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Sample records for non-tidal soft-sediment communities

  1. Intertidal soft-sediment community does not respond to disturbance as postulated by the intermediate disturbance hypothesis

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    Gerwing, Travis G.; Allen Gerwing, Alyssa M.; Macdonald, Tara; Cox, Kieran; Juanes, Francis; Dudas, Sarah E.

    2017-11-01

    The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis (IDH) predicts that disturbances of an intermediate frequency or intensity will maximize community biodiversity/richness. Once almost universally accepted, controversy now surrounds this hypothesis, and there have even been calls for its abandonment. Therefore, we experimentally evaluated if an infaunal community along the north coast of British Columbia, Canada, would respond to disturbances as predicted by the IDH. The characteristics of this soft-sediment intertidal mudflat (productivity, species pool, population growth rate) maximized our chances of finding evidence to support the IDH. More specifically, we tested if intermediate severities and frequencies of disturbance maximized infaunal community richness by mechanically disturbing sediment, and varying the intensity (0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of the surface area of a plot disturbed) and frequency of sediment disturbance (never, once, twice, and every week during a four week period). No effect of frequency or intensity of sediment disturbance on community richness was observed. Further, none of our experimental treatments were statistically different than the controls. This is likely due to the subtle difference between successional stages in this soft-sediment habitat (difference of less than one taxa between treatments). Therefore, in habitats whose productivity, regional species pool, and population growth rates would otherwise suggest a response to disturbances as predicted by the IDH, minor differences between successional stages may result in richness patterns that deviate from those predicted by the IDH.

  2. Has phytodetritus processing by an abyssal soft-sediment community recovered 26 years after an experimental disturbance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stratmann, T.; Mevenkamp, L.; Sweetman, A.K.; Vanreusel, A.; van Oevelen, D.

    2018-01-01

    The potential harvest of polymetallic nodules will heavily impact the abyssal, soft sediment ecosystem by removing sediment, hard substrate, and associated fauna inside mined areas. It is therefore important to know whether the ecosystem can recover from this disturbance and if so at which rate. The

  3. Soft-sediment mullions

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    Ortner, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the

  4. Early invasion population structure of quagga mussel and associated benthic invertebrate community composition on soft sediment in a large reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E.; Chandra, Sudeep; Caires, Andrea; Denton, Marianne; Rosen, Michael R.; Wong, Wai Hing; Teitjen, Todd; Turner, Kent; Roefer, Peggy; Holdren, G. Chris

    2010-01-01

    In 2007 an invasive dreissenid mussel species, Dreissena bugensis (quagga mussel), was discovered in Lake Mead reservoir (AZ–NV). Within 2 years, adult populations have spread throughout the lake and are not only colonizing hard substrates, but also establishing in soft sediments at depths ranging from 1 to >100 m. Dreissena bugensis size class and population density distribution differs between basins; cluster analysis revealed 5 adult cohorts within Boulder Basin and Overton Arm but low densities and low cohort survival in the Las Vegas Basin. Regression analysis suggests depth and temperature are not primary controllers of D. bugensis density in Lake Mead, indicating other factors such as sediment type, food availability or other resource competition may be important. Monthly veliger tows showed at least 2 major spawning events per year, with continuous presence of veligers in the water column. Adult mussels have been found in spawn or post-spawn condition in soft sediments in shallow to deep waters (>80 m) indicating the potential for reproduction at multiple depths. Comparisons to a 1986 benthic survey suggest there have been shifts in nondreissenid macroinvertebrate composition; however, it is unclear if this is due to D. bugensis presence. Current distribution of nondreissenid macroinvertebrates is heterogeneous in all 3 basins, and their biodiversity decreased when D. bugensis density was 2500/m2 or greater.

  5. Has Phytodetritus Processing by an Abyssal Soft-Sediment Community Recovered 26 Years after an Experimental Disturbance?

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    Tanja Stratmann

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The potential harvest of polymetallic nodules will heavily impact the abyssal, soft sediment ecosystem by removing sediment, hard substrate, and associated fauna inside mined areas. It is therefore important to know whether the ecosystem can recover from this disturbance and if so at which rate. The first objective of this study was to measure recovery of phytodetritus processing by the benthic food web from a sediment disturbance experiment in 1989. The second objective was to determine the role of holothurians in the uptake of fresh phytodetritus by the benthic food web. To meet both objectives, large benthic incubation chambers (CUBEs; 50 × 50 × 50 cm were deployed inside plow tracks (with and without holothurian presence and at a reference site (holothurian presence, only at 4100 m water depth. Shortly after deployment, 13C- and 15N-labeled phytodetritus was injected in the incubation chambers and during the subsequent 3-day incubation period, water samples were taken five times to measure the production of 13C-dissolved inorganic carbon over time. At the end of the incubation, holothurians and sediment samples were taken to determine biomass, densities and incorporation of 13C and 15N into bacteria, nematodes, macrofauna, and holothurians. For the first objective, the results showed that biomass of bacteria, nematodes and macrofauna did not differ between reference sites and plow track sites when holothurians were present. Additionally, meiofauna and macrofauna taxonomic composition was not significantly different between the sites. In contrast, total 13C uptake by bacteria, nematodes and holothurians was significantly lower at plow track sites compared to reference sites, though the number of replicates was low. This result suggests that important ecosystem functions such as organic matter processing have not fully recovered from the disturbance that occurred 26 years prior to our study. For the second objective, the analysis indicated

  6. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

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    Yang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bing; Piersma, Theunis; Zhang, Zhengwang; Ding, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    The Yellow Sea is a key staging ground for shorebirds that migrate from Australasia to the Arctic each spring. A lot of attention has been paid to the impact of habitat loss due to land reclamation on shorebird survival, but any effects of overfishing of coastal resources are unclear. In this study, the abundance of molluscs in the intertidal mudflats of northern Bohai Bay on the Chinese Yellow Sea was investigated in 2008-2014 from the perspective of their importance as food for northward migrating shorebirds, especially Red Knots Calidris canutus. Numerically contributing 96% to the numbers of 17 species found in spring 2008, the bivalve Potamocorbula laevis (the staple food of Red Knots and other shorebirds) dominated the intertidal mollusc community. In the spring of 2008-2014, the densities of P. laevis were surprisingly high, varying between 3900 and 41,000 individuals/m2 at distinctly small sizes (average shell lengths of 1.1 to 4.8 mm), and thus reaching some of the highest densities of marine bivalves recorded worldwide and providing good food for shorebirds. The distribution of P. laevis was associated with relatively soft sediments in close proximity to the recently built seawalls. A monthly sampling programme showed steep seasonal changes in abundance and size. P. laevis were nearly absent in winter, each year settling on the intertidal mudflats anew. Peak densities were reached in spring, when 0-age P. laevis were 1-3 mm long. The findings point to a highly unusual demographic structure of the species, suggesting that some interfering factors are at play. We hypothesise that the current dominance of young P. laevis in Bohai Bay reflects the combined pressures of a nearly complete active removal of adult populations from mid-summer to autumn for shrimp farming (this clearing of adults may offer space for recruitment during the next spring) and low numbers of epibenthic predators of bivalves, such as shrimps and crabs, due to persistent overfishing in

  7. Population ecology and community structure of sub-tidal soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Konkan, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vizakat, L.; Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    (Shannon Wiener index) varied from 0.44 to 3.58 (X = 1.94, SD = + or - 0.89). Population and community structure were more stable in premonsoon months. Carnivorous species Glycera alba modified the community structure mainly due to prey...

  8. Time to stop mucking around? Impacts of underwater photography on cryptobenthic fauna found in soft sediment habitats.

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    De Brauwer, Maarten; Saunders, Benjamin J; Ambo-Rappe, Rohani; Jompa, Jamaluddin; McIlwain, Jennifer L; Harvey, Euan S

    2018-07-15

    Scuba diving tourism is a sustainable source of income for many coastal communities, but can have negative environmental impacts if not managed effectively. Diving on soft sediment habitats, typically referred to as 'muck diving', is a growing multi-million dollar industry with a strong focus on photographing cryptobenthic fauna. We assessed how the environmental impacts of scuba divers are affected by the activity they are engaged in while diving and the habitat they dive in. To do this, we observed 66 divers on coral reefs and soft sediment habitats in Indonesia and the Philippines. We found diver activity, specifically interacting with and photographing fauna, causes greater environmental disturbances than effects caused by certification level, gender, dive experience or age. Divers touched the substrate more often while diving on soft sediment habitats than on coral reefs, but this did not result in greater environmental damage on soft sediment sites. Divers had a higher impact on the substrate and touch animals more frequently when observing or photographing cryptobenthic fauna. When using dSLR-cameras, divers spent up to five times longer interacting with fauna. With the unknown, long-term impacts on cryptobenthic fauna or soft sediment habitats, and the increasing popularity of underwater photography, we argue for the introduction of a muck diving code of conduct. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hard science is essential to restoring soft-sediment intertidal habitats in burgeoning East Asia.

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    Lee, Shing Yip; Khim, Jong Seong

    2017-02-01

    Intertidal soft-sediment ecosystems such as mangrove, saltmarsh, and tidal flats face multiple stresses along the burgeoning East Asia coastline. In addition to direct habitat loss, ecosystem structure, function, and capacity for ecosystem services of these habitats are significantly affected by anthropogenic loss of hydrologic connectivity, introduction of invasive exotic species, and chemical pollution. These dramatic changes to ecosystem structure and function are illustrated by four case studies along the East Asian coast: the Mai Po Marshes in Hong Kong, the Yunxiao wetlands in Fujian, China, and the Lake Sihwa and Saemangeum tidal flats in Korea. While investment in restoration is increasing significantly in the region, the lack of key basic knowledge on aspects of the behaviour of intertidal soft-sediment ecosystems, particularly those in Asia, impairs the effectiveness of these efforts. The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem function for relatively species-poor mangrove, seagrass, and saltmarsh systems has implications for restoration targeting monospecific plantations. The trajectory of recovery and return of ecosystem function and services is also poorly known, and may deviate from simple expectations. As many introduced species have become established along the East Asian coast, their long-term impact on ecosystem function as well as the socio-economics of coastal communities demand a multidisciplinary approach to assessing options for restoration and management. These knowledge gaps require urgent attention in order to inform future restoration and management of intertidal soft-sediment ecosystems in fast-developing East Asia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Burdur city is located on lacustrine sedimentary deposits at the northeastern end of the Fethiye–Burdur Fault Zone (FBFZ) in SW Turkey. Fault steps were formed in response to vertical displacement along normal fault zones in these deposits. Soft sediment deformation structures were identified at five sitesin lacustrine ...

  11. Soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates of Rajapur Bay, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harkantra, S.N.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Thirtyfour species of soft sediment dwelling macro-invertebrates were recorded in Rajapur Bay at the proposed effluent discharge location of nuclear power plant. The fauna mainly composed of polychaetes (42.52%), molluscs (39.03%), crustaceans (7...

  12. Seasonal variability of tidal and non-tidal currents off Beypore, SW coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.; AnilKumar, N.

    and summer monsoon seasons of year 2000. Information on tidal signals contained in the currents were extracted using harmonic analysis - Least Squares Method and non-tidal component were analyzed using the Chi sub(o) filter. The study established...

  13. Den ecology of Octopus vulgaris Cuvier, 1797, on soft sediment: availability and types of shelter

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    Stelios Katsanevakis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available To avoid predation, octopuses select and actively modify shelters (also called dens in the substratum, where they remain most of the time, especially during daylight hours. The main questions that this study deals with are: Is den availability a significant constraint for the distribution of Octopus vulgaris on soft sediment? What kind of dens does O. vulgaris use on soft sediment and what factors affect the selection of one type instead of another? With population density measurements by SCUBA diving and enrichment experiments with artificial dens, we concluded that the availability of solid materials necessary for den construction is a limiting factor for the distribution of O. vulgaris on soft sediment. O. vulgaris used four different types of den on soft sediment: well (a vertical hole in the sediment, rock/stone (the octopus uses a rock or a large stone to dig a cavity under it, shell (an empty shell is used, human origin (a solid material of human origin is used. The relative proportion of the four types of den in the areas studied was: 38.7% human origin, 29.7% well, 21.5% rock/stone, 2.9% shell. Also, 7.3% of the octopuses were found outside their den. The main types of den were found in different relative proportions in relation to the depth, the distance from shore, the octopus size and the granulometry of the sediment.

  14. Recognising triggers for soft-sediment deformation: Current understanding and future directions

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    Owen, Geraint; Moretti, Massimo; Alfaro, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    Most of the 16 papers in this special issue were presented at a session entitled "The recognition of trigger mechanisms for soft-sediment deformation" at the 27th IAS Meeting of Sedimentology in Alghero, Sardinia, Italy, which took place from 20th-23rd September 2009. They describe soft-sediment deformation structures that range widely in morphology, age, depositional environment and tectonic setting. In their interpretations, the authors have been asked to focus on identifying the agent that triggered deformation. Our aims in this introductory overview are to: (1) review the definition and scope of soft-sediment deformation; (2) clarify the significance and role of the trigger; (3) set the contributions in context and summarise their findings; and (4) discuss strategies for reliably identifying triggers and make recommendations for future study of this widespread and significant category of sedimentary structures. We recommend a three-stage approach to trigger recognition, combining the assessment of facies, potential triggers, and available criteria. This focus on the trigger for deformation distinguishes this collection of papers on soft-sediment deformation from other important collections, notably those edited by Jones and Preston (1987), Maltman (1994), Maltman et al. (2000), Shiki et al. (2000), Ettensohn et al. (2002b), Van Rensbergen et al. (2003) and Storti and Vannucchi (2007).

  15. Soft sediment deformation structures in the Maastrichtian Ajali Formation Western Flank of Anambra Basin, Southern Nigeria

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    Olabode, Solomon Ojo

    2014-01-01

    Soft sediment deformation structures were recognized in the Maastrichtian shallow marine wave to tide influenced regressive sediments of Ajali Formation in the western flank of Anambra basin, southern Nigerian. The soft sediment deformation structures were in association with cross bedded sands, clay and silt and show different morphological types. Two main types recognised are plastic deformations represented by different types of recumbent folds and injection structure represented by clastic dykes. Other structures in association with the plastic deformation structures include distorted convolute lamination, subsidence lobes, pillars, cusps and sand balls. These structures are interpreted to have been formed by liquefaction and fluidization mechanisms. The driving forces inferred include gravitational instabilities and hydraulic processes. Facies analysis, detailed morphologic study of the soft sediment deformation structures and previous tectonic history of the basin indicate that the main trigger agent for deformation is earthquake shock. The soft sediment deformation structures recognised in the western part of Anambra basin provide a continuous record of the tectonic processes that acted on the regressive Ajali Formation during the Maastrichtian.

  16. Dynamics of tidal and non-tidal currents along the southwest continental shelf of India

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    Aruna, C.; Ravichandran, C.; Srinivas, K.; Rasheed, P.A.A.; Lekshmi, S.

    are predominantly mixed, semidiurnal in nature. Motion over any continental shelf is governed by the tide-driven oscillatory flow. In this paper, tidal and non-tidal characteristics of the waters of Southwest continental shelf of India are assessed using...

  17. Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Interpreted as Seismites in the Kolankaya Formation, Denizli Basin (SW Turkey)

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    Topal, Savaş; Özkul, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The NW-trending Denizli basin of the SW Turkey is one of the neotectonic grabens in the Aegean extensional province. It is bounded by normal faults on both southern and northern margins. The basin is filled by Neogene and Quaternary terrestrial deposits. Late Miocene- Late Pliocene aged Kolankaya formation crops out along the NW trending Karakova uplift in the Denizli basin. It is a typical fluviolacustrine succession that thickens and coarsens upward, comprising poorly consolidated sand, gravelly sand, siltstone and marl. Various soft-sediment deformation structures occur in the formation, especially in fine- to medium grained sands, silts and marls: load structures, flame structures, clastic dikes (sand and gravely-sand dike), disturbed layers, laminated convolute beds, slumps and synsedimentary faulting. The deformation mechanism and driving force for the soft-sediment deformation are related essentially to gravitational instability, dewatering, liquefaction-liquidization, and brittle deformation. Field data and the wide lateral extent of the structures as well as regional geological data show that most of the deformation is related to seismicity and the structures are interpreted as seismites. The existence of seismites in the Kolankaya Formation is evidence for continuing tectonic activity in the study area during the Neogene and is consistent with the occurrence of the paleoearthquakes of magnitude >5. PMID:25152909

  18. Marine meiofauna, carbon and nitrogen mineralization in sandy and soft sediments of Disko Bay, West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, S.; Christensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Martin Vinther

    2000-01-01

    Organic carbon mineralization was studied in a shallow-water (4 m), sandy sediment and 2 comparatively deep-water (150 and 300 m), soft sediments in Disko Bay, West Greenland. Benthic microalgae inhabiting the shallow-water locality significantly affected diurnal O-2 conditions within the surface...... is regulated primarily by the availability of organic matter and not by temperature. The shallow-water sediment contained a larger meiofauna population than the deep-water muddy sediments. Crustacean nauplia dominated the upper 9 mm while nematodes dominated below. A typical interstitial fauna of species...... layers of the sediment. Algal photosynthetic activity and nitrogen uptake reduced nitrogen effluxes and denitrification rates. Sulfate reduction was the most important pathway for carbon mineralization in the sediments of the shallow-water station. In contrast, high bottom-water NO3- concentrations...

  19. A protocol for measuring spatial variables in soft-sediment tide pools

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    Marina R. Brenha-Nunes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We present a protocol for measuring spatial variables in large (>50 m2 soft-sediment tide pool. Secondarily, we present the fish capture efficiency of a sampling protocol that based on such spatial variables to calculate relative abundances. The area of the pool is estimated by summing areas of basic geometric forms; the depth, by taken representative measurements of the depth variability of each pool's sector, previously determined according to its perimeter; and the volume, by considering the pool as a prism. These procedures were a trade-off between the acquisition of reliable estimates and the minimization of both the cost of operating and the time spent in field. The fish sampling protocol is based on two con secutive stages: 1 two people search for fishes under structures (e.g., rocks and litters on the pool and capture them with hand seines; 2 these structures are removed and then a beach-seine is hauled over the whole pool. Our method is cheaper than others and fast to operate considering the time in low tides. The method to sample fish is quite efficient resulting in a capture efficiency of 89%.

  20. Estimation of soft sediment thickness in Kuala Lumpur based on microtremor observation data

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    Chiew, Chang Chyau; Cheah, Yi Ben; Tan, Chin Guan; Lau, Tze Liang

    2017-10-01

    Seismic site effect is one of the major concerns in earthquake engineering. Soft ground tends to amplify the seismic wave in surficial geological layers. The determination of soft ground thickness on the surface layers of the earth is an important input for seismic hazard assessment. This paper presents an easy and convenient approach to estimate the soft sediment thickness at the site using microtremor observation technique. A total number of 133 survey points were conducted in selected sites around Kuala Lumpur area using a microtremor measuring instrument, but only 103 survey points contributed to the seismic microzonation and sediment thickness plots. The bedrock of Kuala Lumpur area is formed by Kenny Hill Formation, limestone, granite, and the Hawthornden Schist; however, the thickness of surface soft ground formed by alluvial deposits, mine tailings, and residual soils remains unknown. Hence, the predominant frequency of the ground in each site was determined based on Nakamura method. A total number of 14 sites with known depth to bedrock from the supply of geotechnical reports in the study area were determined. An empirical correlation was developed to relate the ground predominant frequency and soft ground thickness. This correlation may contribute to local soil underlying the subsurface of Kuala Lumpur area. The finding provides an important relationship for engineers to estimate the soft ground thickness in Kuala Lumpur area based on the dynamic characteristics of the ground measured from microtremor observation.

  1. Soft-sediment deformation structures in cores from lacustrine slurry deposits of the Late Triassic Yanchang Fm. (central China

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    Yang Renchao

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fine-grained autochthonous sedimentation in the deep part of a Late Triassic lake was frequently interrupted by gravity-induced mass flows. Some of these mass flows were so rich in water that they must have represented slurries. This can be deduced from the soft-sediment deformation structures that abound in cores from these lacustrine deposits which constitute the Yanchang Fm., which is present in the Ordos Basin (central China.

  2. Global case studies of soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS: Definitions, classifications, advances, origins, and problems

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    G. Shanmugam

    2017-10-01

    Problems that hinder our understanding of SSDS still remain. They are: (1 vague definitions of the phrase “soft-sediment deformation”; (2 complex factors that govern the origin of SSDS; (3 omission of vital empirical data in documenting vertical changes in facies using measured sedimentological logs; (4 difficulties in distinguishing depositional processes from tectonic events; (5 a model-driven interpretation of SSDS (i.e., earthquake being the singular cause; (6 routine application of the genetic term “seismites” to the “SSDS”, thus undermining the basic tenet of process sedimentology (i.e., separation of interpretation from observation; (7 the absence of objective criteria to differentiate 21 triggering mechanisms of liquefaction and related SSDS; (8 application of the process concept “high-density turbidity currents”, a process that has never been documented in modern oceans; (9 application of the process concept “sediment creep” with a velocity connotation that cannot be inferred from the ancient record; (10 classification of pockmarks, which are hollow spaces (i.e., without sediments as SSDS, with their problematic origins by fluid expulsion, sediment degassing, fish activity, etc.; (11 application of the Earth's climate-change model; and most importantly, (12 an arbitrary distinction between depositional process and sediment deformation. Despite a profusion of literature on SSDS, our understanding of their origin remains muddled. A solution to the chronic SSDS problem is to utilize the robust core dataset from scientific drilling at sea (DSDP/ODP/IODP with a constrained definition of SSDS.

  3. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation structures in Late Pleistocene lacustrine deposits of Issyk-Kul lake (Kyrgyzstan)

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    Gladkov, A. S.; Lobova, E. U.; Deev, E. V.; Korzhenkov, A. M.; Mazeika, J. V.; Abdieva, S. V.; Rogozhin, E. A.; Rodkin, M. V.; Fortuna, A. B.; Charimov, T. A.; Yudakhin, A. S.

    2016-10-01

    This paper discusses the composition and distribution of soft-sediment deformation structures induced by liquefaction in Late Pleistocene lacustrine terrace deposits on the southern shore of Issyk-Kul Lake in the northern Tien Shan mountains of Kyrgyzstan. The section contains seven deformed beds grouped in two intervals. Five deformed beds in the upper interval contain load structures (load casts and flame structures), convolute lamination, ball-and-pillow structures, folds and slumps. Deformation patterns indicate that a seismic trigger generated a multiple slump on a gentle slope. The dating of overlying subaerial deposits suggests correlation between the deformation features and strong earthquakes in the Late Pleistocene.

  4. Site condition, structure, and growth of baldcypress along tidal/non-tidal salinity gradients

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    Krauss, K.W.; Duberstein, J.A.; Doyle, T.W.; Conner, W.H.; Day, Richard H.; Inabinette, L.W.; Whitbeck, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents changes in forest structure and growth potential of dominant trees in salt-impacted tidal and non-tidal baldcypress wetlands of the southeastern United States. We inventoried basal area and tree height, and monitored incremental growth (in basal area) of codominant baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) trees monthly, for over four years, to examine the inter-relationships among growth, site fertility, and soil physico-chemical characteristics. We found that salinity, soil total nitrogen (TN), flood duration, and flood frequency affected forest structure and growth the greatest. While mean annual site salinity ranged from 0.1 to 3.4 ppt, sites with salinity concentrations of 1.3 ppt or greater supported a basal area of less than 40 m2/ha. Where salinity was < 0.7 ppt, basal area was as high as 87 m2/ha. Stand height was also negatively affected by higher salinity. However, salinity related only to soil TN concentrations or to the relative balance between soil TN and total phosphorus (TP), which reached a maximum concentration between 1.2 and 2.0 ppt salinity. As estuarine influence shifts inland with sea-level rise, forest growth may become more strongly linked to salinity, not only due to salt effects but also as a consequence of site nitrogen imbalance.

  5. Multifractal Analysis of Seismically Induced Soft-Sediment Deformation Structures Imaged by X-Ray Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yoshito; Komatsubara, Junko

    Unconsolidated soft sediments deform and mix complexly by seismically induced fluidization. Such geological soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDSs) recorded in boring cores were imaged by X-ray computed tomography (CT), which enables visualization of the inhomogeneous spatial distribution of iron-bearing mineral grains as strong X-ray absorbers in the deformed strata. Multifractal analysis was applied to the two-dimensional (2D) CT images with various degrees of deformation and mixing. The results show that the distribution of the iron-bearing mineral grains is multifractal for less deformed/mixed strata and almost monofractal for fully mixed (i.e. almost homogenized) strata. Computer simulations of deformation of real and synthetic digital images were performed using the egg-beater flow model. The simulations successfully reproduced the transformation from the multifractal spectra into almost monofractal spectra (i.e. almost convergence on a single point) with an increase in deformation/mixing intensity. The present study demonstrates that multifractal analysis coupled with X-ray CT and the mixing flow model is useful to quantify the complexity of seismically induced SSDSs, standing as a novel method for the evaluation of cores for seismic risk assessment.

  6. Seismically-triggered soft-sediment deformation structures close to a major strike-slip fault system in the Eastern Alps (Hirlatz cave, Austria)

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    Salomon, Martina Lan; Grasemann, Bernhard; Plan, Lukas; Gier, Susanne; Schöpfer, Martin P. J.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate episodic soft-sediment deformation structures cross-cut by normal faults preserved in unlithified finely laminated calcite rich sediments in the Hirlatz cave in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Austria). These sediments comprise varve-like alternations of brighter carbonate/quartz rich layers, and darker clay mineral rich layers. The deformed sediments contain abundant millimeter to centimeter-scale soft-sediment structures (load casts, ball-and-pillow structures), sheet slumps (thrust faults and folds), erosive channels filled with slides and chaotic slumps. After deposition and soft-sediment deformation normal faults developed within the entire sedimentary succession, an event that probably correlates with an offset of c. 10 cm of the passage wall above the outcrop. Our major conclusions are: (i) The sediments have a glacial origin and were deposited in the Hirlatz cave under phreatic fluvio-lacustrine conditions. The deposition and the soft-sediment deformation occurred most likely during the last glaciation (i.e. around 25 ka ago); (ii) The liquefaction and formation of the soft-sediment structures in water-saturated stratified layers was triggered by episodic seismic events; (iii) The internally deformed sediments were later displaced by normal faults; (iv) A possible source for the seismic events is the active sinistral Salzach-Ennstal-Mariazeller-Puchberger (SEMP) strike-slip fault which is located about 10 km south of the outcrop and plays a major role in accommodating the extrusion of the Eastern Alps towards the Pannonian Basin. To our knowledge, the described structures are the first report of liquefaction and seismically induced soft-sediment deformations in Quaternary sediments in the Eastern Alps.

  7. Soft-sediment deformation structures in seismically affected deep-sea Miocene turbidites (Cilento Basin, southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valente Alessio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Soft-sediment deformation structures (SSDS are widespread in the upper part of the S. Mauro Formation (Cilento Group, Middle-Late Miocene. The succession is represented mainly by thick and very thick, massive, coarse-grained sandstones, deposited by rapid sedimentation of high-density turbidity currents. The most common SSDS are short pillars, dishes, sedimentary sills and convolutions. They occur mostly in the upper parts of sandstone beds. Vertical tubes of 4-5 cm in diameter and up to 50 cm long constitute the most striking structures. They begin in the middle part of sandstone beds, which are basically massive or contain faint dish structures. These tubes can bifurcate upwards and/ or pass into bedding-parallel veins or dikes. The vertical tubes sometimes form sand volcanoes on the then sedimentary surface.

  8. Soft-sediment deformations (convolute lamination and load structures) in turbidites as indicators of flow reflections against bounding slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinterri, Roberto; Muzzi Magalhaes, Pierre; Tagliaferri, Alessio; Cunha, Rogerio S.; Laporta, Michele

    2015-04-01

    Soft-sediment deformations, such as convolute laminations, load structures and water escapes are very rapid deformations that occur in unconsolidated sediments near the depositional surface during or shortly after deposition and before significant diagenesis. These types of deformations develop when primary stratifications are deformed by a system of driving forces, while the sediment is temporarily in a weakened state due to the action of a deformation mechanism know as liquidization. This deformation occurs if the applied stress exceeds the sediment strength, either through an increase in the applied stress or through a temporary reduction in sediment strength. Liquidization mechanisms can be triggered by several agents, such as seismic shaking, rapid sedimentation with high-fallout rates or cyclic-pressure variations associated with storm waves or breaking waves. Consequently, soft-sediment deformations can be produced by different processes and form ubiquitous sedimentary structures characterizing many sedimentary environments. However, even though these types of structures are relatively well-known in terms of geometry and sedimentary characteristics, many doubts arise when the understanding of deformation and trigger mechanisms is attempted. As stressed also by the recent literature, the main problem lies in the fact that the existing approaches for the identification of triggering agents rely on criteria that are not diagnostic or not applicable to outcrop-based studies, because they are not always based on detailed facies analysis related to a paleoenvironmental-context approach. For this reason, this work discusses the significance of particular types of soft-sediment deformations that are very common in turbidite deposits, namely convolute laminations and load structures, especially on the basis of a deep knowledge of the stratigraphic framework and geological setting in which these structures are inserted. More precisely, detailed facies analyses of the

  9. The importance of benchmarking habitat structure and composition for understanding the extent of fishing impacts in soft sediment ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Sean J.; Willis, Trevor J.; Cole, Russell G.; Bradley, Anna; Cairney, Daniel J.; Brown, Stephen N.; Carter, Megan E.

    2014-02-01

    Trawling and dredge fisheries remove vulnerable fauna, homogenise sediments and assemblages, and break down biogenic habitats, but the full extent of these effects can be difficult to quantify in the absence of adequate control sites. Our study utilised rare control sites containing biogenic habitat, the Separation Point exclusion zone, formally protected for 28 years, as the basis for assessing the degree of change experienced by adjacent areas subject to benthic fishing. Sidescan sonar surveys verified that intensive trawling and dredging occurred in areas adjacent to, but not inside, the exclusion area. We compared sediment composition, biogenic cover, macrofaunal assemblages, biomass, and productivity of the benthos, inside and outside the exclusion zone. Disturbed sites were dominated by fine mud, with little or no shell-gravel, reduced number of species, and loss of large bodied animals, with concomitant reductions in biomass and productivity. At protected sites, large, rarer molluscs were more abundant and contributed the most to size-based estimates of productivity and biomass. Functional changes in fished assemblages were consistent with previously reported relative increases in scavengers, predators and deposit feeders at the expense of filter feeders and a grazer. We propose that the colonisation of biogenic species in protected sites was contingent on the presence of shell-gravel atop these soft sediments. The process of sediment homogenisation by bottom fishing and elimination of shell-gravels from surficial sediments appeared to have occurred over decades - a ‘shifting baseline’. Therefore, benchmarking historical sediment structure at control site like the Separation Point exclusion zone is necessary to determine the full extent of physical habitat change wrought by contact gears on sheltered soft sediment habitats to better underpin appropriate conservation, restoration or fisheries management goals.

  10. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformations and seismically amplified erosion rates recorded in varved sediments of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey)

    KAUST Repository

    Avsar, Ulas; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Avşar, Ö zgü r; Schmidt, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    sequence of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey) that we compare with estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of several nearby earthquakes. We find that earthquakes exceeding estimated PGA values of ca. 20 cm/s2 can induce soft-sediment deformations (SSD

  11. Types of soft-sediment deformation structures in a lacustrine Ploužnice member (Stephanian, Gzhelian, Pennsylvanian, Bohemian Massif), their timing, and possible trigger mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stárková, M.; Martínek, K.; Mikuláš, Radek; Rosenau, N.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 5 (2015), s. 1277-1298 ISSN 1437-3254 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : soft-sediment deformation structures * bioturbation * early diagenetic carbonate * lacustrine facies * Bohemian Massif * Stephanian C * Krkonoše Piedmont Basin Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.133, year: 2015

  12. Macrobenthic assemblage in the soft sediment of Marmugao Harbour, Goa (central west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A.; Sreepada, R.A.; Kanti, A.; Gracias, E.S.

    were identified. The communities were not discrete and there was some overlap in the occurrence of the families. Influence of anthropogenic disturbances and environmental factors such as sediment type and availability of food were responsible...

  13. Integrating Non-Tidal Sea Level data from altimetry and tide gauges for coastal sea level prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Yongcun; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to integrate Non-Tidal Sea Level (NSL) from the joint TOPEX, Jason-1 and Jason-2 satellite altimetry with tide gauge data at the west and north coast of the United Kingdom for coastal sea level prediction. The temporal correlation coefficient between altimetric...... NSLs and tide gauge data reaches a maximum higher than 90% for each gauge. The results show that the multivariate regression approach can efficiently integrate the two types of data in the coastal waters of the area. The Multivariate Regression Model is established by integrating the along-track NSL...... from the joint TOPEX/Jason-1/Jason-2 altimeters with that from eleven tide gauges. The model results give a maximum hindcast skill of 0.95, which means maximum 95% of NSL variance can be explained by the model. The minimum Root Mean Square Error (RMSe) between altimetric observations and model...

  14. Seismically-induced soft-sediment deformation structures associated with the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault System (Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, M. Romina; Perucca, Laura; Coronato, Andrea; Rabassa, Jorge; López, Ramiro

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, evidence of paleoearthquake-induced soft-sediment deformation structures associated with the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault System in the Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego, southern Argentina, has been identified. Well-preserved soft-sediment deformation structures were found in a Holocene sequence of the Udaeta pond. These structures were analyzed in terms of their geometrical characteristics, deformation mechanism, driving force system and possible trigger agent. They were also grouped in different morphological types: sand dykes, convolute lamination, load structures and faulted soft-sediment deformation features. Udaeta, a small pond in Argentina Tierra del Fuego, is considered a Quaternary pull-apart basin related to the Magallanes-Fagnano Fault System. The recognition of these seismically-induced features is an essential tool for paleoseismic studies. Since the three main urban centers in the Tierra del Fuego province of Argentina (Ushuaia, Río Grande and Tolhuin) have undergone an explosive growth in recent years, the results of this study will hopefully contribute to future analyses of the seismic risk of the region.

  15. Temporal and basin-specific population trends of quagga mussels on soft sediment of a multi-basin reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Timothy J; Rosen, Michael R.; Chandra, Sudeep; Acharya, Kumud; Caires, Andrea M; Davis, Clinton J.; Thaw, Melissa; Webster, Daniel M.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive quagga (Dreissena bugnesis) and zebra (Dreissena ploymorpha) mussels have rapidly spread throughout North America. Understanding the relationships between environmental variables and quagga mussels during the early stages of invasion will help management strategies and allow researchers to predict patterns of future invasions. Quagga mussels were detected in Lake Mead, NV/AZ in 2007, we monitored early invasion dynamics in 3 basins (Boulder Basin, Las Vegas Bay, Overton Arm) bi-annually from 2008-2011. Mean quagga density increased over time during the first year of monitoring and stabilized for the subsequent two years at the whole-lake scale (8 to 132 individuals·m-2, geometric mean), in Boulder Basin (73 to 875 individuals·m-2), and in Overton Arm(2 to 126 individuals·m-2). In Las Vegas Bay, quagga mussel density was low (9 to 44 individuals·m-2), which was correlated with high sediment metal concentrations and warmer (> 30°C) water temperatures associated with that basin. Carbon content in the sediment increased with depth in Lake Mead and during some sampling periods quagga density was also positively correlated with depth, but more research is required to determine the significance of this interaction. Laboratory growth experiments suggested that food quantity may limit quagga growth in Boulder Basin, indicating an opportunity for population expansion in this basin if primary productivity were to increase, but was not the case in Overton Arm. Overall quagga mussel density in Lake Mead is highly variable and patchy, suggesting that temperature, sediment size, and sediment metal concentrations, and sediment carbon content all contribute to mussel distribution patterns. Quagga mussel density in the soft sediment of Lake Mead expanded during initial colonization, and began to stabilize approximately 3 years after the initial invasion.

  16. The Importance of Fine-Scale Flow Processes and Food Availability in the Maintenance of Soft-Sediment Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    the absence of the fauna, flora, and microbiota (Grant Lal. 1982). Furthermore, sediment "stability", in most cases, has not been defined using...attempting to do so, it may be more fruitful to develop new theories and models that embrace the gestalt of the sedimentary milieu. Returning to the

  17. Microphytobenthic primary production along a non-tidal sandy beach gradient: an annual study from the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Urban-Malinga

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The microphytobenthic primary production and chlorophyll a content were studied over the annual cycle (May 1998 - May 1999 on a non-tidal Baltic sandy beach at three stations along the beach gradient: littoral, waterline and splash zone. The chlorophyll a concentrations varied between 0.88 and 12.18 µg cm-3. Net and gross primary production rates respectively lay within the ranges 0.1-31.4 mgC m-2 h-1 and 0.2-41.8 mgC m-2 h-1. The highest values of both Chl a content and primary production were noted at the littoral station, the lowest ones at the waterline. The mean annual P/B ratio was highest at the waterline. The differences in Chl a content between stations were statistically significant and may be related to water dynamics, resuspension and water content. Production rates were highly variable on monthly time scales, and the highest results at all the study locations were noted in July. The gross photosynthetic rates were significantly correlated with water temperature.

  18. Soft-sediment deformation structures from an ice-marginal storm-tide interactive system, Permo-Carboniferous Talchir Formation, Talchir Coalbasin, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, H. N.; Bhattacharya, Biplab

    2010-01-01

    Permo-Carboniferous Talchir Formation, Talchir Coalbasin, India, records sedimentation during a phase of climatic amelioration in an ice-marginal storm-affected shelf. Evidences of subtidal processes are preserved only under thick mud drapes deposited during waning storm phases. Various soft-sediment deformation structures in some sandstone/siltstone-mudstone interbeds, like syn-sedimentary faults, deformed laminations, sand-silt flows, convolute laminations and various flame structures, suggest liquefaction and fluidization of the beds due to passage of syn-depositional seismic shocks. In the Late Paleozoic ice-marginal shelf, such earthquake tremors could be generated by crustal movements in response to glacioisostatic adjustments of the basin floor.

  19. Soft-sediment deformation structures interpreted as seismites in the uppermost Aptian to lowermost Albian transgressive deposits of the Chihuahua basin (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, E.J.-P.; Blanc-Aletru, M. -C.; Mojon, P.-O.

    1998-01-01

    Several levels of soft-sediment deformation structures (s.-s.d.s.) cut by synsedimentary normal faults have been observed in the transition beds between the "Las Vigas" and "La Virgen" formations (Cretaceous) in the northeastern part of the Chihuahua basin in Mexico. These structures consisted of four kinds of motifs (floating breccias, flame-like structures, large pillow structures, and wavy structures). They are restricted to five "stratigraphie" levels (Z1-Z5) and surrounded by undeformed beds in fluvio-lacustrine and tidal deposits and can be traced over a distance of several hundred meters. This deformation is interpreted to have resulted from the combined effects of liquidization and shear stress in soft-sediments due to local earthquakes in the area which could have been generated during the rifting stage of the Chihuahua basin. New constraints placed on the age of the "Las Vigas" Formation (bracketed by Late Aptian charophytes at the bottom and colomiellids of late Aptian to earliest Albian age at the top) suggest that this synrift tectonism lasted at least until the end of the Aptian. ?? Springer-Verlag 1998.

  20. Liquification and soft-sediment deformation in a limestone megabreccia: The Ayabacas giant collapse, Cretaceous, southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callot, Pierre; Odonne, Francis; Sempere, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    In the back-arc basin of southern Peru, the bulk of the mid-Cretaceous carbonate platform collapsed near the Turonian-Coniacian boundary (~ 90-89 Ma), due to slope creation and resulting oversteepening. The resulting mass-wasting deposits, namely the Ayabacas Formation, consist of a megabreccia which is organised from NE to SW in relation with two major fault systems. Facies of sediment reworking (such as brecciation, liquification, sedimentary dykes and soft-sediment deformation) are described and four types of resedimentation facies are define. In the northeastern part of the study area, deposits mainly consist of a mixture of very heterometric clasts and blocks (millimetric to kilometric in size), mainly carbonate but also sandy-marly in nature, floating in sandy-marly matrix that exhibits features of liquification (sedimentary dykes and flows) and plastic deformation. Here, resedimentation facies are characterized by deformations and a brecciated facies at each observation scale (from aerial photographs to thin sections) and are therefore defined as fractal or multi-scale breccias. Some clasts and large amounts of the matrix were derived from the underlying clay-rich sandstones of the Murco Formation. These materials were prone to liquification and plastic deformation, allowing them to act as a sliding sole that facilitated the slides and the downslope movement of large limestone rafts. In the southwestern part of the study area, only limestone breccias are observed, in alternation with well-stratified levels. The sliding sole of plastically deformable siliciclastic sediments that previously acted as a lubricating layer was not present here, as materials were more deeply buried. Variations in the degree of sediment lithification from northeast to southwest are inferred to have existed before the collapse and also within the sedimentary succession in the northeastern part. In particular, limestones were well-cemented at the base of the carbonate succession and

  1. Establishing Functional Relationships between Abiotic Environment, Macrophyte Coverage, Resource Gradients and the Distribution of Mytilus trossulus in a Brackish Non-Tidal Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonne Kotta

    Full Text Available Benthic suspension feeding mussels are an important functional guild in coastal and estuarine ecosystems. To date we lack information on how various environmental gradients and biotic interactions separately and interactively shape the distribution patterns of mussels in non-tidal environments. Opposing to tidal environments, mussels inhabit solely subtidal zone in non-tidal waterbodies and, thereby, driving factors for mussel populations are expected to differ from the tidal areas. In the present study, we used the boosted regression tree modelling (BRT, an ensemble method for statistical techniques and machine learning, in order to explain the distribution and biomass of the suspension feeding mussel Mytilus trossulus in the non-tidal Baltic Sea. BRT models suggested that (1 distribution patterns of M. trossulus are largely driven by separate effects of direct environmental gradients and partly by interactive effects of resource gradients with direct environmental gradients. (2 Within its suitable habitat range, however, resource gradients had an important role in shaping the biomass distribution of M. trossulus. (3 Contrary to tidal areas, mussels were not competitively superior over macrophytes with patterns indicating either facilitative interactions between mussels and macrophytes or co-variance due to common stressor. To conclude, direct environmental gradients seem to define the distribution pattern of M. trossulus, and within the favourable distribution range, resource gradients in interaction with direct environmental gradients are expected to set the biomass level of mussels.

  2. Syn-eruptive, soft-sediment deformation of deposits from dilute pyroclastic density current: triggers from granular shear, dynamic pore pressure, ballistic impacts and shock waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douillet, G. A.; Taisne, B.; Tsang-Hin-Sun, E.; Muller, S. K.; Kueppers, U.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    Soft-sediment deformation structures can provide valuable information about the conditions of parent flows, the sediment state and the surrounding environment. Here, examples of soft-sediment deformation in deposits of dilute pyroclastic density currents are documented and possible syn-eruptive triggers suggested. Outcrops from six different volcanoes have been compiled in order to provide a broad perspective on the variety of structures: Soufriere Hills (Montserrat), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Ubehebe craters (USA), Laacher See (Germany), and Tower Hill and Purrumbete lakes (both Australia). The variety of features can be classified in four groups: (1) tubular features such as pipes; (2) isolated, laterally oriented deformation such as overturned or oversteepened laminations and vortex-shaped laminae; (3) folds-and-faults structures involving thick (>30 cm) units; (4) dominantly vertical inter-penetration of two layers such as potatoids, dishes, or diapiric flame-like structures. The occurrence of degassing pipes together with basal intrusions suggest fluidization during flow stages, and can facilitate the development of other soft-sediment deformation structures. Variations from injection dikes to suction-driven, local uplifts at the base of outcrops indicate the role of dynamic pore pressure. Isolated, centimeter-scale, overturned beds with vortex forms have been interpreted to be the signature of shear instabilities occurring at the boundary of two granular media. They may represent the frozen record of granular, pseudo Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. Their recognition can be a diagnostic for flows with a granular basal boundary layer. Vertical inter-penetration and those folds-and-faults features related to slumps are driven by their excess weight and occur after deposition but penecontemporaneous to the eruption. The passage of shock waves emanating from the vent may also produce trains of isolated, fine-grained overturned beds that disturb the surface bedding

  3. Soft-sediment deformation in New Zealand: Structures resulting from the 2010/11 Christchurch earthquakes and comparison with Pleistocene sediments of the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, C.; Downs, D. T.; Gravley, D.; Quigley, M.; Rowland, J. V.

    2011-12-01

    The distinction between seismites and other event-related soft-sediment deformation is a challenging problem. Recognition and interpretation is aided by comparison of recent examples produced during known seismic events and those generated experimentally. Seismites are important features, once recognized in a rock, for interpretations of paleotectonic environment, tectonic relationships of sediments in basins, sedimentary facies analysis, evaluation of earthquake frequency and hazard and consequent land managment. Two examples of soft-sediment deformation, potentially generated through ground shaking and associated liquefaction, are described from within the TVZ: 1) Near Matata on the western margin of the Whakatane Graben. This location has a complicated en-echelon fault history and large earthquakes occur from time to time (e.g., 1987 ML6.3 Edgecumbe event). The structures occur in ~550 ka volcanic sediments, and represent soft-sediment deformation within stratigraphically-bounded layers. Based on paleoenvironment, appearance, and diagnostic criteria described by other authors (Sims 1975; Hempton and Dewey 1983), we interpret these features to have formed by ground shaking related to an earthquake and/or possibly accompanying large volcanic eruptions, rather than by slope failure. 2) Near Taupo, 3 km from the active Kaiapo fault. Lakeward dipping, nearly horizontal lacustrine sediments overlay Taupo Ignimbrite (1.8 ka). At one outcrop the lake beds have subsided into the underlying substrate resulting in kidney-shaped features. These structures formed as a result of liquefaction of the underlying substrate, which may have been caused by ground shaking related to either seismic or volcanic activity. However, inferred time relationships are more consistent with seismic-induced ground shaking. We compare and contrast the form and geometry of the above structures with seismites generated during the recent Christchurch earthquakes (Sep. 2010 and Feb. 2011). Hempton, M

  4. Holocene soft-sediment deformation of the Santa Fe-Sopetrán Basin, northern Colombian Andes: Evidence for pre-Hispanic seismic activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, F.; Martínez, J. I.; Vélez, M. I.

    2011-04-01

    The detailed study of four deformed intervals from the Holocene fluvio-lacustrine deposits of the Santa Fe-Sopetrán Basin in northern Colombia shows 17 types of soft-sediment deformation (SSD) structures. Evidence indicates that seismic activity was responsible for the SSD structures, a conclusion reached after considering the environmental conditions at the time of sediment deposition and shortly after, and the detailed analysis of the driving force systems. Other triggers (i.e. overloading and rapid sedimentation), however, are not discarded. Intervals showing SSD structures occurred at centennial frequencies and apparently resulted from Mw 6-7 earthquakes. The Holocene age of these major shaking events should be seriously considered when evaluating the seismic hazard and risk for the middle Cauca Valley and the nearby city of Medellín with 3 million inhabitants.

  5. Soft-sediment deformation in a tectonically active area: The Plio-Pleistocene Zarzal Formation in the Cauca Valley (Western Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwerth, Ralph; Suter, Fiore; Guzman, Carlos A.; Gorin, Georges E.

    2006-04-01

    The Plio-Pleistocene Zarzal Formation corresponds to fluvio-lacustrine sediments deposited in an intramontane depression within the Colombian Andes, associated with the Cauca-Romeral Fault System. It crops out mainly in the Cauca Valley where numerous field sections have permitted the mapping of the vertical and lateral lithological variations. Lacustrine deposits of sands, silts, clays and diatomites are interbedded with fluvial sand and gravel beds and fluvio-volcanic mass flows derived from the volcanic Central Cordillera. Numerous soft-sediment deformation structures are encountered in this formation, particularly in fine- to medium-grained sands, silts and clays: load structures (load casts, flame structures, pseudonodules), water escape structures (water escape cusps, dish-and-pillar and pocket-and-pillar structures), soft-sediment intrusions (clastic sills and dykes), disturbed laminites, convolute laminations, slumps and synsedimentary faulting. Deformation mechanisms and driving forces are related essentially to gravitational instabilities, dewatering, liquidization and brittle deformations. Field and regional geological data show that most of these deformations are related to seismicity and can be interpreted as seismites. This area has a geological and recent seismic history and outcrops show both syn- and post-depositional faulting related to the transpressional regime of this part of the Colombian Andes, which generates strike-slip faults and associated local normal faults. The drainage pattern within the Zarzal Formation shows the signature of neotectonics. Moreover, the fine to coarse-grained sands of the Zarzal Formation are lithologies prone to liquefaction when affected by seismic waves. The intercalation of the deformed intervals within undisturbed strata confirms the catastrophic nature of the events. Finally, the large areal extent of the deformations and the type of structures are compatible with seismites. Consequently, the existence of

  6. Analysis of soft-sediment deformation structures in Neogene fluvio-lacustrine deposits of Çaybağı Formation, Eastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç Taşgin, Calibe; Türkmen, İbrahim

    2009-06-01

    During the Neogene, both strike-slip and extensional regimes coexisted in eastern Turkey and, a number of fault-bounded basins associated with the East Anatolian Fault System developed. The Çaybağı Formation (Late Miocene-Early Pliocene) deposited in one of these basins consists of fluvio-lacustrine deposits. Numerous soft-sediment deformation structures are encountered in this formation, particularly in conglomerates, medium- to coarse-grained tuffaceous sandstones and claystones: folded structures (slumps, convolute laminations, and simple recumbent folds), water-escape structures (intruded sands, internal cusps, interpenetrative cusps and sand volcanoes), and load structures (load casts, pseudonodules, flame structures, and pillow structures). These structures are produced by liquefaction and/or fluidization of the unconsolidated sediments during a seismic shock. Consequently, the existence of seismically-induced deformation structures in the Çaybağı Formation and the association with a Neogene intraformational unconformity, growth faults, and reverse faults in the Çaybağı basin attest to the tectonic activity in this area during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene. The East Anatolian Fault System, in particular the Uluova fault zone, is the most probable seismogenic source. Earthquakes with a magnitude of over 5 in the Richter scale can be postulated.

  7. A new CT scan methodology to characterize a small aggregation gravel clast contained in a soft sediment matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouinat, Laurent; Sabatier, Pierre; Poulenard, Jérôme; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Montet, Xavier; Arnaud, Fabien

    2017-03-01

    Over the past decades, X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been increasingly applied in the geosciences community. CT scanning is a rapid, non-destructive method allowing the assessment of relative density of clasts in natural archives samples. This study focuses on the use of this method to explore instantaneous deposits as major contributors to sedimentation of high-elevation lakes in the Alps, such as the Lake Lauvitel system (western French Alps). This lake is located within a very steep valley prone to episodic flooding and features gullies ending in the lake. This variety of erosion processes leads to deposition of sedimentary layers with distinct clastic properties. We identified 18 turbidites and 15 layers of poorly sorted fine sediment associated with the presence of gravels since AD 1880. These deposits are respectively interpreted as being induced by flood and wet avalanche. This constitutes a valuable record from a region where few historical records exist. This CT scan approach is suitable for instantaneous deposit identification to reconstruct past evolution and may be applicable to a wider variety of sedimentary archives alongside existing approaches.

  8. Soft sediment deformation structures in a lacustrine sedimentary succession induced by volcano-tectonic activities: An example from the Cretaceous Beolgeumri Formation, Wido Volcanics, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyoungtae; Kim, Sung Won; Lee, Hong-Jin; Hwang, In Gul; Kim, Bok Chul; Kee, Won-Seo; Kim, Young-Seog; Gihm, Yong Sik

    2017-08-01

    The Cretaceous Beolgeumri Formation is composed of laminated mudstones intercalated with sandstones, chert, and a bed of lapilli tuff that were deposited in a lacustrine environment at the terminal part of a regional strike-slip fault systems on the southwestern Korean Peninsula. The Beolgeumri Formation contains various types of soft sediment deformation (SSD) structures that are characterized by a wide extent (features and deformation styles: 1) fold structures, 2) load structures, 3) water-escape structures, 4) rip-down structures, 5) boudin structures, and 6) synsedimentary fault structures. Field examination of SSD structures together with an analysis of the sedimentological records of the Beolgeumri Formation indicate that the SSD structures formed largely by liquefaction and/or fluidization triggered by ground shaking during earthquakes. To constrain the timing of the development of SSD structures in the Beolgeumri Formation, we conducted sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) U-Pb zircon age dating of block sized lithic clasts bearing volcaniclastic deposits that conformably underlie (the Mangryeongbong Tuff) and overlie (the Ttandallae Tuff) the Beolgeumri Formation. The Mangryeongbong and Ttandallae Tuffs have ages of 86.63 ± 0.83 Ma and 87.24 ± 0.36 Ma, respectively, indicating that the Beolgeumri Formation was deposited during a short interval between major volcanic eruptions. The large lithic clasts of volcaniclastic deposits suggest that the Beolgeumri Formation was deposited adjacent to an active volcanic edifice(s). Syndepositional magmatic activities are suggested by the occurrence of a lapilli tuff bed in the Beolgeumri Formation and an igneous intrusion (intermediate sill) that is crosscut by a sand dike, as well as the similar age results of the underlying and overlying volcaniclastic deposits. Thus, we infer that the earthquakes that caused the development of SSD structures in the study area were closely related to syndepositional

  9. Earthquake-induced soft-sediment deformations and seismically amplified erosion rates recorded in varved sediments of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey)

    KAUST Repository

    Avsar, Ulas

    2016-06-06

    Earthquake-triggered landslides amplify erosion rates in catchments, i.e. catchment response to seismic shocks (CR). In addition to historical eyewitness accounts of muddy rivers implying CRs after large earthquakes, several studies have quantitatively reported increased sediment concentrations in rivers after earthquakes. However, only a few paleolimnological studies could detect CRs within lacustrine sedimentary sequences as siliciclastic-enriched intercalations within background sedimentation. Since siliciclastic-enriched intercalations can easily be of non-seismic origin, their temporal correlation with nearby earthquakes is crucial to assign a seismic triggering mechanism. In most cases, either uncertainties in dating methods or the lack of recent seismic activity has prevented reliable temporal correlations, making the seismic origin of observed sedimentary events questionable. Here, we attempt to remove this question mark by presenting sedimentary traces of CRs in the 370-year-long varved sequence of Köyceğiz Lake (SW Turkey) that we compare with estimated peak ground acceleration (PGA) values of several nearby earthquakes. We find that earthquakes exceeding estimated PGA values of ca. 20 cm/s2 can induce soft-sediment deformations (SSD), while CRs seem only to be triggered by PGA levels higher than 70 cm/s2. In Köyceğiz Lake, CRs produce Cr- and Ni-enriched sedimentation due to the seismically mobilized soils derived from ultramafic rocks in the catchment. Given the varve chronology, the residence time of the seismically mobilized material in the catchment is determined to be 5 to 10 years.

  10. Understanding the controls on sediment-P interactions and dynamics along a non-tidal river system in a rural–urban catchment: The River Nene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tye, A.M.; Rawlins, B.G.; Rushton, J.C.; Price, R.

    2016-01-01

    The release of Phosphorus (P) from river sediments has been identified as a contributing factor to waters failing the criteria for ‘Good Ecological Status’ under the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). To identify the contribution of sediment-P to river systems, an understanding of the factors that influence its distribution within the entire non-tidal system is required. Thus the aims of this work were to examine the (i) total (P_T_o_t_a_l) and labile (P_L_a_b_i_l_e) concentrations in sediment, (ii) the sequestration processes and (iii) the interactions between sediment P and the river water in the six non-tidal water bodies of the River Nene, U.K. Collection of sediments followed a long period of flooding and high stream flow. In each water body, five cores were extracted and homogenised for analysis with an additional core being taken and sampled by depth increments. Comparing the distribution of sediment particle size and P_T_o_t_a_l data with soil catchment geochemical survey data, large increases in P_T_o_t_a_l were identified in sediments from water body 4–6, where median concentrations of P_T_o_t_a_l in the sediment (3603 mg kg"−"1) were up to double those of the catchment soils. A large proportion of this increase may be related to in-stream sorption of P, particularly from sewage treatment facilities where the catchment becomes more urbanised after water body 3. A linear correlation (r = 0.8) between soluble reactive phosphate (SRP) and Boron in the sampled river waters was found suggesting increased STW input in water bodies 4–6. P_L_a_b_i_l_e concentrations in homogenised cores were up to 100 mg kg"−"1 PO_4–P (generally < 2% of P_T_o_t_a_l) and showed a general increase with distance from the headwaters. A general increase in Equilibrium Phosphate Concentrations (EPC_0) from an average of 0.9–∼1.7 μm L"−"1 was found between water bodies 1–3 and 4–6. Fixation within oxalate extractable phases (Al, Fe and Mn) accounted

  11. Soft sediment deformation associated with the East Patna Fault south of the Ganga River, northern India: Influence of the Himalayan tectonics on the southern Ganga plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Aditya K.; Pati, Pitambar; Sharma, Vijay

    2017-08-01

    The geomorphic, tectonic and seismic aspects of the Ganga plain have been studied by several workers in the recent decades. However, the northern part of this tectonically active plain has been the prime focus in most of the studies. The region to the south of the Ganga River requires necessary attention, especially, regarding the seismic activities. The region lying immediately south of the Outer Himalayas (i.e. the Ganga plain) responds to the stress regime of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust Zone by movement along the existing basement faults (extending from the Indian Peninsula) and creating new surface faults within the sediment cover as well. As a result, several earthquakes have been recorded along these basement faults, such as the great earthquakes of 1934 and 1988 associated with the East Patna Fault. Large zones of ground failure and liquefaction in north Bihar (close to the Himalayan front), have been recorded associated with these earthquakes. The present study reports the soft sediment deformation structures from the south Bihar associated with the prehistoric earthquakes near the East Patna Fault for the first time. The seismites have been observed in the riverine sand bed of the Dardha River close to the East Patna Fault. Several types of liquefaction-induced deformation structures such as pillar and pocket structure, thixotropic wedge, liquefaction cusps and other water escape structures have been identified. The location of the observed seismites within the deformed zone of the East Patna Fault clearly indicates their formation due to activities along this fault. However, the distance of the liquefaction site from the recorded epicenters suggests its dissociation with the recorded earthquakes so far and hence possibly relates to any prehistoric seismic event. The occurrence of the earthquakes of a magnitude capable of forming liquefaction structure in the southern Ganga plain indicates the transfer of stress regime far from the Himalayan front into

  12. Metagenomic analysis of planktonic microbial consortia from a non-tidal urban-impacted segment of James River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bonnie L; LePrell, Rebecca V; Franklin, Rima B; Rivera, Maria C; Cabral, Francine M; Eaves, Hugh L; Gardiakos, Vicki; Keegan, Kevin P; King, Timothy L

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the diversity and ecological function of the microbial consortia of James River in Virginia, USA, is essential to developing a more complete understanding of the ecology of this model river system. Metagenomic analysis of James River's planktonic microbial community was performed for the first time using an unamplified genomic library and a 16S rDNA amplicon library prepared and sequenced by Ion PGM and MiSeq, respectively. From the 0.46-Gb WGS library (GenBank:SRR1146621; MG-RAST:4532156.3), 4 × 10(6) reads revealed >3 × 10(6) genes, 240 families of prokaryotes, and 155 families of eukaryotes. From the 0.68-Gb 16S library (GenBank:SRR2124995; MG-RAST:4631271.3; EMB:2184), 4 × 10(6) reads revealed 259 families of eubacteria. Results of the WGS and 16S analyses were highly consistent and indicated that more than half of the bacterial sequences were Proteobacteria, predominantly Comamonadaceae. The most numerous genera in this group were Acidovorax (including iron oxidizers, nitrotolulene degraders, and plant pathogens), which accounted for 10 % of assigned bacterial reads. Polaromonas were another 6 % of all bacterial reads, with many assignments to groups capable of degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Albidiferax (iron reducers) and Variovorax (biodegraders of a variety of natural biogenic compounds as well as anthropogenic contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and endocrine disruptors) each accounted for an additional 3 % of bacterial reads. Comparison of these data to other publically-available aquatic metagenomes revealed that this stretch of James River is highly similar to the upper Mississippi River, and that these river systems are more similar to aquaculture and sludge ecosystems than they are to lakes or to a pristine section of the upper Amazon River. Taken together, these analyses exposed previously unknown aspects of microbial biodiversity, documented the ecological responses of microbes to urban

  13. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H-Y; Chen, B.; Piersma, T.; Zhang, Z.; Ding, C.

    2016-01-01

    The YellowSea is a key staging ground for shorebirds that migrate fromAustralasia to the Arctic each spring. A lotof attention has been paid to the impact of habitat loss due to land reclamation on shorebird survival, but any effectsof overfishing of coastal resources are unclear. In this study, the

  14. Molluscs of an intertidal soft-sediment area in China: Does overfishing explain a high density but low diversity community that benefits staging shorebirds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Hong-Yan; Chen, Bing; Piersma, Theunis; Zhang, Zhengwang; Ding, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    The Yellow Sea is a key staging ground for shorebirds that migrate from Australasia to the Arctic each spring. A lot of attention has been paid to the impact of habitat loss due to land reclamation on shorebird survival, but any effects of overfishing of coastal resources are unclear. In this study,

  15. Organic Carbon and Disinfection Byproduct Precursor Loads from a Constructed, Non-Tidal Wetland in California's Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Fleck

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Wetland restoration on peat islands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta will change the quality of island drainage waters entering the Delta, a primary source of drinking water in California. Peat island drainage waters contain high concentrations of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC and organic precursors to drinking water disinfection byproducts, such as trihalomethanes (THMs. We quantified the net loads of DOC, POC, and THM-precursors from a constructed subsidence mitigation wetland on Twitchell Island in the Delta to determine the change in drainage water quality that may be caused by conversion of agricultural land on peat islands to permanently flooded, non-tidal wetlands. Creation of permanently flooded wetlands halts oxidative loss of the peat soils and thereby may mitigate the extensive land-surface subsidence of the islands that threatens levee stability in the Delta. Net loads from the wetland were dominated by DOC flushed from the oxidized shallow peat soil layer by seepage flow out of the wetland. The permanently flooded conditions in the overlying wetland resulted in a gradual evolution to anaerobic conditions in the shallow soil layer and a concomitant decrease in the flow could be minimized by reducing the hydraulic gradient between the wetland and the adjacent drainage ditch. Estimates of net loads from the wetland assuming efflux of surface water only were comparable in magnitude to net loads from nearby agricultural fields, but the wetland and agricultural net loads had opposite seasonal variations. Wetland surface water net loads of DOC, POC, and THM-precursors were lower during the winter months when the greatest amounts of water are available for diversion from the Delta to drinking water reservoirs.

  16. Oil spill cleanup for soft sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, J.A.; Tookey, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A series of experimental trials are in progress to investigate the effectiveness and consequences of oil spill cleanup methods for areas of mud flats and salt marsh. Trials have shown that wheeled and tracked vehicles have limited utility. Field measurements of the load bearing capacity of the mud can show where such vehicles may be used. Lightweight hover craft provide a useful means of transport. Shallow-draft boats can have a useful transport role: whether such craft can be used depends on the local topography and tidal regime. The trials showed that practical problems associated with implementing low-pressure flushing operations (lack of water for flushing, recovery of the flushed oil) can be overcome - although the environmental effects have yet to be assessed. The use of straw matting as a sorbent material was also demonstrated. The objective of the first two phases of the project, reported here, was to select workable methods with a view to subsequently employing them in larger-scale trials. The environmental consequences of using the selected methods will be examined in the later trials

  17. Benthic O-2 uptake of two cold-water coral communities estimated with the non-invasive eddy correlation technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rovelli, Lorenzo; Attard, Karl M.; Bryant, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    , was a channel-like sound in Northern Norway at a depth of 220 m. Both sites were characterized by the presence of live mounds of the reef framework-forming scleractinian Lophelia pertusa and reef-associated fauna such as sponges, crustaceans and other corals. The measured O-2 uptake at the 2 sites varied...... times higher than the global mean for soft sediment communities at comparable depths. The measurements document the importance of CWC communities for local and regional carbon cycling and demonstrate that the EC technique is a valuable tool for assessing rates of benthic O2 uptake in such complex...

  18. Microbial Community Response to Simulated Petroleum Seepage in Caspian Sea Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Knittel

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic microbial hydrocarbon degradation is a major biogeochemical process at marine seeps. Here we studied the response of the microbial community to petroleum seepage simulated for 190 days in a sediment core from the Caspian Sea using a sediment-oil-flow-through (SOFT system. Untreated (without simulated petroleum seepage and SOFT sediment microbial communities shared 43% bacterial genus-level 16S rRNA-based operational taxonomic units (OTU0.945 but shared only 23% archaeal OTU0.945. The community differed significantly between sediment layers. The detection of fourfold higher deltaproteobacterial cell numbers in SOFT than in untreated sediment at depths characterized by highest sulfate reduction rates and strongest decrease of gaseous and mid-chain alkane concentrations indicated a specific response of hydrocarbon-degrading Deltaproteobacteria. Based on an increase in specific CARD-FISH cell numbers, we suggest the following groups of sulfate-reducing bacteria to be likely responsible for the observed decrease in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentration in SOFT sediments: clade SCA1 for propane and butane degradation, clade LCA2 for mid- to long-chain alkane degradation, clade Cyhx for cycloalkanes, pentane and hexane degradation, and relatives of Desulfobacula for toluene degradation. Highest numbers of archaea of the genus Methanosarcina were found in the methanogenic zone of the SOFT core where we detected preferential degradation of long-chain hydrocarbons. Sequencing of masD, a marker gene for alkane degradation encoding (1-methylalkylsuccinate synthase, revealed a low diversity in SOFT sediment with two abundant species-level MasD OTU0.96.

  19. Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    stability Science & Innovation Collaboration Careers Community Environment Science & Innovation Recruitment Events Community Commitment Giving Campaigns, Drives Economic Development Employee Funded neighbor pledge: contribute to quality of life in Northern New Mexico through economic development

  20. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  1. Biodiversity and community composition of sediment macrofauna associated with deep-sea Lophelia pertusa habitats in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Bourque, Jill R.; Frometa, Janessy

    2014-01-01

    Scleractinian corals create three-dimensional reefs that provide sheltered refuges, facilitate sediment accumulation, and enhance colonization of encrusting fauna. While heterogeneous coral habitats can harbor high levels of biodiversity, their effect on the community composition within nearby sediments remains unclear, particularly in the deep sea. Sediment macrofauna from deep-sea coral habitats (Lophelia pertusa) and non-coral, background sediments were examined at three sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico (VK826, VK906, MC751, 350–500 m depth) to determine whether macrofaunal abundance, diversity, and community composition near corals differed from background soft-sediments. Macrofaunal densities ranged from 26 to 125 individuals 32 cm−2 and were significantly greater near coral versus background sediments only at VK826. Of the 86 benthic invertebrate taxa identified, 16 were exclusive to near-coral habitats, while 14 were found only in background sediments. Diversity (Fisher’s α) and evenness were significantly higher within near-coral sediments only at MC751 while taxon richness was similar among all habitats. Community composition was significantly different both between near-coral and background sediments and among the three primary sites. Polychaetes numerically dominated all samples, accounting for up to 70% of the total individuals near coral, whereas peracarid crustaceans were proportionally more abundant in background sediments (18%) than in those near coral (10%). The reef effect differed among sites, with community patterns potentially influenced by the size of reef habitat. Taxon turnover occurred with distance from the reef, suggesting that reef extent may represent an important factor in structuring sediment communities near L. pertusa. Polychaete communities in both habitats differed from other Gulf of Mexico (GOM) soft sediments based on data from previous studies, and we hypothesize that local environmental conditions found near L

  2. Biodiversity and community composition of sediment macrofauna associated with deep-sea Lophelia pertusa habitats in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Amanda W. J.; Bourque, Jill R.; Frometa, Janessy

    2014-11-01

    Scleractinian corals create three-dimensional reefs that provide sheltered refuges, facilitate sediment accumulation, and enhance colonization of encrusting fauna. While heterogeneous coral habitats can harbor high levels of biodiversity, their effect on the community composition within nearby sediments remains unclear, particularly in the deep sea. Sediment macrofauna from deep-sea coral habitats (Lophelia pertusa) and non-coral, background sediments were examined at three sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico (VK826, VK906, MC751, 350-500 m depth) to determine whether macrofaunal abundance, diversity, and community composition near corals differed from background soft-sediments. Macrofaunal densities ranged from 26 to 125 individuals 32 cm-2 and were significantly greater near coral versus background sediments only at VK826. Of the 86 benthic invertebrate taxa identified, 16 were exclusive to near-coral habitats, while 14 were found only in background sediments. Diversity (Fisher's α) and evenness were significantly higher within near-coral sediments only at MC751 while taxon richness was similar among all habitats. Community composition was significantly different both between near-coral and background sediments and among the three primary sites. Polychaetes numerically dominated all samples, accounting for up to 70% of the total individuals near coral, whereas peracarid crustaceans were proportionally more abundant in background sediments (18%) than in those near coral (10%). The reef effect differed among sites, with community patterns potentially influenced by the size of reef habitat. Taxon turnover occurred with distance from the reef, suggesting that reef extent may represent an important factor in structuring sediment communities near L. pertusa. Polychaete communities in both habitats differed from other Gulf of Mexico (GOM) soft sediments based on data from previous studies, and we hypothesize that local environmental conditions found near L. pertusa

  3. Changes in Alaskan soft-bottom prey communities along a gradient in sea otter predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitek, R.G.; Oliver, J.S.; DeGange, A.R.; Anderson, B.S.

    1992-01-01

    Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris), well documented as "keystone" predators in rocky marine communities, were found to exert a strong influence on infaunal prey communities in soft-sediment habitats. Direct and indirect effects of sea otter predation on subtidal soft-bottom prey communities were evaluated along a temporal gradient of sea otter occupancy around the Kodiak Archipelago. The results indicate that Kodiak otters forage primarily on bivalve prey and dramatically reduce infaunal bivalve and green sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) prey populations. Bivalve prey abundance, biomass, and size were inversely related to duration of sea otter occupancy. The relative conditions of shells discarded by otters in shallow ( 20 m) water at the same sites indicate that otters first exploited Saxidomus in shallow-water feeding areas, and later switched to Macoma spp. in deeper water. Otter-cracked shells of the deep-burrowing clam Tresus capax were rarely found, even at otter foraging sites where the clam accounted for the majority of available prey biomass, suggesting that it has a partial depth refuge from otter predation. The indirect effects of otter predation included substratum disturbance and the facilitation of sea star predation on infaunal prey. Sea stars, Pycnopodia helianthoides, were attracted to experimentally dug excavations as well as natural sea otter foraging pits, where the sea stars foraged on smaller size classes of infaunal bivalves than those eaten by otters. Otters also discard clam shells on the sediment surface and expose old, buried shells during excavation. Surface shells were found to provide attachment sites for large anemones and kelp. Our study shows that sea otters can affect soft-sediment communities, not only through predation, as in rocky habitats, but also through disturbance, and thus retain a high degree of influence in two very different habitat types.

  4. Description of Soft Sediment Deformational Structure of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWASOGO

    south outcrop in western margin of the ... 3- National Centre for Petroleum Research and Development, A.T.B.U. Bauchi ... Benue Trough is made up of continental, transitional and .... zones of laminations trending at high angle to the bedding.

  5. Evaluation of soft sediment deformation structures along the Fethiye ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pore-pressure changes induced by liquefaction and fluidization ... (iii) escape of water or shaking of sediment due to. Keywords. ... from well exposed (a) retaining wall excavation area (Site ..... Absorption Spectroscopy and therefore, the effect.

  6. Does stability in local community composition depend on temporal variation in rates of dispersal and connectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valanko, Sebastian; Norkko, Joanna; Norkko, Alf

    2015-04-01

    In ecology understanding variation in connectivity is central for how biodiversity is maintained. Field studies on dispersal and temporal dynamics in community regulating processes are, however, rare. We test the short-term temporal stability in community composition in a soft-sediment benthic community by determining among-sampling interval similarity in community composition. We relate stability to in situ measures of connectivity (wind, wave, current energy) and rates of dispersal (quantified in different trap types). Waves were an important predictor of when local community taxa are most likely to disperse in different trap-types, suggesting that wave energy is important for connectivity in a region. Community composition at the site was variable and changed stochastically over time. We found changes in community composition (occurrence, abundance, dominance) to be greater at times when connectivity and rates of dispersal were low. In response to periods of lower connectedness dominant taxa in the local community only exhibited change in their relative abundance. In contrast, locally less abundant taxa varied in both their presence, as well as in relative abundance. Constancy in connectivity and rates of dispersal promotes community stability and persistence, suggesting that local community composition will be impacted by changes in the spatial extent over which immigration and emigration operates in the region. Few empirical studies have actually measured dispersal directly in a multi-species context to demonstrate the role it plays in maintaining local community structure. Even though our study does not evaluate coexistence over demographic time scales, it importantly demonstrates that dispersal is not only important in initial recruitment or following a disturbance, but also key in maintaining local community composition.

  7. Metal-macrofauna interactions determine microbial community structure and function in copper contaminated sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, Daniel J; Gray, Nia B; Elver-Evans, Joanna; Midwood, Andrew J; Thornton, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Copper is essential for healthy cellular functioning, but this heavy metal quickly becomes toxic when supply exceeds demand. Marine sediments receive widespread and increasing levels of copper contamination from antifouling paints owing to the 2008 global ban of organotin-based products. The toxicity of copper will increase in the coming years as seawater pH decreases and temperature increases. We used a factorial mesocosm experiment to investigate how increasing sediment copper concentrations and the presence of a cosmopolitan bioturbating amphipod, Corophium volutator, affected a range of ecosystem functions in a soft sediment microbial community. The effects of copper on benthic nutrient release, bacterial biomass, microbial community structure and the isotopic composition of individual microbial membrane [phospholipid] fatty acids (PLFAs) all differed in the presence of C. volutator. Our data consistently demonstrate that copper contamination of global waterways will have pervasive effects on the metabolic functioning of benthic communities that cannot be predicted from copper concentrations alone; impacts will depend upon the resident macrofauna and their capacity for bioturbation. This finding poses a major challenge for those attempting to manage the impacts of copper contamination on ecosystem services, e.g. carbon and nutrient cycling, across different habitats. Our work also highlights the paucity of information on the processes that result in isotopic fractionation in natural marine microbial communities. We conclude that the assimilative capacity of benthic microbes will become progressively impaired as copper concentrations increase. These effects will, to an extent, be mitigated by the presence of bioturbating animals and possibly other processes that increase the influx of oxygenated seawater into the sediments. Our findings support the move towards an ecosystem approach for environmental management.

  8. Metal-macrofauna interactions determine microbial community structure and function in copper contaminated sediments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Mayor

    Full Text Available Copper is essential for healthy cellular functioning, but this heavy metal quickly becomes toxic when supply exceeds demand. Marine sediments receive widespread and increasing levels of copper contamination from antifouling paints owing to the 2008 global ban of organotin-based products. The toxicity of copper will increase in the coming years as seawater pH decreases and temperature increases. We used a factorial mesocosm experiment to investigate how increasing sediment copper concentrations and the presence of a cosmopolitan bioturbating amphipod, Corophium volutator, affected a range of ecosystem functions in a soft sediment microbial community. The effects of copper on benthic nutrient release, bacterial biomass, microbial community structure and the isotopic composition of individual microbial membrane [phospholipid] fatty acids (PLFAs all differed in the presence of C. volutator. Our data consistently demonstrate that copper contamination of global waterways will have pervasive effects on the metabolic functioning of benthic communities that cannot be predicted from copper concentrations alone; impacts will depend upon the resident macrofauna and their capacity for bioturbation. This finding poses a major challenge for those attempting to manage the impacts of copper contamination on ecosystem services, e.g. carbon and nutrient cycling, across different habitats. Our work also highlights the paucity of information on the processes that result in isotopic fractionation in natural marine microbial communities. We conclude that the assimilative capacity of benthic microbes will become progressively impaired as copper concentrations increase. These effects will, to an extent, be mitigated by the presence of bioturbating animals and possibly other processes that increase the influx of oxygenated seawater into the sediments. Our findings support the move towards an ecosystem approach for environmental management.

  9. Cold seep epifaunal communities on the Hikurangi margin, New Zealand: composition, succession, and vulnerability to human activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A Bowden

    Full Text Available Cold seep communities with distinctive chemoautotrophic fauna occur where hydrocarbon-rich fluids escape from the seabed. We describe community composition, population densities, spatial extent, and within-region variability of epifaunal communities at methane-rich cold seep sites on the Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. Using data from towed camera transects, we match observations to information about the probable life-history characteristics of the principal fauna to develop a hypothetical succession sequence for the Hikurangi seep communities, from the onset of fluid flux to senescence. New Zealand seep communities exhibit taxa characteristic of seeps in other regions, including predominance of large siboglinid tubeworms, vesicomyid clams, and bathymodiolin mussels. Some aspects appear to be novel; however, particularly the association of dense populations of ampharetid polychaetes with high-sulphide, high-methane flux, soft-sediment microhabitats. The common occurrence of these ampharetids suggests they play a role in conditioning sulphide-rich sediments at the sediment-water interface, thus facilitating settlement of clam and tubeworm taxa which dominate space during later successional stages. The seep sites are subject to disturbance from bottom trawling at present and potentially from gas hydrate extraction in future. The likely life-history characteristics of the dominant megafauna suggest that while ampharetids, clams, and mussels exploit ephemeral resources through rapid growth and reproduction, lamellibrachid tubeworm populations may persist potentially for centuries. The potential consequences of gas hydrate extraction cannot be fully assessed until extraction methods and target localities are defined but any long-term modification of fluid flow to seep sites would have consequences for all chemoautotrophic fauna.

  10. Detection and Modeling of Non-Tidal Oceanic Effects on the Earth's Rotation Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, S. L.; Chao, Y.; Dickey, J. O.; Gegout, P.

    1998-01-01

    Sub-decadal changes in the Earth's rotation rate, and hence in the length-of-day (LOD), are largely controlled by variations in atmospheric angular momentum. Results from two oceanic general circulation models (OGCMs), forced by observed wind stress and heat flux for the years 1992-1994, show that ocean current and mass distribution changes also induce detectable LOD variations.

  11. Tidal and non-tidal frequencies found in the seismicity of California

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalenda, Pavel; Málek, Jiří; Skalský, Lumír

    M-29 /395/, - (2006), s. 107-118 ISSN 0138-015X. [Mining and environmental Geophysics. Polish-Czech-Slovakian Symposium/30./. Ladek Zdrój, 06.06.2005-08.06.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519; CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : tides * triggering * seismicity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  12. Atmospheric, Non-Tidal Oceanic and Hydrological Loading Effects Observed with GPS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boy, J. P.; Memin, A.; Watson, C.; Tregoning, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Copernicus Programme, being Europe's Earth Observation and Monitoring Programme led by the European Union, aims to provide, on a sustainable basis, reliable and timely services related to environmental and security issues. The Sentinel-3 mission forms part of the Copernicus Space Component. Its main objectives, building on the heritage and experience of the European Space Agency's (ESA) ERS and ENVISAT missions, are to measure sea-surface topography, sea- and land-surface temperature and ocean- and land-surface colour in support of ocean forecasting systems, and for environmental and climate monitoring. The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will ensure global, frequent and near-real time ocean, ice and land monitoring, with the provision of observation data in routine, long term (up to 20 years of operations) and continuous fashion, with a consistent quality and a high level of reliability and availability. The Sentinel-3 missions will be jointly operated by ESA and EUMETSAT. ESA will be responsible for the operations, maintenance and evolution of the Sentinel-3 ground segment on land related products and EUMETSAT for the marine products. The Sentinel-3 ground segment systematically acquires, processes and distributes a set of pre-defined core data products. Sentinel-3A is foreseen to be launched at the beginning of November 2015. The paper will give an overview on the mission, its instruments and objectives, the data products provided, the mechanisms to access the mission's data, and if available first results.

  13. Habitat loss and gain: Influence on habitat attractiveness for estuarine fish communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Eva; Ramos, Sandra; Elliott, Michael; Franco, Anita; Bordalo, Adriano A.

    2017-10-01

    Habitat structure and complexity influence the structuring and functioning of fish communities. Habitat changes are one of the main pressures affecting estuarine systems worldwide, yet the degree and rate of change and its impact on fish communities is still poorly understood. In order to quantify historical modifications in habitat structure, an ecohydrological classification system using physiotopes, i.e. units with homogenous abiotic characteristics, was developed for the lower Lima estuary (NW Portugal). Field data, aerial imagery, historical maps and interpolation methods were used to map input variables, including bathymetry, substratum (hard/soft), sediment composition, hydrodynamics (current velocity) and vegetation coverage. Physiotopes were then mapped for the years of 1933 and 2013 and the areas lost and gained over the 80 years were quantified. The implications of changes for the benthic and demersal fish communities using the lower estuary were estimated using the attractiveness to those communities of each physiotope, while considering the main estuarine habitat functions for fish, namely spawning, nursery, feeding and refuge areas and migratory routes. The lower estuary was highly affected due to urbanisation and development and, following a port/harbour expansion, its boundary moved seaward causing an increase in total area. Modifications led to the loss of most of its sandy and saltmarsh intertidal physiotopes, which were replaced by deeper subtidal physiotopes. The most attractive physiotopes for fish (defined as the way in which they supported the fish ecological features) decreased in area while less attractive ones increased, producing an overall lower attractiveness of the studied area in 2013 compared to 1933. The implications of habitat alterations for the fish using the estuary include potential changes in the nursery carrying capacity and the functioning of the fish community. The study also highlighted the poor knowledge of the impacts of

  14. Community Economics

    OpenAIRE

    武藤, 宣道; Nobumichi, MUTOH

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the new field of community economics with respect to Japan. A number of studies in community economics have already been produced in OECD countries including the United States. Although these are of great interest, each country has its own historical, socioeconomic context and must therefore develop its own approach to community economics. Community-oriented economics is neither macro-nor micro-economics in the standard economics textbook sense. Most community economics st...

  15. The Impact of Global Warming and Anoxia on Marine Benthic Community Dynamics: an Example from the Toarcian (Early Jurassic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danise, Silvia; Twitchett, Richard J.; Little, Crispin T. S.; Clémence, Marie-Emilie

    2013-01-01

    The Pliensbachian-Toarcian (Early Jurassic) fossil record is an archive of natural data of benthic community response to global warming and marine long-term hypoxia and anoxia. In the early Toarcian mean temperatures increased by the same order of magnitude as that predicted for the near future; laminated, organic-rich, black shales were deposited in many shallow water epicontinental basins; and a biotic crisis occurred in the marine realm, with the extinction of approximately 5% of families and 26% of genera. High-resolution quantitative abundance data of benthic invertebrates were collected from the Cleveland Basin (North Yorkshire, UK), and analysed with multivariate statistical methods to detect how the fauna responded to environmental changes during the early Toarcian. Twelve biofacies were identified. Their changes through time closely resemble the pattern of faunal degradation and recovery observed in modern habitats affected by anoxia. All four successional stages of community structure recorded in modern studies are recognised in the fossil data (i.e. Stage III: climax; II: transitional; I: pioneer; 0: highly disturbed). Two main faunal turnover events occurred: (i) at the onset of anoxia, with the extinction of most benthic species and the survival of a few adapted to thrive in low-oxygen conditions (Stages I to 0) and (ii) in the recovery, when newly evolved species colonized the re-oxygenated soft sediments and the path of recovery did not retrace of pattern of ecological degradation (Stages I to II). The ordination of samples coupled with sedimentological and palaeotemperature proxy data indicate that the onset of anoxia and the extinction horizon coincide with both a rise in temperature and sea level. Our study of how faunal associations co-vary with long and short term sea level and temperature changes has implications for predicting the long-term effects of “dead zones” in modern oceans. PMID:23457537

  16. Community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, C.

    1997-01-01

    The interaction of the oil and gas companies with the Northern communities regarding drilling activities was an important aspect of oil and gas operations conducted in the Beaufort Sea. During the 1960s the industry and aboriginal people basically ignored each other. Later, the industry put more emphasis on community consultation until finally two-way communication was established. Respect for the land and the environment were very important to aboriginal people who depended on the land and its resources for their traditional way of life. Community relations policies by the various companies involved in the area, and the impact they have had on their respective communities were recounted. Not all efforts were successful, however, the companies and the communities learned from their experiences, and by the time operations ceased, the communities seemed to be more appreciative of the ways they were being treated by the oil companies. 22 figs

  17. Claiming Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Steffen Bo

    As its point of departure this working paper takes the multitude of different uses and meanings of the concept of community in local politics in Cape Town. Instead of attempting to define it in substantive terms, the paper takes a social constructivist approach to the study of community...... is termed community work. First, the paper explores how community has become a governmental strategy, employed by the apartheid regime as well, although in different ways, as post-apartheid local government. Secondly, the paper explores the ways in which community becomes the means in which local residents...... lay claim on the state, as well as how it enters into local power struggles between different political groups within the township. In the third part, the paper explores how the meanings of community and the struggles to realise it have changed as South Africa, nationally and locally, has become...

  18. Biclique communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehmann; Hansen-Schwartz, Martin; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2008-01-01

    We present a method for detecting communities in bipartite networks. Based on an extension of the k-clique community detection algorithm, we demonstrate how modular structure in bipartite networks presents itself as overlapping bicliques. If bipartite information is available, the biclique...... community detection algorithm retains all of the advantages of the k-clique algorithm, but avoids discarding important structural information when performing a one-mode projection of the network. Further, the biclique community detection algorithm provides a level of flexibility by incorporating independent...

  19. Changes in freshwater mussel communities linked to legacy pollution in the Lower Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, Carrie J.; Silldorff, Erik L.; Galbraith, Heather S.

    2018-01-01

    Freshwater mussels are among the most-imperiled organisms worldwide, although they provide a variety of important functions in the streams and rivers they inhabit. Among Atlantic-slope rivers, the Delaware River is known for its freshwater mussel diversity and biomass; however, limited data are available on the freshwater mussel fauna in the lower, non-tidal portion of the river. This section of the Delaware River has experienced decades of water-quality degradation from both industrial and municipal sources, primarily as a function of one of its major tributaries, the Lehigh River. We completed semi-quantitative snorkel surveys in 53.5 of the 121 km of the river to document mussel community composition and the continued impacts from pollution (particularly inputs from the Lehigh River) on mussel fauna. We detected changes in mussel catch per unit effort (CPUE) below the confluence of the Lehigh River, with significant declines in the dominant species Elliptio complanata (Eastern Elliptio) as we moved downstream from its confluence—CPUE dropped from 179 to 21 mussels/h. Patterns in mussel distribution around the Lehigh confluence matched chemical signatures of Lehigh water input. Specifically, Eastern Elliptio CPUE declined more quickly moving downstream on the Pennsylvania bank, where Lehigh River water input was more concentrated compared to the New Jersey bank. A definitive causal link remains to be established between the Lehigh River and the dramatic shifts in mussel community composition, warranting continued investigation as it relates to mussel conservation and restoration in the basin.

  20. [Community Nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    In the last 20 years, Public Health Nutrition focused mainly on the qualitative aspects which may influence the onset of chronic diseases, quality of life, physical and mental performance and life expectancy. This applied knowledge organised as part of preventive and health promotion programs led to the development of Community Nutrition. The aim of Community Nutrition actions is to adequate lifestyles related to food consumption patterns in order to improve the quality of life and contribute to health promotion of the population in the community where programs and services are delivered. Key functions to develop in a Community Nutrition Unit consist in the identification and assessment of nutrition problems in the community as well as the design, implementation and evaluation of intervention programs by means of appropriate strategies. These should aim at different populations groups and settings, such as work places, schools, high risk groups or the general public. Nowadays, Community Nutrition work efforts should focus on three main aspects: nutrition education in schools and in the community; food safety and food security and the development and reinforcement of food preparation skills across all age groups. Social catering services, either in schools, the work place or at the community level, need to ensure adequate nutritional supply, provide foods contributing to healthy eating practices as well as to enhance culinary traditions and social learning. Food safety and food security have become a top priority in Public Health. The concepts referes to the availability of food safe and adequate as well as in sufficient amount in order to satisfy nutrition requirements of all individuals in the community. Social changes along new scientific developments will introduce new demands in Community Nutrition work and individual dietary counselling will become a key strategy. In order to face new challenges, community nutrition pactitioners require a high quality

  1. Community noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragdon, C. R.

    Airport and community land use planning as they relate to airport noise reduction are discussed. Legislation, community relations, and the physiological effect of airport noise are considered. Noise at the Logan, Los Angeles, and Minneapolis/St. Paul airports is discussed.

  2. Community Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke

    2018-01-01

    Schools and educational institutions are challenged by not adequately educating students for independent knowledge collaboration and solving of complex societal challenges (Bundsgaard & Hansen, 2016; Slot et al., 2017). As an alternative strategy to formal learning has Community-driven research...... opportunity to break boundaries between research institutions and surrounding communities through the involvement of new types of actors, knowledge forms and institutions (OECD, 2011). This paper presents the project Community Drive a three year cross disciplinary community-driven game– and data-based project....... In the paper we present how the project Community Drive initiated in May 2018 is based on results from pilot projects conducted from 2014 – 2017. Overall these studies showed that it is a strong motivational factor for students to be given the task to change their living conditions through redesign...

  3. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  4. European Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    The European Community was established in 1951 to reconcile France and Germany after World War II and to make possible the eventual federation of Europe. By 1986, there were 12 member countries: France, Italy, Belgium, the Federal Republic of Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Denmark, Ireland, the United Kingdom, Greece, Spain, and Portugal. Principal areas of concern are internal and external trade, agriculture, monetary coordination, fisheries, common industrial and commercial policies, assistance, science and research, and common social and regional policies. The European Community has a budget of US$34.035 billion/year, funded by customs duties and 1.4% of each member's value-added tax. The treaties establishing the European Community call for members to form a common market, a common customs tariff, and common agricultural, transport, economic, and nuclear policies. Major European Community institutions include the Commission, Council of Ministers, European Parliament, Court of Justice, and Economic and Social Committee. The Community is the world's largest trading unit, accounting for 15% of world trade. The 2 main goals of the Community's industrial policy are to create an open internal market and to promote technological innovation in order to improve international competitiveness. The European Community aims to contribute to the economic and social development of Third World countries as well.

  5. Natural Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset shows the locations of known tracts of high quality natural communities in Kansas, generalized to the PLSS section. It is not a compehensive dataset of...

  6. COMMUNITY OPHTHALMOLOGY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... The Role of Research in Social Marketing: The Community Eye. Outreach Clinic .... Serious thought was given to the possibility of establishing static eye care .... Information obtained included vital statistics, work history, job.

  7. Community concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Thomas; Bates, Tony

    2004-03-01

    Since the publication of "Sustainable Communities--building for the future", Government attention has focused largely on high-density affordable housing in the four "growth areas": Thames Gateway; Ashford; Milton Keynes--South Midlands, and London--Stansted--Cambridge. In this article, Thomas Yeung and Tony Bates suggest that a greater and more sustainable impact would be achieved if architects, planners, and developers considered the potential for community-based water and waste management and on-site energy generation and distribution right from the start of the project. In particular, they consider that the communal nature of hospitals, universities, and public/community housing provides a great opportunity for on-site renewable CHP and/or distributed heating, which could combine global environmental benefits with improved local amenities. They describe a simple model for prioritising energy management in the built environment, and draw on lessons learnt at ETRCL in Dagenham and BedZED in Surrey to offer a few recommendations for Government and developers. Tony Bates is the business development manager for Scott Wilson in the South East and is responsible for the promotion of sustainable communities through relationships with architects, developers, land owners and local authorities. Thomas Yeung leads the Energy Infrastructure Technologies group in Scott Wilson. This team offers an integrated approach to clean community-based energy generation, energy management, waste and water management, sustainable transport, and sustainable buildings/communities.

  8. Community expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraemer, L.

    2004-01-01

    Historically, the relationship between the nuclear generator and the local community has been one of stability and co-operation. However in more recent times (2000-2003) the nuclear landscape has had several major issues that directly effect the local nuclear host communities. - The associations mandate is to be supportive of the nuclear industry through ongoing dialogue, mutual cooperation and education, - To strengthen community representation with the nuclear industry and politically through networking with other nuclear host communities. As a result of these issues, the Mayors of a number of communities started having informal meetings to discuss the issues at hand and how they effect their constituents. These meetings led to the official formation of the CANHC with representation from: In Canada it is almost impossible to discuss decommissioning and dismantling of Nuclear Facilities without also discussing Nuclear Waste disposal for reasons that I will soon make clear. Also I would like to briefly touch on how and why expectation of communities may differ by geography and circumstance. (author)

  9. Glacially striated, soft sediment surfaces on late Paleozoic tillite at São Luiz do Purunã, PR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Trosdtorf Jr.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Striae and furrows found on the upper surfaces of three stratigraphically superposed decimetric beds of late Paleozoic lodgement tillite of the Itararé Subgroup in the northern Paraná Basin were engraved by ploughing of clasts and possibly also ice protuberances at the base of the glacier, on unconsolidated to partially consolidated sediment. Associated features indicate that the rheology of the bed varied from stiff during lodgement to soft and deformable during ploughing. Poor drainage of meltwater at the glacier-bed interface may have contributed to lower the strength of sediment to deformation. The deformed interval was probably generated during a single glacial phase or advance of a glacier grounding in a marine or lacustrine water body. Changes in the dynamics of the glacier involving slow and fast flow were correlated respectively with alternation of deposition and erosion. The proposed model is analogous to that of lodgement till complexes from the Pleistocene of the northern hemisphere. Retreat of the glacier was probably fast, followed by settling of muds on top of the upper striated and furrowed surface, and progradation of deltaic sands during post-glacial time.Estrias e sulcos encontrados sobre três camadas decimétricas, estratigraficamente superpostas, de tilito de alojamento neopaleozóico do Subgrupo Itararé, na porção norte da Bacia do Paraná, foram formados por aração de clastos e, possivelmente, por protuberâncias de gelo, na base da geleira. Feições associadas indicam que a reologia do sedimento variou de rígido, durante o alojamento, a inconsolidado e deformável durante a aração. A baixa drenagem da água de degelo na interface geleira-substrato pode ter contribuído para reduzir a resistência do sedimento à deformação. A sucessão acima foi gerada provavelmente durante uma única fase glacial ou avanço de geleira sobre corpo de água marinho ou lacustre. Mudanças na dinâmica da geleira envolvendo fluxos lento e rápido corresponderam, respectivamente, a alternâncias entre deposição e erosão. O modelo proposto é análogo ao de complexos de till de alojamento do Pleistoceno do hemisfério do norte. O recuo da geleira foi provavelmente rápido, seguido pela deposição de lama acima da superfície estriada e sulcada superior, e progradação de ciclos de arenitos deltáicos durante a época pós-glacial.

  10. A documentation on burrows in hard substrates of ferromanganese crusts and associated soft sediments from the Central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banerjee, R

    , which are extensively bioturbated. Both the ferromanganese-coated and uncoated relict burrows have been collected from the same locality. Mobile epibenthic megafauna, e.g. molluscs, echinoderms, etc. seem to be main bioturbating organisms. The adjacent...

  11. Abundance and distribution of benthic macroinvertebrates in offshore soft sediments in Western Lake Huron, 2001-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J. R. P.; Schaeffer, J.S.; Roseman, E.F.; Kiley, C.S.; Fouilleroux, A.

    2009-01-01

    Invasive species have had major impacts on the Great Lakes. This is especially true of exotic dreissenid mussels which are associated with decreased abundance of native macroinvertebrates and changes in food availability for fish. Beginning in 2001, we added a benthic macroinvertebrate survey to the USGS-Great Lakes Science Center's annual fall prey fish assessment of Lake Huron to monitor abundance of macrobenthos. Mean abundance of Diporeia, the most abundant benthic taxon in Lake Huron reported by previous investigators, declined greatly between 2001 and 2007. Diporeia was virtually absent at 27-m sites by 2001, decreased and was lost completely from 46-m depths by 2006, but remained present at reduced densities at 73-m sites. Dreissenids in our samples were almost entirely quagga mussels Dreissena bugensis. Zebra mussels Dreissena polymorpha were virtually absent from our samples, suggesting that they were confined to nearshore areas shallower than we sampled. Loss of Diporeia at individual sites was associated with arrival of quagga mussels, even when mussel densities were low. Quagga mussel density peaked during 2002, then decreased thereafter. During the study quagga mussels became established at most 46-m sites, but remained rare at 73-m sites. Length frequency distributions suggest that initial widespread recruitment may have occurred during 2001-2002. Like other Great Lakes, Lake Huron quagga mussels were associated with decreased abundance of native taxa, but negative effects occurred even though dreissenid densities were much lower. Dreissenid effects may extend well into deep oligotrophic habitats of Lake Huron.

  12. In situ pore-pressure evolution during dynamic CPT measurements in soft sediments of the western Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Annedore; Stegmann, Sylvia; Mörz, Tobias; Lange, Matthias; Wever, Thomas; Kopf, Achim

    2008-08-01

    We present in situ strength and pore-pressure measurements from 57 dynamic cone penetration tests in sediments of Mecklenburg ( n = 51), Eckernförde ( n = 2) and Gelting ( n = 4) bays, western Baltic Sea, characterised by thick mud layers and partially free microbial gas resulting from the degradation of organic material. In Mecklenburg and Eckernförde bays, sediment sampling by nine gravity cores served sedimentological characterisation, analyses of geotechnical properties, and laboratory shear tests. At selected localities, high-resolution echo-sounder profiles were acquired. Our aim was to deploy a dynamic cone penetrometer (CPT) to infer sediment shear strength and cohesion of the sea bottom as a function of fluid saturation. The results show very variable changes in pore pressure and sediment strength during the CPT deployments. The majority of the CPT measurements ( n = 54) show initially negative pore-pressure values during penetration, and a delayed response towards positive pressures thereafter. This so-called type B pore-pressure signal was recorded in all three bays, and is typically found in soft muds with high water contents and undrained shear strengths of 1.6-6.4 kPa. The type B signal is further affected by displacement of sediment and fluid upon penetration of the lance, skin effects during dynamic profiling, enhanced consolidation and strength of individual horizons, the presence of free gas, and a dilatory response of the sediment. In Mecklenburg Bay, the remaining small number of CPT measurements ( n = 3) show a well-defined peak in both pore pressure and cone resistance during penetration, i.e. an initial marked increase which is followed by exponential pore-pressure decay during dissipation. This so-called type A pore-pressure signal is associated with normally consolidated mud, with indurated clay layers showing significantly higher undrained shear strength (up to 19 kPa). In Eckernförde and Gelting bays pore-pressure response type B is exclusively found, while in Mecklenburg Bay types A and B were detected. Despite the striking similarities in incremental density increase and shear strength behaviour with depth, gas occurrence and subtle variations in the coarse-grained fraction cause distinct pore-pressure curves. Gaseous muds interbedded with silty and sandy layers are most common in the three bays, and the potential effect of free gas (i.e. undersaturated pore space) on in situ strength has to be explored further.

  13. Designed communities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Marie

    2013-01-01

    In current residential spaces there seem to be an increasing emphasis on small-scale communities. A number of new, high profiled residential complexes thus seek to promote new ways of social living by rethinking architectural design, typologies and concepts. In this paper I explore the emergence ...

  14. Walkable Communities

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast is for a general audience and discusses the benefits of walkable communities, as they relate to health, the environment, and social interaction.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), ATSDR.   Date Released: 5/8/2008.

  15. Interfirm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    . These results yield a paradox which the present paper aims to address. Based on an in-depth case study of how a high-tech small firm organizes its interfirm activity, I show how a hybrid social relation, that is neither weak nor strong, is a useful conception for interfirm communities. Hereby, the study also...

  16. Community Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Saganowski, Stanisław; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Havi...

  17. Tidal and non-tidal sea level variations at two adjacent ports on the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, K.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    changes during June and July at Beypore, caused by summer monsoonal river discharge. The annual cycles of atmospheric pressure at both the sites were remarkably similar. The atmospheric pressure is not an important controlling factor on sea level at both...

  18. Online Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Gorm Hansen, Katrine

    ”Online Communities” er et medie for brugere og fagfolk, hvor de kan mødes digitalt for at dele erfaringer, og dette kan anvendes som inspiration indenfor Brugerdreven Innovation. Via ”desk research” kan virksomheder opnå adgang til varierende mængder af brugere på en forholdsvist enkelt måde. I...... denne rapport beskrives eksperimentets opbygning, resultater og mulige værdi. Vi håber hermed på at kunne give praktisk indsigt i, hvorledes virksomheder fra byggematerialeindustrien kan agere i online communities....

  19. Developing Learning Communities: Using Communities of Practice within Community Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawthom, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The idea that communities need to be inclusive is almost axiomatic. The process, whereby, community members engage in inclusive practices is far less understood. Similarly, UK universities are being encouraged to include the wider community and extent campus boundaries. Here, I suggest a particular theoretical lens which sheds light on engagement…

  20. Deep-sea benthic community and environmental impact assessment at the Atlantic Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, John D.

    2001-05-01

    The seabed community provides a sensitive litmus for environmental change. North Sea analysis of benthic populations provides an effective means for monitoring impacts from man's interventions, such as offshore oil exploitation and fishing, against baseline knowledge of the environment. Comparable knowledge of the benthic biology in the deep waters of the Atlantic Frontier beyond the N.E. Atlantic shelf edge is poorly developed. But uncertainties should not encourage assumptions and extrapolations from the better-known conditions on the continental shelf. While sampling at present still provides the best means to assess the health of the deepwater benthic habitat, protocols developed for deep-sea fauna should be applied. These are necessary because of (a) lower faunal densities, (b) higher species richness, (c) smaller body size, and (d) to ensure comparability with other deep-sea data. As in the North Sea, species richness and relative abundance can be analysed from quantitative samples in order to detect impacts. But analysis based on taxonomic sufficiency above species level is premature, even if arguably possible for coastal communities. Measures also need to ensure identifications are not forced to more familiar coastal species without proper study. Species-level analysis may be applied to seabed photographs of megafauna in relation to data on bottom environment, such as currents and the sediment, to monitor the health of the deep-water community. Although the composition of higher taxa in the benthic community is broadly similar to soft sediments on the shelf, concordance in sensitivities is speculative. Moreover, new organisms occur, such as giant protozoan xenophyophores, unknown on the continental shelf, whose sensitivities remain conjectural. Past knowledge of the benthic biology of the deep-water areas off Scotland is based on scattered stations and some more focussed, multidisciplinary studies, and should be significantly augmented by the results from

  1. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elton

    2004-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  2. Involving the Community

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Step 3: Identifying the different community groups and other stakeholders concerned .... How can two-way communication enhance community participation in ...... for maintenance and the rights of specific community groups to drinkable water.

  3. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elton

    2003-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  4. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Jr, Elton L

    2007-01-01

    The Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium is a unique, forward-thinking, community-based healthcare service project organized around 5 not-for-profit community hospitals located throughout Louisiana and Mississippi...

  5. Community Mentoring: A Tool for Successful Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Kathryn E.

    2015-01-01

    Mentoring occurs in an ad hoc and largely invisible manner in communities. This mentoring happens through modeling, storytelling, and asking open-ended questions. If Extension specialists and agents were more conscious and intentional about teaching community members and leaders about community mentoring, they would be more successful in resolving…

  6. Keeping "Community" in a Community Land Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Karen A.; Galande, Mugdha

    2011-01-01

    This instrumental case study examined the role of grassroots community organizing in a community land trust (CLT) in a southern U.S. city. Twenty-nine homeowners, renters, board members, community members, and current and former CLT employees were interviewed. In addition, two focus groups of 11 and six participants composed of CLT residents and…

  7. On Community Education and Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušana Findeisen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Dušana Findeisen introduces community education and development. She particularly insists upon the fact that in the future our life will not be organised around a paid full time job and that we will be forced into searching other ways of getting involved into society and to acquire our social identity. Community education is one of the ways we could eventually choose. Since community development education in Slovenia has not developed yet the author begins by describing some basic concepts like community and history of community education and community development movement. Further on, she introduces the Andragogical Summer School based in a small Slovenian town, its aim being to encourage Slovenian adult educators to encourage community development projects.

  8. Community development planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    The focus of this paper will be methods of local community involvement in the community development planning efforts which will be required at the recommended sites. Community development planning will include capital improvement plans, housing plans, zoning changes, business development plans and other community service and fiscal plans required to meet the projected needs of new residents as a result of the repository construction and operation. This paper will present, (1) the need for community planning, (2) methods of responding to community planning needs, (3) current community planning issues to be addressed. 2 references, 1 figure

  9. Rediscovering community: Interethnic relationships and community gardening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    August John Hoffman

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Community service work, volunteerism and mentoring have recently become popular topics of research as effective methods in improving self-esteem and civic responsibility. In the current study we explored the relationship between participation in a community service gardening program and ethnocentrism. We hypothesised that an inverse correlation would emerge where students who participated in a community service-gardening program would increase their perceptions of the importance of community service work and decrease their scores in ethnocentrism. Results of the paired samples t-test strongly support the hypothesis that community service gardening work significantly reduces reports of ethnocentrism: t(10 = -2.52, (p < .03 for community college students. The ramifications of the study and ramifications for future research are offered.

  10. Community Involvement - Outreach / Development

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Tonya Aiken: Horse Program Success. Kyle Cecil: Natural Resources and the Extension Educator. Karol Dyson: Building Strong Communities through Empowerment. Lisa Dennis: "Food Smart". Theresa M. Ferrari: Community Service Experiences & 4-H Teens. t. Stacey Harper: Connecting the Youth with the Community. Joseph G. Hiller: Extension Work in Indian Country. Alice P. Kersey: Outreach to the NR Community. Carla M. Sousa: Learning from Latino Community Efforts.

  11. Community Bioethics: The Health Decisions Community Council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tom; Mrgudic, Kate

    1993-01-01

    Sees health care decision making posing variety of complex issues for individuals, families, and providers. Describes Health Decisions Community Council (HDCC), community-based bioethics committee established to offer noninstitutional forum for discussion of health care dilemmas. Notes that social work skills and values for autonomy and…

  12. University-Community Research Partnership for Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyses the existing university–community partnership in research in Tanzania and proposes a bottom-top model instead of the traditional top-bottom approach which works with perceived needs of communities rather than real needs. Given their core missions, many universities assume that they achieve their ...

  13. A la Carte Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundelach, Peter; Brincker, Benedikte

    2010-01-01

    and shows that there are high levels of virtual as well as face-to-face interaction among the members. The participants feel that they belong to the community and many also feel that they are recognised as part of the community. However, the members do not share common values neither in relation to software......The exchange of open source software is a phenomenon that is becoming in- creasingly significant to IT users. This article presents the results of a study of the TYPO3 community, a community related to an open source CMS software. The article explores the community, identity and values of TYPO3...... pro- duction nor generally. Instead, they stress that you are free to choose your own values. Against this background, the authors introduce the notion of an ‘a la carte community', i.e. a community where individuals pick and choose their degree of participation and integra- tion into the community...

  14. Monitoring natural phytoplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraguchi, L.; Jakobsen, H. H.; Lundholm, Nina

    2017-01-01

    The phytoplankton community can vary within hours (physiology) to years (climatic and anthropogenic responses), and monitoring at different timescales is relevant for understanding community functioning and assessing changes. However, standard techniques used in monitoring programmes are time...

  15. Bayesian community detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel N

    2012-01-01

    Many networks of scientific interest naturally decompose into clusters or communities with comparatively fewer external than internal links; however, current Bayesian models of network communities do not exert this intuitive notion of communities. We formulate a nonparametric Bayesian model...... for community detection consistent with an intuitive definition of communities and present a Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure for inferring the community structure. A Matlab toolbox with the proposed inference procedure is available for download. On synthetic and real networks, our model detects communities...... consistent with ground truth, and on real networks, it outperforms existing approaches in predicting missing links. This suggests that community structure is an important structural property of networks that should be explicitly modeled....

  16. Student Engagement with Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-McKenna, Mary; Felten, Peter; Darby, Alexa

    2018-01-01

    Student engagement in the local community comes with both risks and rewards. This chapter explains the cognitive, behavioral, and affective outcomes of student learning in the community, along with noting the importance of preparation and reflection.

  17. Unsewered Communities in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The unsewered communities file was originally conceived as a representation of communities without a municipal sewer system or on-site septic systems. The selection...

  18. Witness, Service, and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen Mary

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the mission of Catholic schools as defined by the church and Vatican II. Suggests that schools be responsive to their communities, implement fair policies, remain faithful to the Catholic tradition, and foster participation in the community. (JDI)

  19. Community Challenge Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Community Challenge Grants aim to reform and reduce barriers to achieving affordable, economically vital and sustainable communities. The funds are awarded to...

  20. Community Nursing Home (CNH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Community Nursing Home (CNH) database contains a list of all Community Nursing Home facilities under local contract to Veterans Health Administration (VHA). CNH...

  1. Knowledge Communities in fives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andriessen, J.H.E.

    2006-01-01

    Many modern knowledge intensive organisations rely on knowledge sharing communities, often called ‘communities of practice. These communities can be found in many organisations, but their forms and functions appear to be quite diverse. This implies that questions concerning the functioning of

  2. American Indian Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Feather, Gerald

    With the emergence of reservation based community colleges (th Navajo Community College and the Dakota Community Colleges), the American Indian people, as decision makers in these institutions, are providing Indians with the technical skills and cultural knowledge necessary for self-determination. Confronted with limited numbers of accredited…

  3. The Learning Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Mary Richardson; Decker, Larry E.

    This guide to community education offers strategies and suggestions for responding to the call for more community involvement in partnership efforts that will benefit education and society. First, a brief introduction summarizes the philosophy of community education, defining it as a belief that learning is lifelong and that self-help efforts…

  4. Discourse Communities and Communities of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogner, Karl-Heinz

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at giving a more detailed description and discussion of two concepts of `community' developed in the research areas of text production/ writing and social learning / information management / knowledge sharing and comparing them with each other. The purpose of this theoretical exer...... production at different Danish workplaces (a consulting engi-neering company, a university department and a bank) and discusses their significance in the context of co-located as well as geographically distrib-uted communities....

  5. Loyalty in Online Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William L; Zhang, Justine; Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Jurafsky, Dan; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-05-01

    Loyalty is an essential component of multi-community engagement. When users have the choice to engage with a variety of different communities, they often become loyal to just one, focusing on that community at the expense of others. However, it is unclear how loyalty is manifested in user behavior, or whether certain community characteristics encourage loyalty. In this paper we operationalize loyalty as a user-community relation: users loyal to a community consistently prefer it over all others; loyal communities retain their loyal users over time. By exploring a large set of Reddit communities, we reveal that loyalty is manifested in remarkably consistent behaviors. Loyal users employ language that signals collective identity and engage with more esoteric, less popular content, indicating that they may play a curational role in surfacing new material. Loyal communities have denser user-user interaction networks and lower rates of triadic closure, suggesting that community-level loyalty is associated with more cohesive interactions and less fragmentation into subgroups. We exploit these general patterns to predict future rates of loyalty. Our results show that a user's propensity to become loyal is apparent from their initial interactions with a community, suggesting that some users are intrinsically loyal from the very beginning.

  6. Mining with communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, Marcello M.; Scoble, Malcolm; McAllister, Mary Louise

    2001-01-01

    To be considered as sustainable, a mining community needs to adhere to the principles of ecological sustainability, economic vitality and social equity. These principles apply over a long time span, covering both the life of the mine and post-mining closure. The legacy left by a mine to the community after its closure is emerging as a significant aspect of its planning. Progress towards sustainability is made when value is added to a community with respect to these principles by the mining operation during its life cycle. This article presents a series of cases to demonstrate the diverse potential challenges to achieving a sustainable mining community. These case studies of both new and old mining communities are drawn mainly from Canada and from locations abroad where Canadian companies are now building mines. The article concludes by considering various approaches that can foster sustainable mining communities and the role of community consultation and capacity building. (author)

  7. National Community Solar Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupert, Bart [Clean Energy Collective, Louisville, CO (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was created to provide a National Community Solar Platform (NCSP) portal known as Community Solar Hub, that is available to any entity or individual who wants to develop community solar. This has been done by providing a comprehensive portal to make CEC’s solutions, and other proven community solar solutions, externally available for everyone to access – making the process easy through proven platforms to protect subscribers, developers and utilities. The successful completion of this project provides these tools via a web platform and integration APIs, a wide spectrum of community solar projects included in the platform, multiple groups of customers (utilities, EPCs, and advocates) using the platform to develop community solar, and open access to anyone interested in community solar. CEC’s Incubator project includes web-based informational resources, integrated systems for project information and billing systems, and engagement with customers and users by community solar experts. The combined effort externalizes much of Clean Energy Collective’s industry-leading expertise, allowing third parties to develop community solar without duplicating expensive start-up efforts. The availability of this platform creates community solar projects that are cheaper to build and cheaper to participate in, furthering the goals of DOE’s SunShot Initiative. Final SF 425 Final SF 428 Final DOE F 2050.11 Final Report Narrative

  8. Career guidance in communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie

    for the development of a critically reflexive career guidance practice. The considerations are organised around seven elements. 1. Creating opportunity, structure and access 2. Entering a community and increasing visibility 3. Providing guidance in communities 4. Exploring potentials in guidance situations 5...... in career guidance practices as well as in the lives of the people in the communities. This paper falls into two parts: The first part considers the collective as the starting point for the development of meaningful career guidance activities. Based on previous research on career guidance in communities......The aim of this paper is to inspire practitioners and professionals to leave their offices to bring career guidance into communities that might not identify with career guidance in the first instance. By making the effort to engage with communities, practitioners may bring about a critical change...

  9. Collaborative Communities of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    and developing strategic initiatives that aid the community as a whole. We discuss the facilitator role of the shared services provider, contrasting it with the coordinator role found in other multi-firm organizations, and we show how shared services providers function by describing three examples...... is an organizational model called the collaborative community of firms. This chapter addresses an important organizational role in a collaborative community, that of the shared services provider. The shared services provider acts as a facilitator in the community, helping member firms collaborate with one another...... of collaborative communities of firms from different sectors: the U.S.-based Blade.org and two Denmark-based communities, the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis and MG50. Implications for the theory and practice of organization design are discussed....

  10. Interrupting Mythic Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnell Secomb

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available If nation is increasingly perceived as a less than honourable institution formed through war, invasion and geo-political territorialisation, and government is widely denounced as the site of political intrigue and the means of subjectification of citizen–voters, community appears to escape this critique and to be viewed as an idyllic formation based on bonds of affinity. However, this romancing of community is disrupted by trans-cultural and sub-cultural formations that expose the fantasy of a harmonious, homogenous community. While community is often conceived as arising organically from familial, tribal or cultural similarity, or as constituted through a common history and shared cultural institutions, this totalising conception of community is interrupted by the demands of difference and heterogeneity and by a questioning of the idyll of community authenticated in myths of archaic origin.

  11. Community impact management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baril, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    Industrial expansion, whether for resource extraction, refining, production or distribution and particularly the construction of energy facilities, usually has many effects on communities. In the early 1970s, as more experience was gained with large projects and as communities became more sensitive to their needs and rights, the negative effects of projects gained some prominence. Communities questioned whether it was in their best interest to accept changes that large corporations would impose on them. It is in this context that Ontario Hydro, in 1977, set up the first of four community impact agreements for the construction of generating stations. This paper discusses these community impact agreements and how they have become the framework for the management of community impacts. Also, the paper discusses a model for compensating social impacts

  12. Coal, culture and community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-11-01

    16 papers are presented with the following titles: the miners; municipalisation and the millenium - Bolton-upon-Dearne Urban District Council 1899-1914; the traditional working class community revisited; the cultural capital of coal mining communities; activities, strike-breakers and coal communities; the limits of protest - media coverage of the Orgreave picket during the miners` strike; in defence of home and hearth? Families, friendships and feminism in mining communities; young people`s attitudes to the police in mining communities; the determinants of productivity growth in the British coal mining industry, 1976-1989; strategic responses to flexibility - a case study in coal; no coal turned in Yorkshire?; the North-South divide in the Central Coalfields; the psychological effects of redundancy and worklessness - a case study from the coalfields; the Dearne Valley initiative; the future under labour: and coal, culture and the community.

  13. MBS Native Plant Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data layer contains results of the Minnesota County Biological Survey (MCBS). It includes polygons representing the highest quality native plant communities...

  14. Communities running energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The conditions for the evolution of community renewable energy are right in some parts of the country. This article reports on some recent developments, with opportunities for business and local government. Many communities across Australia are developing wind and solar projects, but only a fraction are actually generating power. Nicky Ison, researcher of community renewable energy (CRE) at the Institute for Sustainable Futures, is director of the Community Power Agency. The latter is behind a new coalition lobbying the federal government in Australia to establish a $50 million grant program to support the development stage of CRE projects.

  15. Defining political community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladeček Michal M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the concept of political community, its constitution and value. The starting point is that the concept of community is not sufficiently recognized in modern political theories, as well as in contemporary liberal theory. In the last two decades communitarian and republican political theory attempted to revitalize this notion. The first part of the paper elaborates on the polemics between these three theoretical orientations. The concluding part examines the possibilities and prospect for stable political community in conditions of pluralism of particular social communities and ethnocultural heterogeneity.

  16. Nuclear Community in network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejedor, E.

    2014-01-01

    The internet has revolutionized the ways of communication and many companies/ organizations have adapted to the change but others have not, or have done it halfway. This presentation is a review of the main characteristics of virtual communities and their typology. The status of the Nuclear Online Community, both pro nuclear and antinuclear is analysed , and their main similarities and differences are discussed. The Pro nuclear Online Community is formed gradually. This presentation attempts to define some ways to increase the scope of the Community and encourage greater dissemination of the characteristics of nuclear energy. (Author)

  17. Open source community organization

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molefe, Onkgopotse M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Open Source communities (OSCs), sometimes referred to as virtual or online communities play a significant role in terms of the contribution they continue to make in producing user-friendly Open Source Software (OSS) solutions. Many projects have...

  18. EMI New User Communities

    CERN Document Server

    Riedel, M

    2013-01-01

    This document provides pieces of information about new user communities that directly or indirectly take advantage of EMI Products. Each user community is described via one specific EMI product use case to understand and communicate the current usage of EMI Products in practice.

  19. Community as Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Jim; Chow, Patricia; Schechter, Sandra R.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a project involving teachers, parents, and university researchers in collaborations to support multilingual children's development and use of language. Strategies for fostering an inclusive climate included building on the interests and resources of the local community, involving community members in curriculum development,…

  20. Community Music in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Gillian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a historical perspective to the development of community music in Australia. Finding political support in Australia's progressive arts policies of the late 1970s, community music is discussed as embracing the principles of access and equity and supporting the development of musical skills in the context of social change and…

  1. Decoding communities in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2018-02-01

    According to a recent information-theoretical proposal, the problem of defining and identifying communities in networks can be interpreted as a classical communication task over a noisy channel: memberships of nodes are information bits erased by the channel, edges and nonedges in the network are parity bits introduced by the encoder but degraded through the channel, and a community identification algorithm is a decoder. The interpretation is perfectly equivalent to the one at the basis of well-known statistical inference algorithms for community detection. The only difference in the interpretation is that a noisy channel replaces a stochastic network model. However, the different perspective gives the opportunity to take advantage of the rich set of tools of coding theory to generate novel insights on the problem of community detection. In this paper, we illustrate two main applications of standard coding-theoretical methods to community detection. First, we leverage a state-of-the-art decoding technique to generate a family of quasioptimal community detection algorithms. Second and more important, we show that the Shannon's noisy-channel coding theorem can be invoked to establish a lower bound, here named as decodability bound, for the maximum amount of noise tolerable by an ideal decoder to achieve perfect detection of communities. When computed for well-established synthetic benchmarks, the decodability bound explains accurately the performance achieved by the best community detection algorithms existing on the market, telling us that only little room for their improvement is still potentially left.

  2. Caring for the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, Roxane

    2004-01-01

    Nurses can play a unique role in caring for their communities. The first and most obvious role is the direct care of patients, the underlying raison d'etre of nursing, and second is the indirect care of the patients' families and friends. The hands-on healing image of nurses is held by many people and personified through the years by such real-life examples as Clara Barton. It is also the image that attracts many to nursing and is fueled by desire--the desire to help, to make a positive difference, and to serve people. It is often a powerful one-on-one connection between caregiver and receiver, nurse and patient, that defines the role of nursing. Yet, nurses can--and should--play broader roles in caring for their communities. This includes the internal community within one's own organization, the environment in which nurses work, and the larger external community--or communities--in which one lives. By reaching out and caring for the broader communities, nurses have the opportunity to grow while the communities benefit from their participatory caring. In addition, the image of nursing is enhanced externally. The nurse as community caregiver melds the heart and soul of nursing for a new 21st century model of caring.

  3. Decoding communities in networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2018-02-01

    According to a recent information-theoretical proposal, the problem of defining and identifying communities in networks can be interpreted as a classical communication task over a noisy channel: memberships of nodes are information bits erased by the channel, edges and nonedges in the network are parity bits introduced by the encoder but degraded through the channel, and a community identification algorithm is a decoder. The interpretation is perfectly equivalent to the one at the basis of well-known statistical inference algorithms for community detection. The only difference in the interpretation is that a noisy channel replaces a stochastic network model. However, the different perspective gives the opportunity to take advantage of the rich set of tools of coding theory to generate novel insights on the problem of community detection. In this paper, we illustrate two main applications of standard coding-theoretical methods to community detection. First, we leverage a state-of-the-art decoding technique to generate a family of quasioptimal community detection algorithms. Second and more important, we show that the Shannon's noisy-channel coding theorem can be invoked to establish a lower bound, here named as decodability bound, for the maximum amount of noise tolerable by an ideal decoder to achieve perfect detection of communities. When computed for well-established synthetic benchmarks, the decodability bound explains accurately the performance achieved by the best community detection algorithms existing on the market, telling us that only little room for their improvement is still potentially left.

  4. Community of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The concept of “communities of practice” is of relatively recent date. The concept gained momentum with Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger’s book from 1991, Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Since then, the notion of “communities of practice” has been a focus of attention, not least...

  5. An Enriching Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Nancy A.; Burroughs, Jean

    2001-01-01

    Successful school-community partnerships in Volusia (Florida) Public Schools are the results of marketing creatively, meeting community members' needs, and bringing the right people together. The 3-year old program now offers students of all ages an expanding list of enrichment classes on many subjects for a nominal fee. (MLH)

  6. Community Research Mythology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldern, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    This article is dedicated to an in-depth discussion of the theme community and the implications the multiple meanings of community hold for the field of qualitative research. This theme surfaced from Walderns 2003 study entitled Resistance to Research in Vancouvers Downtown Eastside, which dealt with participant resistance to joining research…

  7. Community Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Andrew

    Information is provided on technological and social trends as background for a workshop designed to heighten the consciousness of workers in community information systems. Initially, the basic terminology is considered in its implications for an integrated perspective of community information systems, with particular attention given to the meaning…

  8. Alaska Community Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant Information Human Services Funding 5310 5316 (Repealed) 5317 (Repealed) Alaska Mental Health Trust Department of Transportation & Public Facilities/ Alaska Community Transit Search DOT&PF State of Alaska Photo banner DOT&PF> Program Development > Alaska Community Transit Home About Us

  9. Community-Based Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Community-Based Care Basic Facts & Information A variety of healthcare options ... day care centers are either in churches or community centers. Adult day care is commonly used to care for people who ...

  10. Community of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A clear and informative description of the theoretical and methodological content and implications of the concept of Community of Practice......A clear and informative description of the theoretical and methodological content and implications of the concept of Community of Practice...

  11. Community Colleges Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Corinne; Jervis, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Dr. Jill Biden, Vice President Joe Biden's wife, has been teaching in community colleges for the past 18 years. Dr. Biden believes that community colleges are "…uniquely American institutions where anyone who walks through the door is one step closer to realizing the American dream." This is an inspiring sentiment. However, of all the…

  12. It Takes a Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Reuben; Villarreal, Lisa; Muñoz, José; Mahaffey, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Community schools are a sound education reform strategy that gets results. They start by asking local students and their families what they need to succeed in school, then they reach out to relevant community partners and use the school as the hub for organizing partnerships, services, and supports. By listening closely to the assets and needs of…

  13. The Ethic of Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Gail C.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes the concept of an ethic of community to complement and extend other ethical frames used in education e.g. the ethics of justice, critique, and care. Proceeding from the traditional definition of ethics as the study of moral duty and obligation, ethic of community is defined as the moral responsibility to engage in communal…

  14. UNM in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantum: Research & Scholarship, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Profiles 10 University of New Mexico community programs: University Art Museum, Rio Grande and Four Corners Writing Projects, Blacks in the Southwest (exhibit), New Mexico Engineering Research Institute's Environmental Finance Center, Adolescent Social Action Program, Minority Engineering Programs, Rural Community College Initiative, Valencia…

  15. Creating Learning Communities: An Introduction to Community Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Larry E.; Boo, Mary Richardson

    Schools cannot succeed without collaboration with parents and the community. Defining community education as active community involvement in the education of children, this booklet describes aspects of community education. Community education, the booklet points out, can take place at physical locations such as formal school buildings, which lie…

  16. Predictability in community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin; Moulton, Derek E; Blois, Jessica; Enquist, Brian J; Graae, Bente J; Macias-Fauria, Marc; McGill, Brian; Nogué, Sandra; Ordonez, Alejandro; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2017-03-01

    The coupling between community composition and climate change spans a gradient from no lags to strong lags. The no-lag hypothesis is the foundation of many ecophysiological models, correlative species distribution modelling and climate reconstruction approaches. Simple lag hypotheses have become prominent in disequilibrium ecology, proposing that communities track climate change following a fixed function or with a time delay. However, more complex dynamics are possible and may lead to memory effects and alternate unstable states. We develop graphical and analytic methods for assessing these scenarios and show that these dynamics can appear in even simple models. The overall implications are that (1) complex community dynamics may be common and (2) detailed knowledge of past climate change and community states will often be necessary yet sometimes insufficient to make predictions of a community's future state. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  17. Occurrence of soft sediment deformation at Dive Agar beach, west coast of India: possible record of the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Meshram, D.C.; Sangode, S.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Dhongle, D.; Porate, S.

    tsunami events (i.e., 2004 IOT), the only reported event after 1945 in the west coast. Alternative marine and terrigenous sands are characteristic of tsunami run-up and backwash deposits, while the dimensions of SSDs may be related to the <2 m magnitude...

  18. Syndepositional tectonics recorded by soft-sediment deformation and liquefaction structures (continental Lower Permian sediments, Southern Alps, Northern Italy): Stratigraphic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, F.; Felletti, F.

    2011-04-01

    The Lower Permian succession of the Central Southern Alps (Lombardy, Northern Italy) was deposited in fault-controlled continental basins, probably related to transtensional tectonics. We focussed our study on the stratigraphic record of the Lower Permian Orobic Basin, which consists of a 1000 m thick succession of prevailing continental clastics with intercalations of ignimbritic flows and tuffs (Pizzo del Diavolo Formation, PDV) resting on the underlying prevailing pyroclastic flows of the Cabianca Volcanite. The PDV consists of a lower part (composed of conglomerates passing laterally to sandstones and distally to silt and shales), a middle part (pelitic, with carbonates) and an upper part (alternating sandstone, silt and volcanic flows). Syndepositional tectonics during the deposition of the PDV is recorded by facies distribution, thickness changes and by the presence of deformation and liquefaction structures interpreted as seismites. Deformation is recorded by both ductile structures (ball-and-pillow, plastic intrusion, disturbed lamination, convolute stratification and slumps) and brittle structures (sand dykes and autoclastic breccias). Both the sedimentological features and the geodynamic setting of the depositional basin confidently support the interpretation of the described deformation features as related to seismic shocks. The most significant seismically-induced deformation is represented by a slumped horizon (about 4 m thick on average) which can be followed laterally for more than 5 km. The slumped bed consists of playa-lake deposits (alternating pelites and microbial carbonates, associated with mud cracks and vertebrate tracks). The lateral continuity and the evidence of deposition on a very low-angle surface along with the deformation/liquefaction of the sediments suggest that the slump was triggered by a high-magnitude earthquake. The stratigraphic distribution of the seismites allows us to identify time intervals of intense seismic activity, which correspond to rapid and basin-wide changes in the stratigraphical architecture of the depositional basin and/or to the reprise of the volcanic activity. The nature of the structures and their distribution suggest that the magnitude of the earthquakes responsible for the observed structures was likely higher than 5 (in order to produce sediment liquefaction) and probably reached intensity as high as 7 or more. The basin architecture suggests that the foci of these earthquakes were located close to the fault-controlled borders of the basin or within the basin itself.

  19. Coastal lagoon systems as indicator of Holocene sea-level development in a periglacial soft-sediment setting: Samsø, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Lasse; Fruergaard, Mikkel; Johannessen, Peter N.

    2014-01-01

    . Stratigraphy, grain-size distribution, fossil and organic matter content of cores retrieved from the lagoons were analyzed and compared. Age control was established using radiocarbon and optically stimulated luminescence dating. Our data produced a surprisingly consistent pattern for the sedimentary......Confined shallow-water environments are encountered many places along the coast of the inner Danish waters. Despite their common occurrence, these environments have rarely been studied as sedimentary archives. In this study we set out to trace back changes in relative sea-level and associated...... geomorphological responses in sediment cores retrieved from coastal lagoon systems on the island of Samsø, central Denmark. In the mid-Atlantic period, the post-glacial sea-level rise reached what is today the southern Kattegat Sea. Waves, currents and tides began to erode the unconsolidated moraine material...

  20. [Community marketing of contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, J M

    1987-09-01

    The 5-year-old community contraceptive distribution program developed by PROFAMILIA, Colombia's private family planning organization, has given excellent results, but several cost-effectiveness comparisons with social marketing programs have suggested that commercial distribution programs are superior. The community contraceptive distribution program has a high content of information and education activities, which produced significant increases in knowledge and use of contraception in the communities covered. It has been a fundamental support for the social marketing program, creating much of the demand for contraceptive products that the social marketing program has filled. The social marketing program has given good results in terms of volume of sales and in cost-effectiveness since 1976, prompting calls for replacement of the community contraceptive distribution program by the social marketing program in those sectors where knowledge and use of contraception have achieved acceptable levels. An experiment in the Department of Santander in 1984 and 1985 gave very favorable results, suggesting that community contraceptive distribution programs should be replaced by social marketing programs in all more developed markets. But economic problems in 1985 and the decision of manufacturers to decrease the profit margin for PROFAMILIA jeopardized the social marketing program. The community distribution program covered about 20% of the market. Reduced profits in the social marketing program threatened its continued expansion, at the same time that potential demand was growing because of increases in the fertile aged population and increased use of contraception. To meet the need, PROFAMILIA combined the community contraceptive distribution and social marketing programs into a new entity to be called community marketing. The strategy of the community marketing program will be to maintain PROFAMILIA's participation in the market and aid the growth of demand for

  1. Building global learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Averill Gordon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning communities around a community of practice of learning researchers and practitioners. The results include the development of a framework for utilising mobile social media to support collaborative curriculum development across international boundaries. We conclude that this framework is potentially transferrable to a range of educational contexts where the focus is upon student-generated mobile social media projects.

  2. Collaborative Communities of Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøllingtoft, Anne; Müller, Sabine; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2011-01-01

    and developing strategic initiatives that aid the community as a whole. We discuss the facilitator role of the shared services provider, contrasting it with the coordinator role found in other multi-firm organizations, and we show how shared services providers function by describing three examples...... of collaborative communities of firms from different sectors: the U.S.-based Blade.org and two Denmark-based communities, the Kalundborg Industrial Symbiosis and MG50. Implications for the theory and practice of organization design are discussed....

  3. [(Community) psychiatry, a parenthesis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheron, Bastien

    2015-01-01

    Beyond an a priori antagonism between these two notions, alienism and mental health cultivate analogies as to the place to which they assign mental health. Is community psychiatry not therefore simply a parenthesis in the history of psychiatry? The question is raised therefore regarding the place given to subjectivity and complexity. What must be done to ensure that this parenthesis of community psychiatry does not close? It is perhaps a case of making use of the tools which institutional psychotherapy has developed to keep the community psychiatry spirit alive. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. The European Community context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charrault, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The chapter discusses the following: energy resources and energy policy within the European Community; political aspects in the Member States; Community involvement in the transport of radioactive materials; responsibility for safety in relation to transport lies with the governments of the Member States, but the Community through its various organizations also has certain responsibilities, e.g. to ensure that transport regulations are harmonised, to carry out safeguards checks, to provide standards for health and safety of workers and the public, and to cooperate with Member States in developing guidelines for transport safety. (U.K.)

  5. Assessing Community Informatics: A Review of Methodological Approaches for Evaluating Community Networks and Community Technology Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Dara

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the emerging community informatics evaluation literature to develop an understanding of the indicators used to gauge project impacts in community networks and community technology centers. The study finds that community networks and community technology center assessments fall into five key areas: strong democracy; social capital;…

  6. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Department of Community Health, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. ... Mental morbidity is a public health problem that can lead to a great burden of disability in the community. ..... community study in Sao Paulo, Brazil where.

  7. Engaging the Community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Claassen observes, "There is an interesting co-existence of traditional culture and modern ideas and also "African" religion and Christianity. Traditional leaders and community members were very open and most helpful in the research." Photos: Photo...

  8. Cleanups in My Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Cleanups in My Community (CIMC) is a public web application that enables integrated access through maps, lists and search filtering to site-specific information EPA...

  9. Police Community Outreach

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Community outreach activities attended by Pittsburgh Police Officers, starting from January 1 2016. Includes Zone, Event Name, Location, Date and Time.

  10. FEMA DFIRM Community Info

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table is a lookup table that contains community map repository details and map history information that is shown on the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) legend...

  11. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  12. Online Community Transition Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Biying; Zhu, Feida; Qu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    communities over time. How to automatically detect the online community transitions of individual users is a research problem of immense practical value yet with great technical challenges. In this paper, we propose an algorithm based on the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle to trace the evolution......Mining user behavior patterns in social networks is of great importance in user behavior analysis, targeted marketing, churn prediction and other applications. However, less effort has been made to study the evolution of user behavior in social communities. In particular, users join and leave...... of community transition of individual users, adaptive to the noisy behavior. Experiments on real data sets demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed method....

  13. 2015 Community Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — These are the answers to the 2015 Community Survey.A comprehensive summary of the survey results can be found here.The survey asked town members to address their...

  14. Small Community Training & Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Operators Small Systems Small Community Training & Education education, training and professional implement the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). • EPA Environmental Education Center

  15. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchopneumonia - children; Community-acquired pneumonia - children; CAP - children ... Viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in infants and children. Ways your child can get CAP include: Bacteria and viruses living in the nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread ...

  16. RAS Initiative - Community Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Through community and technical collaborations, workshops and symposia, and the distribution of reference reagents, the RAS Initiative seeks to increase the sharing of knowledge and resources essential to defeating cancers caused by mutant RAS genes.

  17. Fishing Community Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To enable fisheries managers to comply with National Standard 8 (NS8), NMFS social scientists around the nation are preparing fishing community profiles that present...

  18. Taskable Reactive Agent Communities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Myers, Karen

    2002-01-01

    The focus of Taskable Reactive Agent Communities (TRAC) project was to develop mixed-initiative technology to enable humans to supervise and manage teams of agents as they perform tasks in dynamic environments...

  19. Assessing Community Telecentres

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    the impacts of telecentres on their programs, such as youth employment or ..... the community's satisfaction with its performance (see Table 10), and basic ..... The result (average rural income) is compared with the estimated capital cost of ...

  20. Community Points of Interest

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View locations of Cary’s community centers, fire, police and EMS stations, hospitals, libraries, Cary Convenience Center, schools and post offices. Note commercial...

  1. Mobilizing community energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bomberg, Elizabeth; McEwen, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    What explains the galvanising of communities to participate actively in energy projects? How do groups mobilize to overcome the often formidable barriers highlighted in the existing literature? Drawing on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland, including six in-depth case studies, we explain how effective mobilization occurs and the political dynamics surrounding such mobilization. To capture these dynamics, we adapt theories offered by literature on social movements, with a particular focus on resource mobilization theories. Applying our adapted framework, we identify two particular sets of resources shaping community energy mobilization: (i) structural resources, which refer to the broad political context structuring and constraining opportunities for community energy mobilization; and (ii) symbolic resources—less tangible resources used to galvanise participants. We investigate to what extent our case study groups were able to draw upon and exploit these resources. We find that structural resources can either facilitate or hinder mobilization; what matters is how state resources are exploited and constraints mitigated. The use of symbolic resources was highly effective in aiding mobilization. Each of the groups examined – despite their considerable variation – effectively exploited symbolic resources such as shared identity or desire for strong, self reliant communities. - Highlights: ► Explains how/why community energy groups mobilize and the political dynamics surrounding it. ► Draws on original qualitative research of 100 community energy groups in Scotland. ► Identifies two particular sets of resources (structural and symbolic) and their importance. ► Explains how these resources shape community energy mobilization in Scotland. ► Provides an original application of resource mobilization theory to the field of energy studies.

  2. Designing for Communities

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, Mark Boulton's small design firm won the project to redesign drupal.org home to the Drupal open source content management project and its community of over 400,000 users and developers. Designing for open source communities has its challenges: it is a developer-centric environment where discussion, debate and consensus rules and where design processes are often viewed sceptically. To help dispel some misconceptions behind the design process, Mark's team worked completely openly with the Drupal community - and broader the web design community - throughout the project. This talk will walk through some of the challenges and solutions for designing for large communities. Mark will share the successes - and the horror stories - of how a traditional design process was challenged every step of the way and how the Drupal community became an integral part of that new process. Mark and his team will be working with the Communication Group on an open project to r...

  3. Creating one planet communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilts, R.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation discussed low carbon communities that used a variety of sustainable energy technologies to reduce energy consumption and waste. The presentation was given by a company who has adopted a One Planet framework to ensure the development of zero carbon, zero waste, sustainable communities.The Dockside Green project was awarded North America's highest leadership in energy and environmental design (LEED) score. The community includes a waste biomass plant and an on-site wastewater treatment plant. Excess heat produced by the community's greenhouse gas (GHG) neutral biomass district heating system is sold to neighbouring communities. The BedZED project in the United Kingdom uses a high-density format to support a community living and workspace environment that uses rainwater harvesting, passive solar heating, high performance envelopes, and green roofs. The site includes 40 electric car charging stations. A combined heat and power (CHP) biomass plant provides electricity and hot water to all buildings. Neighbourhood-scale sustainable development is expected to have a significant impact on the ecological footprint of North American cities. Carbon neutral projects in Canada were also listed. tabs., figs.

  4. Community Involvement in School: Social Relationships in a Bedroom Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jane P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to describe how community involvement in school is associated with the social relationships existing/lacking within a bedroom community. Thirty-five interviews with school council members, teachers, and community members highlighted that traditional forms of community involvement in school generate…

  5. Modelling Water Level Influence on Habitat Choice and Food Availability for Zostera Feeding Brent Geese Branta bernicla in Non-Tidal Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P.

    2000-01-01

    of water level fluctuations on the habitat use. A second model was developed to estimate the impact of water level on Zostera availability. The first model was successful in demonstrating that fluctuations in water levels had considerable influence on habitat use by the brent geese, i.e. they fed...... on Zostera at low water levels and on saltmarshes during high water levels, particularly so in early spring, and that the switch between habitats occurred within a narrow water level span of ca 30 cm. The second model demonstrated that the switch between habitats could be explained by lowered availability...... of Zostera as water levels increased. By combining the output from the two models, differences between years could partly be explained by differences in Zostera availability in the early spring period (21 March - 25 April), whereas a more complicated situation was detected later in spring (26 April - 31 May...

  6. Observation of online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Sladjana V.; Rask, Morten

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the application of observation to online settings with a special focus on observer roles. It draws on a study of online observation of a virtual community, i.e. an open source software (OSS) community. The paper examines general and specific advantages and disadvantages...... of the observer roles in online settings by relating these roles to the same roles assumed in offline settings. The study suggests that under the right circumstances online and offline observation may benefit from being combined as they complement each other well. Quality issues and factors important to elicit...... trustworthy observational data from online study settings, such as OSS communities, are discussed. A proposition is made concerning how threats to credibility and transferability in relation to online observation (i.e. lack of richness and detail, risk of misunderstandings) can be diminished, while...

  7. Athena Community Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Núnez, S.; Barcons, X.; Barret, D.; Bozzo, E.; Carrera, F. J.; Ceballos, M. T.; Gómez, S.; Monterde, M. P.; Rau, A.

    2017-03-01

    The Athena Community Office (ACO) has been established by ESA's Athena Science Study Team (ASST) in order to obtain support in performing its tasks assigned by ESA, and most specially in the ASST role as "focal point for the interests of the broad scientific community". The ACO is led by the Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), and its activities are funded by CSIC and UC. Further ACO contributors are the University of Geneva, MPE and IRAP. In this poster, we present ACO to the Spanish Astronomical Community, informing about its main responsibilities, which are: assist the ASST in organising and collecting support from the Athena Working Groups and Topical Panels; organise and maintain the documentation generated by the Athena Working Groups and Topical Panels; manage the Working Group and Topical Panel membership lists; assist the ASST in promoting Athena science capabilities in the research world, through conferences and workshops; keep a record of all papers and presentations related to Athena; support the production of ASST documents; produce and distribute regularly an Athena Newsletter, informing the community about all mission and science developments; create and maintain the Athena Community web portal; maintain an active communication activity; promote, organise and support Athena science-related public outreach, in coordination with ESA and other agencies involved when appropriate; and, design, produce materials and provide pointers to available materials produced by other parties. In summary, ACO is meant to become a focal point to facilitate the scientific exchange between the Athena activities and the scientific community at large, and to disseminate the Athena science objectives to the general public.

  8. Marketing of the online communities

    OpenAIRE

    Pražan, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The Bachelor Thesis "Marketing of the online communities" is devoted to online virtual communities, one of the phenomena of the current Internet. Goal of this thesis is to determine the factors that predispose the successful operation of online communities. The thesis defines the essentials features of social media, characterized by online communities and their role in marketing. It deals with strategic and tactical aspects of building and maintaining successful online communities. Based on t...

  9. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  10. The Community of Rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgård, Jonas Ross

    2012-01-01

    be used in a particularistic and excluding way which was the case in the legislation of Maximilien de Robespierre’s Terror Regime. Situated somewhere between inclusion in and exclusion from the community of rights, the playwright and political activist Olympe de Gouges sought to propagate an understanding...... of the natural that could better accommodate women and nonmarital children. Her attempts were futile, however, and in 1793 she was sentenced to death according to a newly written law meant to prosecute enemies of the Republic’s natural community....

  11. Community gardens: lessons learned from California Healthy Cities and Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiss, Joan; Dickinson, Joy; Duma, Shirley; Kleinman, Tanya; Paulsen, Heather; Rilveria, Liz

    2003-09-01

    Community gardens enhance nutrition and physical activity and promote the role of public health in improving quality of life. Opportunities to organize around other issues and build social capital also emerge through community gardens. California Healthy Cities and Communities (CHCC) promotes an inclusionary and systems approach to improving community health. CHCC has funded community-based nutrition and physical activity programs in several cities. Successful community gardens were developed by many cities incorporating local leadership and resources, volunteers and community partners, and skills-building opportunities for participants. Through community garden initiatives, cities have enacted policies for interim land and complimentary water use, improved access to produce, elevated public consciousness about public health, created culturally appropriate educational and training materials, and strengthened community building skills.

  12. Celebrating indigenous communities compassionate traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Holly

    2018-01-01

    Living in a compassionate community is not a new practice in First Nations communities; they have always recognized dying as a social experience. First Nations hold extensive traditional knowledge and have community-based practices to support the personal, familial, and community experiences surrounding end-of-life. However, western health systems were imposed and typically did not support these social and cultural practices at end of life. In fact, the different expectations of western medicine and the community related to end of life care has created stress and misunderstanding for both. One solution is for First Nations communities to develop palliative care programs so that people can receive care at home amongst their family, community and culture. Our research project "Improving End-of-Life Care in First Nations Communities" (EOLFN) was funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research [2010-2015] and was conducted in partnership with four First Nations communities in Canada (see www.eolfn.lakeheadu.ca). Results included a community capacity development approach to support Indigenous models of care at end-of-life. The workshop will describe the community capacity development process used to develop palliative care programs in First Nations communities. It will highlight the foundation to this approach, namely, grounding the program in community values and principles, rooted in individual, family, community and culture. Two First Nations communities will share stories about their experiences developing their own palliative care programs, which celebrated cultural capacity in their communities while enhancing medical palliative care services in a way that respected and integrated with their community cultural practices. This workshop shares the experiences of two First Nations communities who developed palliative care programs by building upon community culture, values and principles. The underlying model guiding development is shared.

  13. The Community College Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, James E.; Ahearn, Caitlin; Rosenbaum, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to promote college for all for all has opened college doors to a broad range of students. But college--and career success after college--doesn't have to mean a bachelor's degree. Community college credentials, such as associate's degrees and one-year certificates, can lead to further degrees or jobs that offer more benefits than students…

  14. Emerging Communities of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlister, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Communities of practice are emerging as an innovative approach to faculty development. While collaborative learning is becoming popular in the classroom, autonomy and individualism continue to dominate the culture of higher education for faculty. However, as we begin to recognize that old solutions to new problems are no longer effective, there is…

  15. Social Innovation Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satrustegui, Alfonso Unceta; Castro-Spila, Javier; Luna, Alvaro

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of hybridity and governance have been an important line of research in the context of social companies and public institutions. The purpose of this paper is to explore these notions in the framework of hybrid communities of social innovation by showing the importance of intangible capital in the improvement of functional skills,…

  16. No Community Left Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlechty, Phillip C.

    2008-01-01

    The debate over the reauthorization of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) generally overlooks--or looks past--what may be the most fundamental flaw in that legislation. As the law is now written, decisions regarding what the young should know and be able to do are removed from the hands of parents and local community leaders and turned over to officials…

  17. Violence and Community Capabilities:

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ous cities boast community-based initiatives that significantly reduce the ..... account the ambiguous yet critical role that gangs can play at the local level. .... promote and exercise other forms of violence, such as extortion, sexual abuse, and ... of employment that comes without any rights or protection, and making informal.

  18. Joining the Global Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Knoester, Jocelyn

    2002-01-01

    Canada World Youth enables young Canadians to live in another part of Canada with youths from a developing country for several months while volunteering in community projects. Then they move as a group to the partner country for several months where the program structure is the same. Participants acquire the skills and values necessary to…

  19. Participatory academic communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaen, Janus Holst; Nørgård, Rikke Toft

    2015-01-01

    understanding of participation in edu-cation can move educatees’ learning beyond institutions through focusing on educatees as researchers, participat-ing in society, building a research community and obtaining academic citizenship. Further, the article discusses how a value-based, vision-driven approach...

  20. BNFL and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolter, H.

    1982-01-01

    The contributions made by BNFL to community relations are described in an illustrated booklet under the headings: introduction (general policy); donations and sponsorships; BNFL talks service; brochures and public information; visits; local liaison committees; industrial training; sponsored students; apprentices. (U.K.)

  1. Building Global Learning Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Thomas; Buchem, Ilona; Camacho, Mar; Cronin, Catherine; Gordon, Averill; Keegan, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Within the background where education is increasingly driven by the economies of scale and research funding, we propose an alternative online open and connected framework (OOC) for building global learning communities using mobile social media. We critique a three year action research case study involving building collaborative global learning…

  2. For Community Sake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jeffery W.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines whether religious education plays a role in the promotion of harmonious international relations, arguing that a broad religious education with a dialogical approach goes to the heart of what it means to be a citizen in a global community. Christian theologian Hans Kung argues in his book "Judaism: Between Yesterday and…

  3. One Community Working Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Charles

    2011-01-01

    In the city of San Jose, more than half of all public school students tested are not proficient in their grade-level skills. This article discusses how school, civic and community leaders have joined forces with the goal of eliminating the achievement gap in San Jose by 2020. This wide and highly inclusive collaboration is made possible by an…

  4. Community Radiation Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, E.N.

    1993-05-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program (CRMP) is a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE); the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); the Desert Research Institute (DRI), a division of the University and Community College System of Nevada and the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the University of Utah (UNEL). The twelfth year of the program began in the fall of 1991, and the work continues as an integral part of the DOE-sponsored long-term offsite radiological monitoring effort that has been conducted by EPA and its predecessors since the inception of nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The program began as an outgrowth of activities that occurred during the Three Mile Island incident in 1979. The local interest and public participation that took place there were thought to be transferrable to the situation at the NTS, so, with adaptations, that methodology was implemented for this program. The CRMP began by enhancing and centralizing environmental monitoring and sampling equipment at 15 communities in the existing EPA monitoring network, and has since expanded to 19 locations in Nevada, Utah and California. The primary objectives of this program are still to increase the understanding by the people who live in the area surrounding the NTS of the activities for which DOE is responsible, to enhance the performance of radiological sampling and monitoring, and to inform all concerned of the results of these efforts. One of the primary methods used to improve the communication link with people in the potentially impacted area has been the hiring and training of local citizens as station managers and program representatives in those selected communities in the offsite area. These managers, active science teachers wherever possible, have succeeded, through their training, experience, community standing, and effort, in becoming a very visible, able and valuable asset in this link

  5. Leveraging disjoint communities for detecting overlapping community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Network communities represent mesoscopic structure for understanding the organization of real-world networks, where nodes often belong to multiple communities and form overlapping community structure in the network. Due to non-triviality in finding the exact boundary of such overlapping communities, this problem has become challenging, and therefore huge effort has been devoted to detect overlapping communities from the network.In this paper, we present PVOC (Permanence based Vertex-replication algorithm for Overlapping Community detection), a two-stage framework to detect overlapping community structure. We build on a novel observation that non-overlapping community structure detected by a standard disjoint community detection algorithm from a network has high resemblance with its actual overlapping community structure, except the overlapping part. Based on this observation, we posit that there is perhaps no need of building yet another overlapping community finding algorithm; but one can efficiently manipulate the output of any existing disjoint community finding algorithm to obtain the required overlapping structure. We propose a new post-processing technique that by combining with any existing disjoint community detection algorithm, can suitably process each vertex using a new vertex-based metric, called permanence, and thereby finds out overlapping candidates with their community memberships. Experimental results on both synthetic and large real-world networks show that PVOC significantly outperforms six state-of-the-art overlapping community detection algorithms in terms of high similarity of the output with the ground-truth structure. Thus our framework not only finds meaningful overlapping communities from the network, but also allows us to put an end to the constant effort of building yet another overlapping community detection algorithm. (paper)

  6. Handling Pressures of Community Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana; Hotho, Jasper; Muratbekova-Touron, Maral

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims at investigating how in pluralistic societies, such as emerging economies and countries in transition, organizational decision-makers respond to pressures of community logics in non-community settings, such as the work place. We theorize that in non-community settings, social...... relations and interactions with community members can act as social cues that induce and expose individuals to community logics. We subsequently propose that properties of these relations – immediacy and relatedness - will affect individual response strategies towards community logics. We test these ideas...... with an experimental vignette study of the effects of clan and kinship ties on recruitment and selection decisions in Kazakhstan, followed by qualitative interviews....

  7. Community Cookbooks: Sponsors of Literacy and Community Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This article looks at the various ways that communities can be "read" through their cookbooks. Recipes and collections can reveal much about communities, including shared memories/traditions, geographical identifications, and representations of class.

  8. Community Satisfaction in Czech Rural Communities: A Multilevel Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernard, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2015), s. 205-226 ISSN 0038-0199 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : community satisfaction * rural communities * contextual effects Subject RIV: AO - Sociology , Demography Impact factor: 1.380, year: 2015

  9. Renewal strategy and community based organisations in community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewal strategy and community based organisations in community ... the local population and resources to do that which the governments had failed to do. ... country with a view to reducing poverty and developmental imbalance in Nigeria.

  10. Community Solar Value Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, John T [Extensible Energy; Cliburn, Jill [Cliburn and Associates

    2017-11-30

    The Community Solar Value Project (CSVP) is designed to assist electric utilities in designing better community solar programs. Better programs seek new sources of value to promote “win-win” solutions between utilities and their customers. The CSVP focused on five “challenge areas” in identifying new sources of value: - Strategic solar design for community solar projects (including technology choices, siting, orientation, and related issues) - Market research and targeted marketing approaches (for program design and for customer recruitment) - Procurement and financing (for establishing best practices that can bring economies of scale and economies of expertise) - Integration of “companion measures” (such as storage and demand-response options that can benefit customer and utility net load shapes) - Pricing in program design (including best practices for integration of identified value in program prices or credits) The CSVP directly engaged the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), the Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM), and more than a dozen other utilities to develop improved community solar program designs. The outcomes include a plan at SMUD for over 100 MW or more of community and shared solar and support for new or expanded programs at 15 other utilities so far. Resulting best-practice solutions have not only informed program applications, but also have generated discussion among experts and industry associations about the new opportunities and challenges CSVP has brought forth. In these ways, the CSVP has impacted community solar programs and DER plans, competitive innovations and policies nationwide. The CSVP team has been led by Extensible Energy under John Powers, President and CEO. Jill Cliburn, of Santa Fe, NM-based Cliburn and Associates, has served as Principal Investigator. The team also benefitted from expertise from Navigant, Olivine Inc. and Millennium Energy, LLC, in addition to the collaborative and cost

  11. Community interventions for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Donna R; Assaf, Annlouise R

    2005-12-01

    Review of the community-based CVD intervention programs suggests that a number of components have been successful using varying methods and materials for CVD risk reduction. It should be noted, however, that in multi-intervention programs it is often difficult to determine which components of the intervention were responsible for the overall success of the study. The community-based approach to CVD prevention is generalizable, cost-effective (because of the use of mass communication methods), and has the potential for modifying the environment and influencing health policies. Based on the experiences and successes of a number of community projects, recommendations have been proposed for developing future programs. Although they are not totally comprehensive, it has been suggested that a community-based intervention program should consider the following recommendations: 1) An understanding of the community: the needs and priorities of the community should be assessed, and close collaboration with individuals from the community, including community leaders, opinion leaders, community health care providers, and community organizations from various sectors of the community, should be consulted. Efforts should be focused on underserved and vulnerable populations. 2) Inclusion of community activities: these activities should be integrated within the context of the community environment, including primary health care services, voluntary organizations, grocery stores, restaurants, work sites, schools, and local media. 3) Inclusion mass media messages: the mass media can provide information and reinforcement of the behavior change. 4) Develop cost-effective interventions to assure that the community is exposed to an effective dose of the intervention. 5) Work with community organizations to help change social and physical environments to make them more conducive to health and healthy life-styles changes. 6) Develop a reliable monitoring and evaluation system: monitor the

  12. Evaluating Community Partnerships Addressing Community Resilience in Los Angeles, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm V. Williams

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Community resilience has grown in importance in national disaster response and recovery efforts. However, measurement of community resilience, particularly the content and quality of relationships aimed at improving resilience, is lacking. To address this gap, we used a social network survey to measure the number, type, and quality of relationships among organizations participating in 16 coalitions brought together to address community resilience in the Los Angeles Community Disaster Resilience project. These coalitions were randomized to one of two approaches (community resilience or preparedness. Resilience coalitions received training and support to develop these partnerships and implement new activities. Both coalition types received expert facilitation by a public health nurse or community educator. We also measured the activities each coalition engaged in and the extent to which partners participated in these activities at two time points. We found that the community resilience coalitions were initially larger and had lower trust among members than the preparedness communities. Over time, these trust differences dissipated. While both coalitions grew, the resilience community coalitions maintained their size difference throughout the project. We also found differences in the types of activities implemented by the resilience communities; these differences were directly related to the trainings provided. This information is useful to organizations seeking guidance on expanding the network of community-based organizations that participate in community resilience activities.

  13. IT User Community Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Peter Jones (IT-CDA-WF)

    2016-01-01

    IT-CDA is gathering information to more accurately form a snapshot of the CERN IT user community and we would appreciate you taking time to complete the following survey.   We want to use this survey to better understand how the user community uses their devices and our services, and how the delivery of those services could be improved. You will need to authenticate to complete the survey. However please note that your responses are confidential and will be compiled together and analysed as a group. You can also volunteer to offer additional information if you so wish. This survey should take no longer than 5 minutes. Thanks in advance for your collaboration.

  14. [Identification of community leaders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, S; Dedobbeleer, N; Tremblay, M

    1995-01-01

    Although many methods of measuring leadership have been developed in sociological studies, there are few articles on the feasibility of these methods. The goal of this study was to verify the feasibility of the "modified positional-reputational approach" developed by Nix. The study was conducted in a small community located north of Montreal. Nix's questionnaire was translated, adapted and administered to 49 key informants. Two hundred and fourteen leaders were selected. Three types of leaders were identified: the legitimizers, the effectors and the activists. Through a sociometric analysis, we established links between the different leaders and we described the power structure of the community. Despite a few shortcomings, Nix's approach was found extremely useful.

  15. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  16. A Professional Learning Community Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Maliszewski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Four teachers (three classroom teachers and a teacher-librarian explain how their school applied a professional learning community framework to its operational practices. They discuss the process, the benefits, and the challenges of professional learning communities.

  17. Service Station for the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulk, Margaret E.; Blank, Gordon C.

    1977-01-01

    Western Piedmont Community College adopted the concept of a people-oriented Learning Resources Center with services offered to the entire college community through a learning laboratory, audiovisual center and library. (JG)

  18. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:Community Based Health Insurance Scheme is a social service organized at community level. It is a mutual health ... As part of her corporate social responsibility. Shell in .... Schmidt J. The benefits and challenges of shows the ...

  19. Community Resources and Job Placement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jim

    1977-01-01

    In cooperation with the chamber of commerce, various businesses, associations, and other community agencies, the Sarasota schools (Florida) supplement their own job placement and follow-up efforts with community job development strategies for placing high school graduates. (JT)

  20. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Orgiazzi, A.; Gardi, C.; Römbke, J.; Jansch, S.; Keith, A.; Neilson, R.; Boag, B.; Schmidt, O.; Murchie, A.K.; Blackshaw, R.P.; Pérès, G.; Cluzeau, D.; Guernion, M.; Briones, M.J.I.; Rodeiro, J.; Pineiro, R.; Diaz Cosin, D.J.; Sousa, J.P.; Suhadolc, M.; Kos, I.; Krogh, P.H.; Faber, J.H.; Mulder, C.; Bogte, J.J.; Wijnen, van H.J.; Schouten, A.J.; Zwart, de D.

    2016-01-01

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, collated, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use,

  1. The invertebrate communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FloBner, D.; Kasprzak, P.; Mothes, G.; Ronneberger, D.; Schonborn, W.

    1985-01-01

    Studies of invertebrate communities have been carried out to a certain extent in the whole Lake Stechlin area, but especially with reference to Lake Stechlin. The chapter summarizes important results of detailed investigations over a long period, made by several researchers in the periods before and after the nuclear power plant came into operation. The following sections deal with the combination of species, frequency, types of life-form, structure and dynamics of the living community of zoobenthos and zooplankton. Not dealt with or only considered in passing are Amoebina, Heliozoa, Ciliata, Turbellaria (excl. Tricladida), Nematoda, Tardigrada, Gastrotricha, and partly Oligochaeta. The research into micro-and meiooobenthos are limited to the years 1959-1968. Data after the bringing into operation of the nuclear power plant refer only to macrozoobenthos. Before the operation of the nuclear power plant the planktonic Rotaroria and Crustacea were examined only qualitatively. The first quantitative analysis of the zooplankton-community was undertaken in 1968, and only from 1978 onwards has continuous and comprehensive research information about the zooplankton in Lake Stechlin been available

  2. Community Radiation Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, R.P. Jr.; Cooper, E.N.; McArthur, R.D.

    1990-05-01

    The Community Radiation Monitoring Program began its ninth year in the summer of 1989, continuing as an essential portion of the Environmental Protection Agency's long-standing off-site monitoring effort. It is a cooperative venture between the Department of Energy (DOE), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the University of Utah (U of U), and the Desert Research Institute (DRI) of the University of Nevada System. The objectives of the program include enhancing and augmenting the collection of environmental radiation data at selected sites around the Nevada Test Site (NTS), increasing public awareness of that effort, and involving, in as many ways as possible, the residents of the off-site area in these and other areas related to testing nuclear weapons. This understanding and improved communication is fostered by hiring residents of the communities where the monitoring stations are located as program representatives, presenting public education forums in those and other communities, disseminating information on radiation monitoring and related subjects, and developing and maintaining contacts with local citizens and elected officials in the off-site areas. 8 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Can community carers cope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) leads to severe social, psychological, and financial consequences for affected families and communities. In response to this stress, service organizations in both developed and developing countries are providing support both to People with AIDS (PWAs) and to their caregivers. In New York, for example, Gay Men's Health Crisis volunteers visit PWAs in hospitals, assist PWAs after discharge with daily chores such as shopping and getting to medical appointments, and provide psychological support through peer and group counseling. The 1st self-help group in Africa, Uganda's AIDS Service Organization (TASO), was established by the widow of an AIDS victim in response to the abandonment of many PWAs by their families. TASO helps families with the practical and financial burdens of caring for AIDS patients, seeks to overcome the fears and misconceptions surrounding the disease, operates a center where those infected with the AIDS virus can gather, and offers income-generating opportunities to PWAs. In the Kagera region of Tanzania, where at least 4000 children have been orphaned by AIDS, villages have allocated community funds for the needs of these children. Other voluntary organizations have focused on providing legal advice to PWAs who have faced discrimination in the workplace or in housing. The World Health Organization's Global Program on AIDS has reiterated its commitment to work with community-based organizations.

  4. Modern community care program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordin, Staffan

    2000-01-01

    Going into the next millennium do we see nuclear energy? Yes we will see an expanding nuclear sector in the modem community. he modem community that cares for people, health and environment needs nuclear. Energy saves lives. Electricity is efficient use of energy. Energy will be the key to a sustainable society, energy is life. Nuclear energy protects the environment. Nuclear is an integral part of the modern community caring for people, health and environment. The dynamics of the public opinion-forming process and its effects on the nuclear industry are a challenge of the global nuclear industry. Current communications strategy and its consequences are on of the key issues. The nuclear industry must be perceived in certain ways in order to move towards achieving the vision and avoiding the harassment scenario. Each perception goal does not bear the same function within the communications process. As the nuclear industry is oe of the keys to a sustainable society, it must achieve legitimacy in its capacity as an interesting agenda-setter for tackling problems and as an expert. We have to build our communication activities on an open and honest attitude and we have to establish trust and confidence. The nuclear industry must also prove its ability and performance. If this could be achieved there will be an option for the future

  5. Report to the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braungart, S.; Ripley, M.

    2001-10-01

    In this document, Petro-Canada reports to the stakeholders on non-financial issues that have an impact on the communities in which the company operates. It is the first such annual report. The document touches environmental performance measures, the company's commitment and involvement in the various communities where it has a presence, health and safety, high-performance work environment for the employees, as well as business principles that guide the making of decisions. Some basic information concerning Petro-Canada is presented, followed by an overview of the corporate responsibility. The next section of the report is concerned with the environment. It is further divided into categories such as energy, air quality, water quality, regulatory compliance, environmental investments, waste management, and product quality. The section devoted to employee well-being addresses the work environment, and health and safety. The values and ethical decision-making are discussed in the next section, including the code of business conduct, corporate values, criteria for ethical decision-making, relationship with suppliers and business associates, community investment. The major growth areas, like Newfoundland, Northern Alberta, the Mackenzie Delta all benefit from a special sub-section that brushes on the major accomplishments. The report concludes by a statement concerning the contribution made by Petro-Canada to the Canadian economy. figs

  6. [Community Service Program, Westmont College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Christina

    This report describes a 2-year project at Westmont College, California, which established a Community Service Program with the purposes of decreasing student debt and increasing student participation in community organizations. Eligible students worked 8-10 hours per week for a qualified community agency and received credit towards tuition for the…

  7. Cooking up an Online Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valone, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    As museum professionals conceptualize community building, they must now consider the virtual realm. Websites in and of themselves will not generate a community, as it takes sustained communication and interaction by staff to encourage growth. Online communities are complex forces that bring about systematic dualities that in turn stimulate…

  8. The Power of Community Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capers, Natasha; Shah, Shital C.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Shital Shah, who supports community schools as assistant director for educational issues at the American Federation of Teachers, and Natasha Capers, a coordinator for the New York City Coalition for Educational Justice (CEJ), a parent-led collaborative of unions and community organizations, discuss the community schools movement…

  9. Building a Just Adolescent Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Mary Schaefer; Schaefer, Lawrence V.; Schaefer, Patricia S.; Schaefer, Kristin A.

    2008-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg, a psychologist, coined the term "Just Community" to describe a community built on trust and resolution, in which each member participates democratically in the development of the rules and regulations that govern their community life (Kohlberg, 1985). In a school, this means that students and teachers alike actively participate…

  10. Community gardening and social cohesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, E.J.; Bock, B.B.; Berg, Van den W.; Visser, A.J.; Wiskerke, J.S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Community gardens vary in several ways: they are cultivated by different kinds of communities in various locations, entail individual or communal plots and the extent of active participation (e.g. gardening) differs. In this paper, we study seven community gardens with varying organisational

  11. Enhancing Community Service Learning Via Practical Learning Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Ronen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of learning communities focused on analyzing social issues and educational repercussions in the field are presented in this study. The research examines the contribution of a learning community to enhancing student teachers' responsibility and their social involvement. The assumption was that participating in learning community would further implement student teachers' community social involvement while enhancing responsibility in their field of action. A questionnaire aimed to present the student teachers' attitudes involving all aspects of studying in the learning community and their social activity in the community was conducted. The findings pinpointed that there were positive contributions of the learning communities from a personal aspect such as developing self-learning, and learning about “me”, as well as broaden their teaching skills, through methodology for teacher training, and developing reflective thought. These insights can also be implemented in various educational frameworks and during service learning as part of teacher training.

  12. Community interaction and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bomi; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-03-01

    The way in which parents interact with their environment may have implications for their likelihood of abuse and neglect. This study examines the parent-environment relationship through community involvement and perception, using social disorganization theory. We hypothesize mothers who participate in their communities and have positive perceptions of them may be less likely to maltreat their children because of the potential protective capacity of neighborhood supports. Using information from the 5 year Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n=2991), the mother's self-reported acts of psychological and physical maltreatment and neglect are measured. A mother's community involvement index is the number of community activities a mother was involved in, and community perception is measured by two five-item Likert scales assessing perception of community collective efficacy. We analyze the relationship between community variables and each of mother's maltreatment behaviors as well as the interaction between community factors using a series of nested logistic regressions. Higher levels of community involvement are associated with lower levels of psychological aggression. More positive perception of community social control is associated with lower levels of physical assault. A moderation effect of community perception suggests that a mother's perception of her community changes the relationship between community involvement and psychological child abuse. The results provide important policy and empirical implications to build positive and supportive communities as a protective factor in child maltreatment. Getting parents involved in their communities can improve the environment in which children and families develop, and decrease the likelihood that maltreatment will occur. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrating Community into the Classroom: Community Gardening, Community Involvement, and Project-Based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhout, Regina Day; Rappaport, Julian; Simmons, Doretha

    2002-01-01

    Culturally relevant, ongoing project-based learning was facilitated in a predominantly African American urban elementary school via a community garden project. The project involved teachers, students, university members, and community members. This article evaluates the project through two classroom-community collaboration models, noting common…

  14. The Entrepreneurial Community College: Bringing Workforce, Economic and Community Development to Virginia Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Richard L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes creating an entrepreneurial college within the community college that will offer non-credit courses to the community and workforce. States that the courses would focus on the training needs of community industry, with the employer as the customer, rather than the student. Adds that the proposed college would also focus on community…

  15. Sharing Resources in Educational Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoush Margarayn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the implications of mobility within educational communities for sharing and reuse of educational resources. The study begins by exploring individuals’ existing strategies for sharing and reusing educational resources within localised and distributed communities, with particular emphasis on the impact of geographic location on these strategies. The results indicate that the geographic distribution of communities has little impact on individuals’ strategies for resource management, since many individuals are communicating via technology tools with colleagues within a localised setting. The study points to few major differences in the ways in which individuals within the localised and distributed communities store, share and collaborate around educational resources. Moving beyond the view of individuals being statically involved in one or two communities, mobility across communities, roles and geographic location are formulated and illustrated through eight scenarios. The effects of mobility across these scenarios are outlined and a framework for future research into mobility and resource sharing within communities discussed.

  16. Community Psychology and Community Mental Health: A Call for Reengagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Greg; Brown, Molly; Sylvestre, John

    2018-03-01

    Community psychology is rooted in community mental health research and practice and has made important contributions to this field. Yet, in the decades since its inception, community psychology has reduced its focus on promoting mental health, well-being, and liberation of individuals with serious mental illnesses. This special issue endeavors to highlight current efforts in community mental health from our field and related disciplines and point to future directions for reengagement in this area. The issue includes 12 articles authored by diverse stakeholder groups. Following a review of the state of community mental health scholarship in the field's two primary journals since 1973, the remaining articles center on four thematic areas: (a) the community experience of individuals with serious mental illness; (b) the utility of a participatory and cross-cultural lens in our engagement with community mental health; (c) Housing First implementation, evaluation, and dissemination; and (d) emerging or under-examined topics. In reflection, we conclude with a series of challenges for community psychologists involved in future, transformative, movements in community mental health. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  17. Monitoring natural phytoplankton communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haraguchi, L.; Jakobsen, H. H.; Lundholm, Nina

    2017-01-01

    -consuming and/or expensive, limiting sampling frequency. The use of faster methods, such as flow cytometry, has become more frequent in phytoplankton studies, although comparisons between this technique and traditional ones are still scarce. This study aimed to assess if natural phytoplankton communities...... carbon biomass with PFCM, applying the same conversion factors as for microscopy. Biomasses obtained with PFCM, estimated from live cells, were higher than microscopy for natural samples. We conclude that PFCM results are comparable to classical techniques, yet the data from PFCM had poor taxonomic...

  18. Community energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo Melchor, N.; Redondo Quintela, F.

    1994-01-01

    The twelve Member states of the European Union will attempt to make their national energy policies converge. Nevertheless the basis of the so called ''Community Energy Policy'' is not this convergence but rather the achievement of a new internal market, the Energy Market, where sources and forms of energy may circulate freely between countries. This aim derives from a change of orientation, dating back some years, when market integration was attempted instead of continuing with the mere unification of national policies. In this paper we summarize the most relevant aspects of the liberalization process and give some of its internal and external repercussions on the European Union. (Author)

  19. Auditing Community Software Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mészáros Gergely

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with European efforts related to Critical Information Infrastructure Protection, in Hungary a special department called LRL-IBEK has been formed which is designated under the Disaster Management. While specific security issues of commercial applications are well understood and regulated by widely applied standards, increasing share of information systems are developed partly or entirely in a different way, by the community. In this paper different issues of the open development style will be discussed regarding the high requirements of Critical Information Infrastructures, and possible countermeasures will be suggested for the identified problems.

  20. International Journal of Web Based Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ......Special Issue on Knowledge Communication, culture and communities of practice in web based communities. ...

  1. Community Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinos, Alexandros; Briscoe, Gerard

    Cloud Computing is rising fast, with its data centres growing at an unprecedented rate. However, this has come with concerns over privacy, efficiency at the expense of resilience, and environmental sustainability, because of the dependence on Cloud vendors such as Google, Amazon and Microsoft. Our response is an alternative model for the Cloud conceptualisation, providing a paradigm for Clouds in the community, utilising networked personal computers for liberation from the centralised vendor model. Community Cloud Computing (C3) offers an alternative architecture, created by combing the Cloud with paradigms from Grid Computing, principles from Digital Ecosystems, and sustainability from Green Computing, while remaining true to the original vision of the Internet. It is more technically challenging than Cloud Computing, having to deal with distributed computing issues, including heterogeneous nodes, varying quality of service, and additional security constraints. However, these are not insurmountable challenges, and with the need to retain control over our digital lives and the potential environmental consequences, it is a challenge we must pursue.

  2. Towards sustainable urban communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapio, Appu

    2012-01-01

    Requirements for the assessment tools of buildings have increased, assessing of building components or separate buildings is not enough. Neighbourhoods, built environment, public transportations, and services, should be considered simultaneously. Number of population living in urban areas is high and increasing rapidly. Urbanisation is a major concern due to its detrimental effects on the environment. The aim of this study is to clarify the field of assessment tools for urban communities by analysing the current situation. The focus is on internationally well known assessment tools; BREEAM Communities, CASBEE for Urban Development and LEED for Neigborhood Development. The interest towards certification systems is increasing amongst the authorities, and especially amongst the global investors and property developers. Achieved certifications are expected to bring measureable publicity for the developers. The assessment of urban areas enables the comparison of municipalities and urban areas, and notably supports decision making processes. Authorities, city planners, and designers would benefit most from the use of the tools during the decision making process. - Highlights: ► The urban assessment tools have strong linkage to the region. ► The tools promote complementary building and retrofitting existing sites. ► Sharing knowledge and experiences is important in the development of the tools.

  3. Community assembly and coexistence in communities of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vályi, Kriszta; Mardhiah, Ulfah; Rillig, Matthias C; Hempel, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are asexual, obligately symbiotic fungi with unique morphology and genomic structure, which occupy a dual niche, that is, the soil and the host root. Consequently, the direct adoption of models for community assembly developed for other organism groups is not evident. In this paper we adapted modern coexistence and assembly theory to arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. We review research on the elements of community assembly and coexistence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, highlighting recent studies using molecular methods. By addressing several points from the individual to the community level where the application of modern community ecology terms runs into problems when arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are concerned, we aim to account for these special circumstances from a mycocentric point of view. We suggest that hierarchical spatial structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities should be explicitly taken into account in future studies. The conceptual framework we develop here for arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is also adaptable for other host-associated microbial communities.

  4. Community Health Warriors: Marshallese Community Health Workers' Perceptions and Experiences with CBPR and Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purvis, Rachel S; Bing, Williamina Ioanna; Jacob, Christopher J; Lang, Sharlynn; Mamis, Sammie; Ritok, Mandy; Rubon-Chutaro, Jellesen; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2017-01-01

    Our manuscript highlights the viewpoints and reflections of the native Marshallese community health workers (CHWs) engaged in research with the local Marshallese community in Northwest Arkansas. In particular, this paper documents the vital role Marshallese CHWs play in the success of programs and research efforts. The negative health effects of nuclear testing in the Marshall Islands has been passed down through many generations, along with unfavorable attitudes toward the U.S. government and researchers. However, the community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach used by the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) has allowed the native Marshallese CHWs to become advocates for the Marshallese community. The use of native CHWs has also leveled the power dynamics that can be a barrier to community-based research, and has strengthened trust with community stakeholders. Our paper shows how using Marshallese CHWs can produce positive health outcomes for the Marshallese community.

  5. Towards Community - Reflections on Community Psychiatry, Culture and Alterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The constant transformation of  communities  and  its relationship  with mental illness has been studied and debated for the past decades, although it is still not clear how it has been incorporated in clinical practice.Aims: The authors propose to review the relevance to Psychiatry, especially Community Psychiatry, of understanding  communities as well as the methodologies and conceptual frameworks that allow that approach.Methods: Selected and critical review of the literature about Community Psychiatry and Culture, Communities, and Social Inequity and Mental Health.Results: The authors start by reviewing the meaning  of  Community and the  defining principles of Community Psychiatry in their relationships with  cultural  sensitivity.  This aspect is illustrated with two examples of the impact of culture and alterity in the understanding of Mental Health and Service Organization, one at the level of International and Global Mental Health, and the other at the local communities’ level. In this context, participatory action research is highlighted.Conclusions: Psychiatry,  in  particular Community  Psychiatry,  by acknowledging a  wide  range  of  methodologies  and  being open  to transdisciplinary  models, is in a privileged position of electing communities as a field of investigation and integrate it in its praxis.

  6. Communities matter: Institutional preconditions for community renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Energy transitions are high on political agendas. From a practical viewpoint, community approaches are deemed essential in order to transition from a predominantly centralized energy supply to a decentralized one, and to exploit the potential of renewable energies. In this paper, I discuss how the emergence of community-based energy projects can be analyzed from an institutional perspective. In this context, a ‘community’ is treated as an individual institutional order that shapes decisions. I examine how community structures the implementation of biogas cooperatives in the Autonomous Province of South Tyrol in Northern Italy. My findings suggest that ‘community spirit’, a cooperative tradition, and the norms of locality and responsibility are central drivers behind the emergence and constitution of biogas cooperatives. Not only do these institutional features of community influence the decision concerning which farmers are in or out but also plant location and scale. I argue that ‘community’ is a necessary analytical category for understanding community energy. - Highlights: • I analyze the emergence and constitution of biogas cooperatives in South Tyrol. • Emerging processes and the principal constitutions are similar. • Institutional forces influenced the biogas cooperatives' emergence and constitution. • Biogas cooperatives are decisively shaped by community spirit and local tradition. • The concept of community is used as an explanatory category for community energy

  7. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake`s macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors.

  8. Community Members Draw the Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Freeland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether a community-based task force’s redistricting plan in Ventura County, California, positively affected fair representation, social equity issues, community interests, and the electoral process. Examination and evaluation of the organizational strategies and collaborations involved in the task force’s redistricting process find that the Board of Supervisors districts that members of the community drew were successful in improving and maintaining fair representation. This finding is based on comparing supervisorial votes and policies with community members’ votes on state propositions and local measures, in addition to conducting interviews with task force members, politicians, and community activists. This study finds that citizen participation in governmental processes improves overall community health and political participation.

  9. L-Lake macroinvertebrate community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specht, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    To characterize the present benthic macroinvertebrate community of L-Lake, Regions 5 and 7 of the reservoir were sampled in September 1995 at the same locations sampled in 1988 and 1989 during the L-Lake monitoring program. The macroinvertebrate community of 1995 is compared to that of 1988 and 1989. The species composition of L-Lake's macroinvertebrate community has changed considerably since 1988-1989, due primarily to maturation of the reservoir ecosystem. L-Lake contains a reasonably diverse macroinvertebrate community that is capable of supporting higher trophic levels, including a diverse assemblage of fish species. The L-Lake macroinvertebrate community is similar to those of many other southeastern reservoirs, and there is no indication that the macroinvertebrate community is perturbed by chemical or physical stressors

  10. What is microbial community ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Allan

    2009-11-01

    The activities of complex communities of microbes affect biogeochemical transformations in natural, managed and engineered ecosystems. Meaningfully defining what constitutes a community of interacting microbial populations is not trivial, but is important for rigorous progress in the field. Important elements of research in microbial community ecology include the analysis of functional pathways for nutrient resource and energy flows, mechanistic understanding of interactions between microbial populations and their environment, and the emergent properties of the complex community. Some emergent properties mirror those analyzed by community ecologists who study plants and animals: biological diversity, functional redundancy and system stability. However, because microbes possess mechanisms for the horizontal transfer of genetic information, the metagenome may also be considered as a community property.

  11. Civic communities and urban violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucet, Jessica M; Lee, Matthew R

    2015-07-01

    Civic communities have a spirit of entrepreneurialism, a locally invested population and an institutional structure fostering civic engagement. Prior research, mainly confined to studying rural communities and fairly large geographic areas, has demonstrated that civic communities have lower rates of violence. The current study analyzes the associations between the components of civic communities and homicide rates for New Orleans neighborhoods (census tracts) in the years following Hurricane Katrina. Results from negative binomial regression models adjusting for spatial autocorrelation reveal that community homicide rates are lower where an entrepreneurial business climate is more pronounced and where there is more local investment. Additionally, an interaction between the availability of civic institutions and resource disadvantage reveals that the protective effects of civic institutions are only evident in disadvantaged communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacterial Communities: Interactions to Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed M. Stubbendieck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the environment, bacteria live in complex multispecies communities. These communities span in scale from small, multicellular aggregates to billions or trillions of cells within the gastrointestinal tract of animals. The dynamics of bacterial communities are determined by pairwise interactions that occur between different species in the community. Though interactions occur between a few cells at a time, the outcomes of these interchanges have ramifications that ripple through many orders of magnitude, and ultimately affect the macroscopic world including the health of host organisms. In this review we cover how bacterial competition influences the structures of bacterial communities. We also emphasize methods and insights garnered from culture-dependent pairwise interaction studies, metagenomic analyses, and modeling experiments. Finally, we argue that the integration of multiple approaches will be instrumental to future understanding of the underlying dynamics of bacterial communities.

  13. Community colleges and economic mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia A. Kolesnikova

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of community colleges in the U.S. higher education system and their advantages and shortcomings. In particular, it discusses the population of community college students and economic returns to community college education for various demographic groups. It offers new evidence on the returns to an associate's degree. Furthermore, the paper uses data from the National Survey of College Graduates to compare educational objectives, progress, and labor market outcomes ...

  14. Community Detection for Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2014-05-04

    Many real world networks have inherent community structures, including social networks, transportation networks, biological networks, etc. For large scale networks with millions or billions of nodes in real-world applications, accelerating current community detection algorithms is in demand, and we present two approaches to tackle this issue -A K-core based framework that can accelerate existing community detection algorithms significantly; -A parallel inference algorithm via stochastic block models that can distribute the workload.

  15. Growth Hacking a Global Community

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkkinen, Laura; Rauhala, Marita

    2015-01-01

    As technology is developing at a fast phase people are engaging in community activities more and more online, either by extending their offline social life or by creating themselves a whole new parallel life as a member of virtual community. Companies behind communities are rivaling for attention and need to come up with increasingly clever tactics to attract and engage new members. In this thesis the relatively new phenomenon of growth hacking, the use of unconventional methods in order ...

  16. A nuclear community's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    This submission delineates a perspective derived from the experience of a community which has lived with the nuclear industry since its beginnings in Canada, 45 years ago. Much has been accomplished in both basic and applied research in that time, and the industry continues to be recognized worldwide as a leader in solving high-technology problems. However, recent funding cuts have seriously jeopardized the industry's ability to maintain this high standard. Current anti-nuclear attitudes among our elected and appointed officials respond more to today's political fashions than tomorrow's evident needs. The town of Deep River believes that the industry has demonstrated a superb safety record in the past. If common sense prevails in matters of safety, and if appropriate levels of funding are maintained, the nuclear industry will continue to be a source of pride for all concerned

  17. Urban Climate Risk Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders

    2016-01-01

    of Beck’s forward-looking agenda for a post-Euro-centric social science, outlines the contours of such an urban-cosmopolitan ‘realpolitik’ of climate risks, as this is presently unfolding across East Asian world cities. Much more than a theory-building endeavour, the essay suggests, Beck’s sociology......Ulrich Beck’s cosmopolitan sociology affords a much-needed rethinking of the transnational politics of climate change, not least in pointing to an emerging inter-urban geography of world cities as a potential new source of community, change and solidarity. This short essay, written in honour...... provides a standing invitation for further transnational dialogue and collaborative empirical work, in East Asia and beyond, on what are, arguably, the defining challenges for the 21st century world of global risks....

  18. Communities under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Rahbek, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of species on Earth and the interactions among them are tightly linked to historical and contemporary climate, so that global climate change will transform the world in which we live. Biological models can now credibly link recent decadal trends in field data to climate change......, but predicting future impacts on biological communities is a major challenge. Attempts to move beyond general macroecological predictions of climate change impact on one hand, and observations from specific, local-scale cases, small-scale experiments, or studies of a few species on the other, raise a plethora...... of unanswered questions. On page 1124 of this issue, Harley (1) reports results that cast new light on how biodiversity, across different trophic levels, responds to climate change....

  19. Communities and Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salice, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    is clearly illustrated by a by now rather standard approach to we-ness, which seeks to locate this property either in the subject of a given attitude (which, most perspicuously, is used to being characterized as an intention), or in the mode of the attitude or in its content. This view also suggests...... that there is one prototypical notion of group which conceptually has to be traced back to one of the three constituents of an intentional attitude and that the main way to access the notion of a group is by means of the concept of intention and/or intentional action. The present paper tackles a fairly divergent...... approach to the ontology of groups put forward by Dietrich von Hildebrand in his book on the Metaphysics of Community. First, von Hildebrand argues that there are different kinds of social groups and that, accordingly, individuals can be ‘together’ in radically different ways. In particular, he...

  20. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr. (.,; .)

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological

  1. The community comes to campus: the Patient and Community Fair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towle, Angela; Godolphin, William; Kline, Cathy

    2015-08-01

    Community-based learning connects students with local communities so that they learn about the broad context in which health and social care is provided; however, students usually interact with only one or a few organisations that serve a particular population. One example of a community-based learning activity is the health fair in which students provide health promotion and screening for local communities. We adapted the health fair concept to develop a multi-professional educational event at which, instead of providing service, students learn from and about the expertise and resources of not-for-profit organisations. The fair is an annual 1-day event that students can attend between, or in place of, classes. Each community organisation has a booth to display information. One-hour 'patient panels' are held on a variety of topics throughout the day. Evaluation methods include questionnaires, exit interviews and visitor tracking sheets. Over 5 years (2009-2013), the fair increased in size with respect to estimated attendance, number of participating organisations, number of patient panels and number of students for whom the fair is a required curriculum component. Students learn about a range of patient experiences and community resources, and information about specific diseases or conditions. The fair is an efficient way for students to learn about a range of community organisations. It fosters university-community engagement through continuing connections between students, faculty members and community organisations. Lessons learned include the need for community organisations to have techniques to engage students, and ways to overcome challenges of evaluating an informal 'drop-in' event. The fair is an efficient way for students to learn about a range of community organisations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Community photosynthesis of aquatic macrophytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, T.; Sand-Jensen, K.; Middelboe, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition of photosynt......We compared 190 photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E) experiments with single- and multispecies communities of macroalgae and vascular plants from freshwater and marine habitats. We found a typical hyperbolic P-E relation in all communities and no sign of photosaturation or photoinhibition...

  3. Parasite communities: patterns and processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esch, Gerald W; Bush, Albert O; Aho, John M

    1990-01-01

    .... Taking examples from many hosts including molluscs, marine and freshwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals, this book shows how parasitic communities are influenced by a multitude...

  4. Community Engagement in a Graduate-Level Community Literacy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall Bowen, Lauren; Arko, Kirsti; Beatty, Joel; Delaney, Cindy; Dorpenyo, Isidore; Moeller, Laura; Roberts, Elsa; Velat, John

    2014-01-01

    A case study of a graduate-level community literacy seminar that involved a tutoring project with adult digital literacy learners, this essay illustrates the value of community outreach and service-learning for graduate students in writing studies. Presenting multiple perspectives through critical reflection, student authors describe how their…

  5. Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Mohammad Kais

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades, disaster risk reduction programs and climate initiatives across the globe have focused largely on the intimate connections between vulnerability, recovery, adaptation, and coping mechanisms. Recent focus, however, is increasingly paid to community resilience. Community, placed at the intersection between the household and national levels of social organization, is crucial in addressing economic, social, or environmental disturbances disrupting human security. Resilience measures a community’s capability of bouncing back—restoring the original pre-disaster state, as well as bouncing forward—the capacity to cope with emerging post-disaster situations and changes. Both the ‘bouncing back’ and ‘moving forward’ properties of a community are shaped and reshaped by internal and external shocks such as climate threats, the community’s resilience dimensions, and the intensity of economic, social, and other community capitals. This article reviews (1 the concept of resilience in relation to climate change and vulnerability; and (2 emerging perspectives on community-level impacts of climate change, resilience dimensions, and community capitals. It argues that overall resilience of a place-based community is located at the intersection of the community’s resilience dimensions, community capitals, and the level of climate disruptions.

  6. Community Capitals as Community Resilience to Climate Change: Conceptual Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kais, Shaikh Mohammad; Islam, Md Saidul

    2016-01-01

    In the last few decades, disaster risk reduction programs and climate initiatives across the globe have focused largely on the intimate connections between vulnerability, recovery, adaptation, and coping mechanisms. Recent focus, however, is increasingly paid to community resilience. Community, placed at the intersection between the household and national levels of social organization, is crucial in addressing economic, social, or environmental disturbances disrupting human security. Resilience measures a community’s capability of bouncing back—restoring the original pre-disaster state, as well as bouncing forward—the capacity to cope with emerging post-disaster situations and changes. Both the ‘bouncing back’ and ‘moving forward’ properties of a community are shaped and reshaped by internal and external shocks such as climate threats, the community’s resilience dimensions, and the intensity of economic, social, and other community capitals. This article reviews (1) the concept of resilience in relation to climate change and vulnerability; and (2) emerging perspectives on community-level impacts of climate change, resilience dimensions, and community capitals. It argues that overall resilience of a place-based community is located at the intersection of the community’s resilience dimensions, community capitals, and the level of climate disruptions. PMID:27929448

  7. Designing to support community gardens by going beyond community gardens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Wakkary, R.; Rau, P.-L.P.

    2017-01-01

    Community gardens connect to many organizations in order to receive and offer resources and services. The complex sociotechnical systems in which community gardens inhabit bring both opportunities and challenges for designers who endeavor to support them. In this study, we investigated three

  8. Indigenous knowledge systems, local community and community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The title of the paper requires some brief reflection on the main topics implied. It is appropriate to start off with a definition of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) as well as a statement regarding the constitutional status of a community. Thereafter I will expand on the merits of IKS towards community development as well as ...

  9. The community ecology of pathogens: coinfection, coexistence and community composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Gross, Kevin; Kendig, Amy E; Lacroix, Christelle; Mitchell, Charles E; Mordecai, Erin A; Power, Alison G

    2015-04-01

    Disease and community ecology share conceptual and theoretical lineages, and there has been a resurgence of interest in strengthening links between these fields. Building on recent syntheses focused on the effects of host community composition on single pathogen systems, we examine pathogen (microparasite) communities using a stochastic metacommunity model as a starting point to bridge community and disease ecology perspectives. Such models incorporate the effects of core community processes, such as ecological drift, selection and dispersal, but have not been extended to incorporate host-pathogen interactions, such as immunosuppression or synergistic mortality, that are central to disease ecology. We use a two-pathogen susceptible-infected (SI) model to fill these gaps in the metacommunity approach; however, SI models can be intractable for examining species-diverse, spatially structured systems. By placing disease into a framework developed for community ecology, our synthesis highlights areas ripe for progress, including a theoretical framework that incorporates host dynamics, spatial structuring and evolutionary processes, as well as the data needed to test the predictions of such a model. Our synthesis points the way for this framework and demonstrates that a deeper understanding of pathogen community dynamics will emerge from approaches working at the interface of disease and community ecology. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  10. Community Connections. Time Warner Community Responsibility Report, 1998-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jane; Stein, Carol

    This report highlights efforts by Time Warner personnel to strengthen community connections through various programs and services aimed at supporting: education, the arts, volunteerism, diversity, and business-community action. The report is divided into sections focusing on each of these areas. The first section, Education, describes programs…

  11. Science and Community Engagement: Connecting Science Students with the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancor, Rachael; Schiebel, Amy

    2018-01-01

    In this article we describe a course on science outreach that was developed as part of our college's goal that all students participate in a meaningful community engagement experience. The Science & Community Engagement course provides a way for students with science or science-related majors to learn how to effectively communicate scientific…

  12. Community Currency in Korea : How do we envision Community Currency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Kang (Joonmo); B.E. Hong (Baeg)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractCommunity currency schemes were first introduced in Korea in 1998. Since then, there have been many efforts to use them but no report or academic research on the topic in Korea. Thus, we conducted a field investigation to identify the scope of community currency schemes in Korea and as

  13. From Campuses to Communities: Community-Based Cultism and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the criminal activities of the cult groups in the NDR and ineptitude of the police, communities have responded by creating vigilante groups but this has only promoted cycle of violence. The paper recommended that government should tackle community-based cultism and also strengthen the Nigeria Police Force to be ...

  14. Role of Community Radio for Community Development in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anowarul Arif Khan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Community radio is a medium of expressing and sharing views, thoughts, ideas, problems and prospects of rural, disadvantaged, vulnerable and hard to reach population with the mainstream population. As the media of root level people of the disadvantaged areas, Community radio has become popular in recent years and it has opened a new arena for both the policy makers as well as grassroots people to be involved in the development process of their community. There are about 17 Community Radios broadcasting 135 hours programmes in a day across the country. The Community Radio can help us in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, water and sanitation and disaster related issues more effectively and strategically. In order to highlight the importance and effectiveness of community radio for the community development of Bangladesh, this study has been conducted based on the secondary data. This is a group effort that has become successful by the co-operation of many individuals and institutions. Access to Information (a2i Programme would like to express sincere gratitude to Monisha Mohonto, Project Focal and Bakul Mohonto, Program Assistant, BTV for introducing such an innovative project. As this is a new concept, there is no significant study has been conducted. Therefore the study has been directed to explore the importance of community FM radio in Bangladesh particularly in remote and rural areas.

  15. Renewal Strategy and Community Based Organisations in Community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FBL

    organisations in the study areas and Community-Based Poverty Reduction. Programme ... regions or areas. In Nigeria, for ... industries in the growing and developing urban areas. ..... Security network is also provided by the community. To ..... Development Efforts in Nigeria: Case Study of Anambra and Oyo State, NISER.

  16. Using communities that care for community child maltreatment prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Amy M; Haggerty, Kevin P; de Haan, Benjamin; Catalano, Richard F; Vann, Terri; Vinson, Jean; Lansing, Michaele

    2016-03-01

    The prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders among children and adolescents is a national priority. One mode of implementing community-wide MEB prevention efforts is through evidence-based community mobilization approaches such as Communities That Care (CTC). This article provides an overview of the CTC framework and discusses the adaptation process of CTC to prevent development of MEBs through preventing child abuse and neglect and bolstering child well-being in children aged 0 to 10. Adaptations include those to the intervention itself as well as those to the evaluation approach. Preliminary findings from the Keeping Families Together pilot study of this evolving approach suggest that the implementation was manageable for sites, and community board functioning and community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in pilot sites looks promising. Implications and next steps are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Is a community still a community? Reviewing definitions of key terms in community ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Stroud, James T.; Bush, Michael R.; Ladd, Mark C.; Nowicki, Robert J.; Shantz, Andrew A.; Sweatman, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Community ecology is an inherently complicated field, confounded by the conflicting use of fundamental terms. Nearly two decades ago, Fauth et?al. (1996) demonstrated that imprecise language led to the virtual synonymy of important terms and so attempted to clearly define four keywords in community ecology; ?community,? ?assemblage,? ?guild,? and ?ensemble?. We revisit Fauth et?al.'s conclusion and discuss how the use of these terms has changed over time since their review. An update...

  18. Assessing Community Leadership: Understanding Community Capacity for Health Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kelly Pryor, Brandy N; Ingram, Monique

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a quantitative instrument to measure aspects of community leadership within an assessment framework. The instrument includes 14 Likert-type questions asking residents how they perceive leaders within 5 sectors: Louisville Metro Council/Mayor's Office, the faith community, education, business, and the civic sector. Louisville/Jefferson County, Kentucky, has a population of about 743 000 residents. Respondents were asked to examine leadership within West Louisville, an economically deprived area of the city made up of 9 contiguous neighborhoods. This area is predominantly African American (78% compared with 22% in Louisville Metro), with an overall poverty rate of 43% (compared with 18% in Louisville Metro), and unemployment rate of 23% (compared with 8% in Louisville Metro). Residents of West Louisville are looking to leadership to address many of the inequities. Twenty-seven participants representing 7 community sectors completed the survey, of whom 90% work in West Louisville. The instrument measured local perceptions of leadership strength, effectiveness, trust, communication, community building, and leadership development. The majority of respondents agree that strong leadership exists across the 5 sectors, with variation regarding perceptions of the quality of that leadership. City leadership within the Mayor's Office and Metro Council is largely viewed positively, while the growing tensions within the education sector were reflected in the survey results. The perception of community leadership is important to understanding local community capacity to improve health and also inclusivity of community voice in the assessment and community improvement processes. Results from such assessments can offer useful information for strengthening community capacity and sustaining relationships needed to enact progressive and equitable solutions to address local issues. Leaders in a variety of settings can utilize this instrument to

  19. Trust Discovery in Online Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piorkowski, John

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to discover interpersonal trust in online communities. Two novel trust models are built to explain interpersonal trust in online communities drawing theories and models from multiple relevant areas, including organizational trust models, trust in virtual settings, speech act theory, identity theory, and common bond theory. In…

  20. Community-acquired bacterial meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, Diederik; Brouwer, Matthijs; Hasbun, Rodrigo; Koedel, Uwe; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Wijdicks, Eelco

    2016-01-01

    Meningitis is an inflammation of the meninges and subarachnoid space that can also involve the brain cortex and parenchyma. It can be acquired spontaneously in the community - community-acquired bacterial meningitis - or in the hospital as a complication of invasive procedures or head trauma

  1. Marketing Model for Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahin, Jaime

    In order to survive projected enrollment decreases and to better serve nontraditional students, community colleges must develop marketing plans that make effective use of five community resources: local school system personnel, business and industry, civic and social service agencies, college personnel, and the local media. In approaching these…

  2. Distance Learning for Community Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the influence of technology on curriculum and teaching. It specifically examines the new wave of available technology and the opportunity for schools to make inroads into community outreach by engaging new, technological learning methods. The relationship among community education, public school relations, and distance…

  3. Strengthening community resilience: a toolkit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davis, Scott; Duijnhoven, Hanneke; Dinesen, Cecilie; Kerstholt, Johanna Helena

    2016-01-01

    While community resilience is said to have gained a lot of traction politically and given credence by disaster management professionals, this perception is not always shared by the individual members of communities. One solution to addressing the difficulty of individuals ‘conceptualising’ the

  4. Opening up closed policy communities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic cases of closed policy communities, facing pressure to open up. However attempts to involve new stakeholders slowly move forward. This paper addresses the question why it is so difficult to open up agricultural communities and what might help to

  5. A Community Patient Demographic System

    OpenAIRE

    Gabler, James M.; Simborg, Donald W.

    1985-01-01

    A Community Patient Demographic System is described. Its purpose is to link patient identification, demographic and insurance information among multiple organizations in a community or among multiple registration systems within the same organization. This function requires that there be a competent patient identification methodology and clear definition of local responsibilities for number assignment and database editing.

  6. Community College Employee Wellness Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, L. Jay; Johnson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the prevalence and characteristics of employee wellness programs in public community colleges accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS). A random sample of 250 public community colleges accredited by SACS was mailed a 46-item employee-wellness program survey. The survey solicited program information…

  7. Otitis Media, Learning and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwan, David; Clinch, Emma; Store, Ron

    2001-01-01

    A 3-year research project in Queensland (Australia) implemented educational and health strategies to ameliorate effects of otitis media at three schools in remote Aboriginal communities. The interdisciplinary model brought together health and education professionals, teacher aides, and the community, with the school being the lead agency. However,…

  8. Community Involvement in TB Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van der Werf (Marloes); S.G. Heumann (Silke); E.M.H. Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhile communities at risk have been both drivers and partners in HIV research, their important role in TB research is yet to be fully realized. Involvement of communities in tuberculosis care and prevention is currently on the international agenda. This creates opportunities and

  9. Mapping earthworm communities in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutgers, Michiel; Orgiazzi, Alberto; Gardi, Ciro

    Existing data sets on earthworm communities in Europe were collected, harmonized, modelled and depicted on a soil biodiversity map of Europe. Digital Soil Mapping was applied using multiple regressions relating relatively low density earthworm community data to soil characteristics, land use...

  10. What's Pragmatic about Community Organizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, educational researchers and scholars have turned new attention to the theory and practice of community organizing as a method for addressing education injustices. While there are diverse traditions of community organizing work, by far the most influential model in US contexts is that of Saul Alinsky, whose "Rules for Radicals"…

  11. Community, Democracy, and Neighborhood News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Elizabeth Blanks

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on democracy, community, and journalism by examining the interplay between communication, democracy, and community at an inner-city neighborhood newspaper. Concludes that, through its focus on neighborhood culture, acknowledgment of conflict, and attempts to provide a forum for the neighborhood's self-definition, the…

  12. Microbial communities in blueberry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial communities thrive in the soil of the plant root zone and it is clear that these communities play a role in plant health. Although blueberry fields can be productive for decades, yields are sometimes below expectations and fields that are replanted sometimes underperform and/or take too lo...

  13. Online Education in Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejda, Brent

    2010-01-01

    This chapter explores the tremendous growth in the use of the Internet to deliver distance education at community colleges. The author examines various definitions of online education, including the types of courses, programs, and degrees available and the types of community colleges that offer greater amounts of online programming. Considerations…

  14. Underrepresented communities: including the Portuguese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article emanates from a doctoral study which investigated the potential inclusion of the records generated by South African Portuguese community-based organisations into a workable archival collecting initiative of the community. The specific purpose of this article is to report on the current status of ...

  15. The Community Psychology Evaluation Nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Jeffrey A.; Wolfe, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the American Evaluation Association (AEA) added community psychology (CP) to its roster of topical interests groups (TIG). One of the highlights of the CP TIG program at the 2012 AEA Conference and the genesis of this "American Journal of Evaluation" Forum was a panel of accomplished community psychologists and evaluation…

  16. A Professional Learning Community Approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides insights into how Life Sciences teachers in the Eastern Cape can be supported through professional learning communities (PLCs) as a potential approach to enhancing their biodiversity knowledge. PLCs are communities that provide the setting and necessary support for groups of classroom teachers to ...

  17. Community Orientation and Media Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuwirth, Kurt; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examines the relationship among media use, participation in local shopping and leisure activities, and orientation toward the local community. Reexamines Robert Merton's Cosmopolitan scale, finding it to have both localite (exclusively local orientation) and cosmopolite (orientation to events outside the local community) dimensions. (MM)

  18. Introduction: Diverse Perspectives on Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes J. Pamela; Dorothy Anderson

    2000-01-01

    A glance through the table of contents of any social science journal illustrates that social science disciplines define community quite differently. For example, geographers emphasize spatial aspects, economists emphasize work and markets, and sociologists emphasize social interactions and networks in their definitions of communities. As a scientific concept,...

  19. Inroduction: diverse perspectives on community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Jakes; Dorothy Anderson

    2000-01-01

    A glance through the table of contents of any social science journal illustrates that social science disciplines define community quite differently. For example, geographers emphasize spatial aspects, economists emphasize work and markets, and sociologists emphasize social interactions and networks in their definitions of communities. As a scientific concept,...

  20. Community Music in Cultural Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hoogen, Quirijn; Bisschop Boele, Evert; Bartleet, Brydie-Leigh; Higgins, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Community Music presents a contested field. Its art status, its methods and its effects all are under scrutiny as the various actors involved in community music practices frequently have very different backgrounds and different objectives. Aesthetic intentions, social objectives and economic

  1. Healthy School Communities in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett-Gunter, Rebecca; Yessis, Jennifer; Manske, Steve; Gleddie, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Background and context: Healthy school communities aim to optimise student health and educational achievement. Various models, terms and resources have been used to describe healthy school communities. Policy makers and practitioners have reported confusion around many of the key concepts involved because of the varying models and terms.…

  2. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    care policy which was intended to make health care which of the two alternative methods of health care available to individuals and families in the financing options of free health or DRF was community at very little or no cost at all. However, preferred by the community members within most health facilities would appear to ...

  3. Global Journal of Community Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Community Medicine is aimed at promoting research in all areas of community or public health. It addresses issues of primary and tertiary health care. It deals with problems and solutions of health problems at the grassroots and daily livings. Visit the Global Journal Series website here: ...

  4. Democratic Leadership for Community Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Verna D.; Brooks, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    Because educators continue to face challenges when seeking to educate all children, there is a growing recognition that schools must work with communities to maximize their collective educational potential (Murphy, Beck, Crawford, Hodges, & McGauphy, 2001). Although community schools are still in the emergent stages of development, their emphasis…

  5. Positive feedback in species communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerla, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes the eventual population densities in a species community depend on the initial densities or the arrival times of species. If arrival times determine species composition, a priority effect has occurred. Priority effects may occur if the species community exhibits alternative stable states

  6. Community pharmacy practice in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nousheen Aslam

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: This study concludes that the current status of community pharmacy practice is below par. There is a need to involve more pharmacists at community level and develop awareness programs to counter patients′ routine drug issues and reducing the burden of disease from society.

  7. Iowa Community Colleges Accounting Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines. Div. of Community Colleges and Workforce Preparation.

    This document describes account classifications and definitions for the accounting system of the Iowa community colleges. In view of the objectives of the accounting system, it is necessary to segregate the assets of the community college according to its source and intended use. Additionally, the accounting system should provide for accounting by…

  8. Tenure and America's Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaria, Frank

    2012-01-01

    America's colleges and universities have been moving slowly but steadily away from tenure over the past decade. The American Federation of Teachers reports that community colleges have seen a 22% increase in the number of instructional staff between 1997 and 2007. During that time, the percentage of community college faculty that were full-time…

  9. Probing community nurses' professional basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaarup, Clara; Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Jensen, Merete Hartun

    2017-01-01

    Complicated and long-lasting wound care of diabetic foot ulcers are moving from specialists in wound care at hospitals towards community nurses without specialist diabetic foot ulcer wound care knowledge. The aim of the study is to elucidate community nurses' professional basis for treating...... diabetic foot ulcers. A situational case study design was adopted in an archetypical Danish community nursing setting. Experience is a crucial component in the community nurses' professional basis for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Peer-to-peer training is the prevailing way to learn about diabetic foot...... ulcer, however, this contributes to the risk of low evidence-based practice. Finally, a frequent behaviour among the community nurses is to consult colleagues before treating the diabetic foot ulcers....

  10. Coalfield communities and their environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, E

    1985-01-01

    Three main issues threaten the future of the coalfield communities: the coal industry is creating new capacity as the demand for coal slumps against predicted growth; the western democracies in general, and Britain in particular, are undergoing an economic restructuring under a financial management strategy which yields high levels of unemployment; the coalfield communities live in environments determined by the nature and history of their own local coal industry. The paper considers the effects of these issues on the coalfield communities. Topics covered are: the coalfield communities; opportunities to work; land use planning and the coal industry; spoil disposal; land reclamation; access; housing; tourism and leisure; open cast mining; coalfield community action zones; the financial scene.

  11. Do we need community geriatrics?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hanlon, S

    2012-01-30

    Community geriatrics has evolved as a specific aspect of geriatric medicine in the UK. In Ireland there is uncertainty as to how it should be planned. This is the first national survey of consultants, specialist registrars and general practitioners to seek their opinions. Most consultants and GPs reported already having a community aspect to their current practice, e.g. nursing home visits or community hospital visits, whereas most SpRs did not. Forty three of 62 respondents (69%) agreed that there is a need for community geriatricians and that there should be integration with hospital medicine. Fifty seven of 62 respondents (92%) felt that there would be a beneficial effect on GP services, though some expressed concern about work overlap. Thirteen of the 25 SpRs (52%) in training hoped to begin practice in community geriatrics in the future.

  12. Community Capacity Building for Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Traverso-Yepez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a great deal of literature examining the benefits and relevance of community participation and community capacity building in health promotion and disease prevention endeavors. Academic literature embracing principles and commitment to community participation in health promotion practices often neglects the complexities involved and the flexibility required to work within this approach. This article addresses some of these challenges through a case study of two projects funded by Provincial Wellness Grants in Newfoundland and Labrador, a province in Canada with a strong tradition of community ties and support systems. In addition to addressing the unique circumstances of the community groups, this research allowed the authors to examine the situational context and power relations involved in the provision of services as well as the particular forms of subjectivity and citizenship that the institutional practices support. Recognizing this complex interdependency is an important step in creating more effective intervention practices.

  13. Community attitudes toward nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peelle, E.

    1982-01-01

    Among the many effects of the accident at Three Mile Island are impacts upon other communities that currently host nuclear-power reactors. Because studies on communities' reactions not immediately available, this chapter reviews existing studies and speculates about possible effects. The patterns and variations in impacts on and responses of nuclear host communities have been the subject of studies at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Oak Ridge, Tennessee) since 1972. This essay presents results from four post-licensing studies of host communities - Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Waterford, Connecticut (PL-1), and Brunswick, North Carolina, and Appling-Toombs counties, Georgia (PL-2) - along with case study and attitude survey information from two additional communities in which reactors are under construction: Hartsville, Tennessee, and Cherokee County, South Carolina. Differences and similarities between the sites have been assessed in terms of differences in input and social structure; factors affecting the generally favorable attitudes toward local nuclear plants are discussed

  14. Paradoxes unbounded: Practising community making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Maginess

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The first section of this paper is a discussion of the paradoxes contained in definitionsof the word 'community' and deliberately foregrounds and makes problematicconflicting meanings before arguing for a third definition and practice of community.This third definition and practice celebrates and even transcends contradictions withinan active learning model of education in the community, aimed at tackling inequalityand prejudice. The second section offers an autocritical narrative account of aneducation in the community project that illustrates how such a practice of communitymaking can be achieved within an educational framework in which pupil is teacher andteacher is pupil and in which an imaginative, creative approach is deployed toconstruct a community making practice. The paper draws on understandings fromcommunity development, inclusive and creative education, emancipatory actionresearch, postcolonial and post-structuralist theory.

  15. Community-acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poetter-Lang, S.; Herold, C.J.

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often not possible based only on the clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters. For every patient with the suspicion of CAP, a chest radiograph in two planes should be carried out. Additionally, a risk stratification for the decision between outpatient therapy or hospitalization is recommended. Based on the evaluation of the different radiological patterns as well as their extent and distribution, a rough allocation to so-called pathogen groups as well as a differentiation between viral and bacterial infections are possible; however, because different pathogens cause different patterns an accurate correlation is not feasible by relying purely on imaging. The radiological findings serve as proof or exclusion of pneumonia and can also be used to evaluate the extent of the disease (e.g. monolobular, multilobular, unilateral or bilateral). In cases of prolonged disease, suspicion of complications (e.g. pleural effusion or empyema, necrotizing pneumonia or abscess) or comorbid conditions (e.g. underlying pulmonary or mediastinal diseases) computed tomography is an important diagnostic tool in addition to chest radiography. Ultrasound is often used to diagnose pleural processes (e.g. parapneumonic effusion or pleural empyema). (orig.) [de

  16. From Community to Meta-Community Mental Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Bouras

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, we have witnessed the development and growth of community mental health care that continues to dominate mental health policy and practice. Several high-income countries have implemented community mental health care programmes but for many others, including mostly low- and middle-income countries, it remains an aspiration. Although community mental health care has been positive for many service users, it has also had severe shortcomings. Expectations that it would lead to fuller social integration have not been fulfilled and many service users remain secluded in sheltered or custodial environments with limited social contacts and no prospect of work. Others receive little or no service at all. In today’s complex landscape of increasingly specialised services for people with mental health problems, the number of possible interfaces between services is increasing. Together with existing uneven financing systems and a context of constant change, these interfaces are challenging us to develop effective care pathways adjusted to the needs of service users and their carers. This discussion paper reviews the developments in community mental health care over the recent years and puts forward the concept of “Meta-Community Mental Health Care”. “Meta-Community Mental Health Care” embraces pluralism in understanding and treating psychiatric disorders, acknowledges the complexities of community provision, and reflects the realities and needs of the current era of care.

  17. Saraniyadhamma Community knowledge Incubator area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siripong Arundechachai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to 1 study the situation of the community knowledge incubator area at the past to the present time in Banhad,Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 2 study guidelines Buddhadhamma “Saraniyadhamma” revised by Community knowledge application Banhad, Tambon banhad, Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen, 3 study workflow of Saraniyadhamma that led to the creation of the network community knowledge incubator area together with another community. The target groups used in this research of the purposive sampling family farmers of 10, in Tambon banhad,Amphoe banhad Changwat KhonKaen. the Qualitative research.was used in this Study The results showed that 1 diversing issues in the Community live action of the relationships or occupations experience can be passed down, as well as the risk of loss the relationships between the people and people, people and supernatural. After people and nature lost in the community, but thay Continue to Perform, because community has strengths given the importance of all, to themselves, to others, generous, generosity, mounting traditions, Led to the creation Community Knowledge Incubator 2 adopting Buddhism’s “Saraniyadhamma 6” that applied to community Knowledge Incubator by giving to make immunity community. Strong The six fetures, were Principle 1: Metta-kayakamma, feature on sacrifiction, unity and synergy. Principle 2: Metta-manokamma, feature on mercifulness, collective sacrification. Principle 3: Metta-kayakamma, feature on good things, speak well, good action. Principle 4: Sadharana-bhogi, feature on humane society, mutual respect. Principle 5 Sila-samannata, feature on, follow the rules of society. Principle 5 Metta-manokamma feature on rationality, listening to the opinion of others. It found that there were process-driven learning and following six rules of saraniyadhamma, and immunity system, risk Decoupled. 3 Networks Saraniyadhamma learnt together with other

  18. Immigrant-Host Community Relations in Malawi's Community Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    government sponsored settlement schemes in Zimbabwe, for example, are viewed as ... diversity of community development projects and state provided public ..... Development Project in Malawi: case studies of beneficiary groups in Machinga ...

  19. 78 FR 13350 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... community-based initiatives; community characteristics (e.g., school environment); measurements of children... used for the development of future research initiatives targeting childhood obesity. Frequency of... Request Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) Summary: Under the...

  20. 76 FR 59706 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... published in scientific journals and will be used for the development of future research initiatives... Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) SUMMARY: Under the... control number. Proposed Collection: Title: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

  1. Challenge of superfund community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, N.J.

    1991-01-01

    Conducting a community relations effort in a community which is home to a Superfund site is a formidable challenge. Any education press, however appropriate, quickly falls victim to doubt, mistrust of fears of the very public intended to be served by the effort. While each site is uniquely different, the issues raised by affected communities in one part of the country are strikingly similar to those raised in other parts. Those most involved must join those most affected in seeking meaningful solutions and in building the trust that is so vital in moving forward with Superfund

  2. Opinion Evolution in Closed Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sznajd-Weron, Katarzyna; Sznajd, Józef

    A simple Ising spin model which can describe a mechanism of making a decision in a closed community is proposed. It is shown via standard Monte Carlo simulations that very simple rules lead to rather complicated dynamics and to a power law in the decision time distribution. It is found that a closed community has to evolve either to a dictatorship or a stalemate state (inability to take any common decision). A common decision can be taken in a ``democratic way'' only by an open community.

  3. Systems biology of Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navid, A; Ghim, C; Fenley, A; Yoon, S; Lee, S; Almaas, E

    2008-04-11

    Microbes exist naturally in a wide range of environments, spanning the extremes of high acidity and high temperature to soil and the ocean, in communities where their interactions are significant. We present a practical discussion of three different approaches for modeling microbial communities: rate equations, individual-based modeling, and population dynamics. We illustrate the approaches with detailed examples. Each approach is best fit to different levels of system representation, and they have different needs for detailed biological input. Thus, this set of approaches is able to address the operation and function of microbial communities on a wide range of organizational levels.

  4. Reconsidering Community-based Retailing

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Rebecca; O'Driscoll, Aidan

    2012-01-01

    One of the areas with great potential for economic, social and environmental benefit is community-based retailing. The concept of community based retailing can incorporate a number of different tenets. We suggest that it is retailing that is based close to the community it serves, usually within the town or village centre rather than out-of-town locations, and which is composed of a diverse range of small and medium sized business that are often independently or co-operatively owned. These co...

  5. Innovative Partnerships Assist Community College Computing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Banion, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Relates efforts of major corporations in providing assistance to community college computing programs. Explains the goals of the League for Innovation in the Community College, a consortium of 19 community colleges, and cites examples of collaborative projects. (ML)

  6. Community Seismic Network (CSN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.; Liu, A.; Strand, L.

    2012-12-01

    We report on developments in sensor connectivity, architecture, and data fusion algorithms executed in Cloud computing systems in the Community Seismic Network (CSN), a network of low-cost sensors housed in homes and offices by volunteers in the Pasadena, CA area. The network has over 200 sensors continuously reporting anomalies in local acceleration through the Internet to a Cloud computing service (the Google App Engine) that continually fuses sensor data to rapidly detect shaking from earthquakes. The Cloud computing system consists of data centers geographically distributed across the continent and is likely to be resilient even during earthquakes and other local disasters. The region of Southern California is partitioned in a multi-grid style into sets of telescoping cells called geocells. Data streams from sensors within a geocell are fused to detect anomalous shaking across the geocell. Temporal spatial patterns across geocells are used to detect anomalies across regions. The challenge is to detect earthquakes rapidly with an extremely low false positive rate. We report on two data fusion algorithms, one that tessellates the surface so as to fuse data from a large region around Pasadena and the other, which uses a standard tessellation of equal-sized cells. Since September 2011, the network has successfully detected earthquakes of magnitude 2.5 or higher within 40 Km of Pasadena. In addition to the standard USB device, which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. This bypasses security concerns that some companies have with the USB-connected devices, and allows for 24/7 monitoring at sites that would otherwise shut down their computers after working hours. In buildings we use the sensors to model the behavior of the structures during weak events in order to understand how they will perform during strong events. Visualization models of instrumented buildings ranging

  7. Community participation in disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, A; Bekui, A

    1993-05-01

    The main determinants of community participation in disease control programmes are identified and a framework with eleven variables is developed. Attention is drawn to the political background, community characteristics, the managerial capacity of the provider and the epidemiology of the disease. The framework is designed to guide health professionals in the systematic assessment and monitoring of participation in disease control programmes. Analysis of the Ghanaian Guinea Worm Eradication Programme and the Nicaraguan Tuberculosis Control Programme are presented as case studies. They show that political support does not guarantee community participation in disease control programmes and stress the importance of other determinants such as commitment to PHC, intersectoral coordination, the project approach and human resources. The relevance of the epidemiology of the disease in determining what degree of community participation will be most effective is highlighted by the case studies.

  8. Community Detection for Large Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin; Kolda, Tamara G.; Pinar, Ali; Zhang, Zhihua; Keyes, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Many real world networks have inherent community structures, including social networks, transportation networks, biological networks, etc. For large scale networks with millions or billions of nodes in real-world applications, accelerating current

  9. International Journal of Community Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    : 2384 - 6828] is a peer reviewed journal publication of Anthonio Research Center. IJCR publishes research articles, review articles, short reports and commentaries that are community-based or inter and intra-cultural based. IJCR also accepts ...

  10. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. ... Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4400, Osogbo, Osun State. ... weak management and poor adherence to the basic infrastructure e.g. primary, secondary and tertiary.

  11. Community Culture and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide explores the concepts of community and culture and provides tools for identifying, assessing and working cooperatively within the social dynamics and local values connected to environmental protection.

  12. Being participated: a community approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Winschiers-Theophilus, H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available obvious throughout the design experiences within our community project. Supported by a theoretical framework we reflect upon current participatory design practices. We intend to inspire and refine participatory design concepts and methods beyond...

  13. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    Quarry industry has become a major means of livelihood in Ebonyi state, but insufficient data exists on their operations ... of Dust Mask among Crushers of Selected Quarry (Crushed ... Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care.

  14. Production in aquatic macrophyte communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binzer, Thomas; Sand-Jensen, Kaj

    2002-01-01

    -dimensional structure because of the strong drag and shear forces of moving water. This difference in canopy structure has been suggested to account for the three- to fivefold higher gross production rates in terrestrial than aquatic communities. To evaluate the effect of community structure in aquatic habitats, we......Many terrestrial plant canopies regulate spatial patterns in leaf density and leaf inclination to distribute light evenly between the photosynthetic tissue and to optimize light utilization efficiency. Sessile aquatic macrophytes, however, cannot maintain the same well-defined three...... was markedly enhanced by a vertical orientation of thalli when absorptance and community density were both high. This result implies that aquatic macrophytes of high thallus absorptance and community density exposed to high light are limited in attaining high gross production rates because of their inability...

  15. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Epidemiology and Community Health, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria .... exercise. All pupils in the selected school later done under the light ..... increased the likelihood of intestinal parasitic of Ilechukwu et al in which a ...

  16. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajiboro

    3Department of Community and Primary Health Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idiaraba, ... Some of the participants (45.3%) carry out physical exercises such as walking ..... hypertension, continuous effective management of.

  17. Storage Tank Legionella and Community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage Tank Legionella and Community. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Qin, K., I. Struewing, J. Santodomingo, D. Lytle, and J. Lu....

  18. & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE COMMUNITY MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    community, workplace, markets and healthcare effect of attrition giving approximately 200 and. 12 setting. ..... of women and 94% of men had heard about HIV. ... barriers to HIV prevention, HIV Counseling and. 26 ... gave a human face to HIV.

  19. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajiboro

    Work Profile of Community Health Extension Workers in Cross. River State and ... reasons. In some countries they were to meet shortages in health manpower. In other ... Life expectancy is 51 years; maternal mortality and workers were ...

  20. Community Governance and Vocational Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martasari, R.; Haryanti, R. H.; Susiloadi, P.

    2018-02-01

    Vocational education is required to create a design of education and training that is friendly and feasible for disabled people. The state has a responsibility for it, but with all the limitations, the state can not always be present. This article aims to analyze the capacity of community governance in passing vocational education for people with disabilities in Ponorogo, Indonesia. Articles are the results of research for approximately two years by using data collection techniques through interviews, documentation and observation. Source Triangulation with analysis technique using interactive model is used for data validation. The results show that there are two large capacities owned by Organisasi Sosial Rumah Kasih Sayang as community governance in conducting vocational education for the disabled person namely community credibility and community vigilance.

  1. The iSchool Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogers, Toine; Greifeneder, Elke

    2016-01-01

    the reviewer pool more representative of the iSchool community as a whole by including more women and more researchers from Asian institutions. Other recommendations are to improve the continuity of the reviewer pool and to provide clearer instructions to reviewers to ensure that written reviews explicitly...... cover all the aspects represented by the review scores. The results of our study provide the iSchool community with a descriptive analysis of its community and a better understanding of its review process.......A fair review process is essential to the success of any scientific conference. In this paper we present an analysis of the reviewing process of the 2014-2015 iConferences as well as a demographic analysis of the iConference community as a whole. The results show a clear need for making...

  2. Community energy self-reliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Goals of a workshop/conference on community renewable energy systems are: (1) to encourage decentralization in attacking energy problems, (2) to show how renewable energy can meet community goals, (3) to present examples of successful projects, (4) to discuss the planning and management of renewable energy systems, (5) to identify sources of financial support, (6) to share legal strategies, and (7) to examine utility roles.

  3. Spatiotemporal Modeling of Community Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Ertugay, and Sebnem Duzgun, “Exploratory and Inferential Methods for Spatio-Temporal Analysis of Residential Fire Clustering in Urban Areas,” Fire ...response in communities.”26 In “Exploratory and Inferential Methods for Spatio-temporal Analysis of Residential Fire Clustering in Urban Areas,” Ceyhan...of fire resources spread across the community. Spatiotemporal modeling shows that actualized risk is dynamic and relatively patterned. Though

  4. Community care and social services.

    OpenAIRE

    Renwick, D.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of community care is to enable people with various types of disability to live in their own homes, rather than in institutions. This involves the provision of support and services at home by various agencies. After a critical report in 1986 identified problems with coordination and flexibility of community care services, the white paper Caring for People (1989) stated the government's aim to provide a "needs led," responsive range of services, promoting maximum independence of those w...

  5. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  6. Community Concern on Environmental Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Fajar Adie; Maryono

    2018-02-01

    Research on the relationship between humans and the environment is always very interesting to be studied. This paper is one of the studies of sustainable development in its implementation with the empowerment of society that comes from the community itself. So far, community studies related to development occasionally target the growth of the economic side only. Community study on the environment becomes an alternative choice, compared with human relationships with humans themselves, or humans with human needs themselves. The study of community development by looking at the environment can be a wise choice, where all activities of fulfilling human needs are always inseparable from the element of interaction with the environment. Community development that is based on the environment itself, will give a better impact, just solely. Various methods of learning human relationships. A community-based environmental assessment study can be an alternative choice to support a sustainable development mission, which is development that has a positive impact on the present and the future.

  7. Mountain Plant Community Sentinels: AWOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanson, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain plant communities are thought to be sensitive to climate change. Because climatic gradients are steep on mountain slopes, the spatial response of plant communities to climate change should be compressed and easier to detect. These expectations have led to identifying mountain plant communities as sentinels for climate change. This idea has, however, been criticized. Two critiques, for alpine treeline and alpine tundra, are rehearsed and supplemented. The critique of alpine treeline as sentinel is bolstered with new model results on the confounding role of dispersal mechanisms and sensitivity to climatic volatility. In alpine tundra, for which background turnover rates have yet to be established, community composition may reflect environmental gradients only for extremes where effects of climate are most indirect. Both plant communities, while primarily determined by energy at broad scales, may respond to water as a proximate driver at local scales. These plant communities may not be in equilibrium with climate, and differently scaled time lags may mean that ongoing vegetation change may not signal ongoing climate change (or lack thereof). In both cases a double-whammy is created by scale dependence for time lags and for drivers leading to confusion, but these cases present opportunities for insights into basic ecology.

  8. A community approach to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagland, M

    1997-01-01

    Improving the health and well-being of a community may seem like a daunting task-particularly when you consider the vast number of factors that can influence the quality of life of a neighborhood or a region. It's not impossible, however, as six widely different communities across the U.S. are discovering. The Accelerating Community Transformation (ACT) project--now underway by The Healthcare Forum through a five-year, $5 million grant from pharmaceutical joint venture Astra Merck Inc.--is an innovative attempt to create real-life learning laboratories in communities as diverse as an inner-city neighborhood on the west side of Chicago; the small southern town of Aiken, S.C.: the semi-desert city of San Bernardino, Calif.; a corner of America's heartland where Missouri, Kansas. Nebraska and Iowa meet; the new town of Celebration, Fla.; and St. Louis, Mo. The goals: to evaluate and accelerate community-wide efforts that result in healthier, more desirable places for people to live, work and play; to build community capacity; and to achieve measurable improved health and quality of life outcomes.

  9. Innovations in community physiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ellangovin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In the last 35 years, Bangladesh has produced only 415 physiotherapists to meet the demands of a total population of 150 million. Most of them practice in the capital city of Dhaka because of better business prospects. The need to formulate an innovative strategy to meet the huge demand is obvious.According to a World Bank report (2005, 44% (poor and 33% (very poor people approach local pharmacists or medicine sellers for their ailments due to poor accessibility to healthcare facilities and also to avoid consultation fees. Due to scarcity in the number of professionals, community physiotherapists have become popular with rural patients. They use innovative treatment approaches, which combines traditional Physiotherapy and ancient Ayurvedic massage. Targeting equitable access to all, Gonoshasthaya Kendra (GK has its own health insurance policy. The fee is determined by the socio-economic status of the patient. Experienced paramedics are now able to administer treatment without direct supervision all the time. The number of patients seen by them is multiplying at a fascinating rate every year due to the growing recognition of their work. Gonoshasthaya Kendra (GK was established in 1972 and provides primary health care to a rural population of over 1.08 million across 629 villages in Bangladesh. The strategies and methods adopted by Gonoshasthaya Kendra in bridging the gap and promoting community physiotherapy by training health workers or “paramedics” in Bangladesh, has been successful. Even though training of many more paramedics is required, success is guaranteed.Au cours de ces 35 dernières années, le Bangladesh a formé uniquement 415 kinésithérapeutes pour une population totale de 150 millions de personnes. La plupart d’entre eux exercent dans la capitale, Dhaka, où les perspectives de travail sont les meilleures. La mise en place d’une stratégie innovante est par conséquent nécessaire pour répondre à la forte demande

  10. Corporate Philanthropy Toward Community Health Improvement in Manufacturing Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Megan; Farley, Diane; Maechling, Claude R; Dunlop, Dorothy D; French, Dustin D; Holl, Jane L

    2018-06-01

    Virtually all large employers engage in corporate philanthropy, but little is known about the extent to which it is directed toward improving community health. We conducted in-depth interviews with leaders of corporate philanthropy from 13 of the largest manufacturing companies in the US to understand how giving decisions were made, the extent to which funding was directed towards improving community health, and whether companies coordinate with local public health agencies. We found that corporate giving was sizable and directed towards communities in which the manufacturers have a large presence. Giving was aligned with the social determinants of health (i.e., aimed at improving economic stability, the neighborhood and physical environment, education, food security and nutrition, the community and social context, and the health care system). However, improving public health was not often cited as a goal of corporate giving, and coordination with public health agencies was limited. Our results suggest that there may be opportunities for public health agencies to help guide corporate philanthropy, particularly by sharing community-level data and offering their measurement and evaluation expertise.

  11. Contextual community prevention theory: building interventions with community agency collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eduardo S

    2009-11-01

    Translation from research to practice faces numerous problems that include replicating effectiveness, fidelity to the protocol and processes, and adaptations to different types of target populations. Working collaboratively with existing service providers can speed up the time for development and can ease the implementation of empirical randomized trials. Contextual community prevention theory is an innovative approach that focuses on changing behaviors of community members by creating a visible institutional presence that draws and pulls the targeted population into the organization's activities and interventions. The result is an institution or organization within the community that provides a new active and dynamic context, engaging its community members into its activities, interventions, and functions. An HIV prevention program developed collaboratively from the ground up for Latino gay/bisexual men is presented. Results from the program evaluation efforts across the years suggest promise for testing its efficacy through a randomized trial. HIV prevention efforts need to develop dynamic support systems within communities where these men have ownership, have control, and feel safe; otherwise HIV infection rates in this population will increase. Copyright 2009 by the American Psychological Association

  12. Community empowerment and community cohesion: parallel agendas for community building in England?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Mayo

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Community empowerment and community capacity building have been central to government agendas in Britain over the past decade. Agendas for tackling the so-called ‘War on Terrorism’ and promoting community cohesion have become increasingly significant in addition, especially since the bombings in London in 2005. This article focuses upon the current gap between these differing agendas. This is particularly relevant in an era of increasing globalisation, with considerable debate on the impact of migration, and anxieties about previous approaches to multiculturalism that have been the subject of growing criticism. Having set out these gaps in public policy and research in this field, the article examines the evidence from research, including 100 interviews together with focus groups conducted in three localities in England, identifying the problems, in terms of the lack of engagement of ‘new communities’ and in terms of the potential tensions within and between communities. There was, however, encouraging evidence that strategies were being developed to develop more inclusive, more democratically accountable and more effective forms of community engagement. The article concludes by summarising potential implications for building community cohesion and social solidarity.

  13. Evaluating Community-Based Participatory Research to Improve Community-Partnered Science and Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Sarah; Duran, Bonnie; Wallerstein, Nina; Avila, Magdalena; Belone, Lorenda; Lucero, Julie; Magarati, Maya; Mainer, Elana; Martin, Diane; Muhammad, Michael; Oetzel, John; Pearson, Cynthia; Sahota, Puneet; Simonds, Vanessa; Sussman, Andrew; Tafoya, Greg; Hat, Emily White

    2013-01-01

    Background Since 2007, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) Policy Research Center (PRC) has partnered with the Universities of New Mexico and Washington to study the science of community-based participatory research (CBPR). Our goal is to identify facilitators and barriers to effective community–academic partnerships in American Indian and other communities, which face health disparities. Objectives We have described herein the scientific design of our National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study (2009–2013) and lessons learned by having a strong community partner leading the research efforts. Methods The research team is implementing a mixed-methods study involving a survey of principal investigators (PIs) and partners across the nation and in-depth case studies of CBPR projects. Results We present preliminary findings on methods and measures for community-engaged research and eight lessons learned thus far regarding partnership evaluation, advisory councils, historical trust, research capacity development of community partner, advocacy, honoring each other, messaging, and funding. Conclusions Study methodologies and lessons learned can help community–academic research partnerships translate research in communities. PMID:22982842

  14. The environment and community relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odogwu, E.C.

    1991-01-01

    Even though the petroleum industry in Nigeria has become the back bone of the Nigerian economy the relationship with the communities in the oil producing area is not all what it should be. There has been a significant shift in emphasis from the earlier peaceful and cordial relationship to the present more vocal sometimes violent relationship from a few communities who would like to see the operator held responsible for all environmental lapses of the past 50 years of oil operations in Nigeria. As the leading and most visible oil producer, we experience our share of strained relations in proportion to the size and extent of Shell's operations. Social unrest in the oil producing areas can be attributed to the frequent complaint by the communities of gross neglect by the oil producing companies and the Federal Government of Nigeria in the development of their areas. The community's feeling in that the level of compensation from environmental pollution is not sufficient to compensate the damage caused and this affects good community relations. Also, some communities feel that despite the taxes and royalties paid by multinational companies that, most of the petroleum profit from their God-given wealth is being taken away by such multinationals for development elsewhere. This feeling stems from the perceived glaring disparity between developments in the urban and rural areas where oil operations are carried out. This paper is an attempt to examine the social problems associated with oil exploration and production and the related environmental pollution therefrom and proffer suggestions on how such problems can be solved for good community relations

  15. Community detection using preference networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasgin, Mursel; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2018-04-01

    Community detection is the task of identifying clusters or groups of nodes in a network where nodes within the same group are more connected with each other than with nodes in different groups. It has practical uses in identifying similar functions or roles of nodes in many biological, social and computer networks. With the availability of very large networks in recent years, performance and scalability of community detection algorithms become crucial, i.e. if time complexity of an algorithm is high, it cannot run on large networks. In this paper, we propose a new community detection algorithm, which has a local approach and is able to run on large networks. It has a simple and effective method; given a network, algorithm constructs a preference network of nodes where each node has a single outgoing edge showing its preferred node to be in the same community with. In such a preference network, each connected component is a community. Selection of the preferred node is performed using similarity based metrics of nodes. We use two alternatives for this purpose which can be calculated in 1-neighborhood of nodes, i.e. number of common neighbors of selector node and its neighbors and, the spread capability of neighbors around the selector node which is calculated by the gossip algorithm of Lind et.al. Our algorithm is tested on both computer generated LFR networks and real-life networks with ground-truth community structure. It can identify communities accurately in a fast way. It is local, scalable and suitable for distributed execution on large networks.

  16. Managing Communities – Mining MNEs’ Community Risk Management Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarup Esbensen, Jacob

    This PhD reflects the effort to close a gap in the multinational enterprise (MNE) risk management literature on the identification and mitigation of risk arising from local communities. Small villages and towns that are situated geographically close to the MNEs’ place of operation have increasingly......-to-date information about mining MNE operations. This improved outreach has meant that mines have been closed due to conflicts with local communities and therefor a need had arisen for MNEs to implement management practices that can effectively mitigate these types of risks....... been identified as a source of risk (BSR, 2003; ICMM, 2015). The mining industry is one of the most exposed to risks from local communities, where there historically have been many conflicts between mine owners on one side and the people living close to the mine on the other (Godoy, 1985; Hoskin, 1912...

  17. The offshore benthic fish community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantry, Brian F.; Lantry, Jana R.; Weidel, Brian C.; Walsh, Maureen; Hoyle, James A.; Schaner, Teodore; Neave, Fraser B.; Keir, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lake Ontario’s offshore benthic fish community includes primarily slimy sculpin, lake whitefish, rainbow smelt, lake trout, burbot, and sea lamprey. Of these, lake trout have been the focus of an international restoration effort for more than three decades (Elrod et al. 1995; Lantry and Lantry 2008). The deepwater sculpin and three species of deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) that were historically important in the offshore benthic zone became rare or were extirpated by the 1960s (Christie 1973; Owens et al. 2003; Lantry et al. 2007b; Roth et al. 2013). Ecosystem changes continue to influence the offshore benthic fish community, including the effects of dreissenid mussels, the near disappearance of burrowing amphipods (Diporeia spp.) (Dermott et al. 2005; Watkins et al. 2007), and the increased abundance and expanded geographic distribution of round goby (see Nearshore Fish Community chapter) (Lantry et al. 2007b). The fish-community objectives for the offshore benthic fish community, as described by Stewart et al. (1999), are:

  18. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Jolley

    2000-11-09

    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses.

  19. Profiting from innovative user communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    Modding - the modification of existing products by consumers - is increasingly exploited by manufacturers to enhance product development and sales. In the computer games industry modding has evolved into a development model in which users act as unpaid `complementors' to manufacturers' product pl......, a manufacturer can incorporate and commercialize the best complements found in the user communities. Keywords: innovation, modding, user communities, software platform, business model. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...... platforms. This article explains how manufacturers can profit from their abilities to organize and facilitate a process of innovation by user communities and capture the value of the innovations produced in such communities. When managed strategically, two distinct, but not mutually exclusive business...... models appear from the production of user complements: firstly, a manufacturer can let the (free) user complements `drift' in the user communities, where they increase the value to consumers of owning the given platform and thus can be expected to generate increased platform sales, and secondly...

  20. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolley, D.

    2000-01-01

    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses

  1. Experience Learning and Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nena Mijoč

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Research in the field of education, carried out in living and working environment, which has undergone so profound changes recently, is of extreme importance. In schools, courses and seminars, one cannot prepare him/herself for the changes as these are often so rapid that it is impossible to foresee them. Therefore, one can only learn by experience. In defining the term 'experience learning', the teoreticians vary greatly. In this paper, experience learning is understood as a process of learning taking part mainly outside the planned educational process and including an active and participative attitude towards environment and people. Original and direct experience can thus serve as a basis for gaining new comprehensions, for planning future activities as well as for a reinterpretation of the past experiences. Let us first mention the basic factors of successful experience learning, such as an individual's character features, possibilities for learning, learning atmosphere and positive stimulations. It has been estimated that local community can increase or decrease the possibilities for experience learning. However, the relation is active in other direction too: the more experience learning bas been asserted in a community, the greater its influence on social and cultural development of the community. On has to bear in mind that well-planned education for local community and stimulating sociocultural animation can facilitate the development of local community.

  2. Loneliness in senior housing communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Harry Owen; Wang, Yi; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2018-05-23

    There are many studies on loneliness among community-dwelling older adults; however, there is limited research examining the extent and correlates of loneliness among older adults who reside in senior housing communities. This study examines the extent and correlates of loneliness in three public senior housing communities in the St. Louis area. Data for this project was collected with survey questionnaires with a total sample size of 148 respondents. Loneliness was measured using the Hughes 3-item loneliness scale. Additionally, the questionnaire contained measures on socio-demographics, health/mental health, social engagement, and social support. Missing data for the hierarchical multivariate regression models were imputed using multiple imputation methods. Results showed approximately 30.8% of the sample was not lonely, 42.7% was moderately lonely, and 26.6% was severely lonely. In the multivariate analyses, loneliness was primarily associated with depressive symptoms. Contrary to popular opinion, our study found the prevalence of loneliness was high in senior housing communities. Nevertheless, senior housing communities could be ideal locations for reducing loneliness among older adults. Interventions should focus on concomitantly addressing both an individual's loneliness and mental health.

  3. Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokova, Diana; Tarr, Jane

    2012-01-01

    What is an inclusive school community? How do stakeholders perceive their roles and responsibilities towards inclusive school communities? How can school communities become more inclusive through engagement with individual perspectives? "Diverse Perspectives on Inclusive School Communities" captures and presents the voices of a wide…

  4. At the Intersection of College & Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    By purchasing abandoned facilities and transforming them into vibrant hubs for culture and education, community colleges are fulfilling one of their key missions: revitalizing their communities. But these types of projects can be fraught with challenges as well. Here's how Austin Community College (Texas), Manchester Community College…

  5. Colleges and Communities: Increasing Local Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    2001-01-01

    Community colleges in Appalachia are helping boost local economies and expand educational opportunities through the national Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI). At the heart of RCCI is a nine-step strategic planning process in which a community group moves from vision to action. Kentucky's Southeast Community College has promoted…

  6. Teaching Community Organizing in a BSW Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodofsky, Merav Moshe; Bakun-Mazor, Hagar

    2012-01-01

    The article describes a community organizing course that was as dynamic as community organizing itself. By employing a combination of teaching approaches, community organizing philosophy, and pedagogical and andragogical techniques for student training, the course challenged students to discover their beliefs and the role of the community and the…

  7. Reducing Maternal Mortality by Strengthening Community Maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    translated from Hausa to English language. Using a pre-determined coding framework, coding and thematic analyses were carried out on the qualitative data collected from the baseline. LGA. Community. Estimated. Community. Population. Community maternal support systems established. Community savings. Emergency.

  8. Community identities as visions for landscape change

    Science.gov (United States)

    William P. Stewart; Derek Liebert; Kevin W. Larkin

    2004-01-01

    Residents' felt senses of their community can play substantial roles in determining visions for landscape change. Community identities are often anchored in tangible environments and events of a community, and have the potential to serve as visions for landscape planning processes. Photo-elicitation is applied in this study to connect community-based meanings to...

  9. Community Psychology, Evaluation, and Social Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robin Lin

    2015-01-01

    Community psychology blends psychological science, a community-level perspective on social issues, and a social justice orientation. Despite important difference between community psychology and program evaluation, program evaluation is a key component of many community psychologists' practice and holds a central place in my own. In this…

  10. Can AmeriCorps Build Communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ann Marie; Perry, James L.

    1998-01-01

    An examination of AmeriCorps in five communities focused on its impact on the capacity of local community-based organizations to achieve community goals. Most partner organizations were unable to build sufficient commitment for self-governance; few programs were designed to encourage collective goals. Getting things done in local communities may…

  11. Education in Aboriginal Communities: Dilemmas around Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Donald M.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Sudden empowerment of Canadian Aboriginal communities has raised many dilemmas concerning community controlled education, including issues related to educational planning and decision making by inexperienced administrators, focusing educational goals on the community versus mainstream society, discontinuities between community and school culture,…

  12. Cross shelf benthic biodiversity patterns in the Southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne; Anlauf, Holger; Kurten, Saskia; Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Alsaffar, Zahra Hassan Ali; Curdia, Joao; Jones, Burton; Carvalho, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of coral reef and soft sediment ecosystems in the Red Sea has to date received limited scientific attention. This study investigates changes in the community composition of both reef and macrobenthic communities along a cross shelf gradient. Coral reef assemblages differed significantly in species composition and structure with location and depth. Inner shelf reefs harbored less abundant and less diverse coral assemblages with higher percentage macroalgae cover. Nutrient availability and distance from the shoreline were significantly related to changes in coral composition and structure. This study also observed a clear inshore offshore pattern for soft sediment communities. In contrast to the coral reef patterns the highest diversity and abundance of soft sediment communities were recorded at the inshore sites, which were characterized by a higher number of opportunistic polychaete species and bivalves indicative of mild disturbance. Sediment grain size and nutrient enrichment were important variables explaining the variability. This study aims to contribute to our understanding of ecosystem processes and biodiversity in the Red Sea region in an area that also has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics, such as the capacity of reef systems and benthic macrofaunal organisms to adapt to global climate change.

  13. Cross shelf benthic biodiversity patterns in the Southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne

    2017-03-21

    The diversity of coral reef and soft sediment ecosystems in the Red Sea has to date received limited scientific attention. This study investigates changes in the community composition of both reef and macrobenthic communities along a cross shelf gradient. Coral reef assemblages differed significantly in species composition and structure with location and depth. Inner shelf reefs harbored less abundant and less diverse coral assemblages with higher percentage macroalgae cover. Nutrient availability and distance from the shoreline were significantly related to changes in coral composition and structure. This study also observed a clear inshore offshore pattern for soft sediment communities. In contrast to the coral reef patterns the highest diversity and abundance of soft sediment communities were recorded at the inshore sites, which were characterized by a higher number of opportunistic polychaete species and bivalves indicative of mild disturbance. Sediment grain size and nutrient enrichment were important variables explaining the variability. This study aims to contribute to our understanding of ecosystem processes and biodiversity in the Red Sea region in an area that also has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics, such as the capacity of reef systems and benthic macrofaunal organisms to adapt to global climate change.

  14. Undiagnosed depression: A community diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifa Z. Williams

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Many large provider networks are investing heavily in preventing disease within the communities that they serve. We explore the potential benefits and challenges associated with tackling depression at the community level using a unique dataset designed for one such provider network. The economic costs of having depression (increased medical care use, lower quality of life, and decreased workplace productivity are among the highest of any disease. Depression often goes undiagnosed, yet many believe that depression can be treated or prevented altogether. We explore the prevalence, distribution, economic burden, and the psychosocial and economic factors associated with undiagnosed depression in a lower-income neighborhood in northern Manhattan. Even using state-of-the art data to “diagnose” the risk factors within a community, it can be challenging for provider networks to act against such risk factors.

  15. Life span in online communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosiński, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recently online communities have attracted great interest and have become an important medium of information exchange between users. The aim of this work is to introduce a simple model of the evolution of online communities. This model describes (a) the time evolution of users’ activity in a web service, e.g., the time evolution of the number of online friends or written posts, (b) the time evolution of the degree distribution of a social network, and (c) the time evolution of the number of active users of a web service. In the second part of the paper we investigate the influence of the users’ lifespan (i.e., the total time in which they are active in an online community) on the process of rumor propagation in evolving social networks. Viral marketing is an important application of such method of information propagation.

  16. Community integration after burn injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esselman, P C; Ptacek, J T; Kowalske, K; Cromes, G F; deLateur, B J; Engrav, L H

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of community integration is a meaningful outcome criterion after major burn injury. The Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) was administered to 463 individuals with major burn injuries. The CIQ results in Total, Home Integration, Social Integration, and Productivity scores. The purposes of this study were to determine change in CIQ scores over time and what burn injury and demographic factors predict CIQ scores. The CIQ scores did not change significantly from 6 to 12 to 24 months postburn injury. Home integration scores were best predicted by sex and living situation; Social Integration scores by marital status; and Productivity scores by functional outcome, burn severity, age, and preburn work factors. The data demonstrate that individuals with burn injuries have significant difficulties with community integration due to burn and nonburn related factors. CIQ scores did not improve over time but improvement may have occurred before the initial 6-month postburn injury follow-up in this study.

  17. Community Foresight for Urban Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jonas Egmose; Eames, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    be necessary to deliver sustainability. In so doing, however, backcasting may run the risk of obscuring significant differences in current lived experience, negating alternative problem framings and normatively derived views of what constitutes sustainability. This paper reports an innovative UK attempt...... to develop an inclusive 'bottom-up' Community Foresight process for urban sustainability research. Unlike most backcasting studies, the methodology was initially grounded in an exploration of the community participants' current lived experience and understandings of sustainability. Given the particular...... purpose of the study the primary outcome from the work was structured around the articulation of a 'community-led' agenda for urban sustainability research, rather than an explicit normative vision and transition pathway. However, the methodology could easily be adapted for use in other contexts...

  18. Communities of the Future: Energy Programs for Livable Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J. G.; Strawn, N.

    1999-01-01

    This document relates how several of the US Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EERE) programs help communities across the nation deal with the issues of livability and sustainable growth. Highlights include background information on renewable energy technologies, some outstanding program anecdotes, and regional and Internet contact information

  19. Community theatre as instrument for community sensitisation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... Agency (GIZ) in Cameroon, and is currently ... proposes strategies that could be deployed to effectively develop and establish ... traditional system, community theatre, environmental protection, sustainable economic development. ..... Some groups usually travel from place to place to carry out their activities,.

  20. Community theatre as instrument for community sensitisation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-28

    Mar 28, 2016 ... on their emotions and finally leaves them to take things as they are. In the same vein, Karl Marx .... number of people who attended community meetings, and this has motivated me to write other ..... “A Theory of Many Cultures.

  1. Community-Based Ecotourism: The Transformation of Local Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pookhao Nantira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Community-based ecotourism (CBET is considered a sustainable form of tourism that improves the quality of life of hosts at the tourist destination. Scholars have yet to explore the long-term operation of CBET in relation to its effects on the local way of life. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to examine the transformation of a local community due to the operation of CBET in relation to sociocultural, economic and environmental aspects. The findings reveal that the community encounters both positive and negative impacts of transformation. However, unintended impacts of the CBET operation lay embedded in the transformation of relationships among the community members. The study identifies that close relationships among the villagers has been initially transformed to loose relationships due to forgotten communal goals; CBET has transformed from being a conservation tool to being a business-oriented goal which causes conflicts of interest among local people and alters traditional social structure. The study also agrees with the notion of social exchange theory for villagers to enhance environmental sustainability, and proposes that slight inequalities of benefits received from CBET causes social transformation at the local level.

  2. Community-based recreational football

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ditte Marie; Bjerre, Eik; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    is limited and the majority of prostate cancer survivors remain sedentary. Hence, novel approaches to evaluate and promote physical activity are warranted. This paper presents the rationale behind the delivery and evaluation of community-based recreational football offered in existing football clubs under...... the Danish Football Association to promote quality of life and physical activity adherence in prostate cancer survivors. The RE-AIM framework will be applied to evaluate the impact of the intervention including outcomes both at the individual and organizational level. By introducing community-based sport...

  3. Bullying in Virtual Learning Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforos, Stefanos; Tzanavaris, Spyros; Kermanidis, Katia Lida

    2017-01-01

    Bullying through the internet has been investigated and analyzed mainly in the field of social media. In this paper, it is attempted to analyze bullying in the Virtual Learning Communities using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, mainly in the context of sociocultural learning theories. Therefore four case studies took place. We aim to apply NLP techniques to speech analysis on communication data of online communities. Emphasis is given on qualitative data, taking into account the subjectivity of the collaborative activity. Finally, this is the first time such type of analysis is attempted on Greek data.

  4. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; Casse, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs there is a g......This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs...

  5. Community College Program Planning: A Method to Measure and Meet Community Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Vergara, Kelly; Lathrop, Rachel; Orlowski, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Offering academic programs that meet community need has long been a core mission of community colleges. However, determining which job skills and credentials are needed for employment in the community is challenging. In order to facilitate a holistic and community-based perspective, our 2-year community college developed a structured curricular…

  6. Community-Based Programming: An Opportunity and Imperative for the Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Edgar J.

    1992-01-01

    Defines community-based programing as a cooperative process in which the community college serves as leader and catalyst in effecting collaboration among community members, leaders, and groups. Recommends 15 tasks for community college leaders involved in community-based programing, including environmental scanning and coalition building. (DMM)

  7. Is a community still a community? Reviewing definitions of key terms in community ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, James T; Bush, Michael R; Ladd, Mark C; Nowicki, Robert J; Shantz, Andrew A; Sweatman, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Community ecology is an inherently complicated field, confounded by the conflicting use of fundamental terms. Nearly two decades ago, Fauth et al. (1996) demonstrated that imprecise language led to the virtual synonymy of important terms and so attempted to clearly define four keywords in community ecology; "community," "assemblage," "guild," and "ensemble". We revisit Fauth et al.'s conclusion and discuss how the use of these terms has changed over time since their review. An updated analysis of term definition from a selection of popular ecological textbooks suggests that definitions have drifted away from those encountered pre-1996, and slightly disagreed with results from a survey of 100 ecology professionals (comprising of academic professors, nonacademic PhDs, graduate and undergraduate biology students). Results suggest that confusion about these terms is still widespread in ecology. We conclude with clear suggestions for definitions of each term to be adopted hereafter to provide greater cohesion among research groups.

  8. California Community Colleges Parking Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Chuck

    In 1990, a representative sample of 25 California community colleges was contacted by telephone to determine their parking policies and practices. The colleges were sampled on the basis of location and size. Study findings included the following: (1) 17 of the colleges reported that they had insufficient numbers of on-campus parking spaces; (2)…

  9. Recruiting Parents and the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens-Brower, Teresa Jo

    1997-01-01

    An Oregon elementary teacher attributes her best teaching year ever to parents' and community members' voluntary participation. They got involved in four ways--communicating through voice mail, sharing expertise in the classroom, helping gather lesson materials, and participating in monthly learning celebrations. These activities supplemented…

  10. Critical Community Building: Beyond Belonging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettez, Silvia Cristina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author talks about community building and the power of active listening. Active listening is a particular kind of listening that requires conscious effort; it is a type of listening that some rarely practice and sometimes is virtually absent from classroom interactions. Thus active listening itself may be deceptively simple…

  11. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the_monk

    rural Nigerian communities, out-of-pocket more than a stated percentage ... experience for final year medical students of A total of six hundred and eighty six (686) .... health centre were lack of money (55.2%), household income was not ...

  12. The University and the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Duncan

    This paper presented views on the role of the university, and particularly the University of Alberta, in the community in the 1970s. Such indicators as population growth, income growth, rising level of education, rising levels of taxation, the rapidity of technological advance, shifts in social pattern, all pointed to a rapidly growing demand on…

  13. Building consensus in the community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.

    1994-01-01

    The importance for the development of UK renewable energy projects of building consensus in the community is discussed. After outlining the benefits of such an approach, some of the likely concerns and questions from a developer's viewpoint are explored. The key principles of good practice are considered and an example from a wind project examined. (UK)

  14. Intentionality, consciousness, and creating community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinski, Violet M

    2009-01-01

    Intentionality is briefly explored from the perspective of seminal written works on therapeutic touch and recorded conversations with Martha E. Rogers. This overview hints at possible interrelationships among intentionality, consciousness, and creating community, along with conceptual ambiguities, which are explored in detail by Zahourek and Larkin in this column.

  15. COMMUNITY MEDICINE & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajiboro

    2Department of Community Medicine & Primary Care, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, ... It may result from road traffic accident, near saving basic principles in emergency care that even drowning, electric ... (4.3%) at place of work, 8 (11.4%) at.

  16. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the_monk

    Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 26 (1) 12-20 .... large proportions of the population work in the poor people use health care services far less than. 19 ... hypertension, cancers and road traffic accidents) below 1 dollar ...

  17. Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Jonathan; Shahid, Humma; Bourne, Rupert R; White, Andrew J; Martin, Keith R

    2015-04-01

    With a higher life expectancy, there is an increased demand for hospital glaucoma services in the United Kingdom. The Cambridge community Optometry Glaucoma Scheme (COGS) was initiated in 2010, where new referrals for suspected glaucoma are evaluated by community optometrists with a special interest in glaucoma, with virtual electronic review and validation by a consultant ophthalmologist with special interest in glaucoma. 1733 patients were evaluated by this scheme between 2010 and 2013. Clinical assessment is performed by the optometrist at a remote site. Goldmann applanation tonometry, pachymetry, monoscopic colour optic disc photographs and automated Humphrey visual field testing are performed. A clinical decision is made as to whether a patient has glaucoma or is a suspect, and referred on or discharged as a false positive referral. The clinical findings, optic disc photographs and visual field test results are transmitted electronically for virtual review by a consultant ophthalmologist. The number of false positive referrals from initial referral into the scheme. Of the patients, 46.6% were discharged at assessment and a further 5.7% were discharged following virtual review. Of the patients initially discharged, 2.8% were recalled following virtual review. Following assessment at the hospital, a further 10.5% were discharged after a single visit. The COGS community-based glaucoma screening programme is a safe and effective way of evaluating glaucoma referrals in the community and reducing false-positive referrals for glaucoma into the hospital system. © 2014 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  18. Community relations 2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Gerald C; Fichman, Robert G; Gallaugher, John; Glaser, John

    2009-11-01

    Before the Internet, organizations had far more time to monitor and respond to community activity, but that luxury is long gone, leaving them in dire need of a coherent outreach strategy, fresh skills, and adaptive tactics. Drawing on the authors' study of more than two dozen firms, this article describes the changes wrought by social media in particular and shows managers how to take advantage of them--lessons that Kaiser Permanente, Domino's, and others learned the hard way. Social media platforms enhance the power of communities by promoting deep relationships, facilitating rapid organization, improving the creation and synthesis of knowledge, and enabling robust filtering of information. The authors cite many examples from the health care industry, where social media participation is vigorous and influential. For instance, members of Sermo, an online network exclusively for doctors, used the site to call attention to and organize against insurers' proposed reimbursement cuts. And on PatientsLikeMe, where people share details about their chronic diseases and the treatments they've pursued, charts and progress curves help members visualize their own complex histories and allow comparisons and feedback among peers. As you modernize your company's approach to community outreach, you'll need to assemble a social media team equipped to identify new opportunities for engagement and prevent brand damage. In the most successful firms the authors studied, community management was a dedicated function, combining marketing, public relations, and information technology skills.

  19. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the_monk

    VPDs, this represents 17% of global total. 1 ... Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Childhood Immunization ... Department of Community Health & Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, P.M.B. 12003, ... include access to services, parental (maternal) ... Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine Oral Polio.

  20. Changing closed agricultural policy communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic examples of closed policy communities facing pressure to open up. However, attempts to change them are slowly moving forward. The dialogues on Common Agricultural Policy reforms in which the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture is engaged with a range of

  1. Community-based gang desistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard Dichmann, Kirstine; Jensen, Tobias Bo; Mørck, Line Lerche

    2018-01-01

    of belonging to the communities in Homeboy Industries also facilitates self-reflection and identity transformation. Homeboy Industries is furthermore an important life changing resource because it offers former gang members a legal source of income. This provides them with a new and secure base, a way...

  2. Handbook for community college librarians

    CERN Document Server

    Crumpton, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    ""This work will serve as a very useful introduction for either new or aspiring community college librarians or as a text for an LIS course. The concise chapters, filled with both scholarship and practical advice, will help librarians better understand their environment."" - Library Journal Online

  3. Community Detection for Correlation Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel MacMahon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A challenging problem in the study of complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent, mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented towards identifying such modules and can suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, this approach has focused predominantly on replacing network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be intrinsically biased because of its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here, we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on random matrix theory, the appropriate correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. Our methods can filter out both unit-specific noise and system-wide dependencies, and the resulting communities are internally correlated and mutually anticorrelated. We also implement multiresolution and multifrequency approaches revealing hierarchically nested subcommunities with “hard” cores and “soft” peripheries. We apply our techniques to several financial time series and identify mesoscopic groups of stocks which are irreducible to a standard, sectorial taxonomy; detect “soft stocks” that alternate between communities; and discuss implications for portfolio optimization and risk management.

  4. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adedamla

    percentage of mortality and morbidity especially in. 1 ... prevalent in communities with poor food hygiene,. 1 ... and 650mls of clean water will constitute 45-70 ... second to India among 11 countries that were .... 15-30. 31-43. 128. 75. 57.4. 33.6. Marital Status. Single. Married. Separated .... women in child bearing age group.

  5. MARKETING CONSIDERATIONS ON BRAND COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.-C. Budac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most consumers spend an important part of their free time looking for online information about the brands before taking a decision to purchase. The Internet is the main factor which has led to a considerable increase of the time allotted by consumers for search and comparing information about brands, as a step preceding the decision to purchase and also one of the most important factors that influence the interaction between the brand and the consumer. Although the general trend is that the public to become more active and more involved in the choice of the brand, consumer's responses to its messages obviously depend on cultural, social or economic factors. The work has the purpose to clarify what brand community means and how it appeared - if it was really built from scratch or it has already existed in a latent way and it must only be recognized - the characteristics of successful communities, which of the objectives of the brands can be achieved by means of these groups, what is the role of social media in the development of these communities, what kind of types of mem¬bers are likely to be encountered inside of the online communities and what is their proportion for each and which are the research methodologies that can give support to companies in monitoring these groups.

  6. Novelzine: Reading and Writing Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGravelles, Karin H.; Bach, Jacqueline; Hyde, Yvette; Hebert, Angelle

    2012-01-01

    How might team teaching, young adult novels, and zines work together to engage students in thinking about, writing about, and building community? Four researchers worked with three eighth-grade English teachers and one student teacher to find out. The four eighth-grade English teachers teach as a team, meeting formally at least once a week to plan…

  7. Working together in community care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statham, D

    1994-01-01

    Health and social services professionals face major challenges in making the community care reforms work. Not least is the need to improve inter-agency collaboration. Many of the problems facing them are common to both professions, writes Daphne Statham. Instead of accusing the professions of inflexibility and tribalism, employers should support and invest in their professional staff.

  8. Planning positive legacies for communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    In the last 3 decades, an increasing number of mining and resources companies around the world have established community funds, trusts and foundations (FTFs) in order to comply with government legislation and/or to promote their corporate social responsibility or philanthropic programmes. Accord...

  9. Community Detection for Correlation Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Mel; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-04-01

    A challenging problem in the study of complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent, mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented towards identifying such modules and can suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, this approach has focused predominantly on replacing network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be intrinsically biased because of its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here, we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on random matrix theory, the appropriate correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. Our methods can filter out both unit-specific noise and system-wide dependencies, and the resulting communities are internally correlated and mutually anticorrelated. We also implement multiresolution and multifrequency approaches revealing hierarchically nested subcommunities with "hard" cores and "soft" peripheries. We apply our techniques to several financial time series and identify mesoscopic groups of stocks which are irreducible to a standard, sectorial taxonomy; detect "soft stocks" that alternate between communities; and discuss implications for portfolio optimization and risk management.

  10. Buggy Safety In Amish Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Almutairi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the Amish are admired for their lifestyle and religious beliefs there are some health issues that exist in the Amish community because of the isolation that is a strict part of their beliefs. According to the Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health Payne et al there is a database for these genetic diseases that users can access to find out he different genetic disorders common to the Anabaptist groups. Some of these genetic disorder diseases that are more common among the Amish are Polydactyl extra fingers and toes which is a symptom of Ellis-Van Creveld Syndrome and is common among the Amish of Pennsylvania. In addition the primary mode of transportation in the Amish community has been the horse and buggy for generations. Today traffic in the Amish community is increasing due to an increased rural population and a growing tourist industry. The community and the Amish have worked together on a committee to implement methods of marking all horse drawn vehicles with safety symbols to control the number of accidents that occur between horse drawn vehicles and motor vehicles.

  11. Universities' perspectives on community engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Humphrey, L.; Benneworth, P.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter makes the argument that despite the fact that utility has always been important to why universities exist, engaging with communities has been framed in ways that reinforce its perception as a transient, peripheral and even undesirable activity. The chapter begins by noting the way that

  12. Community Living Skills Guide: Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Sheila; Kreps, Alice Roelofs

    One of twenty course guides in the Community Living Skills Guide for the College for Living series, this document provides guidelines and workbook activities for the course, Art. The series of courses for developmentally disabled adults is intended to supplement residential programs and to aid in orienting institutionalized persons to eventual…

  13. Building Community through Arts Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Alice

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that society is fragmented and there is a need for strong support networks. Describes a cooperative community building program in North Carolina involving East Carolina University's art education program, Greenville (NC) public schools, and the McDonalds corporation. (CFR)

  14. COMMUNITY HEALTH & PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A nation's disease control effort is often as good as the surveillance and notification system put in place, .... Department. Community Health. 11. 4.9. Dentistry. 28. 12.5. Family Medicine. 14 .... formal training and a posting in the Infection control.

  15. Social capital and community heterogeneity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, Hilde R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Recent findings indicate that more pronounced community heterogeneity is associated with lower levels of social capital. These studies, however, concentrate on specific aspects in which people differ (such as income inequality or ethnic diversity). In the present paper, we introduce the

  16. Local community, mobility and belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anja; Arp Fallov, Mia; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2011-01-01

    ,recent developments in the understandings of mobility and local communities,and presents different theoretical views on local belonging.These questions highlight the necessity to discuss and investigate two overall narratives in social theory about the connection between space and social relations.Namely,1...

  17. Edison Home Community Study Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee County School District, Ft. Myers, FL. Dept. of Environmental Education and Instructional Development Services.

    History is not merely events that occurred in the past. The past has influenced the present, as the present will influence the future. The purpose of this community study unit is to provide fourth grade students with an opportunity to investigate some of the history of Lee County, Florida. The unit's focus is on Thomas Edison, who built a home in…

  18. Offshore Fish Community: Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The offshore (>80 m) fish community of Lake Superior is made up of predominately native species. The most prominent species are deepwater sculpin, kiyi, cisco, siscowet lake trout, burbot, and the exotic sea lamprey. Bloater and shortjaw cisco are also found in the offshore zone...

  19. Building confidence: PETROBRAS plus community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarenhas, Carina R.; Galluci, Alice Vianna [TELSAN - Engenharia Telecomunicacoes e Saneamento, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). ; Costa Filho, Mario Duarte [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In accordance with Brazilian Secretary of Mines and Energy goal of spreading the share of natural gas in the country's energetic system, there is a project of enlarging the pipeline network for natural gas, including northeast Brazil, with the construction of about 1,000 miles of pipelines, through 250 counties. The construction is guided by actions of Social and Environmental Responsibility and Sustainability. IENE, engineering group in charge of construction and erection of pipelines and plants for natural gas and renewable energy in northeast Brazil, develops Social and Environmental actions, projects and programs in the direct influence area (440 yards left and right from the pipeline axis). This history case is about the community of Mapele, 20 miles from the capital of Bahia, Brazil, with social and environmental problems due to the construction and operation of pipelines - gas and oil - that was a challenge to empower a good relationship with the community, creating an improvement of actions in the same community. So, this paper intends to share our experience in building a good relationship of PETROBRAS with Mapele's community. (author)

  20. Commentary on the Future of Community Psychology: Perspective of a Research Community Psychologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Norweeta G

    2016-12-01

    Community psychology is commented upon from the perspective of a community psychologist who was trained in the Community Psychology Program at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. Her background and training are reviewed. A brief survey of research on homelessness as a frame for community psychology research is presented. Concluding remarks are provided on the future of research in community psychology. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  1. An evolving network model with community structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunguang; Maini, Philip K

    2005-01-01

    Many social and biological networks consist of communities-groups of nodes within which connections are dense, but between which connections are sparser. Recently, there has been considerable interest in designing algorithms for detecting community structures in real-world complex networks. In this paper, we propose an evolving network model which exhibits community structure. The network model is based on the inner-community preferential attachment and inter-community preferential attachment mechanisms. The degree distributions of this network model are analysed based on a mean-field method. Theoretical results and numerical simulations indicate that this network model has community structure and scale-free properties

  2. The paradoxes and promise of community coalitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavis, D M

    2001-04-01

    Community coalitions, as they are currently applied, are unique organizations whose ability to promote community change is different from other types of community organizations. This article explores those differences and elaborates how community coalitions can use those differences to transform conflict into greater capacity, equity, and justice. Concerns are also raised in this article about how community coalitions can intentionally and unintentionally protect the status quo and contain the empowerment of grassroots leadership and those of marginalized groups. There is a need for more theory, research, and discourse on how community coalitions can transform conflict into social change and how they can increase the power of grassroots and other citizen-lead organizations.

  3. Promoting health within the community: community therapy as strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Fuentes R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to identify, by assessing the records of community therapy meetings, the everyday problems that affect communities in order to understand and map the pain and suffering expressed by the participants. Methodology: the records created by the therapists after each meeting were used for data collection. The following two topics were chosen for analysis purposes: the problems that were presented and the ones that were chosen. Likewise, analysis categories were identified based on the frequency with which they were mentioned by the participants. The records of 774 meetings were analyzed. Such meetings took place from August, 2006 to December, 2008. An average of 9 to 20 people attended each meeting. Results: openness, freedom, warmth, and respect were characteristics of these meetings. The most common problems were: domestic violence, sexual abuse, divorce, discrimination, feelings of guilt, abandonment, rage, fear, negligence, problems with children, partners, co-workers or neighbors, losing one’s job, one’s loved ones or one’s material possessions, drug addiction, alcoholism, smoking, etc. Conclusions: community therapy has led not only to identify the people who really are in need of treatment, but also contributed to reduce the demand for the municipality’s health services. Having people meet without judging them by what they say, feel or think makes it easier for them to cope with their suffering and fears. It also creates social support networks, develops better attitudes of solidarity, responsibility and affectiveness, empowers the people and the community, and makes it easier to find better ways of overcoming problems. At the same time, it makes it possible to learn how people live and cope with their daily problems, thus allowing them to reframe these problems, and enabling the development of more effective care.

  4. Engaging Community College Students Using an Engineering Learning Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccariella, James, Jr.

    The study investigated whether community college engineering student success was tied to a learning community. Three separate data collection sources were utilized: surveys, interviews, and existing student records. Mann-Whitney tests were used to assess survey data, independent t-tests were used to examine pre-test data, and independent t-tests, analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to examine post-test data. The study found students that participated in the Engineering TLC program experienced a significant improvement in grade point values for one of the three post-test courses studied. In addition, the analysis revealed the odds of fall-to-spring retention were 5.02 times higher for students that participated in the Engineering TLC program, and the odds of graduating or transferring were 4.9 times higher for students that participated in the Engineering TLC program. However, when confounding variables were considered in the study (engineering major, age, Pell Grant participation, gender, ethnicity, and full-time/part-time status), the analyses revealed no significant relationship between participation in the Engineering TLC program and course success, fall-to-spring retention, and graduation/transfer. Thus, the confounding variables provided alternative explanations for results. The Engineering TLC program was also found to be effective in providing mentoring opportunities, engagement and motivation opportunities, improved self confidence, and a sense of community. It is believed the Engineering TLC program can serve as a model for other community college engineering programs, by striving to build a supportive environment, and provide guidance and encouragement throughout an engineering student's program of study.

  5. School as Community, Community as School: Examining Principal Leadership for Urban School Reform and Community Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Terrance L.

    2018-01-01

    For decades, reform has been a persistent issue in urban schools. Research suggests that urban school reforms that are connected to equitable community development efforts are more sustainable, and that principals play a pivot role in leading such efforts. Yet, limited research has explored how urban school principals connect school reform with…

  6. Community centrality and social science research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have.

  7. Descriptions of Community by People with Spinal Cord Injuries: Concepts to Inform Community Integration and Community Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Pim; Kendall, Melissa B.; Amsters, Delena; Pershouse, Kiley; Schuurs, Sarita

    2011-01-01

    Effective measurement and optimization of re-entry into the community after injury depends on a degree of understanding of how those injured persons actually perceive their community. In light of the limited research about foundational concepts regarding community integration after spinal cord injury, this study investigated how a large number of…

  8. Treating malnutrition in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dera, Merceline; Woodham, Diane

    2016-11-02

    Malnutrition is a clinical and public health problem. It has adverse effects on the physical and psycho-social wellbeing of individuals by predisposing to disease, negatively affecting its outcome and reducing the likelihood of independence. An estimated 3 million people in the UK are affected by malnutrition, most of whom live in the community ( BAPEN, 2011 ). Despite the scale of this problem, it remains under-detected, under-treated, underresourced and often overlooked by those involved in the care of at risks individuals such as the elderly. In most cases malnutrition is a treatable condition that can be managed by optimising food intake and using oral nutritional supplements (ONS) where necessary. The main focus of this article is on the dangers of malnutrition for older people in the community and the use of ONS in the treatment and management of malnutrition.

  9. Lebensphasen von Communities of Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, M.

    2014-01-01

    , a literature review was undertaken to derive a conceptual life cycle model. Based on our research we found that the CoP life cycle model can be applied and extended with an additional phase identified in the case. Moreover, our results show that externally founded, interorganizational CoP can be successful......Interdependencies between organizations are constantly increasing. Hence, more companies and employees are engaged in inter-organizational Communities of Practice (CoP). This paper focuses on the life cycle of such communities, using the case example of a German innovation network. For this reason...... as well, which is a fact that is mostly neglected in the literature on CoP. Further (especially quantitative) research is recommended to strengthen the theoretical background of CoP....

  10. Pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severiche, Diego

    1998-01-01

    This is the first published case report en Colombia about pseudomona pseudomallei community acquired pneumonia. This uncommon pathogen is from the epidemiological standpoint a very important one and medical community should be aware to look after it in those patients where no other etiological pathogen is recovered. A brief summary about epidemiology is showed, emphasizing those regions where it can be found. Likewise, comments about the differential diagnosis are important since it should be considered in those patients where tuberculosis is suspected. This is particularly representative for countries with high tuberculosis rates. Furthermore, a microbiological review is shown, emphasizing on isolation techniques, descriptions about therapeutics and other regarding treatment issues according international standards. Finally; a description about the clinical picture, laboratory findings, treatment and evolution of the case reported are shown for discussion

  11. Seasonality in ocean microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannoni, Stephen J; Vergin, Kevin L

    2012-02-10

    Ocean warming occurs every year in seasonal cycles that can help us to understand long-term responses of plankton to climate change. Rhythmic seasonal patterns of microbial community turnover are revealed when high-resolution measurements of microbial plankton diversity are applied to samples collected in lengthy time series. Seasonal cycles in microbial plankton are complex, but the expansion of fixed ocean stations monitoring long-term change and the development of automated instrumentation are providing the time-series data needed to understand how these cycles vary across broad geographical scales. By accumulating data and using predictive modeling, we gain insights into changes that will occur as the ocean surface continues to warm and as the extent and duration of ocean stratification increase. These developments will enable marine scientists to predict changes in geochemical cycles mediated by microbial communities and to gauge their broader impacts.

  12. The Chinese community patient’s life satisfaction, assessment of community medical service, and trust in community health delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the Chinese government put a lot of effort into promoting the community patient’s life satisfaction, there still lacked the holistic and systematic approaches to promote the community patient’s life satisfaction in various regions of China. On the basis of the literature, it was found that both the community patient’s assessment of community medical service and trust in community health delivery system were important considerations when the community patient comprehensively evaluated community medical service to generate life satisfaction. So this study was set up to test whether and to what extent the community patient’s assessments of various major aspects of community medical service/various major aspects of the community patient’s trust in community health delivery system influenced life satisfaction in whole China/in various regions of China. Methods In order to explore the situation of China’s community health delivery system before 2009 and provide a reference for China’s community health delivery system reform, the data that could comprehensively and accurately reflect the community patient’s life satisfaction, assessment of community medical service, and trust in community health delivery system in various regions of China was needed, so this study collaborated with the National Bureau of Statistics of China to carry out a large-scale 2008 national community resident household survey (N = 3,306) for the first time in China. And the specified ordered probit models were established to analyze the dataset from this household survey. Results Among major aspects of community medical service, the medical cost (particularly in developed regions), the doctor-patient communication (particularly in developed regions), the medical facility and hospital environment (particularly in developed regions), and the medical treatment process (particularly in underdeveloped regions) were all key considerations (ppatient’s life

  13. Perceived Effectiveness of Community-driven Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perceived Effectiveness of Community-driven Development Approach of Community and Social ... African Journal of Sustainable Development ... that CSDP in Oyo state be scaled up and the CDD approach be adopted for rural development.

  14. A Community Profile of Pittsburgh Neighborhoods, 1974

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These data include four historical datasets that were transcribed from the Community Profiles of Pittsburgh reports, which were published in 1974. The Community...

  15. Assessing Rural Communities through Youth Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renee A. Oscarson

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite frequent concerns about youth and young adult migration from rural to urban areas, most measures used to assess youth in rural community research have been developed by adults. Accurate understanding of youth community perceptions necessitates youth input into the research process. The participatory research strategy described here, using photography to describe community, enables youth to define community and identify what they value about their communities. Photographs and explanations of the photographs indicated that youth value places (schools, churches, as well as locations unique to communities and people from those communities. Photovoice, photography-based participatory-action research, is a feasible and engaging method for obtaining youth perspectives on community issues. Further, Photovoice may be adapted to the needs of different age groups and situations.

  16. Embracing community ecology in plant microbiome research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dini-Andreote, F.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Community assembly is mediated by selection, dispersal, drift, and speciation. Environmental selection is mostly used to date to explain patterns in plant microbiome assembly, whereas the influence of the other processes remains largely elusive. Recent studies highlight that adopting community

  17. The narrative psychology of community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Michael; Ziegler, Friederike

    2015-03-01

    Community health psychology is an approach which promotes community mobilisation as a means of enhancing community capacity and well-being and challenging health inequalities. Much of the research on this approach has been at the more strategic and policy level with less reference to the everyday experiences of community workers who are actively involved in promoting various forms of community change. This article considers the narrative accounts of a sample of 12 community workers who were interviewed about their lives. Their accounts were analysed in terms of narrative content. This revealed the tensions in their everyday practice as they attempted to overcome community divisions and management demands for evidence. Common to all accounts was a commitment to social justice. These findings are discussed with reference to opportunities and challenges in the practice of community work. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. planning peoples' participaion in sustainable community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT AT THE GRASSROOT. LEVELS IN ... development strategy is predicated on the capacity ..... energies and satisfaction which are central to the growth of .... intelligent members of the community must be involved.

  19. Creating Great Neighborhoods: Density in Your Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report highlights nine community-led efforts to create vibrant neighborhoods through density, discusses the connections between smart growth and density, and introduces design principles to ensure that density becomes a community asset.

  20. Integrating succession and community assembly perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Cynthia; HilleRisLambers, Janneke

    2016-01-01

    Succession and community assembly research overlap in many respects, such as through their focus on how ecological processes like dispersal, environmental filters, and biotic interactions influence community structure. Indeed, many recent advances have been made by successional studies that draw on modern analytical techniques introduced by contemporary community assembly studies. However, community assembly studies generally lack a temporal perspective, both on how the forces structuring communities might change over time and on how historical contingency (e.g. priority effects and legacy effects) and complex transitions (e.g. threshold effects) might alter community trajectories. We believe a full understanding of the complex interacting processes that shape community dynamics across large temporal scales can best be achieved by combining concepts, tools, and study systems into an integrated conceptual framework that draws upon both succession and community assembly theory.

  1. Indoor Air Quality in Tribal Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Website can help you improve IAQ in your tribal community. You can find information to educate your community about the simple actions they can take to improve their IAQ and protect their health.

  2. 77 FR 75891 - Suspension of Community Eligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... identifying the current participation status of a community can be obtained from FEMA's Community Status Book..., 1989, Reg; January 2, 2013, Susp. Fort Gay, Town of, Wayne 540202 April 29, 1975, ......do Do. County...

  3. Towards a Conceptualization of Online Community Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, David; Richter, Alexander; Trier, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Along with the increasing popularity of social media and online communities in many business settings, the notion of online community health has become a common means by which community managers judge the condition or state of their communities. It has also been introduced to the literature, yet...... the concept remains underspecified and fragmented. In this paper, we work toward a construct conceptualization of online community health. Through a review of extant literature and dialogue with specialists in the field, we develop a multi-dimensional construct of online community health, consisting of seven...... elements. In writing this paper, we attempt to foster theory development around new organizational forms by advancing a new and important construct. The paper further provides guidance to the managers of social media and online communities by taking a systematic look at the well-being of their communities....

  4. Finding Community Structures In Social Activity Data

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chengbin

    2015-01-01

    Social activity data sets are increasing in number and volume. Finding community structure in such data is valuable in many applications. For example, understand- ing the community structure of social networks may reduce the spread of epidemics

  5. The Community Boundary De-paradoxifyed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsdahl Lauritzen, Ghita; Salomo, Søren

    2012-01-01

    . In order to improve connections and collaborations across interfaces, it is therefore necessary to improve our understanding of the community boundary construct. Existing studies of community boundaries within the user innovation literature predominantly describe boundaries as incentives for user...

  6. Intelligence Community Programs, Management, and Enduring Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-08

    books, journal papers, conference presentations, working papers, and other electronic and print publications. Intelligence Community Programs... Intelligence Community Programs, Management, and Enduring Issues Anne Daugherty Miles Analyst in Intelligence and National Security Policy...

  7. Stoma care in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Jennie

    2014-08-01

    There are over 100 000 people in the UK with a stoma. For nurses working within the community and dealing with a variety of conditions, making a decision regarding the most appropriate stoma appliance to use on ostomates can be a challenge. This article gives a general overview of stomas and stoma appliances. It then discusses the various stoma accessories and gives recommendations for when and how they should be used.

  8. Transport practices in Amish communities

    OpenAIRE

    Warren, James; Enoch, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Car ownership is growing in many countries.While beneficial to individuals in many cases, this trend has often resulted in significant economic, social, and environmental costs to society more generally. In researching possible solutions, one approach is to look at particular areas or communities that exhibit less reliance on the car or are even ‘car free’ to some extent, in order to see if lessons can be learned. Accordingly, this study seeks to define and characterize transport practices in...

  9. Volunteering of seniors in community

    OpenAIRE

    Stropková, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The diploma thesis deals with the theme of volunteering of seniors in the community. The work focuses on the specifics of volunteering of seniors, emphasizing the benefits of volunteering for participating seniors and how to identify them with other groups of people. Using a qualitative research work, it examines on a sample of eight respondents how these senior volunteers perceive the benefits of volunteering, how they relate to the geographical location in which they work, and what communit...

  10. The failure of community benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, John D

    2005-01-01

    Though proponents of tax exemption for health care providers continue to extol the virtues of the community-benefit test, Part II of this article illustrates that the train pretty much has already left the station on this front. Both the federal government and the states increasingly look to uncompensated care as the touchstone of exemption for health care providers. To a great extent, this transition back to a "relief of the poor" standard for exemption is the result of the inherent lack of precision in community benefit standards, along with the general trend of empirical evidence that nonprofit health care providers behave similarly to their for-profit counterparts. Faced with this situation, federal and state policymakers naturally have focused on charity care as the one quantifiable behavioral difference to justify exemption. Nevertheless, some empirical evidence suggests that nonprofits may engage in socially desirable behavior other than simply free care for the poor, and the arguments that a mixed ownership system provides the best overall health care model cannot be dismissed out of hand. Thus, despite my past criticisms of the community benefit formulation, I have come to the view that we should seriously consider the options available beyond complete repeal of the community benefit test or a return to a strict charity-care exemption standard. I continue to believe that we should demand a fairly high level of "accountability" from exemption, however, and that exemption should have some direct causal connection to whatever socially-desirable behavior we are seeking. While one option along these lines is to adopt Nina Crimm's approach of rewarding specific behaviors through a deduction or credit system, using "enhancing access" as a test of exemption may provide the best combination of flexibility and verifiable behavioral differences to support continued exemption for health care providers.

  11. Documentary Media and Religious Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Therese Mäder

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers four spaces where media processes involve religious communities and agents: the spaces of production, of representation, of media communication, and of distribution network and institutional framework for circulation. These three spaces systematise the research question posed to the specific source. Furthermore the concept documentary media as viewed from a semio-pragmatic perspective is introduced. Discussion of the commercial series I’m a Mormon shows how different modes define documentary media according to the three spaces.

  12. SNOWMASS (DPF Community Summer Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronin-Hennessy, et al, Daniel

    2013-08-06

    The 2013 Community Summer Study, known as Snowmass," brought together nearly 700 physicists to identify the critical research directions for the United States particle physics program. Commissioned by the American Physical Society, this meeting was the culmination of intense work over the past year by more than 1000 physicists that defined the most important questions for this field and identified the most promising opportunities to address them. This Snowmass study report is a key resource for setting priorities in particle physics.

  13. Konference Community, work and family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížková, Alena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2009), s. 61-63 ISSN 1213-0028. [Community, Work and Family III. International Conference: Innovation and Sustainability. Utrecht, 16.04.2009-18.04.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR 1QS700280503; GA ČR GA403/09/1839; GA AV ČR IAA700280804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : Work / life balance * gender equality Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  14. Fostering successful scientific software communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangerth, W.; Heister, T.; Hwang, L.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Developing sustainable open source software packages for the sciences appears at first to be primarily a technical challenge: How can one create stable and robust algorithms, appropriate software designs, sufficient documentation, quality assurance strategies such as continuous integration and test suites, or backward compatibility approaches that yield high-quality software usable not only by the authors, but also the broader community of scientists? However, our experience from almost two decades of leading the development of the deal.II software library (http://www.dealii.org, a widely-used finite element package) and the ASPECT code (http://aspect.dealii.org, used to simulate convection in the Earth's mantle) has taught us that technical aspects are not the most difficult ones in scientific open source software. Rather, it is the social challenge of building and maintaining a community of users and developers interested in answering questions on user forums, contributing code, and jointly finding solutions to common technical and non-technical challenges. These problems are posed in an environment where project leaders typically have no resources to reward the majority of contributors, where very few people are specifically paid for the work they do on the project, and with frequent turnover of contributors as project members rotate into and out of jobs. In particular, much software work is done by graduate students who may become fluent enough in a software only a year or two before they leave academia. We will discuss strategies we have found do and do not work in maintaining and growing communities around the scientific software projects we lead. Specifically, we will discuss the management style necessary to keep contributors engaged, ways to give credit where credit is due, and structuring documentation to decrease reliance on forums and thereby allow user communities to grow without straining those who answer questions.

  15. Environmental justice and healthy communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The environmental justice movement has come a long way since its birth a decade ago in rural and mostly African American Warren County, North Carolina. The selection of Warren County for a PCB landfill, they brought national attention to waste facility siting inequities and galvanized African American church and civil rights leaders` support for environmental justice. The demonstrations also put {open_quotes}environmental racism{close_quotes} on the map and challenged the myth that African Americans are not concerned about or involved in environmental issues. Grassroots groups, after decades of struggle, have grown to become the core of the multi-issue, multiracial, and multi-regional environmental justice movement. Diverse community-based groups have begun to organize and link their struggles to issues of civil and human rights, land rights and sovereignty, cultural survival , racial and social justice, and sustainable development. The impetus for getting environmental justice on the nations`s agenda has come from an alliance of grassroots activists, civil rights leaders, and a few academicians who questioned the foundation of the current environmental protection paradigm--where communities of color receive unequal protection. Whether urban ghettos and barrios, rural {open_quotes}poverty pockets,{close_quotes} Native American reservations, or communities in the Third World, grassroots groups are demanding an end to unjust and nonsustainable environmental and development policies.

  16. Community Rates of Breastfeeding Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubesic, Tony H; Durbin, Kelly M

    2016-11-01

    Breastfeeding initiation rates vary considerably across racial and ethnic groups, maternal age, and education level, yet there are limited data concerning the influence of geography on community rates of breastfeeding initiation. This study aimed to describe how community rates of breastfeeding initiation vary in geographic space, highlighting "hot spots" and "cool spots" of initiation and exploring the potential connections between race, socioeconomic status, and urbanization levels on these patterns. Birth certificate data from the Kentucky Department of Health for 2004-2010 were combined with county-level geographic base files, Census 2010 demographic and socioeconomic data, and Rural-Urban Continuum Codes to conduct a spatial statistical analysis of community rates of breastfeeding initiation. Between 2004 and 2010, the average rate of breastfeeding initiation for Kentucky increased from 43.84% to 49.22%. Simultaneously, the number of counties identified as breastfeeding initiation hot spots also increased, displaying a systematic geographic pattern in doing so. Cool spots of breastfeeding initiation persisted in rural, Appalachian Kentucky. Spatial regression results suggested that unemployment, income, race, education, location, and the availability of International Board Certified Lactation Consultants are connected to breastfeeding initiation. Not only do spatial analytics facilitate the identification of breastfeeding initiation hot spots and cool spots, but they can be used to better understand the landscape of breastfeeding initiation and help target breastfeeding education and/or support efforts.

  17. EFFECT OF GROUPING ON CLASSROOM COMMUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Toriumi, Fujio; Ishii, Kenichiro

    2006-01-01

    In the education field, the management of student relation-ships is one of the most important duties of teachers. Such management usually reflects the teacher's abilities and experiences. The purpose of this study is to clarify management methods to realize appropriate classroom community structures. In this study, we simulated a community-forming mechanism to clarify the influence of grouping on classroom community formation. We presented a community through a communication network using Hei...

  18. Commentary: a sociologist's view on community genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Raz, Aviad E.

    2010-01-01

    This commentary illustrates and discusses potential research directions for sociologists and anthropologists interested in the field of community genetics and its emerging networks of individuals genetically at risk. Community genetics—the application of medical genetics in community settings for the benefit of individuals—also involves social issues of lay-professional misunderstandings (and more recently also the different perspectives of various expert communities), stigmatization, discrim...

  19. Effects of temperature increase in insect community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuda, Midori; Fujii, Koichi

    1993-01-01

    Temperature will rise by 2degC in the near future. Potential effects of the rise on biological community are predicted with little evidence on the subjects. Individualistic responses of component species in community are often ignored. We performed experiments on a lab host-parasitoid community and tested the hypothesis that individualistic changes in developmental schedules by temperature rise can generate drastic community change. (author)

  20. Micro-blogging and Online Community

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, L-J

    2015-01-01

    The dominance of social media technologies on the Internet has located virtual communities around the use of proprietary social networking platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram, although the situation, location and definition of any online community are constantly evolving. Belonging to a number of these online communities, through social networking sites or forums is becoming a normal practice among Internet users. Yet much of the academic analysis of these online communities and...

  1. Design processes of a citizen inquiry community

    OpenAIRE

    Aristeidou, Maria; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike

    2017-01-01

    As with other online communities, it is important to design elements of citizen inquiry projects that will attract and engage members. This chapter describes the process of designing an online community for citizen inquiry. It builds on design principles of inquiry learning, citizen inquiry and other online communities. The ‘Weather-it’ citizen inquiry community is intended to engage and support people in initiating and joining sustainable citizen-led investigations. The findings indicate som...

  2. Beyond the Classroom Wall: Community Engagement Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jenny; Lai, Shu-Chuan; Wang, Chao-Min

    2016-01-01

    This study (n = 11) examined active community-school collaborative classes using sociocultural constructivist approaches over an academic year in an early childhood institute. A semi-formal interview was conducted to describing how the early childhood teachers and community members worked collaboratively to develop community engagement activities…

  3. Leveraging communities of practice for strategic advantage

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saint-Onge, Hubert; Wallace, Debra

    2003-01-01

    ... by sharing knowledge through its online communities. Hubert Saint-Onge, Canada's best known KM strategist, and Deb Wallace, community builder par excellence, have written an engaging practitioner's guide on how to develop communities of practice as forums for learning and knowledge sharing." -Chun Wei Choo, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Fac...

  4. 76 FR 56262 - Community Advantage Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SBA 2011-0003] Community Advantage Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of change to Community Advantage Pilot... Community Advantage Pilot Program. In that notice, SBA modified or waived as appropriate certain regulations...

  5. 75 FR 473 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of extension of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice extends the Community Express Pilot Program in its current form through December 31, 2010. Based upon the...

  6. 75 FR 80561 - Community Express Pilot Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Community Express Pilot Program AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA). ACTION: Notice of short-term extension and termination of the Community Express Pilot Program. SUMMARY: This notice announces the termination of the Community Express Pilot Program following a...

  7. Community Organizing and Educational Change: A Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    Ten years ago community organizing as a form of educational change had only begun to challenge traditional models of school reform. Yet a decade later, community organizing has led to important changes in school and community relationships that have been documented by scholars in the areas of education, sociology, social work, and political…

  8. Community Crowd-Funded Solar Finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagerson, Gordon " Ty" [Village Power Finance, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-07-08

    The award supported the demonstration and development of the Village Power Platform, which enables community organizations to more readily develop, finance and operate solar installations on local community organizations. The platform enables partial or complete local ownership of the solar installation. The award specifically supported key features including financial modeling tools, community communications tools, crowdfunding mechanisms, a mobile app, and other critical features.

  9. Identifying opportunities in online-communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hienerth, C.; Lettl, Christopher

    how this phenomenon - as manifested in user communities - can be used to derive deeper insights into the prominent phases of opportunity identification, evaluation and exploitation. We also outline how user communities create new avenues for empirical research on these early entrepreneurial processes....... Based on our analysis, we develop a set of hypotheses on how processes in user communities affect the outcome of entrepreneurial activities....

  10. Assertive Community Treatment in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. van Vugt (Maaike)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ __Introduction: __ Assertive Community Treatment is a model for care and treatment of patients with the most severe mental illness in the community. Key principles of Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) are: integration of services, low patient–staff ratio, locus of

  11. Online Education in the Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Steven G.; Berge, Zane

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at three areas impacting online education at the community college level. Community colleges account for more than half of all online students in the United States as of 2006. This makes the success of online learning at the community college level a critical part of the growing online learning movement. Using data for…

  12. 75 FR 79278 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... Congressional intent that the funds have maximum impact and be targeted to States and local communities with the... communities affected by high levels of foreclosures and delinquencies. \\12\\ The Board also received over 650... Thrift Supervision 12 CFR Part 563e [Docket ID OTS-2010-0031] RIN 1550-AC42 Community Reinvestment Act...

  13. Exploring Community Radio Programming Practices to Inform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A collective case study (multi-site) design was used to probe educational programming practices used in community radio. The paper explores how community radio station programming engages listeners in community generated education programmes that are produced through collaborative work with radio listener clubs.

  14. Communities of Practice: Literacy and Deaf Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristoffersen, Ann-Elise; Simonsen, Eva

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to discuss young deaf children's access to literacy within a sociocultural perspective. We introduce the concept of communities of practice as an aspect in early literacy development for young deaf children. Preschools are learning communities and thus constitute communities of practice. Our discussion on the use of communities…

  15. Positioning Community Art Practices in Urban Cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschelden, Griet; Van Eeghem, Elly; Steel, Riet; De Visscher, Sven; Dekeyrel, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the position of community art practices and the role of practitioners in urban cracks. Community art practices raise possibilities for a reconceptualisation of the concept of community and an extension of the concept of art in public space. Urban cracks are conceptualised as spatial, temporal and relational manifestations of…

  16. 20 CFR 404.1086 - Community income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Community income. 404.1086 Section 404.1086...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Self-Employment Income § 404.1086 Community income. If community property laws apply to income that an individual derives from a trade or business...

  17. Keys to Successful Community Health Worker Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, Patricia; Hahn, Janet S.; Philippi, Evelyn; Sanchez, Celeste

    2012-01-01

    For many years community health workers (CHW) have been important to the implementation of many of our health system's community health interventions. Through this experience, we have recognized some unique challenges in community health worker supervision and have highlighted what we have learned in order to help other organizations effectively…

  18. Influence of Leadership Styles on Community Development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    Influence of Leadership Styles on Community. Development Programmes' Implementation in. Rural Communities of Akwa Ibom State Nigeria. Okoji, Olufemi Onweazu - Department of Educational Management,. Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria. E-mail: femiokoji2008@yahoomail.com. Abstract. Community development ...

  19. Effects of multiple spreaders in community networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhao-Long; Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Yang, Guang-Yong; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-12-01

    Human contact networks exhibit the community structure. Understanding how such community structure affects the epidemic spreading could provide insights for preventing the spreading of epidemics between communities. In this paper, we explore the spreading of multiple spreaders in community networks. A network based on the clustering preferential mechanism is evolved, whose communities are detected by the Girvan-Newman (GN) algorithm. We investigate the spreading effectiveness by selecting the nodes as spreaders in the following ways: nodes with the largest degree in each community (community hubs), the same number of nodes with the largest degree from the global network (global large-degree) and randomly selected one node within each community (community random). The experimental results on the SIR model show that the spreading effectiveness based on the global large-degree and community hubs methods is the same in the early stage of the infection and the method of community random is the worst. However, when the infection rate exceeds the critical value, the global large-degree method embodies the worst spreading effectiveness. Furthermore, the discrepancy of effectiveness for the three methods will decrease as the infection rate increases. Therefore, we should immunize the hubs in each community rather than those hubs in the global network to prevent the outbreak of epidemics.

  20. This School Is for Kids and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School Board Journal, 1982

    1982-01-01

    In Avon (Indiana), a community lacking public buildings, a middle school was built with community uses in mind. The swimming pool, gymnasium, and commons area can be blocked off for community use by using floor-to-ceiling gates. The school's heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems are also energy-efficient. (Author/MLF)

  1. Conducting research with communities of color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo McAvoy; Patricia L. Winter; Corliss W. Outley; Dan McDonald; Deborah J. Chavez

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the major challenges facing those who want to address the issues of race and ethnicity through research with communities of color; general methodological recommendations appropriate to many communities of color; and, specific research method recommendations for African American, American Indian, and Hispanic American communities.

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility Agreements Model for Community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporate Social Responsibility Agreements Model for Community ... their host communities with concomitant adverse effect on mining operations. ... sustainable community development an integral part of the mining business. This paper presents the evolutionary strategic models, with differing principles and action plans, ...

  3. Valuing and Evaluating Community-Engaged Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Kerry; Brown, Kim; Guiney, Tess; Deaker, Lynley

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the nature of, and need for, evaluation of community-engaged university teaching and research. The research was conducted as part of a larger project aimed at improving institutional understanding of how to best support community-engaged university people. We interviewed 25 community-engaged colleagues, and used a general…

  4. Adult Education and Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Krajnc

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Community education means a new way of connecting knowledge with what people create. It increases the applicability of knowledge and con­ nects education with the direct needs of people. There are quite few things one can do by him/her­ self. Mainly one is dependent on the things he/she can create together with others. In non-democratic societies people get used to being given solutions from above, which is why they can wait for some­ one else (especially institutions to solve their problems while they remain passive. Socio-economic and political changes require from the people in Slovenia to redefine their attitude to the environment and life in general and to assume an active role. Community education means learning in groups of interested people in order to reach a certain goal or find a solution to a certain problem, e. g. establishing a local museum, publishing a tourist guide, constructing a bypass to decrease the traffic in town, erecting a monument, protecting green areas, introducing new forms of child care, solving problems of the disabled, unemployment and income maintenance, etc. People leam in order to be able to work. There are two goals which are always present: product and knowledge. People leam parallelly with the phases of work in order to achieve certain goal. It is typical of community education that it was developed in order to meet the needs of local people explicitly. It is therefore of great importance for adult educators facilitating problem-solving based on knowledge to get to know the real needs of people first. Generallack of knowledge is manifested in functional illiteracy. As long as people are unable to communicate orally or by writing with the others, their activities are blocked and they cannot help themselves. They can only live a dependent life, based on help expected from others, which nowadays is not possible any more. Each individual has to be responsible for his/her own survival. In the present

  5. Building Blocks for Sustainable Communities: Assistance from Grantees

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA awarded Building Blocks for Sustainable Communities grants to four nonprofit organizations with extensive expertise in community sustainability. These organizations deliver technical assistance to communities.

  6. Community Social Organization: A Conceptual Linchpin in Examining Families in the Context of Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Jay A.; Bowen, Gary L.; Martin, James A.

    2005-01-01

    The concept of social organization provides an important framework for understanding families in the context of communities and focuses our attention on norms, networks, and associated processes that typify community life. We discuss the significance of community for understanding family outcomes, discuss challenges in defining community context,…

  7. Community Garden Information Systems: Analyzing and Strengthening Community-Based Resource Sharing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loria, Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Extension professionals play an increasingly central role in supporting community garden and other community-based agriculture projects. With growing interest in community gardens as tools to improve community health and vitality, the best strategies for supporting these projects should be explored. Due to the importance of inter-personal networks…

  8. The Persistence of Neighboring as a Determinant of Community Attachment: A Community Field Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundblad, Daniel R.; Sapp, Stephen G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the community field perspective as a complement to the linear-development and systemic models of community attachment, wherein community attachment is defined as a social bond to the community of place. We empirically evaluated indicators of the actor's interaction within the social field, such as the perceived quality of neighboring…

  9. "Community Psychology Is for Poor, Black People": Pedagogy and Teaching of Community Psychology in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolissen, Ronelle; Rohleder, Poul; Bozalek, Vivienne; Swartz, Leslie; Leibowitz, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The term "community" holds historical connotations of political, economic, and social disadvantage in South Africa. Many South African students tend to interpret the term "community" in ways that suggest that community and community psychology describe the experiences of exclusively poor, black people. Critical pedagogies that…

  10. Sense of community: perceptions of individual and group members of online communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kommers, Petrus A.M.; Bishop, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses the relation community-society in the case of Web-based constellations; how is society represented if we meet Web-based communities? Why are Web-based societies kept invisible while Web-communities emerge as a quasi-natural consequence of Web presence? Did Web-communities

  11. Community-Based Programming: An Opportunity and Imperative for the Community College. Institutes & Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Edgar J.

    Community-based programming (CBP) is a cooperative process in which a community college serves as the leader and catalyst in effecting collaboration among the people, leaders and community organizations in its service area. This report discusses the changing role of the community college, the nature of CBP, and expected outcomes of the process,…

  12. Social science constructs in ecosystem assessments: revisiting community capacity and community resiliency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen M. Donoghue; Victoria E. Sturtevant

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development of sociological constructs in community assessment components of large-scale ecosystem assessments. We compare the conceptual and operational development of the constructs of community capacity and community resiliency used in three community assessments in the western United States: the Forest Ecosystem Management Assessment Team...

  13. 76 FR 35452 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... scientific journals and will be used for the development of future research initiatives targeting childhood... Request; Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS) SUMMARY: In compliance... Collection: Title: Healthy Communities Study: How Communities Shape Children's Health (HCS). Type of...

  14. Aspects of National and Community Trademarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Anechitoae

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available When Romania joined the EU on January 1, 2007, all Community trademarks (CTM, with thefiling date before that date, were automatically extended and have effects in Romania. National brands do notextend across the EU. In order to obtain a Community trade mark, a single application is filled in at OHIM. Itcan convert a Community trade mark application into national trade mark. The registered community trademark has effect in all EU Member States, including Romania. The national trademarks registered nationally -at the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM - are effective only in Romania and have no effectin the European Community.

  15. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART): an intervention to build community resilience to disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Van Horn, Richard L; Klomp, Richard W; Norris, Fran H; Reissman, Dori B

    2013-01-01

    Community resilience has emerged as a construct to support and foster healthy individual, family, and community adaptation to mass casualty incidents. The Communities Advancing Resilience Toolkit (CART) is a publicly available theory-based and evidence-informed community intervention designed to enhance community resilience by bringing stakeholders together to address community issues in a process that includes assessment, feedback, planning, and action. Tools include a field-tested community resilience survey and other assessment and analytical instruments. The CART process encourages public engagement in problem solving and the development and use of local assets to address community needs. CART recognizes 4 interrelated domains that contribute to community resilience: connection and caring, resources, transformative potential, and disaster management. The primary value of CART is its contribution to community participation, communication, self-awareness, cooperation, and critical reflection and its ability to stimulate analysis, collaboration, skill building, resource sharing, and purposeful action.

  16. Community resiliency as a measure of collective health status: perspectives from rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, Judith C; Edge, Dana; Joyce, Brenda

    2008-12-01

    Community resiliency is a theoretical framework useful for describing the process used by communities to address adversity. A mixed-method 2-year case study was conducted to gather information about community resiliency in 2 rural communities. This article focuses on the themes generated from qualitative interviews with 55 members of these communities. The participants viewed community as a place of interdependence and interaction. The majority saw community resiliency as the ability to address challenges. Characteristics included physical and social infrastructure, population characteristics, conceptual characteristics, and problem-solving processes. Barriers included negative individual attitudes and lack of infrastructure in rural communities. Nurses could play a key role in enhancing the resiliency of rural communities by developing and implementing programs based on the Community Resiliency Model, which was supported in this study.

  17. Building mathematics cellular phone learning communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajeeh M. Daher

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Researchers emphasize the importance of maintaining learning communities and environments. This article describes the building and nourishment of a learning community, one comprised of middle school students who learned mathematics out-of-class using the cellular phone. The building of the learning community was led by three third year pre-service teachers majoring in mathematics and computers. The pre-service teachers selected thirty 8th grade students to learn mathematics with the cellular phone and be part of a learning community experimenting with this learning. To analyze the building and development stages of the cellular phone learning community, two models of community building stages were used; first the team development model developed by Tuckman (1965, second the life cycle model of a virtual learning community developed by Garber (2004. The research findings indicate that a learning community which is centered on a new technology has five 'life' phases of development: Pre-birth, birth, formation, performing, and maturity. Further, the research finding indicate that the norms that were encouraged by the preservice teachers who initiated the cellular phone learning community resulted in a community which developed, nourished and matured to be similar to a community of experienced applied mathematicians who use mathematical formulae to study everyday phenomena.

  18. Distributed generation in small remote Northern communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcolm, D.G.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation discusses the physical and social challenges of reliable and environmentally sound electricity generation in remote northern communities in Canada. There are several hundred remote communities in the boreal region of Canada and throughout the Arctic. Electrical energy requirements are usually a few megawatts. Access to some Arctic remote communities is by air and small water craft only, except when winters are cold enough for winter roads to be constructed for a few weeks each year. These communities, as well as new mining operations and their camp communities, provide a market segment for small reactors. However, there are social acceptance hurdles to be addressed. Trust-building is a must when working with First Nations, Metis, and Inuit communities, and this requires community presence long before proposals for new generation facilities are presented.

  19. Building Library Community Through Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Woodward Hazard Young

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article academic librarians present and analyze a model for community building through social media. Findings demonstrate the importance of strategy and interactivity via social media for generating new connections with library users. Details of this research include successful guidelines for building community and developing engagement online with social media. By applying intentional social media practices, the researchers’ Twitter user community grew 100 percent in one year, with a corresponding 275 percent increase in user interactions. Using a community analysis approach, this research demonstrates that the principles of personality and interactivity can lead to community formation for targeted user groups. Discussion includes the strategies and research approaches that were employed to build, study, and understand user community, including user type analysis and action-object mapping. From this research a picture of the library as a member of an active academic community comes into focus.

  20. Evolving prosocial and sustainable neighborhoods and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Anthony; Hinds, Erika

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we examine randomized controlled trials of community interventions to affect health. The evidence supports the efficacy of community interventions for preventing tobacco, alcohol, and other drug use; several recent trials have shown the benefits of community interventions for preventing multiple problems of young people, including antisocial behavior. However, the next generation of community intervention research needs to reflect more fully the fact that most psychological and behavioral problems of humans are interrelated and result from the same environmental conditions. The evidence supports testing new comprehensive community interventions that focus on increasing nurturance in communities. Nurturing communities will be ones in which families, schools, neighborhoods, and workplaces (a) minimize biologically and socially toxic events, (b) richly reinforce prosocial behavior, and (c) foster psychological acceptance. Such interventions also have the potential to make neighborhoods more sustainable.