na(+ and Cl(- specific stimuli, respectively.These findings clarify the behavioral response of C. elegans to NH(4Ac. The results should have an impact on the design and interpretation of chemosensory experiments studying detection and adaptation to soluble compounds in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

  17. Stimuli responsive nanomaterials for controlled release applications

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Song

    2012-01-01

    The controlled release of therapeutics has been one of the major challenges for scientists and engineers during the past three decades. Coupled with excellent biocompatibility profiles, various nanomaterials have showed great promise for biomedical applications. Stimuli-responsive nanomaterials guarantee the controlled release of cargo to a given location, at a specific time, and with an accurate amount. In this review, we have combined the major stimuli that are currently used to achieve the ultimate goal of controlled and targeted release by "smart" nanomaterials. The most heavily explored strategies include (1) pH, (2) enzymes, (3) redox, (4) magnetic, and (5) light-triggered release.

  18. Rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in an alpha-synuclein mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine H Petit

    Full Text Available Impaired olfaction is an early pre-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease. The neuropathology underlying olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson's disease is unknown, however α-synuclein accumulation/aggregation and altered neurogenesis might play a role. We characterized olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease expressing human wild-type α-synuclein under the control of the mouse α-synuclein promoter. Preliminary clinical observations suggest that rasagiline, a monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor, improves olfaction in Parkinson's disease. We therefore examined whether rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in this Parkinson's disease model and investigated the role of olfactory bulb neurogenesis. α-Synuclein mice were progressively impaired in their ability to detect odors, to discriminate between odors, and exhibited alterations in short-term olfactory memory. Rasagiline treatment rescued odor detection and odor discrimination abilities. However, rasagiline did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Finally, olfactory changes were not coupled to alterations in olfactory bulb neurogenesis. We conclude that rasagiline reverses select olfactory deficits in a transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease. The findings correlate with preliminary clinical observations suggesting that rasagiline ameliorates olfactory deficits in Parkinson's disease.

  19. Uptake and transport of manganese in primary and secondary olfactory neurones in pike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjälve, H; Mejàre, C; Borg-Neczak, K

    1995-07-01

    gamma-spectrometry and autoradiography were used to examine the axoplasmic flow of manganese in the olfactory nerves and to study the uptake of the metal in the brain after application of 54Mn2+ in the olfactory chambers of pikes. The results show that the 54Mn2+ is taken up in the olfactory receptor cells and is transported at a constant rate along the primary olfactory neurones into the brain. The maximal velocity for the transported 54Mn2+ was 2.90 +/- 0.21 mm/hr (mean +/- S.E.) at 10 degrees, which was the temperature used in the experiments. The 54Mn2+ accumulated in the entire olfactory bulbs, although most marked in central and caudal parts. The metal was also seen to migrate into large areas of the telencephalon, apparently mainly via the secondary olfactory axons present in the medial olfactory tract. A transfer along fibres of the medial olfactory tract probably also explains the labelling which was seen in the diencephalon down to the hypothalamus. The results also showed that there is a pathway connecting the two olfactory bulbs of the pike and that this can carry the metal. Our data further showed a marked accumulation of 54Mn2+ in the meningeal epithelium and in the contents of the meningeal sacs surrounding the olfactory bulbs. It appears from our study that manganese has the ability to pass the synaptic junctions between the primary and the secondary olfactory neurones in the olfactory bulbs and to migrate along secondary olfactory pathways into the telencephalon and the diencephalon.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Localization of α1-2 Fucose Glycan in the Mouse Olfactory Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Daisuke; Kamikawa, Akihiro; Sasaki, Motoki; Kitamura, Nobuo

    2017-01-01

    Glycoconjugates in the olfactory system play critical roles in neuronal formation, and α1-2 fucose (α1-2Fuc) glycan mediates neurite outgrowth and synaptic plasticity. Histochemical findings of α1-2Fuc glycan in the mouse olfactory system detected using Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I) vary. This study histochemically assessed the main olfactory and vomeronasal pathways in male and female ICR and C57BL/6J mice aged 3-4 months using UEA-I. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I reacted with most receptor cells arranged mainly at the basal region of the olfactory epithelium. The olfactory nerve layer and glomerular layer of the main olfactory bulb were speckled with positive UEA-I staining, and positive fibers were scattered from the glomerular to the internal plexiform layer. The lateral olfactory tract and rostral migratory stream were also positive for UEA-I. We identified superficial short-axon cells, interneurons of the external plexiform layer, external, middle and internal tufted cells, mitral cells and granule cells as the origins of the UEA-I-positive fibers in the main olfactory bulb. The anterior olfactory nucleus, anterior piriform cortex and olfactory tubercle were negative for UEA-I. Most receptor cells in the vomeronasal epithelium and most glomeruli of the accessory olfactory bulb were positive for UEA-I. Our findings indicated that α1-2Fuc glycan is located within the primary and secondary, but not the ternary, pathways of the main olfactory system, in local circuits of the main olfactory bulb and within the primary, but not secondary, pathway of the vomeronasal system. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Fos Protein Expression in Olfactory-Related Brain Areas after Learning and after Reactivation of a Slowly Acquired Olfactory Discrimination Task in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roullet, Florence; Lienard, Fabienne; Datiche, Frederique; Cattarelli, Martine

    2005-01-01

    Fos protein immunodetection was used to investigate the neuronal activation elicited in some olfactory-related areas after either learning of an olfactory discrimination task or its reactivation 10 d later. Trained rats (T) progressively acquired the association between one odor of a pair and water-reward in a four-arm maze. Two groups of…

  2. Transgenic expression of B-50/GAP-43 in mature olfactory neurons triggers downregulation of native B-50/GAP-43 expression in immature olfactory neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtmaat, Anthony J D G; Huizinga, C T; Margolis, F L; Gispen, Willem Hendrik; Verhaagen, J

    1999-01-01

    The adult mammalian olfactory neuroepithelium is an unusual neural tissue, since it maintains its capacity to form new neurons throughout life. Newly formed neurons differentiate in the basal layers of the olfactory neuroepithelium and express B-50/GAP-43, a protein implicated in neurite outgrowth.

  3. Stimuli-responsive liquid crystalline materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debije, M.G.; Schenning, A.P.H.J.; Hashmi, Saleem

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive materials which respond to triggers from the environment by changing their properties are one of the focal points in materials science. For precise functional properties, well-defined hierarchically ordered supramolecular materials are crucial. The self-assembly of liquid crystals

  4. Correlation of olfactory dysfunction of different etiologies in MRI and comparison with subjective and objective olfactometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektas, Oender; Fleiner, Franca; Sedlmaier, Benedikt; Bauknecht, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Background: The clinical diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction of different etiologies has been standardized by the German Working Group of Olfactology and Gustology, but there is no agreement about the most suitable imaging modality for diagnosing this disorder. Material and methods: A total of 24 patients (13 women, 11 men; mean age 52 years) with different types of olfactory dysfunction (anosmia, hyposmia) were examined by objective and subjective olfactometry and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the olfactory bulb. Results: There was a positive correlation between objective olfactometry and volumetry of the olfactory bulb but no correlation between subjective olfactometry and MRI. Conclusion: MRI allows an evaluation of the olfactory bulb and appears to be superior to other modalities such as computed tomography (CT). Objective olfactometry remains the gold standard for reliable diagnosis of olfactory dysfunction.

  5. Gross morphology and histology of the olfactory organ of the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrando, S.; Gallus, L.; Ghigliotti, L.

    2016-01-01

    The Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is the largest predatory fish in Arctic waters. Knowledge of the fundamental biology and ecological role of the Greenland shark is limited, and the sensory biology of the Greenland shark has been poorly studied. Given the potential relevant contribution...... of chemoreception to the sensory capability of the Greenland shark to forage and navigate in low-light environments, we examined the architecture of the peripheral olfactory organ (the olfactory rosette) through morphological, histological and immunohistochemical assays. We found that each olfactory rosette...... neurons, presence of unusually large cells along the olfactory fiber bundles) deserve further investigation. Overall, the structure of the olfactory rosette suggests a well-developed olfactory capability for the Greenland shark coherent with a bentho-pelagic lifestyle....

  6. Olfactory neural tumours - the role of external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slevin, N.J.; Irwin, C.J.R.; Banerjee, S.S.; Path, F.R.C.; Gupta, N.K.; Farrington, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon tumour arising in the nasal cavity or paranasal sinuses. We report the management of nine cases treated with external beam radiotherapy subsequent to surgery, either attempted definitive removal or biopsy only. Recent refinements in pathological evaluation of these tumours are discussed. Seven cases were deemed classical olfactory neuroblastoma whilst two were classified as neuroendocrine carcinoma. The clinical features, radiotherapy technique and variable natural history are presented. Seven of eight patients treated radically were controlled locally, with a minimum follow-up of two years. Three patients developed cervical lymph node disease and three patients died of systemic metastatic disease. Suggestions are made as to which patients should have en-bloc resection rather than definitive radiotherapy. (author)

  7. Insect olfactory coding and memory at multiple timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin; Stopfer, Mark

    2011-10-01

    Insects can learn, allowing them great flexibility for locating seasonal food sources and avoiding wily predators. Because insects are relatively simple and accessible to manipulation, they provide good experimental preparations for exploring mechanisms underlying sensory coding and memory. Here we review how the intertwining of memory with computation enables the coding, decoding, and storage of sensory experience at various stages of the insect olfactory system. Individual parts of this system are capable of multiplexing memories at different timescales, and conversely, memory on a given timescale can be distributed across different parts of the circuit. Our sampling of the olfactory system emphasizes the diversity of memories, and the importance of understanding these memories in the context of computations performed by different parts of a sensory system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Interference with olfactory memory by visual and verbal tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, J M; Cook, N M; Leslie, J C

    1995-06-01

    It has been claimed that olfactory memory is distinct from memory in other modalities. This study investigated the effectiveness of visual and verbal tasks in interfering with olfactory memory and included methodological changes from other recent studies. Subjects were allocated to one of four experimental conditions involving interference tasks [no interference task; visual task; verbal task; visual-plus-verbal task] and presented 15 target odours. Either recognition of the odours or free recall of the odour names was tested on one occasion, either within 15 minutes of presentation or one week later. Recognition and recall performance both showed effects of interference of visual and verbal tasks but there was no effect for time of testing. While the results may be accommodated within a dual coding framework, further work is indicated to resolve theoretical issues relating to task complexity.

  9. Just follow your nose: homing by olfactory cues in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Kathrin

    2012-04-01

    How is an ant-equipped with a brain that barely exceeds the size of a pinhead-capable of achieving navigational marvels? Even though evidences suggest that navigation is a multimodal process, ants heavily depend on olfactory cues-of pheromonal and non-pheromonal nature-for foraging and orientation. Recent studies have directed their attention to the efficiency of pheromone trail networks. Advances in neurophysiological techniques make it possible to investigate trail pheromone processing in the ant's brain. In addition to relying on pheromone odours, ants also make use of volatiles emanating from the nest surroundings. Deposited in the vicinity of the nest, these home-range markings help the ants to home after a foraging run. Furthermore, olfactory landmarks associated with the nest enhance ants' homing abilities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Superior Orthonasal but Not Retronasal Olfactory Skills in Congenital Blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Ismaili, Abd Rahman Alaoui; Ptito, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    olfactory but reduced taste perception. In this study we tested the hypothesis that congenitally blind subjects have enhanced orthonasal but not retronasal olfactory skills. Twelve congenitally blind and 14 sighted control subjects, matched in age, gender and body mass index, were asked to identify odours...... using grocery-available food powders. Results showed that blind subjects were significantly faster and tended to be better at identifying odours presented orthonasally. This was not the case when odorants were presented retronasally. We also found a significant group x route interaction, showing...... that although both groups performed better for retronasally compared to orthonasally presented odours, this gain was less pronounced for blind subjects. Finally, our data revealed that blind subjects were more familiar with the orthonasal odorants and used the retronasal odorants less often for cooking than...

  11. Organization of the olfactory system of nymphalidae butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mikael A; Schäpers, Alexander; Nässel, Dick R; Janz, Niklas

    2013-05-01

    Olfaction is in many species the most important sense, essential for food search, mate finding, and predator avoidance. Butterflies have been considered a microsmatic group of insects that mainly rely on vision due to their diurnal lifestyle. However, an emerging number of studies indicate that butterflies indeed use the sense of smell for locating food and oviposition sites. To unravel the neural substrates for olfaction, we performed an anatomical study of 2 related butterfly species that differ in food and host plant preference. We found many of the anatomical structures and pathways, as well as distribution of neuroactive substances, to resemble that of their nocturnal relatives among the Lepidoptera. The 2 species differed in the number of one type of olfactory sensilla, thus indicating a difference in sensitivity to certain compounds. Otherwise no differences could be observed. Our findings suggest that the olfactory system in Lepidoptera is well conserved despite the long evolutionary time since butterflies and moths diverged from a common ancestor.

  12. [A new case of "olfactory schwannoma"; presentation and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Soto, L; Alfaro-Baca, R; Torrecilla-Sardón, M V; Fernández-Vallejo, B; Ferreira-Muñóz, R; De Diego, T

    2009-06-01

    We report the case of a 54-year-old man who presented at the Emergency Department with intense headache of 6-days duration and sporadic nominal dysphasia. He did not present anosmia and the rest of the examination was normal. The emergency CT and the posterior cerebral MR showed a great subfrontal extra-axial mass of 7 x 6 x 5 cm, over the right side of the cribiform plate, hetereogeneously enhancing after gadolinium administration. Preoperative diagnosis was olfactory groove meningioma. After total removal by bifrontal craniotomy the histopathological diagnosis was schwannoma of the conventional type. Owing to the unusual frequency of this kind of tumors (26 to the date), we review the literature, the possible radiological differences with olfactory groove meningiomas and the different theories about their origin.

  13. Olfactory memory capacity of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Yukihisa; Mizunami, Makoto

    2006-12-22

    Olfactory learning in insects is a useful model for studying neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory, but memory storage capacity for olfactory learning in insects has not been studied. We investigate whether crickets are capable of simultaneously memorizing seven odour pairs. Fourteen odours were grouped into seven A/B pairs, and crickets in one group were trained to associate A odours with water reward and B odours with saline punishment for all the seven pairs. Crickets in another group were trained with the opposite stimulus arrangement. Crickets in all the groups exhibited significantly greater preference for the odours associated with water reward for all the seven odour pairs. We conclude that crickets are capable of memorizing seven odour pairs at the same time.

  14. Functional evidence of multidrug resistance transporters (MDR in rodent olfactory epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrien Molinas

    Full Text Available P-glycoprotein (Pgp and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1 are membrane transporter proteins which function as efflux pumps at cell membranes and are considered to exert a protective function against the entry of xenobiotics. While evidence for Pgp and MRP transporter activity is reported for olfactory tissue, their possible interaction and participation in the olfactory response has not been investigated.Functional activity of putative MDR transporters was assessed by means of the fluorometric calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM accumulation assay on acute rat and mouse olfactory tissue slices. Calcein-AM uptake was measured as fluorescence intensity changes in the presence of Pgp or MRP specific inhibitors. Epifluorescence microscopy measured time course analysis in the olfactory epithelium revealed significant inhibitor-dependent calcein uptake in the presence of each of the selected inhibitors. Furthermore, intracellular calcein accumulation in olfactory receptor neurons was also significantly increased in the presence of either one of the Pgp or MRP inhibitors. The presence of Pgp or MRP1 encoding genes in the olfactory mucosa of rat and mouse was confirmed by RT-PCR with appropriate pairs of species-specific primers. Both transporters were expressed in both newborn and adult olfactory mucosa of both species. To assess a possible involvement of MDR transporters in the olfactory response, we examined the electrophysiological response to odorants in the presence of the selected MDR inhibitors by recording electroolfactograms (EOG. In both animal species, MRPs inhibitors induced a marked reduction of the EOG magnitude, while Pgp inhibitors had only a minor or no measurable effect.The findings suggest that both Pgp and MRP transporters are functional in the olfactory mucosa and in olfactory receptor neurons. Pgp and MRPs may be cellular constituents of olfactory receptor neurons and represent potential mechanisms for modulation

  15. Oxytocin administration selectively improves olfactory detection thresholds for lyral in patients with schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Woolley, JD; Lam, O; Chuang, B; Ford, JM; Mathalon, DH; Vinogradov, S

    2015-01-01

    © 2015. Background: Olfaction plays an important role in mammalian social behavior. Olfactory deficits are common in schizophrenia and correlate with negative symptoms and low social drive. Despite their prominence and possible clinical relevance, little is understood about the pathological mechanisms underlying olfactory deficits in schizophrenia and there are currently no effective treatments for these deficits. The prosocial neuropeptide oxytocin may affect the olfactory system when admini...

  16. Mechanisms and potential treatments for declining olfactory function and neurogenesis in the ageing brain

    OpenAIRE

    Broad, K. D.

    2017-01-01

    The role of olfactory function in maintaining quality of life and as a potential surrogate marker of neurogenic activity in the elderly brain is an underappreciated topic. The olfactory system is complex and is unusual in that its function is maintained by neurogenesis at multiple sites throughout the lifetime of an organism, which in humans may be over 80 years in length. Declines in olfactory function are common with advancing age and this is associated with reductions in the qu...

  17. EOL-1, the homolog of the mammalian Dom3Z, regulates olfactory learning in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, J; Calarco, JA; Shen, Y; Zhang, Y

    2014-01-01

    Learning is an essential function of the nervous system. However, our understanding of molecular underpinnings of learning remains incomplete. Here, we characterize a conserved protein EOL-1 that regulates olfactory learning in Caenorhabditis elegans. A recessive allele of eol-1 (enhanced olfactory learning) learns better to adjust its olfactory preference for bacteria foods and eol-1 acts in the URX sensory neurons to regulate learning. The mammalian homolog of EOL-1, Dom3Z, which regulates ...

  18. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Wachowiak, Matt; Shipley, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Hunger state affects both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Deniz; Altun, Huseyin

    2016-07-01

    Chemical senses such as odor, taste and appearance are directly related with appetite. Understanding the relation between appetite and flavor is getting more important due to increasing number of obese patients worldwide. The literature on the studies investigating the change in olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity mostly performed using food-related odors and tastes rather than standardized tests were developed to study olfaction and gustation. Therefore, results are inconsistent and the relationship between olfactory and gustatory sensitivity with respect to the actual state of human satiety is still not completely understood. Here, for the first time in literature, we investigated the change in both olfactory abilities and gustatory sensitivity in hunger and in satiety using 123 subjects (37 men, 86 women; mean age 31.4 years, age range 21-41 years). The standardized Sniffin' Sticks Extended Test and Taste Strips were used for olfactory testing and gustatory sensitivity, respectively. TDI score (range 1-48) was calculated as the collective scores of odor threshold (T), odor discrimination (D) and odor identification (I). The evaluation was performed in two successive days where the hunger state of test subjects was confirmed by blood glucose test strips (mean blood glucose level 90.0 ± 5.6 mg/dl in hunger and 131.4 ± 8.1 mg/dl in satiety). The results indicated statistically significant decrease in olfaction in satiety compared to hunger (mean TDI 39.3 ± 1.1 in hunger, 37.4 ± 1.1 in satiety, p hunger (p hunger state.

  20. Olfactory systems and neural circuits that modulate predator odor fear

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Lorey K.

    2014-01-01

    When prey animals detect the odor of a predator a constellation of fear-related autonomic, endocrine, and behavioral responses rapidly occur to facilitate survival. How olfactory sensory systems process predator odor and channel that information to specific brain circuits is a fundamental issue that is not clearly understood. However, research in the last 15 years has begun to identify some of the essential features of the sensory detection systems and brain structures that underlie predator ...

  1. Adult neurogenesis supports short-term olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenkiel, Benjamin R

    2010-06-01

    Adult neurogenesis has captivated neuroscientists for decades, with hopes that understanding the programs underlying this phenomenon may provide unique insight toward avenues for brain repair. Interestingly, however, despite intense molecular and cellular investigation, the evolutionary roles and biological functions for ongoing neurogenesis have remained elusive. Here I review recent work published in the Journal of Neuroscience that reveals a functional role for continued neurogenesis toward forming short-term olfactory memories.

  2. Assessment of Olfactory Function in MAPT-Associated Neurodegenerative Disease Reveals Odor-Identification Irreproducibility as a Non-Disease-Specific, General Characteristic of Olfactory Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Markopoulou

    Full Text Available Olfactory dysfunction is associated with normal aging, multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease and Alzheimer's disease, and other diseases such as diabetes, sleep apnea and the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. The wide spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders associated with olfactory dysfunction suggests different, potentially overlapping, underlying pathophysiologies. Studying olfactory dysfunction in presymptomatic carriers of mutations known to cause familial parkinsonism provides unique opportunities to understand the role of genetic factors, delineate the salient characteristics of the onset of olfactory dysfunction, and understand when it starts relative to motor and cognitive symptoms. We evaluated olfactory dysfunction in 28 carriers of two MAPT mutations (p.N279K, p.P301L, which cause frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism, using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Olfactory dysfunction in carriers does not appear to be allele specific, but is strongly age-dependent and precedes symptomatic onset. Severe olfactory dysfunction, however, is not a fully penetrant trait at the time of symptom onset. Principal component analysis revealed that olfactory dysfunction is not odor-class specific, even though individual odor responses cluster kindred members according to genetic and disease status. Strikingly, carriers with incipient olfactory dysfunction show poor inter-test consistency among the sets of odors identified incorrectly in successive replicate tests, even before severe olfactory dysfunction appears. Furthermore, when 78 individuals without neurodegenerative disease and 14 individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease were evaluated twice at a one-year interval using the Brief Smell Identification Test, the majority also showed inconsistency in the sets of odors they identified incorrectly, independent of age and cognitive status. While these findings may

  3. Assessment of Olfactory Function in MAPT-Associated Neurodegenerative Disease Reveals Odor-Identification Irreproducibility as a Non-Disease-Specific, General Characteristic of Olfactory Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markopoulou, Katerina; Chase, Bruce A; Robowski, Piotr; Strongosky, Audrey; Narożańska, Ewa; Sitek, Emilia J; Berdynski, Mariusz; Barcikowska, Maria; Baker, Matt C; Rademakers, Rosa; Sławek, Jarosław; Klein, Christine; Hückelheim, Katja; Kasten, Meike; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory dysfunction is associated with normal aging, multiple neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease, Lewy body disease and Alzheimer's disease, and other diseases such as diabetes, sleep apnea and the autoimmune disease myasthenia gravis. The wide spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders associated with olfactory dysfunction suggests different, potentially overlapping, underlying pathophysiologies. Studying olfactory dysfunction in presymptomatic carriers of mutations known to cause familial parkinsonism provides unique opportunities to understand the role of genetic factors, delineate the salient characteristics of the onset of olfactory dysfunction, and understand when it starts relative to motor and cognitive symptoms. We evaluated olfactory dysfunction in 28 carriers of two MAPT mutations (p.N279K, p.P301L), which cause frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism, using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test. Olfactory dysfunction in carriers does not appear to be allele specific, but is strongly age-dependent and precedes symptomatic onset. Severe olfactory dysfunction, however, is not a fully penetrant trait at the time of symptom onset. Principal component analysis revealed that olfactory dysfunction is not odor-class specific, even though individual odor responses cluster kindred members according to genetic and disease status. Strikingly, carriers with incipient olfactory dysfunction show poor inter-test consistency among the sets of odors identified incorrectly in successive replicate tests, even before severe olfactory dysfunction appears. Furthermore, when 78 individuals without neurodegenerative disease and 14 individuals with sporadic Parkinson's disease were evaluated twice at a one-year interval using the Brief Smell Identification Test, the majority also showed inconsistency in the sets of odors they identified incorrectly, independent of age and cognitive status. While these findings may reflect the

  4. The effect of desflurane on postoperative olfactory memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, I; Bayır, H; Saglam, I; Sereflican, M; Bilgi, M; Yurttas, V; Demirhan, A; Tekelioglu, U Y; Kocoglu, H

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of desflurane 6%, on olfactory memory. This is a prospective clinical study performed with 40 patients aged 18-60 who had elective surgery and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I-III. The Brief Smell Identification Test (BSIT) was used for evaluating patients' olfactory memories before and after the surgery. Patients received standard general anesthesia protocol and routine monitoring. For induction, 1.5 mg/kg of fentanyl, 2 mg/kg of propofol, and 0.5 mg/kg of rocuronium bromide were administered. Anesthesia was maintained with the inhalational of anesthetic desflurane (6%). The scores are recorded 30 minutes before the surgery and when the Aldrete Recovery Score reached 10 in the postoperative period. Preoperative and postoperative results were compared and p-values 0.05). We have observed for the first time in the literature that general anesthesia using desflurane (6%) did not affect short-term olfactory memory. Further studies will be necessary to confirm our findings with larger sample size.

  5. Predators are attracted to the olfactory signals of prey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelika K Hughes

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Predator attraction to prey social signals can force prey to trade-off the social imperatives to communicate against the profound effect of predation on their future fitness. These tradeoffs underlie theories on the design and evolution of conspecific signalling systems and have received much attention in visual and acoustic signalling modes. Yet while most territorial mammals communicate using olfactory signals and olfactory hunting is widespread in predators, evidence for the attraction of predators to prey olfactory signals under field conditions is lacking.To redress this fundamental issue, we examined the attraction of free-roaming predators to discrete patches of scents collected from groups of two and six adult, male house mice, Mus domesticus, which primarily communicate through olfaction. Olfactorily-hunting predators were rapidly attracted to mouse scent signals, visiting mouse scented locations sooner, and in greater number, than control locations. There were no effects of signal concentration on predator attraction to their prey's signals.This implies that communication will be costly if conspecific receivers and eavesdropping predators are simultaneously attracted to a signal. Significantly, our results also suggest that receivers may be at greater risk of predation when communicating than signallers, as receivers must visit risky patches of scent to perform their half of the communication equation, while signallers need not.

  6. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores.

  7. Immobilization of olfactory receptors onto gold electrodes for electrical biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casuso, Ignacio [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: icasuso@pcb.ub.es; Pla-Roca, Mateu [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, Barcelona (Spain); Gomila, Gabriel [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: ggomila@pcb.ub.es; Samitier, Josep [Departament d' Electronica, Universitat de Barcelona, Laboratori de Nanobioenginyeria-IBEC, Parc Cientific de Barcelona, C/Josep Samitier 1-5, Barcelona (Spain); Minic, Jasmina; Persuy, Marie A.; Salesse, Roland; Pajot-Augy, Edith [INRA, Neurobiologie de l' Olfaction et de la Prise Alimentaire, Equipe Recepteurs et Communication Chimique, Domaine de Vilvert, Jouy en Josas Cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    We investigate the immobilization of native nanovesicles containing functional olfactory receptors onto gold electrodes by means of atomic force microscopy in liquid. We show that nanovesicles can be adsorbed without disrupting them presenting sizes once immobilized ranging from 50 nm to 200 nm in diameter. The size of the nanovesicles shows no dependence on the electrode hydrophobicity being constant in a height/width ratio close to 1:3. Nevertheless, electrode hydrophobicity does affect the surface coverage, the surface coverage is five times higher in hydrophilic electrodes than on hydrophobic ones. Surface coverage is also affected by nanovesicles dimensions in suspension, the size homogenization to around 50 nm yields a further five fold increment in surface coverage achieving a coverage of about 50% close to the hard spheres jamming limit (54.7%). A single layer of nanovesicles is always formed with no particle overlap. Present results provide insights into the immobilization on electrodes of olfactory receptors for further olfactory electrical biosensor development.

  8. Experimental evolution of olfactory memory in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Mery, Frederic; Pont, Juliette; Preat, Thomas; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2007-01-01

    In order to address the nature of genetic variation in learning performance, we investigated the response to classical olfactory conditioning in "high-learning" Drosophila melanogaster lines previously subject to selection for the ability to learn an association between the flavor of an oviposition medium and bitter taste. In a T-maze choice test, the seven high-learning lines were better at avoiding an odor previously associated with aversive mechanical shock than were five unselected "low-learning" lines originating from the same natural population. Thus, the evolved improvement in learning ability of high-learning lines generalized to another aversion learning task involving a different aversive stimulus (shock instead of bitter taste) and a different behavioral context than that used to impose selection. In this olfactory shock task, the high-learning lines showed improvements in the learning rate as well as in two forms of consolidated memory: anesthesia-resistant memory and long-term memory. Thus, genetic variation underlying the experimental evolution of learning performance in the high-learning lines affected several phases of memory formation in the course of olfactory aversive learning. However, the two forms of consolidated memory were negatively correlated among replicate high-learning lines, which is consistent with a recent hypothesis that these two forms of consolidated memory are antagonistic.

  9. Evaluation of olfactory memory after coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Kemalettin; Yurttas, Veysel; Bilgi, Murat; Demırhan, Abdullah; Apuhan, Tayfun; Bugra, Onursal; Daglar, Bahadir

    2014-12-01

    This study determined whether coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery has any effect on olfactory function, employing the Brief Smell Identification Test (B-SIT). All the participants were informed preoperatively about the B-SIT test and the mode of its application. The test was performed by each patient preoperatively (d0) as well as 1 (d1) and 3 (d3) days following the surgery. C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were recorded at the same time as the smell test. This prospective study included 45 patients. The mean age was 67 ± 7.55, and the group was 29% male. The mean durations of cross clamping and cardiopulmonary bypass were 54 ± 32 min and 62.5 ± 37.0 min, respectively. Eleven different odors were tested. Significant differences were observed for several odors: leather between d0 and d3, pine between d0 and d3, onion between d0 and d1, onion between d0 and d3, and soap between d0 and d1. The postoperative CRP levels were significantly higher than the preoperative levels. The correlation analysis determined that the postoperative CRP levels were negatively correlated with the B-SIT score (r = -0.48, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that patients after CABG are prone to develop olfactory dysfunction in the early postoperative period and that olfactory dysfunction is associated with postoperative CRP levels.

  10. Olfactory identification in amnestic and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment and its neuropsychological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalek, Martin; Magerova, Hana; Andel, Ross; Nikolai, Tomas; Kadlecova, Alexandra; Laczo, Jan; Hort, Jakub

    2015-02-15

    Olfactory identification impairment in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients is well documented and considered to be caused by underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology, contrasting with less clear evidence in non-amnestic MCI (naMCI). The aim was to (a) compare the degree of olfactory identification dysfunction in aMCI, naMCI, controls and mild AD dementia and (b) assess the relation between olfactory identification and cognitive performance in aMCI compared to naMCI. 75 patients with aMCI and 32 with naMCI, 26 patients with mild AD and 27 controls underwent the multiple choice olfactory identification Motol Hospital Smell Test with 18 different odors together with a comprehensive neuropsychological examination. Controlling for age and gender, patients with aMCI and naMCI did not differ significantly in olfactory identification and both performed significantly worse than controls (pmemory and visuospatial tests were significantly related to better olfactory identification ability. Conversely, no cognitive measure was significantly related to olfactory performance in naMCI. Olfactory identification is similarly impaired in aMCI and naMCI. Olfactory impairment is proportional to cognitive impairment in aMCI but not in naMCI. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Ancestral amphibian v2rs are expressed in the main olfactory epithelium

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    Syed, Adnan S.; Sansone, Alfredo; Nadler, Walter; Manzini, Ivan; Korsching, Sigrun I.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian olfactory receptor families are segregated into different olfactory organs, with type 2 vomeronasal receptor (v2r) genes expressed in a basal layer of the vomeronasal epithelium. In contrast, teleost fish v2r genes are intermingled with all other olfactory receptor genes in a single sensory surface. We report here that, strikingly different from both lineages, the v2r gene family of the amphibian Xenopus laevis is expressed in the main olfactory as well as the vomeronasal epithelium. Interestingly, late diverging v2r genes are expressed exclusively in the vomeronasal epithelium, whereas “ancestral” v2r genes, including the single member of v2r family C, are restricted to the main olfactory epithelium. Moreover, within the main olfactory epithelium, v2r genes are expressed in a basal zone, partially overlapping, but clearly distinct from an apical zone of olfactory marker protein and odorant receptor-expressing cells. These zones are also apparent in the spatial distribution of odor responses, enabling a tentative assignment of odor responses to olfactory receptor gene families. Responses to alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones show an apical localization, consistent with being mediated by odorant receptors, whereas amino acid responses overlap extensively with the basal v2r-expressing zone. The unique bimodal v2r expression pattern in main and accessory olfactory system of amphibians presents an excellent opportunity to study the transition of v2r gene expression during evolution of higher vertebrates. PMID:23613591

  12. Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization

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    Gianluca Polese

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The cephalopod olfactory organ was described for the first time in 1844 by von Kölliker, who was attracted to the pair of small pits of ciliated cells on each side of the head, below the eyes close to the mantle edge, in both octopuses and squids. Several functional studies have been conducted on decapods but very little is known about octopods. The morphology of the octopus olfactory system has been studied, but only to a limited extent on post-hatching specimens, and the only paper on adult octopus gives a minimal description of the olfactory organ. Here, we describe the detailed morphology of young male and female Octopus vulgaris olfactory epithelium, and using a combination of classical morphology and 3D reconstruction techniques, we propose a new classification for O. vulgaris olfactory sensory neurons. Furthermore, using specific markers such as olfactory marker protein (OMP and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA we have been able to identify and differentially localize both mature olfactory sensory neurons and olfactory sensory neurons involved in epithelium turnover. Taken together, our data suggest that the O. vulgaris olfactory organ is extremely plastic, capable of changing its shape and also proliferating its cells in older specimens.

  13. Olfactory training induces changes in regional functional connectivity in patients with long-term smell loss

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    K. Kollndorfer

    2015-01-01

    The results of this study indicate that an olfactory training program can reorganize functional networks, although, initially, no differences in the spatial distribution of neural activation were observed.

  14. CD36 is involved in oleic acid detection by the murine olfactory system.

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    Sonja eOberland

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory signals influence food intake in a variety of species. To maximize the chances of finding a source of calories, an animal’s preference for fatty foods and triglycerides already becomes apparent during olfactory food search behavior. However, the molecular identity of both receptors and ligands mediating olfactory-dependent fatty acid recognition are, so far, undescribed. We here describe that a subset of olfactory sensory neurons expresses the fatty acid receptor CD36 and demonstrate a receptor-like localization of CD36 in olfactory cilia by STED microscopy. CD36-positive olfactory neurons share olfaction-specific transduction elements and project to numerous glomeruli in the ventral olfactory bulb. In accordance with the described roles of CD36 as fatty acid receptor or co-receptor in other sensory systems, the number of olfactory neurons responding to oleic acid, a major milk component, in Ca2+ imaging experiments is drastically reduced in young CD36 knock-out mice. Strikingly, we also observe marked age-dependent changes in CD36 localization, which is prominently present in the ciliary compartment only during the suckling period. Our results support the involvement of CD36 in fatty acid detection by the mammalian olfactory system.

  15. Increased Regenerative Capacity of the Olfactory Epithelium in Niemann–Pick Disease Type C1

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    Anja Meyer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Niemann–Pick disease type C1 (NPC1 is a fatal neurovisceral lysosomal lipid storage disorder. The mutation of the NPC1 protein affects the homeostasis and transport of cholesterol and glycosphingolipids from late endosomes/lysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum resulting in progressive neurodegeneration. Since olfactory impairment is one of the earliest symptoms in many neurodegenerative disorders, we focused on alterations of the olfactory epithelium in an NPC1 mouse model. Previous findings revealed severe morphological and immunohistochemical alterations in the olfactory system of NPC1−/− mutant mice compared with healthy controls (NPC1+/+. Based on immunohistochemical evaluation of the olfactory epithelium, we analyzed the impact of neurodegeneration in the olfactory epithelium of NPC1−/− mice and observed considerable loss of mature olfactory receptor neurons as well as an increased number of proliferating and apoptotic cells. Additionally, after administration of two different therapy approaches using either a combination of miglustat, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD and allopregnanolone or a monotherapy with HPβCD, we recorded a remarkable reduction of morphological damages in NPC1−/− mice and an up to four-fold increase of proliferating cells within the olfactory epithelium. Numbers of mature olfactory receptor neurons doubled after both therapy approaches. Interestingly, we also observed therapy-induced alterations in treated NPC1+/+ controls. Thus, olfactory testing may provide useful information to monitor pharmacologic treatment approaches in human NPC1.

  16. Olfactory deficits in Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1 disease.

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    Marina Hovakimyan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick type C disease (NPC is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. As only a few studies have been conducted on the impact of NPC on sensory systems, we used a mutant mouse model (NPC1(-/- to examine the effects of this disorder to morphologically distinct regions of the olfactory system, namely the olfactory epithelium (OE and olfactory bulb (OB. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: For structural and functional analysis immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, western blotting, and electrophysiology have been applied. For histochemistry and western blotting, we used antibodies against a series of neuronal and glia marker proteins, as well as macrophage markers. NPC1(-/- animals present myelin-like lysosomal deposits in virtually all types of cells of the peripheral and central olfactory system. Especially supporting cells of the OE and central glia cells are affected, resulting in pronounced astrocytosis and microgliosis in the OB and other olfactory cortices. Up-regulation of Galectin-3, Cathepsin D and GFAP in the cortical layers of the OB underlines the critical role and location of the OB as a possible entrance gate for noxious substances. Unmyelinated olfactory afferents of the lamina propria seem less affected than ensheathing cells. Supporting the structural findings, electro-olfactometry of the olfactory mucosa suggests that NPC1(-/- animals exhibit olfactory and trigeminal deficits. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data demonstrate a pronounced neurodegeneration and glia activation in the olfactory system of NPC1(-/-, which is accompanied by sensory deficits.

  17. Beta and gamma oscillatory activities associated with olfactory memory tasks: different rhythms for different functional networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Claire; Ravel, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory processing in behaving animals, even at early stages, is inextricable from top down influences associated with odor perception. The anatomy of the olfactory network (olfactory bulb, piriform, and entorhinal cortices) and its unique direct access to the limbic system makes it particularly attractive to study how sensory processing could be modulated by learning and memory. Moreover, olfactory structures have been early reported to exhibit oscillatory population activities easy to capture through local field potential recordings. An attractive hypothesis is that neuronal oscillations would serve to "bind" distant structures to reach a unified and coherent perception. In relation to this hypothesis, we will assess the functional relevance of different types of oscillatory activity observed in the olfactory system of behaving animals. This review will focus primarily on two types of oscillatory activities: beta (15-40 Hz) and gamma (60-100 Hz). While gamma oscillations are dominant in the olfactory system in the absence of odorant, both beta and gamma rhythms have been reported to be modulated depending on the nature of the olfactory task. Studies from the authors of the present review and other groups brought evidence for a link between these oscillations and behavioral changes induced by olfactory learning. However, differences in studies led to divergent interpretations concerning the respective role of these oscillations in olfactory processing. Based on a critical reexamination of those data, we propose hypotheses on the functional involvement of beta and gamma oscillations for odor perception and memory.

  18. Beta and gamma oscillatory activities associated with olfactory memory tasks: Different rhythms for different functional networks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire eMartin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory processing in behaving animals, even at early stages, is inextricable from top down influences associated with odor perception. The anatomy of the olfactory network (olfactory bulb, piriform and entorhinal cortices and its unique direct access to the limbic system makes it particularly attractive to study how sensory processing could be modulated by learning and memory. Moreover, olfactory structures have been early reported to exhibit oscillatory population activities easy to capture through local field potential recordings. An attractive hypothesis is that neuronal oscillations would serve to ‘bind’ distant structures to reach a unified and coherent perception. In relation to this hypothesis, we will assess the functional relevance of different types of oscillatory activity observed in the olfactory system of behaving animals. This review will focus primarily on two types of oscillatory activities: beta (15-40 Hz and gamma (60-100 Hz. While gamma oscillations are dominant in the olfactory system in the absence of odorant, both beta and gamma rhythms have been reported to be modulated depending on the nature of the olfactory task. Studies from the authors of the present review and other groups brought evidence for a link between these oscillations and behavioral changes induced by olfactory learning. However, differences in studies led to divergent interpretations concerning the respective role of these oscillations in olfactory processing. Based on a critical reexamination of those data, we propose hypotheses on the functional involvement of beta and gamma oscillations for odor perception and memory.

  19. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  20. Physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanuki, Shigeki; Kim, Yeon-Kyu

    2005-01-01

    The specific physiological responses induced by pleasant stimuli were investigated in this study. Various physiological responses of the brain (encephaloelectrogram; EEG), autonomic nervous system (ANS), immune system and endocrine system were monitored when pleasant stimuli such as odors, emotional pictures and rakugo, a typical Japanese comical story-telling, were presented to subjects. The results revealed that (i) EEG activities of the left frontal brain region were enhanced by a pleasant odor; (ii) emotional pictures related to primitive element such as nudes and erotic couples elevated vasomotor sympathetic nervous activity; and (iii) an increase in secretory immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and a decrease in salivary cortisol (s-cortisol) were induced by rakugo-derived linguistic pleasant emotion. Pleasant emotion is complicated state. However, by considering the evolutionary history of human being, it is possible to assess and evaluate pleasant emotion from certain physiological responses by appropriately summating various physiological parameters.

  1. Preparation of stimuli for timbre perception studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuschagne, Ilse B; Hanekom, Johan J

    2013-09-01

    Stimuli used in timbre perception studies must be controlled carefully in order to yield meaningful results. During psychoacoustic testing of individual timbre properties, (1) it must be ensured that timbre properties do not co-vary, as timbre properties are often not independent from one another, and (2) the potential influence of loudness, pitch, and perceived duration must be eliminated. A mathematical additive synthesis method is proposed which allows complete control over two spectral parameters, the spectral centroid (corresponding to brightness) and irregularity, and two temporal parameters, log rise-time (LRT) and a parameter characterizing the sustain/decay segment, while controlling for covariation in the spectral centroid and irregularity. Thirteen musical instrument sounds were synthesized. Perceptual data from six listeners indicate that variation in the four timbre properties mainly influences loudness and that perceived duration and pitch are not influenced significantly for the stimuli of longer duration (2 s) used here. Trends across instruments were found to be similar.

  2. Multiaccommodative stimuli in VR systems: problems & solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marran, L; Schor, C

    1997-09-01

    Virtual reality environments can introduce multiple and sometimes conflicting accommodative stimuli. For instance, with the high-powered lenses commonly used in head-mounted displays, small discrepancies in screen lens placement, caused by manufacturer error or user adjustment focus error, can change the focal depths of the image by a couple of diopters. This can introduce a binocular accommodative stimulus or, if the displacement between the two screens is unequal, an unequal (anisometropic) accommodative stimulus for the two eyes. Systems that allow simultaneous viewing of virtual and real images can also introduce a conflict in accommodative stimuli: When real and virtual images are at different focal planes, both cannot be in focus at the same time, though they may appear to be in similar locations in space. In this paper four unique designs are described that minimize the range of accommodative stimuli and maximize the visual system's ability to cope efficiently with the focus conflicts that remain: pinhole optics, monocular lens addition combined with aniso-accommodation, chromatic bifocal, and bifocal lens system. The advantages and disadvantages of each design are described and recommendation for design choice is given after consideration of the end use of the virtual reality system (e.g., low or high end, entertainment, technical, or medical use). The appropriate design modifications should allow greater user comfort and better performance.

  3. Simulation of Stimuli-Responsive Polymer Networks

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    Thomas Gruhn

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure and material properties of polymer networks can depend sensitively on changes in the environment. There is a great deal of progress in the development of stimuli-responsive hydrogels for applications like sensors, self-repairing materials or actuators. Biocompatible, smart hydrogels can be used for applications, such as controlled drug delivery and release, or for artificial muscles. Numerical studies have been performed on different length scales and levels of details. Macroscopic theories that describe the network systems with the help of continuous fields are suited to study effects like the stimuli-induced deformation of hydrogels on large scales. In this article, we discuss various macroscopic approaches and describe, in more detail, our phase field model, which allows the calculation of the hydrogel dynamics with the help of a free energy that considers physical and chemical impacts. On a mesoscopic level, polymer systems can be modeled with the help of the self-consistent field theory, which includes the interactions, connectivity, and the entropy of the polymer chains, and does not depend on constitutive equations. We present our recent extension of the method that allows the study of the formation of nano domains in reversibly crosslinked block copolymer networks. Molecular simulations of polymer networks allow the investigation of the behavior of specific systems on a microscopic scale. As an example for microscopic modeling of stimuli sensitive polymer networks, we present our Monte Carlo simulations of a filament network system with crosslinkers.

  4. Anagrus breviphragma Soyka Short Distance Search Stimuli

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    Elisabetta Chiappini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anagrus breviphragma Soyka (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae successfully parasitises eggs of Cicadella viridis (L. (Homoptera: Cicadellidae, embedded in vegetal tissues, suggesting the idea of possible chemical and physical cues, revealing the eggs presence. In this research, three treatments were considered in order to establish which types of cue are involved: eggs extracted from leaf, used as a control, eggs extracted from leaf and cleaned in water and ethanol, used to evaluate the presence of chemicals soluble in polar solvents, and eggs extracted from leaf and covered with Parafilm (M, used to avoid physical stimuli due to the bump on the leaf surface. The results show that eggs covered with Parafilm present a higher number of parasitised eggs and a lower probing starting time with respect to eggs washed with polar solvents or eggs extracted and untreated, both when the treatments were singly tested or when offered in sequence, independently of the treatment position. These results suggest that the exploited stimuli are not physical due to the bump but chemicals that can spread in the Parafilm, circulating the signal on the whole surface, and that the stimuli that elicit probing and oviposition are not subjected to learning.

  5. Management of non-traumatic avascular necrosis of the femoral head-a comparative analysis of the outcome of multiple small diameter drilling and core decompression with fibular grafting.

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    Mohanty, S P; Singh, K A; Kundangar, R; Shankar, V

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and radiological outcomes of multiple small diameter drilling and core decompression with fibular strut grafting in the management of non-traumatic avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. Outcomes of patients with AVN treated by multiple small diameter drilling (group 1) were compared retrospectively with patients treated by core decompression and fibular grafting (group 2). Harris hip score (HHS) was used to assess the clinical status pre- and postoperatively. Modified Ficat and Arlet classification was used to assess the radiological stage pre- and postoperatively. Forty-six patients (68 hips) were included in this study. Group 1 consisted of 33 hips, and group 2 consisted of 35 hips. In stages I and IIB, there was no statistically significant difference in the final HHS between the two groups. However, in stages IIA and III, hips in group 2 had a better final HHS (P < 0.05). In terms of radiographic progression, there was no statistical difference between hips in stages I, IIA and stage IIB. However, in stage III, hips belonging to group 2 had better results (P < 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survivorship analysis showed better outcome in group 2 in stage III (P < 0.05). Hips with AVN in the precollapse stage can be salvaged by core decompression with or without fibular grafting. Multiple small diameter drilling is relatively simple and carries less morbidity and hence preferred in stages I and II. However, in stage III disease, core decompression with fibular strut grafting gives better results.

  6. Role of olfactory bulb serotonin in olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (Chiroptera: Pteropodidae).

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    Ganesh, Ambigapathy; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Haupt, Moritz; Marimuthu, Ganapathy; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2010-09-17

    The role of olfactory bulb (OB) serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] in olfactory learning and memory was tested in the greater short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx (family Pteropodidae). Graded concentrations (25, 40, and 60microg) of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) or saline were injected into the OB of bats one day before training to the novel odor. In a behavioral test, 5,7-DHT (60microg) injected bats made significantly fewer feeding attempts and bouts when compared to saline-injected bats during learning and in the memory test. Subsequent biochemical analysis showed that 5-HT level was effectively depleted in the OB of 5,7-DHT injected bats. To test odor-induced 5-HT mediated changes in 5-HT receptors and second messenger cascade in the OB, we examined the expression of 5-HT receptors and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/Erk cascade after training to the novel odor. We found that odor stimulation up-regulated the expression of 5-HT(1A) receptor, Erk1 and Creb1 mRNA, and phosphorylation of ERK1 and CREB1. Odor stimulation failed to induce expression in 5-HT-depleted bats, which is similar to control bats and significantly low compared to saline-treated bats. Together these data revealed that the level of 5-HT in the OB may regulate olfactory learning and memory in C. sphinx through Erk and CREB.

  7. Chronically reinforced, operant olfactory conditioning increases the number of newborn GABAergic olfactory periglomerular neurons in the adult rat.

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    Tapia-Rodríguez, Miguel; Esquivelzeta-Rabell, José F; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel

    2012-12-01

    The mammalian brain preserves the ability to replace olfactory periglomerular cells (PGC) throughout life. Even though we have detailed a great deal the mechanisms underlying stem and amplifying cells maintenance and proliferation, as well as those modulating migration and differentiation, our knowledge on PGC phenotypic plasticity is at best fragmented and controversial. Here we explored whether chronically reinforced olfactory conditioning influences the phenotype of newborn PGC. Accordingly, olfactory conditioned rats showed increased numbers of GAD 65/67 positive PGC. Because such phenotypic change was not accompanied neither by increments in the total number of PGC, or periglomerular cell nuclei labeled with bromodeoxyuridine, nor by reductions in the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), calbindin (CB) or calretinin (CR) immunoreactive PGC, we speculate that increments in the number of GABAergic PGC occur at the expense of other PGC phenotypes. In any event, these results support that adult newborn PGC phenotype may be subjected to phenotypic plasticity influenced by sensory stimulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Olfactory bulb and olfactory sulcus depths are associated with disease duration and attack frequency in multiple sclerosis patients.

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    Tanik, Nermin; Serin, Halil Ibrahim; Celikbilek, Asuman; Inan, Levent Ertugrul; Gundogdu, Fatma

    2015-11-15

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease that progresses to axonal loss and demyelinization. Olfactory dysfunction in patients with MS has been reported frequently. We were interested in the associations of olfactory bulb (OB) and olfactory sulcus depth (OSD) with disease duration and attack frequency. We included 25 patients with MS and 30 age- and sex-matched controls in this study. The Expanded Disability Status Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Mini Mental State Examination were applied. OB, OSD, and magnetic resonance imaging plaque numbers were calculated. OB volume and OSD in patients with MS were significantly lower than those in the control group (right and left OB: p<0.001; right OSD: p=0.001; and left OSD: p=0.039). Disease duration was negatively correlated with right and left OB volume (right OB: r=-0.434, p=0.030 and left OB: r=-0.518, p=0.008). Attack frequency was negatively correlated with left OB volume and left OSD (left OB: r=-0.428, p=0.033 and left OSD: r=-0.431, p=0.032). The OB and OSD were atrophied significantly in patients with MS, and this was correlated with disease duration and attack frequency. The left side tended to be dominant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On the nose: Olfactory disturbances in patients with transient epileptic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Sharon A; Butler, Christopher R; Milton, Fraser; Han, Yang; Zeman, Adam Z

    2017-01-01

    While olfactory hallucinations are relatively rare in epilepsy, a high prevalence (up to 42%) has been reported in one form - Transient Epileptic Amnesia (TEA). TEA is characterized by recurring amnestic seizures and is commonly associated with persistent interictal memory deficits. Despite reports of changes in smell, olfactory ability has not been objectively assessed in this group. The aim of this study was to measure olfactory ability in patients with TEA and explore whether olfactory symptoms relate to other clinical variables. Fifty-five participants with TEA were recruited from The Impairment of Memory in Epilepsy project database. The presence of olfactory symptoms was obtained via case notes and clinical interview. Participants completed questionnaires to evaluate their olfaction and memory function subjectively. Olfactory ability was measured using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT). TEA participants' performance was compared to 50 matched healthy control participants. A subset of TEA participants (n=26) also completed a battery of memory tests including standard neuropsychological measures, and assessment of accelerated long-term forgetting and autobiographical memory. Olfactory hallucinations were reported in 55% of patients with TEA. A significant reduction in smell identification (UPSIT) was found between patients with TEA and healthy controls (polfactory hallucinations, were not predictive of olfactory ability. Patients reported ongoing memory difficulties and performed below normative values on objective tests. While no correlation was found between objective measures of memory and olfactory performance, subjective complaints of route finding difficulty was associated with UPSIT score. Impairments in odor identification are common in patients with TEA and exceed changes that occur in normal aging. Olfactory hallucinations occurs in approximately half of patients with TEA, but do not always coincide with reduced sense of

  10. Olfactory habituation in Drosophila-odor encoding and its plasticity in the antennal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twick, Isabell; Lee, John Anthony; Ramaswami, Mani

    2014-01-01

    A ubiquitous feature of an animal's response to an odorant is that it declines when the odorant is frequently or continuously encountered. This decline in olfactory response, termed olfactory habituation, can have temporally or mechanistically different forms. The neural circuitry of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster's olfactory system is well defined in terms of component cells, which are readily accessible to functional studies and genetic manipulation. This makes it a particularly useful preparation for the investigation of olfactory habituation. In addition, the insect olfactory system shares many architectural and functional similarities with mammalian olfactory systems, suggesting that olfactory mechanisms in insects may be broadly relevant. In this chapter, we discuss the likely mechanisms of olfactory habituation in context of the participating cell types, their connectivity, and their roles in sensory processing. We overview the structure and function of key cell types, the mechanisms that stimulate them, and how they transduce and process odor signals. We then consider how each stage of olfactory processing could potentially contribute to behavioral habituation. After this, we overview a variety of recent mechanistic studies that point to an important role for potentiation of inhibitory synapses in the primary olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe, in driving the reduced response to familiar odorants. Following the discussion of mechanisms for short- and long-term olfactory habituation, we end by considering how these mechanisms may be regulated by neuromodulators, which likely play key roles in the induction, gating, or suppression of habituated behavior, and speculate on the relevance of these processes for other forms of learning and memory. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reorganization of neuronal circuits of the central olfactory system during postprandial sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro eYamaguchi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic changes in neuronal circuits often occur in association with specific behavioral states. In this review, we focus on an emerging view that neuronal circuits in the olfactory system are reorganized along the wake-sleep cycle. Olfaction is crucial to sustaining the animals’ life, and odor-guided behaviors have to be newly acquired or updated to successfully cope with a changing odor world. It is therefore likely that neuronal circuits in the olfactory system are highly plastic and undergo repeated reorganization in daily life. A remarkably plastic feature of the olfactory system is that newly generated neurons are continually integrated into neuronal circuits of the olfactory bulb (OB throughout life. New neurons in the OB undergo an extensive selection process, during which many are eliminated by apoptosis for the fine tuning of neuronal circuits. The life and death decision of new neurons occurs extensively during a short time window of sleep after food consumption (postprandial sleep, a typical daily olfactory behavior. We review recent studies that explain how olfactory information is transferred between the OB and the olfactory cortex (OC along the course of the wake-sleep cycle. Olfactory sensory input is effectively transferred from the OB to the OC during waking, while synchronized top-down inputs from the OC to the OB are promoted during the slow-wave sleep. We discuss possible neuronal circuit mechanisms for the selection of new neurons in the OB, which involves the encoding of olfactory sensory inputs and memory trace formation during waking and internally generated activities in the OC and OB during subsequent sleep. The plastic changes in the OB and OC are well coordinated along the course of olfactory behavior during wakefulness and postbehavioral rest and sleep. We therefore propose that the olfactory system provides an excellent model in which to understand behavioral state-dependent plastic mechanisms of the neuronal

  12. Environmental CO2 inhibits Caenorhabditis elegans egg-laying by modulating olfactory neurons and evokes widespread changes in neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenk, Lorenz A.; de Bono, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) gradients are ubiquitous and provide animals with information about their environment, such as the potential presence of prey or predators. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans avoids elevated CO2, and previous work identified three neuron pairs called “BAG,” “AFD,” and “ASE” that respond to CO2 stimuli. Using in vivo Ca2+ imaging and behavioral analysis, we show that C. elegans can detect CO2 independently of these sensory pathways. Many of the C. elegans sensory neurons we examined, including the AWC olfactory neurons, the ASJ and ASK gustatory neurons, and the ASH and ADL nociceptors, respond to a rise in CO2 with a rise in Ca2+. In contrast, glial sheath cells harboring the sensory endings of C. elegans’ major chemosensory neurons exhibit strong and sustained decreases in Ca2+ in response to high CO2. Some of these CO2 responses appear to be cell intrinsic. Worms therefore may couple detection of CO2 to that of other cues at the earliest stages of sensory processing. We show that C. elegans persistently suppresses oviposition at high CO2. Hermaphrodite-specific neurons (HSNs), the executive neurons driving egg-laying, are tonically inhibited when CO2 is elevated. CO2 modulates the egg-laying system partly through the AWC olfactory neurons: High CO2 tonically activates AWC by a cGMP-dependent mechanism, and AWC output inhibits the HSNs. Our work shows that CO2 is a more complex sensory cue for C. elegans than previously thought, both in terms of behavior and neural circuitry. PMID:26100886

  13. Effect of Size Change and Brightness Change of Visual Stimuli on Loudness Perception and Pitch Perception of Auditory Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syouya Tanabe

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available People obtain a lot of information from visual and auditory sensation on daily life. Regarding the effect of visual stimuli on perception of auditory stimuli, studies of phonological perception and sound localization have been made in great numbers. This study examined the effect of visual stimuli on perception in loudness and pitch of auditory stimuli. We used the image of figures whose size or brightness was changed as visual stimuli, and the sound of pure tone whose loudness or pitch was changed as auditory stimuli. Those visual and auditory stimuli were combined independently to make four types of audio-visual multisensory stimuli for psychophysical experiments. In the experiments, participants judged change in loudness or pitch of auditory stimuli, while they judged the direction of size change or the kind of a presented figure in visual stimuli. Therefore they cannot neglect visual stimuli while they judged auditory stimuli. As a result, perception in loudness and pitch were promoted significantly around their difference limen, when the image was getting bigger or brighter, compared with the case in which the image had no changes. This indicates that perception in loudness and pitch were affected by change in size and brightness of visual stimuli.

  14. Emotion attribution to basic parametric static and dynamic stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Cohn, J.; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, P.

    2009-01-01

    The following research investigates the effect of basic visual stimuli on the attribution of basic emotions by the viewer. In an empirical study (N = 33) we used two groups of visually minimal expressive stimuli: dynamic and static. The dynamic stimuli consisted of an animated circle moving

  15. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. RESULTS: Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. CONCLUSION: Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  16. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibit odorant-mediated CREB phosphorylation in sustentacular cells of mouse olfactory epithelium

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, Ruth

    2011-08-22

    Abstract Background Extracellular nucleotides have long been known to play neuromodulatory roles and to be involved in intercellular signalling. In the olfactory system, ATP is released by olfactory neurons, and exogenous ATP can evoke an increase in intracellular calcium concentration in sustentacular cells, the nonneuronal supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium. Here we investigate the hypothesis that olfactory neurons communicate with sustentacular cells via extracellular ATP and purinergic receptor activation. Results Here we show that exposure of mice to a mixture of odorants induced a significant increase in the levels of the transcription factor CREB phosphorylated at Ser-133 in the nuclei of both olfactory sensory neurons and sustentacular cells. This activation was dependent on adenylyl cyclase III-mediated olfactory signaling and on activation of P2Y purinergic receptors on sustentacular cells. Purinergic receptor antagonists inhibited odorant-dependent CREB phosphorylation specifically in the nuclei of the sustentacular cells. Conclusion Our results point to a possible role for extracellular nucleotides in mediating intercellular communication between the neurons and sustentacular cells of the olfactory epithelium in response to odorant exposure. Maintenance of extracellular ionic gradients and metabolism of noxious chemicals by sustentacular cells may therefore be regulated in an odorant-dependent manner by olfactory sensory neurons.

  17. A functional study of the rat olfactory bulb through autoradiography with 14C-2-deoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verrier, Marie; Leveteau, Jean; Giachetti, Ismene; MacLeod, Patrick

    1978-01-01

    The autoradiographic methods has been used in the rat to map active regions in the olfactory bulb after a pulse of 14 C-2-deoxyglucose with electrical stimulation of the lateral olfactory tract. The highest optical densities were found at the external plexiform, mural, internal plexiform and granular layers: the lowest was found in the glomerular layer [fr

  18. Olfactory Receptors in Non-Chemosensory Organs: The Nervous System in Health and Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer, Isidro; Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Carmona, Margarita; Carro, Eva; Aronica, Eleonora; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Grison, Alice; Gustincich, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory receptors (ORs) and down-stream functional signaling molecules adenylyl cyclase 3 (AC3), olfactory G protein α subunit (Gαolf), OR transporters receptor transporter proteins 1 and 2 (RTP1 and RTP2), receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1), and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs)

  19. Morphology and cytology of the olfactory organs in small juvenile Dascyllus aruanus and Amphiprion ocellaris (Pisces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvedlund, Michael; Brolund, Thea Marie; Nielsen, Lis Engdahl

    2003-01-01

    The olfactory organs in juvenile Dascyllus aruanus and Amphiprion ocellaris, studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), consisted of two bilaterally radial rosettes per specimen, fan-shaped, located medio-ventrally, one in each of two olfactory chambers. In D. aruanus...

  20. An FMRI Study of Olfactory Cues to Perception of Conspecific Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Petrovic P, Ingvar M, Stone-Elander S, Petersson KM, Hansson P (1999) A PET activation study of dynamic mechanical allodynia in patients with...state on olfactory sensitivity suggest odor specificity. Biol Psychol 71: 244-247. 67. Mair RG, Bouffard JA, Engen T, Morton TH (1978) Olfactory