WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-target frankenia spp

  1. Impact of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis cotton on a non-target pest Tetranychus spp. in northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO-MU MA; XIAO-XIA LIU; QING-WEN ZHANG; JI-JUN LI; AI-MIN REN

    2006-01-01

    Field studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of two transgenic cotton varieties (SGK321 carrying Cry1A + CpTI and DP99B carrying Cry1Ac) and the conventional variety (shiyuan321-parental line of SGK321) on spider mites, Tetranychus spp. from 2002 to 2004. In 2002, this experiment included three treatments: Bt cotton field (SGK321)treated with acaricides against spider mites, untreated non-Bt cotton field (Shiyuan321), and untreated Bt cotton field (SGK321). In 2003-2004, there are four types of treatments after a new transgenic Bt cotton variety, DP99B (non-chemical control), was added into the experiments. The results showed that there were no significant difference in densities of spider mites among Bt without acaricides and non-Bt without acaricides cotton fields, nor was there a significant difference in damage of spider mites to cotton among these treatments (P > 0.1). However, there are significant differences (P < 0.05) in densities of spider mites and damage caused by spider mites between cotton fields with and without acaricides.Acaricide significantly reduced the densities of spider mites in Bt cotton (P < 0.05). These results suggest that Bt cotton has no effect on spider mites populations. However, spider mites have the potential for severe damage in Bt cotton fields. Acaricides are essential tools in controlling cotton spider mites in northern China.

  2. Efficacy and non-target impact of spinosad, Bti and temephos larvicides for control of Anopheles spp. in an endemic malaria region of southern Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Marina, Carlos F; Bond, J. Guillermo; Muñoz, José; Valle, Javier; Novelo-Gutiérrez, Rodolfo; Williams, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Background The larvicidal efficacy of the naturally derived insecticide spinosad, for control of immature stages of Anopheles albimanus and associated culicids, was compared to that of synthetic and biological larvicides. Effects on non-target insects were also determined. Methods A field trial was performed in replicated temporary pools during the rainy season, in southern Mexico. Pools were treated with 10 ppm a.i. spinosad (Tracer 480SC), Bti granules applied at 2 kg/ha (VectoBac WDG, ABG-...

  3. Assessment of Antioxidant Activity and Neuroprotective Capacity on PC12 Cell Line of Frankenia thymifolia and Related Phenolic LC-MS/MS Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Ben Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the richness of a Tunisian xerohalophyte Frankenia thymifolia aerial and root parts on phenolics and to evaluate the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of this medicinal species. After fractionation using increasing and different solvent polarities, results displayed five fractions, where ethyl acetate (EtOAc shoot and root fractions possess considerable total phenolic contents (221 and 308 mg of GAE/g of E, resp. related to their important antioxidant activities such as ORAC (918 and 713 mg of TE/g of E, DPPH (282 and 821 mg of TE/g, and ABTS (778 and 1320 mg of TE/g tests. Then, the identification of the main compounds by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS and neuroprotective property of the most active fraction EtOAc were assessed. A total of 14 molecules were identified, which have been described for the first time in F. thymifolia. The major compounds identified were pinoresinol and kaempferol glycoside in aerial parts and gallic acid and ellagitannin in roots. Neuroprotective capacity against β-amyloid (Aβ peptide induced toxicity in PC12 cells of EtOAc fraction showed a significant protective activity at lower concentration (25 and 50 µM. The relevant antioxidant and neuroprotective activities of F. thymifolia EtOAc fraction corroborated their chemical compositions.

  4. The safety of ONRAB® in select non-target wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Tricia L; Vandalen, Kaci K; Duncan, Colleen; Vercauteren, Kurt

    2013-08-20

    ONRAB(®) is a recombinant human adenovirus type 5 (HAd5) with the rabies glycoprotein gene incorporated into its genome. ONRAB(®) has been used in Canada as an oral rabies vaccine in target wildlife species such as: red fox (Vulpes vulpes), raccoon (Procyon lotor), and striped skunk (Mepthis mephitis). We evaluated the safety of ONRAB(®) in non-target wildlife species likely to contact the vaccine baits during oral rabies vaccine campaigns in the United States. We investigated the effects of oral inoculation of high titer ONRAB(®), approximately ten times the dose given to target species, in wood rats (Neotoma spp.), eastern cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus floridanus), Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana), eastern wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo silvestri), and fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). We performed real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on fecal swabs, oral swabs, and tissues, including lung, liver, kidney, small intestine, large intestine, and when appropriate nasal turbinates, to detect ONRAB(®) DNA from inoculated animals. By seven days post-inoculation, turkeys, opossums, and cottontails had all stopped shedding ONRAB(®) DNA. One wood rat and one fox squirrel still had detectable levels of ONRAB(®) DNA in fecal swabs 14 days post-inoculation. Real-time PCR analysis of the tissues revealed some ONRAB(®) DNA persisting in certain tissues; however, there were no significant gross or histologic lesions associated with ONRAB(®) in any of the species studied. Our results suggest that many non-target species are not likely to be impacted by the distribution of ONRAB(®) as part of oral rabies vaccination programs in the United States.

  5. 40 CFR 156.85 - Non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-target organisms. 156.85 Section 156.85 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... Non-target organisms. (a) Requirement. Where a hazard exists to non-target organisms, EPA may require...

  6. Ammonium carbonate loss rates from lures differentially affect trap captures of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) and non-target flies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of cherry (Prunus spp.) in western North America that can be monitored using traps baited with ammonia. However, ammonia-based attractants also attract non-target Diptera that clutter traps. Here, the hypothe...

  7. Non-target-site herbicide resistance: a family business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Joshua S; Tranel, Patrick J; Stewart, C Neal

    2007-01-01

    We have witnessed a dramatic increase in the frequency and diversity of herbicide-resistant weed biotypes over the past two decades, which poses a threat to the sustainability of agriculture at both local and global levels. In addition, non-target-site mechanisms of herbicide resistance seem to be increasingly implicated. Non-target-site herbicide resistance normally involves the biochemical modification of the herbicide and/or the compartmentation of the herbicide (and its metabolites). In contrast to herbicide target site mutations, fewer non-target mechanisms have been elucidated at the molecular level because of the inherently complicated biochemical processes and the limited genomic information available for weedy species. To further understand the mechanisms of non-target-site resistance, we propose an integrated genomics approach to dissect systematically the functional genomics of four gene families in economically important weed species.

  8. Studies of Non-Targeted Effects of Ionising Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleg V Belyakov; Heli Mononen; Marjo Peraelae [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The discovery of ionising radiation induced non-targeted effects is important for understanding the dose-response mechanisms relevant to low dose irradiation in vivo. One important question is whether the non-targeted effects relates to a protective mechanism or whether, conversely, it amplifies the number of cells damaged by the isolated radiation tracks of low dose exposures leading to an increased risk of carcinogenesis. One theory supported by the experimental data obtained during this project is that the main functions of the non-targeted effects are to decrease the risk of transformation in a multicellular organism exposed to radiation. Differences in the gene expression profiles, temporal and spatial patterns of key proteins expressed in directly irradiated and bystander cells may determine how the cells ultimately respond to low doses of radiation. Such a mechanism of co-operative response would make the tissue system much more robust. (N.C.)

  9. Method validation strategies involved in non-targeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Shama; Vallejo, Maria; García, Antonia; Barbas, Coral

    2014-08-01

    Non-targeted metabolomics is the hypothesis generating, global unbiased analysis of all the small-molecule metabolites present within a biological system, under a given set of conditions. It includes several common steps such as selection of biological samples, sample pre-treatment, analytical conditions set-up, acquiring data, data analysis by chemometrics, database search and biological interpretation. Non-targeted metabolomics offers the potential for a holistic approach in the area of biomedical research in order to improve disease diagnosis and to understand its pathological mechanisms. Various analytical methods have been developed based on nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and mass spectrometry (MS) coupled with different separation techniques. The key points in any analytical method development are the validation of every step to get a reliable and reproducible result and non-targeted metabolomics is not beyond this criteria, although analytical challenges are completely new and different to target methods. This review paper will describe the available validation strategies that are being used and as well will recommend some steps to consider during a non-targeted metabolomics analytical method development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisa, L W; Amaral-Rogers, V; Belzunces, L P; Bonmatin, J M; Downs, C A; Goulson, D; Kreutzweiser, D P; Krupke, C; Liess, M; McField, M; Morrissey, C A; Noome, D A; Settele, J; Simon-Delso, N; Stark, J D; Van der Sluijs, J P; Van Dyck, H; Wiemers, M

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal effects on honeybees (Apis mellifera) because this important pollinator is the most studied non-target invertebrate species. Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), Lumbricidae (earthworms), Apoidae sensu lato (bumblebees, solitary bees) and the section "other invertebrates" review available studies on the other terrestrial species. The sections on freshwater and marine species are rather short as little is known so far about the impact of neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on the diverse invertebrate fauna of these widely exposed habitats. For terrestrial and aquatic invertebrate species, the known effects of neonicotinoid pesticides and fipronil are described ranging from organismal toxicology and behavioural effects to population-level effects. For earthworms, freshwater and marine species, the relation of findings to regulatory risk assessment is described. Neonicotinoid insecticides exhibit very high toxicity to a wide range of invertebrates, particularly insects, and field-realistic exposure is likely to result in both lethal and a broad range of important sublethal impacts. There is a major knowledge gap regarding impacts on the grand majority of invertebrates, many of which perform essential roles enabling healthy ecosystem functioning. The data on the few non-target species on which field tests have been performed are limited by major flaws in the outdated test protocols. Despite large knowledge gaps and uncertainties, enough knowledge exists to conclude that existing levels of pollution with neonicotinoids and fipronil resulting from presently authorized uses frequently exceed the lowest observed adverse effect concentrations and are thus likely to have large

  11. Effect of Colored Sticky Cards on Non-target Insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen CHEN; Yihang GE; Xia LIU; Rongping KUANG

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments to evaluate four different colored sticky cards for trap-ping non-target insects were conducted in an organic maize field in the Heinigou region of China. Yel ow, blue, green, and red sticky cards were used to trap insects in the field. The total number of insects species caught was 54, with 3,862 individu-als recorded. Over half of the specimens caught were non-target insects, including phytophagous insects, particularly dipteran species (including many mosquitoes) (50.3%), fol owed by target pests (37.0%), and beneficial insects (12.7%). Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in attraction to target pests, non-target pests, and beneficial insects among treatment groups. The results showed that higher numbers of target pests (Myzus persicae Sulzer, Empoasca flavescens Fabricius, Nysius ericaecshinly Schil ing) were caught on yel ow sticky card traps compared with blue, green, or red sticky card traps, indicating that yel ow was the best trap color for target pests, with green and blue being progressively less attrac-tive. For non-target insects, including phytophagous insects, flies, and mosquitoes, higher numbers of were caught on blue sticky card traps compared with yel ow, green, or red sticky card traps. Our study indicated that blue was the most attrac-tive color for flies, especial y for the housefly, Musca domestica Linnaeus. Our study also showed that most beneficial insects exhibited preferences to particular trap col-or characteristics: yel ow was the most attractive color for parasitic wasps and lady beetles; blue was the most attractive color for hoverflies and honeybees. In contrast, green and red had no significant attraction to beneficial insects.

  12. Comparative ecotoxicity of chlorantraniliprole to non-target soil invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavtižar, Vesna; Berggren, Kristina; Trebše, Polonca; Kraak, Michiel H S; Verweij, Rudo A; van Gestel, Cornelis A M

    2016-09-01

    The insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) is gaining importance in agricultural practice, but data on its possible negative effects on non-target organisms is severely deficient. This study therefore determined CAP toxicity to non-target soil invertebrates playing a crucial role in ecosystem functioning, including springtails (Folsomia candida), isopods (Porcellio scaber), enchytraeids (Enchytraeus crypticus) and oribatid mites (Oppia nitens). In sublethal toxicity tests in Lufa 2.2 soil, chronic exposure to CAP concentrations up to 1000 mg/kgdw did not affect the survival and reproduction of E. crypticus and O. nitens nor the survival, body weight and consumption of P. scaber. In contrast, the survival and reproduction of F. candida was severely affected, with an EC50 for effects on reproduction of 0.14 mg CAP/kgdw. The toxicity of CAP to the reproduction of F. candida was tested in four different soils following OECD guideline 232, and additionally in an avoidance test according to ISO guideline 17512-2. A significantly lower toxicity in soils rich in organic matter was observed, compared to low organic soils. Observations in the avoidance test with F. candida suggest that CAP acted in a prompt way, by affecting collembolan locomotor abilities thus preventing them from escaping contaminated soil. This study shows that CAP may especially pose a risk to non-target soil arthropods closely related to insects, while other soil invertebrates seem rather insensitive.

  13. Toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antwi, Frank B; Reddy, Gadi V P

    2015-11-01

    The toxicological effects of pyrethroids on non-target aquatic insects are mediated by several modes of entry of pyrethroids into aquatic ecosystems, as well as the toxicological characteristics of particular pyrethroids under field conditions. Toxicokinetics, movement across the integument of aquatic insects, and the toxicodynamics of pyrethroids are discussed, and their physiological, symptomatic and ecological effects evaluated. The relationship between pyrethroid toxicity and insecticide uptake is not fully defined. Based on laboratory and field data, it is likely that the susceptibility of aquatic insects (vector and non-vector) is related to biochemical and physiological constraints associated with life in aquatic ecosystems. Understanding factors that influence aquatic insects susceptibility to pyrethroids is critical for the effective and safe use of these compounds in areas adjacent to aquatic environments.

  14. Non-targeted analyses of organic compounds in urban wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Filho, Elenilson G; Sartori, Luci; Silva, Lorena M A; Silva, Bianca F; Fadini, Pedro S; Soong, Ronald; Simpson, Andre; Ferreira, Antonio G

    2015-09-01

    A large number of organic pollutants that cause damage to the ecosystem and threaten human health are transported to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The problems regarding water pollution in Latin America have been well documented, and there is no evidence of substantive efforts to change the situation. In the present work, two methods to study wastewater samples are employed: non-targeted 1D ((13)C and (1)H) and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis to characterize the largest possible number of compounds from urban wastewater and analysis by HPLC-(UV/MS)-SPE-ASS-NMR to detect non-specific recalcitrant organic compounds in treated wastewater without the use of common standards. The set of data is composed of several compounds with the concentration ranging considerably with treatment and seasonality. An anomalous discharge, the influence of stormwater on the wastewater composition and the presence of recalcitrant compounds (linear alkylbenzene sulfonate surfactant homologs) in the effluent were further identified. The seasonal variations and abnormality in the composition of organic compounds in sewage indicated that the procedure that was employed can be useful in the identification of the pollution source and to enhance the effectiveness of WWTPs in designing preventive action to protect the equipment and preserve the environment.

  15. Effect of malachite green toxicity on non target soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, R; Kanhere, J; Banerjee, J

    2015-02-01

    Although malachite green (MG), is banned in Europe and US for its carcinogenic and teratogenic effect, the dye being cheap, is persistently used in various countries for fish farming, silk, dye, leather and textile industries. Current research, however, fails to elucidate adequate knowledge concerning the effects of MG in our ecosystem. In the present investigation, for the first time, an attempt has been made to study the effects of MG on soil biota by testing Bacillus subtilis, Azotobacter chroococcum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Penicillium roqueforti, Eisenia fetida and seeds of three crop plants of different families. Various tests were conducted for determining cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, acute toxicity, morphological and germination effect. Our data confirmed MG toxicity on fungi and bacteria (gram positive and gram negative organisms) showing elevated level of ROS. Genotoxicity caused in the microorganisms was detected by DNA polymorphism and fragmentation. Also, scanning electron microscopy data suggests that the inhibitory effect of MG to these beneficial microbes in the ecosystem might be due to pore formation in the cell and its eventual disruption. Filter paper and artificial soil test conducted on earthworms demonstrated a LC 50 of 2.6 mg cm(-2) and 1.45 mg kg(-1) respectively with severe morphological damage. However, seed germination of Mung bean, Wheat and Mustard was found to be unaffected in presence of MG up to 100 mL(-1) concentration. Thus, understanding MG toxicity in non target soil organisms and emphasis on its toxicological effects would potentially explicate its role as an environmental contaminant.

  16. What magnitude are observed non-target impacts from weed biocontrol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Sforza, René François Henri

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review focused by plant on non-target impacts from agents deliberately introduced for the biological control of weeds found significant non-target impacts to be rare. The magnitude of direct impact of 43 biocontrol agents on 140 non-target plants was retrospectively categorized using a risk management framework for ecological impacts of invasive species (minimal, minor, moderate, major, massive). The vast majority of agents introduced for classical biological control of weeds (>99% of 512 agents released) have had no known significant adverse effects on non-target plants thus far; major effects suppressing non-target plant populations could be expected to be detectable. Most direct non-target impacts on plants (91.6%) were categorized as minimal or minor in magnitude with no known adverse long-term impact on non-target plant populations, but a few cacti and thistles are affected at moderate (n = 3), major (n = 7) to massive (n = 1) scale. The largest direct impacts are from two agents (Cactoblastis cactorum on native cacti and Rhinocyllus conicus on native thistles), but these introductions would not be permitted today as more balanced attitudes exist to plant biodiversity, driven by both society and the scientific community. Our analysis shows (as far as is known), weed biological control agents have a biosafety track record of >99% of cases avoiding significant non-target impacts on plant populations. Some impacts could have been overlooked, but this seems unlikely to change the basic distribution of very limited adverse effects. Fewer non-target impacts can be expected in future because of improved science and incorporation of wider values. Failure to use biological control represents a significant opportunity cost from the certainty of ongoing adverse impacts from invasive weeds. It is recommended that a simple five-step scale be used to better communicate the risk of consequences from both action (classical biological control) and no

  17. Arcobacter spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Filipović, Ivana; Zdolec, Nevijo; Benussi Skukan, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Bakterije roda Arcobacter pripadaju porodici Campylobacteriaceae, no od Campylobacter vrsta razlikuje se po sposobnosti rasta na 15 °C i u aerobnim uvjetima. Ove bakterije izolirane su iz oboljelih životinja, ljudi, ali i s trupova životinja nakon klaoničke obrade, te svježeg mesa, kao i vode. Farmske životinje, posebice perad, smatraju se rezervoarima bakterije. Razvijene su različite mikrobiološke metode za izolaciju Arcobacter spp., ali standardni protokol još uvijek ne postoji. Za brzu i ...

  18. Climate warming increases biological control agent impact on a non-target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; He, Minyan; Wei, Hui; Shao, Xu; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Climate change may shift interactions of invasive plants, herbivorous insects and native plants, potentially affecting biological control efficacy and non-target effects on native species. Here, we show how climate warming affects impacts of a multivoltine introduced biocontrol beetle on the non-target native plant Alternanthera sessilis in China. In field surveys across a latitudinal gradient covering their full distributions, we found beetle damage on A. sessilis increased with rising temperature and plant life history changed from perennial to annual. Experiments showed that elevated temperature changed plant life history and increased insect overwintering, damage and impacts on seedling recruitment. These results suggest that warming can shift phenologies, increase non-target effect magnitude and increase non-target effect occurrence by beetle range expansion to additional areas where A. sessilis occurs. This study highlights the importance of understanding how climate change affects species interactions for future biological control of invasive species and conservation of native species.

  19. Non-Targeted Effects and LET: Considerations for Earth and Space Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowa, Marianne B.

    2016-01-01

    It is evident from reports in the literature that there are many confounding factors that are capable of modulating radiation-induced non-targeted responses such as the bystander effect and the adaptive response. It has even been suggested that the observation of non-targeted responses may not be universally observable for differing radiation qualities. Dr. William Morgan made many contributions to the study of radiation induced non-targeted effects and it is indeed this area of research where we first began our collaboration more than a decade ago. In this presentation, I will discuss elements of this journey together with a particular emphasis on the role of LET in non-targeted effects.

  20. Climate warming increases biological control agent impact on a non-target species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinmin; Siemann, Evan; He, Minyan; Wei, Hui; Shao, Xu; Ding, Jianqing

    2015-01-01

    Climate change may shift interactions of invasive plants, herbivorous insects and native plants, potentially affecting biological control efficacy and non-target effects on native species. Here, we show how climate warming affects impacts of a multivoltine introduced biocontrol beetle on the non-target native plant Alternanthera sessilis in China. In field surveys across a latitudinal gradient covering their full distributions, we found beetle damage on A. sessilis increased with rising temperature and plant life history changed from perennial to annual. Experiments showed that elevated temperature changed plant life history and increased insect overwintering, damage and impacts on seedling recruitment. These results suggest that warming can shift phenologies, increase non-target effect magnitude and increase non-target effect occurrence by beetle range expansion to additional areas where A. sessilis occurs. This study highlights the importance of understanding how climate change affects species interactions for future biological control of invasive species and conservation of native species. PMID:25376303

  1. Non-target-site glyphosate resistance in Conyza bonariensis is based on modified subcellular distribution of the herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Ziv; Rubin, Baruch

    2017-01-01

    Conyza spp. were the first broadleaf weeds reported to have evolved glyphosate resistance. Several mechanisms have been proposed for glyphosate resistance. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism of this resistance in Conyza bonariensis, possible target-site and non-target-site mechanisms were investigated in glyphosate-resistant (GR) C. bonariensis biotypes. Using differential glyphosate applications and analyses of shikimate accumulation, we followed the herbicide effect in different plant organs and monitored the herbicide's apparent mobility. We found high shikimate levels in the roots and young leaves of glyphosate-sensitive (GS) plants, regardless of the site of application, whereas in GR plants, shikimate accumulated mainly in treated young leaves. (14) C-glyphosate studies, however, revealed the expected source-to-sink translocation pattern in both GS and GR plants. Sequencing of the appropriate EPSPS DNA fragments of GR and GS plants revealed no alteration at the Pro106 position. These data support the hypothesis that the glyphosate resistance of our C. bonariensis GR biotypes is associated with altered subcellular distribution of glyphosate, which keeps the herbicide sequestered away from the EPSPS target site in the chloroplast. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Non-Target Impacts of an Attract-and-Kill Formulation Based on Plant Volatiles: Responses of some Generalist Predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Peter C; Del Socorro, Alice P; Binns, Matthew R

    2016-07-01

    Responses of non-target insects to a blend of plant volatiles used as components in an attract-and-kill formulation for Helicoverpa spp. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) were studied in an Australian cotton field. Two experiments, one involving suction sampling during the day and the other at night, were conducted. Rows that had been treated with the volatile blend, with no added insecticide, were sampled with a large suction sampler 18, 42, and 85 h (day experiment) and 6, 30, and 78 h (night experiment) after treatment. Rows located 5, 10, 20, and 300 m away from the treated row were similarly sampled. Of seven generalist predators, only one accumulated on the treated rows compared to the untreated rows. Of the other six, five were found in lower numbers on the treated rows, and for one no significant effects were detected. Compared to pre-spray baseline levels, numbers of several taxa increased across the whole field after spraying, suggesting area-wide attraction, but localized responses to the treated rows were weak, and apparent repellence was more common than attraction. We suggest that attract-and-kill with plant volatiles should have minimal effects on populations of these predators, and is likely to be compatible with integrated pest management.

  3. What magnitude are observed non-target impacts from weed biocontrol?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maxwell Suckling

    Full Text Available A systematic review focused by plant on non-target impacts from agents deliberately introduced for the biological control of weeds found significant non-target impacts to be rare. The magnitude of direct impact of 43 biocontrol agents on 140 non-target plants was retrospectively categorized using a risk management framework for ecological impacts of invasive species (minimal, minor, moderate, major, massive. The vast majority of agents introduced for classical biological control of weeds (>99% of 512 agents released have had no known significant adverse effects on non-target plants thus far; major effects suppressing non-target plant populations could be expected to be detectable. Most direct non-target impacts on plants (91.6% were categorized as minimal or minor in magnitude with no known adverse long-term impact on non-target plant populations, but a few cacti and thistles are affected at moderate (n = 3, major (n = 7 to massive (n = 1 scale. The largest direct impacts are from two agents (Cactoblastis cactorum on native cacti and Rhinocyllus conicus on native thistles, but these introductions would not be permitted today as more balanced attitudes exist to plant biodiversity, driven by both society and the scientific community. Our analysis shows (as far as is known, weed biological control agents have a biosafety track record of >99% of cases avoiding significant non-target impacts on plant populations. Some impacts could have been overlooked, but this seems unlikely to change the basic distribution of very limited adverse effects. Fewer non-target impacts can be expected in future because of improved science and incorporation of wider values. Failure to use biological control represents a significant opportunity cost from the certainty of ongoing adverse impacts from invasive weeds. It is recommended that a simple five-step scale be used to better communicate the risk of consequences from both action (classical biological

  4. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisko Salomaa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (LNT) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (author)

  5. Impact of fungicide and insecticide use on non-target aquatic organisms in rice paddy fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana Cristina Dorneles Wandscheer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The intensive use of plant protection products in rice paddy fields ( Oryza sativa L. has caused concern about the environmental impact on communities of non-target organisms that are natural inhabitants in these agroecosystems. The purpose of this review is to analyze the data currently available in the literature about some important fungicides and insecticides (such as trifloxystrobin, tebuconazole, tricyclazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and thiamethoxam, which are currently used to control pests and diseases in rice paddy fields, as well as their effects on the community of non-target aquatic organisms.

  6. Understanding L2 French Teaching Strategies in a Non-Target Language Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peijian; Yuan, Rui; Teng, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This research explored the congruence and disparity between teachers' and students' attitudes towards French as a second language (L2) teaching strategies in a non-target language classroom context in the USA. The findings suggest students' and teachers' attitudes towards the direct and indirect teaching strategies were generally consistent, but…

  7. The temporal orienting P3 effect to non-target stimuli: does it reflect motor inhibition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Kathrin

    2012-02-01

    Temporal orienting enhances early (N1) and late (P3) stages of auditory processing. However, the functional significance of these effects has not been settled yet. The present study tested a motor inhibition account on the temporal orienting P3 effect to non-target stimuli. A temporal cuing paradigm was used, where the level of motor preparation (high vs. low) was varied: If motor preparation is higher, more inhibition is necessary to withhold a response when a non-target is presented at the attended time point. Consequently, if the enhanced P3 to temporally attended non-targets reflected increased motor inhibition, higher motor preparation should further enhance the P3. Overall, temporal orienting enhanced both the N1 and the P3, thus replicating earlier findings. Moreover, the temporal orienting P3 effect was larger when motor preparation was higher. Inconsistent with the motor-inhibition account, however, the P3 to temporally attended non-targets did not differ as a function of motor preparation.

  8. Lethal ovitrap deployment for Aedes aegypti control: potential implications for non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Sharron A; Jacups, Susan P; Ritchie, Scott A

    2015-06-01

    In Australia, dengue control combines source reduction with lethal ovitraps to reduce Aedes aegypti populations during outbreaks. Lethal ovitraps are considered a sustainable and environmentally friendly method of controlling container-inhabiting mosquitoes, however, to-date, this claim has not been quantified. This study assesses the potential impact of lethal ovitraps on non-target organisms when used to control Ae. aegypti in tropical Australia. For retention of specimens, we substituted standard sticky ovitraps for lethal ovitraps. We collected 988 Ae. aegypti and 44,132 non-target specimens over 13 months from 16 sites. Although Ae. aegypti comprised only 2.2% of the total collection, they were were the eighth most dominant taxa collected, on the 93(rd) percentile. Of the non-target organisms, Collembola were the dominant taxa, 44.2%, with 36.8% and 10.5% Diptera and Hymenoptera, respectively. Of the Dipterans, 61% were family Phoridae. Lethal ovitraps were visited by 90 insect or invertebrate families in total. Ovitraps are attractive to Collembola, Phoridae, Sciaridae, Formicidae, and Culicidae, with minimal attraction by Apidae and other commonly monitored non-target organisms. For container-inhabiting mosquitoes, LOs are cost effective operationally, requiring minimal staff resources for placement and retrieval.

  9. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates : Environmental Science and Pollution Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisa, L.W.; Amaral-Rogers, V.; Belzunces, L.P.; Bonmatin, J.M.; Downs, C.A.; Goulson, D.; Kreutzweiser, D.P.; Krupke, C.; Liess, M.; McField, M.; Morrissey, C.A.; Noome, D.A.; Settele, J.; Simon-Delso, N.; Stark, J.D.; Van der Sluijs, J.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073427489; Van Dyck, H.; Wiemers, M.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal

  10. Metacognitive Strategy Teaching in the ESL Oral Classroom: Ripple Effect on Non-Target Strategy Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Wendy Y. K.

    2010-01-01

    While strategy instruction research generally focuses on the effect of the teaching on learners' use of the strategies targeted for instruction, the present study examines the "wash over" effect on learners' use of pre-existing, non-target strategies. The study involved a treatment class and a comparison class in the ESL oral classroom in Hong…

  11. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates : Environmental Science and Pollution Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisa, L.W.; Amaral-Rogers, V.; Belzunces, L.P.; Bonmatin, J.M.; Downs, C.A.; Goulson, D.; Kreutzweiser, D.P.; Krupke, C.; Liess, M.; McField, M.; Morrissey, C.A.; Noome, D.A.; Settele, J.; Simon-Delso, N.; Stark, J.D.; Van der Sluijs, J.P.; Van Dyck, H.; Wiemers, M.

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the state of knowledge regarding the effects of large-scale pollution with neonicotinoid insecticides and fipronil on non-target invertebrate species of terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments. A large section of the assessment is dedicated to the state of knowledge on sublethal

  12. Mosquitocidal essential oils: are they safe against non-target aquatic organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Barbara; Flamini, Guido; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Ceccarini, Lucia; Macchia, Mario; Benelli, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In latest years, the importance of the Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (EO) has been greatly empathised due to its anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory effects, as well as to its toxic properties towards many arthropods of great medical and veterinary importance. In this research, the EO extracted from aerial parts of M. alternifolia was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and towards adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea), a non-target aquatic organism that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The chemical composition of M. alternifolia EO was investigated by GC-MS analysis. Tea tree EO was mainly composed by oxygenated monoterpenes, with 1,8-cineole as the major constituent. M. alternifolia EO exerted toxic activity against A. albopictus larvae, with a LC50 = 267.130 ppm. However, this EO had a remarkable acute toxicity also towards adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50 = 80.636 ppm. This research provide useful information for the development of newer and safer mosquito control tools, highlighting that the non-target effects against aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus larvae are crucial in the development of ecofriendly mosquito control strategies. Further research is needed to investigate the chronic and/or reproductive toxicity of M. alternifolia EO both towards target and non-target aquatic arthropods.

  13. Effects of suction-dredging for cockles on non-target fauna in the Wadden Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddink, JG

    2003-01-01

    Suction dredging for cockles removes large cockles from tidal flats and may also cause mortality of non-target fauna and make the habitat less suitable for some species. This study examines whether suction dredging for cockles on tidal flats of the Dutch Wadden Sea had affected densities of non-targ

  14. Biological parameters of the non-target pest Aphis gossypii Glover ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thiago Mota

    2013-04-17

    Apr 17, 2013 ... genetically modified cotton variety (Bt) NuOpal, on the biological parameters of a non-target pest, Aphis gossypii .... Aphids have an important role in food chains within ... noticed, they were compared using the t test at 5% probability. ..... herbivores feeding on transgenic maize and consequences for the.

  15. Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieltz, Kelly M.; Wacker, David P.; Harding, Jay W.; Berg, Wendy K.; Lee, John F.; Padilla Dalmau, Yaniz C.; Mews, Jayme; Ibrahimovic, Muska

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping,…

  16. Understanding L2 French Teaching Strategies in a Non-Target Language Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peijian; Yuan, Rui; Teng, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This research explored the congruence and disparity between teachers' and students' attitudes towards French as a second language (L2) teaching strategies in a non-target language classroom context in the USA. The findings suggest students' and teachers' attitudes towards the direct and indirect teaching strategies were generally consistent, but…

  17. Community composition of target vs. non-target fungi in fungicide treated wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Kamilla; Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer

    2012-01-01

    disease in wheat and within the last decade, new aggressive strains of yellow rust has caused severe epidemics that lead to substantial yield losses. This study explored the community composition of target versus non-target fungi in yellow rust infected wheat as affected by treatment timing and dose...

  18. Spatial and temporal exposure patterns in non-target small mammals during brodifacoum rat control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geduhn, Anke; Esther, Alexandra; Schenke, Detlef; Mattes, Hermann; Jacob, Jens

    2014-10-15

    Worldwide pest rodents on livestock farms are often regulated using anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs). Second generation ARs in particular can cause poisoning in non-target species due to their high toxicity and persistence. However, research on exposure of small mammals is rare. We systematically investigated spatial and temporal exposure patterns of non-target small mammals in a large-scale replicated study. Small mammals were trapped at different distances to bait stations on ten farms before, during and after brodifacoum (BR) bait application, and liver samples of 1178 non-target small mammals were analyzed for residues of eight ARs using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. BR residues were present in 23% out of 742 samples collected during and after baiting. We found clear spatial and temporal exposure patterns. High BR residue concentrations mainly occurred within 15m from bait stations. Occurrence and concentrations of residues significantly decreased with increasing distance. This pattern was found in almost all investigated taxa. After baiting, significantly more individuals contained residues than during baiting but concentrations were considerably lower. Residue occurrence and concentrations differed significantly among taxa, with the highest maximal residue concentrations in Apodemus species, which are protected in Germany. Although Sorex species are known to be insectivorous we regularly found residues in this genus. Residues of active agents other than brodifacoum were rare in all samples. The confirmation of substantial primary exposure in non-target small mammals close to the baiting area indicates considerable risk of secondary poisoning of predators, a pathway that was possibly underestimated until now. Our results will help to develop risk mitigation strategies to reduce risk for non-target small mammals, as well as their predators, in relation to biocidal AR usage.

  19. [Effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yi-gang; Ge, Feng

    2010-05-01

    Transgenic Bt crops are widely planted around the world. With the quick development and extension of genetically modified crops, it is needed to make a deep study on the effects of Bt crops on soil ecosystem. This paper reviewed the research progress on the effects of transgenic Bt crops on the population dynamics and community structure of soil animals, e.g., earthworm, nematode, springtail, mite, and beetle, etc. The development history of Bt crops was introduced, the passway the Bt protein comes into soil as well as the residual and degradation of Bt protein in soil were analyzed, and the critical research fields about the ecological risk analysis of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals in the future were approached, which would provide a reference for the research of the effects of transgenic Bt crops on non-target soil animals.

  20. Does Bt maize cultivation affect the non-target insect community in the agro ecosystem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Chaves Resende

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The cultivation of genetically modified crops in Brazil has led to the need to assess the impacts of this technology on non-target species. Under field conditions, the potential effect on insect biodiversity was evaluated by comparing a homogeneous corn field with conventional and transgenic maize, expressing different Bt proteins in seven counties of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The richness pattern of non-target insect species, secondary pests and natural enemies were observed. The results do not support the hypothesis that Bt protein affects insect biodiversity. The richness and diversity data of insects studied were dependent on the location and other factors, such as the use of insecticides, which may be a major factor where they are used.

  1. Herbicide impact on non-target plant reproduction: what are the toxicological and ecological implications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, C; Strandberg, B; Carpenter, D; Mathiassen, S K; Thomas, P J

    2014-02-01

    Declining plant diversity and abundance have been widely reported in agro-ecosystems of North America and Europe. Intensive use of herbicides within cropfields and the associated drift in adjacent habitats are partly responsible for this change. The objectives of this work were to quantify the phenological stages of non-target plants in in-situ field situations during herbicide spray and to compare plant susceptibility at different phenological stages. Results demonstrated that a large number of non-target plants had reached reproductive stages during herbicide spray events in woodlots and hedgerows, both in Canada and Denmark where vegetation varies considerably. In addition, delays in flowering and reduced seed production occurred widely on plants sprayed at the seedling stage or at later reproductive periods, with plants sprayed at reproductive stages often exhibiting more sensitivity than those sprayed as seedlings. Ecological risk assessments need to include reproductive endpoints.

  2. Prediction of gas chromatographic retention indices as classifier in non-target analysis of environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Nadin; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Brack, Werner

    2013-04-12

    Kováts and Lee retention indices were predicted by the help of experimental and calculated boiling points and also by linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) models. The developed approaches should be applied as classifiers in non-target analysis of environmental samples to identify contaminants. To demonstrate the application as a classifier, an example of 14 isomers with empirical formula C12H10O2 was selected. Furthermore, seven compounds with different molecular composition were used to illustrate the application in non-target analysis, where progressive candidate exclusion is performed. The models help to reduce the number of potential candidates, and seem to be a useful addition to already existing classifiers.

  3. Abdominal Skin Rash After TACE Due to Non-Target Embolization of Hepatic Falciform Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Prashant; Bhalala, Mitesh; Vidholia, Aditi; Sao, Rahul; Sharma, Nisha; Mehta, Dhruv; McCabe, Sam; Bodin, Roxana

    2016-04-01

    Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a well-recognized procedure for management of hepatocellular carcinoma. We present a 54-year-old man who presented with a periumbilical maculopapular skin rash that developed after an otherwise uneventful TACE procedure. A retrospective review of imaging was consistent with non-target embolization of the hepatic falciform artery (HFA). He was treated with oral non-steroidal antiinflammatory medication for 3 weeks with improvement, but had slight skin induration and an excoriated papule at 6-month follow-up. Non-target embolization of HFA is very rare, but clinicians and interventionalists should be aware of this complication, especially in patients predisposed to enlargement of HFA.

  4. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation—Implications for low dose risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadhim, Munira; Salomaa, Sisko; Wright, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Non-DNA targeted effects of ionising radiation, which include genomic instability, and a variety of bystander effects including abscopal effects and bystander mediated adaptive response, have raised concerns about the magnitude of low-dose radiation risk. Genomic instability, bystander effects...... with respect to systemic (human health) consequences at low and intermediate doses of ionising radiation. Other outstanding questions include links between the different non-targeted responses and the variations in response observed between individuals and cell lines, possibly a function of genetic background......) Integrated Project funded by the European Union. Here we critically examine the evidence for non-targeted effects, discuss apparently contradictory results and consider implications for low-dose radiation health effects. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  5. Review of validation and reporting of non-targeted fingerprinting approaches for food authentication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Janet; Esslinger, Susanne; Fauhl-Hassek, Carsten

    2015-07-23

    Food fingerprinting approaches are expected to become a very potent tool in authentication processes aiming at a comprehensive characterization of complex food matrices. By non-targeted spectrometric or spectroscopic chemical analysis with a subsequent (multivariate) statistical evaluation of acquired data, food matrices can be investigated in terms of their geographical origin, species variety or possible adulterations. Although many successful research projects have already demonstrated the feasibility of non-targeted fingerprinting approaches, their uptake and implementation into routine analysis and food surveillance is still limited. In many proof-of-principle studies, the prediction ability of only one data set was explored, measured within a limited period of time using one instrument within one laboratory. Thorough validation strategies that guarantee reliability of the respective data basis and that allow conclusion on the applicability of the respective approaches for its fit-for-purpose have not yet been proposed. Within this review, critical steps of the fingerprinting workflow were explored to develop a generic scheme for multivariate model validation. As a result, a proposed scheme for "good practice" shall guide users through validation and reporting of non-targeted fingerprinting results. Furthermore, food fingerprinting studies were selected by a systematic search approach and reviewed with regard to (a) transparency of data processing and (b) validity of study results. Subsequently, the studies were inspected for measures of statistical model validation, analytical method validation and quality assurance measures. In this context, issues and recommendations were found that might be considered as an actual starting point for developing validation standards of non-targeted metabolomics approaches for food authentication in the future. Hence, this review intends to contribute to the harmonization and standardization of food fingerprinting, both

  6. A screening method for prioritizing non-target invertebrates for improved biosafety testing of transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jacqui H; Ramankutty, Padmaja; Barraclough, Emma I; Malone, Louise A

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a screening method that can be used during the problem formulation phase of risk assessment to identify and prioritize non-target invertebrates for risk analysis with any transgenic plant. In previously published protocols for this task, five criteria predominated. These criteria have been combined by our method in a simple model which assesses: (1) the possible level of risk presented by the plant to each invertebrate species (through measurements of potential hazard and exposure, the two principal criteria); (2) the hypothetical environmental impact of this risk (determined by the currently known status of the species' population in the ecosystem and its potential resilience to environmental perturbations); (3) the estimated economic, social and cultural value of each species; and (4) the assessed ability to conduct tests with the species. The screening method uses information on each of these criteria entered into a specially designed database that was developed using Microsoft Access 2003. The database holds biological and ecological information for each non-target species, as well as information about the transgenic plant that is the subject of the risk assessment procedure. Each piece of information is then ranked on the basis of the value of the information to each criterion being measured. This ranking system is flexible, allowing the method to be easily adapted for use in any agro-ecosystem and with any plant modification. A model is then used to produce a Priority Ranking of Non-Target Invertebrates (PRONTI) score for each species, which in turn allows the species to be prioritized for risk assessment. As an example, the method was used to prioritize non-target invertebrates for risk assessment of a hypothetical introduction of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cry1Ac-expressing Pinus radiata trees into New Zealand.

  7. Morphological Effect of Non-targeted Biomolecule-Modified MNPs on Reticuloendothelial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Hu, Yan; Xiao, Jie; Cheng, Dengfeng; Xiu, Yan; Shi, Hongcheng

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with special morphology were commonly used as biomaterials, while morphological effects of non-targeted biomolecule-modified MNPs on biological behaviors were still unclear. In this research, spherical and rod-like Fe3O4 in a comparable size were synthesized and then surface-modified by bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model of non-targeted biomolecule-modified MNPs. Morphological effects were featured by TEM and quantification of in vitro phagocytic uptake, as well as the in vivo quantification of particles in reticuloendothelial system (RES)-related organs of normal Kunming mice. For these non-targeted BSA-modified MNPs, intracellular distributions were the same, but the rod-like MNPs were more likely to be uptake by macrophages; furthermore, the BSA-modified MNPs gathered in RES-related organs soon after intravenous injection, but the rod-like ones were expelled from the lung more quickly and expelled from the spleen more slowly. These preliminary results may be referable if MNPs or other similar biomolecule-modified nanoparticles were used.

  8. Sublethal effects of imidacloprid on interactions in a tritrophic system of non-target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhl, Philipp; Bucher, Roman; Schäfer, Ralf B; Entling, Martin H

    2015-08-01

    Imidacloprid is one of the most used insecticides worldwide, but is highly toxic to non-target arthropods. Effects of sublethal imidacloprid intoxication can potentially propagate in food webs, yet little is known about the impact on non-target populations and communities. We investigated short-term sublethal toxicity of imidacloprid in a tritrophic model system of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca, wood cricket Nemobius sylvestris and nursery web spider Pisaura mirabilis. Strawberries were treated two times with 0mg (control), 1mg (low rate) and 10mg (high rate) of Confidor® WG 70 and crickets were allowed to feed on them. In four lab experiments, we quantified the impact of imidacloprid on leaf damage, growth, behaviour and survival of crickets. The high imidacloprid rate reduced feeding, mass gain, thorax growth and mobility in crickets compared to the control, while mortality was similarly low in all treatments. The low rate reduced mass gain only. Cricket survival of spider predation was higher in the low rate treatment than in the control. Overall, herbivory and predation were reduced at sublethal imidacloprid rates in a non-target organism, three-level food chain, which demonstrates possible propagation of sublethal effects through trophic interactions.

  9. The use of targeted and non-targeted advertising to enrich skin cancer screening samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katris, P; Donovan, R J; Gray, B N

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the risk factor profile of persons attending skin cancer screening clinics could be enriched by appropriate advertising prior to the screening events. Eleven screening clinics were held in eight rural and three suburban communities. Matched communities were randomly assigned to either a target or non-target condition. Targeted communities received an advertisement designed to attract high-risk individuals. The advertisement listed a number of risk factors and encouraged readers with one or more of the listed risk factors to attend the screening. Non-targeted communities received a general advertisement requesting individuals who felt they were at risk of skin cancer to attend the clinic. Risk factor profiles of all participants were measured on the factors listed in the targeted advertisement. The risk factor profiles of screenees and the referral rates for skin lesions requiring attention were significantly higher in the targeted communities than in the non-targeted communities. Lesions suspicious of malignant melanoma or Hutchinson's melanotic freckle also were higher, but not statistically significant, in the targeted communities. Population samples attending community-based skin cancer screening clinics can be enriched by appropriate targeted advertising prior to the screening events. This has important implications for determining the potential cost-effectiveness of population screening programmes.

  10. CRIMINAL AND LEGAL CHARACTERISTIC OF NON-TARGETED SPENDING OF BUDGETARY FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishchenko E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the criminal and budgetary legislation in the field of non-targeted spending of budgetary funds. Research of the official statistics provided by the General Prosecutor’s Office of the Russian Federation from 2003 to 2014 showed a decrease in the facts of nontargeted spending of budgetary funds, that, according to the authors, is a sign of high level of latency, because law enforcement and financial control authorities are facing difficulties at a stage of identification of this crime and proof of data obtained during the investigative measures. The authors of the article paid special attention to the analysis of the elements of the non-targeted spending of budgetary funds. The different points of view of the object of this crime are considered. At disclosure of objective features, the authors point to the terminological differences between the Criminal code of the Russian Federation and the Budgetary code of the Russian Federation that, undoubtedly, in practice disturb the correct qualification of the actions. By consideration the subject of non-targeted spending of budgetary funds, materials of criminal cases have been studied which allowed to reveal obvious gaps of the criminal law in this sphere. The authors formulated the proposals for improving the legislation by inclusion of the qualifying features and addition the third part of article that, certainly, has to be reflected in differentiation of criminal responsibility

  11. Non-target adjacent stimuli classification improves performance of classical ERP-based brain computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos, G. A.; Hernández, L. F.

    2015-04-01

    Objective. The classical ERP-based speller, or P300 Speller, is one of the most commonly used paradigms in the field of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI). Several alterations to the visual stimuli presentation system have been developed to avoid unfavorable effects elicited by adjacent stimuli. However, there has been little, if any, regard to useful information contained in responses to adjacent stimuli about spatial location of target symbols. This paper aims to demonstrate that combining the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli with standard classification (target versus non-target) significantly improves classical ERP-based speller efficiency. Approach. Four SWLDA classifiers were trained and combined with the standard classifier: the lower row, upper row, right column and left column classifiers. This new feature extraction procedure and the classification method were carried out on three open databases: the UAM P300 database (Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico), BCI competition II (dataset IIb) and BCI competition III (dataset II). Main results. The inclusion of the classification of non-target adjacent stimuli improves target classification in the classical row/column paradigm. A gain in mean single trial classification of 9.6% and an overall improvement of 25% in simulated spelling speed was achieved. Significance. We have provided further evidence that the ERPs produced by adjacent stimuli present discriminable features, which could provide additional information about the spatial location of intended symbols. This work promotes the searching of information on the peripheral stimulation responses to improve the performance of emerging visual ERP-based spellers.

  12. ASSESSING POSSIBLE ECOLOGICAL RISKS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: GENE EXPRESSION ASSAYS AND GENETIC MONITORING OF NON-TARGET ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widespread planting of genetically modified crops with the Bt transgene pesticide has led to concern over non-target effects of Bt compounds in agroecosystems. While some research suggests that non-target organisms exposed to Bt toxin exhibit reduced fecundity and increased morta...

  13. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Buckmaster

    Full Text Available Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus. These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  14. Assessing risks to non-target species during poison baiting programs for feral cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckmaster, Tony; Dickman, Christopher R; Johnston, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Poison baiting is used frequently to reduce the impacts of pest species of mammals on agricultural and biodiversity interests. However, baiting may not be appropriate if non-target species are at risk of poisoning. Here we use a desktop decision tree approach to assess the risks to non-target vertebrate species in Australia that arise from using poison baits developed to control feral house cats (Felis catus). These baits are presented in the form of sausages with toxicant implanted in the bait medium within an acid-soluble polymer capsule (hard shell delivery vehicle, or HSDV) that disintegrates after ingestion. Using criteria based on body size, diet and feeding behaviour, we assessed 221 of Australia's 3,769 native vertebrate species as likely to consume cat-baits, with 47 of these likely to ingest implanted HSDVs too. Carnivorous marsupials were judged most likely to consume both the baits and HSDVs, with some large-bodied and ground-active birds and reptiles also consuming them. If criteria were relaxed, a further 269 species were assessed as possibly able to consume baits and 343 as possibly able to consume HSDVs; most of these consumers were birds. One threatened species, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii) was judged as definitely able to consume baits with implanted HSDVs, whereas five threatened species of birds and 21 species of threatened mammals were rated as possible consumers. Amphibia were not considered to be at risk. We conclude that most species of native Australian vertebrates would not consume surface-laid baits during feral cat control programs, and that significantly fewer would be exposed to poisoning if HSDVs were employed. However, risks to susceptible species should be quantified in field or pen trials prior to the implementation of a control program, and minimized further by applying baits at times and in places where non-target species have little access.

  15. Pesticides residues in okra (non-target crop) grown close to a watermelon farm in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, D K; Asare, E A; Dodoo, D K

    2013-09-01

    The study looked at the levels of pesticides in okra grown close to a watermelon farm herein referred to as a non-target crop. The watermelon received some pesticide application in the course of its cultivation, and the okra which was not meant to be sprayed was also affected by the pesticide. About 500 okra samples were collected for a period of 6 weeks and pesticides extracted with 1:1 n-hexane and dichloromethane which was analysed with Agilent 2222 GC/MS coupled with 389 auto-sampler. The results confirmed accumulation of significant levels of pesticides in the non-target crop (okra grown close to watermelon farm). Levels of organochlorine pesticides ranged from 3.10 to 7.60 μg/kg whilst the organophosphorus pesticides had levels ranging from 2.80 to 2016.80 μg/kg. The synthetic pyrethroid pesticide mean levels also ranged from 0.10 to 4.10 μg/kg and were below World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization-recommended residue levels, and though not appearing to constitute a grave threat to life, their occurrence is a concern, and pre-emptive techniques must be developed to thwart the contaminations. Though the non- target crop was not treated directly with the pesticides, some level of contamination with organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides persisted in the crops. It can be inferred that application of pesticides affected the adjoining crops, meaning that inter-cropping and mix-cropping might not be acceptable when one of the crops requires pesticide application. It is important for the farmers to be trained to ensure proper application of pesticide to minimise its impact on the health of consumers.

  16. Landscape connectivity promotes plant biodiversity spillover into non-target habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brudvig, Lars A; Damschen, Ellen I; Tewksbury, Joshua J; Haddad, Nick M; Levey, Douglas J

    2009-06-09

    Conservation efforts typically focus on maximizing biodiversity in protected areas. The space available for reserves is limited, however, and conservation efforts must increasingly consider how management of protected areas can promote biodiversity beyond reserve borders. Habitat corridors are considered an important feature of reserves because they facilitate movement of organisms between patches, thereby increasing species richness in those patches. Here we demonstrate that by increasing species richness inside target patches, corridors additionally benefit biodiversity in surrounding non-target habitat, a biodiversity "spillover" effect. Working in the world's largest corridor experiment, we show that increased richness extends for approximately 30% of the width of the 1-ha connected patches, resulting in 10-18% more vascular plant species around patches of target habitat connected by corridors than around unconnected but otherwise equivalent patches of habitat. Furthermore, corridor-enhanced spillover into non-target habitat can be predicted by a simple plant life-history trait: seed dispersal mode. Species richness of animal-dispersed plants in non-target habitat increased in response to connectivity provided by corridors, whereas species richness of wind-dispersed plants was unaffected by connectivity and increased in response to changes in patch shape--higher edge-to-interior ratio--created by corridors. Corridors promoted biodiversity spillover for native species of the threatened longleaf pine ecosystem being restored in our experiment, but not for exotic species. By extending economically driven spillover concepts from marine fisheries and crop pollination systems, we show how reconnecting landscapes amplifies biodiversity conservation both within and beyond reserve borders.

  17. Difficulty-related changes in inter-regional neural synchrony are dissociated between target and non-target processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong Woo; Cha, Kwang Su; Choi, Jong Doo; Jung, Ki-Young; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2015-04-01

    The major purpose of this study was to explore the changes in the local/global gamma-band neural synchronies during target/non-target processing due to task difficulty under an auditory three-stimulus oddball paradigm. Multichannel event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from fifteen healthy participants during the oddball task. In addition to the conventional ERP analysis, we investigated the modulations in gamma-band activity (GBA) and inter-regional gamma-band phase synchrony (GBPS) for infrequent target and non-target processing due to task difficulty. The most notable finding was that the difficulty-related changes in inter-regional GBPS (33-35 Hz) at P300 epoch (350-600 ms) completely differed for target and non-target processing. As task difficulty increased, the GBPS significantly reduced for target processing but increased for non-target processing. This result contrasts with the local neural synchrony in gamma-bands, which was not affected by task difficulty. Another major finding was that the spatial patterns of functional connectivity were dissociated for target and non-target processing with regard to the difficult task. The spatial pattern for target processing was compatible with the top-down attention network, whereas that for the non-target corresponded to the bottom-up attention network. Overall, we found that the inter-regional gamma-band neural synchronies during target/non-target processing change significantly with task difficulty and that this change is dissociated between target and non-target processing. Our results indicate that large-scale neural synchrony is more relevant for the difference in information processing between target and non-target stimuli.

  18. Risk assessment and ecological effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis crops on non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-Lin; Li, Yun-He; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2011-07-01

    The application of recombinant DNA technology has resulted in many insect-resistant varieties by genetic engineering (GE). Crops expressing Cry toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been planted worldwide, and are an effective tool for pest control. However, one ecological concern regarding the potential effects of insect-resistant GE plants on non-target organisms (NTOs) has been continually debated. In the present study, we briefly summarize the data regarding the development and commercial use of transgenic Bt varieties, elaborate on the procedure and methods for assessing the non-target effects of insect-resistant GE plants, and synthetically analyze the related research results, mostly those published between 2005 and 2010. A mass of laboratory and field studies have shown that the currently available Bt crops have no direct detrimental effects on NTOs due to their narrow spectrum of activity, and Bt crops are increasing the abundance of some beneficial insects and improving the natural control of specific pests. The use of Bt crops, such as Bt maize and Bt cotton, results in significant reductions of insecticide application and clear benefits on the environment and farmer health. Consequently, Bt crops can be a useful component of integrated pest management systems to protect the crop from targeted pests.

  19. Acquisition of Cry1Ac protein by non-target arthropods in Bt soybean fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huilin Yu

    Full Text Available Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentration was highest in the grasshopper Atractomorpha sinensis and represented about 50% of the concentration in soybean leaves. Other species/taxa did not contain detectable toxin or contained a concentration that was between 1 and 10% of that detected in leaves. These Cry1Ac-positive arthropods included a number of mesophyll-feeding Hemiptera, a cicadellid, a curculionid beetle and, among the predators, a thomisid spider and an unidentified predatory bug belonging to the Anthocoridae. Within an arthropod species/taxon, the Cry1Ac content sometimes varied between life stages (nymphs/larvae vs. adults and sampling dates (before, during, and after flowering. Our study is the first to provide information on Cry1Ac-expression levels in soybean plants and Cry1Ac concentrations in non-target arthropods in Chinese soybean fields. The data will be useful for assessing the risk of non-target arthropod exposure to Cry1Ac in soybean.

  20. Risk Assessment and Ecological Effects of Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis Crops on Non-Target Organisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Lin Yu; Yun-He Li; Kong-Ming Wu

    2011-01-01

    The application of recombinant DNA technology has resulted in many insect-resistant varieties by genetic engineering (GE). Crops expressing Cry toxins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been planted worldwide, and are an effective tool for pest control. However, one ecological concern regarding the potential effects of insect-resistant GE plants on non-target organisms (NTOs) has been continually debated.In the present study, we briefly summarize the data regarding the development and commercial use of transgenic Bt varieties, elaborate on the procedure and methods for assessing the non-target effects of insect-resistant GE plants, and synthetically analyze the related research results, mostly those published between 2005 and 2010. A mass of laboratory and field studies have shown that the currently available Bt crops have no direct detrimental effects on NTOs due to their narrow spectrum of activity, and Bt crops are increasing the abundance of some beneficial insects and improving the natural control of specific pests. The use of Bt crops, such as Bt maize and Bt cotton, results in significant reductions of insecticide application and clear benefits on the environment and farmer health. Consequently, Bt crops can be a useful component of integrated pest management systems to protect the crop from targeted pests.

  1. Short communication. Incidence of the OLIPE mass-trapping on olive non-target arthropods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porcel, M.; Ruano, F.; Sanllorente, O.; Caballero, J. A.; Campos, M.

    2009-07-01

    Due to the widespread of mass-trapping systems for Bactrocera oleae (Gmelin) (Diptera: Tephritidae) control in organic olive cropping, an assessment of the impact on arthropods of the olive agroecosystem was undertaken for the OLIPE trap type. The sampling was carried out in Los Pedroches valley (Cordoba, southern Spain) in three different organic orchard sites. Six OLIPE traps baited with diammonium phosphate were collected from each site (18 in total) from July to November 2002 every 15 days on average. Additionally, in the latest sampling dates, half the traps were reinforced with pheromone to assess its impact on non-target arthropods. From an average of 43.0 catches per trap (cpt) of non-target arthropods during the whole sampling period, the highest number of captures corresponds to the Order Diptera (that represents a 68.5%), followed distantly by the family Formicidae (12.9%) and the Order Lepidoptera (10.4%). Besides the impact on ant populations, other beneficial groups were recorded such as parasitoids (Other Hymenoptera: 2.6%) and predators (Araneae: 1.0%; Neuroptera s.l.: 0.4%). Concerning the temporal distribution of catches, total captures peaked on July and had a slight increase at the beginning of autumn. No significant differences were observed between traps with and without pheromone. The results evidence that a considerable amount of non-specific captures could be prevented by improving the temporal planning of the mass-trapping system. (Author) 25 refs.

  2. Acquisition of Cry1Ac protein by non-target arthropods in Bt soybean fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huilin; Romeis, Jörg; Li, Yunhe; Li, Xiangju; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Soybean tissue and arthropods were collected in Bt soybean fields in China at different times during the growing season to investigate the exposure of arthropods to the plant-produced Cry1Ac toxin and the transmission of the toxin within the food web. Samples from 52 arthropod species/taxa belonging to 42 families in 10 orders were analysed for their Cry1Ac content using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Among the 22 species/taxa for which three samples were analysed, toxin concentration was highest in the grasshopper Atractomorpha sinensis and represented about 50% of the concentration in soybean leaves. Other species/taxa did not contain detectable toxin or contained a concentration that was between 1 and 10% of that detected in leaves. These Cry1Ac-positive arthropods included a number of mesophyll-feeding Hemiptera, a cicadellid, a curculionid beetle and, among the predators, a thomisid spider and an unidentified predatory bug belonging to the Anthocoridae. Within an arthropod species/taxon, the Cry1Ac content sometimes varied between life stages (nymphs/larvae vs. adults) and sampling dates (before, during, and after flowering). Our study is the first to provide information on Cry1Ac-expression levels in soybean plants and Cry1Ac concentrations in non-target arthropods in Chinese soybean fields. The data will be useful for assessing the risk of non-target arthropod exposure to Cry1Ac in soybean.

  3. [Exposure degree of important non-target arthropods to Cry2Aa in Bt rice fields].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Ling; Li, Yun-He; Hua, Hong-Xia; Yang, Chang-Ju; Wu, Hong-Jin; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2013-06-01

    Based on the principle of "risk = hazard x exposure", the selected representative nontarget organisms in the assessment of the potential effects of insect-resistant genetically modified (GM) crops on non-target arthropods in laboratory are generally the arthropod species highly exposed to the insecticidal proteins expressed by the GM crops in farmland ecosystem. In order to understand the exposure degree of the important arthropod species to Cry proteins in Bt rice fields, and to select the appropriate non-target arthropods in the risk assessment of insect-resistant GM crops, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was conducted to measure the Cry2Aa protein concentration in the arthropods collected from the cry2Aa rice fields at different rice growth stages. The results showed that there was a significant difference in the Cry2Aa content protein concentration in different arthropod species. Some species did not contain Cry2Aa protein, while some species contained larger amounts of Cry2Aa protein. Relative to the arthropods colleted after rice anthesis, the arthropods colleted in rice anthesis contained relative higher concentrations of Cry2Aa protein, especially for the predacious arthropods. No Cry proteins were detected in parasitic arthropods. This study provided references for the laboratory assessment of the effects of GM rice on nontarget arthropods.

  4. An ERP study of inhibition of non-target languages in trilingual word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Taomei; Ma, Fengyang; Liu, Fengqin

    2013-10-01

    The present study examined the locus where inhibition of non-target languages is exerted during trilingual word production by analyzing the cue-locked and stimulus-locked ERPs respectively in the n-2 language repetition paradigm. During the experiment, Uighur-Chinese-English trilinguals overtly named Arabic digits in one of their three languages according to a visually presented cue while their behavioral and electrophysiological responses were recorded. The behavioral data revealed insignificant n-2 repetition costs. Cue-locked ERPs revealed also only tiny or marginally significant n-2 repetition effects over some midline electrodes. The stimulus-locked ERP data showed a more negative ERP component elicited by the n-2 repetition trials than the n-2 non-repetition trials around 250 ms after stimulus onset, but no significant difference in this ERP effect between different languages was found. The results indicate that inhibition of non-target languages occurs at the lemma selection phase rather than the language task schemas phase during trilingual language production.

  5. Enantioselectivity in tebuconazole and myclobutanil non-target toxicity and degradation in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanbo; Dong, Fengshou; Liu, Xingang; Xu, Jun; Han, Yongtao; Zheng, Yongquan

    2015-03-01

    Tebuconazole and myclobutanil are two widely used triazole fungicides, both comprising two enantiomers with different fungicidal activity. However, their non-target toxicity and environmental behavior with respect to enantioselectivity have received limited attention. In the present study, tebuconazole and myclobutanil enantiomers were isolated and used to evaluate the occurrence of enantioselectivity in their acute toxicity to three non-target organisms (Scenedesmus obliquus, Daphnia magna, and Danio rerio). Significant differences were found: R-(-)-tebuconazole was about 1.4-5.9 times more toxic than S-(+)-tebuconazole; rac-myclobutanil was about 1.3-6.1 and 1.4-7.3 more toxic than (-)-myclobutanil and (+)-myclobutanil, respectively. Enantioselectivity was further investigated in terms of fungicide degradation in seven soil samples, which were selected to cover a broad range of soil properties. In aerobic or anaerobic soils, the S-(+)-tebuconazole degraded faster than R-(-)-tebuconazole, and the enantioselectivity showed a correlation with soil organic carbon content. (+)-Myclobutanil was preferentially degraded than (-)-myclobutanil in aerobic soils, whereas both enantiomers degraded at similar rates in anaerobic soils. Apparent correlations of enantioselectivity with soil pH and soil texture were observed for myclobutanil under aerobic conditions. In addition, both fungicides were configurationally stable in soils, i.e., no enantiomerization was found. Enantioselectivity may be a common phenomenon in both aquatic toxicity and biodegradation of chiral triazole fungicides, and this should be considered when assessing ecotoxicological risks of these compounds in the environment.

  6. Accumulation of anticoagulant rodenticides in a non-target insectivore, the European hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowding, Claire V., E-mail: claire.dowding@naturalengland.org.u [School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG (United Kingdom); Shore, Richard F.; Worgan, Andrew [NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Baker, Philip J.; Harris, Stephen [School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Studies on exposure of non-targets to anticoagulant rodenticides have largely focussed on predatory birds and mammals; insectivores have rarely been studied. We investigated the exposure of 120 European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) from throughout Britain to first- and second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (FGARs and SGARs) using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC) and liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry (LCMS). The proportion of hedgehogs with liver SGAR concentrations detected by HPLC was 3-13% per compound, 23% overall. LCMS identified much higher prevalence for difenacoum and bromadiolone, mainly because of greater ability to detect low-level contamination. The overall proportion of hedgehogs with LCMS-detected residues was 57.5% (SGARs alone) and 66.7% (FGARs and SGARs combined); 27 (22.5%) hedgehogs contained >1 rodenticide. Exposure of insectivores and predators to anticoagulant rodenticides appears to be similar. The greater sensitivity of LCMS suggests that hitherto exposure of non-targets is likely to have been under-estimated using HPLC techniques. - Exposure of insectivorous hedgehogs to anticoagulant rodenticides in Britain is similar to predatory birds and mammals that specialise in eating small mammals, and hitherto exposure levels have been under-estimated using HPLC techniques.

  7. Imidacloprid in leaves from systemically treated trees may inhibit litter breakdown by non-target invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzweiser, David P; Thompson, Dean G; Scarr, Taylor A

    2009-05-01

    Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide that is used in trees to control several invasive, wood-boring insect pests in North America. Applications to deciduous trees result in foliar concentrations of imidacloprid that could pose a risk of harm to non-target decomposer invertebrates when autumn-shed leaves fall to forest floors or adjacent water bodies. Selection experiments were conducted in aquatic and terrestrial microcosms to test the hypothesis that non-target, leaf-shredding invertebrates can detect and avoid leaves from imidacloprid-treated trees thereby circumventing effects on leaf litter decomposition. There was no significant preferential feeding on non-contaminated leaves in selection microcosms indicating that the invertebrates could not detect and avoid imidacloprid-containing leaves. Mass loss and area consumed of both imidacloprid-containing and natural leaves in selection microcosms were significantly less than in control microcosms, indicating a sub-lethal feeding inhibition effect from consumption of leaf material at realistic field concentrations of 18-30microg/g fresh weight. Our results indicate that imidacloprid at realistic concentrations in leaves can inhibit leaf litter breakdown through adverse sub-lethal effects on decomposer invertebrates.

  8. Non-targeted detection of milk powder adulteration using Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics: melamine case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Farris, Samantha; Mossoba, Magdi M; Moore, Jeffrey C; Yakes, Betsy Jean

    2017-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics was explored as a rapid, non-targeted screening method for the detection of milk powder (MP) adulteration using melamine as an example contaminant. Raman spectroscopy and an unsupervised pattern-recognition method, principal component analysis (PCA), allowed for the differentiation of authentic MPs from adulterated ones at concentrations > 1.0% for dry-blended (DB) samples and > 0.30% for wet-blended (WB) ones. Soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA), a supervised pattern-recognition method, was also used to classify test samples as adulterated or authentic. Combined statistics at a 97% confidence level from the SIMCA models correctly classified adulteration of MP with melamine at concentrations ≥ 0.5% for DB samples and ≥ 0.30% for WB ones, while no false-positives from authentic MPs were found when the spectra in the 600-700 cm(-)(1) range were pre-processed using standard normal variate (SNV) followed by a gap-segment derivatisation. The combined technique of Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics proved to be a useful tool for the rapid and cost-efficient non-targeted detection of adulteration in MP at per cent spiking levels.

  9. Effect of three organophosphorous nematicides on non-target nematodes and soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Satoko; Toyota, Koki

    2008-01-01

    The toxicity of three organophosphorous nematicides, imicyafos, fosthiazate and cadusafos, to non-target organisms in soil was evaluated. Imicyafos and fosthiazate had no significant inhibitory effect on the growth of fungal (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae, Rhizoctonia solani and Trichoderma viride) and bacterial (Ralstonia solanacearum and Pseudomonas fluorescens) strains in media at 12.5 to 200 mg L(-1). Cadusafos, however, significantly inhibited the growth of all these strains except R. solanacearum. A pot test was conducted using a soil naturally infested with Pratylenchus penetrans, and treated with imicyafos or fosthiazate, which are less toxic to non-target organisms. The density of P. penetrans decreased to less than 10% of the control level after exposure to imicyafos and fosthiazate at 3 kg active ingredient ha(-1), the conventional dose. No significant effect was observed on the density of free-living nematodes, cellulose decomposition activity, microbial biomass evaluated with the ATP method and number of ammonia oxidizers between the soil treated with imicyafos or fosthiazate and the untreated control soil. Our results revealed that imicyafos and fosthiazate effectively suppressed a plant-parasitic nematode, P. penetrans, but had little impact on free-living nematodes and the soil microbial community.

  10. Impacts of transgenic poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems upon target pests and non-target insects under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D J; Liu, J X; Lu, Z Y; Li, C L; Comada, E; Yang, M S

    2015-07-27

    Poplar-cotton agro-ecosystems are the main agricultural planting modes of cotton fields in China. With increasing acres devoted to transgenic insect-resistant poplar and transgenic insect-resistant cotton, studies examining the effects of transgenic plants on target and non-target insects become increasingly important. We systematically surveyed populations of both target pests and non-target insects for 4 different combinations of poplar-cotton eco-systems over 3 years. Transgenic Bt cotton strongly resisted the target insects Fall webworm moth [Hyphantria cunea (Drury)], Sylepta derogata Fabrieius, and American bollworm (Heliothis armigera), but no clear impact on non-target insect cotton aphids (Aphis gossypii). Importantly, intercrops containing transgenic Pb29 poplar significantly increased the inhibitory effects of Bt cotton on Fall webworm moth in ecosystem IV. Highly resistant Pb29 poplar reduced populations of the target pests Grnsonoma minutara Hubner and non-target insect poplar leaf aphid (Chaitophorus po-pulialbae), while Fall webworm moth populations were unaffected. We determined the effects of Bt toxin from transgenic poplar and cotton on target and non-target pests in different ecosystems of cotton-poplar intercrops and identified the synergistic effects of such combinations toward both target and non-target insects.

  11. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: A boost from confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar R Marathe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain computer interaction (BCI technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in similar neural activity between the two classes. It is unknown how current neural-based target classification algorithms perform when qualitatively similar target and non-target images are presented. This study address this question by comparing behavioral and neural classification performance across two conditions: first, when targets were the only infrequent stimulus presented amongst frequent background distracters; and second when targets were presented together with infrequent non-targets containing similar visual features to the targets. The resulting findings show that behavior is slower and less accurate when targets are presented together with similar non-targets; moreover, single-trial classification yielded high levels of misclassification when infrequent non-targets are included. Furthermore, we present an approach to mitigate the image misclassification. We use confidence measures to assess the quality of single-trial classification, and demonstrate that a system in which low confidence trials are reclassified through a secondary process can result in improved performance.

  12. The effect of target and non-target similarity on neural classification performance: a boost from confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Amar R; Ries, Anthony J; Lawhern, Vernon J; Lance, Brent J; Touryan, Jonathan; McDowell, Kaleb; Cecotti, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Brain computer interaction (BCI) technologies have proven effective in utilizing single-trial classification algorithms to detect target images in rapid serial visualization presentation tasks. While many factors contribute to the accuracy of these algorithms, a critical aspect that is often overlooked concerns the feature similarity between target and non-target images. In most real-world environments there are likely to be many shared features between targets and non-targets resulting in similar neural activity between the two classes. It is unknown how current neural-based target classification algorithms perform when qualitatively similar target and non-target images are presented. This study address this question by comparing behavioral and neural classification performance across two conditions: first, when targets were the only infrequent stimulus presented amongst frequent background distracters; and second when targets were presented together with infrequent non-targets containing similar visual features to the targets. The resulting findings show that behavior is slower and less accurate when targets are presented together with similar non-targets; moreover, single-trial classification yielded high levels of misclassification when infrequent non-targets are included. Furthermore, we present an approach to mitigate the image misclassification. We use confidence measures to assess the quality of single-trial classification, and demonstrate that a system in which low confidence trials are reclassified through a secondary process can result in improved performance.

  13. Non-Target Screening of Veterinary Drugs Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry on SmartMass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Liu, Xin; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Hai-Yan; Ding, Li-Sheng; Zhou, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Non-target screening of veterinary drugs using tandem mass spectrometric data was performed on the SmartMass platform. This newly developed software uses the characteristic fragmentation patterns (CFP) to identify chemicals, especially those containing particular substructures. A mixture of 17 sulfonamides was separated by ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and SmartMass was used to process the tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data acquired on an Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The data were automatically extracted, and each sulfonamide was recognized and analyzed with a prebuilt analysis rule. By using this software, over 98 % of the false candidate structures were eliminated, and all the correct structures were found within the top 10 of the ranking lists. Furthermore, SmartMass could also be used to identify slightly modified contraband drugs and metabolites with simple prebuilt rules. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Biosafety research for non-target organism risk assessment of RNAi-based GE plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew F; Devos, Yann; Lemgo, Godwin N Y; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference, or RNAi, refers to a set of biological processes that make use of conserved cellular machinery to silence genes. Although there are several variations in the source and mechanism, they are all triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) which is processed by a protein complex into small, single stranded RNA, referred to as small interfering RNAs (siRNA) with complementarity to sequences in genes targeted for silencing. The use of the RNAi mechanism to develop new traits in plants has fueled a discussion about the environmental safety of the technology for these applications, and this was the subject of a symposium session at the 13th ISBGMO in Cape Town, South Africa. This paper continues that discussion by proposing research areas that may be beneficial for future environmental risk assessments of RNAi-based genetically modified plants, with a particular focus on non-target organism assessment.

  15. Study on non-target area of LLL image statistical characteristics under different illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Zhang, Xiao-hui; Hu, Qing-ping

    2016-10-01

    Low light level (LLL) imaging mainly relies on to detect weak night sky of targets reflecting, and environmental illumination is one of the important factors affecting the LLL image features. Germany's third-generation image intensifiers, Toshiba Terry company CS8620Ci types of CCD device as the main core to build LLL image acquisition experimental system, and LLL images are collected in a dark room with different illumination. This paper analyzes relationship between the statistical properties of the LLL image non-target area and environmental illumination, studies the laws between the mean, variance, autocorrelation, variance of sum and environmental illumination. And these laws based on experimental data were fitted to obtained specific mathematical expressions.

  16. Molecular cartography in acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infections--a non-targeted metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Constanze; Dietz, Inga; Tziotis, Dimitrios; Moritz, Franco; Rupp, Jan; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2013-06-01

    Infections with Chlamydia pneumoniae cause several respiratory diseases, such as community-acquired pneumonia, bronchitis or sinusitis. Here, we present an integrated non-targeted metabolomics analysis applying ultra-high-resolution mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to determine metabolite alterations in C. pneumoniae-infected HEp-2 cells. Most important permutations are elaborated using uni- and multivariate statistical analysis, logD retention time regression and mass defect-based network analysis. Classes of metabolites showing high variations upon infection are lipids, carbohydrates and amino acids. Moreover, we observed several non-annotated compounds as predominantly abundant after infection, which are promising biomarker candidates for drug-target and diagnostic research.

  17. Molecular effects and bioaccumulation of levonorgestrel in the non-target organism Dreissena polymorpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska, E-mail: contardo@igb-berlin.d [Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Lorenz, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.lorenz@igb-berlin.d [Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Pflugmacher, Stephan, E-mail: pflugmacher@igb-berlin.d [Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Nuetzmann, Gunnar, E-mail: nuetzmann@igb-berlin.d [Department of Ecohydrology, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Kloas, Werner, E-mail: werner.kloas@igb-berlin.d [Department of Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Wiegand, Claudia, E-mail: wiegand@biology.sdu.d [University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Biology, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2011-01-15

    Bioaccumulation and effects of the contraceptive hormone levonorgestrel were examined in the non-target organism Dreissena polymorpha. Molecular biomarkers of biotransformation, elimination, antioxidant defence and protein damage were analyzed after exposure to increasing concentrations of levonorgestrel in a flow-through system. The lowest concentration (0.312 {mu}g L{sup -1}) was 100-fold bioconcentrated within four days. A decrease of the bioconcentration factor was observed within one week for the highest test concentrations (3.12 and 6.24 {mu}g L{sup -1}) suggesting enhanced excretory processes. The immediate mRNA up-regulation of pi class glutathione S-transferase proved that phase II biotransformation processes were induced. Disturbance of fundamental cell functions was assumed since the aryl hydrocarbon receptor has been permanently down-regulated. mRNA up-regulation of P-glycoprotein, superoxide dismutase and metallothioneine suggested enhanced elimination processes and ongoing oxidative stress. mRNA up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 in mussels exposed to the two highest concentrations clearly indicated impacts on protein damage. - Fundamental cell processes as biotransformation, elimination and prevention from oxidative stress are influenced by exposure of the contraceptive levonorgestrel in non-target organisms. - Research highlights: Bioaccumulation of levonorgestrel in mussels is higher than expected based on its lipophilicity. Exposure to levonorgestrel causes oxidative stress and enhanced elimination processes. Glutathione S-transferase (pi class) mRNA induction after one day hint on phase II biotransformation. mRNA induction of heat shock protein 70 after one week prove protein damage.

  18. Effects of the herbicide glyphosate on non-target plant native species from Chaco forest (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencia, Ferreira María; Carolina, Torres; Enzo, Bracamonte; Leonardo, Galetto

    2017-10-01

    Agriculture based on transgenic crops has expanded in Argentina into areas formerly occupied by Chaco forest. Even though glyphosate is the herbicide most widely used in the world, increasing evidence indicates severe ecotoxicological effects on non-target organisms as native plants. The aim of this work is to determine glyphosate effects on 23 native species present in the remaining Chaco forests immersed in agricultural matrices. This is a laboratory/greenhouse approach studying acute effects on seedlings after 21 days. A gradient of glyphosate rates (525, 1050, 2100, 4200, and 8400g ai/Ha; recommended field application rate (RFAR) = 2100g ai/Ha) was applied on four-week seedlings cultivated in a greenhouse and response variables (phytotoxicity, growth reduction, and sensitivity to the herbicide) were measured. This gradient of herbicide rates covers realistic rates of glyphosate applications in the crop field and also those that can reach vegetation of forest relicts by off-target drift and overspray. Testing was performed following guidelines for vegetative vigour (post-germination spray). All species showed lethal or sublethal effects after the application of the 25% of RFAR (50% of species showed severe phytotoxicity or death and 70% of species showed growth reduction). The results showed a gradient of sensitivity to glyphosate by which some of the studied species are very sensitive to glyphosate and seedlings died with 25% of RFAR while other species can be classified as herbicide-tolerant. Thus, the vegetation present in the forest relicts could be strongly affected by glyphosate application on crops. Lethal and sublethal effects of glyphosate on non-target plants could promote both the loss of biodiversity in native forest relicts immersed in the agroecosystems and the selection of new crop weeds considering that some biotypes are continuously exposed to low doses of glyphosate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Strategy for non-target ionic analysis by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sursyakova, Viktoria V; Burmakina, Galina V; Rubaylo, Anatoly I

    2017-02-01

    A strategy for non-target analysis of samples with unknown composition by capillary electrophoresis (CE) with ultraviolet (UV) detection is suggested. The strategy is based on the preliminary identification of analytes and further optimization of the conditions for their separation using the developed computational tool set ElphoSeparation. It is shown that, in order to record electrophoretic peaks with the mobilities from the maximum to minimum possible values, the positive and negative voltage polarity and hydrodynamic pressure should be used. To choose the optimal separation conditions, dynamic maps of electrophoretic separation (DMES) are suggested. DMES is a bar chart with theoretical resolutions of adjacent peaks presented in ascending order of the migration time. The resolution is calculated as the division of the difference of the effective electrophoretic mobilities of adjacent analytes by their average peak width in terms of electrophoretic mobility. The suggested strategy is tested by the example of the analysis of herbal medicine (Holosas) on the basis of rose hips. The approach should be used to analyze samples with not very complex composition, such as environmental water and precipitation samples, process liquors, some vegetable extracts, biological fluids, food, and other samples for the determination of widespread compounds capable of forming ionic species. For samples with complex composition, the approach used together with other techniques may produce advantageous information due to specificity of the method, particularly it can be useful for determination of compounds suffering from low volatility or thermal stability, and for analysis of samples with difficult matrices. Graphical Abstract The scheme of performing the non-target ionic analysis by capillary electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection.

  20. Chasing Ghosts in Space Radiobiology Research: The Lost Focus on Non-Targeted Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis; Saganti, Premkumar; Cacao, Eliedonna

    2016-07-01

    The doses and dose-rates of astronaut exposures to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are accurately known, and lead to particle hits per cell nucleus from high charge and energy (HZE) particles of much less than one hit per cell per week. A large number of experiments have shown that additivity of biological effects is a valid assumption for space radiation exposures, while experiments at higher doses and dose-rates than occur in space continue to be a focus of the majority of space radiobiology research. Furthermore HZE particle exposures with mono-energetic particles manifest themselves as a mixed-radiation field due to the contributions of delta-rays and the random impact parameter of a particles track core to DNA and non-DNA targets in cells and tissues. The mixed-field manifestation of mono-energetic HZE particle exposures is well known from theoretical studies of microdosimetry and track structure. Additional mixed-field effects occur for single species experiments due to nuclear fragmentation in particle accelerator beam-lines and biological samples along with energy straggling. In contrast to these well known aspects of space radiobiology there are many open questions on the contribution of non-targeted effects to low dose and dose-rate exposures. Non-targeted effects (NTEs) include bystander effects and genomic instability, and have been shown to be the most important outstanding question for reducing uncertainties in space radiation cancer risk assessment. The dose-rate and radiation quality dependence of NTE's has not been established, while there is an over-arching need to develop 21st century experimental models of human cancer risk. We review possible mechanisms of NTE's and how new experiments to address these issues could be designed.

  1. Competitive release and outbreaks of non-target pests associated with transgenic Bt cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Adam R; Olson, Dawn M; Andow, David A

    2016-06-01

    The adoption of transgenic Bt cotton has, in some cases, led to environmental and economic benefits through reduced insecticide use. However, the distribution of these benefits and associated risks among cotton growers and cotton-growing regions has been uneven due in part to outbreaks of non-target or secondary pests, thereby requiring the continued use of synthetic insecticides. In the southeastern USA, Bt cotton adoption has resulted in increased abundance of and damage from stink bug pests, Euschistus servus and Nezara viridula (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). While the impact of increased stink bug abundance has been well-documented, the causes have remained unclear. We hypothesize that release from competition with Bt-susceptible target pests may drive stink bug outbreaks in Bt cotton. We first examined the evidence for competitive release of stink bugs through meta-analysis of previous studies. We then experimentally tested if herbivory by Bt-susceptible Helicoverpa zea increases stink bug leaving rates and deters oviposition on non-Bt cotton. Consistent with previous studies, we found differences in leaving rates only for E servus, but we found that both species strongly avoided ovipositing on H. zea-damaged plants. Considering all available evidence, competitive release of stink bug populations in Bt cotton likely contributes to outbreaks, though the relative importance of competitive release remains an open question. Ecological risk assessments of Bt crops and other transgenic insecticidal crops would benefit from greater understanding of the ecological mechanisms underlying non-target pest outbreaks and greater attention to indirect ecological effects more broadly.

  2. Exposure-dependent variation in cryolite induced lethality in the non-target insect, Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podder, Sayanti; Roy, Sumedha

    2014-03-01

    The starting point of toxicity testing of any chemical in an organism is the determination of its Lethal Concentration 50 (LC50). In the present study, LC50 of a fluorinated insecticide cryolite is determined in a non-target insect model, Drosophila melanogaster. Interestingly, the result shows that acute LC50 of cryolite was much greater in comparison to the chronic one in case of Drosophila larvae. Larvae which were exposed to 65,000 to 70,000 µg/ml cryolite through food showed 50% mortality after 18 hours of acute exposure, whereas only 150 to 160 µg/ml cryolite was sufficient to cause 50% mortality in case of chronic exposure. Thus cryolite in a small amount when applied once cannot produce noticeable changes in Drosophila, whereas the same amount when used continuously can be fatal. The non-feeding pupal stage was also seen to be affected by chemical treatment. This suggests that the test chemical affects the developmental fate and results in failure of adult emergence. Absence of chemical-induced mortality in adults assumes that the toxicity of cryolite might be restricted to the preimaginal stages of the organism. Reduction in body size of larvae after ingestion of cryolite (with food) in acute treatment schedule is another interesting finding of this study. Some individuals consuming cryolite containing food cannot survive whereas the few survivors manifest a significant growth retardation which might be due to a tendency of refusal in feeding. Hence the present findings provide a scope of assessment of risk of other similar non-target groups.

  3. Linear solvation energy relationships as classifiers in non-target analysis - a gas chromatographic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Nadin; Mühlenberg, Jana; Retzbach, Heiko; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Brack, Werner

    2012-11-16

    Linear solvation energy relationships (LSERs) are applied as classifiers to predict the logarithmic retention factors logk from the structures of candidate compounds in non-target analysis. By comparison of the predicted value with the experimentally determined logk, progressive exclusion of candidates is done. The approach is based on the determination of stationary phase parameters to describe ten different gas chromatographic columns under four isothermal conditions. To demonstrate retention prediction and the application of the classifier model, twelve compounds with the molecular formula C(12)H(10)O(2) were selected, while experimental logk values were compared to the predicted values and exclusion of potential candidate compounds was performed. The analytical power of the approach was demonstrated on the basis of experimentally determined compound descriptors achieved from gas chromatographic measurements. The prediction got less accurate when calculated compound descriptors were employed. For the time being insufficient precision in estimating the descriptors limits the possibility to exclude candidate compounds in non-target analysis. It is expected that new approaches to estimate compound descriptors, will improve this situation. At present, the insufficient accuracy of descriptor estimates can be dealt with larger prognosis intervals. Furthermore, the combination of two stationary phases with corresponding retention prediction further advanced the exclusion of potential candidates. The most appropriate pair of stationary phases was selected by the application of four different orthogonal strategies. In addition, the classifier was applied for a validation set with different molecular composition, where column selection was considered on the basis of the differences in the compound descriptors of the corresponding candidate compounds.

  4. Impact of Terminalia chebula Retz. against Aedes aegypti L. and non-target aquatic predatory insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Ponsankar, Athirstam; Chellappandian, Muthiah; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Lija-Escaline, Jalasteen; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy

    2017-03-01

    Aedes aegypti Linn is one of the most important mosquito species. The vectors are responsible for causing deadly diseases like dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Several chemical pesticides used to control these dengue vectors caused severe toxic significances on human health and other non-target beneficial insects. Therefore the current investigation has been made to access the bio-efficacy of the crude seed extracts of T. chebula against the dengue vector Ae. aegypti. The GC-MS analysis of crude seed extracts of T. chebula identified nine chemical compounds with major peak area in the 1,2,3-Benzenetriol (61.96%), followed by Tridecanoic acid (09.55%). Ae. aegypti larvae showed dose dependent mortality rate was observed between the treatments. Prominent protection rate at greater concentrations of 100ppm and moderate protection at 75 and 50ppm was observed in the repellent assay. Lethal concentration (LC50 and LC90) of fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti was observed in 138 and 220ppm concentration respectively. Similarly, the seed extracts showed 100% adulticidal activity at the concentration of 400ppm at 30min of exposure time. Phytochemicals present in the seed extracts of T. chebula significantly affects the major portions of the midgut tissues of Ae. aegypti at the concentration of 100ppm. The toxicological evaluation of seed extracts also proved non-toxic towards the A. bouvieri and Tx. splendens aquatic predatory insects. Hence, the present result suggest that bio-rational plant derived T. chebula could be incorporated in the dengue vector control and have no adverse effects on non-target beneficial insects.

  5. Isolation and Antimicrobial Testing of Aeromonas spp., Citrobacter spp., Cronobacter spp., Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., and Trabulsiella spp. from the Gallbladder of Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelopoulou, Grammato; Filioussis, Georgios; Kritas, Spyridon; Kantere, Maria; Burriel, Angeliki R

    2015-01-01

    The presence of Gram-negative bacteria species, other than Salmonella spp., in the gallbladder of pigs was examined. Isolated Gram-negative bacteria were assigned to species using the Microgen™ GnA+B-ID Systems. Of the 64 isolated strains 43 were identified as Escherichia coli, seven as Enterobacter spp., three each as Klebsiella spp., Citrobacterfreundii, Aeromonas hydrophila and Cronobacter sakazakii and one each as Escherichiafergusonii and Trabulsiella guamensis. Their antibiograms showed very high resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. It was concluded that the pigs' gallbladder is a reservoir of potentially pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria for pork consumers.

  6. Plenary panel 1: The scientific bases of radiation protection. Non-targeted effects of ionising radiation - Implications for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomaa, S. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    The universality of the target theory of radiation-induced effects is challenged by observations on non-targeted effects such as bystander effects, genomic instability and adaptive response. Essential features of non-targeted effects are that they do not require direct nuclear exposure by radiation and they are particularly significant at low doses. This new evidence suggests a need for a new paradigm in radiation biology. The new paradigm should cover both the classical (targeted) and the non-targeted effects. New aspects include the role of cellular communication and tissue-level responses. A better understanding of non-targeted effects may have important consequences for health risk assessment and, consequently, on radiation protection. Non-targeted effects may contribute to the estimation of cancer risk from occupational, medical and environmental exposures. In particular, they may have implications for the applicability of the Linear-No-Threshold (L.N.T.) model in extrapolating radiation risk data into the low-dose region. This also means that the adequacy of the concept of dose to estimate risk is challenged by these findings. Moreover, these effects may provide new mechanistic explanations for the development of non-cancer diseases. Further research is required to determine if these effects, typically measured in cell cultures, are applicable in tissue level, whole animals, and ultimately in humans. (authors)

  7. User behaviour, best practice and the risks of non-target exposure associated with anticoagulant rodenticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosh, David G; Shore, Richard F; Jess, Stephen; Withers, Alan; Bearhop, Stuart; Ian Montgomery, W; McDonald, Robbie A

    2011-06-01

    Usage of anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) is an integral component of modern agriculture and is essential for the control of commensal rodent populations. However, the extensive deployment of ARs has led to widespread exposure of a range of non-target predatory birds and mammals to some compounds, in particular the second-generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs). As a result, there has been considerable effort placed into devising voluntary best practice guidelines that increase the efficacy of rodent control and reduce the risk of non-target exposure. Currently, there is limited published information on actual practice amongst users or implementation of best practice. We assessed the behaviour of a typical group of users using an on-farm questionnaire survey. Most baited for rodents every year using SGARs. Most respondents were apparently aware of the risks of non-target exposure and adhered to some of the best practice recommendations but total compliance was rare. Our questionnaire revealed that users of first generation anticoagulant rodenticides rarely protected or checked bait stations, and so took little effort to prevent primary exposure of non-targets. Users almost never searched for and removed poisoned carcasses and many baited for prolonged periods or permanently. These factors are all likely to enhance the likelihood of primary and secondary exposure of non-target species.

  8. Non-Target Analyses of organic compounds in ice cores using HPLC-ESI-UHRMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuth, Christoph; Müller-Tautges, Christina; Eichler, Anja; Schwikowski, Margit; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    To study the global climatic and environmental changes it is necessary to know the environmental and especially atmospheric conditions of the past. By analysing climate archives, such as for example ice cores, unique environmental information can be obtained. In contrast to the well-established analysis of inorganic species in ice cores, organic compounds have been analysed in ice cores to a much smaller extent. Because of current analytical limitations it has become commonplace to focus on 'total organic carbon' measurements or specific classes of organic molecules, as no analytical methods exist that can provide a broad characterization of the organic material present[1]. On the one hand, it is important to focus on already known atmospheric markers in ice cores and to quantify, where possible, in order to compare them to current conditions. On the other hand, unfortunately a wealth of information is lost when only a small fraction of the organic material is examined. However, recent developments in mass spectrometry in respect to higher mass resolution and mass accuracy enable a new approach to the analysis of complex environmental samples. The qualitative characterization of the complex mixture of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the ice using high-resolution mass spectrometry allows for novel insights concerning the composition and possible sources of aerosol derived WSOC deposited at glacier sites. By performing a non-target analysis of an ice core from the Swiss Alps using previous enrichment by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-UHRMS) 475 elemental formulas distributed onto 659 different peaks were detected. The elemental formulas were classified according to their elemental composition into CHO-, CHON-, CHOS-, CHONS-containing compounds and 'others'. Several methods for the analysis of complex data sets of high resolution

  9. Bt crop effects on functional guilds of non-target arthropods: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L LaReesa Wolfenbarger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Uncertainty persists over the environmental effects of genetically-engineered crops that produce the insecticidal Cry proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt. We performed meta-analyses on a modified public database to synthesize current knowledge about the effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the abundance and interactions of arthropod non-target functional guilds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared the abundance of predators, parasitoids, omnivores, detritivores and herbivores under scenarios in which neither, only the non-Bt crops, or both Bt and non-Bt crops received insecticide treatments. Predators were less abundant in Bt cotton compared to unsprayed non-Bt controls. As expected, fewer specialist parasitoids of the target pest occurred in Bt maize fields compared to unsprayed non-Bt controls, but no significant reduction was detected for other parasitoids. Numbers of predators and herbivores were higher in Bt crops compared to sprayed non-Bt controls, and type of insecticide influenced the magnitude of the difference. Omnivores and detritivores were more abundant in insecticide-treated controls and for the latter guild this was associated with reductions of their predators in sprayed non-Bt maize. No differences in abundance were found when both Bt and non-Bt crops were sprayed. Predator-to-prey ratios were unchanged by either Bt crops or the use of insecticides; ratios were higher in Bt maize relative to the sprayed non-Bt control. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Overall, we find no uniform effects of Bt cotton, maize and potato on the functional guilds of non-target arthropods. Use of and type of insecticides influenced the magnitude and direction of effects; insecticde effects were much larger than those of Bt crops. These meta-analyses underscore the importance of using controls not only to isolate the effects of a Bt crop per se but also to reflect the replacement of existing agricultural practices. Results will

  10. Non-Target Activity Detection by Post-Radioembolization Yttrium-90 PET/CT: Image Assessment Technique and Case Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Tan, Andrew E H; Lo, Richard H G; Tay, Kiang Hiong; Tan, Bien Soo; Chow, Pierce K H; Ng, David C E; Goh, Anthony S W

    2014-01-01

    High resolution yttrium-90 ((90)Y) imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution may be achieved by conventional positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT) scanners that have time-of-flight capability. However, reconstructed (90)Y PET/CT images have high background noise, making non-target activity detection technically challenging. This educational article describes our image assessment technique for non-target activity detection by (90)Y PET/CT, which qualitatively overcomes the problem of background noise. We present selected case examples of non-target activity in untargeted liver, stomach, gallbladder, chest wall, and kidney, supported by angiography and (90)Y bremsstrahlung single-photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography (SPECT/CT) or technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT.

  11. Inhibition of non-target languages in multilingual word production: evidence from Uighur-Chinese-English trilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Taomei; Liu, Fengqin; Chen, Bingle; Li, Shengcao

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis whether non-target languages are inhibited during multilingual language production by examining the n-2 language repetition cost. In two experiments, Uighur-Chinese-English trilinguals named Arabic digits in one of their three languages according to a visually presented cue. Significant n-2 repetition costs were obtained in both experiments, which indicate that inhibition exists during multilingual word production. In addition, in Experiment 1, it was also found that the n-2 repetition cost was reduced when cues were highly compatible with the task, which means non-target languages are less inhibited. In Experiment 2, the n-2 repetition cost was increased at a shorter CSI. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of non-target languages occurs during multilingual language production, and that efficiency of establishing the target language task schema has an effect on the inhibitory control process.

  12. Non-target activity detection by post-radioembolization yttrium-90 PET/CT: Image assessment technique and case examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung Hsiang eKao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available High-resolution yttrium-90 (90Y imaging of post-radioembolization microsphere biodistribution may be achieved by conventional positron emission tomography with integrated computed tomography (PET/CT scanners that have time-of-flight capability. However, reconstructed 90Y PET/CT images have high background noise, making non-target activity detection technically challenging. This educational article describes our image assessment technique for non-target activity detection by 90Y PET/CT which qualitatively overcomes the problem of background noise. We present selected case examples of non-target activity in untargeted liver, stomach, gallbladder, chest wall and kidney, supported by angiography and 90Y bremsstrahlung single photon emission computed tomography with integrated computed tomography (SPECT/CT or technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin SPECT/CT.

  13. Acute Toxicity of the Antifouling Compound Butenolide in Non-Target Organisms

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yi-Fan

    2011-08-29

    Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H)-one] is a recently discovered and very promising anti-marine-fouling compound. In this study, the acute toxicity of butenolide was assessed in several non-target organisms, including micro algae, crustaceans, and fish. Results were compared with previously reported results on the effective concentrations used on fouling (target) organisms. According to OECD\\'s guideline, the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) was 0.168 µg l^(−1), which was among one of the highest in representative new biocides. Mechanistically, the phenotype of butenolide-treated Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos was similar to the phenotype of the pro-caspase-3 over-expression mutant with pericardial edema, small eyes, small brains, and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the bodies of zebrafish embryos. Butenolide also induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, with the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK), Bcl-2 family proteins, and caspases and proteasomes/lysosomes involved in this process. This is the first detailed toxicity and toxicology study on this antifouling compound.

  14. Prioritizing plant defence over growth through WRKY regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Jin; Li, Jiancai; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Bian, Wenbo; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen

    2015-01-01

    Plants generally respond to herbivore attack by increasing resistance and decreasing growth. This prioritization is achieved through the regulation of phytohormonal signaling networks. However, it remains unknown how this prioritization affects resistance against non-target herbivores. In this study, we identify WRKY70 as a specific herbivore-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated rice transcription factor that physically interacts with W-box motifs and prioritizes defence over growth by positively regulating jasmonic acid (JA) and negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis upon attack by the chewing herbivore Chilo suppressalis. WRKY70-dependent JA biosynthesis is required for proteinase inhibitor activation and resistance against C. suppressalis. In contrast, WRKY70 induction increases plant susceptibility against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Experiments with GA-deficient rice lines identify WRKY70-dependent GA signaling as the causal factor in N. lugens susceptibility. Our study shows that prioritizing defence over growth leads to a significant resistance trade-off with important implications for the evolution and agricultural exploitation of plant immunity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04805.001 PMID:26083713

  15. Prioritizing plant defence over growth through WRKY regulation facilitates infestation by non-target herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ran; Zhang, Jin; Li, Jiancai; Zhou, Guoxin; Wang, Qi; Bian, Wenbo; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen

    2015-06-17

    Plants generally respond to herbivore attack by increasing resistance and decreasing growth. This prioritization is achieved through the regulation of phytohormonal signaling networks. However, it remains unknown how this prioritization affects resistance against non-target herbivores. In this study, we identify WRKY70 as a specific herbivore-induced, mitogen-activated protein kinase-regulated rice transcription factor that physically interacts with W-box motives and prioritizes defence over growth by positively regulating jasmonic acid (JA) and negatively regulating gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis upon attack by the chewing herbivore Chilo suppressalis. WRKY70-dependent JA biosynthesis is required for proteinase inhibitor activation and resistance against C. suppressalis. In contrast, WRKY70 induction increases plant susceptibility against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens. Experiments with GA-deficient rice lines identify WRKY70-dependent GA signaling as the causal factor in N. lugens susceptibility. Our study shows that prioritizing defence over growth leads to a significant resistance trade-off with important implications for the evolution and agricultural exploitation of plant immunity.

  16. Non-target effects of pretilachlor on microbial properties in tropical rice soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Subhashree; Adak, Totan; Bagchi, Torit B; Kumar, Upendra; Munda, Sushmita; Saha, Sanjoy; Berliner, J; Jena, Mayabini; Mishra, B B

    2016-04-01

    The use of herbicides has been questioned in recent past for their non-target effects. Therefore, we planned to study the effect of pretilachlor on growth and activities of microbes in tropical rice soil under controlled condition at National Rice Research Institute, Cuttack, India. Three pretilachlor treatments, namely, recommended dose at 600 g a.i. ha(-1) (RD), double the recommended dose at 1200 g a.i. ha(-1) (2RD), and ten times of the recommended dose at 6000 g a.i. ha(-1) (10RD) along with control, were imposed. The initial residue (after 2 h of spray) deposits in soil were 0.174, 0.968, and 3.35 μg g(-1) for recommended, double the recommended, and ten times of the recommended doses, respectively. No residue in soil was detected in RD treatment on day 45. The half life values were 16.90, 17.76, and 36.47 days for RD, 2RD, and 10RD treatments, respectively. Application of pretilachlor at 10RD, in general, had significantly reduced the number of bacteria, actinomycetes, fungi, nitrogen fixers, and microbial biomass carbon. Pretilachlor at RD did not record any significant changes in microbial properties compared to control. The results of the present study thus indicated that pretilachlor at RD can be safely used for controlling grassy weeds in rice fields.

  17. Biological control via "ecological" damping: An approach that attenuates non-target effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshad, Rana D; Quansah, Emmanuel; Black, Kelly; Beauregard, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    In this work we develop and analyze a mathematical model of biological control to prevent or attenuate the explosive increase of an invasive species population, that functions as a top predator, in a three-species food chain. We allow for finite time blow-up in the model as a mathematical construct to mimic the explosive increase in population, enabling the species to reach "disastrous", and uncontrollable population levels, in a finite time. We next improve the mathematical model and incorporate controls that are shown to drive down the invasive population growth and, in certain cases, eliminate blow-up. Hence, the population does not reach an uncontrollable level. The controls avoid chemical treatments and/or natural enemy introduction, thus eliminating various non-target effects associated with such classical methods. We refer to these new controls as "ecological damping", as their inclusion dampens the invasive species population growth. Further, we improve prior results on the regularity and Turing instability of the three-species model that were derived in Parshad et al. (2014). Lastly, we confirm the existence of spatiotemporal chaos.

  18. An Assessment of the Effect of Rotenone on Selected Non-Target Aquatic Fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalu, Tatenda; Wasserman, Ryan J; Jordaan, Martine; Froneman, William P; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2015-01-01

    Rotenone, a naturally occurring ketone, is widely employed for the management of invasive fish species. The use of rotenone poses serious challenges to conservation practitioners due to its impacts on non-target organisms including amphibians and macroinvertebrates. Using laboratory studies, we investigated the effects of different rotenone concentrations (0, 12.5, 25, 37.5, 50, 100 μg L-1) on selected invertebrate groups; Aeshnidae, Belostomatids, Decapods, Ephemeroptera, Pulmonata and zooplankton over a period of 18 hours. Based on field observations and body size, we hypothesized that Ephemeropterans and zooplankton would be more susceptible to rotenone than Decapods, Belostomatids and snails. Experimental results supported this hypothesis and mortality and behaviour effects varied considerably between taxa, ranging from no effect (crab Potamonuates sidneyi) to 100% mortality (Daphnia pulex and Paradiaptomus lamellatus). Planktonic invertebrates were particularly sensitive to rotenone even at very low concentrations. Future research should investigate the recovery time of invertebrate communities after the application of rotenone and conduct field assessments assessing the longer term effects of rotenone exposure on the population dynamics of those less sensitive organisms.

  19. Evolution of insecticide resistance in non-target black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mónica Montagna

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Black flies, a non-target species of the insecticides used in fruit production, represent a severe medical and veterinary problem. Large increases in the level of resistance to the pyrethroids fenvalerate (more than 355-fold and deltamethrin (162-fold and a small increase in resistance to the organophosphate azinphos methyl (2-fold were observed between 1996-2008 in black fly larvae under insecticide pressure. Eventually, no change or a slight variation in insecticide resistance was followed by a subsequent increase in resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance in a field population is a complex and stepwise process that is influenced by several factors, the most significant of which is the insecticide selection pressure, such as the dose and frequency of application. The variation in insecticide susceptibility within a black fly population in the productive area may be related to changes in fruit-pest control. The frequency of individuals with esterase activities higher than the maximum value determined in the susceptible population increased consistently over the sampling period. However, the insecticide resistance was not attributed to glutathione S-transferase activity. In conclusion, esterase activity in black flies from the productive area is one mechanism underlying the high levels of resistance to pyrethroids, which have been recently used infrequently. These enzymes may be reselected by currently used pesticides and enhance the resistance to these insecticides.

  20. Fungicides transport in runoff from vineyard plot and catchment: contribution of non-target areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; García Verdú, Antonio Joaquín; Maillard, Elodie; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-04-01

    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events are major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. These processes are generally evaluated either at the plot or the catchment scale. Here, we compared at both scales the transport and partitioning in runoff water of two widely used fungicides, i.e., kresoxim-methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY). The objective was to evaluate the relationship between fungicides runoff from the plot and from the vineyard catchment. The results show that seasonal exports for KM and CY at the catchment were larger than those obtained at the plot. This underlines that non-target areas within the catchment largely contribute to the overall load of runoff-associated fungicides. Estimations show that 85 and 62 % of the loads observed for KM and CY at the catchment outlet cannot be explained by the vineyard plots. However, the partitioning of KM and CY between three fractions, i.e., the suspended solids (>0.7 μm) and two dissolved fractions (i.e., between 0.22 and 0.7 µm and catchment and the plot scales enable to evaluate the sources areas of pesticide off-site transport.

  1. Pyrethroid-Induced Reproductive Toxico-Pathology in Non-Target Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Ahmad§, Ahrar Khan* and Muhammad Zargham Khan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides used against agricultural pests and ecto-parasite infestation in animals may also induce injurious effects in humans, pets and farm animals. The pyrethroid pesticides are rapidly replacing other insecticides due to relatively lower toxicity for mammals. However, they have now become an environmental issue due to excessive use in agriculture, livestock production, leather industry and shampoos etc. In addition to various clinical, hemato-biochemical, immunosuppressive and neuro-toxicological effects of pyrethroids, more danger has been suspected with respect to reproductive toxicity. The fetal resorption and early fetal mortality rate were found to be significantly increased in female animals allowed mating with males exposed to pyrethroids. The testicular and epididymal sperm counts and serum testosterone concentrations in pyrethroid treated animals were decreased. Moreover, abnormal spermatozoa, degenerated spermatozoa, arrested spermatogenesis and connective tissue proliferation in testes, and tailless spermatozoa in epididymis were reported with pyrethroid exposure. A decrease in pregnancy rate, number of implantation sites and total number of recovered fetuses have also been reported in female animals receiving pyrethroid treatment during gestation and allowed mating with untreated male rabbits. The progeny of pyrethroid exposed parents also showed toxic effects. Disruption of certain steroidogenic enzymes and nuclear receptors in has been reported in pyrethroid exposed animals. This review concludes that pyrethroid exposure is responsible for endocrine disruption and decreases fertility in both sexes of various non-target species and produces fetal mortality, which may be prevented by vitamin E supplementation due to its anti-oxidant potential.

  2. A Non-Targeted Approach Unravels the Volatile Network in Peach Fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gerardo; Besada, Cristina; Badenes, María Luisa; Monforte, Antonio José; Granell, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Volatile compounds represent an important part of the plant metabolome and are of particular agronomic and biological interest due to their contribution to fruit aroma and flavor and therefore to fruit quality. By using a non-targeted approach based on HS-SPME-GC-MS, the volatile-compound complement of peach fruit was described. A total of 110 volatile compounds (including alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, esters, lactones, carboxylic acids, phenolics and terpenoids) were identified and quantified in peach fruit samples from different genetic backgrounds, locations, maturity stages and physiological responses. By using a combination of hierarchical cluster analysis and metabolomic correlation network analysis we found that previously known peach fruit volatiles are clustered according to their chemical nature or known biosynthetic pathways. Moreover, novel volatiles that had not yet been described in peach were identified and assigned to co-regulated groups. In addition, our analyses showed that most of the co-regulated groups showed good intergroup correlations that are therefore consistent with the existence of a higher level of regulation orchestrating volatile production under different conditions and/or developmental stages. In addition, this volatile network of interactions provides the ground information for future biochemical studies as well as a useful route map for breeding or biotechnological purposes. PMID:22761719

  3. The drug target genes show higher evolutionary conservation than non-target genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wenhua; Xu, Yongdeng; Guo, Yiying; Yu, Ziqi; Feng, Guanglong; Liu, Panpan; Luan, Meiwei; Zhu, Hongjie; Liu, Guiyou; Zhang, Mingming; Lv, Hongchao; Duan, Lian; Shang, Zhenwei; Li, Jin; Jiang, Yongshuai; Zhang, Ruijie

    2016-01-26

    Although evidence indicates that drug target genes share some common evolutionary features, there have been few studies analyzing evolutionary features of drug targets from an overall level. Therefore, we conducted an analysis which aimed to investigate the evolutionary characteristics of drug target genes. We compared the evolutionary conservation between human drug target genes and non-target genes by combining both the evolutionary features and network topological properties in human protein-protein interaction network. The evolution rate, conservation score and the percentage of orthologous genes of 21 species were included in our study. Meanwhile, four topological features including the average shortest path length, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficient and degree were considered for comparison analysis. Then we got four results as following: compared with non-drug target genes, 1) drug target genes had lower evolutionary rates; 2) drug target genes had higher conservation scores; 3) drug target genes had higher percentages of orthologous genes and 4) drug target genes had a tighter network structure including higher degrees, betweenness centrality, clustering coefficients and lower average shortest path lengths. These results demonstrate that drug target genes are more evolutionarily conserved than non-drug target genes. We hope that our study will provide valuable information for other researchers who are interested in evolutionary conservation of drug targets.

  4. A non-target approach to identify disinfection byproducts of structurally similar sulfonamide antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mian; Helbling, Damian E

    2016-10-01

    There is growing concern over the formation of new types of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from pharmaceuticals and other emerging contaminants during drinking water production. Free chlorine is a widely used disinfectant that reacts non-selectively with organic molecules to form a variety of byproducts. In this research, we aimed to investigate the DBPs formed from three structurally similar sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole, sulfathiazole, and sulfadimethoxine) to determine how chemical structure influences the types of chlorination reactions observed. We conducted free chlorination experiments and developed a non-target approach to extract masses from the experimental dataset that represent the masses of candidate DBPs. Structures were assigned to the candidate DBPs based on analytical data and knowledge of chlorine chemistry. Confidence levels were assigned to each proposed structure according to conventions in the field. In total, 11, 12, and 15 DBP structures were proposed for sulfamethoxazole, sulfathiazole, and sulfadimethoxine, respectively. The structures of the products suggest a variety of reaction types including chlorine substitution, SC cleavage, SN hydrolysis, desulfonation, oxidation/hydroxylation, and conjugation reactions. Some reaction types were common to all of the sulfonamide antibiotics, but unique reaction types were also observed for each sulfonamide antibiotic suggesting that selective prediction of DBP structures of other sulfonamide antibiotics based on chemical structure is unlikely to be possible based on these data alone. This research offers an approach to comprehensively identify DBPs of organic molecules and fills in much needed data on the formation of specific DBPs from three environmentally relevant sulfonamide antibiotics.

  5. Acute toxicity of the antifouling compound butenolide in non-target organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Fan Zhang

    Full Text Available Butenolide [5-octylfuran-2(5H-one] is a recently discovered and very promising anti-marine-fouling compound. In this study, the acute toxicity of butenolide was assessed in several non-target organisms, including micro algae, crustaceans, and fish. Results were compared with previously reported results on the effective concentrations used on fouling (target organisms. According to OECD's guideline, the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC was 0.168 µg l(-1, which was among one of the highest in representative new biocides. Mechanistically, the phenotype of butenolide-treated Danio rerio (zebrafish embryos was similar to the phenotype of the pro-caspase-3 over-expression mutant with pericardial edema, small eyes, small brains, and increased numbers of apoptotic cells in the bodies of zebrafish embryos. Butenolide also induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, with the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK, Bcl-2 family proteins, and caspases and proteasomes/lysosomes involved in this process. This is the first detailed toxicity and toxicology study on this antifouling compound.

  6. Toxicity risk of non-target organs at risk receiving low-dose radiation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yu-Jen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The spine is the most common site for bone metastases. Radiation therapy is a common treatment for palliation of pain and for prevention or treatment of spinal cord compression. Helical tomotherapy (HT, a new image-guided intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT, delivers highly conformal dose distributions and provides an impressive ability to spare adjacent organs at risk, thus increasing the local control of spinal column metastases and decreasing the potential risk of critical organs under treatment. However, there are a lot of non-target organs at risk (OARs occupied by low dose with underestimate in this modern rotational IMRT treatment. Herein, we report a case of a pathologic compression fracture of the T9 vertebra in a 55-year-old patient with cholangiocarcinoma. The patient underwent HT at a dose of 30 Gy/10 fractions delivered to T8-T10 for symptom relief. Two weeks after the radiotherapy had been completed, the first course of chemotherapy comprising gemcitabine, fluorouracil, and leucovorin was administered. After two weeks of chemotherapy, however, the patient developed progressive dyspnea. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed an interstitial pattern with traction bronchiectasis, diffuse ground-glass opacities, and cystic change with fibrosis. Acute radiation pneumonitis was diagnosed. Oncologists should be alert to the potential risk of radiation toxicities caused by low dose off-targets and abscopal effects even with highly conformal radiotherapy.

  7. Non-target stimuli in the visual field influence movement preparation in upper-limb reaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Kristina A; Morris, Laura J

    2015-09-14

    The present work provides an empirical test of the Dynamic Field Theory of visuospatial cognition. The Dynamic Field Theory is a bi-stable neural network model applied to explain how visual information is integrated during the preparation of reaching responses (Erlhagen and Schöner). The dynamic field theory posits that motor cortices develop peaks of activation for each possible target in the visual field. Targets that are close in space produce neural peaks with overlapping distributions, whereas targets that are far apart produce distinct peaks with non-overlapping distributions. As such, the Dynamic Field Theory predicts reaction times to potential targets that are close in space will be faster than those to targets that are far apart. The present work examined how proximal and distal distractors impact reaction time in an upper-limb reaching task. The results demonstrated that distal distractors result in prolonged reaction times compared to proximal distractors. We suggest that reaction time represents the time required to inhibit neural activity representing the location of the distractor. Thus, prolonged reaction times observed for distal distractors reflect the temporal demands associated with the competition of two non-overlapping distributions of activity in the brain. These findings support the tenets of the Dynamic Field Theory and demonstrate that non-target stimuli in the visual field can influence movement preparation.

  8. The occurrence of second generation anticoagulant rodenticides in non-target raptor species in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Katherine H; Reid, Malcolm; Thomas, Kevin V

    2013-04-15

    Second generation anticoagulant rodenticides (SGARs) are commonly used for rodent pest control in Norway resulting in the potential exposure of non-target raptor species. In this study the occurrence of flocoumafen, difethialone, difenacoum, bromadiolone and brodifacoum was determined in the livers of five species of raptors found dead in Norway between 2009 and 2011. The SGARs brodifacoum, bromadiolone, difenacoum and flocoumafen were detected in golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) and eagle owl (Bubo bubo) livers at a total SGAR concentration of between 11 and 255 ng/g in approximately 70% of the golden eagles and 50% of the eagle owls examined in this study. In the absence of specific golden eagle and eagle owl toxicity thresholds for SGARs, a level of >100 ng/g was used as a potential lethal range, accepting that poisoning may occur below this level. Thirty percent (7/24) of the golden eagle and eagle owl livers contained total SGAR residue levels above this threshold. Further estimation of the potential mortality impact on the sampled raptor populations was not possible.

  9. Non-target effects of fungicides on nectar-inhabiting fungi of almond flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Robert N; Vannette, Rachel L; Brittain, Claire; Williams, Neal M; Fukami, Tadashi

    2017-04-01

    Nectar mediates interactions between plants and pollinators in natural and agricultural systems. Specialized microorganisms are common nectar inhabitants, and potentially important mediators of plant-pollinator interactions. However, their diversity and role in mediating pollination services in agricultural systems are poorly characterized. Moreover, agrochemicals are commonly applied to minimize crop damage, but may present ecological consequences for non-target organisms. Assessment of ecological risk has tended to focus on beneficial macroorganisms such as pollinators, with less attention paid to microorganisms. Here, using culture-independent methods, we assess the impact of two widely-used fungicides on nectar microbial community structure in the mass-flowering crop almond (Prunus dulcis). We predicted that fungicide application would reduce fungal richness and diversity, whereas competing bacterial richness would increase, benefitting from negative effects on fungi. We found that fungicides reduced fungal richness and diversity in exposed flowers, but did not significantly affect bacterial richness, diversity, or community composition. The relative abundance of Metschnikowia OTUs, nectar specialists that can impact pollination, was reduced by both fungicides. Given growing recognition of the importance of nectar microorganisms as mediators of plant-pollinator mutualisms, future research should consider the impact of management practices on plant-associated microorganisms and consequences for pollination services in agricultural landscapes. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Non-target screening with high-resolution mass spectrometry: critical review using a collaborative trial on water analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, Emma L; Singer, Heinz P; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Ipolyi, Ildiko M; Oswald, Peter; Krauss, Martin; Schulze, Tobias; Haglund, Peter; Letzel, Thomas; Grosse, Sylvia; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S; Bletsou, Anna; Zwiener, Christian; Ibáñez, María; Portolés, Tania; de Boer, Ronald; Reid, Malcolm J; Onghena, Matthias; Kunkel, Uwe; Schulz, Wolfgang; Guillon, Amélie; Noyon, Naïke; Leroy, Gaëla; Bados, Philippe; Bogialli, Sara; Stipaničev, Draženka; Rostkowski, Pawel; Hollender, Juliane

    2015-08-01

    In this article, a dataset from a collaborative non-target screening trial organised by the NORMAN Association is used to review the state-of-the-art and discuss future perspectives of non-target screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry in water analysis. A total of 18 institutes from 12 European countries analysed an extract of the same water sample collected from the River Danube with either one or both of liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detection. This article focuses mainly on the use of high resolution screening techniques with target, suspect, and non-target workflows to identify substances in environmental samples. Specific examples are given to emphasise major challenges including isobaric and co-eluting substances, dependence on target and suspect lists, formula assignment, the use of retention information, and the confidence of identification. Approaches and methods applicable to unit resolution data are also discussed. Although most substances were identified using high resolution data with target and suspect-screening approaches, some participants proposed tentative non-target identifications. This comprehensive dataset revealed that non-target analytical techniques are already substantially harmonised between the participants, but the data processing remains time-consuming. Although the objective of a "fully-automated identification workflow" remains elusive in the short term, important steps in this direction have been taken, exemplified by the growing popularity of suspect screening approaches. Major recommendations to improve non-target screening include better integration and connection of desired features into software packages, the exchange of target and suspect lists, and the contribution of more spectra from standard substances into (openly accessible) databases. Graphical Abstract Matrix of identification approach versus identification confidence.

  11. Non-target screening with high-resolution mass spectrometry : critical review using a collaborative trial on water analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Emma L. Schymanski; Singer, Heinz P.; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Onghena, Matthias; et al

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: In this article, a dataset from a collaborative non-target screening trial organised by the NORMAN Association is used to review the state-of-the-art and discuss future perspectives of non-target screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry in water analysis. A total of 18 institutes from 12 European countries analysed an extract of the same water sample collected from the River Danube with either one or both of liquid and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry detec...

  12. Targeted and non-targeted drug screening in whole blood by UHPLC-TOF-MS with data-independent acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Christian Brinch; Dalsgaard, Petur Weihe; Mardal, Marie

    2017-01-01

    ). Analytical data were acquired using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-TOF-MS) with data-independent acquisition (DIA). We present a combined targeted and non-targeted screening, where peak deconvolution and filtering reduced the number....... Running targeted-screening true-positive identifications through the filters retained 73% of identifications. In the non-targeted screening, nine of the spiked SBAs were identified in the concentration range of 0.005-0.1 mg/kg, of which three were tentatively identified at concentrations below those...

  13. Pathogenicity Tests on Nine Mosquito Species and Several Non-target Organisms with Strelkovimermis spiculatus (Nemata Mermithidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becnel, J J; Johnson, M A

    1998-12-01

    Nine species of mosquitoes and several species of non-target aquatic organisms were tested for susceptibility to the mernaithid nematode, Strelkovimermis spiculatus. All species of Anopheles, Aedes, Culex, and Toxorhynchites exposed to S. spiculatus were susceptible. Of the nine mosquito species tested, C. pipiens quinquefasciatus had the greatest tolerance to initial invasion and the highest percent infection of those that survived. High levels of infection were also achieved with Aedes taeniorhynchus and A. albopictus, but these mosquitoes were significantly less tolerant to parasitism than C. pipiens quinquefasciatus. Strelkovimermis spiculatus did not infect or develop in any of the non-target hosts tested.

  14. Non-targeted chromatographic analyses of cuticular wax flavonoids from Physalis alkekengi L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjc, Eva; Albreht, Alen; Vovk, Irena; Makuc, Damjan; Plavec, Janez

    2016-03-11

    Since Chinese lantern (Physalis alkekengi L.) represents a rich source of various bioactive secondary metabolites, there is an urge for its detailed characterization. Non-polar flavonoid aglycones represent one of the few bioactive species found in plant's cuticular waxes. The separation of flavonoids is already extensively covered in the literature, but methods dedicated to separation and identification of methylated flavonoids are rather scarce. In the present study a non-targeted approach for the separation, isolation and identification of methylated flavonoids present in P. alkekengi L. var. franchetii cuticular waxes was established. A rapid and simple separation on HPTLC silica gel was developed for preliminary screening of flavonoids. Fast HPLC-UV-MS(n) and HPLC-UV methods using a C6-Phenyl and a C18 stationary phase were also developed, respectively. In both cases, the right combination of temperature and tetrahydrofuran, as a mobile phase modifier, were shown to be crucial for a baseline separation of all studied compounds. By employing a semi-preparative analog of the C18 column, a simultaneous isolation of pure unknown analytes was achieved. Using these developed methods in combination with NMR, four 3-O-methylated flavonols were detected and identified in P. alkekengi L. var. franchetii cuticular waxes: myricetin 3,7,3'-trimethyl ether, quercetin 3,7-dimethyl ether, myricetin 3,7,3',5'-tetramethyl ether and quercetin 3,7,3'-trimethyl ether. Moreover, the simple and fast isocratic HPLC-UV-MS(n) method (under 8min) should prove useful in quality control of P. alkekengi L. var. franchetii by enabling chromatographic fingerprinting of external methylated flavonols. Finally, a rationale for the mechanism of separation of these metabolites by HPLC is also given, which establishes a foundation for future development of chromatographic methods for methylated flavonols and related compounds.

  15. The non-targeted effects of radiation are perpetuated by exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mayah, Ammar; Bright, Scott; Chapman, Kim; Irons, Sarah; Luo, Ping; Carter, David; Goodwin, Edwin; Kadhim, Munira

    2015-02-01

    Exosomes contain cargo material from endosomes, cytosol, plasma membrane and microRNA molecules, they are released by a number of non-cancer and cancer cells into both the extracellular microenvironment and body fluids such as blood plasma. Recently we demonstrated radiation-induced non-targeted effects [NTE: genomic instability (GI) and bystander effects (BE)] are partially mediated by exosomes, particularly the RNA content. However the mechanistic role of exosomes in NTE is yet to be fully understood. The present study used MCF7 cells to characterise the longevity of exosome-induced activity in the progeny of irradiated and unirradiated bystander cells. Exosomes extracted from conditioned media of irradiated and bystander progeny were added to unirradiated cells. Analysis was carried out at 1 and 20/24 population doublings following medium/exosome transfer for DNA/chromosomal damage. Results confirmed exosomes play a significant role in mediating NTE of ionising radiation (IR). This effect was remarkably persistent, observed >20 doublings post-irradiation in the progeny of bystander cells. Additionally, cell progeny undergoing a BE were themselves capable of inducing BE in other cells via exosomes they released. Furthermore we investigated the role of exosome cargo. Culture media from cells exposed to 2 Gy X-rays was subjected to ultracentrifugation and four inoculants prepared, (a) supernatants with exosomes removed, and pellets with (b) exosome proteins denatured, (c) RNA degraded, and (d) a combination of protein-RNA inactivation. These were added to separate populations of unirradiated cells. The BE was partially inhibited when either exosome protein or exosome RNA were inactivated separately, whilst combined RNA-protein inhibition significantly reduced or eliminated the BE. These results demonstrate that exosomes are associated with long-lived signalling of the NTE of IR. Both RNA and protein molecules of exosomes work in a synergistic manner to initiate NTE

  16. Effects of a genetically modified potato on a non-target aphid are outweighed by cultivar differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazebnik, Jenny; Arpaia, Salvatore; Baldacchino, Ferdinando; Banzato, Paolo; Moliterni, Stefania; Vossen, Jack H.; Zande, van de Els M.; Loon, van Joop J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Insect–plant interactions may be unintentionally affected when introducing genetically modified (GM) crops into an agro-ecosystem. Our aim was to test the non-target effects of a late blight-resistant GM potato on Myzus persicae in greenhouse and climate room experiments and understand how positi

  17. Integrated targeted and non-targeted analysis of water sample extracts with micro-scale UHPLC–MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Deyerling

    2015-01-01

    • The filtering of database hits for two criteria (exact mass and partition coefficient significantly reduced the list of suspects and at the same time rendered it possible to perform non-target analysis with lower mass accuracy (no lock-spray in the range of 20–500 ppm.

  18. Semi-automated non-target processing in GC × GC-MS metabolomics analysis: Applicability for biomedical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, M.M.; Kloet, F.M. van der; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Verheij, E.R.; Hankemeier, T.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the complexity of typical metabolomics samples and the many steps required to obtain quantitative data in GC × GC-MS consisting of deconvolution, peak picking, peak merging, and integration, the unbiased non-target quantification of GC × GC-MS data still poses a major challenge in metabolomic

  19. Target and Non-Target Processing during Oddball and Cyberball: A Comparative Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weschke, Sarah; Niedeggen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of social exclusion can be investigated by using a virtual ball-tossing game called Cyberball. In neuroimaging studies, structures have been identified which are activated during social exclusion. But to date the underlying mechanisms are not fully disclosed. In previous electrophysiological studies it was shown that the P3 complex is sensitive to exclusion manipulations in the Cyberball paradigm and that there is a correlation between P3 amplitude and self-reported social pain. Since this posterior event-related potential (ERP) was widely investigated using the oddball paradigm, we directly compared the ERP effects elicited by the target (Cyberball: "ball possession") and non-target (Cyberball: "ball possession of a co-player) events in both paradigms. Analyses mainly focused on the effect of altered stimulus probabilities of the target and non-target events between two consecutive blocks of the tasks. In the first block, the probability of the target and non-target event was 33% (Cyberball: inclusion), in the second block target probability was reduced to 17%, and accordingly, non-target probability was increased to 66% (Cyberball: exclusion). Our results indicate that ERP amplitude differences between inclusion and exclusion are comparable to ERP amplitude effects in a visual oddball task. We therefore suggest that ERP effects--especially in the P3 range--in the Oddball and Cyberball paradigm rely on similar mechanisms, namely the probability of target and non-target events. Since the simulation of social exclusion (Cyberball) did not trigger a unique ERP response, the idea of an exclusion-specific neural alarm system is not supported. The limitations of an ERP-based approach will be discussed.

  20. Bartonella spp. in Bats, Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    BAI, YING; Kosoy, Michael; Recuenco, Sergio; Alvarez, Danilo; Moran, David; Turmelle, Amy; Ellison, James; Garcia, Daniel L.; Estevez, Alejandra; Lindblade, Kim; Rupprecht, Charles

    2011-01-01

    To better understand the role of bats as reservoirs of Bartonella spp., we estimated Bartonella spp. prevalence and genetic diversity in bats in Guatemala during 2009. We found prevalence of 33% and identified 21 genetic variants of 13 phylogroups. Vampire bat–associated Bartonella spp. may cause undiagnosed illnesses in humans.

  1. The non-targeted effects of radiation are perpetuated by exosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mayah, Ammar; Bright, Scott; Chapman, Kim [Genomic Instability Group, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Irons, Sarah [Insect Virus Research Group, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Luo, Ping [Izon Science Ltd., The Oxford Science Park, Magdalen Centre, Robert Robinson Avenue, Oxford OX4 4GA (United Kingdom); Carter, David [Chromatin and non-coding RNA, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Goodwin, Edwin [The New Mexico Consortium, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Kadhim, Munira, E-mail: mkadhim@brookes.ac.uk [Genomic Instability Group, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane Campus, Headington, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Radiation induces a DNA damaging process in bystander cells through cell–cell signalling. • Exosome RNA and protein molecules play crucial roles in bystander effects. • Cell progeny inherit the ability to secret bystander effect-inducing exosomes. • This mechanism is most likely accountable for the propagation of GI. - Abstract: Exosomes contain cargo material from endosomes, cytosol, plasma membrane and microRNA molecules, they are released by a number of non-cancer and cancer cells into both the extracellular microenvironment and body fluids such as blood plasma. Recently we demonstrated radiation-induced non-targeted effects [NTE: genomic instability (GI) and bystander effects (BE)] are partially mediated by exosomes, particularly the RNA content. However the mechanistic role of exosomes in NTE is yet to be fully understood. The present study used MCF7 cells to characterise the longevity of exosome-induced activity in the progeny of irradiated and unirradiated bystander cells. Exosomes extracted from conditioned media of irradiated and bystander progeny were added to unirradiated cells. Analysis was carried out at 1 and 20/24 population doublings following medium/exosome transfer for DNA/chromosomal damage. Results confirmed exosomes play a significant role in mediating NTE of ionising radiation (IR). This effect was remarkably persistent, observed >20 doublings post-irradiation in the progeny of bystander cells. Additionally, cell progeny undergoing a BE were themselves capable of inducing BE in other cells via exosomes they released. Furthermore we investigated the role of exosome cargo. Culture media from cells exposed to 2 Gy X-rays was subjected to ultracentrifugation and four inoculants prepared, (a) supernatants with exosomes removed, and pellets with (b) exosome proteins denatured, (c) RNA degraded, and (d) a combination of protein–RNA inactivation. These were added to separate populations of unirradiated cells. The BE was

  2. Non-targeted plasma metabolome of early and late lactation gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea A Rempel

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between 1 post-farrowing and weaning (early or late lactation, 2 degree of body condition loss after lactation (extreme or minimal, and 3 interactions; to potentially identify compounds or pathways that could aide in alleviating energetic demands of lactation in gilts. Twenty first-parity gilts were selected with similar (P ≥ 0.4475 number of piglets born and nursed, and similar (P ≥ 0.3141 body condition traits (e.g. body weight and backfat thickness post-farrowing, yet exhibited minimal or extreme loss (P ≤ 0.0094 in body weight (8.6 ± 1.48 kg and 26.1 ± 1.90 kg, respectively and backfat thickness (1.3 ± 0.67 mm and 4.7 ± 0.86 mm, respectively following lactation (weaning. Plasma samples from first-parity gilts at post-farrowing and weaning were investigated using UPLC-MS and GC-MS to generate a comprehensive metabolic profile. Each approach yielded approximately 700 detected compounds. An ANOVA was performed on each detected compound in R for time of collection, body condition change, and the interaction, followed by a false discovery correction. Two unknown compounds were different (P ≤ 0.05 for extreme versus minimal body condition change. Several compound differences (P ≤ 0.05 were identified between post-farrowing and weaning. Thirty-two compounds detected by UPLC-MS had at least a log2 fold-change of ±1.0 while only 18 compounds had a log2 fold-change of ±0.6 for the significant GC-MS compounds. Annotation implicated various metabolic pathways. Creatinine was greater at weaning (P = 0.0224 and others have reported increased serum concentrations of creatinine in response to body weight loss. Hippurate and caprolactam, associated with protein catabolism, were also greater (P ≤ 0

  3. Pathogenicity of Fusarium semitectum against crop pests and its biosafety to non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

    2006-01-01

    Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no

  4. Non-target trials with Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A, a lethal control agent of dreissenid mussels (Bivalvia: Dreissenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P. Molloy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In an effort to develop an efficacious and environmentally safe method for managing zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha and quaggamussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis, we initiated a research project investigating the potential use of bacteria and their naturalmetabolic products as biocontrol agents. This project resulted in the discovery of an environmental isolate lethal to dreissenid mussels,Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A (Pf-CL145A. In previous published reports we have demonstrated that: 1 Pf-CL145A’s mode ofaction is intoxication (not infection; 2 natural product within ingested bacterial cells lyse digestive tract epithelial cells leading to dreisseniddeath; and 3 high dreissenid kill rates (>90% are achievable following treatment with Pf-CL145A cells, irrespective of whether thebacterial cells are dead or alive. Investigating the environmental safety of Pf-CL145A was also a key element in our research efforts, andherein, we report the results of non-target trials demonstrating Pf-CL145A’s high specificity to dreissenids. These acute toxicity trials weretypically single-dose, short-term (24-72 h exposures to Pf-CL145A cells under aerated conditions at concentrations highly lethal todreissenids (100 or 200 mg/L. These trials produced no evidence of mortality among the ciliate Colpidium colpoda, the cladoceran Daphniamagna, three fish species (Pimephales promelas, Salmo trutta, and Lepomis macrochirus, and seven bivalve species (Mytilus edulis,Pyganodon grandis, Pyganodon cataracta, Lasmigona compressa, Strophitus undulatus, Lampsilis radiata, and Elliptio complanata. Lowmortality (3-27% was recorded in the amphipod Hyalella azteca, but additional trials suggested that most, if not all, of the mortality couldbe attributed to some other unidentified factor (e.g., possibly particle load or a water quality issue rather than Pf-CL145A’s dreissenidkillingnatural product. In terms of potential environmental safety, the results of

  5. Exogenous Nitric Oxide Suppresses in Vivo X-ray-Induced Targeted and Non-Targeted Effects in Zebrafish Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Y. Kong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studied the X-ray-induced targeted effect in irradiated zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio, as well as a non-targeted effect in bystander naïve embryos partnered with irradiated embryos, and examined the influence of exogenous nitric oxide (NO on these targeted and non-targeted effects. The exogenous NO was generated using an NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP. The targeted and non-targeted effects, as well as the toxicity of the SNAP, were assessed using the number of apoptotic events in the zebrafish embryos at 24 h post fertilization (hpf revealed through acridine orange (AO staining. SNAP with concentrations of 20 and 100 µM were first confirmed to have no significant toxicity on zebrafish embryos. The targeted effect was mitigated in zebrafish embryos if they were pretreated with 100 µM SNAP prior to irradiation with an X-ray dose of 75 mGy but was not alleviated in zebrafish embryos if they were pretreated with 20 µM SNAP. On the other hand, the non-targeted effect was eliminated in the bystander naïve zebrafish embryos if they were pretreated with 20 or 100 µM SNAP prior to partnering with zebrafish embryos having been subjected to irradiation with an X-ray dose of 75 mGy. These findings revealed the importance of NO in the protection against damages induced by ionizing radiations or by radiation-induced bystander signals, and could have important impacts on development of advanced cancer treatment strategies.

  6. Assessing the comparative risk of plant protection products to honey bees, non-target arthropods and non-Apis bees

    OpenAIRE

    Miles, Mark J.; Alix, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the European Union the placing of pesticides on the market requires as a prerequisite that a risk assessment demonstrates low risks to human health and the environment, among which includes pollinators. Currently risks are evaluated for honey bees and for non-target arthropods (NTA) of cultivated ecosystems. The actual protection of pollinators other than the honey bees, as for example for non-Apis bees, in relation to these risk assessments has recently been questioned and req...

  7. Adhesins of Bartonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Fiona; Schmidgen, Thomas; Kaiser, Patrick O; Linke, Dirk; Kempf, Volkhard A J

    2011-01-01

    Adhesion to host cells represents the first step in the infection process and one of the decisive features in the pathogenicity of Bartonella spp. B. henselae and B. quintana are considered to be the most important human pathogenic species, responsible for cat scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, trench fever and other diseases. The ability to cause vasculoproliferative disorders and intraerythrocytic bacteraemia are unique features of the genus Bartonella. Consequently, the interaction with endothelial cells and erythrocytes is a focus in Bartonella research. The genus harbours a variety of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) such as the Bartonella adhesin A (BadA) of B. henselae and the variably expressed outer-membrane proteins (Vomps) of B. quintana, which display remarkable variations in length and modular construction. These adhesins mediate many of the biologically-important properties of Bartonella spp. such as adherence to endothelial cells and extracellular matrix proteins and induction of angiogenic gene programming. There is also significant evidence that the laterally acquired Trw-conjugation systems of Bartonella spp. mediate host-specific adherence to erythrocytes. Other potential adhesins are the filamentous haemagglutinins and several outer membrane proteins. The exact molecular functions of these adhesins and their interplay with other pathogenicity factors (e.g., the VirB/D4 type 4 secretion system) need to be analysed in detail to understand how these pathogens adapt to their mammalian hosts.

  8. Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) For Control of Mosquitoes and Its Impact on Non-Target Organisms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenzano, Jodi M.; Koehler, Philip G.; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-01-01

    Mosquito abatement programs contend with mosquito-borne diseases, insecticidal resistance, and environmental impacts to non-target organisms. However, chemical resources are limited to a few chemical classes with similar modes of action, which has led to insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. To develop a new tool for mosquito abatement programs that control mosquitoes while combating the issues of insecticidal resistance, and has low impacts of non-target organisms, novel methods of mosquito control, such as attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), are being developed. Whereas insect baiting to dissuade a behavior, or induce mortality, is not a novel concept, as it was first introduced in writings from 77 AD, mosquito baiting through toxic sugar baits (TSBs) had been quickly developing over the last 60 years. This review addresses the current body of research of ATSB by providing an overview of active ingredients (toxins) include in TSBs, attractants combined in ATSB, lethal effects on mosquito adults and larvae, impact on non-target insects, and prospects for the use of ATSB. PMID:28394284

  9. Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) For Control of Mosquitoes and Its Impact on Non-Target Organisms: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorenzano, Jodi M; Koehler, Philip G; Xue, Rui-De

    2017-04-10

    Mosquito abatement programs contend with mosquito-borne diseases, insecticidal resistance, and environmental impacts to non-target organisms. However, chemical resources are limited to a few chemical classes with similar modes of action, which has led to insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. To develop a new tool for mosquito abatement programs that control mosquitoes while combating the issues of insecticidal resistance, and has low impacts of non-target organisms, novel methods of mosquito control, such as attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), are being developed. Whereas insect baiting to dissuade a behavior, or induce mortality, is not a novel concept, as it was first introduced in writings from 77 AD, mosquito baiting through toxic sugar baits (TSBs) had been quickly developing over the last 60 years. This review addresses the current body of research of ATSB by providing an overview of active ingredients (toxins) include in TSBs, attractants combined in ATSB, lethal effects on mosquito adults and larvae, impact on non-target insects, and prospects for the use of ATSB.

  10. Augmentative biocontrol in natural marine habitats: persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Atalah

    Full Text Available Augmentative biocontrol aims to control established pest populations through enhancement of their indigenous enemies. To our knowledge, this approach has not been applied at an operational scale in natural marine habitats, in part because of the perceived risk of adverse non-target effects on native ecosystems. In this paper, we focus on the persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus when used as biocontrol agent to eradicate an invasive kelp from Fiordland, New Zealand. Rocky reef macrobenthic assemblages were monitored over 17 months in areas where the indigenous algal canopy was either removed or left intact prior to the translocation of a large number of urchins (>50 ind.·m(-2. Urchin densities in treated areas significantly declined ∼9 months after transplant, and began spreading to adjacent sites. At the end of the 17-month study, densities had declined to ∼5 ind.·m(-2. Compared to controls, treatment sites showed persistent shifts from kelp forest to urchin barrens, which were accompanied by significant reductions in taxa richness. Although these non-target effects were pronounced, they were considered to be localised and reversible, and arguably outweigh the irreversible and more profound ecological impacts associated with the establishment of an invasive species in a region of high conservation value. Augmentative biocontrol, used in conjunction with traditional control methods, represents a promising tool for the integrated management of marine pests.

  11. Scientific Opinion addressing the state of the science on risk assessment of plant protection products for non-target arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA PPR Panel (EFSA Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues); Topping, Christopher John

    2015-01-01

    Following a request from the European Food Safety Authority, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. The current risk assessment sch...... of the currently used vegetation distribution factor was investigated. It is proposed that new tests be included in order to address exposure via oral uptake of residues and uncertainties related to differences in species sensitivity.......Following a request from the European Food Safety Authority, the Panel on Plant Protection Products and their Residues developed an opinion on the science to support the development of a risk assessment scheme of plant protection products for non-target arthropods. The current risk assessment...... dynamics, conducting a landscape-level risk assessment is suggested. A new risk assessment scheme is suggested which integrates modelling approaches. The main exposure routes for non-target arthropods are identified and proposals are made on how to integrate them in the risk assessment. The appropriateness...

  12. Beyond Focal Pests: Impact of a Neonicotinoid Seed Treatment and Resistant Soybean Lines on a Non-Target Arthropod

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özsisli, Tülin; Prischmann-Voldseth, Deirdre A.

    2016-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) tactics may effectively control focal pests, but it is also important to test the compatibility of different tactics, and consider non-target organisms. We investigated the effects of a neonicotinoid seed treatment and Rag resistance genes used for soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) control on reproduction of a non-target herbivore (twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch) in short-term greenhouse experiments. We also examined interactions between spider mites and a specialist phytoseiid mite [Ambylseius fallacis (Garman)] and assessed the effects of a co-occurring opportunistic omnivore [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] by including thrips density as a covariate. There were no interactive or main effects of the presence of Rag genes on the densities of any of the arthropods. Overall, effects of the seed treatment on spider mite densities varied, with no difference when mites were confined in clip cages, and higher populations on seed-treated plants when on whole plants. Predatory mites had a consistent negative impact on spider mites, and densities of A. fallacis immatures were similar between seed treated and non-seed treated plants. However, the relationship between spider mite and thrips densities was different between these two plant types, but only in the clip cage experiment lacking predatory mites. This research highlights the importance of considering how IPM tactics might affect non-target organisms. PMID:27845714

  13. Ostrinia nubilalis parasitism and the field abundance of non-target insects in transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguet, Denis; Chaufaux, Josette; Micoud, Annie; Delos, Marc; Naibo, Bernard; Bombarde, Fany; Marque, Gilles; Eychenne, Nathalie; Pagliari, Carine

    2002-10-01

    In this study, we evaluated in field trials the effects on non-target species, of transgenic corn producing the Cry1Ab toxin of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). In 1998, we collected Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner) larvae from transgenic Bt corn (Novartis Hybrid 176) and non-Bt corn at four geographical sites. We found a significant variation in parasitism by the tachinids Lydella thompsoni (Herting) and Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata (Walker) among sites, and more parasitism in non-Bt than in Bt fields. The Bt effect did not vary significantly among fields. In 1999, we performed a field experiment at two sites, comparing the temporal abundance of non-target arthropods in Bt corn (Monsanto Hybrid MON810) and non-Bt corn. The non-target insects studied included the aphids Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) and Sitobion avenae (F.), the bug Orius insidiosus (Say), the syrphid Syrphus corollae (Meigen), the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata (L.), the lacewing Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens), thrips and hymenopteran parasitoids. For all species but one, the number of individuals varied greatly over the season but did not differ between the types of corn. The only exception was thrips which, at one site, was significantly more abundant in Bt corn than in non-Bt corn. However this difference did not remain significant when we took the multiple tests into account. Implications for pest resistance management, population dynamics and risk assessment are discussed.

  14. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanyan; Feng, Yanjie; Ge, Yang; Tetreau, Guillaume; Chen, Xiaowen; Dong, Xuehui; Shi, Wangpeng

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs) is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  15. Tier-1 assays for assessing the toxicity of insecticidal proteins produced by genetically engineered plants to non-target arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-He; Romeis, Jörg; Wu, Kong-Ming; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2014-04-01

    In assessing an insect-resistant genetically engineered (IRGE) crop before its commercialization, researchers normally use so-called "Tier-1 assays" as the initial step to determine the effects of the crop on non-target organisms. In these tests, the insecticidal proteins (IPs) produced by the IRGEs are added to the diets of test organisms in the laboratory. Test organisms in such assays can be directly exposed to much higher concentrations of the test IPs than they would encounter in the field. The results of Tier-1 assays are thus more conservative than those generated in studies in which the organisms are exposed to the IPs by feeding on IRGE plant tissue or in the case of predators or parasites, by feeding on invertebrate prey or hosts that have fed on IRGE plant tissue. In this report, we consider three important factors that must be considered in Tier-1 assays: (i) methods for delivery of the IP to the test organisms; (ii) the need for and selection of compounds used as positive controls; and (iii) methods for monitoring the concentration, stability and bioactivity of the IP during the assay. We also analyze the existing data from Tier-1 assays regarding the toxicity of Bt Cry proteins to non-target arthropod species. The data indicate that the widely used Bt proteins have no direct toxicity to non-target organisms.

  16. Comparison of the toxicity of two chelated copper algaecides and copper sulfate to non-target fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closson, K R; Paul, E A

    2014-12-01

    New pesticide products are reviewed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for possible effects to non-target aquatic organisms. The required toxicity data are for the active ingredient only, and fail to include toxicity of the mixture of other ingredients found in these pesticides. These ingredients may increase the toxicity of the active ingredient to non-target organisms. Our study compares the toxicity of two formulations of chelated copper algaecides with each other, and to a copper sulfate algaecide. We were particularly interested in the effects of a surfactant that is present in one of the formulations. We found that copper becomes less toxic to fish (e.g. fathead minnow 48-h LC50 = 0.90 mg/L) when it is chelated, providing an additional margin of safety to non-target fish compared to copper sulfate. However, inclusion of a surfactant to the formulation resulted in increased toxicity (e.g. fathead minnow 48-h LC50 = 0.30 mg/L).

  17. Augmentative biocontrol in natural marine habitats: persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalah, Javier; Hopkins, Grant A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2013-01-01

    Augmentative biocontrol aims to control established pest populations through enhancement of their indigenous enemies. To our knowledge, this approach has not been applied at an operational scale in natural marine habitats, in part because of the perceived risk of adverse non-target effects on native ecosystems. In this paper, we focus on the persistence, spread and non-target effects of the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus when used as biocontrol agent to eradicate an invasive kelp from Fiordland, New Zealand. Rocky reef macrobenthic assemblages were monitored over 17 months in areas where the indigenous algal canopy was either removed or left intact prior to the translocation of a large number of urchins (>50 ind.·m(-2)). Urchin densities in treated areas significantly declined ∼9 months after transplant, and began spreading to adjacent sites. At the end of the 17-month study, densities had declined to ∼5 ind.·m(-2). Compared to controls, treatment sites showed persistent shifts from kelp forest to urchin barrens, which were accompanied by significant reductions in taxa richness. Although these non-target effects were pronounced, they were considered to be localised and reversible, and arguably outweigh the irreversible and more profound ecological impacts associated with the establishment of an invasive species in a region of high conservation value. Augmentative biocontrol, used in conjunction with traditional control methods, represents a promising tool for the integrated management of marine pests.

  18. Bt-maize event MON 88017 expressing Cry3Bb1 does not cause harm to non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; De Schrijver, Adinda; De Clercq, Patrick; Kiss, József; Romeis, Jörg

    2012-12-01

    This review paper explores whether the cultivation of the genetically modified Bt-maize transformation event MON 88017, expressing the insecticidal Cry3Bb1 protein against corn rootworms (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), causes adverse effects to non-target organisms (NTOs) and the ecological and anthropocentric functions they provide. Available data do not reveal adverse effects of Cry3Bb1 on various NTOs that are representative of potentially exposed taxonomic and functional groups, confirming that the insecticidal activity of the Cry3Bb1 protein is limited to species belonging to the coleopteran family of Chrysomelidae. The potential risk to non-target chrysomelid larvae ingesting maize MON 88017 pollen deposited on host plants is minimal, as their abundance in maize fields and the likelihood of encountering harmful amounts of pollen in and around maize MON 88017 fields are low. Non-target adult chrysomelids, which may occasionally feed on maize MON 88017 plants, are not expected to be affected due to the low activity of the Cry3Bb1 protein on adults. Impacts on NTOs caused by potential unintended changes in maize MON 88017 are not expected to occur, as no differences in composition, phenotypic characteristics and plant-NTO interactions were observed between maize MON 88017 and its near-isogenic line.

  19. Simultaneous quantification of tumor uptake for targeted and non-targeted liposomes and their encapsulated contents by ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhiliang; Zaki, Ajlan Al; Hui, James Z; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes are intensively being developed for biomedical applications including drug and gene delivery. However, targeted liposomal delivery in cancer treatment is a very complicated multi-step process. Unfavorable liposome biodistribution upon intravenous administration and membrane destabilization in blood circulation could result in only a very small fraction of cargo reaching the tumors. It would therefore be desirable to develop new quantitative strategies to track liposomal delivery systems to improve the therapeutic index and decrease systemic toxicity. Here, we developed a simple and non-radiative method to quantify the tumor uptake of targeted and non-targeted control liposomes as well as their encapsulated contents simultaneously. Specifically, four different chelated lanthanide metals were encapsulated or surface-conjugated onto tumor-targeted and non-targeted liposomes, respectively. The two liposome formulations were then injected into tumor-bearing mice simultaneously and their tumor delivery was determined quantitatively via inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), allowing for direct comparisons. Tumor uptake of the liposomes themselves and their encapsulated contents were consistent with targeted and non-targeted liposome formulations that were injected individually. PMID:22882145

  20. Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB For Control of Mosquitoes and Its Impact on Non-Target Organisms: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodi M. Fiorenzano

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Mosquito abatement programs contend with mosquito-borne diseases, insecticidal resistance, and environmental impacts to non-target organisms. However, chemical resources are limited to a few chemical classes with similar modes of action, which has led to insecticide resistance in mosquito populations. To develop a new tool for mosquito abatement programs that control mosquitoes while combating the issues of insecticidal resistance, and has low impacts of non-target organisms, novel methods of mosquito control, such as attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs, are being developed. Whereas insect baiting to dissuade a behavior, or induce mortality, is not a novel concept, as it was first introduced in writings from 77 AD, mosquito baiting through toxic sugar baits (TSBs had been quickly developing over the last 60 years. This review addresses the current body of research of ATSB by providing an overview of active ingredients (toxins include in TSBs, attractants combined in ATSB, lethal effects on mosquito adults and larvae, impact on non-target insects, and prospects for the use of ATSB.

  1. Using Simultaneous Prompting to Teach Restaurant Words and Classifications as Non-Target Information to Secondary Students with Moderate to Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bethany R.; Schuster, John W.; Collins, Belva; Kleinert, Harold

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews selected literature pertaining to simultaneous prompting and the acquisition of non-target information for individuals with moderate to severe disabilities. The purpose of this review was to discuss the definition of non-target information (NTI) and the various places it can be embedded within an instructional trial. The…

  2. Predicting spillover risk to non-target plants pre-release: Bikasha collaris a potential biological control agent of Chinese tallowtree (Triadica sebifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarantine host range tests accurately predict direct risk of biological control agents to non-target species. However, a well-known indirect effect of biological control of weeds releases is spillover damage to non-target species. Spillover damage may occur when the population of agents achieves ou...

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT FUSARIUM SPP. IN ALLIUM SPP. IN GERMANY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnke, B; Karlovsky, P; Pfohl, K; Gamliel, A; Isack, Y; Dehne, H W

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Allium cepa bulbs from different fields in Northern and Southern Germany, seeds and sets from onion breeders were analysed for infestation with Fusarium species. The same investigation was done in 2014 with different edible Allium spp. from local markets. Different Fusarium spp. were isolated and identified by morphological characterisation. 24 different Fusarium spp. were identified. The diversity of Fusarium spp. and the intensity of infestation was higher on edible bulbs compared to the younger sets and seeds. The analysed onions and other edible Allium spp. from local markets showed also high contents of different Fusarium species. The most prevalent identified Fusarium sp. in the analysed Allium spp. in Germany was Fusarium oxysporum which can cause the Fusarium Basal Rot, followed by Fusarium solani. Fusarium proliferatum, which can cause the Fusarium Salmon Blotch in onions, could be detected in about half of the sampled onion fields and in approximately 10% of all analysed onions from fields. Also in the onion sets, on the surface of the seeds and in other edible Allium spp. F. proliferatum could be identified. Besides F. proliferatum, further mycotoxin producing Fusarium spp. like Fusarium equiseti or Fusarium tricinctum were identified. Other Fusarium spp. like Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium poae were first described in Allium sp. in this study. The two most prevalent Fusarium spp. F. oxysporum and F. solani are able to produce mycotoxins like enniatins, fumonisins, moniliformin and T-2 toxins. Fusarium sp. like F. proliferatum, F. equiseti and F. tricinctum are able to produce additional toxins like beauvericins, zearalenone and diacetoscirpenol. This high number of Fusarium spp., which are able to produce a broad spectrum of different mycotoxins, could be a potential health risk for human beings and livestock.

  4. [Activity of doripenem against Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. rods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogiel, Tomasz; Deptuła, Aleksander; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    Doripenem, the newest carbapenem was approved in 2008 by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections and complicated urinary tract infections. Its spectrum of activity is similar to that of meropenem and imipenem/cilastatin. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro activity of doripenem against nonfermentative Gram-negative rods. A total of 235 strains of Pseudomonas spp. (74.9%) and Acinetobacter spp. (25.1%) were included into the study. Strains were isolated in The Department of Clinical Microbiology of the University Hospital No 1 in Bydgoszcz and identified using ID GN tests (bioMérieux). To determine susceptibility to doripenem and other carbapenems disc-diffusion method was applied. Percentage of doripenem resistant strains reached 28.4% and 39.0% for Pseudomonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp, respectively. All doripenem sensitive or intermediate Acinetobacter spp. strains were simultaneously sensitive to imipenem and meropenem. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. were represented by 60.9% and 56.5% strains, respectively. Activity of imipenem and meropenem among doripenem resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains were represented by 12.0% and 18.0%, respectively. Occurence of one doripenem sensitive Pseudomonas spp. strain simultaneously resistant to imipenem and meropenem was observed.

  5. The cultivation of Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect non-target arthropods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyan Guo

    Full Text Available Transgenic corn producing Cry1Ac toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt provides effective control of Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée, and thus reduces insecticide applications. However, whether Bt corn exerts undesirable effects on non-target arthropods (NTAs is still controversial. We conducted a 2-yr study in Shangzhuang Agricultural Experiment Station to assess the potential impact of Bt corn on field population density, biodiversity, community composition and structure of NTAs. On each sampling date, the total abundance, Shannon's diversity index, Pielou's evenness index and Simpson's diversity index were not significantly affected by Bt corn as compared to non-Bt corn. The "sampling dates" had a significant effect on these indices, but no clear tendencies related to "Bt corn" or "sampling dates X corn variety" interaction were recorded. Principal response curve analysis of variance indicated that Bt corn did not alter the distribution of NTAs communities. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity and distance analysis showed that Cry1Ac toxin exposure did not increase community dissimilarities between Bt and non-Bt corn plots and that the evolution of non-target arthropod community was similar on the two corn varieties. The cultivation of Bt corn failed to show any detrimental evidence on the density of non-target herbivores, predators and parasitoids. The composition of herbivores, predators and parasitoids was identical in Bt and non-Bt corn plots. Taken together, results from the present work support that Bt corn producing Cry1Ac toxins does not adversely affect NTAs.

  6. A new approach to data evaluation in the non-target screening of organic trace substances in water analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexander; Schulz, Wolfgang; Ruck, Wolfgang K L; Weber, Walter H

    2011-11-01

    Non-target screening via high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) has gained increasingly in importance for monitoring organic trace substances in water resources targeted for the production of drinking water. In this article a new approach for evaluating the data from non-target HPLC-MS screening in water is introduced and its advantages are demonstrated using the supply of drinking water as an example. The crucial difference between this and other approaches is the comparison of samples based on compounds (features) determined by their full scan data. In so doing, we take advantage of the temporal, spatial, or process-based relationships among the samples by applying the set operators, UNION, INTERSECT, and COMPLEMENT to the features of each sample. This approach regards all compounds, detectable by the used analytical method. That is the fundamental meaning of non-target screening, which includes all analytical information from the applied technique for further data evaluation. In the given example, in just one step, all detected features (1729) of a landfill leachate sample could be examined for their relevant influences on water purification respectively drinking water. This study shows that 1721 out of 1729 features were not relevant for the water purification. Only eight features could be determined in the untreated water and three of them were found in the final drinking water after ozonation. In so doing, it was possible to identify 1-adamantylamine as contamination of the landfill in the drinking water at a concentration in the range of 20 ng L(-1). To support the identification of relevant compounds and their transformation products, the DAIOS database (Database-Assisted Identification of Organic Substances) was used. This database concept includes some functions such as product ion search to increase the efficiency of the database query after the screening. To identify related transformation products the database function

  7. The intensity of non-target site mechanisms influences the level of resistance of sourgrass to glyphosate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Regina da Costa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-target site mechanisms are involved in the resistance of sourgrass (Digitaria insularis to glyphosate. Studies on the 14C-glyphosate absorption and translocation as well as the detection of glyphosate and its metabolites in sourgrass plants were carried out under controlled conditions to investigate if the differential response of resistant sourgrass biotypes (R1 and R2 is derived from the intensity of non-target site mechanisms involved in the resistance to glyphosate. Different pattern of absorption was observed between S (susceptible and R2 from 12 up to 48 hours after treatment with glyphosate (HAT, and between S and R1 just at 12 HAT. The initial difference in glyphosate absorption among the biotypes did not maintained at 96 HAT and afterwards. Smaller amount of herbicide left the treated leaf into the rest of shoot and roots in R2 (25% than in S (58% and R1 (52%. In addition, slight difference in glyphosate translocation was observed between S and R1. We found high percentage (81% of glyphosate in the S biotype up to 168 HAT, while just 44% and 2% of glyphosate was recovered from R1 and R2 plant tissues. In addition, high percentage of glyphosate metabolites was found in R2 (98% and R1 (56% biotypes, while a very low percentage (11% was found in the S biotype. As previous studies indicated resistant factors of 3.5 and 5.6 for R1 and R2, respectively, we conclude that the differential response of sourgrass biotypes is derived from the intensity of the non-target site mechanisms involved in the resistance to glyphosate.

  8. Infection of two non-target grasshoppers by the biological control agent Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum in the Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, E. N.; Eilenberg, J.; Langewald, J.;

    2006-01-01

    Fungal isolates from grasshoppers of the family Acrididae are suspected to be less virulent to grasshoppers of the family Pyrgomorphidae. The biological control agent Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum was isolated from an acridid and is thus hypothesized to be less virulent to pyrgomorphids....... The susceptibility of two non-target pyrgomorphids, Pyrgomorpha cognata and Poekilocerus bufonius hieroglyphicus, to M. anisopliae was tested in the field. Results show that P. cognata under field conditions is as susceptible to infection by M. anisopliae as acridids, whereas P. b. hieroglyphicus is less susceptible...

  9. Molecular and life-history effects of a natural toxin on herbivorous and non-target soil arthropods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ommen Kloeke, A E Elaine; van Gestel, Cornelis A. M.; Styrishave, Bjarne

    2012-01-01

    Natural toxins, such as isothiocyanate (ITC), are harmful secondary metabolites produced by plants. Many natural toxins occur in commercial crops, yet their possible negative repercussions on especially non-target soil organisms are largely unknown. This study examined life-history and gene......-expression of especially stress-related genes and sugar metabolism. The regulation of a gene encoding a precursor of follistatin, furthermore, implied the inhibition of reproduction and may be an important molecular target that can be linked to the observed adverse effect of life-history traits....

  10. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: I. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    A long-standing dogma in the radiation sciences is that energy from radiation must be deposited in the cell nucleus to elicit a biological effect. A number of non-targeted, delayed effects of ionizing radiation have been described that challenge this dogma and pose new challenges to evaluating potential hazards associated with radiation exposure. These effects include induced genomic instability and non-targeted bystander effects. The in vitro evidence for non-targeted effects in radiation biology will be reviewed, but the question as to how one extrapolates from these in vitro observations to the risk of radiation-induced adverse health effects such as cancer remains open.

  11. Capture of non-target flies (Diptera: Lauxaniidae, Chloropidae, Anthomyiidae) on traps baited with volatile chemicals in field crop habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volatile chemicals increased trap catch of flies from the families Lauxaniidae [Homoneura bispina (Loew) and Camptoprosopella borealis Shewell], Chloropidae (Olcella sp.) and Anthomyiidae (Delia spp.) in field crops. With cotton rolls as dispensers, baiting with 2-phenylethanol increased catch of H...

  12. Transportable data from non-target arthropod field studies for the environmental risk assessment of genetically modified maize expressing an insecticidal double-stranded RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Aqeel; Negri, Ignacio; Oliveira, Wladecir; Brown, Christopher; Asiimwe, Peter; Sammons, Bernard; Horak, Michael; Jiang, Changjian; Carson, David

    2016-02-01

    As part of an environmental risk assessment, the potential impact of genetically modified (GM) maize MON 87411 on non-target arthropods (NTAs) was evaluated in the field. MON 87411 confers resistance to corn rootworm (CRW; Diabrotica spp.) by expressing an insecticidal double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) transcript and the Cry3Bb1 protein and tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate by producing the CP4 EPSPS protein. Field trials were conducted at 14 sites providing high geographic and environmental diversity within maize production areas from three geographic regions including the U.S., Argentina, and Brazil. MON 87411, the conventional control, and four commercial conventional reference hybrids were evaluated for NTA abundance and damage. Twenty arthropod taxa met minimum abundance criteria for valid statistical analysis. Nine of these taxa occurred in at least two of the three regions and in at least four sites across regions. These nine taxa included: aphid, predatory earwig, lacewing, ladybird beetle, leafhopper, minute pirate bug, parasitic wasp, sap beetle, and spider. In addition to wide regional distribution, these taxa encompass the ecological functions of herbivores, predators and parasitoids in maize agro-ecosystems. Thus, the nine arthropods may serve as representative taxa of maize agro-ecosystems, and thereby support that analysis of relevant data generated in one region can be transportable for the risk assessment of the same or similar GM crop products in another region. Across the 20 taxa analyzed, no statistically significant differences in abundance were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control for 123 of the 128 individual-site comparisons (96.1%). For the nine widely distributed taxa, no statistically significant differences in abundance were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control. Furthermore, no statistically significant differences were detected between MON 87411 and the conventional control for 53 out of 56 individual

  13. Impact of insect-resistant transgenic rice on target insect pests and non-target arthropods in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO CHEN; JIAN-ZHOU ZHAO; GONG-YIN YE; QIANG FU; ANTHONY M.SHELTON

    2006-01-01

    Progress on the research and development of insect-resistant transgenic rice,especially expressing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt),in China has been rapid in recent years. A number of insect-resistant transgenic rice lines/varieties have passed restricted and enlarged field testing,and several have been approved for productive testing since 2002 in China,although none was approved for commercial use until 2006.Extensive laboratory and field trials have been conducted for evaluation of the efficiency of transgenic rice on target lepidoteran pests and potential ecological risks on non-target arthropods. The efficacy of a number of transgenic rice lines currently tested in China was excellent for control of the major target insect pests,the rice stem borers (Chilo suppressalis,Scirpophaga incertulas,Sesamia inferens) and leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis),and was better than most insecticides extensively used by millions of farmers at present in China.No significantly negative or unintended effects of transgenic rice on non-target arthropods were found compared with non-transgenic rice. In contrast,most of the current insecticides used for the control of rice stem borers and leaffolders proved harmful to natural enemies,and some insecticides may directly induce resurgence of rice planthoppers. Studies for developing a proactive insect resistance management of transgenic rice in the future are discussed to ensure the sustainable use of transgenic rice.

  14. Repellence of plant essential oils to Dermanyssus gallinae and toxicity to the non-target invertebrate Tenebrio molitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2009-05-26

    With changes in legislation and consumer demand, alternatives to synthetic acaricides to manage the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) in laying hen flocks are increasingly needed. These mites may cause losses in egg production, anaemia and even death of hens. It may be possible to use plant-derived products as D. gallinae repellents, especially if such products have a minimal impact on non-target organisms. An experiment was conducted with D. gallinae to assess the repellence of a range of plant essential oils, previously found to be of varying toxicity (relatively highly toxic to non-toxic) to this pest. Experiments were also undertaken to assess the toxicity of these products to mealworm beetles (Tenebrio molitor L.), a non-target invertebrate typical of poultry production systems. Results showed that all seven essential oils tested (manuka, thyme, palmarosa, caraway, spearmint, black pepper and juniper leaf) were repellent to D. gallinae at 0.14mg oil/cm(3) (initial concentration) during the first 2 days of study. Thyme essential oil appeared to be the most effective, where repellence lasted until the end of the study period (13 days). At the same concentration toxicity to T. molitor differed, with essential oils of palmarosa and manuka being no more toxic to adult beetles than the control. There was neither a significant association between the rank toxicity and repellence of oils to D. gallinae, nor the toxicity of oils to D. gallinae (as previously determined) and T. molitor.

  15. Quality of laboratory studies assessing effects of Bt-proteins on non-target organisms: minimal criteria for acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schrijver, Adinda; Devos, Yann; De Clercq, Patrick; Gathmann, Achim; Romeis, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    The potential risks that genetically modified plants may pose to non-target organisms and the ecosystem services they contribute to are assessed as part of pre-market risk assessments. This paper reviews the early tier studies testing the hypothesis whether exposure to plant-produced Cry34/35Ab1 proteins as a result of cultivation of maize 59122 is harmful to valued non-target organisms, in particular Arthropoda and Annelida. The available studies were assessed for their scientific quality by considering a set of criteria determining their relevance and reliability. As a case-study, this exercise revealed that when not all quality criteria are met, weighing the robustness of the study and its relevance for risk assessment is not obvious. Applying a worst-case expected environmental concentration of bioactive toxins equivalent to that present in the transgenic crop, confirming exposure of the test species to the test substance, and the use of a negative control were identified as minimum criteria to be met to guarantee sufficiently reliable data. This exercise stresses the importance of conducting studies meeting certain quality standards as this minimises the probability of erroneous or inconclusive results and increases confidence in the results and adds certainty to the conclusions drawn.

  16. Potential use of an arthropod database to support the non-target risk assessment and monitoring of transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeis, Jörg; Meissle, Michael; Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Bigler, Franz; Bohan, David A; Devos, Yann; Malone, Louise A; Pons, Xavier; Rauschen, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Worldwide, plants obtained through genetic modification are subject to a risk analysis and regulatory approval before they can enter the market. An area of concern addressed in environmental risk assessments is the potential of genetically modified (GM) plants to adversely affect non-target arthropods and the valued ecosystem services they provide. Environmental risk assessments are conducted case-by-case for each GM plant taking into account the plant species, its trait(s), the receiving environments into which the GM plant is to be released and its intended uses, and the combination of these characteristics. To facilitate the non-target risk assessment of GM plants, information on arthropods found in relevant agro-ecosystems in Europe has been compiled in a publicly available database of bio-ecological information during a project commissioned by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Using different hypothetical GM maize case studies, we demonstrate how the information contained in the database can assist in identifying valued species that may be at risk and in selecting suitable species for laboratory testing, higher-tier studies, as well as post-market environmental monitoring.

  17. Novel Strategy for Non-Targeted Isotope-Assisted Metabolomics by Means of Metabolic Turnover and Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumune Nakayama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Isotope-labeling is a useful technique for understanding cellular metabolism. Recent advances in metabolomics have extended the capability of isotope-assisted studies to reveal global metabolism. For instance, isotope-assisted metabolomics technology has enabled the mapping of a global metabolic network, estimation of flux at branch points of metabolic pathways, and assignment of elemental formulas to unknown metabolites. Furthermore, some data processing tools have been developed to apply these techniques to a non-targeted approach, which plays an important role in revealing unknown or unexpected metabolism. However, data collection and integration strategies for non-targeted isotope-assisted metabolomics have not been established. Therefore, a systematic approach is proposed to elucidate metabolic dynamics without targeting pathways by means of time-resolved isotope tracking, i.e., “metabolic turnover analysis”, as well as multivariate analysis. We applied this approach to study the metabolic dynamics in amino acid perturbation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In metabolic turnover analysis, 69 peaks including 35 unidentified peaks were investigated. Multivariate analysis of metabolic turnover successfully detected a pathway known to be inhibited by amino acid perturbation. In addition, our strategy enabled identification of unknown peaks putatively related to the perturbation.

  18. Contamination of wild plants near neonicotinoid seed-treated crops, and implications for non-target insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botías, Cristina; David, Arthur; Hill, Elizabeth M; Goulson, Dave

    2016-10-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are commonly-used as seed treatments on flowering crops such as oilseed rape. Their persistence and solubility in water increase the chances of environmental contamination via surface-runoff or drainage into areas adjacent to the crops. However, their uptake and fate into non-target vegetation remains poorly understood. In this study, we analysed samples of foliage collected from neonicotinoid seed-treated oilseed rape plants and also compared the levels of neonicotinoid residues in foliage (range: 1.4-11ng/g) with the levels found in pollen collected from the same plants (range: 1.4-22ng/g). We then analysed residue levels in foliage from non-target plants growing in the crop field margins (range: ≤0.02-106ng/g). Finally, in order to assess the possible risk posed by the peak levels of neonicotinoids that we detected in foliage for farmland phytophagous and predatory insects, we compared the maximum concentrations found against the LC50 values reported in the literature for a set of relevant insect species. Our results suggest that neonicotinoid seed-dressings lead to widespread contamination of the foliage of field margin plants with mixtures of neonicotinoid residues, where levels are very variable and discontinuous, but sometimes overlap with lethal concentrations reported for some insect species. Understanding the distribution of pesticides in the environment and their potential effects on biological communities is crucial to properly assess current agricultural management and schemes with biodiversity conservation aims in farmland.

  19. Different acute toxicity of fipronil baits on invasive Linepithema humile supercolonies and some non-target ground arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayasaka, Daisuke; Kuwayama, Naoki; Takeo, Azuma; Ishida, Takanobu; Mano, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Maki N; Nagai, Takashi; Sánchez-Bayo, Francisco; Goka, Koichi; Sawahata, Takuo

    2015-08-01

    Fipronil is one of the most effective insecticides to control the invasive ant Linepithema humile, but its effectiveness has been assessed without considering the genetic differences among L. humile supercolonies. We hypothesized that the susceptibility of the ant to fipronil might differ among supercolonies. If so, dosage and concentration of fipronil may need to be adjusted for effective eradication of each supercolony. The relative sensitivities of four L. humile supercolonies established in Hyogo (Japan) to fipronil baits were examined based on their acute toxicity (48-h LC(50)). Toxicities of fipronil to seven ground arthropods, including four native ant species, one native isopoda, and two cockroaches were also determined and compared to that of L. humile supercolonies using species sensitivity distributions. Marked differences in susceptibility of fipronil were apparent among the supercolonies (P non-target species (330-2327 μg L(-1)) were in the same range as that of L. humile, and SSDs between the two species groups were not significantly different (t = -1.389, P = 0.180), suggesting that fipronil's insecticidal activity is practically the same for L. humile as for non-target arthropods. Therefore, if the invasive ant is to be controlled using fipronil, this would also affect the local arthropod biodiversity. Only the 'Japanese main supercolony' can be controlled with appropriate bait dosages of fipronil that would have little impact on the other species.

  20. Facile synthesis of mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles using Mussaenda glabra leaf extract: characterisation and impact on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-11-01

    Plant-borne compounds have been proposed for extracellular synthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, their impact against mosquito natural enemies has been scarcely studied. Here, we synthesised silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Mussaenda glabra leaf extract as reducing and stabilising agent. Biofabricated Ag NPs were characterised by UV-vis spectrophotometry, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesised Ag NPs showed higher toxicity against mosquito vectors Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus with LC50 of 17-19 μg/mL, respectively. Ag NPs were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 1446 to 8628 μg/mL. Overall, M. glabra-fabricated Ag NPs are a promising and eco-friendly tool against larval populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance, with negligible toxicity against other non-target aquatic organisms.

  1. Recommendations for the design of laboratory studies on non-target arthropods for risk assessment of genetically engineered plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeis, Jörg; Hellmich, Richard L; Candolfi, Marco P; Carstens, Keri; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gatehouse, Angharad M R; Herman, Rod A; Huesing, Joseph E; McLean, Morven A; Raybould, Alan; Shelton, Anthony M; Waggoner, Annabel

    2011-02-01

    This paper provides recommendations on experimental design for early-tier laboratory studies used in risk assessments to evaluate potential adverse impacts of arthropod-resistant genetically engineered (GE) plants on non-target arthropods (NTAs). While we rely heavily on the currently used proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in this discussion, the concepts apply to other arthropod-active proteins. A risk may exist if the newly acquired trait of the GE plant has adverse effects on NTAs when they are exposed to the arthropod-active protein. Typically, the risk assessment follows a tiered approach that starts with laboratory studies under worst-case exposure conditions; such studies have a high ability to detect adverse effects on non-target species. Clear guidance on how such data are produced in laboratory studies assists the product developers and risk assessors. The studies should be reproducible and test clearly defined risk hypotheses. These properties contribute to the robustness of, and confidence in, environmental risk assessments for GE plants. Data from NTA studies, collected during the analysis phase of an environmental risk assessment, are critical to the outcome of the assessment and ultimately the decision taken by regulatory authorities on the release of a GE plant. Confidence in the results of early-tier laboratory studies is a precondition for the acceptance of data across regulatory jurisdictions and should encourage agencies to share useful information and thus avoid redundant testing.

  2. Transgenic banana plants expressing Xanthomonas wilt resistance genes revealed a stable non-target bacterial colonization structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimusiima, Jean; Köberl, Martina; Tumuhairwe, John Baptist; Kubiriba, Jerome; Staver, Charles; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-12-10

    Africa is among the continents where the battle over genetically modified crops is currently being played out. The impact of GM in Africa could potentially be very positive. In Uganda, researchers have developed transgenic banana lines resistant to banana Xanthomonas wilt. The transgenic lines expressing hrap and pflp can provide a timely solution to the pandemic. However, the impact of the transgenes expression on non-target microorganisms has not yet been investigated. To study this effect, transgenic and control lines were grown under field conditions and their associated microbiome was investigated by 16S rRNA gene profiling combining amplicon sequencing and molecular fingerprinting. Three years after sucker planting, no statistically significant differences between transgenic lines and their non-modified predecessors were detected for their associated bacterial communities. The overall gammaproteobacterial rhizosphere microbiome was highly dominated by Xanthomonadales, while Pseudomonadales and Enterobacteriales were accumulated in the pseudostem. Shannon indices revealed much higher diversity in the rhizosphere than in the pseudostem endosphere. However, the expression of the transgenes did not result in changes in the diversity of Gammaproteobacteria, the closest relatives of the target pathogen. In this field experiment, the expression of the resistance genes appears to have no consequences for non-target rhizobacteria and endophytes.

  3. Risk assessment of Bt crops on the non-target plant-associated insects and soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqoob, Amina; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Samiullah, Tahir Rehman; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Khan, Muhammad Azmat Ullah; Tahir, Sana; Mirza, Safdar Ali; Husnain, Tayyab

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic plants containing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes are being cultivated worldwide to express toxic insecticidal proteins. However, the commercial utilisation of Bt crops greatly highlights biosafety issues worldwide. Therefore, assessing the risks caused by genetically modified crops prior to their commercial cultivation is a critical issue to be addressed. In agricultural biotechnology, the goal of safety assessment is not just to identify the safety of a genetically modified (GM) plant, rather to demonstrate its impact on the ecosystem. Various experimental studies have been made worldwide during the last 20 years to investigate the risks and fears associated with non-target organisms (NTOs). The NTOs include beneficial insects, natural pest controllers, rhizobacteria, growth promoting microbes, pollinators, soil dwellers, aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates, mammals and humans. To highlight all the possible risks associated with different GM events, information has been gathered from a total of 76 articles, regarding non-target plant and soil inhabiting organisms, and summarised in the form of the current review article. No significant harmful impact has been reported in any case study related to approved GM events, although critical risk assessments are still needed before commercialisation of these crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Understanding the fate of chlorogenic acids in coffee roasting using mass spectrometry based targeted and non-targeted analytical strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Matei, Marius F; Golon, Agnieszka; Witt, Matthias; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2012-09-01

    Coffee is one of mankind's most popular beverages obtained from green coffee beans by roasting. Much effort has been expended towards the chemical characterisation of the components of the roasted coffee bean, frequently termed melanoidines, which are dominated byproducts formed from its most relevant secondary metabolites - chlorogenic acids. However, impeded by a lack of suitable authentic reference standards and analytical techniques sufficiently powerful for providing insight into an extraordinarily complex enigmatic material, unsurprisingly little structural and mechanistic information about the products of coffee roasting is available. Here we report on the characterisation of low molecular weight melanoidine fractions of roasted coffee using a conceptually novel combination of targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometrical techniques. We provide an unprecedented account of the chemical composition of roasted coffee beans. Using a targeted analytical approach we show for the first time, by comparison to authentic reference standards obtained by chemical synthesis, that chlorogenic acids follow four distinct reaction pathways including epimerization, acyl migration, lactonisation and dehydration. The analytical strategy employed in a non-targeted approach uses high resolution mass spectrometry to identify the most abundant molecular formulas present in roasted coffee samples and model roasts followed by van Krevelen and homologous series analysis. We identified the molecular formulas formed from reactions of chlorogenic acids, carbohydrates and proteins, both between classes of compounds and within same classes of compounds. Furthermore, we identified two new classes of compounds formed from chlorogenic acids during roasting, chlorogenic acid acetates and O-phenolic quinoyl and shikimoyl esters of chlorogenic acids.

  5. Interaction of bacteria-feeding soil flagellates and Pseudomonas spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Annette; Ekelund, Flemming; Johansen, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas strains may be used as alternatives to fungicides as some of them produce secondary metabolites, which can inhibit growth of plant pathogenic fungi. Increased knowledge of non-target effects of the antagonistic bacteria on other soil organisms as well as of the survival and predation...... resistance of the antagonistic bacteria is necessary for risk assessment and increased performance of antagonistic bacteria as biological control agents. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the difference between Pseudomonas spp. with respect to their predation resistance to and effects...

  6. [Rapid screening and confirmation of non-target pigment in Chinese softshell turtle by liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiyan; Wang, Yang; Zhou, Fan; Zheng, Chongying; Zhang, Haiqi; He, Zhongyang; He, Xin

    2015-12-01

    A method of non-target pigment screening in Chinese softshell turtle has been established by using liquid chromatography coupled to time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-Q-TOF MS). After being purified by a simple acetonitrile extraction work, the non-target pigment in 20 Chinese softshell turtle samples was detected by liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (LC-DAD). The S7 sample, which has a strong spectral response, was chosen to extract the mass spectrometry information of the non-target pigment on different gradient elution conditions. In order to get the characteristic molecular mass ion (564.397 73 Da and 564.395 61 Da) of the non-target pigment, qualitative spectral full scan with negative sample was used. The molecular formula generation data and the literature information prompted speculation that the non-target pigment was canthaxanthin with the formula of C40H52O2. By comparing the canthaxanthin standard material MS/MS information, the result was confirmed accurate. A strategy of LC-Q-TOF MS method for the qualitative analysis of unknown compounds is discussed, and the results indicated that the described method can be effectively applied to qualitative analysis for non-target pigment in Chinese softshell turtle.

  7. Non-targeted analysis by LC-MS of major metabolite changes during the oolong tea manufacturing in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Karl; Lane, Geoff A; Otter, Don E; Harrison, Scott J; Quek, Siew-Young; Hemar, Yacine; Rasmussen, Susanne

    2014-05-15

    Oolong tea is a semi-fermented tea that is partially oxidised during the manufacturing process to create a product unique in composition. In this study, we investigated the potential of non-targeted LC-MS with two complementary chromatographic modes to provide a "comprehensive and unbiased" view of biochemical compositional changes occurring during oolong tea manufacturing in New Zealand. Tea leaf samples from throughout the manufacturing/fermentation process during three different harvest periods (spring, summer and autumn) were analysed by four different LC-MS streams. Principal component analysis revealed the de-greening stage of the manufacturing process was responsible for major changes in the biochemical profile, with the methodology detecting changes in a wide range of metabolites of differing polarities, such as flavonoids, nucleosides and primeverosides. Changes during the fermentation phase of the manufacturing process were less marked, however significant increases in levels of free amino acids, a hydroxyjasmonic acid and related metabolites were observed.

  8. Effect of non target snails on some biological of Lymnaea natalensis snails and their infection to Fasciola gigantica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, Fayez A; Hamdi, Salwa A H

    2006-12-01

    The influence of non-target freshwater snails (Melanoides tuberculata and Planorbis planorbis) on the capacity of Fasciola egg production F. gigantica miracidia to infect Lymnaea natalensis and their effect on mortality and growth rates showed that the snails exhibited a competitive ability against L. natalensis. The mortality rate existed in mixed cultures with snails was greatly increased, and increased with increase of snails number. The egg production and growth rate were negatively affected by the presence of M. tuberculata and P. planorbis which was more pronounced when snails were at higher ratio lL: 10D. Also, the snails showed significant degree of reduction in infection rate of L. natalensis with F. gigantica miracidia.

  9. Synthesis and insecticidal activity of acridone derivatives to Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae and non-target aquatic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Bharathi, Annadurai; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Madhumitha, G.

    2017-01-01

    A serious Mosquito borne yellow fever is one of the grave diseases which affect the major population. Since there is no specific treatment for yellow fever, there is a necessity to develop an effective agent. The series of acridinone analogues 3 to 5 were synthesized with help of non-conventional microwave heating and confirmed by respective spectral characterization. 5c and 3b showed highest activity to kill 90% of larvae against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Also the active products were treated to check the mortality of non-target aquatic species. Through the reports of the larvicidal bioassay, compounds 3b against C. quinquefasciatus whereas 5c against A. aegypti were found to be more active. By keeping this as a platform, further extension of the work can be done to find out a valuable drug for controlling disease vectors.

  10. Linear solvation energy relationships as classifier in non-target analysis--an approach for isocratic liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Nadin; Mühlenberg, Jana; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Brack, Werner

    2014-01-10

    Linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) models are developed to characterize various HPLC columns and to predict retention of candidate compounds in non-target analysis of environmental samples. The models can be applied as classifier to exclude potential candidate structures with the same empirical formula. The application of the classifier was tested for a set of 19 isomers with empirical formula C12H10O2. The performance of the classifier was also demonstrated for a validation set of seven structural diverse compounds, where all potential candidates for the corresponding empirical formulas were included in the studies. Herein, the standard deviation of all compound descriptors of the respective candidate compounds was used as indication for potential exclusions on a certain column.

  11. A review on the toxicity and non-target effects of macrocyclic lactones in terrestrial and aquatic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumaret, Jean-Pierre; Errouissi, Faiek; Floate, Kevin; Römbke, Jörg; Wardhaugh, Keith

    2012-05-01

    The avermectins, milbemycins and spinosyns are collectively referred to as macrocyclic lactones (MLs) which comprise several classes of chemicals derived from cultures of soil micro-organisms. These compounds are extensively and increasingly used in veterinary medicine and agriculture. Due to their potential effects on non-target organisms, large amounts of information on their impact in the environment has been compiled in recent years, mainly caused by legal requirements related to their marketing authorization or registration. The main objective of this paper is to critically review the present knowledge about the acute and chronic ecotoxicological effects of MLs on organisms, mainly invertebrates, in the terrestrial and aquatic environment. Detailed information is presented on the mode-of-action as well as the ecotoxicity of the most important compounds representing the three groups of MLs. This information, based on more than 360 references, is mainly provided in nine tables, presenting the effects of abamectin, ivermectin, eprinomectin, doramectin, emamectin, moxidectin, and spinosad on individual species of terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates as well as plants and algae. Since dung dwelling organisms are particularly important non-targets, as they are exposed via dung from treated animals over their whole life-cycle, the information on the effects of MLs on dung communities is compiled in an additional table. The results of this review clearly demonstrate that regarding environmental impacts many macrocyclic lactones are substances of high concern particularly with larval instars of invertebrates. Recent studies have also shown that susceptibility varies with life cycle stage and impacts can be mitigated by using MLs when these stages are not present. However information on the environmental impact of the MLs is scattered across a wide range of specialised scientific journals with research focusing mainly on ivermectin and to a lesser extent on abamectin

  12. Are Pharmaceuticals with Evolutionary Conserved Molecular Drug Targets More Potent to Cause Toxic Effects in Non-Target Organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhagen, Sara; Fuchs, Anne; Lundström Belleza, Elin; Breitholtz, Magnus; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous use of pharmaceuticals has resulted in a continuous discharge into wastewater and pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are found in the environment. Due to their design towards specific drug targets, pharmaceuticals may be therapeutically active already at low environmental concentrations. Several human drug targets are evolutionary conserved in aquatic organisms, raising concerns about effects of these pharmaceuticals in non-target organisms. In this study, we hypothesized that the toxicity of a pharmaceutical towards a non-target invertebrate depends on the presence of the human drug target orthologs in this species. This was tested by assessing toxicity of pharmaceuticals with (miconazole and promethazine) and without (levonorgestrel) identified drug target orthologs in the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The toxicity was evaluated using general toxicity endpoints at individual (immobility, reproduction and development), biochemical (RNA and DNA content) and molecular (gene expression) levels. The results provide evidence for higher toxicity of miconazole and promethazine, i.e. the drugs with identified drug target orthologs. At the individual level, miconazole had the lowest effect concentrations for immobility and reproduction (0.3 and 0.022 mg L−1, respectively) followed by promethazine (1.6 and 0.18 mg L−1, respectively). At the biochemical level, individual RNA content was affected by miconazole and promethazine already at 0.0023 and 0.059 mg L−1, respectively. At the molecular level, gene expression for cuticle protein was significantly suppressed by exposure to both miconazole and promethazine; moreover, daphnids exposed to miconazole had significantly lower vitellogenin expression. Levonorgestrel did not have any effects on any endpoints in the concentrations tested. These results highlight the importance of considering drug target conservation in environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals. PMID:25140792

  13. Fabrication of nano-mosquitocides using chitosan from crab shells: Impact on non-target organisms in the aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Anitha, Jaganathan; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chitravel; Amuthavalli, Pandiyan; Wang, Lan; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Wei, Hui; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Kumar, Suresh; Pugazhendy, Kannaiyan; Higuchi, Akon; Nicoletti, Marcello; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-10-01

    Mosquitoes are arthropods of huge medical and veterinary relevance, since they vector pathogens and parasites of public health importance, including malaria, dengue and Zika virus. Currently, nanotechnology is considered a potential eco-friendly approach in mosquito control research. We proposed a novel method of biofabrication of silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using chitosan (Ch) from crab shells. Ch-AgNP nanocomposite was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. Ch-AgNP were tested against larvae and pupae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi obtaining LC50 ranging from 3.18 ppm (I) to 6.54 ppm (pupae). The antibacterial properties of Ch-AgNP were proved against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhi, while no growth inhibition was reported in assays conducted on Proteus vulgaris. Concerning non-target effects, in standard laboratory considtions the predation efficiency of Danio rerio zebrafishes was 68.8% and 61.6% against I and II instar larvae of A. stephensi, respectively. In a Ch-AgNP-contaminated environment, fish predation was boosted to 89.5% and 77.3%, respectively. Quantitative analysis of antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT and LPO from hepatopancreas of fresh water crabs Paratelphusa hydrodromous exposed for 16 days to a Ch-AgNP-contaminated aquatic environment were conducted. Notably, deleterious effects of Ch-AgNP contaminating aquatic enviroment on the non-target crab P. hydrodromous were observed, particularly when doses higher than 8-10ppm are tested. Overall, this research highlights the potential of Ch-AGNP for the development of newer control tools against young instar populations of malaria mosquitoes, also highlighting some risks concerned the employ of nanoparticles in aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Are pharmaceuticals with evolutionary conserved molecular drug targets more potent to cause toxic effects in non-target organisms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Furuhagen

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous use of pharmaceuticals has resulted in a continuous discharge into wastewater and pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are found in the environment. Due to their design towards specific drug targets, pharmaceuticals may be therapeutically active already at low environmental concentrations. Several human drug targets are evolutionary conserved in aquatic organisms, raising concerns about effects of these pharmaceuticals in non-target organisms. In this study, we hypothesized that the toxicity of a pharmaceutical towards a non-target invertebrate depends on the presence of the human drug target orthologs in this species. This was tested by assessing toxicity of pharmaceuticals with (miconazole and promethazine and without (levonorgestrel identified drug target orthologs in the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The toxicity was evaluated using general toxicity endpoints at individual (immobility, reproduction and development, biochemical (RNA and DNA content and molecular (gene expression levels. The results provide evidence for higher toxicity of miconazole and promethazine, i.e. the drugs with identified drug target orthologs. At the individual level, miconazole had the lowest effect concentrations for immobility and reproduction (0.3 and 0.022 mg L-1, respectively followed by promethazine (1.6 and 0.18 mg L-1, respectively. At the biochemical level, individual RNA content was affected by miconazole and promethazine already at 0.0023 and 0.059 mg L-1, respectively. At the molecular level, gene expression for cuticle protein was significantly suppressed by exposure to both miconazole and promethazine; moreover, daphnids exposed to miconazole had significantly lower vitellogenin expression. Levonorgestrel did not have any effects on any endpoints in the concentrations tested. These results highlight the importance of considering drug target conservation in environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals.

  15. Non-target time trend screening: a data reduction strategy for detecting emerging contaminants in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassmann, Merle M; Tengstrand, Erik; Åberg, K Magnus; Benskin, Jonathan P

    2016-06-01

    Non-targeted mass spectrometry-based approaches for detecting novel xenobiotics in biological samples are hampered by the occurrence of naturally fluctuating endogenous substances, which are difficult to distinguish from environmental contaminants. Here, we investigate a data reduction strategy for datasets derived from a biological time series. The objective is to flag reoccurring peaks in the time series based on increasing peak intensities, thereby reducing peak lists to only those which may be associated with emerging bioaccumulative contaminants. As a result, compounds with increasing concentrations are flagged while compounds displaying random, decreasing, or steady-state time trends are removed. As an initial proof of concept, we created artificial time trends by fortifying human whole blood samples with isotopically labelled standards. Different scenarios were investigated: eight model compounds had a continuously increasing trend in the last two to nine time points, and four model compounds had a trend that reached steady state after an initial increase. Each time series was investigated at three fortification levels and one unfortified series. Following extraction, analysis by ultra performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry, and data processing, a total of 21,700 aligned peaks were obtained. Peaks displaying an increasing trend were filtered from randomly fluctuating peaks using time trend ratios and Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The first approach was successful in flagging model compounds spiked at only two to three time points, while the latter approach resulted in all model compounds ranking in the top 11 % of the peak lists. Compared to initial peak lists, a combination of both approaches reduced the size of datasets by 80-85 %. Overall, non-target time trend screening represents a promising data reduction strategy for identifying emerging bioaccumulative contaminants in biological samples. Graphical abstract

  16. Facile biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Barleria cristata: mosquitocidal potential and biotoxicity on three non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) act as vectors of important pathogens and parasites, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis and lymphatic filariasis. The use of synthetic mosquitocides often leads to high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Recently, plant-borne compounds have been proposed for rapid extracellular biosynthesis of mosquitocidal nanoparticles. However, the impact of these nanomosquitocides against biological control agents of mosquito larval populations has been poorly studied. In this research, we biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag NP) using the Barleria cristata leaf extract as a reducing and stabilizing agent. The biosynthesis of Ag NP was confirmed analyzing the excitation of surface plasmon resonance using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometry. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the clustered and irregular shapes of Ag NP. The presence of silver was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy investigated the identity of secondary metabolites, which may also act as Ag NP capping agents. The acute toxicity of B. cristata leaf extract and biosynthesized Ag NP was evaluated against larvae of Anopheles subpictus, Aedes albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, biosynthesized Ag NP showed higher toxicity against An. subpictus, Ae. albopictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus with lethal concentration (LC)50 values of 12.46, 13.49, and 15.01 μg/mL, respectively. Notably, biosynthesized Ag NP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus, Anisops bouvieri, and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 633.26 to 866.92 μg/mL. Overall, our results highlight that B. cristata-fabricated Ag NP are a promising and eco-friendly tool against young instar populations of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance.

  17. Are pharmaceuticals with evolutionary conserved molecular drug targets more potent to cause toxic effects in non-target organisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuhagen, Sara; Fuchs, Anne; Lundström Belleza, Elin; Breitholtz, Magnus; Gorokhova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The ubiquitous use of pharmaceuticals has resulted in a continuous discharge into wastewater and pharmaceuticals and their metabolites are found in the environment. Due to their design towards specific drug targets, pharmaceuticals may be therapeutically active already at low environmental concentrations. Several human drug targets are evolutionary conserved in aquatic organisms, raising concerns about effects of these pharmaceuticals in non-target organisms. In this study, we hypothesized that the toxicity of a pharmaceutical towards a non-target invertebrate depends on the presence of the human drug target orthologs in this species. This was tested by assessing toxicity of pharmaceuticals with (miconazole and promethazine) and without (levonorgestrel) identified drug target orthologs in the cladoceran Daphnia magna. The toxicity was evaluated using general toxicity endpoints at individual (immobility, reproduction and development), biochemical (RNA and DNA content) and molecular (gene expression) levels. The results provide evidence for higher toxicity of miconazole and promethazine, i.e. the drugs with identified drug target orthologs. At the individual level, miconazole had the lowest effect concentrations for immobility and reproduction (0.3 and 0.022 mg L-1, respectively) followed by promethazine (1.6 and 0.18 mg L-1, respectively). At the biochemical level, individual RNA content was affected by miconazole and promethazine already at 0.0023 and 0.059 mg L-1, respectively. At the molecular level, gene expression for cuticle protein was significantly suppressed by exposure to both miconazole and promethazine; moreover, daphnids exposed to miconazole had significantly lower vitellogenin expression. Levonorgestrel did not have any effects on any endpoints in the concentrations tested. These results highlight the importance of considering drug target conservation in environmental risk assessments of pharmaceuticals.

  18. Efficacy and Ecotoxicity of Novel Anti-Fouling Nanomaterials in Target and Non-Target Marine Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelelas, Francisco; Martins, Roberto; Oliveira, Tânia; Maia, Frederico; Malheiro, Eliana; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana; Tedim, João

    2017-03-09

    Biofouling is a global problem that affects virtually all the immersed structures. Currently, several novel environmentally friendly approaches are being tested worldwide to decrease the toxicity of biocides in non-fouling species, such as the encapsulation/immobilization of commercially available biocides, in order to achieve control over the leaching rate. The present study addresses the toxicity of two widely used booster biocides, zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and copper pyrithione (CuPT), in its free and incorporated forms in order to assess their toxicity and anti-fouling efficacy in target and non-target species. To achieve this goal, the following marine organisms were tested; the green microalgae Tetraselmis chuii (non-target species) and both target species, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the mussel Mytilus edulis. Organisms were exposed to both biocides, two unloaded nanostructured materials and nanomaterials loaded with biocides, from 10 μg/L to 100 mg/L total weight, following standard protocols. The most eco-friendly and simultaneously efficient anti-fouling solution against the two photosynthetic species (nanoclays loaded with ZnPT) was then tested on mussels to assess its lethal efficacy (LC50 = 123 μg/L) and compared with free biocide (LC50 = 211 μg/L) and unloaded material (LC50 > 1000 μg/L). A second exposure test with sub-lethal concentrations (lower than 100 μg/L), using mussels, was carried out to assess biochemical changes caused by the tested compounds. Oxidative stress, detoxification and neurotransmission markers were not responsive; however, different antioxidant patterns were found with free ZnPT and loaded nanoclay exposures. Thus, the immobilization of the biocide ZnPT into nanoclays proved to be a promising efficient and eco-friendly anti-fouling strategy.

  19. Striking Plasticity of CRISPR-Cas9 and Key Role of Non-target DNA, as Revealed by Molecular Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 system recently emerged as a transformative genome-editing technology that is innovating basic bioscience and applied medicine and biotechnology. The endonuclease Cas9 associates with a guide RNA to match and cleave complementary sequences in double stranded DNA, forming an RNA:DNA hybrid and a displaced non-target DNA strand. Although extensive structural studies are ongoing, the conformational dynamics of Cas9 and its interplay with the nucleic acids during association and DNA cleavage are largely unclear. Here, by employing multi-microsecond time scale molecular dynamics, we reveal the conformational plasticity of Cas9 and identify key determinants that allow its large-scale conformational changes during nucleic acid binding and processing. We show how the “closure” of the protein, which accompanies nucleic acid binding, fundamentally relies on highly coupled and specific motions of the protein domains, collectively initiating the prominent conformational changes needed for nucleic acid association. We further reveal a key role of the non-target DNA during the process of activation of the nuclease HNH domain, showing how the nontarget DNA positioning triggers local conformational changes that favor the formation of a catalytically competent Cas9. Finally, a remarkable conformational plasticity is identified as an intrinsic property of the HNH domain, constituting a necessary element that allows for the HNH repositioning. These novel findings constitute a reference for future experimental studies aimed at a full characterization of the dynamic features of the CRISPR-Cas9 system, and—more importantly—call for novel structure engineering efforts that are of fundamental importance for the rational design of new genome-engineering applications. PMID:27800559

  20. The biological effect of large single doses: a possible role for non-targeted effects in cell inactivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlon R Veldwijk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Novel radiotherapy techniques increasingly use very large dose fractions. It has been argued that the biological effect of large dose fractions may differ from that of conventional fraction sizes. The purpose was to study the biological effect of large single doses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Clonogenic cell survival of MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cells was determined after direct X-ray irradiation, irradiation of feeder cells, or transfer of conditioned medium (CM. Cell-cycle distributions and the apoptotic sub-G1 fraction were measured by flow cytometry. Cytokines in CM were quantified by a cytokine antibody array. γH2AX foci were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. RESULTS: The surviving fraction of MCF7 cells irradiated in vitro with 12 Gy showed an 8.5-fold decrease (95% c.i.: 4.4-16.3; P<0.0001 when the density of irradiated cells was increased from 10 to 50×10(3 cells per flask. Part of this effect was due to a dose-dependent transferrable factor as shown in CM experiments in the dose range 5-15 Gy. While no effect on apoptosis and cell cycle distribution was observed, and no differentially expressed cytokine could be identified, the transferable factor induced prolonged expression of γH2AX DNA repair foci at 1-12 h. CONCLUSIONS: A dose-dependent non-targeted effect on clonogenic cell survival was found in the dose range 5-15 Gy. The dependence of SF on cell numbers at high doses would represent a "cohort effect" in vivo. These results support the hypothesis that non-targeted effects may contribute to the efficacy of very large dose fractions in radiotherapy.

  1. EPA Method 1682: Salmonella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Method 1682 describes procedures for analysis of solid samples (biosolids) and may be adapted for assessment of water, liquid, particulate and aerosol samples contaminated with Salmonella spp. using culture and immunoassay.

  2. Differences between target and non-target probe processing--combined evidence from fMRI, EEG and fMRI-constrained source analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galashan, Daniela; Fehr, Thorsten; Herrmann, Manfred

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies reported heterogeneous findings in working memory tasks when examining differences between correct recognition (targets) and correct rejection (non-targets). In the present study, twenty human participants completed a delayed match-to-sample task in two separate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) sessions. Targets and non-target items were presented at different within-trial positions. We used fMRI-constrained source analysis to investigate the spatio-temporal neuronal dynamics of probe processing. Probe type-related differences were modulated by position in the trial or by the ratio of target stimuli to non-target stimuli at different trial positions. fMRI-constrained source analysis revealed a temporal pattern of source activities starting in occipital and temporal brain regions, followed by a simultaneous engagement of parietal and frontal brain regions and a later activity of a source in pre-SMA (supplementary motor area). Source activities demonstrated a specific involvement of left fusiform gyrus in the non-target condition compared to the target condition that might be associated with mental imagination of the target stimulus during non-target probe processing. Source activities, furthermore, showed the anterior cingulate to be particularly involved in target processing compared to non-target processing before response execution and the pre-SMA before and during response execution. These brain areas appear to be activated in different stages of conflict managing operations due to a lower stimulus frequency of target trials compared to non-target trials at different target positions in the present design.

  3. The effects of RNA interference targeting Bactrocera dorsalis ds-Bdrpl19 on the gene expression of rpl19 in non-target insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aie; Zheng, Weiwei; Zheng, Wenping; Zhang, Hongyu

    2015-04-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) designed to target pest genes emerges as a promising strategy for improving pest control. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the effects of dsRNA on non-target insects, such as native enemies and beneficial insects, to determine the environmental safety of such treatments. In this paper, we investigated the effects of dsRNA targeting rpl19 from Bactrocera dorsalis on non-target insects in citrus ecological systems by feeding the dsRNA to Bactrocera minax, Apis mellifera and Diachasmimorpha longicaudata. The results showed that when B. dorsalis were fed rpl19 CDS dsRNA or 3'UTR dsRNA, the expression of rpl19 was dramatically decreased. Feeding the Bdrpl19 CDS dsRNA to adult B. minax and D. longicaudata caused their respective rpl19 genes to be knocked down over 50-70 and 40%, respectively, but it had no effect on the expression of the rpl19 gene in A. mellifera. The Bdrpl19 3'UTR dsRNA did not have any silencing effects on the expression levels of rpl19 in non-target insects. This study provides evidence that dsRNA can impact non-target organisms, but the 3'UTR dsRNA may not have effects in non-target organisms.

  4. PLS-based and regularization-based methods for the selection of relevant variables in non-targeted metabolomics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bujak

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-targeted metabolomics constitutes a part of systems biology and aims to determine many metabolites in complex biological samples. Datasets obtained in non-targeted metabolomics studies are multivariate and high-dimensional due to the sensitivity of mass spectrometry-based detection methods as well as complexity of biological matrices. Proper selection of variables which contribute into group classification is a crucial step, especially in metabolomics studies which are focused on searching for disease biomarker candidates. In the present study, three different statistical approaches were tested using two metabolomics datasets (RH and PH study. Orthogonal projections to latent structures-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA without and with multiple testing correction as well as least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO were tested and compared. For the RH study, OPLS-DA model built without multiple testing correction, selected 46 and 218 variables based on VIP criteria using Pareto and UV scaling, respectively. In the case of the PH study, 217 and 320 variables were selected based on VIP criteria using Pareto and UV scaling, respectively. In the RH study, OPLS-DA model built with multiple testing correction, selected 4 and 19 variables as statistically significant in terms of Pareto and UV scaling, respectively. For PH study, 14 and 18 variables were selected based on VIP criteria in terms of Pareto and UV scaling, respectively. Additionally, the concept and fundaments of the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO with bootstrap procedure evaluating reproducibility of results, was demonstrated. In the RH and PH study, the LASSO selected 14 and 4 variables with reproducibility between 99.3% and 100%. However, apart from the popularity of PLS-DA and OPLS-DA methods in metabolomics, it should be highlighted that they do not control type I or type II error, but only arbitrarily establish a cut-off value for PLS-DA loadings

  5. Structural and functional effects of herbicides on non-target organisms in aquatic ecosystems with an emphasis on atrazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, James; Kortekamp, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    for controlling nuisance aquatic vegetation. Although aquatic herbicide exposure has been widely documented, these exposures are not necessarily related to adverse non-target ecological effects on natural communities in aquatic environments. This chapter evaluates the potential for effects of herbicides on the structure and function of aquatic envrionments at the population, community, and ecosystem levels of biological organization. In this manuscript I examine several critical aspects of the subject matter area: primary herbicides in use and chemical modes of action; the regulatory process used for registration and risk assessment of herbicides; data regarding non-target risks and the relative sensitivity of aquatic plants, inveretebrates, and fish to herbicides; and emerging areas of science regarding the potential for endocrine-disrupting effects of herbicides on aquatic vertebrates. Much of the focus of this paper is on atrazine due to the extensive database which exists regarding its fate and effects. 

  6. Non-target screening analyses of organic contaminants in river systems as a base for monitoring measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzbauer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Organic contaminants discharged to the aquatic environment exhibit a high diversity with respect to their molecular structures and the resulting physico-chemical properties. The chemical analysis of anthropogenic contamination in river systems is still an important feature, especially with respect to (i) the identification and structure elucidation of novel contaminants, (ii) to the characterisation of their environmental behaviour and (iii) to their risk for natural systems. A huge proportion of riverine contamination is caused by low-molecular weight organic compounds, like pesticides plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, technical additives etc. Some of them, like PCB or PAH have already been investigated thoroughly and, consequently, their behaviour in aqueous systems is very well described. Although analyses on organic substances in river water traditionally focused on selected pollutants, in particular on common priority pollutants which are monitored routinely, the occurrence of further contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products or chelating agents has received increasing attention within the last decade. Accompanied, screening analyses revealing an enormous diversity of low-molecular weight organic contaminants in waste water effluents and river water become more and more noticed. Since many of these substances have been rarely noticed so far, it will be an important task for the future to study their occurrence and fate in natural environments. Further on, it should be a main issue of environmental studies to provide a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of river water, in particular with respect to lipophilic low molecular weight organic contaminants. However, such non-target-screening analyses has been performed only rarely in the past. Hence, we applied extended non-target screening analyses on longitudinal sections of the rivers Rhine, Rur and Lippe (Germany) on the base of GC/MS analyses. The investigations

  7. Selection of focal earthworm species as non-target soil organisms for environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Capelle, Christine; Schrader, Stefan; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    By means of a literature survey, earthworm species of significant relevance for soil functions in different biogeographical regions of Europe (Atlantic, Boreal, Mediterranean) were identified. These focal earthworm species, defined here according to the EFSA Guidance Document on the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of genetically modified plants, are typical for arable soils under crop rotations with maize and/or potatoes within the three regions represented by Ireland, Sweden and Spain, respectively. Focal earthworm species were selected following a matrix of four steps: Identification of functional groups, categorization of non-target species, ranking species on ecological criteria, and final selection of focal species. They are recommended as appropriate non-target organisms to assess environmental risks of genetically modified (GM) crops; in this case maize and potatoes. In total, 44 literature sources on earthworms in arable cropping systems including maize or potato from Ireland, Sweden and Spain were collected, which present information on species diversity, individual density and specific relevance for soil functions. By means of condensed literature data, those species were identified which (i) play an important functional role in respective soil systems, (ii) are well adapted to the biogeographical regions, (iii) are expected to occur in high abundances under cultivation of maize or potato and (iv) fulfill the requirements for an ERA test system based on life-history traits. First, primary and secondary decomposers were identified as functional groups being exposed to the GM crops. In a second step, anecic and endogeic species were categorized as potential species. In step three, eight anecic and endogeic earthworm species belonging to the family Lumbricidae were ranked as relevant species: Aporrectodea caliginosa, Aporrectodea rosea, Aporrectodea longa, Allolobophora chlorotica, Lumbricus terrestris, Lumbricus friendi, Octodrilus complanatus and

  8. The beta-receptor blocker metoprolol alters detoxification processes in the non-target organism Dreissena polymorpha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska, E-mail: contardo@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Pflugmacher, Stephan, E-mail: pflugmacher@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Nuetzmann, Gunnar, E-mail: nuetzmann@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecohydrology, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Kloas, Werner, E-mail: werner.kloas@igb-berlin.d [Dpt. Ecophysiology and Aquaculture, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Mueggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin (Germany); Wiegand, Claudia, E-mail: wiegand@biology.sdu.d [University of Southern Denmark Institute of Biology, Campusvej 55, 5230 Odense M (Denmark)

    2010-06-15

    Due to increasing amounts of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) in the aquatic environment, their largely unknown effects to non-target organisms need to be assessed. This study examined physiological changes in the freshwater mussel Dreissena polymorpha exposed to increasing concentrations (0.534, 5.34, 53.4 and 534 mug L{sup -1}) of the beta-blocker metoprolol in a flow-through system for seven days. The two lower concentrations represent the environmentally relevant range. Surprisingly, metallothionein mRNA was immediately up-regulated in all treatments. For the two higher concentrations mRNA up-regulation in gills was found for P-glycoprotein after one day, and after four days for pi class glutathione S-transferase, demonstrating elimination and biotransformation processes, respectively. Additionally, catalase and superoxide dismutase were up-regulated in the digestive gland indicating oxidative stress. In all treated mussels a significant up-regulation of heat shock protein mRNA was observed in gills after four days, which suggests protein damage and the requirement for repair processes. Metoprolol was 20-fold bioaccumulated for environmentally relevant concentrations. - Evidence for significant physiological changes in an aquatic mollusc due to exposure to a pharmaceutically active compound detected by real-time PCR.

  9. Assessing environmental impacts of genetically modified plants on non-target organisms: The relevance of in planta studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpaia, Salvatore; Birch, A Nicholas E; Kiss, Jozsef; van Loon, Joop J A; Messéan, Antoine; Nuti, Marco; Perry, Joe N; Sweet, Jeremy B; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2017-04-01

    In legal frameworks worldwide, genetically modified plants (GMPs) are subjected to pre-market environmental risk assessment (ERA) with the aim of identifying potential effects on the environment. In the European Union, the EFSA Guidance Document introduces the rationale that GMPs, as well as their newly produced metabolites, represent the potential stressor to be evaluated during ERA. As a consequence, during several phases of ERA for cultivation purposes, it is considered necessary to use whole plants or plant parts in experimental protocols. The importance of in planta studies as a strategy to address impacts of GMPs on non-target organisms is demonstrated, to evaluate both effects due to the intended modification in plant phenotype (e.g. expression of Cry proteins) and effects due to unintended modifications in plant phenotype resulting from the transformation process (e.g. due to somaclonal variations or pleiotropic effects). In planta tests are also necessary for GMPs in which newly expressed metabolites cannot easily be studied in vitro. This paper reviews the scientific literature supporting the choice of in planta studies as a fundamental tool in ERA of GMPs in cultivation dossiers; the evidence indicates they can realistically mimic the ecological relationships occurring in their receiving environments and provide important insights into the biology and sustainable management of GMPs.

  10. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Rodriguez-Saona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae, and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae. The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1–7 days larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries.

  11. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Salamanca, Jordano; Holdcraft, Robert; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera

    2016-04-15

    Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day) control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1-7 days) larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries.

  12. Three-step HPLC-ESI-MS/MS procedure for screening and identifying non-target flavonoid derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rak, Gábor; Fodor, Péter; Abrankó, László

    2010-02-01

    A three-step HPLC-ESI-MS/MS procedure is designed for screening and identification of non-target flavonoid derivatives of selected flavonoid aglycones. In this method the five commonly appearing aglycones (apigenin, luteolin, myricetin, naringenin and quercetin) were selected. The method consists of three individual mass spectrometric experiments of which the first two were implemented within a single chromatographic acquisition. The third step was carried out during a replicate chromatographic run using the same RP-HPLC conditions. The first step, a multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) scan of the aglycones was performed to define the number of derivatives relating to the selected aglycones. For this purpose the characteristic aglycone parts of the unknowns were used as specific tags of the molecules, which were generated as in-source fragments. Secondly, a full scan MS experiment is performed to identify the masses of the potential derivatives of the selected aglycones. Finally, the third step had the capability to confirm the supposed derivatives. The developed method was applied to a commercially available black currant juice to demonstrate its capability to detect and identify various flavonoid glycosides without any preliminary information about their presence in the sample. As a result 13 compounds were detected and identified in total. Namely, 3 different myricetin glycosides and the myricetin aglycone 2 luteolin glycosides plus the aglycone and 3 quercetin glycosides plus the aglycone could be identified from the tested black currant sample. In the case of apigenin and naringenin only the aglycones could be detected.

  13. Muscle lengthening surgery causes differential acute mechanical effects in both targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateş, Filiz; Özdeşlik, Rana N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A

    2013-10-01

    Epimuscular myofascial force transmission (EMFT) is a major determinant of muscle force exerted, as well as length range of force exertion. Therefore, EMFT is of importance in remedial surgery performed, e.g., in spastic paresis. We aimed to test the following hypotheses: (1) muscle lengthening surgery (involving preparatory dissection (PD) and subsequent proximal aponeurotomy (AT)) affects the target muscle force exerted at its distal and proximal tendons differentially, (2) forces of non-operated synergistic muscles are affected as well, (3) PD causes some of these effects. In three conditions (control, post-PD, and post-AT exclusively on m. extensor digitorum longus (EDL)), forces exerted by rat anterior crural muscles were measured simultaneously. Our results confirm hypotheses (1-2), and hypothesis (3) in part: Reduction of EDL maximal force differed by location (i.e. 26.3% when tested distally and 44.5% when tested proximally). EDL length range of active force exertion increased only distally. Force reductions were shown also for non-operated tibialis anterior (by 11.9%), as well as for extensor hallucis longus (by 8.4%) muscles. In tibialis anterior only, part of the force reduction (4.9%) is attributable to PD. Due to EMFT, remedial surgery should be considered to have differential effects for targeted and non-targeted synergistic muscles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Glyphosate sub-lethal toxicity to non-target organisms occurring in Jatropha curcas plantations in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Saraiva, Althiéris Souza; Sarmento, Renato Almeida; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; Teodoro, Adenir Vieira; Erasmo, Eduardo Andrea Lemus; Belchior, Diana Cléssia Vieira; de Azevedo, Emiliano Brandão

    2016-10-01

    Weed management in physic nut plantations has generally been performed by spraying the herbicide glyphosate. However, the effects of glyphosate on non-target organisms present in the crop system are unknown. Here, we evaluated the toxicity of glyphosate (Roundup Transorb(®)) against the pest species Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Acari: Tarsonemidae) and Tetranychus bastosi (Acari: Tetranychidae) which can be exposed by drift. These mites are considered pests of the physic nut; however, they can also feed and reside on weeds associated with the crop, serving as food sources for predatory mites. When subjected to residue (by ingestion of sap of treated plants), and direct contact to glyphosate, P. latus reproduction was affected but T. bastosi was affected only by the residual effect. Although the herbicide caused a reduction in the number of eggs laid by the females of both pest mites, it is suggested that sublethal effects of glyphosate stimulates oviposition of P. latus and T. bastosi: both species displayed higher reproductive rates when exposed to 0.36 kg ha(-1) of the herbicide. We conclude that glyphosate negatively affects the arthropod herbivores studied and we discuss possible implications on their biological control in Jatropha curcas plantations.

  15. Non-target effects of repeated chlorothalonil application on soil nitrogen cycling: The key functional gene study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Manyun; Xu, Zhihong; Teng, Ying; Christie, Peter; Wang, Jun; Ren, Wenjie; Luo, Yongming; Li, Zhengao

    2016-02-01

    The widespread and increasing application of chlorothalonil (CTN) raises concerns about its non-target impacts, but little information is available on the effect of CTN on the key functional genes related to soil nitrogen (N) cycling, especially in the case of repeated applications. In the present study, a microcosm incubation was conducted to determine CTN residues and the impacts on the abundances of key functional genes related to N cycling after repeated CTN applications. The results demonstrated that repeated CTN applications at the recommended application rate and five times the recommended rate led to the accumulation of CTN residue in soil at concentrations of 5.59 and 78.79 mg kg(-1), respectively, by the end of incubation. Real time PCR (RT-PCR) revealed that repeated CTN applications had negative effects on the chiA and aprA gene abundances. There were significantly negative correlations between CTN residues and abundances of AOA and AOB genes. In addition, the abundances of key functional genes involved in soil denitrification were declined by repeated CTN applications with the sole exception of the nosZ gene. This study suggests that repeated CTN applications could lead to the accumulation of CTN residue and generate somewhat inconsistent and erratic effects on the abundances of key functional genes related to soil N cycling.

  16. Toxicity of Insecticides on Various Life Stages of Two Tortricid Pests of Cranberries and on a Non-Target Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Salamanca, Jordano; Holdcraft, Robert; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory and extended laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine the residual toxicities of various insecticides against two key pests of cranberries, Sparganothis sulfureana and Choristoneura parallela (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and their non-target effects on the predatory Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). The effects of nine insecticides with different modes of action on S. sulfureana and Ch. parallela eggs, larvae, and adults were tested in the laboratory, while the efficacy of a post-bloom application on larval mortality and mass of these pests and on adult O. insidiosus was evaluated in extended laboratory experiments. The organophosphate chlorpyrifos and the spinosyn spinetoram provided long-lasting (seven-day) control against all stages of both pests. The growth regulator methoxyfenozide and the diamides chlorantraniliprole and cyantraniliprole had strong (1–7 days) larvicidal, particularly on young larvae, and growth inhibitory activity, but only the diamides were adulticidal. Among neonicotinoids, acetamiprid had stronger ovicidal and adulticidal activity than thiamethoxam, showing within-insecticide class differences in toxicities; however, both were weak on larvae. Lethality of novaluron and indoxacarb was inconsistent, varying depending on species and stage. Chlorpyrifos was most toxic to O. insidiosus. These results show species- and stage-specific toxicities, and greater compatibility with biological control, of the newer reduced-risk classes of insecticides than older chemistries. PMID:27092527

  17. Two non-target recessive genes confer resistance to the anti-oomycete microtubule inhibitor zoxamide in Phytophthora capsici.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bi

    Full Text Available This study characterized isolates of P. capsici that had developed a novel mechanism of resistance to zoxamide, which altered the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC but not the EC50. Molecular analysis revealed that the β-tubulin gene of the resistant isolates contained no mutations and was expressed at the same level as in zoxamide-sensitive isolates. This suggested that P. capsici had developed a novel non-target-site-based resistance to zoxamide. Analysis of the segregation ratio of zoxamide-resistance in the sexual progeny of the sensitive isolates PCAS1 and PCAS2 indicated that the resistance to zoxamide was controlled by one or more recessive nuclear genes. Furthermore, the segregation of resistance in the F1, F2, and BC1 progeny was in accordance with the theoretical ratios of the χ(2 test (P>0.05, which suggested that the resistance to zoxamide was controlled by two recessive genes, and that resistance to zoxamide occurred when at least one pair of these alleles was homozygous. This implies that the risk of zoxamide-resistance in P. capsici is low to moderate. Nevertheless this potential for resistance should be monitored closely, especially if two compatible mating types co-exist in the same field.

  18. Aeromonas spp.: an emerging pathogen?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bartolini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and monitor the presence of Aeromonas spp. strains in stool cultures. We analyzed 5564 stool cultures from September 2012 to August 2013. Sixty-three patients were positive for Aeromonas spp. The most frequent symptoms were: diarrhea (46.0% and abdominal pain (12.7%. Pediatric subjects were 28. Samples’ microscopic examination showed leukocytes in 38.1% of cases. It is still controversial whether Aeromonas are responsible for human gastroenteritis, but their presence in faecies of symptomatic patients supports their etiologic role. We propose search for toxins by polymerase chain reaction to identify strains that require an antibiotic therapy.

  19. Redox proteomic analysis of mytilus edulis gills: effects of the pharmaceutical diclofenac on a non-target organism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Siti Nur Tahirah; Coelho, Ana Varela; Sheehan, David

    2015-10-01

    Veterinary and human pharmaceuticals are an emerging category of chemical pollutants with potential to cause serious toxicity to non-target organisms. Filter-feeding aquatic organisms such as mussels are especially threatened. In this study, the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was exposed to two doses (0.2 mg/L and 1 mg/L) of the anti-inflammatory diclofenac. Effects on the gill, the principal feeding organ of mussels, were investigated. It was noted that, while no effect was evident on gill glutathione transferase or catalase activities, there was a tissue-specific increase in glutathione reductase activity and reduction in total protein thiol groups. Two dimensional electrophoresis was performed and some affected proteins identified by in-gel tryptic digestion and peptide mass fingerprinting. Of these, four unique proteins (caspase 3/7-4, heat-shock cognate protein 70, a predicted enolase-like protein, arginine kinase) were found to be oxidized whilst eight unique proteins (β-tubulin, actin, isocitrate dehydrogenase, arginine kinase, heavy metal-binding HIP, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, proteasome subunit alpha type 2, Mg: bb02e05 (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and superoxide dismutase) were found to have altered abundance. In addition, bioinformatic analysis suggested putative identities for six hypothetical proteins which either were oxidized or decreased in abundance. These were; 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein precursor, α-enolase, calreticulin, mitochondrial H + -ATPase, palmitoyl protein thioesterase 1 and initiation factor 5a. It is concluded that diclofenac causes significant oxidative stress to gills and that this affects key structural, metabolic and stress-response proteins.

  20. [Sublethal effect of chlorantraniliprole on the experimental population of non-target insect Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Wang, Zhao; Jing, Dao-Chao

    2013-02-01

    Chlorantraniliprole is a newly developed insecticide targeting at lepidopteron pests in rice fields, whereas Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is one of the important non-target pests of the insecticide. In this paper, the rice stem dipping method was adopted to test the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to the 3rd instar nymphs and adults of N. lugens. The LC50 of chlorantraniliprole to the 3rd instar nymphs and adults was 26.85 and 35.53 mg.L-1, respectively. When the 3rd instar nymph was exposed to the LC10 and LC25 of chlorantraniliprole, the life span of the survived female adults was not significantly affected. However, when treated with LC25 dosage, the fecundity of the survived female adults was significantly reduced by 45.6 eggs. After the 3rd instar nymph was treated with the sublethal doses LC10 and LC25 of chlorantraniliprole, the fecundity of the F1, females were decreased significantly by 43.5 and 72.9 eggs, and the life span of the F1 females was shortened by 1.35 and 2.87 d, respectively. The developmental periods of all the instars of F, generation were delayed after treated with the sublethal doses LC10 and LC25 of chlorantraniliprole. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was decreased by 12.8% and 23.5%, and the net reproductive rate (R0) was decreased by 37.4% and 68.7%, respectively. Meanwhile, the mean generation time (T) and population doubling time (t) were delayed. Overall, the sublethal doses of chlorantraniliprole could suppress the population growth of N. lugens.

  1. Suppression of BCL2 by Antisense Oligonucleotides and Compensation by Non-Targeted Genes May Enhance Tumor Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Marvin; Hollowell, Courtney M P; Guinan, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides have been used to target regulatory proteins in both in vivo and in vitro models of prostate cancer. Our previous studies showed that oligonucleotide-treated LNCaP prostate cancer cells compensate for diminished expression of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2), an apoptosis inhibitor, by suppressing the expression of caspase-3 (an apoptosis promoter) while enhancing that of serine/threonine protein kinase (AKT1) (another apoptosis inhibitor). In addition, we found an enhanced expression of the androgen receptor (AR), its p300 and interleukin-6 (IL6) co-activators, polymerase transcription mediator (MED12), and growth-regulating signal transducer (STAT3). The net result was an altered pattern of gene expression often associated with more aggressive and proliferative tumors. To further evaluate adaptive compensatory mechanisms related to tumor resistance, aggression and proliferation, herein we evaluated the level of expression of a proliferation antigen (KI-67) and mitosis-regulating cyclins (B1 and D1). Compared to the relative levels of compensation detailed above, we found the expression of KI-67 to be statistically the most enhanced non-targeted protein yet identified in compensation for suppression of BCL2. Expression of cyclin D1 was also significantly enhanced, although to a much lesser extent. As a result, we propose that oligonucleotide-mediated treatment could be more effective when directed towards KI-67 and BCL2. This could be accomplished by dual monospecific targeting KI-67 and BCL2, or with a bispecific (or proposed multispecific) oligonucleotide simultaneously targeting both. Copyright © 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. General strategies to increase the repeatability in non-target screening by liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Tobias; Schulz, Wolfgang; Kümmerer, Klaus; Winzenbacher, Rudi

    2016-09-01

    This article focuses on the data evaluation of non-target high-resolution LC-MS profiles of water samples. Taking into account multiple technical replicates, the difficulties in peak recognition and the related problems of false positive and false negative findings are systematically demonstrated. On the basis of a combinatorial approach, different models involving sophisticated workflows are evaluated, particularly with regard to the repeatability. In addition, the improvement resulting from data processing was systematically taken into consideration where the recovery of spiked standards emphasized that real peaks of interest were barely or not removed by the derived filter criteria. The comprehensive evaluation included different matrix types spiked with up to 263 analytical standards which were analyzed repeatedly leading to a total number of more than 250 injections that were incorporated in the assessment of different models of data processing. It was found that the analysis of multiple replicates is the key factor as, on the one hand, it provides the option of integrating valuable filters in order to minimize the false positive rate and, on the other hand, allows correcting partially false negative findings occurring during the peak recognition. The developed processing strategies including replicates clearly point to an enhanced data quality since both the repeatability as well as the peak recognition could be considerably improved. As proof of concept, four different matrix types, including a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, were spiked with 130 isotopically labeled standards at different concentration levels. Despite the stringent filter criteria, at 100 ng L(-1) recovery rates of up to 93% were reached in the positive ionization mode. The proposed model, comprising three technical replicates, filters less than 5% and 2% of the standards recognized at 100 and 500 ng L(-1), respectively and thus indicates the general applicability of the

  3. Two non-target mechanisms are involved in glyphosate-resistant horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) biotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torralva, Fidel; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Luque de Castro, María D; Mülleder, Norbert; De Prado, Rafael

    2012-11-15

    The physiological and biochemical bases for glyphosate resistance and susceptibility in horseweed (Conyza canadensis L. Cronq.) populations collected from Córdoba, Huelva, Málaga, Jaén and Seville in southern Spain were investigated. Screening 25 populations treated with glyphosate (238gacidequivalentha(-1)) at the rosette stage (BBCH 14-15) revealed reductions in fresh weight (fw) of 9-99%. The resistant biotype (R C004) was 6.1 times more resistant than the susceptible biotype (S). Shikimate accumulation in both biotypes increased until 72h after treatment (HAT), and then continued to increase (to 61.2%) in the S biotype, but decreased by 40% in the R (C004) biotype. Differential glyphosate spray retention and foliar uptake of applied (14)C-glyphosate between the R (C004) and S biotype had no effect on resistance to this herbicide. Quantitative and qualitative tests showed greater (14)C-glyphosate mobility in the S biotype than in the R (C004) biotype. Glyphosate was metabolized faster in the R (C004) biotype than in the S biotype. The herbicide disappeared completely from the R (C004) biotype by conversion into glyoxylate, sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid within 96 HAT. On the other hand, 41.43nmolg(-1)fw of all glyphosate applied remained in the S biotype and glyoxylate was its only non-toxic metabolite. These results suggest that glyphosate resistance in horseweed is due to two different non-target mechanisms, namely: (a) impaired glyphosate translocation and (b) glyphosate metabolism to other compounds.

  4. Target and Non-Target Site Mechanisms Developed by Glyphosate-Resistant Hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L. Populations from Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alcántara-de la Cruz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L. has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2 and one susceptible (S were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and EPSPS gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20.4 and 2.8-fold less glyphosate sensitive, respectively, than the S population. The resistant populations showed a lesser shikimic acid accumulation than the S population. In the latter one, 24.9% of 14C-glyphosate was translocated to the roots at 96 h after treatment; in the R1 and R2 populations only 12.9 and 15.5%, respectively, was translocated. Qualitative results confirmed the reduced 14C-glyphosate translocation in the resistant populations. The EPSPS enzyme activity of the S population was 128.4 and 8.5-fold higher than the R1 and R2 populations of glyphosate-treated plants, respectively. A single (Pro-106-Ser, and a double (Thr-102-Ile followed by Pro-106-Ser mutations were identified in the EPSPS2 gene conferred high resistance in R1 population. Target-site mutations associated with a reduced translocation were responsible for the higher glyphosate resistance in the R1 population. The low-intermediate resistance of the R2 population was mediated by reduced translocation. This is the first glyphosate resistance case confirmed in hairy beggarticks in the world.

  5. Non-targeted metabolite profiling and scavenging activity unveil the nutraceutical potential of psyllium (Plantago ovata Forsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Kumar Patel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Non–targeted metabolomics implies that psyllium (Plantago ovata is a rich source of natural antioxidants, PUFAs (ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids and essential and sulphur–rich amino acids, as recommended by the FAO for human health. Psyllium contains phenolics and flavonoids that possess reducing capacity and ROS scavenging activities. In leaves, seeds and husks, about 76%, 78%, 58% polyunsaturated, 21%, 15%, 20% saturated and 3%, 7%, 22% monounsaturated fatty acids were found, respectively. A range of FAs (C12 to C24 was detected in psyllium and among different plant parts, a high content of the nutritive indicators ω-3 alpha–linolenic acid (57% and ω-6 linoleic acid (18% was detected in leaves. Similarly, total content of phenolics and the essential amino acid valine were also detected utmost in leaves followed by sulphur-rich amino acids and flavonoids. In total, 36 different metabolites were identified in psyllium, out of which 26 (13 each metabolites were detected in leaves and seeds, whereas the remaining 10 were found in the husk. Most of the metabolites are natural antioxidants, phenolics, flavonoids or alkaloids and can be used as nutrient supplements. Moreover, these metabolites have been reported to have several pharmaceutical applications, including anti-cancer activity. Natural plant ROS scavengers, saponins, were also detected. Based on metabolomic data, the probable presence of a flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was inferred, which provides useful insight for metabolic engineering in the future. Non-targeted metabolomics, antioxidants and scavenging activities reveal the nutraceutical potential of the plant and also suggest that psyllium leaves can be used as a green salad as a dietary supplement to daily food.

  6. Effect of fluazifop-p-butyl treatment on pigments and polyamines level within tissues of non-target maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbowicz, Marcin; Sempruch, Cezary; Kosson, Ryszard; Koczkodaj, Danuta; Walas, Dajana

    2013-09-01

    Fluazifop-p-butyl (FL) is one of the most popular graminicides from arylophenoxypropionate group. These herbicides act as inhibitors of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) that catalyzes the formation of malonyl-CoA during metabolism of lipids and/or of some secondary compounds. On the other hand arylopropionates and cyclohexanediones cause phytotoxic effects by stimulating free-radicals generation and causing oxidative stress in susceptible plants. However, the importance of disturbances in plant pigments and polyamines accumulation for this effect is not clear. The aim of this work is to quantify the phytotoxicity of FL to non target maize plant and to explain how photosynthetic pigments, anthocyanins (ANC) and polyamines participate in this interaction. Obtained results showed reduction of chlorophyll a and b, but only in case of the highest herbicide dose. Lower FL concentrations caused increase of the photosynthetic pigments, or were not effective. A similar effect was stated for putrescine, while spermidine was reduced within epicotyl of leaf tissues. In case of 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), there was observed a lack of significant changes within leaves and an increase in epicotyl under the middle and the highest dose of the herbicide. Moreover, FL induced ANC accumulation in epicotyls of maize seedlings. The activity of such key enzymes of polyamine biosynthesis as: ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and lysine decarboxylase (LDC), increased in leaves treated with herbicide at the lowest concentration and decreased under the highest. However, in case of epicotyls the decreasing tendency was observed with the exception of ODC under the highest FL dose. The activity of tyrosine decarboxylase (TyDC) was importantly elevated only within epicotyls under the lower FL concentrations. It was concluded that FL inhibits maize growth, and the intensity of the effect is positively correlated with the herbicide concentration. The phenomenon was related to changes in content of

  7. Target and Non-target Site Mechanisms Developed by Glyphosate-Resistant Hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) Populations from Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Ozuna, Carmen V.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Cruz-Hipolito, Hugo E.; Domínguez-Valenzuela, José A.; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    In 2014 hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) has been identified as being glyphosate-resistant in citrus orchards from Mexico. The target and non-target site mechanisms involved in the response to glyphosate of two resistant populations (R1 and R2) and one susceptible (S) were studied. Experiments of dose-response, shikimic acid accumulation, uptake-translocation, enzyme activity and 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene sequencing were carried out in each population. The R1 and R2 populations were 20.4 and 2.8-fold less glyphosate sensitive, respectively, than the S population. The resistant populations showed a lesser shikimic acid accumulation than the S population. In the latter one, 24.9% of 14C-glyphosate was translocated to the roots at 96 h after treatment; in the R1 and R2 populations only 12.9 and 15.5%, respectively, was translocated. Qualitative results confirmed the reduced 14C-glyphosate translocation in the resistant populations. The EPSPS enzyme activity of the S population was 128.4 and 8.5-fold higher than the R1 and R2 populations of glyphosate-treated plants, respectively. A single (Pro-106-Ser), and a double (Thr-102-Ile followed by Pro-106-Ser) mutations were identified in the EPSPS2 gene conferred high resistance in R1 population. Target-site mutations associated with a reduced translocation were responsible for the higher glyphosate resistance in the R1 population. The low-intermediate resistance of the R2 population was mediated by reduced translocation. This is the first glyphosate resistance case confirmed in hairy beggarticks in the world. PMID:27752259

  8. A statistical simulation model for field testing of non-target organisms in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Paul W; van der Voet, Hilko; Baldacchino, Ferdinando; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2014-04-01

    Genetic modification of plants may result in unintended effects causing potentially adverse effects on the environment. A comparative safety assessment is therefore required by authorities, such as the European Food Safety Authority, in which the genetically modified plant is compared with its conventional counterpart. Part of the environmental risk assessment is a comparative field experiment in which the effect on non-target organisms is compared. Statistical analysis of such trials come in two flavors: difference testing and equivalence testing. It is important to know the statistical properties of these, for example, the power to detect environmental change of a given magnitude, before the start of an experiment. Such prospective power analysis can best be studied by means of a statistical simulation model. This paper describes a general framework for simulating data typically encountered in environmental risk assessment of genetically modified plants. The simulation model, available as Supplementary Material, can be used to generate count data having different statistical distributions possibly with excess-zeros. In addition the model employs completely randomized or randomized block experiments, can be used to simulate single or multiple trials across environments, enables genotype by environment interaction by adding random variety effects, and finally includes repeated measures in time following a constant, linear or quadratic pattern in time possibly with some form of autocorrelation. The model also allows to add a set of reference varieties to the GM plants and its comparator to assess the natural variation which can then be used to set limits of concern for equivalence testing. The different count distributions are described in some detail and some examples of how to use the simulation model to study various aspects, including a prospective power analysis, are provided.

  9. Effects of herbicides on non-target plants: How do effects in standard plant tests relate to effects in natural habitats?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg, Beate; Bruus, Marianne; Kjær, Christian;

    areas where risk assessment seems to be insufficient. The most extensive conclusion is that seed production is a more sensible end-point for risk assessment of herbicides than the currently used end-point biomass. Crop species, in general, were not less sensitive to herbicides than non-target species...

  10. Non Target Effect of Cry1 Ab and Cry Ab x Cry3 Bb1 Bt Transgenic Maize on Orius Insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-target effects of Cry1Ab x CP4 EPSPS and Cry1Ab + Cry3Bb1 x CP4 EPSPS Bt transgenic new maize hybrids on insidious flower bugs [Orius insidiosus (Say)] was studied in Nebraska (Mead, C lay Center, and Concord) during 2007 and 2008. The Bt effect was compared to CP4 EPSPS maize (isoline), convent...

  11. Meta-Analysis of PECS with Individuals with ASD: Investigation of Targeted versus Non-Targeted Outcomes, Participant Characteristics, and Implementation Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jennifer B.; Davis, John L.; Lund, Emily M.; Goodwyn, Fara D.; Simpson, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is a widely used picture/icon aided augmentative communication system designed for learners with autism and other developmental disorders. This meta-analysis analyzes the extant empirical literature for PECS relative to targeted (functional communication) and non-targeted concomitant outcomes…

  12. An ecosystem services approach to pesticide risk assessment and risk management of non-target terrestrial plant: recommendations from a SETAC Europe workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, G.H.P.; Dollinger, M.; Kohlschmid, E.; Maltby, L.; Ochoa-Acuna, H.; Poulsen, V.

    2015-01-01

    The registration of plant protection products (PPPs) in the EU is under Regulation 1107/2009, which recommends a tiered approach to assessing the risk to non-target terrestrial plants (NTTPs). However, little information is provided on how to perform and implement higher tier studies or how to use t

  13. Control of Aedes albopictus with attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and potential impact on non-target organisms in St. Augustine, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revay, Edita E; Müller, Gunter C; Qualls, Whitney A; Kline, Daniel L; Naranjo, Diana P; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Yefremova, Zoya; Hausmann, Axel; Beier, John C; Schlein, Yosef; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of bait stations and foliar applications containing attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and eugenol to control Aedes albopictus. At the same time, the potential impact of these control methods was evaluated on non-target organisms. The study was conducted at five tire sites in St. Augustine, Florida. A. albopictus populations were significantly reduced with ATSB-eugenol applications applied directly to non-flowering vegetation and as bait stations compared with non-attractive sugar baits and control. The application of ATSB made to non-flowering vegetation resulted in more significant reductions of mosquito populations compared to the application of ATSB presented in a bait station. Over 5.5% of the non-targets were stained in the flowering vegetation application site. However, when the attractive sugar bait application was made to non-flowering vegetation or presented in bait stations, the impact on non-target insects was very low for all non-target orders as only 0.6% of the individual insects were stained with the dye from the sugar solutions, respectively. There were no significant differences between the staining of mosquitoes collected in flowering vegetation (206/1000) or non-flowering vegetation (242/1000) sites during the non-target evaluation. Our field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling the dengue vector A. albopictus when used as an ATSB toxin and demonstrates potential use in sub-tropical and tropical environments for dengue control.

  14. [Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp.--environmental studies in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Bednarska, Małgorzata; Siński, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and many other species of mammals. The aim of this article was to summarize the last twenty years of research on the environmental distribution of these parasites, with a particular emphasis on the natural reservoir of invasion and human infections in Poland. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia has been studied in different groups of humans, in wildlife, pets and farm animals and in environmental samples. Current knowledge on the distribution of zoonotic and non-zoonotic species/genotypes in reservoir hosts and environmental samples has been summarized. The usefulness of different methods for the detection and identification of the parasites in different types of samples has been presented. Due to the wide distribution and high prevalence of both species in a range of hosts and possible vectors involved in mechanical transmission, the overall risk of outbreaks of cryptosporidiosis and giardiosis in Poland has been assessed as relatively high.

  15. Can an aquatic macrophyte bioaccumulate glyphosate? A watershed scale study using a non-target hydrophyte Ludwigia peploides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Debora; Okada, Elena; Menone, Mirta; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The hydrophyte Ludwigia peploides is widely distributed in South America streams, and therefore, it can be used as a biomonitor for pesticides used in agricultural production. Glyphosate is one of the main pesticides used in Argentina. This has resulted in its occurrence in non-target wetland ecosystems. The objectives of this study were to: 1) establish and validate an extraction and quantification methodology for glyphosate in L.peploides plants, and 2) evaluated the role of this species as a glyphosate biomonitor in the agricultural watershed of the El Crespo stream. For the first objective, we collected plant material in the field. The leaves were dissected and oven dried at 60° C, grinded and sieved through a 0.5 mm mesh. Different solutions were tested for the extraction step. Labeled glyphosate was used as an internal standard to evaluate the recovery rate and the matrix effect of the different extraction methods. Glyphosate was derivatized with FMOC-Cl and then quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to a mass tandem spectrometer (MS/MS). The method based on an aqueous phase extraction step 0.01 mg/mL of activated carbon as a clean-up to decrease the matrix interference had a recovery of 117 ± 20% and the matrix effect was less than 20%. This method was used to analyze the glyphosate levels in L.peploides in the El Crespo stream. For the second objective, plants of L.peploides were collected on March 2016 in eight monitoring sites of the stream from the headwaters to the stream mouth. Surface water and sediments samples were collected at the same time to calculate the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and biota-sediment bioaccumulation factors (BSAFs). The BCFs ranged between 28.57 - 280 L/Kg and the BSAFs ranged between 2.52- 30.66 at different sites. These results indicate that L.peploides can bioaccumulated glyphosate in its leaves and the major bioavailability is given mainly by the herbicide molecules present in surface

  16. Insulin sensitivity is reflected by characteristic metabolic fingerprints--a Fourier transform mass spectrometric non-targeted metabolomics approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Lucio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A decline in body insulin sensitivity in apparently healthy individuals indicates a high risk to develop type 2 diabetes. Investigating the metabolic fingerprints of individuals with different whole body insulin sensitivity according to the formula of Matsuda, et al. (ISI(Matsuda by a non-targeted metabolomics approach we aimed a to figure out an unsuspicious and altered metabolic pattern, b to estimate a threshold related to these changes based on the ISI, and c to identify the metabolic pathways responsible for the discrimination of the two patterns. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By applying infusion ion cyclotron resonance Fourier transform mass spectrometry, we analyzed plasma of 46 non-diabetic subjects exhibiting high to low insulin sensitivities. The orthogonal partial least square model revealed a cluster of 28 individuals with alterations in their metabolic fingerprints associated with a decline in insulin sensitivity. This group could be separated from 18 subjects with an unsuspicious metabolite pattern. The orthogonal signal correction score scatter plot suggests a threshold of an ISI(Matsuda of 15 for the discrimination of these two groups. Of note, a potential subgroup represented by eight individuals (ISI(Matsuda value between 8.5 and 15 was identified in different models. This subgroup may indicate a metabolic transition state, since it is already located within the cluster of individuals with declined insulin sensitivity but the metabolic fingerprints still show some similarities with unaffected individuals (ISI >15. Moreover, the highest number of metabolite intensity differences between unsuspicious and altered metabolic fingerprints was detected in lipid metabolic pathways (arachidonic acid metabolism, metabolism of essential fatty acids and biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids, steroid hormone biosyntheses and bile acid metabolism, based on data evaluation using the metabolic annotation interface Mass

  17. Genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananavičiūtė, Rūta; Čitavičius, Donaldas

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Geobacillus are thermophiles that are of great biotechnological importance, since they are sources of many thermostable enzymes. Because of their metabolic versatility, geobacilli can be used as whole-cell catalysts in processes such as bioconversion and bioremediation. The effective employment of Geobacillus spp. requires the development of reliable methods for genetic engineering of these bacteria. Currently, genetic manipulation tools and protocols are under rapid development. However, there are several convenient cloning vectors, some of which replicate autonomously, while others are suitable for the genetic modification of chromosomal genes. Gene expression systems are also intensively studied. Combining these tools together with proper techniques for DNA transfer, some Geobacillus strains were shown to be valuable producers of recombinant proteins and industrially important biochemicals, such as ethanol or isobutanol. This review encompasses the progress made in the genetic engineering of Geobacillus spp. and surveys the vectors and transformation methods that are available for this genus.

  18. Increased plasma C-reactive protein level predicts rapid progression of non-target atherosclerotic lesions in patients with stable angina after stenting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yan-lu; MA Wei-hua; YAO Min; LIU Hai-bo; WU Yong-jian; CHEN Jue; YOU Shi-jie; DAI Jun; XIA Ran; GAO Run-lin; LI Jian-jun; XU Bo; ZHUCheng-gang; YANG Yue-jin; CHEN Ji-lin; QIAO Shu-bing; YUAN Jin-qing; QIN Xue-wen

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in predicting rapid progression of atherosclerotic lesions has been intensively studied in unstable coronary artery disease, the data from patients with stable angina (SA) are largely absent. The present study evaluated a middle-size patient cohort who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation and follow-up coronary angiography (CAG) and tested the hypothesis that increased plasma level of high-sensitive CRP would indicate rapid progression of de novo non-target coronary artery lesions in Chinese patients with SA.Methods The study population comprised of 311 consecutive patients with chronic SA who underwent coronary stent implantation on initial admission and angiographic follow-up ((8.5±1.2) months). Rapid angiographic progression of non-target lesion was angiographically assessed and the patients were classified into two groups according to whether the progression existed or not. The relation of plasma CRP levels to the progression of atherosclerosis was investigated.Results Baseline demographic, clinical, and angiographic data were similar in patients with and without progression.Rapid angiographic progression of non-target lesions occurred in 136 patients (43.7%) at follow-up: 77 had a ≥10%diameter reduction of pre-existing stenosis ≥50%, 26 had a ≥30% diameter reduction of a pre-existing stenosis <50%, 64 developed a new lesion ≥30% in a previously normal segment, and 4 had progression of a lesion to total occlusion.Progression of non-target lesions was not associated with target lesion restenosis formation. High-sensitive CRP levels were markedly higher in progression patients than in non-progression ones (1.60 (0.80-3.46) mg/L vs. 0.96 (0.55-1.87)mg/L, P <0.001). Multivariate regression analysis showed that plasma CRP independently predicted rapid angiographic progression of non-target lesions (P=0.001). High-sensitive CRP levels above 1.32 mg

  19. 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) reduces activity of ammonia oxidizers without adverse effects on non-target soil microorganisms and functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Xianwang; Duan, Yun-Feng (Kevin); Schramm, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    The nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) is widely used within agriculture to reduce nitrate leaching and improve nitrogen use efficiency of fertilizers, but few studies examined effects on non-target soil functions and microorganisms, i.e. other than the intended delay......) and archaea (AOA) were quantified, and cell-specific nitrification rates were estimated. There was a general trend of increasing AOA and AOB abundance towards the end of incubation irrespective of DMPP treatment, whereas cell-specific activity of AOA and/or AOB was reduced in the presence of DMPP. Overall......, this study indicated that DMPP effectively inhibited nitrification activity without effects on ammonia oxidizer populations, as well as non-target soil microorganisms or functions....

  20. Toxicity of noradrenaline, a novel anti-biofouling component, to two non-target zooplankton species, Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overturf, C L; Wormington, A M; Blythe, K N; Gohad, N V; Mount, A S; Roberts, A P

    2015-05-01

    Noradrenaline (NA) is the active component of novel antifouling agents and acts by preventing attachment of fouling organisms. The goal of this study was to examine the toxicity of NA to the non-target zooplankton D. magna and C. dubia. Neonates were exposed to one of five concentrations of NA and effects on survival, reproduction and molting were determined. Calculated LC50 values were determined to be 46 and 38 μM in C. dubia and D. magna, respectively. A 10-day C. dubia study found that reproduction metrics were significantly impacted at non-lethal concentrations. In D. magna, concentrations greater than 40 μM significantly impacted molting. A toxicity test was conducted with D. magna using oxidized NA, which yielded similar results. These data indicate that both NA and oxidized NA are toxic to non-target zooplankton. Results obtained from this study can be used to guide future ecological risk assessments of catecholamine-based antifouling agents.

  1. Non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation: II. Radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander effects in vivo, clastogenic factors and transgenerational effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William F.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this review is to summarize the evidence for non-targeted and delayed effects of exposure to ionizing radiation in vivo. Currently, human health risks associated with radiation exposures are based primarily on the assumption that the detrimental effects of radiation occur in irradiated cells. Over the years a number of non-targeted effects of radiation exposure in vivo have been described that challenge this concept. These include radiation-induced genomic instability, bystander effects, clastogenic factors produced in plasma from irradiated individuals that can cause chromosomal damage when cultured with nonirradiated cells, and transgenerational effects of parental irradiation that can manifest in the progeny. These effects pose new challenges to evaluating the risk(s) associated with radiation exposure and understanding radiation-induced carcinogenesis.

  2. Non-target organism effects tests on Vip3A and their application to the ecological risk assessment for cultivation of MIR162 maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raybould, Alan; Vlachos, Demetra

    2011-06-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) provide economic, environmental and health benefits by maintaining or increasing crop yields with fewer applications of insecticide. To sustain these benefits, it is important to delay the evolution of insect resistance to the proteins, and to ensure that the proteins do not harm non-target organisms, particularly those that may control secondary pests that would otherwise flourish because of reduced insecticide applications. Vip3A is a Bt vegetative insecticidal protein that is active against lepidopterous pests. It has a different mode of action from other proteins for control of Lepidoptera in current Bt crops, and when combined with these proteins, it should help to delay the evolution of pest resistance to Bt crops. This paper presents data on the effects of Vip3A on non-target organisms, and an ecological risk assessment of MIR162 maize, which expresses Vip3Aa20. Laboratory studies indicate few adverse effects of Vip3A to non-target organisms: 11 of 12 species tested showed no adverse effects when exposed to high concentrations of Vip3A relative to estimated exposures resulting from cultivation of MIR162 maize. Daphnia magna exposed to Vip3Aa20 were unaffected in terms of survival or fecundity, but grew slightly more slowly than unexposed controls. The data indicate that cultivation of MIR162 maize poses negligible risk to non-target organisms, and that crops producing Vip3A are unlikely to adversely affect biological control organisms such that benefits from reduced insecticide applications are lost.

  3. Influence of eye size and beam entry angle on dose to non-targeted tissues of the eye during stereotactic x-ray radiosurgery of AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Justin L.; Hanlon, Justin; Chell, Erik; Lee, Choonsik; Smith, W. Clay; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2013-10-01

    Age-related macular degeneration is a leading cause of vision loss for the elderly population of industrialized nations. The IRay® Radiotherapy System, developed by Oraya® Therapeutics, Inc., is a stereotactic low-voltage irradiation system designed to treat the wet form of the disease. The IRay System uses three robotically positioned 100 kVp collimated photon beams to deliver an absorbed dose of up to 24 Gy to the macula. The present study uses the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX to assess absorbed dose to six non-targeted tissues within the eye—total lens, radiosensitive tissues of the lens, optic nerve, distal tip of the central retinal artery, non-targeted portion of the retina, and the ciliary body--all as a function of eye size and beam entry angle. The ocular axial length was ranged from 20 to 28 mm in 2 mm increments, with the polar entry angle of the delivery system varied from 18° to 34° in 2° increments. The resulting data showed insignificant variations in dose for all eye sizes. Slight variations in the dose to the optic nerve and the distal tip of the central retinal artery were noted as the polar beam angle changed. An increase in non-targeted retinal dose was noted as the entry angle increased, while the dose to the lens, sensitive volume of the lens, and ciliary body decreased as the treatment polar angle increased. Polar angles of 26° or greater resulted in no portion of the sensitive volume of the lens receiving an absorbed dose of 0.5 Gy or greater. All doses to non-targeted structures reported in this study were less than accepted thresholds for post-procedure complications.

  4. Target and non-target screening strategies for organic contaminants, residues and illicit substances in food , environmental and human biological samples by UHPLC-QTOF-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Hernández, Félix; Díaz San Pedro, Ramón; Sancho Llopis, Juan Vicente; Ibáñez Martínez, María

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we illustrate the potential of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOF MS) for large scale screening of organic contaminants in different types of samples. Thanks to the full-spectrum acquisition at satisfactory sensitivity, it is feasible to apply both (post)-target and non-target approaches for the rapid qualitative screening of organic pollutants in food, biological and environmental samples. ...

  5. Control of Aedes albopictus with attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and potential impact on non-target organisms in St. Augustine, Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Revay, Edita E.; Müller, Gunter C; Qualls, Whitney A.; Kline, Daniel; Naranjo, Diana P.; Arheart, Kristopher L; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Yfremova, Zoya; Hausmann,Axel; Beier, John C.; Schlein, Yosef; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of bait stations and foliar applications containing attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) and eugenol to control Aedes albopictus. At the same time the potential impact of these control methods was evaluated on non-target organisms. The study was conducted at five tire sites in St. Augustine, Florida. Aedes albopictus populations were significantly reduced with ATSB-eugenol applications applied directly to non-flowering vegetation and as bait s...

  6. No association between the use of Bti for mosquito control and the dynamics of non-target aquatic invertebrates in French coastal and continental wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagadic, Laurent; Schäfer, Ralf B; Roucaute, Marc; Szöcs, Eduard; Chouin, Sébastien; de Maupeou, Jérôme; Duchet, Claire; Franquet, Evelyne; Le Hunsec, Benoit; Bertrand, Céline; Fayolle, Stéphanie; Francés, Benoît; Rozier, Yves; Foussadier, Rémi; Santoni, Jean-Baptiste; Lagneau, Christophe

    2016-05-15

    The environmental safety of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is still controversial, mainly because most of the previous field studies on its undesired effects were spatially limited and did not address the relationship between community similarity and application time and frequency. No general statement can therefore be drawn on the usage conditions of Bti that insure protection of non-target organisms. The present study was conducted in eight sites distributed over the main geographical sectors where mosquito control is implemented in mainland France and Corsica. Changes in non-target aquatic invertebrates were followed at elapsed time after repeated applications of two Bti formulations (VectoBac® WDG or 12AS) up to four consecutive years. We examined the influence of both larvicide treatments and environmental variables on community dynamics and dissimilarity between treated and control areas. As it can be argued that chironomids are the most vulnerable group of non-target invertebrates, we scrutinised potential Bti-related effects on the dynamics of their community. The use of VectoBac® WDG and 12AS in coastal and continental wetlands had no immediate or long-term detectable effect on the taxonomic structure and taxa abundance of non-target aquatic invertebrate communities, including chironomids. This applied to the main habitats where mosquito larvae occur, regardless of their geographic location. Flooding, whose frequency and duration depend on local meteorological and hydrological conditions, was identified as the main environmental driver of invertebrate community dynamics. Our findings add support to the environmental safety of currently available Bti formulations when following recommended application rates and best mosquito control practices.

  7. Review: biosafety assessment of Bt rice and other Bt crops using spiders as example for non-target arthropods in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huilin; Peng, Yuande; Tian, Jianxiang; Wang, Juan; Hu, Jilin; Song, Qisheng; Wang, Zhi

    2017-04-01

    Since the birth of transgenic crops expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin for pest control, the public debate regarding ecological and environmental risks as well as benefits of Bt crops has continued unabated. The impact of Bt crops, especially on non-target invertebrates, has received particular attention. In this review, we summarize and analyze evidences for non-target effects of Bt rice on spiders, major predators in rice fields. Bt rice has been genetically modified to express the Bt protein, which has been shown to be transferred and accumulate in spiders as part of their food chain. Moreover, the Bt protein exhibits unintended effects on the physiology of spiders and spreads to higher trophic levels. Spiders possess unique physiological and ecological characteristics, revealing traits of surrogate species, and are thus considered to be excellent non-target arthropod model systems for study of Bt protein impacts. Due to the complexities of Bt protein transfer and accumulation mechanisms, as well as the apparent lack of information about resulting physiological, biochemical, and ecological effects on spiders, we raise questions and provide recommendations for promising further research.

  8. No association between the use of Bti for mosquito control and the dynamics of non-target aquatic invertebrates in French coastal and continental wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagadic, Laurent, E-mail: Laurent.Lagadic@rennes.inra.fr [INRA, UMR985 Écologie et Santé des Écosystèmes, Agrocampus Ouest, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, F-35042 Rennes (France); Schäfer, Ralf B. [Quantitative Landscape Ecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Roucaute, Marc [INRA, UMR985 Écologie et Santé des Écosystèmes, Agrocampus Ouest, 65 rue de Saint Brieuc, F-35042 Rennes (France); Szöcs, Eduard [Quantitative Landscape Ecology, Institute for Environmental Sciences, University of Koblenz-Landau, Fortstraße 7, D-76829 Landau (Germany); Chouin, Sébastien; Maupeou, Jérôme de [Etablissement Interdépartemental pour la Démoustication du Littoral Atlantique, 1 rue Toufaire, F-17300 Rochefort-sur-Mer (France); Duchet, Claire [Entente Interdépartementale pour la Démoustication du Littoral Méditerranéen, 165 avenue Paul-Rimbaud, F-34184 Montpellier (France); and others

    2016-05-15

    The environmental safety of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is still controversial, mainly because most of the previous field studies on its undesired effects were spatially limited and did not address the relationship between community similarity and application time and frequency. No general statement can therefore be drawn on the usage conditions of Bti that insure protection of non-target organisms. The present study was conducted in eight sites distributed over the main geographical sectors where mosquito control is implemented in mainland France and Corsica. Changes in non-target aquatic invertebrates were followed at elapsed time after repeated applications of two Bti formulations (VectoBac® WDG or 12AS) up to four consecutive years. We examined the influence of both larvicide treatments and environmental variables on community dynamics and dissimilarity between treated and control areas. As it can be argued that chironomids are the most vulnerable group of non-target invertebrates, we scrutinised potential Bti-related effects on the dynamics of their community. The use of VectoBac® WDG and 12AS in coastal and continental wetlands had no immediate or long-term detectable effect on the taxonomic structure and taxa abundance of non-target aquatic invertebrate communities, including chironomids. This applied to the main habitats where mosquito larvae occur, regardless of their geographic location. Flooding, whose frequency and duration depend on local meteorological and hydrological conditions, was identified as the main environmental driver of invertebrate community dynamics. Our findings add support to the environmental safety of currently available Bti formulations when following recommended application rates and best mosquito control practices. - Highlights: • Bti is used in a variety of continental and coastal wetlands against mosquito larvae. • Bti dosages recommended for mosquito control do not affect non-target invertebrates.

  9. [Mycoses and zoonoses: Cryptococcus spp].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabañes, F Javier

    2008-03-01

    The term "zoonosis" is difficult to delimit because different authors have various definitions for this term. Few mycoses are usually considered zoonoses. However, the role that animals play in the epidemiology of the main human mycoses is still not well known. Moreover, the environmental niches for these fungal agents have not yet been completely determined. This special issue of the "Revista Iberoamericana de Micología" deals with the talks and round table presented at the VIII Spanish Mycological Congress held in October 2006 in Barcelona, Spain on "Cryptococcus spp. and zoonoses".

  10. Genetic characterization of Salmonella and Shigella spp. isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to investigate the presence of bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. ... between river water and riverbed sediment isolates for Salmonella spp. and Shigella .... conditions, and the other was preserved in 1 mL of 15% glycerol.

  11. Effect of seed kernel aqueous extract from Annona squamosa against three mosquito vectors and its impact on non-target aquatic organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandran Ramanibai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicity of Annona squamosa (A. squamosa aqueous (physiological saline seed soluble extract and its control of mosquito population. Methods: Ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of A. squamosa crude soluble seed kernel extract was determined according to World Health Organization. The mortality of each mosquito stage was recorded after 24 h exposured to plant material. Toxicity assay was used to assess the non-target organisms with different concentrations according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Results: The aqueous solubilized extracts of A. squamosa elicit the toxicity against all stages of Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus, and the LC50 values against stages of egg, 1st-4th larvae were (1.45 and 1.26–2.5 mg/mL, (1.12 and 1.19–2.81 mg/ mL and (1.80 and 2.12–3.41 mg/mL respectively. The pupicidal activity also brought forth amended activity against all three mosquitoes species, and the LC50 values were consider to be 3.19, 2.42 and 4.47 mg/mL. Ultimately there was no mortality observed from non-target organism of Chironomus costatus. Conclusions: Based on the findings of the study, it suggests that the use of A. squamosa plant extract can act as an alternate insecticidal agents for controlling target mosquitoes without affecting the non-target aquatic insect. Further investigation to identify the active compounds and their mechanisms of action is recommended.

  12. Developing risk hypotheses and selecting species for assessing non-target impacts of GM trees with novel traits: the case of altered-lignin pine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Louise A; Todd, Jacqui H; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Walter, Christian; Wagner, Armin; Barratt, Barbara I P

    2010-01-01

    A procedure is presented for developing environmental risk hypotheses associated with the deployment of forest trees genetically modified to have altered wood properties and for selecting non-target species to test these hypotheses. Altered-lignin Pinus radiata trees intended for use in New Zealand are used as a hypothetical case study to illustrate our approach. Firstly, environmental management goals (such as wood production, flood control or preservation of biodiversity) were identified and linked to the forest attributes they require. Necessary conditions for each attribute were listed and appropriate assessment endpoints for them developed. For example, biological control of pests may be one condition necessary for a forest to have healthy trees, and the diversity and abundance of natural enemy species in the forest could be an appropriate assessment endpoint for measuring this condition. A conceptual model describing the relationships between an altered-lignin GM pine tree and potentially affected invertebrates and micro-organisms in a plantation forest was used to develop a set of risk hypotheses describing how the GM trees might affect each assessment endpoint. Because purified lignin does not represent the properties it imparts to wood, maximum hazard dose tests with non-target organisms, as are used to inform toxin risk assessment, cannot be conducted. Alternative experiments, based on current knowledge of the responses of organisms to lignin, must be designed. A screening method was adapted and applied to a database of invertebrate species known to inhabit New Zealand pine forests to identify and prioritize non-target invertebrate species that could be used as experimental subjects for examining these hypotheses. The screening model and its application are presented, along with a set of recommendations for pre-release tests with GM pines and potentially affected invertebrates and micro-organisms.

  13. Effect of trap color and height on captures of blunt-nosed and sharp-nosed leafhoppers (hemiptera: cicadellidae) and non-target arthropods in cranberry bogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of field experiments were conducted in cranberry bogs in 2006-2010 to determine adult attraction of the two most economically important leafhopper pests of cultivated Vaccinium spp. in the northeast USA, the blunt-nosed leafhopper, Limotettix vaccinii, and sharp-nosed leafhopper, Scaphytopi...

  14. Effect studies of human pharmaceuticals on Fucus vesiculosus and Gammarus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, Hanna; Eriksson Wiklund, Ann-Kristin; Lindh, Karolina; Kumblad, Linda

    2012-03-01

    In two experiments, the human pharmaceutical propranolol negatively affected the physiology of two test organisms, Fucus vesiculosus and Gammarus spp. from a Baltic Sea littoral community in a concentration of 1000 μg l⁻¹. Some effects were also observed for the lower, more ecologically relevant concentrations (10 μg l⁻¹ and 100 μg l⁻¹). The effects on F. vesiculosus not only increased with increasing concentration, but also with exposure time; while the effects on Gammarus spp. were more inconsistent over time. No clear effects of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and ibuprofen were observed for any of the organisms. Physiological parameters measured were GP:R-ratio, chlorophyll fluorescence and release of coloured dissolved organic matter, respiration and ammonium excretion. Pharmaceutical substances are repeatedly detected in the Baltic Sea which is the recipient for STP effluents from more than 85 million people living in the catchment area, but the knowledge of their effects on non-target organisms is still very limited.

  15. Toxicity of plant essential oils to different life stages of the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, and non-target invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D R; Sparagano, O A E; Port, G; Okello, E; Shiel, R S; Guy, J H

    2010-03-01

    Seven essential oils with potential as acaricides for use against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) (Acari: Dermanyssidae), were selected for study. These products (essential oils of manuka, cade, pennyroyal, thyme, garlic, clove bud and cinnamon bark) were deployed against different life stages of D. gallinae in laboratory tests at the (lethal concentration) LC(50) level for adult mites. For all essential oils tested, toxicity to D. gallinae juveniles was as high as toxicity to adults, if not higher. However, at the LC(50) level determined for adults, some oils were ineffective in preventing hatching of D. gallinae eggs. The essential oils were also tested under laboratory conditions at their LC(90) levels for D. gallinae adults on two model non-target species, the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (L.), and the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (L.). Results showed that not all essential oils were as toxic to A. salina and T. molitor as they were to D. gallinae, suggesting that it may be possible to select certain oils for development as acaricides against D. gallinae that would have minimal impact on non-target organisms. However, the level of toxicity to A. salina and T. molitor was not consistent across the selected essential oils.

  16. Identification of the Geographic Origin of Parmigiano Reggiano (P.D.O. Cheeses Deploying Non-Targeted Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bert Popping

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Parmigiano Reggiano is an Italian product with a protected designation of origin (P.D.O.. It is an aged hard cheese made from raw milk. P.D.O. products are protected by European regulations. Approximately 3 million wheels are produced each year, and the product attracts a relevant premium price due to its quality and all around the world well known typicity. Due to the high demand that exceeds the production, several fraudulent products can be found on the market. The rate of fraud is estimated between 20% and 40%, the latter predominantly in the grated form. We have developed a non-target method based on Liquid Chomatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS that allows the discrimination of Parmigiano Reggiano from non-authentic products with milk from different geographical origins or products, where other aspects of the production process do not comply with the rules laid down in the production specifications for Parmeggiano Reggiano. Based on a database created with authentic samples provided by the Consortium of Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese, a reliable classification model was built. The overall classification capabilities of this non-targeted method was verified on 32 grated cheese samples. The classification was 87.5% accurate.

  17. Identification of the Geographic Origin of Parmigiano Reggiano (P.D.O.) Cheeses Deploying Non-Targeted Mass Spectrometry and Chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popping, Bert; De Dominicis, Emiliano; Dante, Mario; Nocetti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Parmigiano Reggiano is an Italian product with a protected designation of origin (P.D.O.). It is an aged hard cheese made from raw milk. P.D.O. products are protected by European regulations. Approximately 3 million wheels are produced each year, and the product attracts a relevant premium price due to its quality and all around the world well known typicity. Due to the high demand that exceeds the production, several fraudulent products can be found on the market. The rate of fraud is estimated between 20% and 40%, the latter predominantly in the grated form. We have developed a non-target method based on Liquid Chomatography-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (LC-HRMS) that allows the discrimination of Parmigiano Reggiano from non-authentic products with milk from different geographical origins or products, where other aspects of the production process do not comply with the rules laid down in the production specifications for Parmeggiano Reggiano. Based on a database created with authentic samples provided by the Consortium of Parmigiano Reggiano Cheese, a reliable classification model was built. The overall classification capabilities of this non-targeted method was verified on 32 grated cheese samples. The classification was 87.5% accurate. PMID:28231093

  18. A mathematical model of exposure of non-target Lepidoptera to Bt-maize pollen expressing Cry1Ab within Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J N; Devos, Y; Arpaia, S; Bartsch, D; Gathmann, A; Hails, R S; Kiss, J; Lheureux, K; Manachini, B; Mestdagh, S; Neemann, G; Ortego, F; Schiemann, J; Sweet, J B

    2010-05-01

    Genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 expresses a Cry1Ab insecticidal protein, derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), toxic to lepidopteran target pests such as Ostrinia nubilalis. An environmental risk to non-target Lepidoptera from this GM crop is exposure to harmful amounts of Bt-containing pollen deposited on host plants in or near MON810 fields. An 11-parameter mathematical model analysed exposure of larvae of three non-target species: the butterflies Inachis io (L.), Vanessa atalanta (L.) and moth Plutella xylostella (L.), in 11 representative maize cultivation regions in four European countries. A mortality-dose relationship was integrated with a dose-distance relationship to estimate mortality both within the maize MON810 crop and within the field margin at varying distances from the crop edge. Mortality estimates were adjusted to allow for physical effects; the lack of temporal coincidence between the susceptible larval stage concerned and the period over which maize MON810 pollen is shed; and seven further parameters concerned with maize agronomy and host-plant ecology. Sublethal effects were estimated and allowance made for aggregated pollen deposition. Estimated environmental impact was low: in all regions, the calculated mortality rate for worst-case scenarios was less than one individual in every 1572 for the butterflies and one in 392 for the moth.

  19. One-pot fabrication of silver nanocrystals using Nicandra physalodes: A novel route for mosquito vector control with moderate toxicity on non-target water bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Khater, Hanem F; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) as vectors for important diseases and parasites causing millions of deaths every year. The use of synthetic pesticides against Culicidae leads to resistance and environmental concerns. Therefore, eco-friendly control tools are a priority. In this research, Nicandra physalodes-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) was conducted, in order to control larval populations of three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. Biofabricated Ag NPs were characterized using UV-vis spectrophotometry, XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, and TEM analyses. Ag NPs were highly toxic against the three mosquito vectors. Maximum efficacy was detected against A. stephensi (LC50=12.39μg/mL), followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50=13.61μg/mL) and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=14.79μg/mL). Interestingly, Ag NPs were safer for the non-target aquatic organism Diplonychus indicus sharing the same aquatic habitats of mosquito larvae. LC50 and LC90 values were 1032.81 and 19,076.59μg/mL, respectively. Overall, our results highlight that N. physalodes-fabricated Ag NPs are a promising for development of eco-friendly larvicides against mosquito vectors, with negligible toxicity against non-target aquatic water bugs.

  20. Surrogate species selection for assessing potential adverse environmental impacts of genetically engineered insect-resistant plants on non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Keri; Cayabyab, Bonifacio; De Schrijver, Adinda; Gadaleta, Patricia G; Hellmich, Richard L; Romeis, Jörg; Storer, Nicholas; Valicente, Fernando H; Wach, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Most regulatory authorities require that developers of genetically engineered insect-resistant (GEIR) crops evaluate the potential for these crops to have adverse impacts on valued non-target organisms (NTOs), i.e., organisms not intended to be controlled by the trait. In many cases, impacts to NTOs are assessed using surrogate species, and it is critical that the data derived from surrogates accurately predict any adverse impacts likely to be observed from the use of the crop in the agricultural context. The key is to select surrogate species that best represent the valued NTOs in the location where the crop is going to be introduced, but this selection process poses numerous challenges for the developers of GE crops who will perform the tests, as well as for the ecologists and regulators who will interpret the test results. These issues were the subject of a conference "Surrogate Species Selection for Assessing Potential Adverse Environmental Impacts of Genetically Engineered Plants on Non-Target Organisms" convened by the Center for Environmental Risk Assessment, ILSI Research Foundation. This report summarizes the proceedings of the conference, including the presentations, discussions and the points of consensus agreed to by the participants.

  1. Impact of pesticides on plant growth promotion of Vigna radiata and non-target microbes: comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sukriti; Gupta, Rashi; Sharma, Shilpi

    2014-08-01

    To compare the target and non-target effects of two chemical-pesticides (chlorpyrifos and endosulfan) with that of a bio-pesticide (azadirachtin), Vigna radiata (mung bean) was grown in a randomized pot experiment with recommended and higher application rates of pesticides. Colony counts enumerating specific microbial populations, viz. fungi, Pseudomonas, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms, were performed. In addition, several plant growth parameters such as root and shoot lengths were also monitored. It was observed that the pesticides exerted a suppressive effect on different microbial communities under study in the initial 30 days period. The bacterial and fungal populations in chlorpyrifos treated plants increased thereafter. Endosulfan resulted in enhancement of fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, although phosphate-solubilizing microorganisms were suppressed at higher application rates. Azadirachtin, which is gaining popularity owing to its biological origin, did not result in enhancement of any microbial populations; on the other hand, it had a deleterious effect on phosphate-solubilizing bacteria. This study is the first to evaluate the non-target effects of pesticides with a comparison between chemical- and bio-pesticides, and also stresses the importance of critical investigation of bio-pesticides before their wide spread application in agriculture.

  2. A reference substance free diagnostic fragment ion-based approach for rapid identification of non-target components in Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chen; Wang, Chong; Zhang, Chunhua; Wang, Guoxiang; Wang, Jin; Chen, Jun; Guo, Bin; Yang, Tianshu; Cai, Bo

    2016-05-30

    Rapid and reliable identification of non-target components in herbal preparations remains a primary challenge, especially when corresponding reference substances are inaccessible. In this work, an efficient post-experiment data processing methodology, named reference substance free diagnostic fragment ion (RSFDFI), was developed based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/LTQ-Orbitrap). The first step of this approach was to cluster the components that share common fragment ions into several groups. After querying the database using a predicted chemical formula, the component with the fewest primary hits was preferentially deduced based on its MS/MS spectrum. Once the structure was characterized, its common fragment ions could be used as the prior structural information to select the possible candidates that would facilitate the subsequent identification for each group. Taking Pudilan Xiaoyan oral liquid (PDL) as a model herbal preparation, which has been extensively used for the treatment of epidemic parotitis and children with hand-foot-mouth diseases, this strategy enables a nearly eight-fold narrowing of the database hits, with fifty-two components, including lignans, flavonoids, alkaloids and steroids, being rapidly identified. In conclusion, our work clearly demonstrates that integrating RSFDFI with high-resolution mass spectrometry is a powerful methodology for rapid identification of non-target components from herbal prescriptions and may open new avenues for chemical analysis in other complex mixtures.

  3. Characterising variances of milk powder and instrumentation for the development of a non-targeted, Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics detection method for the evaluation of authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R; Farris, Samantha; Mossoba, Magdi M; Moore, Jeffrey C; Yakes, Betsy Jean

    2016-06-01

    There is a need to develop rapid tools to screen milk products for economically motivated adulteration. An understanding of the physiochemical variability within skim milk powder (SMP) and non-fat dry milk (NFDM) is the key to establishing the natural differences of these commodities prior to the development of non-targeted detection methods. This study explored the sources of variance in 71 commercial SMP and NFDM samples using Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA) and characterised the largest number of commercial milk powders acquired from a broad number of international manufacturers. Spectral pre-processing using a gap-segment derivative transformation (gap size = 5, segment width = 9, fourth derivative) in combination with sample normalisation was necessary to reduce the fluorescence background of the milk powder samples. PC scores plots revealed no clear trends for various parameters, including day of analysis, powder type, supplier and processing temperatures, while the largest variance was due to irreproducibility in sample positioning. Significant chemical sources of variances were explained by using the spectral features in the PC loadings plots where four samples from the same manufacturer were determined to likely contain an additional component or lactose anomers, and one additional sample was identified as an outlier and likely containing an adulterant or differing quality components. The variance study discussed herein with this large, diverse set of milk powders holds promise for future use as a non-targeted screening method that could be applied to commercial milk powders.

  4. [Non-target screening of organic pollutants in sediments and sludges using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and automated mass spectral deconvolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gang; Ma, Huilian; Wang, Longxing; Chen, Jiping; Hou, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    A screening method in the combination of ultrasonic extraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection and automated mass spectrometry deconvolution technique was developed for non-target screening of non-polar and weak polar pollutants in sediments and sludges. The samples were extracted by ultrasonication for 20 min using dichloromethane for three times. The extraction solutions were cleaned-up by gel permeation chromatography and a silica gel column, and then 3 g of copper powder was used to remove the sulfur by ultrasonication for 10 min. Parallel experiments were carried out for 5 times and the RSDs were ranged from 5.8% to 14.9%. Automated mass spectral deconvolution & identification system (AMDIS) would improve the resolution of overlapping peaks, and identify the pure mass spectrum of the analytes in the cases of stronger background interference and co-extracted substances covering. Standard spectrum databases, such as NISTDRUG, NISTEPA, NISTFDA, Mass Spectral Library, etc, would qualitatively identify the organic pollutants in the samples. As a result, a total of 290 organic pollutants were identified, of which 190 and 153 pollutants were found in sediments and sludges, respectively. The identified pollutants included the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) priority pollutants, pharmaceuticals, herbicides, antioxidants, intermediates, organic solvents and chemical raw materials. The proposed method is proved to be a promising one for non-target screening of complex matrix samples with the advantages of higher sensitivity and better repeatability.

  5. Suspect screening of OH-PAHs and non-target screening of other organic compounds in wood smoke particles using HR-Orbitrap-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Åberg, Magnus; Westerholm, Roger

    2016-11-01

    Wood combustion has been shown to contribute significantly to emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, compounds with toxic and carcinogenic properties. However, only a small number of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been determined in particles from wood combustion, usually compounds with available reference standards. In this present study, suspect and non-target screening strategies were applied to characterize the wood smoke particles from four different wood types and two combustion conditions with respect to hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic compounds. In the suspect screening, 32 peaks corresponding to 12 monohydroxylated masses were tentatively identified by elemental composition assignments and matching of isotopic pattern and fragments. More than one structure was suggested for most of the measured masses. Statistical analysis was performed on the non-target screening data in order to single out significant peaks having intensities that depend on the wood type and/or combustion condition. Significant peaks were found in both negative and positive ionization modes, with unique peaks for each wood type and combustion condition, as well as a combination of both factors. Furthermore, structural elucidation of some peaks was done by comparing the spectra in the samples with spectra found in the spectral databases. Six compounds were tentatively identified in positive ionization mode, and 19 in negative ionization mode. The results in this present study demonstrate that there are significant overall differences in the chemistry of wood smoke particles that depends on both the wood type and the combustion condition used.

  6. Characterising variances of milk powder and instrumentation for the development of a non-targeted, Raman spectroscopy and chemometrics detection method for the evaluation of authenticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunathilaka, Sanjeewa R.; Farris, Samantha; Mossoba, Magdi M.; Moore, Jeffrey C.; Yakes, Betsy Jean

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to develop rapid tools to screen milk products for economically motivated adulteration. An understanding of the physiochemical variability within skim milk powder (SMP) and non-fat dry milk (NFDM) is the key to establishing the natural differences of these commodities prior to the development of non-targeted detection methods. This study explored the sources of variance in 71 commercial SMP and NFDM samples using Raman spectroscopy and principal component analysis (PCA) and characterised the largest number of commercial milk powders acquired from a broad number of international manufacturers. Spectral pre-processing using a gap-segment derivative transformation (gap size = 5, segment width = 9, fourth derivative) in combination with sample normalisation was necessary to reduce the fluorescence background of the milk powder samples. PC scores plots revealed no clear trends for various parameters, including day of analysis, powder type, supplier and processing temperatures, while the largest variance was due to irreproducibility in sample positioning. Significant chemical sources of variances were explained by using the spectral features in the PC loadings plots where four samples from the same manufacturer were determined to likely contain an additional component or lactose anomers, and one additional sample was identified as an outlier and likely containing an adulterant or differing quality components. The variance study discussed herein with this large, diverse set of milk powders holds promise for future use as a non-targeted screening method that could be applied to commercial milk powders. PMID:27167451

  7. Laboratory assessment of the impacts of transgenic Bt rice on the ecological fitness of the soil non-target arthropod, Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yiyang; Xiao, Nengwen; Krogh, Paul Henning; Chen, Fajun; Ge, Feng

    2013-08-01

    Transgenic rice expressing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins (Bt rice) for pest control is considered an important solution to food security in China. However, tests for potential effects on non-target soil organisms are required for environmental risk assessment. The soil collembolan Folsomia candida L. (Collembola: Isotomidae) is a potential non-target arthropod that is often used as a biological indicator in bio-safety assessments of transgenic crops. In the present study, the roots, stems, and leaves of Bt rice were exposed to F. candida under laboratory conditions, with survival, reproduction and growth of the collembolan as ecological fitness parameters. Significant differences in ecological fitness were found among the different treatments, including differences in the plant parts and varieties of non-Bt rice, presumably as the result of three factors: gene modification, plant parts and rice varieties. The fitness of F. candida was less affected by the different diets than by the exposure to the same materials mixed with soil. Our results clearly showed that there was no negative effect of different Bt rice varieties on the fitness of F. candida through either diet or soil exposure.

  8. Fast label-free detection of Legionella spp. in biofilms by applying immunomagnetic beads and Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusić, Dragana; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Legionellae colonize biofilms, can form a biofilm by itself and multiply intracellularly within the protozoa commonly found in water distribution systems. Approximately half of the known species are pathogenic and have been connected to severe multisystem Legionnaires' disease. The detection methods for Legionella spp. in water samples are still based on cultivation, which is time consuming due to the slow growth of this bacterium. Here, we developed a cultivation-independent, label-free and fast detection method for legionellae in a biofilm matrix based on the Raman spectroscopic analysis of isolated single cells via immunomagnetic separation (IMS). A database comprising the Raman spectra of single bacterial cells captured and separated from the biofilms formed by each species was used to build the identification method based on a support vector machine (SVM) discriminative classifier. The complete method allows the detection of Legionella spp. in 100 min. Cross-reactivity of Legionella spp. specific immunomagnetic beads to the other studied genera was tested, where only small cell amounts of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli compared to the initial number of cells were isolated by the immunobeads. Nevertheless, the Raman spectra collected from isolated non-targeted bacteria were well-discriminated from the Raman spectra collected from isolated Legionella cells, whereby the Raman spectra of the independent dataset of Legionella strains were assigned with an accuracy of 98.6%. In addition, Raman spectroscopy was also used to differentiate between isolated Legionella species.

  9. Evaluation of Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) - Barrier for Control of Vector and Nuisance Mosquitoes and Its Effect on Non-target Organisms in Sub-tropical Environments in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    use of the product. In the absence of spe- cific EPA guidelines for non-target evaluations, we designed the non-target experiments coming as close as...2012) demonstrated a high level of staining from feed- ing on ASB (90%) by mosquitoes emerging from cisterns and wells. Based on the demonstrated...of toxic sugar baits against adult cistern - dwelling Anopheles claviger. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. 102, 480–484. Müller, G.C., Schlein, Y., 2006. Sugar

  10. 21 CFR 866.3550 - Salmonella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salmonella spp. serological reagents. 866.3550... spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Salmonella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of antigens and antisera used in serological tests to identify Salmonella spp. from...

  11. A new oligonucleotide microarray for detection of pathogenic and non-pathogenic Legionella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Boyang; Liu, Xiangqian; Yu, Xiang; Chen, Min; Feng, Lu; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila has been recognized as the major cause of legionellosis since the discovery of the deadly disease. Legionella spp. other than L. pneumophila were later found to be responsible to many non-pneumophila infections. The non-L. pneumophila infections are likely under-detected because of a lack of effective diagnosis. In this report, we have sequenced the 16S-23S rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 10 Legionella species and subspecies, including L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. fairfieldensis, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, L. pneumophila subspp. fraseri and L. pneumophila subspp. pasculleii, and developed a rapid oligonucleotide microarray detection technique accordingly to identify 12 most common Legionella spp., which consist of 11 pathogenic species of L. anisa, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. gormanii, L. jordanis, L. longbeachae, L. maceachernii, L. micdadei, and L. pneumophila (including subspp. pneumophila, subspp. fraseri, and subspp. pasculleii) and one non-pathogenic species, L. fairfieldensis. Twenty-nine probes that reproducibly detected multiple Legionella species with high specificity were included in the array. A total of 52 strains, including 30 target pathogens and 22 non-target bacteria, were used to verify the oligonucleotide microarray assay. The sensitivity of the detection was at 1.0 ng with genomic DNA or 13 CFU/100 mL with Legionella cultures. The microarray detected seven samples of air conditioner-condensed water with 100% accuracy, validating the technique as a promising method for applications in basic microbiology, clinical diagnosis, food safety, and epidemiological surveillance. The phylogenetic study based on the ITS has also revealed that the non-pathogenic L. fairfieldensis is the closest to L. pneumophila than the nine other pathogenic Legionella spp.

  12. Multiplex PCR for molecular screening of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Islay; Burri, Caroline; Noda, Angel A; Douet, Véronique; Gern, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Ticks transmit a great variety of pathogenic microorganisms to humans and animals. The detection of tick-borne pathogens (TBP) is mainly by molecular techniques based on polymerase chain reactions (PCR). To design and evaluate a multiplex PCR for the molecular screening of zoonotic TBP for exploratory studies. Control DNA from reference strains, DNA from experimentally-infected biological specimens, and from Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks collected from domestic and homeless dogs were used. A multiplex PCR assay to detect the presence of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. was designed and optimized using primers previously reported for B. burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma spp., while for Babesia spp. they were designed in silico. The multiplex PCR was evaluated on the DNA from biological samples. A new set of specific primers for Babesia spp. was designed. Adjustment of the master mix reactive concentrations and amplification conditions for the multiplex PCR allowed the successful amplification of the specific amplicons for each microbial group from the control DNA and experimentally-infected biological specimens. The efficiency of the multiplex PCR amplifying three DNA targets was confirmed. Individual and co-infection of Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. were detected in the R. sanguineus ticks from dogs. A multiplex PCR assay for the screening of three TBP is available. By using it, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. can be detected accurately in one PCR reaction.

  13. Fermentability of an enzymatically modified solubilised potato polysaccharide (SPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, M.; Gudmand-Høyer, E.; Bergsøe, Merete Norsker;

    1998-01-01

    : Seven healthy volunteers ingested in random order on seven different days: 20 g SPP; bread made of 180 g wheat flour served with 20 g raw SPP; bread baked of 180 g wheat flour and 20 g SPP; bread made from 180 g what flour; 20 g lactulose; 20 g oat bran; and 20 g wheat bran. The hydrogen breath test...... of a meal. CONCLUSIONS: SPP is a fermentable, highly concentrated soluble fibre source. Baking SPP did not interfere with the fermentable properties. Thus, SPP may be interesting as a fibre-supplement in fibre-poor diets. The change in oro-coecal transit time for SPP, depending on the composition...

  14. One-pot biogenic fabrication of silver nanocrystals using Quisqualis indica: Effectiveness on malaria and Zika virus mosquito vectors, and impact on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Vijayan, Periasamy; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Currently, mosquito vector control is facing a number of key challenges, including the rapid development of resistance to synthetic pesticides and the recent spread of aggressive arbovirus outbreaks. The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is currently considered an environmental friendly alternative to the employ of pyrethroids, carbamates and microbial agents (e.g. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis), since AgNPs are easy to produce, effective and stable in the aquatic environment. However, their biophysical features showed wide variations according to the botanical agent using for the green synthesis, outlining the importance of screening local floral resources used as reducing and stabilizing agents. In this study, we focused on the biophysical properties and the mosquitocidal action of Quisqualis indica-fabricated AgNPs. AgNPs were characterized using spectroscopic (UV, FTIR, XRD) and microscopic (AFM, SEM, TEM and EDX) techniques. AFM, SEM and TEM confirmed the synthesis of poly-dispersed AgNPs with spherical shape and size ranging from 1 to 30nm. XRD shed light on the crystalline structure of these AgNPs. The acute toxicity of Quisqualis indica extract and AgNPs was evaluated against malaria, arbovirus, and filariasis vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, as well as on three important non-target aquatic organisms. The Q. indica leaf extract showed moderate larvicidal effectiveness on Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=220.42), Ae. aegypti (LC50=203.63) and An. stephensi (LC50=185.98). Q. indica-fabricated AgNPs showed high toxicity against Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=14.63), Ae. aegypti (LC50=13.55) and An. stephensi (LC50=12.52), respectively. Notably, Q. indica-synthesized AgNPs were moderately toxic to non-target aquatic mosquito predators Anisops bouvieri (LC50=653.05μg/mL), Diplonychus indicus (LC50=860.94μg/mL) and Gambusia affinis (LC50=2183.16μg/mL), if compared to the targeted mosquitoes. Overall, the

  15. Genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Regine Adelheid Kohler

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of the third domain of life, the Archaea, is one of the most exciting findings of the last century. These remarkable prokaryotes are well known for their adaptations to extreme environments; however, Archaea have also conquered moderate environments. Many of the archaeal biochemical processes, such as methane production, are unique in nature and therefore of great scientific interest. Although formerly restricted to biochemical and physiological studies, sophisticated systems for genetic manipulation have been developed during the last two decades for methanogenic archaea, halophilic archaea and thermophilic, sulfur-metabolizing archaea. The availability of these tools has allowed for more complete studies of archaeal physiology and metabolism and most importantly provides the basis for the investigation of gene expression, regulation and function. In this review we provide an overview of methods for genetic manipulation of Methanosarcina spp., a group of methanogenic archaea that are key players in the global carbon cycle and which can be found in a variety of anaerobic environments.

  16. Differentiation of Phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Kuzmanović

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulties in differentiation of phytopathogenic Agrobacterium spp. and lack of a standardized protocol, we carried out selection and evaluation of suitable methods based on the bacterial physiological, genetic and pathogenic properties. Strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes and A. vitis were differentiated using standard bacteriological and molecular methods. The biochemical and physiological tests confirmed authenticity of the strains. Two duplex PCR methods were conducted with four different primer pairs. In all strains, presence of plasmid virD2 and virC pathogenicity genes was detected. Chromosomal pehA gene was determined in A. vitis strain. Pathogenicity was confirmed on carrot slices and young plants of tomato and sunflower. Strains of A. tumefaciens and A. vitis were pathogenic on all test plants, while strain of A. rhizogenes induced characteristic symptoms only on carrot slices. The tests used in this study provided reliable discrimination between the three species and confirmed their identity as tumorigenic (TiAgrobacterium tumefaciens and A. vitis, and rhizogenic (Ri A. rhizogenes.

  17. IMPORTANCE OF ARCOBACTER SPP. IN POULTRY MEAT

    OpenAIRE

    Ertaş, Necla

    2009-01-01

    The genus Arcobacter, previously known as aerotolerant Campylobacters were isolated from aborted bovine and porcine fetuses. Arcobacter spp. differ from Campylobacter spp. by their ability to grow at lower temperatures and in air. The genus Arcobacter comprises six species. Arcobacter nitrofigilis, Arcobacter halophilus and Arcobacter sulfidicus are environmental-related species. No association with human or animal infection has been reported. The other species, Arcobacter butzleri,Arcobacter...

  18. Strongyloides spp. infections of veterinary importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig M.; Ketzis, Jennifer; Horii, Yoichiro

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the occurrence and impact of threadworms, Strongyloides spp., in companion animals and large livestock, the potential zoonotic implications and future research. Strongyloides spp. infect a range of domestic animal species worldwide and clinical disease is most often encountered...... of Strongyloides species in relation to different hosts. More research is urgently needed on the potential zoonotic capacity of Strongyloides from dogs and cats based on molecular typing, information on risk factors and mapping of transmission routes....

  19. The multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis: A review of its biology, uses in biological control, and non-target impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Koch

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the last century, the multicolored Asian lady beetle, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas has been studied quite extensively, with topics ranging from genetics and evolution to population dynamics and applied biological control being covered. Much of the early work on H. axyridis was conducted in the native Asian range. From the 1980's to the present, numerous European and North American studies have added to the body of literature on H. axyridis. H. axyridis has recently gained attention in North America both as a biological control agent and as a pest. This literature review was compiled for two reasons. First, to assist other researchers as a reference, summarizing most of the voluminous body of literature on H. axyridis pertaining to its biology, life history, uses in biological control, and potential non-target impacts. Secondly, to be a case study on the impacts of an exotic generalist predator.

  20. The effect of antibiotics and diet on enterolactone concentration and metabolome studied by targeted and non-targeted LC-MS metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou

    2017-01-01

    with antibiotics resulted in substantially lower concentrations of ENL compared to concentrations detected in untreated animals, whereas the plasma concentrations of plant lignans were unchanged. Both diet and antibiotic treatment affected the clustering of urinary metabolites, and significantly altered......High plant lignan intake is associated with a number of health benefits, possibly induced by the lignan metabolite enterolactone (ENL). The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in converting dietary lignans into ENL, and epidemiological studies have shown that use of antibiotics is associated...... with lower levels of ENL. Here, we investigate the link between antibiotic use and lignan metabolism in pigs using LC-MS/MS. The effect of lignan intake and antibiotic use on the gut microbial community and the pig metabolome is studied by 16S rRNA sequencing and non-targeted LC-MS. Treatment...

  1. Non-target effects of the microbial control agents Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54 and Clonostachys rosea IK726 in soils cropped with barley followed by sugar beet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Anders; Knudsen, Inge M.B.; Binnerup, Svend J.

    2005-01-01

    on plant growth or soil microorganisms. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis detected the perturbations of the soil microbial community structure in the MCA treatments as well as the return to non- perturbed conditions reflecting the decline of inoculant populations. The PLFA technique appears......Non-target effects of a bacterial (Pseudomonas fluorescens DR54) and a fungal (Clonostachys rosea IK726) microbial control agent (MCA), on the indigenous microbiota in bulk soil and rhizosphere of barley, and subsequent a sugar beet crop, were studied in a greenhouse experiment. MCAs were...... introduced by seed and soil inoculation. Bulk and rhizosphere soils were sampled regularly during the growth of barley and sugar beet. The soils were assayed for the fate of MCAs and various features of the indigenous soil microbiota. At the end of the experiment (193 d), DR54 and IK726 had declined...

  2. Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronimus, Alexander; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2007-05-01

    Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern.

  3. Non-targeted acquisition strategy for screening doping compounds based on GC-EI-hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry: A focus on exogenous anabolic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Albuquerque Cavalcanti, Gustavo; Rodrigues, Lucas Martins; Dos Santos, Leonardo; Zheng, Xin; Gujar, Amit; Cole, Jason; Padilha, Monica Costa; de Aquino Neto, Francisco Radler

    2017-06-10

    This is a first look at a non-targeted screening method based on Orbitrap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technology for a large number of banned compounds in sports found in urine, including exogenous anabolic steroids, β-agonists, narcotics, stimulants, hormone modulators, and diuretics. A simple sample preparation was processed in four steps: an enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction, evaporation, and trimethylsilylation. All compounds were able to meet the World Anti-Doping Agency's sensitivity criteria with mass accuracies less than 1 ppm and with sufficient points across the peak by running the Orbitrap GC-MS in full-scan mode. In addition, we discuss our initial findings of using a full-scan selected ion monitoring-tandem mass spectrometry (SIM-MS/MS) approach as a way to obtain lower detection limits and reach desirable selectivity for some exogenous anabolic steroids. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. (Non-targeted) radioactive/fluorescent nanoparticles and their potential in combined pre- and intraoperative imaging during sentinel lymph node resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckle, Tessa; Chin, Patrick T K; Van Leeuwen, Fijs W B, E-mail: fw.v.leeuwen@nki.nl [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Oncology at the Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-12-03

    One clinical precedent for the use of nanosized imaging agents is the localization of the tumor draining sentinel lymph nodes. In this application, radiocolloids such as {sup 99m}Tc-NanoColl are currently used to plan the surgical procedure and to provide acoustic guidance during the intervention. Additional injections of dyes are common to provide optical surgical guidance. Bimodal imaging agents, which are both radioactive and fluorescent, have the potential to be used for both surgical planning and intraoperative fluorescence guidance towards the sentinel lymph nodes. This review provides an overview of the radioactive, fluorescent, and size properties of (non-targeted) bimodal nanoparticles, and their (potential) value in sentinel lymph node detection. (topical review)

  5. Anti-Lymphoma Efficacy Comparison of Anti-Cd20 Monoclonal Antibody-Targeted and Non-Targeted Star-Shaped Polymer-Prodrug Conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Lidický

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe the synthesis and biological properties of two types of star-shaped polymer-doxorubicin conjugates: non-targeted conjugate prepared as long-circulating high-molecular-weight (HMW polymer prodrugs with a dendrimer core and a targeted conjugate with the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb rituximab (RTX. The copolymers were linked to the dendrimer core or to the reduced mAb via one-point attachment forming a star-shaped structure with a central antibody or dendrimer surrounded by hydrophilic polymer chains. The anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX was attached to the N-(2-hydroxypropylmethacrylamide (HPMA-based copolymer chain in star polymer systems via a pH-labile hydrazone linkage. Such polymer-DOX conjugates were fairly stable in aqueous solutions at pH 7.4, and the drug was readily released in mildly acidic environments at pH 5–5.5 by hydrolysis of the hydrazone bonds. The cytotoxicity of the polymer conjugates was tested on several CD20-positive or negative human cell lines. Similar levels of in vitro cytotoxicity were observed for all tested polymer conjugates regardless of type or structure. In vivo experiments using primary cell-based murine xenograft models of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma confirmed the superior anti-lymphoma efficacy of the polymer-bound DOX conjugate when compared with the original drug. Targeting with RTX did not further enhance the anti-lymphoma efficacy relative to the non-targeted star polymer conjugate. Two mechanisms could play roles in these findings: changes in the binding ability to the CD-20 receptor and a significant loss of the immunological properties of RTX in the polymer conjugates.

  6. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: a case study on non-target effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kun; Deng, Su; Wang, RongJiang; Yan, FengMing; Xu, ChongRen

    2008-02-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  7. Comparison of hepatic transcription profiles of locked ribonucleic acid antisense oligonucleotides: evidence of distinct pathways contributing to non-target mediated toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiuchi-Kiyota, Satoko; Koza-Taylor, Petra H; Mantena, Srinivasa R; Nelms, Linda F; Enayetallah, Ahmed E; Hollingshead, Brett D; Burdick, Andrew D; Reed, Lori A; Warneke, James A; Whiteley, Lawrence O; Ryan, Anne M; Mathialagan, Nagappan

    2014-03-01

    Development of LNA gapmers, antisense oligonucleotides used for efficient inhibition of target RNA expression, is limited by non-target mediated hepatotoxicity issues. In the present study, we investigated hepatic transcription profiles of mice administered non-toxic and toxic LNA gapmers. After repeated administration, a toxic LNA gapmer (TS-2), but not a non-toxic LNA gapmer (NTS-1), caused hepatocyte necrosis and increased serum alanine aminotransferase levels. Microarray data revealed that, in addition to gene expression patterns consistent with hepatotoxicity, 17 genes in the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) pathway were altered in the TS-2 group. TS-2 significantly down-regulated myosin 1E (Myo1E), which is involved in release of clathrin-coated pits from plasma membranes. To map the earliest transcription changes associated with LNA gapmer-induced hepatotoxicity, a second microarray analysis was performed using NTS-1, TS-2, and a severely toxic LNA gapmer (HTS-3) at 8, 16, and 72 h following a single administration in mice. The only histopathological change observed was minor hepatic hypertrophy in all LNA groups across time points. NTS-1, but not 2 toxic LNA gapmers, increased immune response genes at 8 and 16 h but not at 72 h. TS-2 significantly perturbed the CME pathway only at 72 h, while Myo1E levels were decreased at all time points. In contrast, HTS-3 modulated DNA damage pathway genes at 8 and 16 h and also modulated the CME pathway genes (but not Myo1E) at 16 h. Our results may suggest that different LNAs modulate distinct transcriptional genes and pathways contributing to non-target mediated hepatotoxicity in mice.

  8. Environmental benignity of a pesticide in soft colloidal hydrodispersive nanometric form with improved toxic precision towards the target organisms than non-target organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, A P B; Sastry, Thotapalli P; Manigandan, Subramani; Mukherjee, Amitava; Chandrasekaran, Natarajan

    2017-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases are of major concern as they cause devastating health effects, morbidity, and mortality in the human population. Conventional pesticides have failed to curb the mosquito population due to the development of insensitivity in mosquitoes. Hence, higher dosages of pesticides along with their toxic solubilizers have been employed, which have led to raise in pesticide pollution load, environmental toxicity, and human health concerns. As a realisation for the requirement of alternative pesticides, the present study has involved in the formulation of a hydrodispersive nanometric colloidal form of deltamethrin (NDM), a type-II pyrethroid pesticide, from its hydroimmisicible parental form (PDM). The mean hydrodynamic diameter of the droplets was found to be 30.6±4.6nm by dynamic light scattering study (DLS). High-resolution transmission electron micrographs have revealed the spherical structure of the droplets with a size range of 35-40nm. The NDM was found to possess sedimentation resistance, intrinsic and hydrodispersive stability. The toxicity of NDM and PDM was comparatively investigated on target organisms (Culex tritaeniorhynchus and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes) and non-target organisms (Allium cepa - Bioindicator of toxicants and Rhizobium sp. - Soil bacteria). As comparative to PDM, NDM has exerted higher efficacy on adult mosquito and larval population, even at low-level concentrations. However, in the case of non-target organisms, the NDM toxicity was lower than PDM. Comprehensively, the study has concluded the potential advantage of formulating conventional pesticides into nanometric soft colloidal form for the improved toxic precision on target organisms (mosquitoes). This ensures the ability of NDM to combat against the mosquito population even at lower concentrations, thereby reducing the pesticide exposure load towards the environment and human population.

  9. Biological effects of the anti-parasitic chemotherapeutant emamectin benzoate on a non-target crustacean, the spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros Brandt, 1851) under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Ikonomou, Michael G. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Buday, Craig [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC, V7H 1V2 (Canada); Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Cabecinha, Melissa [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dubetz, Cory; Chamberlain, Jon [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Pittroff, Sabrina; Vallee, Kurtis [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC, V7H 1V2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    The potential impact of commercial salmon aquaculture along the coast of British Columbia on the health of non-target marine wildlife is of growing concern. In the current initiative, the biological effects on gene expression within spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros) exposed to the sea lice controlling agent, emamectin benzoate (EB; 0.1-4.8 mg/kg sediment), were investigated. A mean sediment/water partitioning coefficient (K{sub p}) was determined to be 21.81 and significant levels of EB were detected in the tail muscle tissue in all exposed animals. Animals selected for the experiment did not have eggs and were of similar weight. Significant mortality was observed within 8 days of EB treatment at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.8 mg/kg and there was no effect of EB on molting. Twelve spot prawn cDNA sequences were isolated from the tail muscle either by directed cloning or subtractive hybridization of control versus EB exposed tissues. Three of the transcripts most affected by EB exposure matched sequences encoding the 60S ribosomal protein L22, spliceosome RNA helicase WM6/UAP56, and the intracellular signal mediator histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 suggesting that translation, transcription regulation, and apoptosis pathways were impacted. The mRNA encoding the molting enzyme, {beta}-N-acetylglucosaminidase, was not affected by EB treatment. However, the expression of this transcript was extremely variable making it unsuitable for effects assessment. The results suggest that short-term exposure to EB can impact biological processes within this non-target crustacean.

  10. A review of 29 incidents involving 4-aminopyridine in non-target species reported to the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mary Kay; Khan, Safdar

    2013-12-01

    4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) is an avicide used in products that are approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to control populations of various birds. Pharmaceutical 4-AP is also used in humans to treat neural and muscular dysfunctions associated with multiple sclerosis. Although strict restrictions for its use are in place, exposures to 4-AP bait by non-target species still occur. Twenty-nine exposures of 4-AP bait involving non-target species were identified and retrieved from the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center medical record database. Canines were the most commonly exposed (86 %) species followed by felines (10 %). The highest frequency of exposures was reported from Colorado (22 %). Most commonly reported clinical signs in canines were tremors, hypersalivation, seizures, tachycardia, and ataxia. The onset time of signs ranged from 5 to 300 min with an average of 89 min. Clinical signs lasted from 15 to 84 h with an average of 37 h. Patient outcome was known in six cases; one dog died 4 h after the exposure and five made full recovery with supportive care. Treatment of five surviving patients included administration of activated charcoal, use of anticonvulsants and muscle relaxants like diazepam and methocarbamol, and intravenous fluids. Diagnosis of 4-AP toxicosis can be supported by testing the gastric contents of the exposed patient. Due to the rapid absorption, samples need to be collected and frozen/chilled promptly. For successful patient outcome, treatment must be implemented quickly after an exposure.

  11. Laboratory evaluation of aqueous leaf extract of Tephrosia vogelii against larvae of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weisheng; Huang, Congling; Wang, Kun; Fu, Jiantao; Cheng, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2015-06-01

    Mosquito control using insecticides has been the most successful intervention known to reduce malaria prevalence or incidence. However, vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. In this research, the leaf aqueous leachate of Tephrosia vogelii was evaluated for its toxicity against larvae of the most invasive mosquito worldwide, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), and toward adults of the water flea, Daphnia magna (Cladocera: Crustacea) and Oreochromis niloticus, two non-target aquatic organisms that share the same ecological niche of A. albopictus. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii was evaluated against fourth-instar larvae, non-blood fed 3-5 days old laboratory strains of A. albopictus under laboratory condition. In addition, the objective of the present work was to study the environmental safety evaluation for aquatic ecosystem. Mortality was then recorded after 7d exposure. The leaf aqueous leachate of T. vogelii showed high mosquitocidal activity against larvae of A. albopictus, with a LC50=1.18μg/mL. However, it had a remarkable acute toxicity also toward adults of the non-target arthropod D. magna, with a LC50=0.47μg/L and O. niloticus with a LC50=5.31μg/L. The present findings have important implications in the practical control of mosquito larvae in the aquatic ecosystem, as the medicinal plants studied are commonly available in large quantities. The extract could be used in stagnant water bodies for the control of mosquitoes acting as vector for many communicable diseases.

  12. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids:A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioassays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines (GK12 and GK19) and their pa-rental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes, were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes. Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches influenced the cotton aphids’ searching behaviors effectively; and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  13. Leaf surface factors of transgenic Bt cotton associated with the feeding behaviors of cotton aphids: A case study on non-target effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Kun; DENG Su; WANG RongJiang; YAN FengMing; XU ChongRen

    2008-01-01

    The present paper reports case study results of the risk assessment of transgenic Bt cotton on a non-target pest, cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii. Several types of techniques, i.e., electrical penetration graph (EPG), light and electron microscopy, bioessays and chemical analysis, were applied to investigate physical and chemical leaf factors of 2 transgenic Bt cotton lines(GK12 and GK19) and their parental non-Bt cotton line (Simian3) associated with searching and feeding behaviors of cotton aphids on leaves or leaf extracts of cotton plants. EPG results showed that there were some differences among behaviors of cotton aphids on 2 Bt cotton and 1 non-Bt cotton lines. Cotton aphids performed similarly to leaf surface extracts from 3 cotton lines; and leaf surface chemicals, mainly volatiles and waxes,were almost identical in the components and concentrations among the cotton lines. However, three cotton lines were quite different from each other in the densities of certain kinds of covering trichomes.Therefore, the relationships between the physical characteristics and the searching behaviors of cotton aphids on the three cotton lines were constructed as the regression equations. Glandular trichomes and covering trichomes with 5 branches Influenced the cotton aphids' searching behaviors effectively;and other trichomes with other branches affected aphids in varying ways. These results demonstrated that leaf surface physical factors of transgenic Bt cotton lines different from their parental non-Bt line could affect the penetration behaviors of non-target cotton aphids. Cotton aphids penetrate and feed more easily on two Bt cotton lines than on the non-Bt cotton line.

  14. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  15. Molecular Detection of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in Ruminants from Twelve Provinces of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Haixiang; Kelly, Patrick John; Zhang, Jilei; Luo, Qinghua; Yang, Yi; Mao, Yongjiang; Yang, Zhangping; Li, Jing; Wu, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that are of significant economic importance as they can infect large and small ruminants and also people. There is little information on anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in ruminants in China. 16S rRNA FRET-qPCRs were used to screen convenience whole blood samples from 2,240 domestic ruminants in 12 provinces of China for Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. Positive samples were further analyzed with a standard PCR for the gltA. Anaplasma spp. DNA was detected in the sheep (11.7%; 13/111), goats (81.8%; 219/270), cattle (13.2%; 241/1,830), and water buffaloes (6.9%; 2/29). Ehrlichia spp. DNA was detected in sheep (1.8%; 2/111), goats (1.1%; 3/270), and cattle (3.6%; 65/1830) but not in water buffaloes (0/29). Sequencing of gltA PCR products showed that A. marginale, A. ovis, Ehrlichia canis, and Ehrlichia sp. (JX629807) were present in ruminants from China, while the 16S rRNA FRET-qPCR sequence data indicated that there might also be A. platys, A. phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp. BL126-13 (KJ410243), and Anaplasma sp. JC3-6 (KM227012). Our study shows that domestic ruminants from China are not uncommonly infected with a variety of Anaplasma spp. and Ehrlichia spp. PMID:28096822

  16. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Svobodová

    Full Text Available Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize, confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009-2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86. Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the abundance and diversity of plant dwelling insects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017 and non-Bt (DK315 untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability.

  18. Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered Maize Resistant to Diabrotica spp.: Influence on Above-Ground Arthropods in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Zdeňka; Skoková Habuštová, Oxana; Hutchison, William D.; Hussein, Hany M.; Sehnal, František

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic maize MON88017, expressing the Cry3Bb1 toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize), confers resistance to corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp.) and provides tolerance to the herbicide glyphosate. However, prior to commercialization, substantial assessment of potential effects on non-target organisms within agroecosystems is required. The MON88017 event was therefore evaluated under field conditions in Southern Bohemia in 2009–2011, to detect possible impacts on the above-ground arthropod species. The study compared MON88017, its near-isogenic non-Bt hybrid DK315 (treated or not treated with the soil insecticide Dursban 10G) and two non-Bt reference hybrids (KIPOUS and PR38N86). Each hybrid was grown on five 0.5 ha plots distributed in a 14-ha field with a Latin square design. Semiquantitative ELISA was used to verify Cry3Bb1 toxin levels in the Bt maize. The species spectrum of non-target invertebrates changed during seasons and was affected by weather conditions. The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis was the most abundant species in all three successive years. The next most common species were aphids Rhopalosiphum padi and Metopolophium dirhodum. Frequently observed predators included Orius spp. and several species within the Coccinellidae. Throughout the three-year study, analysis of variance indicated some significant differences (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the abundance and diversity of plant dwelling insects was similar in maize with the same genetic background, for both Bt (MON88017) and non-Bt (DK315) untreated or insecticide treated. KIPOUS and PR38N86 showed some differences in species abundance relative to the Bt maize and its near-isogenic hybrid. However, the effect of management regime on arthropod community was insignificant and accounted only for a negligible portion of the variability. PMID:26083254

  19. Development of sample extraction and clean-up strategies for target and non-target analysis of environmental contaminants in biological matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baduel, Christine; Mueller, Jochen F; Tsai, Henghang; Gomez Ramos, Maria Jose

    2015-12-24

    Recently, there has been an increasing trend towards multi-targeted analysis and non-target screening methods as a means to increase the number of monitored analytes. Previous studies have developed biomonitoring methods which specifically focus on only a small number of analytes with similar physico-chemical properties. In this paper, we present a simple and rapid multi-residue method for simultaneous extraction of polar and non-polar organic chemicals from biological matrices, containing up to 5% lipid content. Our method combines targeted multi-residue analysis using gas chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QqQ-MS/MS) and a multi-targeted analysis complemented with non-target screening using liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS/MS). The optimization of the chemical extraction procedure and the effectiveness of different clean-up methods were evaluated for two biological matrices: fish muscle (lipid content ∼2%) and breast milk (∼4%). To extract a wide range of chemicals, the partition/extraction procedure used for the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach was tested as the initial step for the extraction of 77 target compounds covering a broad compound domain. All the target analytes have different physico-chemical properties (log Kow ranges from -0.3 to 10) and cover a broad activity spectrum; from polar pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care products (PPCPs) to highly lipophilic chemicals such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochloride pesticides (OCPs). A number of options were explored for the clean-up of lipids, proteins and other impurities present in the matrix. Zirconium dioxide-based sorbents as dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) and protein-lipid removal filter cartridges (Captiva ND Lipids) provided the best results for GC-MS and LC-MS analysis

  20. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti Soares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans.Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy. The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol.Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests.Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection.

  1. Prevalence of Brucella spp in humans1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Catharina de Paula Oliveira Cavalcanti; Teles, José Andreey Almeida; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; Silva, Stemberg Oliveira Firmino; Cruz, Maria Vilma Rocha Andrade; da Silva-Júnior, Francisco Feliciano

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella spp in humans. Method: this is an observational study, developed with 455 individuals between 18 and 64 years old, who use the Estratégia de Saúde da Família (Brazil's family health strategy). The serum samples of volunteers underwent buffered acid antigen tests, such as screening, agar gel immunodiffusion and slow seroagglutination test in tubes and 2-Mercaptoethanol. Results: among the samples, 1.98% has responded to buffered-acid antigen, 2.85% to agar gel immunodiffusion test and 1.54% to the slow seroagglutination tests on tubes/2-Mercaptoethanol. The prevalence of Brucella spp was 4.4%, represented by the last two tests. Conclusion: the results of this research suggest that the studied population is exposed to Brucella spp infection. PMID:26487143

  2. Analysis of the common deletions in the mitochondrial DNA is a sensitive biomarker detecting direct and non-targeted cellular effects of low dose ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schilling-Toth, Boglarka; Sandor, Nikolett; Kis, Eniko [Department of Molecular and Tumor Radiobiology, Frederic Joliot-Curie National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Anna u 5, H-1221 Budapest (Hungary); Kadhim, Munira [Genomic Instability Research Group, School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Safrany, Geza, E-mail: safrany.geza@osski.hu [Department of Molecular and Tumor Radiobiology, Frederic Joliot-Curie National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Anna u 5, H-1221 Budapest (Hungary); Hegyesi, Hargita [Department of Molecular and Tumor Radiobiology, Frederic Joliot-Curie National Research Institute for Radiobiology and Radiohygiene, Anna u 5, H-1221 Budapest (Hungary)

    2011-11-01

    One of the key issues of current radiation research is the biological effect of low doses. Unfortunately, low dose science is hampered by the unavailability of easily performable, reliable and sensitive quantitative biomarkers suitable detecting low frequency alterations in irradiated cells. We applied a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) based protocol detecting common deletions (CD) in the mitochondrial genome to assess direct and non-targeted effects of radiation in human fibroblasts. In directly irradiated (IR) cells CD increased with dose and was higher in radiosensitive cells. Investigating conditioned medium-mediated bystander effects we demonstrated that low and high (0.1 and 2 Gy) doses induced similar levels of bystander responses and found individual differences in human fibroblasts. The bystander response was not related to the radiosensitivity of the cells. The importance of signal sending donor and signal receiving target cells was investigated by placing conditioned medium from a bystander response positive cell line (F11-hTERT) to bystander negative cells (S1-hTERT) and vice versa. The data indicated that signal sending cells are more important in the medium-mediated bystander effect than recipients. Finally, we followed long term effects in immortalized radiation sensitive (S1-hTERT) and normal (F11-hTERT) fibroblasts up to 63 days after IR. In F11-hTERT cells CD level was increased until 35 days after IR then reduced back to control level by day 49. In S1-hTERT cells the increased CD level was also normalized by day 42, however a second wave of increased CD incidence appeared by day 49 which was maintained up to day 63 after IR. This second CD wave might be the indication of radiation-induced instability in the mitochondrial genome of S1-hTERT cells. The data demonstrated that measuring CD in mtDNA by qRT-PCR is a reliable and sensitive biomarker to estimate radiation-induced direct and non-targeted effects.

  3. Analysis of the common deletions in the mitochondrial DNA is a sensitive biomarker detecting direct and non-targeted cellular effects of low dose ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling-Tóth, Boglárka; Sándor, Nikolett; Kis, Eniko; Kadhim, Munira; Sáfrány, Géza; Hegyesi, Hargita

    2011-11-01

    One of the key issues of current radiation research is the biological effect of low doses. Unfortunately, low dose science is hampered by the unavailability of easily performable, reliable and sensitive quantitative biomarkers suitable detecting low frequency alterations in irradiated cells. We applied a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) based protocol detecting common deletions (CD) in the mitochondrial genome to assess direct and non-targeted effects of radiation in human fibroblasts. In directly irradiated (IR) cells CD increased with dose and was higher in radiosensitive cells. Investigating conditioned medium-mediated bystander effects we demonstrated that low and high (0.1 and 2Gy) doses induced similar levels of bystander responses and found individual differences in human fibroblasts. The bystander response was not related to the radiosensitivity of the cells. The importance of signal sending donor and signal receiving target cells was investigated by placing conditioned medium from a bystander response positive cell line (F11-hTERT) to bystander negative cells (S1-hTERT) and vice versa. The data indicated that signal sending cells are more important in the medium-mediated bystander effect than recipients. Finally, we followed long term effects in immortalized radiation sensitive (S1-hTERT) and normal (F11-hTERT) fibroblasts up to 63 days after IR. In F11-hTERT cells CD level was increased until 35 days after IR then reduced back to control level by day 49. In S1-hTERT cells the increased CD level was also normalized by day 42, however a second wave of increased CD incidence appeared by day 49 which was maintained up to day 63 after IR. This second CD wave might be the indication of radiation-induced instability in the mitochondrial genome of S1-hTERT cells. The data demonstrated that measuring CD in mtDNA by qRT-PCR is a reliable and sensitive biomarker to estimate radiation-induced direct and non-targeted effects.

  4. Application of gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry for target and non-target analysis of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera, M I; Portolés, T; Pitarch, E; Beltrán, J; Hernández, F

    2012-06-29

    In this work, the capability of gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) for quantitative analysis of pesticide residues has been evaluated. A multiclass method for rapid screening of pesticides (insecticides, acaricides, herbicides and fungicides) in fruit and vegetable matrices has been developed and validated, including detection, identification and quantification of the analytes. To this aim, several food matrices were selected: high water content (apples, tomatoes and carrots), high acid content (oranges) and high oil content (olives) samples. The well known QuEChERS procedure was applied for extraction of pesticides, and matrix-matched calibration using relative responses versus internal standard was used for quantification. The sample extracts were analyzed by GC-TOF MS. Up to five ions using narrow window (0.02 Da)-extracted ion chromatograms at the expected retention time were monitored using a target processing method. The most abundant ion was used for quantification while the remaining ones were used for confirmation of the analyte identity. Method validation was carried out for 55 analytes in the five sample matrices tested at three concentrations (0.01, 0.05 and 0.5 mg/kg). Most recoveries were between 70% and 120% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 20% at 0.05 and 0.5mg/kg. At 0.01 mg/kg, roughly half of the pesticides could be satisfactorily validated due to sensitivity limitations of GC-TOF MS, which probably affected the ion ratios used for confirmation of identity. In the case of olive samples, results were not satisfactory due to the high complexity of the matrix. An advantage of TOF MS is the possibility to perform a non-target investigation in the samples by application of a deconvolution software, without any additional injection being required. Accurate-mass full-spectrum acquisition in TOF MS provides useful information for analytes identification, and has made feasible in this work the

  5. How aluminum adjuvants could promote and enhance non-target IgE synthesis in a genetically-vulnerable sub-population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terhune, Todd D; Deth, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum-containing adjuvants increase the effectiveness of vaccination, but their ability to augment immune responsiveness also carries the risk of eliciting non-target responses, especially in genetically susceptible individuals. This study reviews the relevant actions of aluminum adjuvants and sources of genetic risk that can combine to adversely affect a vulnerable sub-population. Aluminum adjuvants promote oxidative stress and increase inflammasome activity, leading to the release of IL-1β, IL-18, and IL-33, but not the important regulatory cytokine IL-12. In addition, they stimulate macrophages to produce PGE₂, which also has a role in regulating immune responses. This aluminum-induced cytokine context leads to a T(H)2 immune response, characterized by the further release of IL-3, IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and IgE-potentiating factors such as sCD23. Genetic variants in cytokine genes, such as IL-4, IL-13, IL-33, and IL-18 influence the response to vaccines in children and are also associated with atopy. These genetic factors may therefore define a genetically-vulnerable sub-population, children with a family history of atopy, who may experience an exaggerated T(H)2 immune response to aluminum-containing vaccines. IL-4, sCD23, and IgE are common factors for both atopy and the immune-stimulating properties of aluminum adjuvants. IL-4 is critical in the production of IgE and total IgE up-regulation. IL-4 has also been reported to induce the production of sCD23 and trigger resting sIgM+, sIgD+ B-cells to switch to sIgE+ B-cells, making them targets for IgE-potentiating factors. Further, the actions of IgE-potentiating factors on sIgE+ B-cells are polyclonal and unrestricted, triggering their differentiation into IgE-forming plasma cells. These actions provide a mechanism for aluminum-adjuvant promotion and enhancement of non-target IgE in a genetically vulnerable sub-population. Identification of these individuals may decrease the risk of adverse events

  6. Suppression of Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. during germination of tomato seeds in soilless growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, R; De Schutter, B; Rombouts, L

    2002-01-01

    In the Flemish horticulture Pythium spp. is an important pathogen of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculenthum) in soilless growing media. Therefore some experiments were conducted to evaluate the possibility of decreasing the damage caused by Pythium spp. by Trichoderma spp. In a tray with several growing media, a suspension of Trichoderma conidia (10(6)/ml growing medium) was applied two weeks before sowing. On some objects, a compost extract (Biostimulus) was added. The growing media used in the experiment were rockwool, recycled rockwool and recycled coconut fibre. After sowing, the trays were covered with perlite. Three isolates of Trichoderma spp.: T. asperellum (Biofungus), T. harzianum (Tri 003) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) and two isolates of Pythium spp.: P. ultimum (MUCL) en P. aphanidermatum (HRI, UK) were used. Propamocarb was used as a chemical standard. The use of coconut fibre growing medium resulted in a higher percentage (36%) of germination than the rockwool media when only Pythium spp. was used. The presence of the spontaneous developing microflora in the coconut fibre medium gave probably also a suppression of Pythium spp. For that reason the results of the suppression by Trichoderma spp. are not easy to explain and very variable on the different objects. Pythium ultimum was more suppressed than P. aphanidermatum on all the growing media and the application of all the Trichoderma isolates increased the germination percentage of tomato seeds. T. asperellum (Biofungus) gave on rockwool also a good result for the suppression of P. aphanidermatum (increasing of germination with 48%). This effect was comparable with the propamocarb treatment (48%). T. harzianum (Tri 003) gave a small suppression (22%) and Trichoderma sp. (KHK) gave almost no suppression of P. aphanidermatum (7%). When less Trichoderma conidia were applied the germination percentage decreased. The adding of a compost extract (Biostimulus) had no influence on the results. This experiment

  7. DNA microarray-based detection of multiple pathogens: Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnee, Christiane; Sachse, Konrad

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of slow-growing or non-culturable microorganisms, such as Mycoplasma spp. and Chlamydia spp., is still a challenge to diagnosticians in the veterinary field. In addition, as epidemiological evidence on the frequency of mixed infections involving two and more bacterial species has been emerging, detection methods allowing simultaneous identification of different pathogens are required. In the present chapter, we describe DNA microarray-based procedures for the detection of 83 Mollicutes species (Mycoplasma assay) and 11 Chlamydia spp. (Chlamydia assay). The assays are suitable for use in a routine diagnostic environment, as well as in microbiological research.

  8. 高大冷杉温室Strophosoma象甲的微生物防治%Microbial control of Strophosoma spp. larvae (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) in Abies procera greenery plantations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏洛蒂· 尼尔森; Susanne Vestergaard; Susanne Harding; Jφrgen Eilenberg

    2007-01-01

    In Denmark, the weevils Strophosoma melanogrammum and S.capitatum cause economic damage in Noble fir due to the adult stage feeding on the needles.No chemical treatments of these weevils are allowed in Denmark,so biological control is an attractive solution.We evaluated the potential for microbial control of larvae of Strophosoma spp.based on laboratory bioassays and field applications,taking effect on both target and non-target into consideration,as well as persistence of the applied fungus.In the laboratory Beauveria bassiana,Paecilomyces farinosus and Metarhizium anisopliae were able to infect and cause mycosis in Strophosoma larvae.Among the tested isolates the most virulent isolate was M.anisopliae BIPESCO 5,which resulted in 80 % mortality.In the field experiment M.anisopliae,isolate BIPESCO 5,was applied to the soil as a conidial suspension against larvae of Strophosoma spp.The effect of the fungus on the target population was monitored at a weekly basis by counts of emerging adult weevils during their activity periods.The population of Strophosoma spp.was reduced by up to 60% in treated plots compared to control plots.The non-target effects of M.anisopliae were studied by sampling insects and ticks from both treated and control plots.Seven days after treatment,two sampled insect orders (Hemiptera and Coleoptera) and ticks were found with prevalences of M.anisopliae above 50%,compared to no infection in the insects collected from control plots.Infections in coccinellids were found as long as 277 days after treatment.However,the effect on population level of non-target is still unexplored.The persistence of the fungus was documented by plating a soil suspension onto agar.We documented that conidia of M.anisopliae could persist in the greenery plantation for at least 418 days after application.

  9. Validation of a Non-Targeted LC-MS Approach for Identifying Ancient Proteins: Method Development on Bone to Improve Artifact Residue Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barker

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of protein residues from prehistoric cooking pottery using mass spectrometry is challenging because proteins are removed from original tissues, are degraded from cooking, may be poorly preserved due to diagenesis, and occur in a palimpsest of exogenous soil proteins. In contrast, bone proteins are abundant and well preserved. This research is part of a larger method-development project for innovation and improvement of liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis of protein residues from cooking pottery; here we validate the potential of our extraction and characterization approach via application to ancient bone proteins. Because of its preservation potential for proteins and given that our approach is destructive, ancient bone identified via skeletal morphology represents an appropriate verification target. Proteins were identified from zooarchaeological turkey (Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus Phasianidae, rabbit (Lagomorpha, and squirrel (Sciuridae remains excavated from ancient pueblo archaeological sites in southwestern Colorado using a non-targeted LC-MS/MS approach. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the dataset identifier PXD002440. Improvement of highly sensitive targeted LC-MS/MS approaches is an avenue for future method development related to the study of protein residues from artifacts such as stone tools and pottery.

  10. Unravelling the genetic bases of non-target-site-based resistance (NTSR) to herbicides: a major challenge for weed science in the forthcoming decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Délye, Christophe

    2013-02-01

    Non-target-site-based resistance (NTSR) can confer unpredictable cross-resistance to herbicides. However, the genetic determinants of NTSR remain poorly known. The current, urgent challenge for weed scientists is thus to elucidate the bases of NTSR so that detection tools are developed, the evolution of NTSR is understood, the efficacy of the shrinking herbicide portfolio is maintained and integrated weed management strategies, including fully effective herbicide applications, are designed and implemented. In this paper, the importance of NTSR in resistance to herbicides is underlined. The most likely way in which NTSR evolves-by accumulation of different mechanisms within individual plants-is described. The NTSR mechanisms, which can interfere with herbicide penetration, translocation and accumulation at the target site, and/or protect the plant against the consequences of herbicide action, are then reviewed. NTSR is a part of the plant stress response. As such, NTSR is a dynamic process unrolling over time that involves 'protectors' directly interfering with herbicide action, and also regulators controlling 'protector' expression. NTSR is thus a quantitative trait. On this basis, a three-step procedure is proposed, based on the use of the 'omics' (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics or metabolomics), to unravel the genetic bases of NTSR.

  11. Global detection and semi-quantification of Fritillaria alkaloids in Fritillariae Ussuriensis Bulbus by a non-targeted multiple reaction monitoring approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Yao, Zhong Ping; Li, Ping; Chen, Si-Bao; So, Pui-Kin; Shi, Zi-Qi; Hu, Bin; Liu, Li-Fang; Xin, Gui-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Methods based on triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry have been widely used and reported as highly selective and sensitive methods for quantifying substances of herbal medicines. However, most of them were limited to targeted components, due to the difficulties to optimize the multiple reaction monitoring transitions without authentic standards. This study proposed a novel strategy for non-targeted optimization of multiple reaction monitoring method based on the diagnostic ion guided family classifications, tandem mass spectrometry database establishment, and transitions and collision energy screening. Applying this strategy, 59 Fritillaria alkaloids in Fritillariae Ussuriensis Bulbus have been classified, and 51 of these Fritillaria alkaloids were successfully detected by the optimal multiple reaction monitoring method. For semi-quantification, the easy-to-obtain Fritillaria alkaloids of each type, such as verticinone for cevanine type and peimisine for jervine type, were used as the reference standards to calibrate the other Fritillaria alkaloids in the same type. The method was demonstrated a good linearity (R(2) > 0.998) with satisfactory accuracy and precision, and the lower limits of quantification of verticinone and peimisine were estimated to be 0.076 and 0.216 pg, respectively. In addition, the results suggested that the proposed strategy might obtained high quality metabolomics data in discrimination of Fritillaria unibracteata and Fritillaria ussuriensis.

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry method for tomatidine and non-target metabolites quantification in organic and normal tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprioli, Giovanni; Logrippo, Serena; Cahill, Michael G; James, Kevin J

    2014-12-01

    Tomatoes, members of the Solanaceae plant family, produce biologically active secondary metabolites, including glycoalkaloids and aglycons, which may have both adverse and beneficial biological effects. A new liquid chromatography method that utilized LTQ-Orbitrap MS was developed for the analysis of tomatidine, the main aglycon in tomatoes. Recoveries of tomatidine were >98.3% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) below 6.1%. The limit of detection (LODs) was 0.0003 mg kg(-1). The limit of quantitation (LOQs) is 0.001 mg kg(-1). The linear range was between with 0.0025 and 1 mg kg(-1) with an excellent correlation coefficient (R(2)) equal to 0.9990. Various tomato samples were analyzed and the level of tomatidine in the 11 samples analysed was higher in normal respect to organic tomatoes. The capability of the set-up Full Scan LTQ-Orbitrap MS method allowed us to quantified two non-target analytes. The m/z 1032 was identified as dehydrotomatine, confirmed through accurate mass studies (mass error in ppm equal to 1.5017) meanwhile m/z 902 as (Glc)2-Gal-Tomatidine (β1-Tomatine) (mass error in ppm equal to 2.0719).

  13. An ecosystem services approach to pesticide risk assessment and risk management of non-target terrestrial plants: recommendations from a SETAC Europe workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Gertie H P; Dollinger, Margit; Kohlschmid, Eva; Maltby, Lorraine; Ochoa-Acuña, Hugo; Poulsen, Véronique

    2015-02-01

    The registration of plant protection products (PPPs) in the EU is under Regulation 1107/2009, which recommends a tiered approach to assessing the risk to non-target terrestrial plants (NTTPs). However, little information is provided on how to perform and implement higher tier studies or how to use them to refine the risk assessments. Therefore, a stakeholder workshop was organized to consolidate current knowledge and expertise to aid the further development of testing and assessment procedures for NTTPs. This brief communication highlights the agreed recommendations of the workshop, which relate to the three main themes, i.e. specific protection goals, risk assessment and mitigation. The participants of the workshop adopted the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) approach of using an ecosystem services framework for identifying specific protection goals. First, delivery and protection of ecosystem services were discussed for in-crop, in-field and off-crop, and off-field areas. Second, lower and higher tier risk assessment methods, including modelling approaches, were evaluated. Third, options for risk mitigation of spray drift and run-off were discussed and evaluated. Several important knowledge gaps were identified, and specific data collation and literature-based tasks were actioned to begin to address them. A full workshop report is planned for the fall of 2014.

  14. Does the antibiotic amoxicillin affect haemocyte parameters in non-target aquatic invertebrates? The clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis as model organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matozzo, Valerio; Bertin, Valeria; Battistara, Margherita; Guidolin, Angelica; Masiero, Luciano; Marisa, Ilaria; Orsetti, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    Amoxicillin (AMX) is one of the most widely used antibiotics worldwide, and its levels in aquatic ecosystems are expected to be detectable. At present, information concerning the toxic effects of AMX on non-target aquatic organisms, such as bivalves, is scarce. Consequently, in this study, we investigated for the first time the effects of AMX on the haemocyte parameters of two bivalve species, the clam Ruditapes philippinarum and the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, which share the same habitat in the Lagoon of Venice, in order to compare the relative sensitivity of the two species. The bivalves were exposed to 100, 200 and 400 μg AMX/L for 1, 3 and 7 days, and the effects on the total haemocyte count (THC), the diameter and volume of the haemocytes, haemocyte proliferation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in cell-free haemolymph, the haemolymph pH, and the formation of micronuclei were evaluated. The actual concentrations of AMX in the seawater samples from the experimental tanks were also measured. Overall, the obtained results demonstrated that AMX affected slightly the haemocyte parameters of bivalves. In addition, no clear differences in terms of sensitivity to AMX exposure were recorded between the two bivalve species.

  15. Chemical composition, toxicity and non-target effects of Pinus kesiya essential oil: An eco-friendly and novel larvicide against malaria, dengue and lymphatic filariasis mosquito vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are vectors of important parasites and pathogens causing death, poverty and social disability worldwide, with special reference to tropical and subtropical countries. The overuse of synthetic insecticides to control mosquito vectors lead to resistance, adverse environmental effects and high operational costs. Therefore, the development of eco-friendly control tools is an important public health challenge. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Pinus kesiya leaf essential oil (EO) was evaluated against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the P. kesiya EO contained 18 compounds. Major constituents were α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene and germacrene D. In acute toxicity assays, the EO showed significant toxicity against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, with LC50 values of 52, 57, and 62µg/ml, respectively. Notably, the EO was safer towards several aquatic non-target organisms Anisops bouvieri, Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with LC50 values ranging from 4135 to 8390µg/ml. Overall, this research adds basic knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides from Pinaceae plants against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito vectors.

  16. Non-targeted transcriptomic effects upon thyroid irradiation: similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses varies with tissue type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Britta; Rudqvist, Nils; Spetz, Johan; Swanpalmer, John; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2016-10-25

    Non-targeted effects can induce responses in tissues that have not been exposed to ionizing radiation. Despite their relevance for risk assessment, few studies have investigated these effects in vivo. In particular, these effects have not been studied in context with thyroid exposure, which can occur e.g. during irradiation of head and neck tumors. To determine the similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses in normal tissue, we used a partial body irradiation setup with female mice where the thyroid region, the thorax and abdomen, or all three regions were irradiated. After 24 h, transcriptional regulation in the kidney cortex, kidney medulla, liver, lungs, spleen, and thyroid was analyzed using microarray technology. Thyroid irradiation resulted in transcriptional regulation in the kidney medulla and liver that resembled regulation upon direct exposure of these tissues regarding both strength of response and associated biological function. The kidney cortex showed fewer similarities between the setups, while the lungs and spleen showed little similarity between in-field and out-of-field responses. Interestingly, effects were generally not found to be additive. Future studies are needed to identify the molecular mechanisms that mediate these systemic effects, so that they may be used as targets to minimize detrimental side effects in radiotherapy.

  17. One-step synthesis of polydispersed silver nanocrystals using Malva sylvestris: an eco-friendly mosquito larvicide with negligible impact on non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Hoti, S L; Rajeswary, Mohan; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of eco-friendly nanoparticles is evergreen branch of nanoscience with a growing number of biomedical implications. In this study, we investigated the synthesis of polydisperse and stable silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using a cheap leaf extract of Malva sylvestris (Malvaceae). Bio-reduced AgNP were characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The acute toxicity of M. sylvestris leaf extract and green-synthesized AgNP was evaluated against larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Compared to the leaf aqueous extract, AgNP showed higher toxicity against A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 10.33, 11.23, and 12.19 μg/mL, respectively. Green-synthesized AgNP were found safer to non-target organisms Diplonychus indicus and Gambusia affinis, with respective LC50 values ranging from 813.16 to 1044.52 μg/mL. Overall, this research firstly shed light on the mosquitocidal potential of M. sylvestris, a potential bio-resource for rapid, cheap and effective synthesis of polydisperse and highly stable silver nanocrystals.

  18. Effect of Insulin Resistance on Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Levels: A Multi-cohort Non-targeted Metabolomics and Mendelian Randomization Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Nowak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR and impaired insulin secretion contribute to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Both are associated with changes in the circulating metabolome, but causal directions have been difficult to disentangle. We combined untargeted plasma metabolomics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in three non-diabetic cohorts with Mendelian Randomization (MR analysis to obtain new insights into early metabolic alterations in IR and impaired insulin secretion. In up to 910 elderly men we found associations of 52 metabolites with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp-measured IR and/or β-cell responsiveness (disposition index during an oral glucose tolerance test. These implicated bile acid, glycerophospholipid and caffeine metabolism for IR and fatty acid biosynthesis for impaired insulin secretion. In MR analysis in two separate cohorts (n = 2,613 followed by replication in three independent studies profiled on different metabolomics platforms (n = 7,824 / 8,961 / 8,330, we discovered and replicated causal effects of IR on lower levels of palmitoleic acid and oleic acid. A trend for a causal effect of IR on higher levels of tyrosine reached significance only in meta-analysis. In one of the largest studies combining "gold standard" measures for insulin responsiveness with non-targeted metabolomics, we found distinct metabolic profiles related to IR or impaired insulin secretion. We speculate that the causal effects on monounsaturated fatty acid levels could explain parts of the raised cardiovascular disease risk in IR that is independent of diabetes development.

  19. Occurrence, genetic control and evolution of non-target-site based resistance to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) in the dicot weed Papaver rhoeas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabel, Laura; Pernin, Fanny; Délye, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    Non-target-site resistance (NTSR) to herbicides is a major issue for the chemical control of weeds. Whilst predominant in grass weeds, NTSR remains largely uninvestigated in dicot weeds. We investigated the occurrence, inheritance and genetic control of NTSR to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors in Papaver rhoeas (corn poppy) using progenies from plants with potential NTSR to the imidazolinone herbicide imazamox. NTSR to imazamox was inherited from parents over two successive generations. NTSR to tritosulfuron (a sulfonylurea) was observed in F1 generations and inherited in F2 generations. NTSR to florasulam (a triazolopyrimidine) emerged in F2 generations. Our findings suggest NTSR was polygenic and gradually built-up by accumulation over generations of loci with moderate individual effects in single plants. We also demonstrated that ALS alleles conferring herbicide resistance can co-exist with NTSR loci in P. rhoeas plants. Previous research focussed on TSR in P. rhoeas, which most likely caused underestimation of NTSR significance in this species. This may also apply to other dicot species. From our data, resistance to ALS inhibitors in P. rhoeas appears complex, and involves well-known mutant ALS alleles and a set of unknown NTSR loci that confer resistance to ALS inhibitors from different chemical families.

  20. RNA-Seq analysis of rye-grass transcriptomic response to an herbicide inhibiting acetolactate-synthase identifies transcripts linked to non-target-site-based resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhoux, Arnaud; Carrère, Sébastien; Gouzy, Jérôme; Bonin, Ludovic; Délye, Christophe

    2015-03-01

    Non-target-site resistance (NTSR) to herbicides that disrupts agricultural weed control is a worldwide concern for food security. NTSR is considered a polygenic adaptive trait driven by differential gene regulation in resistant plants. Little is known about its genetic determinism, which precludes NTSR diagnosis and evolutionary studies. We used Illumina RNA-sequencing to investigate transcriptomic differences between plants from the global major weed rye-grass sensitive or resistant to the acetolactate-synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicide pyroxsulam. Plants were collected before and along a time-course after herbicide application. De novo transcriptome assembly yielded a resource (LOLbase) including 92,381 contigs representing potentially active transcripts that were assigned putative annotations. Early effects of ALS inhibition consistent with the literature were observed in resistant and sensitive plants, proving LOLbase data were relevant to study herbicide response. Comparison of resistant and sensitive plants identified 30 candidate NTSR contigs. Further validation using 212 plants resistant or sensitive to pyroxsulam and/or to the ALS inhibitors iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron confirmed four contigs (two cytochromes P450, one glycosyl-transferase and one glutathione-S-transferase) were NTSR markers which combined expression levels could reliably identify resistant plants. This work confirmed that NTSR is driven by differential gene expression and involves different mechanisms. It provided tools and foundation for subsequent NTSR investigations.

  1. Non-target screening of extractable and non-extractable organic xenobiotics in riverine sediments of Ems and Mulde Rivers, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronimus, Alexander [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: kronimus@lek.rwth-aachen.de; Schwarzbauer, Jan [Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal, RWTH Aachen University, Lochnerstr. 4-20, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)]. E-mail: schwarzbauer@lek.rwth-aachen.de

    2007-05-15

    Subaquatic sediment samples derived form Elbe and Mulde Rivers, Germany, were analyzed for extractable and non-extractable anthropogenic organic compounds by a non-target screening approach. Applied methodologies were gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, dispersion extraction and degradation procedures, particularly alkaline and acidic hydrolysis, boron tribromide treatment, ruthenium tetroxide oxidation as well as pyrolysis and TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide)-thermochemolysis. Numerous compounds were identified, including halogenated benzenes, anisoles, styrenes, alkanes, diphenylmethane derivates, anilines, phenols and diphenyl ethers. The results were interpreted with respect to compound specific modes of incorporation as well as to potential sources (e.g. municipal, agricultural, industrial). Extractable and non-extractable fractions differed significantly with respect to their qualitative and quantitative composition. For example, quantities in the extractable and non-extractable fractions of chlorinated benzenes differed up to factor 50. Among other significant results, the investigation revealed hints for a dependence of the mode of incorporation of chlorinated benzenes on their substitution pattern. - Analysis of both, extractable and non-extractable fraction of organic xenobiotics in sediments reveals a more detailed and comprehensive anthropogenic load profile.

  2. Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 as a potential biological control agent for carp (Cyprinus carpio) in Australia: susceptibility of non-target species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, K A; Sunarto, A; Slater, J; Bell, K; Asmus, M; Fulton, W; Hall, K; Brown, P; Gilligan, D; Hoad, J; Williams, L M; Crane, M St J

    2016-12-27

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) is a pest species in Australian waterways, and cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) is being considered as a potential biological control (biocontrol) agent. An important consideration for any such agent is its target specificity. In this study, the susceptibility to CyHV-3 of a range of non-target species (NTS) was tested. The NTS were as follows: 13 native Australian, and one introduced, fish species; a lamprey species; a crustacean; two native amphibian species (tadpole and mature stages); two native reptilian species; chickens; and laboratory mice. Animals were exposed to 100-1000 times the approximate minimum amount of CyHV-3 required to cause disease in carp by intraperitoneal and/or bath challenge, and then examined clinically each day over the course of 28 days post-challenge. There were no clinical signs, mortalities or histological evidence consistent with a viral infection in a wide taxonomic range of NTS. Furthermore, there was no molecular evidence of infection with CyHV-3, and, in particular, all RT-PCRs for viral mRNA were negative. As a consequence, the results encourage further investigation of CyHV-3 as a potential biocontrol agent that is specific for carp.

  3. Targeted rapid amplification of cDNA ends (T-RACE)--an improved RACE reaction through degradation of non-target sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Neil I; Johnston, Ian A

    2010-11-01

    Amplification of the 5' ends of cDNA, although simple in theory, can often be difficult to achieve. We describe a novel method for the specific amplification of cDNA ends. An oligo-dT adapter incorporating a dUTP-containing PCR primer primes first-strand cDNA synthesis incorporating dUTP. Using the Cap finder approach, another distinct dUTP containing adapter is added to the 3' end of the newly synthesized cDNA. Second-strand synthesis incorporating dUTP is achieved by PCR, using dUTP-containing primers complimentary to the adapter sequences incorporated in the cDNA ends. The double-stranded cDNA-containing dUTP serves as a universal template for the specific amplification of the 3' or 5' end of any gene. To amplify the ends of cDNA, asymmetric PCR is performed using a single gene-specific primer and standard dNTPs. The asymmetric PCR product is purified and non-target transcripts containing dUTP degraded by Uracil DNA glycosylase, leaving only those transcripts produced during the asymmetric PCR. Subsequent PCR using a nested gene-specific primer and the 3' or 5' T-RACE primer results in specific amplification of cDNA ends. This method can be used to specifically amplify the 3' and 5' ends of numerous cDNAs from a single cDNA synthesis reaction.

  4. Chlorination of bisphenol A: non-targeted screening for the identification of transformation products and assessment of estrogenicity in generated water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgin, Marc; Bichon, Emmanuelle; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Monteau, Fabrice; Leroy, Gaëla; Barritaud, Lauriane; Chachignon, Mathilde; Ingrand, Valérie; Roche, Pascal; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2013-11-01

    Besides the performance of water treatments on the removal of micropollutants, concern about the generation of potential biologically active transformation products has been growing. Thus, the detection and structural elucidation of micropollutants transformation products have turned out to be major issues to evaluate comprehensively the efficiency of the processes implemented for drinking water treatment. However, most of existing water treatment studies are carried out at the bench scale with high concentrations and simplified conditions and thus do not reflect realistic conditions. Conversely, this study describes a non-targeted profiling approach borrowed from metabolomic science, using liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry, in order to reveal potential chlorination products of bisphenol A (BPA) in real water samples spiked at 50μgL(-1). Targeted measurements first evidenced a fast removal of BPA (>99%) by chlorination with sodium hypochlorite (0.8mgL(-1)) within 10min. Then, the developed differential global profiling approach enabled to reveal 21 chlorination products of BPA. Among them, 17 were brominated compounds, described for the first time, demonstrating the potential interest of this innovative methodology applied to environmental sciences. In parallel to the significant removal of BPA, the estrogenic activity of water samples, evaluated by ER-CALUX assay, was found to significantly decrease after 10min of chlorination. These results confirm that chlorination is effective at removing BPA in drinking water and they may indicate that the generated compounds have significantly lower estrogenic activity.

  5. Non-Target Effect for Chromosome Aberrations in Human Lymphocytes and Fibroblasts After Exposure to Very Low Doses of High LET Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; George, Kerry A.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between biological effects and low doses of absorbed radiation is still uncertain, especially for high LET radiation exposure. Estimates of risks from low-dose and low-dose-rates are often extrapolated using data from Japanese atomic bomb survivor with either linear or linear quadratic models of fit. In this study, chromosome aberrations were measured in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and normal skin fibroblasts cells after exposure to very low dose (.01 - 0.2 Gy) of 170 MeV/u Si-28-ions or 600 MeV/u Fe-56-ions. Chromosomes were analyzed using the whole chromosome fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique during the first cell division after irradiation, and chromosome aberrations were identified as either simple exchanges (translocations and dicentrics) or complex exchanges (involving >2 breaks in 2 or more chromosomes). The curves for doses above 0.1 Gy were more than one ion traverses a cell showed linear dose responses. However, for doses less than 0.1 Gy, Si-28-ions showed no dose response, suggesting a non-targeted effect when less than one ion traversal occurs. Additional findings for Fe-56 will be discussed.

  6. Evaluation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB)—barrier for control of vector and nuisance mosquitoes and its effect on non-target organisms in sub-tropical environments in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A.; Müller, Günter C.; Revay, Edita E.; Allan, Sandra A.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Beier, John C.; Smith, Michal L.; Scott, Jodi M.; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D.; Hausmann, Axel; Yefremova, Zoya A.; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) with the active ingredient eugenol, an Environmental Protection Agency exempt compound, was evaluated against vector and nuisance mosquitoes in both laboratory and field studies. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control: > 70% reduction for Aedes atlanticus, Ae. infirmatus, and Culex nigripalpus and > 50% reduction for An. crucians, Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culiseta melanura, and Cx. erraticus three weeks post ATSB application. Furthermore, non-target feeding of six insect orders, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera, was evaluated in the field after application of a dyed-ASB to flowering and non-flowering vegetation. ASB feeding (staining) was determined by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. The potential impact of ATSB on non-targets, applied on green non-flowering vegetation was low for all non-target groups (0.9%). However, application of the ASB to flowering vegetation resulted in significant staining of the non-target insect orders. This highlights the need for application guidelines to reduce non-target effects. No mortality was observed in laboratory studies with predatory non-targets, spiders, praying mantis, or ground beetles, after feeding for three days on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB. Overall, our laboratory and field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling important vector and nuisance mosquitoes when used as an ATSB toxin. This is the first study demonstrating effective control of anophelines in non-arid environments which suggest that even in highly competitive sugar rich environments this method could be used for control of malaria in Latin American countries. PMID:24361724

  7. Evaluation of attractive toxic sugar bait (ATSB)-Barrier for control of vector and nuisance mosquitoes and its effect on non-target organisms in sub-tropical environments in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Müller, Günter C; Revay, Edita E; Allan, Sandra A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Beier, John C; Smith, Michal L; Scott, Jodi M; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Hausmann, Axel; Yefremova, Zoya A; Xue, Rui-De

    2014-03-01

    The efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSB) with the active ingredient eugenol, an Environmental Protection Agency exempt compound, was evaluated against vector and nuisance mosquitoes in both laboratory and field studies. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait (ASB) solution provided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control: >70% reduction for Aedes atlanticus, Aedes. infirmatus, and Culex nigripalpus and >50% reduction for Anopheles crucians, Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culiseta melanura, and Culex erraticus three weeks post ATSB application. Furthermore, non-target feeding of six insect orders, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera, was evaluated in the field after application of a dyed-ASB to flowering and non-flowering vegetation. ASB feeding (staining) was determined by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. The potential impact of ATSB on non-targets, applied on green non-flowering vegetation was low for all non-target groups (0.9%). However, application of the ASB to flowering vegetation resulted in significant staining of the non-target insect orders. This highlights the need for application guidelines to reduce non-target effects. No mortality was observed in laboratory studies with predatory non-targets, spiders, praying mantis, or ground beetles, after feeding for three days on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB. Overall, our laboratory and field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling important vector and nuisance mosquitoes when used as an ATSB toxin. This is the first study demonstrating effective control of anophelines in non-arid environments which suggest that even in highly competitive sugar rich environments this method could be used for control of malaria in Latin American countries.

  8. Induced systemic resistance by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, P.A.H.M.; Pieterse, C.M.J.; Loon, L.C. van

    2007-01-01

    Fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades for their plant growth-promoting effects through effective suppression of soilborne plant diseases. The modes of action that play a role in disease suppression by these bacteria include siderophore-mediated competition for iron, antibiosis,

  9. Malassezia spp. overgrowth in allergic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordeix, Laura; Galeotti, Franca; Scarampella, Fabia; Dedola, Carla; Bardagí, Mar; Romano, Erica; Fondati, Alessandra

    2007-10-01

    A series of 18 allergic cats with multifocal Malassezia spp. overgrowth is reported: atopic dermatitis was diagnosed in 16, an adverse food reaction in another and one was euthanized 2 months after diagnosis of Malassezia overgrowth. All the cats were otherwise healthy and those tested (16 out of 18) for feline leukaemia or feline immunodeficiency virus infections were all negative. At dermatological examination, multifocal alopecia, erythema, crusting and greasy adherent brownish scales were variably distributed on all cats. Cytological examination revealed Malassezia spp. overgrowth with/without bacterial infection in facial skin (n = 11), ventral neck (n = 6), abdomen (n = 6), ear canal (n = 4), chin (n = 2), ear pinnae (n = 2), interdigital (n = 1) and claw folds skin (n = 1). Moreover, in two cats Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated in fungal cultures from lesional skin. Azoles therapy alone was prescribed in seven, azoles and antibacterial therapy in eight and azoles with both antibacterial and anti-inflammatory therapy in three of the cats. After 3-4 weeks of treatment, substantial reduction of pruritus and skin lesions was observed in all 11 cats treated with a combined therapy and in five of seven treated solely with azoles. Malassezia spp. overgrowth may represent a secondary cutaneous problem in allergic cats particularly in those presented for dermatological examination displaying greasy adherent brownish scales. The favourable response to treatment with antifungal treatments alone suggests that, as in dogs, Malassezia spp. may be partly responsible for both pruritus and cutaneous lesions in allergic cats.

  10. The case of Artemia spp. in nanoecotoxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libralato, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Artemia spp. is one of the most widespread saltwater organism suitable for ecotoxicity testing, but no internationally standardised methods exist. Several endpoints can be considered with Artemia spp. including short-term (24-48 h) and long-term (14 days) mortality, cysts and nauplii hatchability, biomass productivity, biomarkers' expression/inhibition and bioaccumulation on larvae as well as organisms' reproductive ability. Recently, Artemia spp. started to be used as a reference biological model in nanoecotoxicology with both inorganic and organic engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) also in combination with traditional environmental stressors looking for potential interactive effects. Criticisms were detected about the use of Artemia spp. in relation to the hatching phase, the toxicity test design, the occasional use only of reference toxicants and the way testing solution/suspensions were prepared thus potentially compromising the reliability of nanoecotoxicological results. A full list of compulsory information that must accompany Artemia nanoecotoxicity data is provided with positive feedbacks also for other toxicity bioassays. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Genomics of Secondary Metabolism in Pseudomonas spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas is a heterogeneous genus of bacteria known for its ubiquity in natural habitats and its prolific production of secondary metabolites. The structurally diverse chemical structures produced by Pseudomonas spp. result from biosynthetic processes with unusual features that have revealed no...

  12. Characterization of Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) Seed Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milkweed (Asclepias spp.) is a crop grown mainly for the production of floss used as hypoallergenic fillers in comforters and pillows. The seeds end up as by-products. Milkweed seed contains 21% oil and 30% crude protein (dry basis). The oil is similar in quality to soybean oil, but there is no i...

  13. Variability of Colletotrichum spp in common bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, S F; Barcelos, Q L; Dias, M A; Souza, E A

    2016-04-07

    The Colletotrichum genus presents large genetic variability, as demonstrated by the occurrence of several pathogenic races and phenotypic traits. The objective of this study was to characterize 22 strains of C. lindemuthianum and Colletotrichum spp recovered from anthracnose lesions and bean scab, and to verify the relationship between species of the Colletotrichum genus, which inhabit anthracnose and scab lesions. Colony morphology, conidium size, the presence of septa, germination, sporulation, and mycelium growth rates, were analyzed in addition to the presence of mating-type genes, IRAP markers, and pathogenicity. Strains of Colletotrichum spp presented wide variation for all evaluated traits, indicating the presence of different species. Pathogenicity tests verified that the severity of the disease caused by strains of Colletotrichum spp must be evaluated 17 days after inoculation. Molecular analysis showed that only the C. lindemuthianum strains were grouped by the IRAP markers. For the physiological traits, we observed that C. lindemuthianum mycelium growth is slower than that of Colletotrichum spp strains. The information generated in this study confirms variability in the evaluated species of Colletotrichum and may direct future basic and applied studies aiming to control these diseases in common bean.

  14. Toward in vitro fertilization in Brachiaria spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dusi, D.; Alves, E.R.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Falcao, R.; Valle, do C.B.; Carneiro, V.T.C.

    2010-01-01

    Brachiaria are forage grasses widely cultivated in tropical areas. In vitro pollination was applied to accessions of Brachiaria spp. by placing pollen of non-dehiscent anthers on a solid medium near isolated ovaries. Viability and in vitro germination were tested in order to establish good condition

  15. Quantitative isolation of biocontrol agents Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp. and actinomycetes from soil with culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas Gil, S; Pastor, S; March, G J

    2009-01-01

    Soil biodiversity plays a key role in the sustainability of agriculture systems and indicates the level of health of soil, especially when considering the richness of microorganisms that are involved in biological control of soilborne diseases. Cultural practices may produce changes in soil microflora, which can be quantified through the isolation of target microorganisms. Rhizosphere soil samples were taken from an assay with different crop rotations and tillage systems, and populations of Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium spp. and actinomycetes were quantified in order to select the general and selective culture media that better reflect the changes of these microbial populations in soil. The most efficient medium for the isolation of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. was potato dextrose agar modified by the addition of chloramphenicol, streptomycin and rose bengal, and for actinomycetes was Küster medium, with cycloheximide and sodium propionate.

  16. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Shigella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist...

  17. 21 CFR 866.3040 - Aspergillus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. 866.3040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3040 Aspergillus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Aspergillus spp. serological reagents are devices...

  18. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870 Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents are devices...

  19. Occurrence of Pasteuria spp. in the northeastern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Español Pons, Montserrat; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    1997-01-01

    The occurrence of Pasteuria spp. In Spanish oils is reported. A total of 160 soil samples were collected from vegetable crops, kiwi and citrus orchards, and deciduous fruit trees. Bacteria were found associated with six nematode genera but they were only observed within females of Meloidogyne spp., second-stage juveniles and males of Tylenchulus semipenetrans, and juveniles of Pratylenchus spp.

  20. 21 CFR 866.3415 - Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. 866.3415... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3415 Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Pseudomonas spp. serological reagents are devices...

  1. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus Vibrio spp. e Salmonella spp. em caranguejos, Ucides cordatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regine H.S.F. Vieira

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested anti-microbial drugs, with the exception of tetracycline and nalidixic acid, for which an intermediary sensibility was found. The MPN's for Vibrio ranged between 110/g and 110,000/g. Of the forty five Vibrio strains isolated from the crab samples, only 10 were identified up to the species level: two V. alginolyticus and eight V. parahaemolyticus. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae families were also identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proper cooking of the animals is recommended in order to avoid problems for the consumers of this crustacean.Foram pesquisadas a presença de Vibrio spp. e de Salmonella spp. em caranguejos comercializados na Av. Bezerra de Menezes, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brasil, no período entre fevereiro e maio de 2003. O número de indivíduos em cada, das quinze coletas realizadas, semanalmente, variava entre quatro e oito dependendo do tamanho dos animais, totalizando um número de 90 (noventa animais examinados. Foram identificadas sete cepas de Salmonella spp. provenientes de quatro coletas: cinco foram identificadas como sorovar S. Senftenberg e duas como S. Poona. Todas as cepas de Salmonella, isoladas das amostras de caranguejos, apresentaram sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos testados, com exceção de tetraciclina e ácido nalidíxico para os quais elas apresentaram uma sensibilidade intermediária. Os NMPs

  2. Presence of Staphylococcus spp. and Candida spp. in the human oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martins Clélia Aparecida de Paiva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of yeasts and staphylococci in the oral cavity is important because they can act as supplementary microbiota and in certain situations can cause oral or systemic diseases. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp. in the human oral cavity. Oral rinses were collected from sixty-eight individuals according to the technique described by Samaranayake and MacFarlane and then cultured on Sabouraud medium supplemented with chloramphenicol and Baird-Parker agar. After the incubation period, the microorganisms were isolated and identified through biochemical tests. The data obtained were statistically analysed by ANOVA. Candida spp. were isolated from 61.76% of the examined individuals and C. albicans was the more frequently isolated specie. Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 95.60% of the individuals and 41 strains were coagulase negative (63%. Among the coagulase positive strains, nine were S. aureus, 11 S. hyicus and 4 S. schleiferi subspecie coagulans. No correlation was observed between the counts (cfu of the isolated Candida spp. and Staphylococcus spp.

  3. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perec-Matysiak, Agnieszka; Buńkowska-Gawlik, Katarzyna; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Hildebrand, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of Cryptosporidium and Giardia identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266) from A. agrarius, A. flavicollis and M. glareolus, were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for Cryptosporidium spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for Giardia spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and Giardia infection where A. agrarius was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of Cryptosporidium COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from A. agrarius (from a semi-aquatic, urban area) was identified as C. parvum and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the C. parvum zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of C. ubiquitum from three small rodent species.

  4. 76 FR 66018 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Delisting of the Plant Frankenia johnstonii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... listing F. johnstonii, 5 populations were known, 4 in Texas and 1 in Mexico, and the total number of..., Zapata, and Starr Counties in southern Texas and an adjacent area in northeastern Mexico. The range of...

  5. Effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton on non-target mealybug pest Ferrisia virgata and its predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata.

  6. Assessment of targeted and non-targeted responses in cells deficient in ATM function following exposure to low and high dose X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuru, Anne; Kämäräinen, Meerit; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Pylkäs, Katri; Chapman, Kim; Koivistoinen, Armi; Parviainen, Teuvo; Winqvist, Robert; Kadhim, Munira; Launonen, Virpi; Lindholm, Carita

    2014-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity at low and high dose exposure to X-rays was investigated by means of chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis in heterozygous ATM mutation carrier and A-T patient (biallelic ATM mutation) lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs). Targeted and non-targeted responses to acutely delivered irradiation were examined by applying a co-culture system that enables study of both directly irradiated cells and medium-mediated bystander effects in the same experimental setting. No indication of radiation hypersensitivity was observed at doses of 0.01 Gy or 0.1 Gy for the ATM mutation carrier LCL. The A-T patient cells also did not show low-dose response. There was significant increase in unstable CA yields for both ATM mutation carrier and A-T LCLs at 1 and 2 Gy, the A-T cells displaying more distinct dose dependency. Both chromosome and chromatid type aberrations were induced at an increased rate in the irradiated A-T cells, whereas for ATM carrier cells, only unstable chromosomal aberrations were increased above the level observed in the wild type cell line. No bystander effect could be demonstrated in any of the cell lines or doses applied. Characteristics typical for the A-T cell line were detected, i.e., high baseline frequency of CA that increased with dose. In addition, dose-dependent loss of cell viability was observed. In conclusion, CA analysis did not demonstrate low-dose (≤100 mGy) radiosensitivity in ATM mutation carrier cells or A-T patient cells. However, both cell lines showed increased radiosensitivity at high dose exposure.

  7. Target and non-target toxicity of botanical insecticide derived from Couroupita guianensis L. flower against generalist herbivore, Spodoptera litura Fab. and an earthworm, Eisenia foetida Savigny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsankar, Athirstam; Vasantha-Srinivasan, Prabhakaran; Senthil-Nathan, Sengottayan; Thanigaivel, Annamalai; Edwin, Edward-Sam; Selin-Rani, Selvaraj; Kalaivani, Kandaswamy; Hunter, Wayne B; Alessandro, Rocco T; Abdel-Megeed, Ahmed; Paik, Chae-Hoon; Duraipandiyan, Veeramuthu; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

    2016-11-01

    Botanical insecticides may provide alternatives to synthetic insecticides for controlling Spodoptera litura (F.) and they are target specific, biodegradable, and harmless to mammals. Eight natural chemical compounds with larvicidal activity were identified from fraction F6 of C. guianensis flower extract. Probit analysis of 95% confidence level exposed an LC50 of 223ppm against S. litura third instar larvae. The growth and development of S. litura was affected in sub-lethal concentrations of fraction F6 (50, 100, 150 and 200ppm) compared to controls. Similarly nutritional indices values decreased significantly compared to controls. Fraction F6 also damaged the gut epithelial layer and brush border membrane (BBM). This study also resolved the effects of toxicity to non-target earthworm treated with fraction F6 and chemical pesticides (monotrophos and cypermethrin) and the results showed that fraction F6 had no harmful effect on E. fetida. Further, fraction F6 was eluted and sub fractions F6c (50ppm) showed high mortality against S. litura third instar larvae. Octacosane from fraction F6c was established and confirmed using IR spectrum and HPLC. The time of retention of fraction F6c was confirmed with the octacosane standard. Fraction F6 of C. guianensis extract caused dose-dependent mortality towards S. litura. Octacosane in fraction F6c was establish to be the prominent chemical compound associated with causing mortality but other compounds present in the fraction F6 were shown to be associated with changes in development of S. litura at low dosages. S. litura at low dosage. Therefore, these findings suggest that octacosane may be one of the major insecticidal compounds affecting S. litura survival.

  8. Target and non-target analysis of migrants from PVC-coated cans using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap MS: evaluation of long-term migration testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaclavikova, Marta; Paseiro-Cerrato, Rafael; Vaclavik, Lukas; Noonan, Gregory O; DeVries, Jonathan; Begley, Timothy H

    2016-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive method for analyzing multi-target and non-target additives in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) food can coatings using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-orbital ion-trap mass spectrometry was developed. This procedure was used to study the behaviour of a cross-linking agent, benzoguanamine (BGA), two slip agents, oleamide and erucamide, and 18 other commonly used plasticisers including phthalates, adipates, sebacates, acetyl tributyl citrate and epoxidised soybean or linseed oils. This optimised method was used to detect these analytes in food simulants (water and 3% acetic acid) in a long-term migration test of PVC-coated food cans for a period ranging from 1 day to 1.5 years at 40°C. Although very low detection limits (5 ng ml(-1)) were obtained for the majority of compounds, none of the monitored plasticisers and slip agents was detected in simulants extracted from cans over the period of the test. However, the presence of BGA in both aqueous food simulants was confirmed based on high-resolution mass spectrometry, product ion spectra and analysis of a reference standard. The BGA concentration in both simulants continued to increase with storage time: after 1.5 years storage in aqueous food simulants at 40°C, BGA was detected at concentrations up to 84 µg dm(-2). We believe this is the first study describing the long-term migration capacity of BGA from any vinyl coating material intended for use in PVC-coated food cans. Our results may have implications for migration test protocols for food cans that will be stored for extended time periods.

  9. Carbon and silver nanoparticles in the fight against the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus: genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of non-target aquatic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Nataraj, Devaraj; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Sujitha, Vasu; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Dinesh, Devakumar; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Paulpandi, Manickam; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Syuhei, Ban; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Canale, Angelo; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. The Culex genus, with special reference to Culex quinquefasciatus, comprises the most common vectors of filariasis across urban and semi-urban areas of Asia. In recent years, important efforts have been conducted to propose green-synthesized nanoparticles as a valuable alternative to synthetic insecticides. However, the mosquitocidal potential of carbon nanoparticles has been scarcely investigated. In this study, the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of carbon nanoparticle (CNP) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and Raman analysis confirmed the rapid and cheap synthesis of carbon and silver nanoparticles. In laboratory assays, LC50 (lethal concentration that kills 50 % of the exposed organisms) values ranged from 8.752 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 18.676 ppm (pupae) for silver nanoparticles and from 6.373 ppm (first-instar larvae) to 14.849 ppm (pupae) for carbon nanoparticles. The predation efficiency of the water bug Lethocerus indicus after a single treatment with low doses of silver and carbon nanoparticles was not reduced. Moderate evidence of genotoxic effects induced by exposure to carbon nanoparticles was found on non-target goldfish, Carassius auratus. Lastly, the plant extract used for silver nanosynthesis was tested for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging activity. Overall, our results pointed out that AgNP and CNP can be a candidate for effective tools to reduce larval and pupal populations of filariasis vectors, with reduced genotoxicity and impact on behavioral traits of other aquatic organisms sharing the same ecological

  10. Effects of transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI cotton on non-target mealybug pest Ferrisia virgata and its predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Wu

    Full Text Available Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata.

  11. Effects of Transgenic Cry1Ac + CpTI Cotton on Non-Target Mealybug Pest Ferrisia virgata and Its Predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Yuhong; Liu, Ping; Xie, Jiaqin; He, Yunyu; Deng, Congshuang; De Clercq, Patrick; Pang, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Recently, several invasive mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) have rapidly spread to Asia and have become a serious threat to the production of cotton including transgenic cotton. Thus far, studies have mainly focused on the effects of mealybugs on non-transgenic cotton, without fully considering their effects on transgenic cotton and trophic interactions. Therefore, investigating the potential effects of mealybugs on transgenic cotton and their key natural enemies is vitally important. A first study on the effects of transgenic cotton on a non-target mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was performed by comparing its development, survival and body weight on transgenic cotton leaves expressing Cry1Ac (Bt toxin) + CpTI (Cowpea Trypsin Inhibitor) with those on its near-isogenic non-transgenic line. Furthermore, the development, survival, body weight, fecundity, adult longevity and feeding preference of the mealybug predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was assessed when fed F. virgata maintained on transgenic cotton. In order to investigate potential transfer of Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins via the food chain, protein levels in cotton leaves, mealybugs and ladybirds were quantified. Experimental results showed that F. virgata could infest this bivalent transgenic cotton. No significant differences were observed in the physiological parameters of the predator C. montrouzieri offered F. virgata reared on transgenic cotton or its near-isogenic line. Cry1Ac and CpTI proteins were detected in transgenic cotton leaves, but no detectable levels of both proteins were present in the mealybug or its predator when reared on transgenic cotton leaves. Our bioassays indicated that transgenic cotton poses a negligible risk to the predatory coccinellid C. montrouzieri via its prey, the mealybug F. virgata. PMID:24751821

  12. Risk assessment of non-target effects caused by releasing two exotic phytoseiid mites in Japan: can an indigenous phytoseiid mite become IG prey?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yukie; Mochizuki, Atsushi

    2011-08-01

    Two exotic phytoseiid mites, Neoseiulus cucumeris and Amblyseius swirskii, are commercially available in Japan for the control of thrips and other pest insects. As part of a risk assessment of the non-target effects of releasing these two species, we investigated intraguild predation (IGP) between these exotic phytoseiid mites and an indigenous phytoseiid mite Gynaeseius liturivorus, which is promising as an indigenous natural enemy for the control of thrips in Japan. To understand IGP relations between the exotic and indigenous phytoseiid mites after use of the exotic mites for biological control, we investigated IGP between them in the absence of their shared prey. When an IG prey was offered to an IG predator, both exotic and indigenous females consumed the IG prey at all immature stages (egg, larva, protonymph, deutonymph), especially at its larval stages. The propensity for IGP in a no-choice test was measured by the survival time of IG prey corrected using the survival time of thrips offered to the IG predator. There was no significant difference in the propensity for IGP between N. cucumeris and G. liturivorus, but the propensity was significantly higher in A. swirskii than G. liturivorus. The propensity for IGP in a choice test was measured by the prey choice of the IG predator when a conspecific and a heterospecific larva were offered simultaneously as IG prey. Both exotic females consumed the heterospecific larva only. The indigenous female preferentially consumed the heterospecific larva when the heterospecific larva was N. cucumeris, but consumed the conspecific larva when the heterospecific larva was A. swirskii. We concluded that further investigation would be necessary for the exotic mites' risk assessment, since the propensity for IGP of the two exotic females was similar to or higher than that of the indigenous female in both the no-choice and choice tests.

  13. Assessment of targeted and non-targeted responses in cells deficient in ATM function following exposure to low and high dose X-rays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kiuru

    Full Text Available Radiation sensitivity at low and high dose exposure to X-rays was investigated by means of chromosomal aberration (CA analysis in heterozygous ATM mutation carrier and A-T patient (biallelic ATM mutation lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. Targeted and non-targeted responses to acutely delivered irradiation were examined by applying a co-culture system that enables study of both directly irradiated cells and medium-mediated bystander effects in the same experimental setting. No indication of radiation hypersensitivity was observed at doses of 0.01 Gy or 0.1 Gy for the ATM mutation carrier LCL. The A-T patient cells also did not show low-dose response. There was significant increase in unstable CA yields for both ATM mutation carrier and A-T LCLs at 1 and 2 Gy, the A-T cells displaying more distinct dose dependency. Both chromosome and chromatid type aberrations were induced at an increased rate in the irradiated A-T cells, whereas for ATM carrier cells, only unstable chromosomal aberrations were increased above the level observed in the wild type cell line. No bystander effect could be demonstrated in any of the cell lines or doses applied. Characteristics typical for the A-T cell line were detected, i.e., high baseline frequency of CA that increased with dose. In addition, dose-dependent loss of cell viability was observed. In conclusion, CA analysis did not demonstrate low-dose (≤100 mGy radiosensitivity in ATM mutation carrier cells or A-T patient cells. However, both cell lines showed increased radiosensitivity at high dose exposure.

  14. A new gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of target and non-target organic contaminants in waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M J; Gómez-Ramos, M M; Agüera, A; Mezcua, M; Herrera, S; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2009-05-01

    In this study we developed a GC-MS method for the analysis of priority pollutants, personal care products (PCPs) and other emerging contaminants in waters using large volume injection with backflushing. Analyses are performed in the SIM/scan mode, so that in addition to the targeted organic contaminants, this method allows the simultaneous screening of non-target compounds. The scan data are analysed using Deconvolution Reporting Software (DRS) which screens the results for 934 organic contaminants. Deconvolution helps identify contaminants that are buried in the chromatogram by co-extracted materials and significantly reduces chromatographic resolution requirements, allowing shorter analysis times. All compounds have locked retention times and we can continually update and extend the mass spectral library including new compounds. Linearity and limits of detection in SIM and full-scan mode were studied. Method detection limits (MDLs) in effluent wastewater ranged in most of the cases from 1 to 36 ng/L in SIM mode and from 4 to 66 ng/L in full-scan mode; while in river water from 0.4 to 14 and 2-29 ng/L in SIM and full-scan mode, respectively. We obtained a linearity of the calibration curves over two orders of magnitude. The method has been applied to the screening of a large number of organic contaminants--not only to a subset of targets--in urban wastewaters from different wastewater treatment plants and also in river waters. Most of the target compounds were detected at concentration levels ranging from 11 to 8697 ng/L and from 7 to 1861 ng/L in effluent wastewater and river waters, respectively. Additionally, a group of 12 new compounds were automatically identified using the AMDIS and NIST libraries. Other compounds, such as the 4-amino musk xylene, a synthetic fragrance metabolite, which was not included in the databases, but has been manually searched in the full-scan chromatograms.

  15. Performance of potential non-crop or wild species under OECD 208 testing guideline study conditions for terrestrial non-target plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallett, Ken; Cole, Jon; Oberwalder, Christian; Porch, John

    2007-02-01

    The inclusion of 52 potential non-crop or wild species in new OECD guidelines for terrestrial non-target plant (TNTP) testing led to a ring test conducted by four laboratories experienced in regulatory testing. Species selected had shown potential to meet validity criteria of emergence for TNTP studies in a previous evaluation of the 52 species. OECD 208 guideline conditions were applied, with and without seed pretreatments recommended to enhance germination. These species were Abutilon theophrasti (L.) Medic., Avena fatua L., Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Adans., Galium aparine L., Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. and Veronica persica Poir. Only I. hederacea met the validity criterion of 70% emergence in all laboratories and showed a low variability in biomass. Of the other species, none led to 70% emergence in all four laboratories. The recommended pretreatments did not have a major impact on emergence. Biomass was also investigated with A. theophrasti, A. fatua, Centaurea cyanus L., I. hederacea and Rumex crispus L. Variability of biomass, a key parameter in TNTP regulatory studies, exceeded normal biomass variability of crop species used for TNTP studies. The addition of a thin layer of quartz sand to the soil surface resulted in improved emergence of C. cyanus, G. aparine and V. persica; however, such a procedure, while routine in screening studies to improve germination, is a deviation from the TNTP guidelines. These initial studies indicate that some species could meet the emergence criteria for TNTP testing. However, there is a need for further studies on seed source, seed quality and conditions for uniform emergence before their use in routine regulatory testing.

  16. Impact of non-target-site-resistance on herbicidal activity of imazamox on blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. in comparison to other ALS-graminicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sievernich, Bernd

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. resistance-monitoring conducted by BASF in 2010 - 2012 revealed a high number of accessions with resistance against imazamox. However, application of imazamoxbased products in a winter crop was limited to winter beans in France and United Kingdom only until the introduction of the Clearfield®-production system in autumn 2012 in winter oilseed rape. It is therefore assumed that the resistance mechanisms were probably selected by the frequent use of ACCase- and ALSinhibitors in winter crop rotations during the last 2 decades. Resistance level for each product-biotype combination was calculated according the “R”-classification system (S, R?, RR, RRR by directly comparing the product performance on a biotype versus untreated control. Majority of resistant biotypes did not show a target-site mutation at the known codon Pro197 or Trp574. In order to better evaluate the impact of Non-Target-Site-Resistance (NTSR on the activity of BEYOND (imazamox, ATLANTIS WG (mesosulfuron+iodosulfuron and ABAK (pyroxsulam, biotypes who have shown an ALS-target-site mutation were removed from further analysis. At the dose rate of 35 g ai/ha BEYOND provided good activity on susceptible biotypes of black-grass almost matching up with ATLANTIS WG and ABAK. However, activity of BEYOND declined stronger on biotypes classified as R? or RR for that product, while ATLANTIS WG and ABAK hardly showed any decline in control on this group of biotypes when applied at the recommended dose rate. It is assumed that the underlying NTSR-mechanism is not effective enough yet to confer resistance to ATLANTIS WG and ABAK, but on BEYOND. In contrast, biotypes classified as R? for ATLANTIS WG did show a stronger impact on the activity of BEYOND and ABAK then of ATLANTIS WG. These differences in control level probably do translate into differences in selection pressure as well.

  17. Low doses of the common alpha-cypermethrin insecticide affect behavioural thermoregulation of the non-targeted beneficial carabid beetle Platynus assimilis (Coleoptera: Carabidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merivee, Enno; Tooming, Ene; Must, Anne; Sibul, Ivar; Williams, Ingrid H

    2015-10-01

    Sub-lethal effects of pesticides on behavioural endpoints are poorly investigated in non-targeted beneficial carabids. Conspicuous changes in locomotor activity of carabids exposed to sub-lethal doses of neurotoxic insecticides suggest that many other behaviours of these insects might be severely injured as well. We hypothesize that behavioural thermoregulation of carabids may be affected by low doses of neurotoxic pyrethroid insecticide alpha-cypermethrin which may have direct deleterious consequences for the fitness and populations of the beetles in the field. Automated video tracking of the carabid beetle Platynus assimilis Paykull (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on an experimental thermal mosaic arena using EthoVision XT Version 9 software (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, The Netherlands) showed that brief exposure to alpha-cypermethrin at sub-lethal concentrations (0.1-10mgL(-1)) drastically reduces the ability of the beetles for behavioural thermoregulation. At noxious high temperature, a considerable number of the beetles died due to thermo-shock. Other intoxicated beetles that survived exposure to high temperature displayed behavioural abnormalities. During heating of the arena from 25 to 45°C, insecticide treated beetles showed a significant fall in tendency to hide in a cool shelter (20°C) and prolonged exposure to noxious high temperatures, accompanied by changes in locomotor activity. Next day after insecticide treatment the beetles recovered from behavioural abnormalities to a large extent but they still were considerably longer exposed to noxious high temperatures compared to the negative control beetles. Our results demonstrated that behavioural thermoregulation is a sensitive and important etho-toxicological biomarker in ground-dwelling carabids. Prolonged exposure to unfavourably high temperatures has an array of negative effects decreasing fitness and survival of these insects at elevated thermal conditions with deep temperature gradients

  18. Type I-E CRISPR-cas systems discriminate target from non-target DNA through base pairing-independent PAM recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edze R Westra

    Full Text Available Discriminating self and non-self is a universal requirement of immune systems. Adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes are centered around repetitive loci called CRISPRs (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat, into which invader DNA fragments are incorporated. CRISPR transcripts are processed into small RNAs that guide CRISPR-associated (Cas proteins to invading nucleic acids by complementary base pairing. However, to avoid autoimmunity it is essential that these RNA-guides exclusively target invading DNA and not complementary DNA sequences (i.e., self-sequences located in the host's own CRISPR locus. Previous work on the Type III-A CRISPR system from Staphylococcus epidermidis has demonstrated that a portion of the CRISPR RNA-guide sequence is involved in self versus non-self discrimination. This self-avoidance mechanism relies on sensing base pairing between the RNA-guide and sequences flanking the target DNA. To determine if the RNA-guide participates in self versus non-self discrimination in the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli we altered base pairing potential between the RNA-guide and the flanks of DNA targets. Here we demonstrate that Type I-E systems discriminate self from non-self through a base pairing-independent mechanism that strictly relies on the recognition of four unchangeable PAM sequences. In addition, this work reveals that the first base pair between the guide RNA and the PAM nucleotide immediately flanking the target sequence can be disrupted without affecting the interference phenotype. Remarkably, this indicates that base pairing at this position is not involved in foreign DNA recognition. Results in this paper reveal that the Type I-E mechanism of avoiding self sequences and preventing autoimmunity is fundamentally different from that employed by Type III-A systems. We propose the exclusive targeting of PAM-flanked sequences to be termed a target versus non-target discrimination mechanism.

  19. CTX-M extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp, Shigella spp and Escherichia coli isolates in Iranian hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialvaei, Abed Zahedi; Kafil, Hossein Samadi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Yousefi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in Iran in order to assess the distribution of CTX-M type ESBLs producing Enterobacteriaceae. From January 2012 to December 2013, totally 198 E. coli, 139 Klebsiella spp, 54 Salmonella spp and 52 Shigella spp from seven hospitals of six provinces in Iran were screened for resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins. After identification and susceptibility testing, isolates presenting multiple-drug resistance (MDR) were evaluated for ESBL production by the disk combination method and by Etest using (cefotaxime and cefotaxime plus clavulanic acid). All isolates were also screened for blaCTX-M using conventional PCR. A total of 42.92%, 33.81%, 14.81% and 7.69% of the E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolates were MDR, respectively. The presence of CTX-M enzyme among ESBL-producing isolates was 85.18%, 77.7%, 50%, and 66.7%, in E. coli, Klebsiella spp, Salmonella spp and Shigella spp respectively. The overall presence of CTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae was 15.4% and among the resistant isolates was 47.6%. This study indicated that resistance to β-lactams mediated by CTX-M enzymes in Iran had similar pattern as in other parts of the world. In order to control the spread of resistance, comprehensive studies and programs are needed.

  20. Easy storage strategies for Sporothrix spp. strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilhante, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira; Silva, Natalya Fechine; Lima, Rita Amanda Chaves de; Caetano, Érica Pacheco; Alencar, Lucas Pereira de; Castelo-Branco, Débora de Souza Collares Maia; Moreira, José Luciano Bezerra; Bandeira, Silviane Praciano; Camargo, Zoilo Pires de; Rodrigues, Anderson Messias; Bandeira, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes; Monteiro, André Jalles; Cordeiro, Rossana de Aguiar; Sidrim, José Júlio Costa; Rocha, Marcos Fábio Gadelha

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the maintenance of Sporothrix spp. (6 Sporothrix brasiliensis; 6 S. schenckii; 5 S. mexicana, and 3 S. globosa) in saline at 4°C, and in 10% glycerol plus either 10% lactose or 10% sucrose, at -20°C and -80°C. Viability was assessed after 3, 6, and 9 months of storage, through the recovery of strains on potato dextrose agar and analysis of macro- and micromorphological features. Conidium quantification was performed before and after storage, at 3, 6 and 9 months. 100% viability was observed, regardless of storage conditions or time period. Storage at 4°C and at -20°C did not alter the number of conidia, but lower conidium counts were observed at -80°C. This study shows that the combination of glycerol with lactose or sucrose is effective to maintain Sporothrix spp. at freezing temperatures.

  1. [Blastocystis spp.: Advances, controversies and future challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coco, Valeria F; Molina, Nora B; Basualdo, Juan A; Córdoba, María A

    Blastocystis spp. is the most common protozoan detected in human stool samples. In developing countries, infection rates are higher than 20%. The presence of this parasite in the feces of several host species suggests its zoonotic potential. The clinical relevance and the pathogenic role of Blastocystis spp. in the intestinal tract remain unclear. There are several clinical reports that recognize it as the etiologic agent of several intestinal disorders such as diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease and ulcerative colitis, although the pathogenicity of this parasite has not been proved yet. This wide range of clinical manifestations could be related to the genetic diversity exhibited by this parasite. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Chronic otomycosis due to Malassezia Spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Latha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 31-year-old male presenting with complaints of mild pain in the right ear for three months and hypoacusis for 10 days. On otoscopic examination, a thin, papery, white material was extracted from his ear and sent for fungal identification. This material revealed presence of Malassezia spp - with characteristic "spaghetti and meat ball appearance". The patient was treated with 2% acetic acid, hydrocortisone and Clotrimazole powder for one week and he resolved completely.

  3. [Demodex spp in chronic blepharitis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laspina, Florentina; Samudio, Margarita; Arrúa, Martín; Sanabria, Rosa; Fariña, Norma; Carpinelli, Letizia; Cibils, Diógenes; Mino de Kaspar, Herminia

    2015-02-01

    Blepharitis is a very common disease in the ophthalmologic practice generally taking a chronic course with intermittent exacerbations. Several studies have linked the presence of Demodex folliculorum with chronic blepharitis, since the mite has the capacity to perpetuate the follicular inflammatory process. The prevalence of infection by Demodex spp. is variable depending on the population. In Paraguay, information on the frequency of the infestation in patients with chronic blepharitis is not available. To determine the frequency of Demodex spp, and the ocular microbiota in patients with chronic blepharitis attending the Department of Ophthalmology at the Teaching Hospital of the National University of Asuncion. Consecutively, 28 patients with chronic blepharitis, who agreed to participate in the study, were included. Eyes lashes from the upper and lower eyelids were extracted for immediate mite search by direct observation under a light microscope. Samples from eyelids were taken with Kimura spatula and then cultured on blood agar and in enrichment media and incubated in 5% CO2 at 35° C for 72 hours. Among participants, females were more frequent (64%), the age ranged from 17 to 87 years (mean: 38.0; SD: ± 13.5 years). The prevalence of Demodex sp was 54%. Bacteria were isolated 92.9% of cases, most frequently coagulase-negative staphylococci (75%). No association was found between socio-demographic or clinical characteristics and the presence of Demodex sp. The observed high prevalence of infestation by Demodex spp in patients with chronic blepharitis is consistent with other studies.

  4. Micropropagation of Rubus and Ribes spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Ewa; Jagła, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Micropropagation is the most appropriate method for large-scale production of Rubus and Ribes spp. The proliferation rate of Rubus spp. differs in shoot tips and nodal segments. The culture media used for raspberry and blackberry propagation are MS-based supplemented with different combination and ratio of plant growth regulators, depending on the stage of culture. The initiation medium containing 0.4 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA is used to stabilize shoot cultures. In multiplication media, concentration of cytokinin is doubled. In vitro rooting of shoots is achieved on media supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) IBA. Ribes spp. cultures are initiated from shoot tips, meristem, or dormant buds on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg L(-1) IBA, and 0.1 mg L(-1) GA(3.) After stabilization of shoot cultures in 3-4-week time, shoot multiplication is carried out on MS medium containing 1.0 mg L(-1) BA and 0.1 mg L(-1) IBA. Shoots 2 cm long are cultured to rooting on a medium amended with 2.0 mg L(-1) IBA and 5.0 mg L(-1) IAA. Rooted plantlets are transferred to universal peat substrate and acclimatized in the greenhouse.

  5. Enrichment of Acinetobacter spp. from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalheira, Ana; Ferreira, Vânia; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Relatively little is known about the role of foods in the chain of transmission of acinetobacters and the occurrence of different Acinetobacter spp. in foods. Currently, there is no standard procedure to recover acinetobacters from food in order to gain insight into the food-related ecology and epidemiology of acinetobacters. This study aimed to assess whether enrichment in Dijkshoorn enrichment medium followed by plating in CHROMagar™ Acinetobacter medium is a useful method for the isolation of Acinetobacter spp. from foods. Recovery of six Acinetobacter species from food spiked with these organisms was compared for two selective enrichment media (Baumann's enrichment and Dijkshoorn's enrichment). Significantly (p Acinetobacter was applied to detect Acinetobacter spp. in different foods. Fourteen different presumptive acinetobacters were recovered and assumed to represent nine different strains on the basis of REP-PCR typing. Eight of these strains were identified by rpoB gene analysis as belonging to the species Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter guillouiae and Acinetobacter gandensis. It was not possible to identify the species level of one strain which may suggests that it represents a distinct species.

  6. Glyphosate-Resistant Parthenium hysterophorus in the Caribbean Islands: Non Target Site Resistance and Target Site Resistance in Relation to Resistance Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracamonte, Enzo; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate has been the most intensely herbicide used worldwide for decades, and continues to be a single tool for controlling weeds in woody crops. However, the adoption of this herbicide in a wide range of culture systems has led to the emergence of resistant weeds. Glyphosate has been widely used primarily on citrus in the Caribbean area, but a study of resistance in the Caribbean islands of Cuba and the Dominican Republic has never been carried out. Unfortunately, Parthenium hysterophorus has developed glyphosate-resistance in both islands, independently. The resistance level and mechanisms of different P. hysterophorus accessions (three collected in Cuba (Cu-R) and four collected in the Dominican Republic (Do-R) have been studied under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. In in vivo assays (glyphosate dose causing 50% reduction in above-ground vegetative biomass and survival), the resistance factor levels showed susceptible accessions (Cu-S ≥ Do-S), low-resistance accessions (Cu-R3 resistance accessions (Do-R3 resistance accessions (Do-R1 resistance factor levels were similar to those found in the shikimic acid accumulation at 1000 μM of glyphosate (Cu-R1 ≥ Do-R1 > Do-R2 > Cu-R2 > Do-R3 > Do-R4 > Cu-R3 >> Cu-S ≥ Do-S). Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid, glyoxylate and sarcosine by >88% in resistant accessions except in Cu-R3 and Do-R4 resistant accessions (51.12 and 44.21, respectively), whereas a little glyphosate (resistance levels in P. hysterophorus accessions. One amino acid substitution was found at position 106 in EPSPS, consisting of a proline to serine change in Cu-R1, Do-R1 Do-R2. The above-mentioned results indicate that high resistance values are determined by the number of defense mechanisms (target-site and non-target-site resistance) possessed by the different P. hysterophorus accessions, concurrently. PMID:27999586

  7. Glyphosate-Resistant Parthenium hysterophorus in the Caribbean Islands: Non Target Site Resistance and Target Site Resistance in Relation to Resistance Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Bracamonte

    2016-12-01

    of a proline to serine change in Cu-R1, Do-R1 Do-R2. The above-mentioned results indicate that high resistance values are determined by the number of defense mechanisms (target-site and non-target-site resistance possessed by the different P. hysterophorus accessions, concurrently.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Study with Targeted and Non-targeted NMR Metabolomics Identifies 15 Novel Loci of Urinary Human Metabolic Individuality.

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    Johannes Raffler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies with metabolic traits (mGWAS uncovered many genetic variants that influence human metabolism. These genetically influenced metabotypes (GIMs contribute to our metabolic individuality, our capacity to respond to environmental challenges, and our susceptibility to specific diseases. While metabolic homeostasis in blood is a well investigated topic in large mGWAS with over 150 known loci, metabolic detoxification through urinary excretion has only been addressed by few small mGWAS with only 11 associated loci so far. Here we report the largest mGWAS to date, combining targeted and non-targeted 1H NMR analysis of urine samples from 3,861 participants of the SHIP-0 cohort and 1,691 subjects of the KORA F4 cohort. We identified and replicated 22 loci with significant associations with urinary traits, 15 of which are new (HIBCH, CPS1, AGXT, XYLB, TKT, ETNPPL, SLC6A19, DMGDH, SLC36A2, GLDC, SLC6A13, ACSM3, SLC5A11, PNMT, SLC13A3. Two-thirds of the urinary loci also have a metabolite association in blood. For all but one of the 6 loci where significant associations target the same metabolite in blood and urine, the genetic effects have the same direction in both fluids. In contrast, for the SLC5A11 locus, we found increased levels of myo-inositol in urine whereas mGWAS in blood reported decreased levels for the same genetic variant. This might indicate less effective re-absorption of myo-inositol in the kidneys of carriers. In summary, our study more than doubles the number of known loci that influence urinary phenotypes. It thus allows novel insights into the relationship between blood homeostasis and its regulation through excretion. The newly discovered loci also include variants previously linked to chronic kidney disease (CPS1, SLC6A13, pulmonary hypertension (CPS1, and ischemic stroke (XYLB. By establishing connections from gene to disease via metabolic traits our results provide novel hypotheses about molecular

  9. Glyphosate-Resistant Parthenium hysterophorus in the Caribbean Islands: Non Target Site Resistance and Target Site Resistance in Relation to Resistance Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracamonte, Enzo; Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Barro, Francisco; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Glyphosate has been the most intensely herbicide used worldwide for decades, and continues to be a single tool for controlling weeds in woody crops. However, the adoption of this herbicide in a wide range of culture systems has led to the emergence of resistant weeds. Glyphosate has been widely used primarily on citrus in the Caribbean area, but a study of resistance in the Caribbean islands of Cuba and the Dominican Republic has never been carried out. Unfortunately, Parthenium hysterophorus has developed glyphosate-resistance in both islands, independently. The resistance level and mechanisms of different P. hysterophorus accessions (three collected in Cuba (Cu-R) and four collected in the Dominican Republic (Do-R) have been studied under greenhouse and laboratory conditions. In in vivo assays (glyphosate dose causing 50% reduction in above-ground vegetative biomass and survival), the resistance factor levels showed susceptible accessions (Cu-S ≥ Do-S), low-resistance accessions (Cu-R3 glyphosate (Cu-R1 ≥ Do-R1 > Do-R2 > Cu-R2 > Do-R3 > Do-R4 > Cu-R3 > Cu-S ≥ Do-S). Glyphosate was degraded to aminomethylphosphonic acid, glyoxylate and sarcosine by >88% in resistant accessions except in Cu-R3 and Do-R4 resistant accessions (51.12 and 44.21, respectively), whereas a little glyphosate (glyphosate rates. The R accessions showed values of between 0.026 and 0.21 μmol μg(-1) TSP protein min(-1) basal EPSPS activity values with respect to the S (0.024 and 0.025) accessions. The same trend was found in the EPSPS enzyme activity treated with glyphosate, where a higher enzyme activity inhibition (glyphosate μM) corresponded to greater resistance levels in P. hysterophorus accessions. One amino acid substitution was found at position 106 in EPSPS, consisting of a proline to serine change in Cu-R1, Do-R1 Do-R2. The above-mentioned results indicate that high resistance values are determined by the number of defense mechanisms (target-site and non-target

  10. Development and application of a non-targeted extraction method for the analysis of migrating compounds from plastic baby bottles by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Matthias; van Hoeck, Els; Vervliet, Philippe; Scippo, Marie Louise; Simon, Coraline; van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the European Union prohibited the production of polycarbonate (PC) baby bottles due to the toxic effects of the PC monomer bisphenol-A. Therefore, baby bottles made of alternative materials, e.g. polypropylene (PP) or polyethersulphone (PES), are currently marketed. The principal aim of the study was the identification of major compounds migrating from baby bottles using a liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC/MS analysis. A 50% EtOH in water solution was selected as a simulant for milk. After sterilisation of the bottle, three migration experiments were performed during 2 h at 70°C. A non-targeted liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-n-hexane (1:1) was performed on the simulant samples. Identification of migrants from 24 baby bottles was done using commercially available WILEY and NIST mass spectra libraries. Differences in the migrating compounds and their intensities were observed between the different types of plastics, but also between the same polymer from a different producer. Differences in the migration patterns were perceived as well between the sterilisation and the migrations and within the different migrations. Silicone, Tritan™ and PP exhibited a wide variety of migrating compounds, whereas PES and polyamide (PA) showed a lower amount of migrants, though sometimes in relatively large concentrations (azacyclotridecan-2-one up to 250 µg kg⁻¹). Alkanes (especially in PP bottles), phthalates (dibutylphthalate in one PP bottle (±40 µg kg⁻¹) and one silicone bottle (±25 µg kg⁻¹); diisobutylphthalate in one PP (±10 µg kg⁻¹), silicone (up to ±80 µg kg⁻¹); and Tritan™ bottle (±30 µg kg⁻¹)), antioxidants (Irgafos 168, degradation products of Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076), etc. were detected for PP, silicone and Tritan™ bottles. Although the concentrations were relatively low, some compounds not authorised by European Union Regulation No. 10/2011, such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (10-100 µg kg⁻¹) or 2

  11. Evaluations of larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts to Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) and other effects on a non target fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUWANNEE PROMSIRI; AMARA NAKSATHIT; MALEEYA KRUATRACHUE; USAVADEE THAVARA

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to investigate the effects of the extracts of 112 medicinal plant species, collected from the southern part of Thailand, on Aedes aegypti. Studies on larvicidal properties of plant extracts against the fourth instar larvae revealed that extracts of 14 species showed evidence of larvicidal activity. Eight out of the 14 plant species showed 100% mosquito larvae mortality. The LC50 values were less than 100μg/mL (4.1μg/ mL-89.4μg/mL). Six plant species were comparatively more effective against the fourth instar larvae at very low concentrations. These extracts demonstrated no or very low toxicity to guppy fish (Poecilia reticulata), which was selected to represent most common non-target organism found in habitats of Ae. aegypti, at concentrations active to mosquito larvae. Three medicinal plants with promising larvicidal activity, having LC50 and LC90 values being 4.1 and 16.4μg/mL for Mammea siamensis, 20.2 and 34.7μg/mL for Anethum graveolens and 67.4 and 110.3 μg/mL for Annona muricata, respectively, were used to study the impact of the extracts on the life cycle of Ae. aegypti. These plants affected pupal and adult mortality and also affected the reproductive potential of surviving adults by reducing the number of eggs laid and the percentage of egg hatchability. When each larval stage was treated with successive extracts at the LC50 value, the first instar larvae were found to be very susceptible to A. muricata and the second instar larvae were found to be susceptible to A. graveolens, while the third and fourth instar larvae were found to be susceptible to M. siamensis. These extracts delayed larval development and inhibited adult emergence and had no adverse effects on P.reticulata at LC50 and LC90 values, except for the M. siamensis extract at its LC50 value.

  12. Non-target effects of a glyphosate-based herbicide on Common toad larvae (Bufo bufo, Amphibia and associated algae are altered by temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Baier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Glyphosate-based herbicides are the most widely used pesticides in agriculture, horticulture, municipalities and private gardens that can potentially contaminate nearby water bodies inhabited by amphibians and algae. Moreover, the development and diversity of these aquatic organisms could also be affected by human-induced climate change that might lead to more periods with extreme temperatures. However, to what extent non-target effects of these herbicides on amphibians or algae are altered by varying temperature is not well known. Methods We studied effects of five concentrations of the glyphosate-based herbicide formulation Roundup PowerFlex (0, 1.5, 3, 4 mg acid equivalent glyphosate L−1 as a one time addition and a pulse treatment of totally 4 mg a.e. glyphosate L−1 on larval development of Common toads (Bufo bufo, L.; Amphibia: Anura and associated algae communities under two temperature regimes (15 vs. 20 °C. Results Herbicide contamination reduced tail growth (−8%, induced the occurrence of tail deformations (i.e. lacerated or crooked tails and reduced algae diversity (−6%. Higher water temperature increased tadpole growth (tail and body length (tl/bl +66%, length-to-width ratio +4% and decreased algae diversity (−21%. No clear relation between herbicide concentrations and tadpole growth or algae density or diversity was observed. Interactive effects of herbicides and temperature affected growth parameters, tail deformation and tadpole mortality indicating that the herbicide effects are temperature-dependent. Remarkably, herbicide-temperature interactions resulted in deformed tails in 34% of all herbicide treated tadpoles at 15 °C whereas no tail deformations were observed for the herbicide-free control at 15 °C or any tadpole at 20 °C; herbicide-induced mortality was higher at 15 °C but lower at 20 °C. Discussion These herbicide- and temperature-induced changes may have decided effects on ecological

  13. Effects of alpha-mangostin from mangosteen pericarp extract and imidacloprid on Nilaparvata lugens (Stal.) and non-target organisms: toxicity and detoxification mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullangpoti, Vasakorn; Visetson, Suraphon; Milne, John; Milne, Manthana; Sudthongkong, Chaiwud; Pronbanlualap, Somchai

    2007-01-01

    The brown planthopper, Nilaparvato lugens Stat. (BPH) is the most devastating insect pest in rice fields. Outbreaks of BPH, which are resistant to many synthetic insecticides, can cause total rice crop loss. This research was done to evaluate the efficiency of extracts of mangosteen pericarp (Garcina mangostana L.) as an alternative control of BPH Thailand strain. Topical spraying was applied to various stages of nymphal and adult BPH to determine toxicity. An ethanol extract of mangosteen pericarp extract gave the best control of BPH, with LC50 of 4.5% w/v (r2 = 0.95) with 3rd instar BPH nymphs when compared with the other solvents, hexane, acetone and dichloromethane. The active compound, alpha-mangostin showed an LC50 of 5.44%w/v (r2 = 0.88). The toxicity of this extract was less than that of Imidacloprid which showed an LC50 of 0.0042% w/v (r2 = 0.99). The toxicity to non-target organisms was determined. This extract showed toxicity to guppies ((LC50 = 2.53 and 4.27 ppm for females and males, respectively; r2 = 0.97 and 0.97, respectively), bees (LC50 = 4.38% w/v, r2 = 0.95) and mice (no oral acute toxicity and no dermal inflammation but showed eye irritation in 1 day which became normal within 3 days). In vitro detoxification enzyme activities of carboxylesterase, acetylcholinesterase and glutathione-s-transferase from BPH after 24 hours exposure were also observed. Carboxylesterase showed stronger activity than other enzymes. Toxicity in terms of LC50 values of both the extract and imidacloprid treatments increased in each generation. The LC50 values for each generation were 4.22-6.67 after sequential spraying. After the ethanol extract was kept at 4 degrees C, room temperature and 55 degrees C for 3 months, the quantity of alpha-mangostin and the BPH control efficiency was lower at 55 degrees C than those for other temperatures. The results from this research indicate that mangosteen pericarp extract can be an alternative insecticide for the control of BPH

  14. A serological survey of Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. in Iberian fattening pigs reared in free-range systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M; Gómez-Laguna, J; Tarradas, C; Luque, I; García-Valverde, R; Reguillo, L; Astorga, R J

    2014-10-01

    Zoonotic agents such as Brucella spp., Salmonella spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp., all considered high-risk zoonotic pathogens by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA), may cause no symptoms of infection in free-range pigs yet still have a significant public health impact. A serological survey was therefore performed to determine the history of occurrence of these pathogens in such pigs in southern Spain. A total of 709 serum samples were collected at abattoir from pigs from 79 farms and analysed for specific antibodies against the above pathogens using commercially available ELISA kits. Encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were also sought following the artificial digestion method of diaphragm pillar muscle. The results showed Salmonella spp. to be widely distributed among the sampled herds [73.42%, 95% confidence interval (CI95 ) 65.6-81.78] and Toxoplasma gondii to be present in over half (58.23%, CI95 47.33-69.07). The seroprevalence of Brucella spp. was very low (3.8%, CI95 0.18-7.42), and antibodies against Trichinella spp. were not detected. No encysted Trichinella spp. larvae were microscopically detected.

  15. Small rodents as reservoirs of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in south-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Perec-Matysiak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. and [i]Giardia[/i] spp. have been detected in a range of host species, including rodents. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of these pathogens and recognition of the reservoir role of rodents in the maintenance of these pathogens in south-western Poland. Additionally, preliminary molecular studies were conducted to elucidate the species and genotypes of [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] and [i]Giardia[/i] identified in this study. Stool samples (n=266 from [i]A. agrarius[/i],[i] A. flavicollis[/i] and [i]M. glareolus[/i], were subjected for analyses. Values of prevalence were 61.7, 68.3 and 68.1%, respectively, for [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. and 41.7, 24.4 and 38.4%, respectively, for [i]Giardia[/i] spp. There was a statistically significant correlation between host species and [i]Giardia[/i] infection where[i] A. agrarius[/i] was the species of the highest prevalence. Statistically significant differences were not found for comparisons made for study sites and occurrence of [i]Giardia[/i] spp. and [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] spp. Due to preliminary nested PCR results, specific amplifications of [i]Cryptosporidium[/i] COWP and SSU rRNA genes were obtained for several isolates taken from rodent host species. One isolate recovered from [i]A. agrarius[/i] (from a semi-aquatic, urban area was identified as [i]C. parvum[/i] and revealed 100% similarity with sequences obtained from humans. To the best of the knowledge of the authors, this is the first record of the [i]C. parvum[/i] zoonotic species from the striped field mouse. Also recorded were the first findings of [i]C. ubiquitum[/i] from three small rodent species.

  16. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Rivera

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this sense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media.Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO.Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth.Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respectively. To some extent, this suggests an additional confirmative method when using the EE® broth

  17. Standardization of a quantification method for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in specific liquid media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patricia Rivera

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Chlorination is the most widely used disinfection process for drinking water production. The formation of chlorination carcinogenic by-products and chlorine intoxication by direct manipulation in small communities has motivated the study of alternative disinfection processes. In this sense, processes of advanced oxidation (PAOs have yielded promising results. Escherichia coli (E. coli is customarily used as faecal bacterial indicator to determine the efficiency of disinfection processes. However, it has been shown that E. coli is less resistant to disinfection than other enteric bacteria such as Shigella  spp. and Salmonella  spp. Additionally, the viable non-culturable (VNC state yields bacteria which are not detectable on many culture media. Objective: The main objective is to standardize a method for counting Salmonella  spp. and Shigella  spp. in specific liquid media to reliably quantify the bacteriological potential risk related to disinfection processes based on PAO. Methods: The study followed a randomized bi-factorial experimental design and the Duncan multiple comparison test. This design allowed the selection of specific liquid media to fittingly standardize the counting of Salmonella  spp. and Shigella  spp. Results: We found that the best broth for counting Salmonella typhimurium strain at different concentrations in pure and mixed cultures was the Rappaport broth RP, the EE broth also allowed growing the two bacterial species tested in this research. Nonetheless, the latter results suggest the use of additional tests for this particular broth. Discussion: There was a variation in the counting results when pure cultures were used compared to those obtained from mixtures of microorganisms. It was also noted that Salmonella typhimurium and Shigella sonnei, were recovered from minimal concentrations in both RP and EE broths, respectively. To some extent, this suggests an additional confirmative method when using the

  18. Quantification of viable but nonculturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during sludge anaerobic digestion and their reactivation during cake storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, B; Jiang, Q; Liu, H-B; Liu, H

    2015-10-01

    The presence of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) bacterial pathogens which often fail to be detected by cultivation and can regain the cultivability if the living conditions improve were reported. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in the biosolids during anaerobic digestion and its reactivation during the cake storage. The occurrence of VBNC Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during mesophilic, temperature-phased, thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge and the subsequent storage were studied by RT-qPCR and most probable number (MPN) method. The VBNC incidence of Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. during thermophilic digestion was four orders of magnitude higher than those of mesophilic digestion. Accordingly, higher resuscitation ratio of VBNC pathogens was also achieved in thermophilic digested sludge. As a result, the culturable Salmonella typhimurium contents in thermophilic digested sludge after cake storage were two orders of magnitude higher than mesophilic digestion. Both quantitative PCR and reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay results showed the two bacterial counting numbers remained stable throughout the cake storage. The results indicate that the increase in the culturable Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. after centrifugal dewatering was attributed to the resuscitation from the VBNC state to the culturable state. Thermophilic anaerobic digestion mainly induced Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. into VBNC state rather than killed them, suggesting that the biological safety of sewage sludge by temperature-phased anaerobic digestion should be carefully assessed. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Isolamento de Pasteurella spp. e Vibrio spp. em robalos (Dicentrarchus labrax: susceptibilidade a diferentes grupos de antibióticos Isolation of Pasteurella spp. and Vibrio spp. in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax: susceptibility to different antibiotic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Saavedra

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The most frequent infectious diseases that affect fish are those of bacterial origin. In European sea bass fish farms (Dicentrarchus labrax are included Vibrio spp., Pasteurella piscicida and Myxobacter spp. In addition to these, it is also possible to find, although lesser frequently, other pathogenic agents such as Pseudomonas spp., Aeromonas spp., Staphylococcus epidermis, Streptococcus spp. and Enterobacter spp. The presence of these micro-organisms in fish farms contributes for a significant decrease in fish production and subsequent loss of profitability in these aquaculture units. The use of antibiotics may therefore be necessary as a prophylactic measure although their systematic utilization leads to the development of strains of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Bearing that in mind, a survey was conducted on the susceptibility of isolated strains of bacteria found in juvenile European sea bass. It was concluded that chloranphenicol and tetracycline are two important antibiotic alternatives for therapy against isolated bacterial agents.

  20. Contamination by Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. of most popular chicken- and pork-sausages sold in Reunion Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimoulinard, A; Beral, M; Henry, I; Atiana, L; Porphyre, V; Tessier, C; Leclercq, A; Cardinale, E

    2017-03-27

    One of the most popular meat products of the local "cuisine" is sausage composed with 100% chicken or 100% pork. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria spp. in chicken- and pork-sausages, quantify Salmonella spp. population and identify the factors that could be associated with contamination in the outlets. Two hundred and three batches of pork and chicken sausages were randomly collected from 67 local outlets (supermarkets, groceries and butcher shops). Salmonella spp. was detected in 11.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): [10.0; 13.5]) of samples, Campylobacter spp. in 1.5% [0.7; 4.2] and Listeria monocytogenes in 5.9% [4.4; 7.3]. Most probable number of Salmonella spp. varied between 6cfu per gram to 320cfu per gram. Salmonella serotypes isolated from pork and chicken sausages were S. Typhimurium (45.8%), S. London (20.8%), S. Derby (16.7%), S. Newport (8.33%), S. Blockley (4.2%) and S. Weltevreden (4.17%). Using a logistic (mixed-effect) regression model, we found that Salmonella spp. contamination was positively associated with sausages sold in papers or plastic bags and no control of rodents. Chicken sausages were associated with a decreasing risk of Salmonella contamination. Listeria monocytogenes contamination was positively associated with the presence of fresh rodent droppings in the outlet and negatively when the staff was cleaning regularly their hands with soap and water or water only. All the sampled outlets of Reunion Island were not equivalent in terms of food safety measures. Increasing awareness of these traders remains a cornerstone to limit the presence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. in sausages, particularly in a tropical context (high temperature and humidity).

  1. Antibacterial Activity of Eel (Anguilla spp.) Mucus against Salmonella typhi

    OpenAIRE

    Tomy Nurtamin; Resty Yulianita Nurman; Indria Hafizah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Typhoid fever has become one global health problem. Typhoid fever is caused by a Gram-negative bacterium, Salmonella typhi. Eel (Anguilla spp.) is a fish which lives in the sea or in freshwater. Several previous studies have found that Anguilla spp. mucus has the ability as antibacterial against Gram-positive and negative. Although the antibacterial activity of Anguilla spp. against various pathogens had been reported, very little is known about its activity against Salmonella typ...

  2. Exotic Small Mammals as Potential Reservoirs of Zoonotic Bartonella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the risk for emerging human infections caused by zoonotic Bartonella spp. from exotic small mammals, we investigated the prevalence of Bartonella spp. in 546 small mammals (28 species) that had been imported into Japan as pets from Asia, North America, Europe, and the Middle and Near East. We obtained 407 Bartonella isolates and characterized them by molecular phylogenetic analysis of the citrate synthase gene, gltA. The animals examined carried 4 zoonotic Bartonella spp. that cau...

  3. Antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp isolated from broiler flocks

    OpenAIRE

    Kuana, Suzete Lora; SANTOS Luciana Ruschel dos; RODRIGUES, Laura Beatriz; Anderlise BORSOI; Moraes, Hamilton Luis do Souza; Salle, Carlos Tadeu Pippi; Nascimento, Vladimir Pinheiro do

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of 62 Campylobacter spp. strains obtained from broiler flocks using the agar diffusion method. The Campylobacter spp strains were isolated from 22 flocks aged between 3 and 5 weeks of life, isolated from cloacae swabs, stools and cecal droppings in the farm and from the carcass rinsing in the slaughterhouse. Campylobacter spp strains were tested on Mueller-Hilton (MH) agar (27 samples) and MH plus TTC agar (35 samples). The ...

  4. Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2014-09-01

    Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

  5. 21 CFR 866.3035 - Arizona spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Arizona and provides epidemiological information on diseases caused by these microorganisms. Arizona spp....

  6. 21 CFR 866.3630 - Serratia spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification aids in the diagnosis of disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Serratia and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Serratia spp. are occasionally associated with...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3065 - Bordetella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Bordetella and provides epidemiological information on these diseases. Bordetella spp. cause whooping cough...

  8. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing in Staphylococcus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Coenye, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic coccus-shaped bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus are among the most important causative agents of acute and chronic bacterial infections in humans as well as in animals. Treatment of Staphylococcus infections has become increasingly challenging due to the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. For this reason innovative antimicrobials with novel targets and modes of action are needed. Since the discovery that QS is used by Staphylococcus spp. to coordinate the expression of several genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and pathogenicity, QS inhibition has gained increasing attention as an alternative anti-pathogenic strategy. A major advantage compared with antibiotic therapy is that QSIs are used in concentrations that do not affect bacterial growth. For this reason, it is expected that these compounds would exert less pressure towards the development of resistance. However, some important points still need to be addressed. Although several inhibitors have proven to be active antipathogenic agents in vitro and in several in vivo models, it is still unknown whether these compounds will also be useful in humans. Furthermore, several fundamental mechanisms by which the different QS systems in Staphylococcus spp. exert their regulatory functions and how they are inhibited by QSIs are still poorly understood. In order to achieve real-life applications with QSIs, these challenges should be addressed and more research will be needed. In this article, we will discuss the different QS systems present in Staphylococcus spp., how they are used to control virulence and biofilm formation and how they can be blocked.

  9. The potential role of migratory birds in transmission cycles of Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Anke; Franke, Jan; Meier, Frank; Sachse, Svea; Dorn, Wolfram; Straube, Eberhard

    2010-06-01

    Babesia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Rickettsia spp. are potentially emerging tick-borne pathogens, whereas many issues about their ecology, e.g. reservoir host specificity, are still unclear. In spring 2007, we collected 191 feeding Ixodes ricinus ticks from 99 birds of 11 different species on a German bird conservation island in the Baltic Sea. Babesia spp. were detected in 4.7% (9/191), A. phagocytophilum was present in 2.6% (5/191), and Rickettsia spp. were identified in 7.3% (14/191) of the investigated ticks. Further characterization of Babesia spp. infections resulted in B. divergens and B. microti. Among the Rickettsia spp. infections, we identified at least 2 different species: R. monacensis and R. helvetica. Furthermore, 2 ticks harboured mixed infections. Our study provides first interesting insights into the role of migratory birds in the distribution of several emerging tick-borne pathogens.

  10. Mysterious chronic urticaria caused by Blastocystis spp.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepczyńska, Małgorzata; Chen, Wen-Chieh; Dzika, Ewa

    2016-03-01

    Species of the genus Blastocystis, which are single-cell, intestinal protozoan parasites of humans and animals, remain mysterious, with unclear clinical and epidemiologic significance. In recent years, many researchers have suggested a possible connection between Blastocystis spp. infection and chronic urticaria. In the present article, we review the literature and discuss the possible associations between the clinical symptomatology and pathogenicity of this organism in terms of its subtypes, morphologic forms, genetic diversity, and interactions with other intestinal microbiota. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Comparative of Quercus spp. and Salix spp. for phytoremediation of Pb/Zn mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiang; Wang, Shufeng; Sun, Haijing; Chen, Yitai; Wang, Dongxue; Pan, Hongwei; Zou, Yazhu; Liu, Jianfeng; Zheng, Linyu; Zhao, Xiulian; Jiang, Zeping

    2017-02-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings. The root systems showed marked differences between the Quercus spp. and Salix spp., indicating that different mechanisms operated to confer tolerance of heavy metals. The maximum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry value of the five species showed no differences among the treatments, except for Q. shumardii. All species showed low metal translocation factors (TFs). However, S. integra had significantly higher TF values for Zn (1.42-2.18) and cadmium (1.03-1.45) than did the other species. In this respect, Q. virginiana showed the highest tolerance and a low TF, implying that it is a candidate for phytostabilization of mine tailings in southern China. S. integra may be useful for phytoextraction of tailings in temperate regions.

  12. First report of Colletotrichum spp. causing diseases on Capsicum spp. in Sabah, Borneo, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Yun

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Blackish or orange liquid-like spots were found on (n=100 fruits of chillies (Capsicum sold in five local markets in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici were identified as the causal agents of an anthracnose disease. This is the first report of Colletotrichum spp. as the causal agent of anthracnose infected chillies in Sabah.

  13. Characterization of geographically distinct bacterial communities associated with coral mucus produced by Acropora spp. and Porites spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKew, B A; Dumbrell, A J; Daud, S D; Hepburn, L; Thorpe, E; Mogensen, L; Whitby, C

    2012-08-01

    Acropora and Porites corals are important reef builders in the Indo-Pacific and Caribbean. Bacteria associated with mucus produced by Porites spp. and Acropora spp. from Caribbean (Punta Maroma, Mexico) and Indo-Pacific (Hoga and Sampela, Indonesia) reefs were determined. Analysis of pyrosequencing libraries showed that bacterial communities from Caribbean corals were significantly more diverse (H', 3.18 to 4.25) than their Indonesian counterparts (H', 2.54 to 3.25). Dominant taxa were Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Cyanobacteria, which varied in relative abundance between coral genera and region. Distinct coral host-specific communities were also found; for example, Clostridiales were dominant on Acropora spp. (at Hoga and the Mexican Caribbean) compared to Porites spp. and seawater. Within the Gammproteobacteria, Halomonas spp. dominated sequence libraries from Porites spp. (49%) and Acropora spp. (5.6%) from the Mexican Caribbean, compared to the corresponding Indonesian coral libraries (<2%). Interestingly, with the exception of Porites spp. from the Mexican Caribbean, there was also a ubiquity of Psychrobacter spp., which dominated Acropora and Porites libraries from Indonesia and Acropora libraries from the Caribbean. In conclusion, there was a dominance of Halomonas spp. (associated with Acropora and Porites [Mexican Caribbean]), Firmicutes (associated with Acropora [Mexican Caribbean] and with Acropora and Porites [Hoga]), and Cyanobacteria (associated with Acropora and Porites [Hoga] and Porites [Sampela]). This is also the first report describing geographically distinct Psychrobacter spp. associated with coral mucus. In addition, the predominance of Clostridiales associated with Acropora spp. provided additional evidence for coral host-specific microorganisms.

  14. Using Pseudomonas spp. for Integrated Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Virginia O; Stack, James P

    2007-02-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudomonas spp. have been studied for decades as model organisms for biological control of plant disease. Currently, there are three commercial formulations of pseudomonads registered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for plant disease suppression, Bio-Save 10 LP, Bio-Save 11 LP, and BlightBan A506. Bio-Save 10 LP and Bio-Save 11 LP, products of Jet Harvest Solutions, Longwood, FL, contain Pseudomonas syringae strains ESC-10 and ESC-11, respectively. These products are applied in packinghouses to prevent postharvest fungal diseases during storage of citrus, pome, stone fruits, and potatoes. BlightBan A506, produced by NuFarm Americas, Burr Ridge, IL, contains P. fluorescens strain A506. BlightBan A506 is applied primarily to pear and apple trees during bloom to suppress the bacterial disease fire blight. Combining BlightBan A506 with the antibiotic streptomycin improves control of fire blight, even in areas with streptomycin-resistant populations of the pathogen. BlightBan A506 also may reduce fruit russet and mild frost injury. These biocontrol products consisting of Pseudomonas spp. provide moderate to excellent efficacy against multiple production constraints, are relatively easy to apply, and they can be integrated with conventional products for disease control. These characteristics will contribute to the adoption of these products by growers and packinghouses.

  15. Characterizing the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Lucas Nojosa; Casaletti, Luciana; Báo, Sônia Nair; Borges, Clayton Luiz; de Sousa Lima, Patrícia; de Almeida Soares, Célia Maria

    2016-10-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, caused by thermo dimorphic fungi of the genus Paracoccidioides. Although previous proteome analyses of Paracoccidioides spp. have been carried out, the nuclear subproteome of this pathogen has not been described. In this way, we aimed to characterize the nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides species, in the yeast form. For that, yeast cells were disrupted and submitted to cell fractionation. The purity of the nuclear fraction was confirmed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. Liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) allowed the identification of 867 proteins. In order to support our enrichment method for nuclear proteins, bioinformatics analysis were applied that allowed the identification of 281 proteins with nuclear localization. The analysis revealed proteins related to DNA maintenance, gene expression, synthesis and processing of messenger and ribosomal RNAs, likewise proteins of nuclear-cytoplasmic traffic. It was also possible to detect some proteins that are poorly expressed, like transcription factors involved in important roles such as resistance to abiotic stress, sporulation, cellular growth and DNA and chromatin maintenance. This is the first descriptive nuclear proteome of Paracoccidioides spp. that can be useful as an important platform base for fungi-specific nuclear processes.

  16. Distribution of pathogenic Naegleria spp in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiewcharoen, S; Junnu, V

    2001-01-01

    Research concerning the distribution, isolation, viability, ultrastructure, morphology and immunogenicity of Naegleria fowleri has been increasing in Thailand during 1988-2000. The distribution of the organism was carried out from 1985 to 1987 in Si Sa Ket and Ubon Rachathani Provinces, after the first fatal case was reported in Si Sa Ket. Since then in a 1998 survey of N. fowleri in stagnant water around industrial areas was carried out in Pathum Thani, Samut Prakan and Lopburi provinces. The results showed that 10% of pathogenic Naegleria belonged to species fowleri as characterized by morphology and the occurrence of pathogenesis in mice after nasal inoculation. In the same year, Nacapunchai et al (1999) determined the prevalence of amebae in aquatic habitat of human environments in five parts of Thailand during the summer. Fourteen percent of free living Naegleria spp were found in both soil and water resources. Recent studies of the ultrastructure, factors affecting the viability and SDS-PAGE electrophoretic patterns of 3 Thai strains of pathogenic Naegleria spp indicated their similarities in morphological characteristics of pathogenic reference control, Naegleria fowleri CDC VO 3081. Additional study using a genetic approach to species criteria using allozyme electrophoresis had been conducted.

  17. Anti- Sporothrix spp. activity of medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Bressan Waller

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cases of sporotrichosis in humans and animals without satisfactory clinical response have increased, a warning sign of strains resistant to conventional antifungal agents. The urgent search for alternative therapies was an incentive for research on medicinal plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. properties. A bibliographic survey was performed based on scientific papers about in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity of essential oils and extracts of plants in differents solvents against the fungal of the Sporothrix schenckii complex. The study methodology consisted of a literature review in Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, Bireme and Springer link with papers from 1986 to 2015. We found 141 species of plants that were investigated, of which 100 species were concentrated in 39 botanical families that had confirmed anti-Sporothrix activity. Combretaceae, Asteraceae and Lamiaceae represented the botanical families with the greatest number of plants species with antifungal potential, using different methodologies. However, there are few studies with medicinal plants in experimental infection in animals that prove their activity in the treatment of sporotrichosis. It reinforces the need for further research related to standardization of in vitro methodologies and in vivo studies related to safety and to toxicity potential of these plants with anti-Sporothrix spp. activity.

  18. Phylogenesis of relapsing fever Borrelia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ras, N M; Lascola, B; Postic, D; Cutler, S J; Rodhain, F; Baranton, G; Raoult, D

    1996-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of 20 relapsing fever (RF) Borrelia spp. were estimated on the basis of the sequences of rrs genes. Complete sequences were aligned and compared with previously published sequences, and the similarity values were found to be 97.7 to 99.9%. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by using the three neighbor-joining, maximum-parsimony, and maximum-likelihood methods. The results of the comparative phylogenetic analysis divided the RF Borrelia spp. into three major clusters. One cluster included Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, Borrelia recurrentis, and Borrelia hispanica. Another cluster comprised tow main branches with Borrelia coriaceae, Borrelia lonestari, and Borrelia miyamotoi on one side and Borrelia parkeri, Borrelia turicatae, and Borrelia hermsii on the other side. Borrelia anserina constituted the third cluster. The phylogenetic position of Borrelia persica was more uncertain. These results suggested that the taxonomy of these spirochetes should be revised. To overcome the problems of culturing the spirochetes, RF Borrelia primers were defined. Following PCR amplification of the rrs gene, restriction length fragment polymorphism could be used to distinguish between RF Borrelia strains.

  19. Bioethanol production from the macroalgae Sargassum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borines, Myra G; de Leon, Rizalinda L; Cuello, Joel L

    2013-06-01

    Macroalgae, an abundant and carbon-neutral renewable resource, with several species rich in carbohydrates are suitable for bioethanol production. This study focused on the pretreatment, enzyme saccharification and fermentation of Sargassum spp., a brown macroalgae for bioethanol production. The optimal acid pretreatment condition achieved in terms of glucose and reducing sugar yields was 3.4-4.6% (w/v) H2SO4 concentration, 115°C and 1.50h. The pretreated biomass was hydrolyzed with cellulase enzyme system supplemented with β-glucosidase. After fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 40°C, pH of 4.5 for 48 h, the ethanol conversion rate of the enzyme hydrolysate reached 89%, which was markedly higher than the theoretical yield of 51% based on glucose as substrate. Since all the glucose was consumed during fermentation, other sugar sources might be present in the hydrolysate. The macroalgae, Sargassum spp., showed significant potential as a renewable feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp.) in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs) living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44) were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% ...

  1. Severe Candida spp. infections: new insights into natural immunity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, J.W.M. van der; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Joosten, L.A.B.; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Invasive infections caused by Candida spp. are associated with high mortality. Colonisation by Candida spp. and the capacity of the host to recognise them as potential pathogens are essential steps in the development of these infections. The major pathogen-associated molecular patterns of Candida ar

  2. INK128 exhibits synergy with azoles against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujuan Gao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Infections of Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp. are often chronic and recalcitrant. Systemic disseminations, which mostly occur in immunocompromised patients, are often refractory to available antifungal therapies. The conserved target of rapamycin (TOR orchestrates cell growth and proliferation in response to nutrients and growth factors, which are important for pathogenicity and virulence. INK128 is a second-generation ATP-competitive TOR inhibitor, which binds the TOR catalytic domain and selectively inhibits TOR. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro activities of INK128 alone and the interactions of INK128 with conventional antifungal drugs including itraconazole, voriconazole, posaconazole, and amphotericin B against 18 strains of Exophiala spp. and 10 strains of Fusarium spp. via broth microdilution checkerboard technique system adapted from clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute broth microdilution method M38-A2. INK128 alone was inactive against all isolates tested. However, favorable synergistic effects between INK128 and voriconazole were observed in 61% Exophiala strains and 60% Fusarium strains, despite Fusarium strains exhibited high MIC values (4-8 μg/ml against voriconazole. In addition, synergistic effects of INK128/itraconazole were shown in 33% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains, while synergy of INK128/posaconazole were observed in 28% Exophiala strains and 30% Fusarium strains. The effective working ranges of INK128 were 0.125-2 μg/ml and 1-4μg/ml against Exophiala isolates and Fusarium isolates, respectively. No synergistic effect was observed when INK128 was combined with amphotericin B. No antagonism was observed in all combinations. In conclusion, INK128 could enhance the in vitro antifungal activity of voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole against Exophiala spp. and Fusarium spp., suggesting that azoles, especially voriconazole, combined with TOR kinase inhibitor might provide a

  3. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani with Trichoderma Spp.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ From over 800 fungal strains of Trichoderma Spp. , 6 strains were found to greatly inhibit the growing of Rhizocotonia solani, the pathogen of rice sheath blight in dual culture. Among them, strain T3 was the best antagonist,which reduced the growing of the pathogen by 52.54% (Table 1). In field, both the pesticide Jinggangmycin and the mixture of T1 T6 could reduce the severity of rice sheath blight(Table 2), which resulted in the increases of seed setting rate and 1000 grain weight. Because the effect of the antagonists on the control of the pathogen could be partially realized in the watery environment, studies on the biocontrol mechanism of the fungi should be strengthened to help the establishment of a best way of antagonist utilization.

  4. Design Studies with DEMIRCI for SPP RFQ

    CERN Document Server

    Yasatekin, B; Alacakir, A; Unel, G

    2014-01-01

    To design a Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) is a onerous job which requires a good understanding of all the main parameters and the relevant calculations. Up to the present there are only a few software packages performing this task in a reliable way. These legacy software, though proven in time, could benefit from the modern software development tools like Object Oriented (OO) programming. In this note, a new RFQ design software, DEMIRCI is introduced. It is written entirely from scratch using C++ and based on CERN's OO ROOT library. It has a friendly graphical user interface and also a command line interface for batch calculations. It can also interact by file exchange with similar software in the field. After presenting the generic properties of DEMIRCI, its compatibility with similar software packages is discussed based on the results from the reference design parameters of SPP (SNRTC Project Prometheus), a demonstration accelerator at Ankara, Turkey.

  5. Rhabdochlamydia spp. in an Oregon raptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffroy, Sophie J; Schlueter, Andrew H; Bildfell, Robert J; Rockey, Daniel D

    2016-07-01

    PCR-based approach was used to examine the rate of Chlamydia positivity in raptors from wild bird rehabilitation centers in Oregon. Three of 82 birds were identified as positive for Chlamydia with this PCR. Sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA from 2 of these birds confirmed the presence of DNA from phylum Chlamydiae. One bird was positive for Chlamydia psittaci in both choanal and cloacal swabs. The second bird, a louse-infested red-tailed hawk, had evidence of choanal colonization by "Candidatus Rhabdochlamydia" spp. Our study describes evidence of this Chlamydia-like organism in the United States. This survey also suggests that the carriage rate of C. psittaci is low in raptors in Oregon wild bird rehabilitation centers, and that care must be taken in the design of PCR primers for phylum Chlamydiae such that colonization by insect endosymbionts is not mistaken for an infection by known chlamydial pathogens.

  6. Helicobacter spp. other than H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Mirko; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2012-09-01

    Significant advances have been made over the last 12 months in the understanding of the biology of non-H. pylori Helicobacter species (NHPH). Several studies have investigated the association between NHPH and human disease, including Crohn's disease, lithiasis, liver disease, coronary disease, gastritis, and pyoderma gangrenosum-like ulcers. Novel Helicobacter taxa were identified in new vertebrate hosts, and new methodologies in the fields of identification of Helicobacter spp. and evaluation of antibiotic resistance were described. The genome of the first human-derived gastric NHPH strain (Helicobacter bizzozeronii CIII-1) was sequenced, and several studies elucidated functions of different genes in NHPH. A number of important investigations regarding pathogenesis and immunopathobiology of NHPH infections have been published including the description of a new urease in Helicobacter mustelae. Finally, the effects of the gut microbiota and probiotics on NHPH infections were investigated.

  7. Trypanosoma spp. in Swedish game animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumüller, Magnus; Nilsson, Kenneth; Påhlson, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Serum and blood samples from 36 game animals, shot during the hunting seasons 2007-2009, were collected and analyzed for the presence of Trypanosoma spp. by three methods: isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serology. Only fissiped animals were included, four different ruminants and wild boar. Trypanosomes could be isolated from two of the animals, and eight had detectable parasite DNA. Seven animals had high titers of anti-trypanosoma IgG antibodies. The two isolated strains, one from roe dear and one from European elk, were determined to Trypanosoma theileri by partial DNA sequencing of the 18S ribosomal gene. In the seven boars, no Trypanosoma were detected, but four out of seven strongly positive serological samples came from this group. This is the first study in Scandinavia on the presence of Trypanosoma in game animals. The results indicate that trypanosomiasis is frequently occurring among Swedish game animals.

  8. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. Associated with the Infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human, Zander R.; Moon, Kyuho; Bae, Munhyung; de Beer, Z. Wilhelm; Cha, Sangwon; Wingfield, Michael J.; Slippers, Bernard; Oh, Dong-Chan; Venter, Stephanus N.

    2016-01-01

    Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences. PMID:27853450

  9. Antifungal Streptomyces spp. associated with the infructescences of Protea spp. in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zander Human

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Common saprophytic fungi are seldom present in Protea infructescences, which is strange given the abundance of mainly dead plant tissue in this moist protected environment. We hypothesized that the absence of common saprophytic fungi in Protea infructescences could be due to a special symbiosis where the presence of microbes producing antifungal compounds protect the infructescence. Using a culture based survey, employing selective media and in vitro antifungal assays, we isolated antibiotic producing actinomycetes from infructescences of Protea repens and P. neriifolia from two geographically separated areas. Isolates were grouped into three different morphological groups and appeared to be common in the Protea spp. examined in this study. The three groups were supported in 16S rRNA and multi-locus gene trees and were identified as potentially novel Streptomyces spp. All of the groups had antifungal activity in vitro. Streptomyces sp. Group 1 had inhibitory activity against all tested fungi and the active compound produced by this species was identified as fungichromin. Streptomyces spp. Groups 2 and 3 had lower inhibition against all tested fungi, while Group 3 showed limited inhibition against Candida albicans and Sporothrix isolates. The active compound for Group 2 was also identified as fungichromin even though its production level was much lower than Group 1. The antifungal activity of Group 3 was linked to actiphenol. The observed antifungal activity of the isolated actinomycetes could contribute to protection of the plant material against common saprophytic fungi, as fungichromin was also detected in extracts of the infructescence. The results of this study suggest that the antifungal Streptomyces spp. could play an important role in defining the microbial population associated with Protea infructescences.

  10. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L. en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98, el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  11. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis of cardiac Muscle Ring Finger-1 (MuRF1), MuRF2, and MuRF3 in vivo reveals novel and redundant metabolic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Ranjan; He, Jun; Spaniel, Carolyn; Quintana, Megan T.; Wang, Zhongjing; Bain, James; Newgard, Christopher B.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Willis, Monte S.

    2017-01-01

    The muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases MuRF1, MuRF2, MuRF3 have been reported to have overlapping substrate specificities, interacting with each other as well as proteins involved in metabolism and cardiac function. In the heart, all three MuRF family proteins have proven critical to cardiac responses to ischemia and heart failure. The non-targeted metabolomics analysis of MuRF1-/-, MuRF2-/-, and MuRF3-/- hearts was initiated to investigate the hypothesis that MuRF1, MuRF2, and MuRF3 have a similarly altered metabolome, representing alterations in overlapping metabolic processes. Ventricular tissue was flash frozen and quantitatively analyzed by GC/MS using a library built upon the Fiehn GC/MS Metabolomics RTL Library. Non-targeted metabolomic analysis identified significant differences (via VIP statistical analysis) in taurine, myoinositol, and stearic acid for the three MuRF-/- phenotypes relative to their matched controls. Moreover, pathway enrichment analysis demonstrated that MuRF1-/- had significant changes in metabolite(s) involved in taurine metabolism and primary acid biosynthesis while MuRF2-/- had changes associated with ascorbic acid/aldarate metabolism (via VIP and t-test analysis vs. sibling-matched wildtype controls). By identifying the functional metabolic consequences of MuRF1, MuRF2, and MuRF3 in the intact heart, non-targeted metabolomics analysis discovered common pathways functionally affected by cardiac MuRF family proteins in vivo. These novel metabolomics findings will aid in guiding the molecular studies delineating the mechanisms that MuRF family proteins regulate metabolic pathways. Understanding these mechanism is an important key to understanding MuRF family proteins' protective effects on the heart during cardiac disease.

  12. Prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on Australian Beef Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Lesley L; Fegan, Narelle

    2012-08-01

    The International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) classified Arcobacter spp. as emerging pathogens in 2002. Arcobacter spp. have been isolated from numerous food products at retail and from animal carcasses and feces at slaughter. A survey was conducted to determine both the prevalence and concentration of Arcobacter spp. on pre-chill beef carcasses. Surface swab samples were collected from 130 beef carcasses at the end of processing, prior to chilling. The concentration of Arcobacter spp. was determined by a most-probable-number per square centimeter (3 by 3) method with a limit of detection of 0.12 CFU/cm(2). Of the 100 carcasses examined from export abattoirs, 20 (20.0%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 5 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.31 CFU/cm(2). Of the 30 carcasses examined at a pet food abattoir, 25 (83.3%) were contaminated with Arcobacter spp., and 10 of these had quantifiable levels of contamination ranging from 0.12 to 0.95 CFU/cm(2). Three species of Arcobacter, A. butzleri, A. cryaerophilus, and A. skirowii, were identified by PCR. Each of the species was present in an approximately equal ratio from export abattoirs. This study demonstrates that slaughter practices at export abattoirs are sufficient to maintain both low prevalence and low levels of contamination of beef carcasses with Arcobacter spp.

  13. Impacto de herbicidas em isolados de Trichoderma spp. Impact of herbicides on strains of Trichoderma spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Reis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de microrganismos é uma alternativa para o controle de doenças em plantas. Todavia, é prudente verificar a interação desse com os demais métodos de controle empregados em determinada cultura. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade dos herbicidas sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos isolados de Trichoderma spp. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 6 x 6 x 4, com quatro repetições. O fator A correspondeu aos herbicidas pendimethalin, clomazone, carfentrazone-ethyl, oxadiazon, thiobencarb + propanil e byspiribac-sodium; o fator B, às doses dos herbicidas - 0, 25, 50, 75, 100 e 200% da dose recomendada; e o fator C, aos isolados de Trichoderma spp. AJAM 18, CE 66, TRI 01 e TRI 02. O ensaio foi realizado em condições in vitro; avaliaram-se o crescimento micelial radial (CMR e a esporulação dos isolados após aplicação dos herbicidas. Observaram-se diferenças de sensibilidade dos isolados para o mesmo produto testado. O oxadiazon reduziu o CMR dos isolados AJAM 18 e TRI 01 em 66 e 35%, respectivamente. No entanto, reduziu apenas 16% do CMR do isolado TRI 02 e não alterou o CMR do isolado CE 66 mesmo em 200% da dose recomendada. Verificaram-se diferentes efeitos dos produtos em cada isolado. A mistura comercial de thiobencarb+propanil foi altamente tóxica aos isolados de Trichoderma spp., com reduções em torno de 85% no CMR e no número de esporos. Por outro lado, o byspiribac-sodium pouco afetou os isolados, apresentando reduções inferiores a 10% no CMR e na esporulação. O carfentrazone-ethyl e byspiribac-sodium demonstraram ser compatíveis com os isolados de Trichoderma spp. estudados.The use of microorganisms is an alternative for the control of plant diseases. However, one should verify its interaction with other methods of control used for a particular crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of herbicide fungitoxicity on the growth and

  14. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the field. Finding the balance for control of Epitrix spp. is proving difficult.

  15. Multiple Wavelength-Channels in SPP Waveguides for Optical Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-You; HUANG Peng; GUO Xiao-Wei; WANG Jing-Quan; FANG Lang; DU Jing-Lei; LUO Xian-Gang; DU Chun-Lei

    2008-01-01

    @@ Surface plasmon polaritons(SPPs)can be excited,meanwhile some peculiar optical phenomena will appear when light irradiates metal structures under some conditions.Based on photonic band gap theory,in this Letter we present a kind of SPP waveguide with multiple wavelength-channels.By using the Bragg effect and introducing some geometric defect layers into a quasi-periodic metal heterowaveguide,the multiple SPP forbidden bands(SPFBs)in a given waveband can be generated,and the multiple SPP pass bands(SPPBs)with narrow bandwidth in each SPFB can be realized.

  16. A simple method for DNA isolation from Xanthomonas spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes Luiz Humberto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple DNA isolation method was developed with routine chemicals that yields high quality and integrity preparations when compared to some of the most well known protocols. The method described does not require the use of lysing enzymes, water bath and the DNA was obtained within 40 minutes The amount of nucleic acid extracted (measured in terms of absorbancy at 260 nm from strains of Xanthomonas spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Erwinia spp. was two to five times higher than that of the most commonly used method.

  17. Occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system, Paraná, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatas Campos Almeida

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. in a public water-treatment system. Samples of raw and treated water were collected and concentrated using the membrane filtration technique. Direct Immunofluorescence Test was performed on the samples. DNA extraction using a commercial kit was performed and the DNA extracted was submitted to a nested-PCR reaction (n-PCR and sequencing. In the immunofluorescence, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp.. In n-PCR and sequencing, 2/24 (8.33% samples of raw water were positive for Giardia spp., and 2/24 (8.33% samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp.. The sequencing showed Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia duodenalis DNA. In raw water, there was moderate correlation among turbidity, color and Cryptosporidium spp. and between turbidity and Giardia spp.. The presence of these protozoans in the water indicates the need for monitoring for water-treatment companies.

  18. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K. Y.; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria. PMID:28066390

  19. Inactivation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. by Palmitic, Stearic, and Oleic Acid Sophorolipids and Thiamine Dilauryl Sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejie; Ashby, Richard; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Uknalis, Joseph; Fan, Xuetong

    2016-01-01

    Food contaminated with human pathogens, such as Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, frequently causes outbreaks of foodborne illness. Consumer concern over the use of synthesized antimicrobials to enhance microbial food safety has led to a search of natural alternatives. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of various types of sophorolipids (SLs) and thiamine dilauryl sulfate (TDS) against pathogenic Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Both free and lactonic forms of SLs were synthesized from Candida bombicola using palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids as co-feedstocks. TDS and purified SLs were used to treat cocktails of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. Results showed that lactonic SLs had higher antimicrobial activity than the free-acid form, and Gram-positive Listeria spp. were more susceptible to SLs and TDS than Gram-negative Salmonella spp. Listeria populations were reduced from an initial concentration of 7.2 log CFU/mL to a non-detectible level within a 1 min treatment of 0.1% (w/v) lactonic SLs and TDS in the presence of 20% ethanol, which itself did not significantly reduce the populations. There were no significant differences in the antimicrobial efficacy among palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid-based SLs against Salmonella or Listeria spp. Ethanol was utilized to improve the antimicrobial activity of free-acid SLs against Gram-negative bacteria. In general, TDS was more effective than the SLs against Salmonella and Listeria spp. scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SLs and TDS damaged Listeria cell membranes and resulted in cell lysis. Overall, our results demonstrated that SLs and TDS in the presence of ethanol can be used to inactivate foodborne pathogens, especially Gram-positive bacteria.

  20. New method for rapid solid-phase extraction of large-volume water samples and its application to non-target screening of North Sea water for organic contaminants by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, S; Bester, K; Hühnerfuss, H

    2001-03-30

    A method has been developed that allows the solid-phase extraction of microorganic compounds from large volumes of water (10 l) for non-target analysis of filtered seawater. The filtration-extraction system is operated with glass fibre filter candles and the polymeric styrene-divinylbenzene sorbent SDB-1 at flow-rates as high as 500 ml/min. Recovery studies carried out for a couple of model substances covering a wide range of polarity and chemical classes revealed a good performance of the method. Especially for polar compounds (log Kow 3.3-0.7) quantitative recovery was achieved. Limits of detection were between 0.1 and 0.7 ng/l in the full scan mode of the MS. The suitability of the method for the analysis of marine water samples is demonstrated by the non-target screening of water from the German Bight for the presence of organic contaminants. In the course of this screening a large variety of substances was identified including pesticides, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals. For some of the identified compounds their occurrence in marine ecosystems has not been reported before, such as dichloropyridines, carbamazepine, propyphenazone and caffeine.

  1. Impact of reaction parameters on the chemical profile of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine synthesized via reductive amination: target analysis based on GC-qMS compared to non-targeted analysis based on GC×GC-TOF-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffer, M; Dieckmann, S; Pütz, M; Kohles, T; Pyell, U; Zimmermann, R

    2013-12-10

    The most common clandestine manufacturing procedure for the ecstasy derivative 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), is the reductive amination of piperonylmethylketone (PMK) via platinum(IV) oxide/hydrogen. Deviations of the reaction conditions during the synthesis may result in different chemical profiles of the products. The chemical analysis of these profiles is an important objective for forensic drug intelligence. In this work we studied the impact of a systematic variation of the hydrogenation time, the reaction temperature and the precursor batch on the resulting organic chemical profiles of the MDMA bases and MDMA hydrochlorides. Target analysis was based on a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method which was harmonized during the European project CHAMP.(2) In addition, samples were analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS) and subjected to non-targeted data analysis for a comprehensive analysis of the complete profiles. The reaction temperature, followed by the used precursor batch, revealed the highest impact on the chemical profile. The effect on individual impurity compounds is discussed in detail. With respect to the interpretation of the data, the profiles were compared to the profiles of MDMA samples obtained by reductive amination using sodium borohydride ("cold method") and aluminium/mercury amalgam as alternative reducing agents. Non-targeted analysis revealed that the discrimination according to the synthetic route and the batch of precursor used for the synthesis strongly depends on the selected target compounds.

  2. Told through the wine: A liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry interplatform comparison reveals the influence of the global approach on the final annotated metabolites in non-targeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Ramon; Gallart-Ayala, Hector; Sancho, Juan V; Nuñez, Oscar; Zamora, Tatiana; Martins, Claudia P B; Hernández, Félix; Hernández-Cassou, Santiago; Saurina, Javier; Checa, Antonio

    2016-02-12

    This work focuses on the influence of the selected LC-HRMS platform on the final annotated compounds in non-targeted metabolomics. Two platforms that differed in columns, mobile phases, gradients, chromatographs, mass spectrometers (Orbitrap [Platform#1] and Q-TOF [Platform#2]), data processing and marker selection protocols were compared. A total of 42 wines samples from three different protected denomination of origin (PDO) were analyzed. At the feature level, good (O)PLS-DA models were obtained for both platforms (Q(2)[Platform#1]=0.89, 0.83 and 0.72; Q(2)[Platform#2]=0.86, 0.86 and 0.77 for Penedes, Ribera del Duero and Rioja wines respectively) with 100% correctly classified samples in all cases. At the annotated metabolite level, platforms proposed 9 and 8 annotated metabolites respectively which were identified by matching standards or the MS/MS spectra of the compounds. At this stage, there was no coincidence among platforms regarding the suggested metabolites. When screened on the raw data, 6 and 5 of these compounds were detected on the other platform with a similar trend. Some of the detected metabolites showed complimentary information when integrated on biological pathways. Through the use of some examples at the annotated metabolite level, possible explanations of this initial divergence on the results are presented. This work shows the complications that may arise on the comparison of non-targeted metabolomics platforms even when metabolite focused approaches are used in the identification.

  3. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  4. Impacto de herbicidas em isolados de Trichoderma spp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reis, M.R; Leão, E.U; Santos, G.R; Sarmento-Brum, R.B.C; Gonçalves, C.G; Cardon, C.H; Silva, D.B

    2013-01-01

    ... a interação desse com os demais métodos de controle empregados em determinada cultura. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar a fungitoxicidade dos herbicidas sobre o crescimento e desenvolvimento dos isolados de Trichoderma spp...

  5. Symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. with an echinoderm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brigmon, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); De Ridder, C. [Univ. Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium). Lab. de Biologie Marine

    1998-09-01

    Thiothrix-like bacteria have been reported as symbionts in invertebrates from sulfide-rich habitats. Isolation of these symbiotic Thiothrix-like bacteria has failed, and the organisms have not been previously identified with certainty. The genus Thiothrix was created for ensheathed filamentous bacteria that oxidize sulfide and deposit sulfur granules internally, attach to substrates, produce gliding gonidia, and form rosettes. Immunoassay procedures were used to investigate the symbiotic relationship of Thiothrix spp. in the intestinal cecum of the spatangoid species Echinocardium cordatum. Thiothrix spp. were identified in nodule samples from E. cordatum digestive tubes based on microscopic examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and indirect immunofluorescence. Thiothrix spp. protein made up as much as 84% of the total protein content of the nodules. This is the first identification of Thiothrix spp. internally symbiotic with marine invertebrates.

  6. 21 CFR 866.3300 - Haemophilus spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Haemophilus and provides epidemiological information on diseases cause by these microorganisms. Diseases most often caused by Haemophilus spp. include pneumonia, pharyngitis,...

  7. Studies on Thiobacilli spp. isolated from sandy beaches of Kerala

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gore, P.S.; Raveendran, O.; Unnithan, R.V.

    Occurrence, isolation and oxidative activity of Thiobacilli spp. from some sandy beaches of Kerala are reported. These organisms were encountered in polluted beaches and were dominant during monsoon in all the beaches...

  8. Interlaboratorium vergelijking van het onderzoek naar Aeromonas spp. in drinkwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havelaar AH; During M; Versteegh JFM

    1986-01-01

    Door middel van onderzoek van zes kunstmatig besmette gesimuleerde monsters drinkwater ( 4 Aeromonas spp., 1 Klebsiella oxytoca, 1 Pseudomonas aeruginosa) werd een vergelijking gemaakt van de resultaten van Aeromonas onderzoek in 14 laboratoria. De tellingen in de deelnemende laboratoria vertoonde

  9. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pet turtles and their environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Du-San; Shin, Gee-Wook; Wendt, Mitchell

    2016-01-01

    Pet turtles are known as a source of Salmonella infection to humans when handled in captivity. Thirty four turtles purchased from pet shops and online markets in Korea were examined to determine whether the turtles and their environment were contaminated with Salmonella spp. Salmonella spp. were isolated from fecal samples of 17 turtles. These isolates were identified as S. enterica through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolation rate of Salmonella spp. from the soil and water samples increased over time. We concluded that a high percentage of turtles being sold in pet shops were infected with Salmonella spp., and their environments tend to become contaminated over time unless they are maintained properly. These results indicate that pet turtles could be a potential risk of salmonellosis in Korea. PMID:27729933

  10. Phenotypic characterization of canine Malassezia spp., isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Hurtado-Suárez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To characterize and identify yeasts of the genus Malassezia by phenotypic features. Materials and methods. First, the macroscopic and microscopic morphological characteristics were described. In addition we performed biochemical and physiological assays as Tweens and Cremophor, including more. Results. Our results evidenced of 105 isolates obtained from dogs diagnosed with external otitis, it was possible to identify two distinct species from 46 isolates within the Malassezia genus: 36.19% (n=38 were identified as M. pachydermatis and 7.62% (n=8 as M. furfur. According to phenotypic patterns the remaining 56.19% (n=59 were reported as Malassezia spp., possibly corresponding to M. furfur and/or M. pachydermatis. Conclusions. Results emphasize the necessity to characterize according to species. It is not feasible to define Malassezia by species based on morphological, biochemical, and physiological findings. Therefore, molecular genotyping should be performed to identify markers allowing a more precise isolate identification. This would broaden our epidemiological knowledge regarding different species involved in canine otitis pathologies.

  11. Brachiaria spp. poisoning of ruminants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Riet-Correa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Brachiaria species are the most important grasses for cattle production in Brazil. However, a limiting factor for the use of Brachiaria spp. is their toxicity. Most outbreaks of hepatogenous photosensitization are caused by B. decumbens; however B. brizantha, B. humidicola and B. ruziziensis can also cause poisoning. The poisoning affects cattle, sheep, goats and buffalo. Sheep are more susceptible than other animal species and the young are more susceptible than adults. There are differences in susceptibility among animals of the same species and it has been suggested that this resistance is genetic. Also has been suggested that buffalo and probably some sheep are resilient, i.e. when poisoned these animals have histologic lesions and high GGT serum concentrations, but do not show clinical signs. In general, saponin concentrations are higher in growing plants, but outbreaks occur all over the year, probably due to unexplained rise in saponin concentration in the plant. A clinical syndrome of progressive weight loss and death, without photosensitization, has been reported in cattle poisoned by B. decumbens. Main preventive measures are based on the selection of resistant or resilient animals and on the development of Brachiaria species or varieties with low saponin concentration.

  12. Biopharmaceutical potentials of Prosopis spp. (Mimosaceae, Leguminosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhaseelan Henciya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosopis is a commercially important plant genus, which has been used since ancient times, particularly for medicinal purposes. Traditionally, Paste, gum, and smoke from leaves and pods are applied for anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial purposes. Components of Prosopis such as flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, quinones, or phenolic compounds demonstrate potentials in various biofunctions, such as analgesic, anthelmintic, antibiotic, antiemetic, microbial antioxidant, antimalarial, antiprotozoal, antipustule, and antiulcer activities; enhancement of H+, K+, ATPases; oral disinfection; and probiotic and nutritional effects; as well as in other biopharmaceutical applications, such as binding abilities for tablet production. The compound juliflorine provides a cure in Alzheimer disease by inhibiting acetylcholine esterase at cholinergic brain synapses. Some indirect medicinal applications of Prosopis spp. are indicated, including antimosquito larvicidal activity, chemical synthesis by associated fungal or bacterial symbionts, cyanobacterial degradation products, “mesquite” honey and pollens with high antioxidant activity, etc. This review will reveal the origins, distribution, folk uses, chemical components, biological functions, and applications of different representatives of Prosopis.

  13. Sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airas, Niina; Saari, Seppo; Mikkonen, Taina; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Pellikka, Jani; Oksanen, Antti; Isomursu, Marja; Kilpelä, Seija-Sisko; Lim, Chae W; Sukura, Antti

    2010-02-01

    Although human infections caused by Trichinella sp. have not been reported in Finland for several decades and Trichinella sp. infection in pork has become virtually extinct in the last decade, sylvatic Trichinella spp. infection is still highly prevalent in Finland. Muscle digestion of 2,483 carnivorous wild animals from 9 host species during 1999-2005 showed 617 positive animals (24.8%). Molecular identification from 328 larval isolates revealed 4 different endemic Trichinella species, i.e., T. nativa, T. spiralis, T. britovi, and T. pseudospiralis. Seven percent of the infected animals carried mixed infections. Trichinella nativa was the most common species (74%), but T. spiralis was identified in 12%, T. britovi in 6%, and T. pseudospiralis in 1% of the animals. Host species showed different sample prevalence and Trichinella species distribution. Geographical distribution also varied, with the southern part of the country having significantly higher percentages than the northern part. Infection density was dependent on both the infecting Trichinella species and the host species. Trichinella spiralis was discovered in areas with no known domestic infection cases, indicating that it can also occur in the sylvatic cycle. Raccoon dogs and red foxes are the most important reservoir animals for T. spiralis , as well as for the sylvatic Trichinella species in Finland.

  14. Helicobacter spp. other than Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Cinthia G; Mitchell, Hazel M

    2010-09-01

    Over the last 12 months, new insights into the association of non-Helicobacter pylori Helicobacters with a range of human diseases in children and adults, including hepatobiliary disease, Crohn's disease, sepsis, and gastric disease were published. Studies investigating the presence of non-H. pylori Helicobacters in domestic animals reinforce previous findings that cats and dogs harbor gastric Helicobacter species and thus may be an important source of these organisms in humans. The confounding effect of enterohepatic Helicobacters on the outcome of biomedical research was investigated in several studies and led to recommendations that animals should be screened prior to performing experiments. A number of important and novel investigations regarding pathogenic mechanisms and immune responses to enterohepatic Helicobacters were conducted. Genomic advances in non-H. pylori Helicobacters included description of the complete genome of Helicobacter canadensis, delineation of two Helicobacter bilis genomospecies, and identification of a novel cis-regulatory RNA. New insights concerning growth conditions, biochemical characterization, and the effect of certain dietary compounds on Helicobacter spp. have also been reported. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Aeromonas spp.: ubiquitous or specialized bugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Maria Elena; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The genus Aeromonas comprises ubiquitous bacteria that are known to play several roles in the environment. These bacteria were first described as fish pathogens, but their presence was documented in other reservoirs, such as animals and humans. Today, these bacteria are described as emerging pathogens, but their effective role in human pathogenicity is still controversial. In addition, their taxonomy is heavily debated, as species distinction is often difficult to achieve. To study the interspecies relationships and to investigate their connection with the environment, a multilocus sequence typing scheme previously developed for Aeromonas spp. was applied to 258 strains, and the genetic data were analysed by population software. Sampling was a fundamental step, including several of the main sources of Aeromonas: fish, food products and human cases of disease. The objective was to characterize the isolates and to find potential associations among them according to the following: species, sharing of virulence factors, source and adaptation to a specific habitat. The strains were characterized and demonstrated exceptionally high nucleotide variability in the Aeromonas genus. Among the sampled sources, different species distributions were found, highlighting the occurrence of adaptation processes towards specific habitats.

  16. Recovery of Arcobacter spp. from nonlivestock species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Irene V; Schroeder-Tucker, Linda

    2011-09-01

    The genus Arcobacter encompasses campylobacter-like organisms that grow in air at 25 degrees C. Arcobacter has been detected or isolated from clinically healthy livestock as well as aborted fetuses and has been presumptively identified as either Campylobacter or Leptospira, based on its growth in selective semisolid media. Because reports from nonlivestock species are limited, this study examined nine presumptive isolates of Arcobacter spp. from an alpaca (Vicugna pacos), black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis), white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum), gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla), gazelle (Eudorcas thomsoni), rhea (Rhea americana), and aborted equine fetuses. Seven of these nine phenotypically identified isolates of Arcobacter were confirmed by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. The remaining two isolates were subsequently identified as Arcobacter skirrowii (Case 5) and Campylobacter jejuni (Case 6) by sequence analysis of a 527-base pair fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Together, these cases underscore the challenges to a clinical laboratory of identifying Arcobacter in cases which mimic vibrionic abortion or leptospirosis.

  17. Antibodies to Leishmania spp. in domestic felines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Capriogli Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by protozoa in the genus Leishmania, typical of rural and peri-urban environments. The causative agent of American visceral leishmaniasis is Leishmania (Leishmania infantum chagasi and the main insect vector in Brazil is Lutzomyia longipalpis. Dogs (Canis familiaris are important in the transmission of the disease, as a reservoir closely related to humans and an infection source for phlebotomine vectors. Since 1990, an increasing number of feline leishmaniasis cases have been reported, suggesting that domestic cats (Felis catus might be involved in the epidemiology of the disease. The present study analyzed the prevalence of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies in naturally infected domestic cats from various neighborhoods in the municipality of Belém, Pará, Brazil, using the indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and the direct agglutination test (DAT. Among the 443 samples tested, 18 (4.06% presented positive reactions in the IFA. The observed titers were 40 IU in 4.97% of the samples and 80 IU in 0.90%. In the DAT test, positive results were found in 25 (5.64% of the samples. The observed titers were also 40 IU (4.97% and 80 IU (0.68%. The agreement rate between the two tests was considered low (Kappa coefficient = 0.10.

  18. In vitro susceptibility of Bacillus spp. to selected antimicrobial agents.

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    Although often dismissed as contaminants when isolated from blood cultures, Bacillus spp. are increasingly recognized as capable of causing serious systemic infections. As part of a clinical-microbiological study, 89 strains of Bacillus spp. isolated from clinical blood cultures between 1981 and 1985 had their species determined and were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Species of isolates were determined by the API 50CH and API 20E systems. Bacillus cereus (54...

  19. Epidemiology and Prevalence of Blastocystis spp. in North Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyer, Ayse; Karasartova, Djursun; Ruh, Emrah; Güreser, Ayse Semra; Turgal, Ebru; Imir, Turgut; Taylan-Ozkan, Aysegul

    2017-05-01

    AbstractThis study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of Blastocystis spp. and its subtypes (STs) in North Cyprus; and to evaluate the presence of this parasite and its STs with respect to demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors, as well as gastrointestinal symptoms. Stool samples were collected from 230 volunteers. Each participant also filled out a questionnaire. The samples were examined microscopically by native-Lugol and trichrome methods and further tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. Prevalence of Blastocystis spp. infection was found to be 10.5%, 10.5%, and 27.8%, by direct microscopy, trichrome method, and PCR, respectively. No other parasites were detected in the specimens except Giardia spp. (n = 2; 0.8%) and Entamoeba coli (n = 1; 0.4%). The most common Blastocystis STs were ST3 (20; 31.2%), ST2 (18; 28.2%), ST1 (8; 12.5%), and ST4 (7; 11%); whereas other STs were identified as ST6 (3; 4.7%), ST7 (2; 3.2%), and non-ST (6; 9.4%). Presence of Blastocystis spp. and its STs was not significantly related to any of the demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors. Furthermore, no significant association of Blastocystis spp. and its STs with gastrointestinal symptoms was found. This study is the first investigation of the epidemiology of Blastocystis spp. in North Cyprus. Distribution of Blastocystis spp. and its STs among demographic, socioeconomic, and epidemiological factors showed complete homogeneity. Presence of the parasite and its STs was not significantly related with the gastrointestinal symptoms among symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. These findings suggest that Blastocystis spp. may be part of the intestinal flora in humans.

  20. Molecular Characterization of Non-flowering Perennial Sorghum spp. Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Jessup, R. W.; Whitmire, D. K.; Farrow, Z. L.; Burson, B. L.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The goal of this study was to characterize recently identified, non-flowering, putative tetraploid Sorghum spp. hybrids utilizing bulked segregant analysis with SSRs and compare them to S. bicolor, S. halepense, and triploid putative Sorghum spp. hybrids. Confirmed species hybrids between S. bicolor and S. halepense would provide resources for investigating risks of invasiveness and transgene escape alongside potential for identifying novel perennial Sorghum feedstocks of value. Study d...

  1. POTENSI BEBERAPA ISOLAT PROBIOTIK SEBAGAI ANTIBAKTERI TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN Vibrio spp.

    OpenAIRE

    HASBIAH

    2015-01-01

    The research about potential of some probiotic isolates as an antibacterial on the growth of Vibrio spp had been done. This research aimed to know the antibacterial potency from some isolates probiotic on the growth of Vibrio spp. This research to tested the inhibition on the three species of Vibrio that are Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio prahaemolyticus, and Vibrio cholerae using agar diffusion method. Probiotic isolates come from lactic acid bacteria group that provide beneficial effects on health ...

  2. Prevalence of Demodex spp among alcohol-dependent patients

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya; Ozlem Aycan Kaya; Umit Sertan Copoglu; Sibel Elmacioglu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis are common ectoparasites found in humans and live on the pilosebaceous glands and hair follicles especially on the facial region. Chronic alcohol consumption can weaken immune system and cause more severe infections. Demodex spp is assumed to be more common in alcohol-dependent patients due to partial suppression of immune system and lack of good self-care. The present study aims to investigate the prevalence of Demodex spp. ectoparasite in alc...

  3. Chemical and ecological control methods for Epitrix spp.

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. S. Cuthbertson

    2015-01-01

    Very little information exists in regards to the control options available for potato flea beetles, Epitrix spp. This short review covers both chemical and ecological options currently available for control of Epitrix spp. Synthetic pyrethroids are the weapon of choice for the beetles. However, the impetus in integrated pest management is to do timely (early-season) applications with something harsh which will give long-term protection at a time when there are not a lot of beneficials in the ...

  4. Prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in farmed hares (Lepus europaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaniello, Antonio; Dipineto, Ludovico; Veneziano, Vincenzo; Mariani, Ugo; Fioretti, Alessandro; Menna, Lucia Francesca

    2014-10-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. were isolated from 118/240 (49.2%) rectal swabs from commercially farmed hares (Lepus europaeus) in southern Italy. Using multiplex PCR, Campylobacter coli was identified in 118/118 (100%) positive samples, while 17/118 (14.4%) positive samples were also positive for Campylobacter jejuni. Adult hares had a higher prevalence of infection with Campylobacter spp. than juvenile hares.

  5. Cefotaxime resistance and outcome of Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, M; Marco, F; Soriano, A; Almela, M; Martínez, J A; López, J; Pitart, C; Mensa, J

    2011-12-01

    We attempt to describe the epidemiology and outcome associated with cefotaxime-resistant (CTX-R) Klebsiella spp bacteraemia. Klebsiella spp bloodstream infection episodes prospectively collected through a blood culture surveillance programme from January 1991 to December 2008 in a single institution were analysed. A total of 910 monomicrobial episodes of Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were identified during the study period. The most important sources were from urinary tract infection, unknown sources, billiary focus and catheter related infection. There were 112 (12%) CTX-R isolates. Out of 112 isolates, 98 were CTX-R by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase production. Shock on presentation and mortality were significantly more frequent in CTX-R than in CTX susceptible isolates. Inappropriate empirical therapy was received in 50 (45%) cases in the CTX-R Klebsiella spp group (13 cases of death, 26%). Predictive factors associated with CTX-R Klebsiella spp isolate were: previous β-lactam therapy (OR = 4.16), nosocomial acquired bacteraemia (OR = 1.93), solid organ trasplantation (OR = 2.09) and shock (OR = 1.90). Independent risk factors associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia were: age (OR = 1.03), liver cirrhosis (OR = 2.63), ultimately or rapidly fatal prognosis of underlying disease (OR = 2.44), shock (OR = 8.60), pneumonia (OR = 4.96) or intraabdominal (OR = 3.85) source of bacteraemia and CTX-R isolate (OR = 4.63). Klebsiella spp is an important cause of bloodstream infection. CTX-R isolates have been increasing since 2000. CTX-R is an independent factor associated with mortality in Klebsiella spp bacteraemia.

  6. Isolation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii from artisanal mozzarella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen capable of causing disease and even fatalities in newborn infants within the first weeks of life if consumed as part of the diet. Premature and immunocompromised newborn infants are at particular risk. The microorganism has been isolated from a variety of foods including contaminated infant milk formula powder and milk powder substitute. The study aimed to evaluate the level of microbiological contamination in 47 samples of mozzarella cheese made with cow’s milk collected from artisan cheese producers in Southern Italy. Samples were collected from commercial sales points and underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological analyses to test for the bacterial contaminants most commonly found in milk and cheese products. The 47 samples underwent qualitative and quantitative microbiological tests according to ISO UNI EN standards. Analyses focused on Staphylococcus aures, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas spp., E. coli, Yersinia spp., total coliforms and Cronobacter sakazakii. The ISO/TS 22964:2006 method was used to investigate possible contamination by C. sakazakii. Biochemical identification was carried out using an automated system for identification and susceptibility tests. None of the samples examined resulted positive for Salmonella spp. or Listeria spp. Only one sample resulted positive for Staphylococcus aureus. Pseudomonas spp. was isolated in 10 (21% of 47 samples. High levels of total coliforms were found in 10 of 47 samples. Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii was isolated in one sample. This is the first study to confirm isolation of C. sakazakii in artisan mozzarella cheese made from cow’s milk. The presence of C. sakazakii could be related to external contamination during the phases of production or to the use of contaminated milk. Since mozzarella is recommended in the diet of children and adults of all ages, this

  7. Curcubitocin containing baits for Diabrotica spp. management/ Iscas contendo cucurbitacinas para o manejo de Diabrotica spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Ursi Ventura

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabrotica speciosa is a very important pest throughout Latin America, which management strategies are restrict to chemical control. We revise the usage of baits, containing semiochemicals, as management strategy for Diabrotica spp. Initially, we described the importance of baits for several orders of agricultural importance. The cucurbitacins are basic elements for Diabrotica spp. baits. These chemicals occur in some botanical families, especially Cucurbitaceae. The Carbamate insecticide Carbaril showed the best results for addition in the baits. Flowers volatile substances and pheromones also may be added to the baits to enhance attraction. Commercial baits are available for north-American species. For bait development is necessary to establish plant adherent formulations that promote the control during some weeks. We found in the literature that starch matrix may be suitable for this proposal.Diabrotica speciosa é praga de grande importância na América Latina, cujas estratégias de manejo restringem-se ao controle químico. A utilização de iscas, contendo semioquímicos como estratégia para manejo de Diabrotica spp. é revisada. Inicialmente, descreve-se a importância das iscas para diversas ordens de importância agrícola. As cucurbitacinas são elementos básicos das iscas para Diabrotica spp. Estas substâncias ocorrem em várias famílias botânicas, especialmente, Cucurbitaceae. O inseticida carbamato Carbaril apresenta os melhores resultados quando adicionado às iscas. Substâncias voláteis de flores e feromônios também podem ser adicionados às iscas e, desta forma, aumentar sua atratividade. Iscas comerciais existem para as espécies norte americanas. Para o desenvolvimento das iscas é necessário que se estabeleçam formulações aderentes às plantas que promovam o controle durante um tempo razoável no campo. Pelas informações da literatura, formulações contendo matrizes de amido podem ter estas características.

  8. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

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    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  9. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  10. Evaluation of arboviruses of public health interest in free-living non-human primates (Alouatta spp., Callithrix spp., Sapajus spp. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Carneiro da Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus in asymptomatic free-living non-human primates (NHPs living in close contact with humans and vectors in the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. METHODS: NHP sera samples (total n = 80, Alouatta spp. n = 07, Callithrix spp. n = 29 and Sapajus spp. n = 44 were screened for the presence of viral genomes using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques. RESULTS: All of the samples were negative for the Flavivirus genome following the 10% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These negative results indicate that the analyzed animals were not infected with arboviruses from the Flavivirus genus and did not represent a risk for viral transmission through vectors during the period in which the samples were collected.

  11. Development of multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion among dairy cattle is one of the major causes of economic losses in the livestock industry. This study describes a 1-step multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect Brucella spp., Leptospira spp. and Campylobacter foetus, these are significant bacteria commonly implicated in bovine abortion. ß-actin was added to the same PCR reaction as an internal control to detect any extraction failure or PCR inhibition. The detection limit of multiplex real-time PCR using purified DNA from cultured organisms was set to 5 fg for Leptospira spp. and C. foetus and to 50 fg for Brucella spp. The multiplex real-time PCR did not produce any non-specific amplification when tested with different strains of the 3 pathogens. This multiplex real-time PCR provides a valuable tool for diagnosis, simultaneous and rapid detection for the 3 pathogens causing abortion in bovine.

  12. Alternations in the liver enzymatic activity of Common carp, Cyprinus carpio in response to parasites, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastiannasab, Abulhasan; Afsharmanesh, Shiva; Rahimi, Ruhollah; Sharifian, Iman

    2016-12-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of parasites, monogenea, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. on some enzymatic and biochemical components of liver in healthy and infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio. For this purpose, 10 healthy and 10 infected fish were collected from farm. The blood samples were taken and after separation of serum, the values of Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzymes activities as well as Creatinine and Urea were measured. Based on obtained results, the values of AST, ALT enzymes activities as well as Creatinine and Urea were higher in the infected fish compared to non-infected fish. In conclusion; our results reveals that infection with external parasites, Dactylogyrus spp. and Gyrodactylus spp. can causes some dysfunctions in liver and kidney of common carp.

  13. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quantity of Legionella spp., Mycobacterium spp., Acanthamoeba,Vermamoeba vermiformis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were estimated using qPCR methods. This dataset is...

  14. Development of duplex PCR for simultaneous detection of Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanyan; Zhang, Yan; Jian, Fuchun; Zhang, Longxian; Wang, Rongjun; Cao, Shuxuan; Wang, Xiaoxing; Yan, Yaqun; Ning, Changshen

    2017-05-01

    Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp., which are important tick-borne pathogens (TBPs), impact the health of humans and animals in tropical and subtropical areas. Theileria and Anaplasma co-infections are common in sheep and goats. Following alignment of the relevant DNA sequences, two primer sets were designed to specifically target the Theileria spp. 18S rRNA and Anaplasma spp. 16S rRNA gene sequences. Genomic DNA from the two genera was serially diluted tenfold for testing the sensitivities of detection of the primer sets. The specificities of the primer sets were confirmed when DNA from Anaplasma and Theileria (positive controls), other related hematoparasites (negative controls) and ddH2O were used as templates. Fifty field samples were also used to evaluate the utility of single PCR and duplex PCR assays, and the detection results were compared with those of the PCR methods previously published. An optimized duplex PCR assay was established from the two primer sets based on the relevant genes from the two TBPs, and this assay generated products of 298-bp (Theileria spp.) and 139-bp (Anaplasma spp.). The detection limit of the assay was 29.4 × 10(-3) ng per μl, and there was no cross-reaction with the DNA from other hematoparasites. The results showed that the newly developed duplex PCR assay had an efficiency of detection (P > 0.05) similar to other published PCR methods. In this study, a duplex PCR assay was developed that can simultaneously identify Theileria spp. and Anaplasma spp. in sheep and goats. This duplex PCR is a potentially valuable assay for epidemiological studies of TBPs in that it can detect cases of mixed infections of the pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Comparison of phylogeny analysis methods for rhizobia asolated from Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengqin; Zhang, Yongfa; Liu, Jie; Song, Andong; Liu, Quanjun; Chen, Wenxin

    2008-01-01

    Multilocus house-keeping gene sequence analysis is a hotspot of taxonomy and phylogeny of prokaryotes. In this research, we used atpD and gln II gene sequences to analyze the phylogeny of nine rhizobia strains of Albizia spp., Acacia spp. and Leucaena leucocephala and compared the results to that of 16S rDNA. The phylogenetic relationships based on the sequence analysis of these three genes were congruent at the genera level. CCBAU43060 and CCBAU 61139 were located in the branch of Rhizobium-Agrobacterium. CCBAU51471, CCBAU35220, CCBAU51276 and CCBAU61158 belonged to the genera of Mesorhizobium. CCBAU35234, CCBAU61178 and CCBAU35085 were assigned to Bradyrhizobium. Differences were found for some strains, for example CCBAU 61158, CCBAU43060, CCBAU61178, at the species level. Insertion fragment and mosaic gene were also found in some isolates. These results indicated that there was recombination between species in the same genera. It is reliable to determine the taxonomy status at genera levels based on the sequence analysis of 16S rDNA. If the relationships between strains belonging to the same genera were studied using the phylogeny methods, researches should be carried out with more than one house-keeping genes.

  16. Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp., presence and susceptibility in crabs Ucides cordatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Regine H S F; Lima, Elenice Araújo de; Sousa, Dannielle Batista Rolim; Reis, Eliane Falavina dos; Costa, Renata Garcia; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres

    2004-01-01

    The presence of Vibrio spp. and Salmonella spp. in crabs marketed at the Bezerra de Menezes Ave., Fortaleza, State of Ceará, Brazil, was assessed between February and May, 2003. The number of individuals sampled in each one of the fifteen weekly samplings ranged between four and eight. Seven strains of Salmonella, from four different samplings, were identified, being five of them identified as serotype S. Senftenberg and two as S. Poona. All strains of Salmonella were sensitive to the tested anti-microbial drugs, with the exception of tetracycline and nalidixic acid, for which an intermediary sensibility was found. The MPN's for Vibrio ranged between 110/g and 110,000/g. Of the forty five Vibrio strains isolated from the crab samples, only 10 were identified up to the species level: two V. alginolyticus and eight V. parahaemolyticus. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae families were also identified, namely Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The proper cooking of the animals is recommended in order to avoid problems for the consumers of this crustacean.

  17. ACIDENTES POR SERPENTE (BOTHROPS SPP. E CROTALLUS SPP. EM CRIANÇAS: RELATO DE DOIS CASOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ferreira Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los accidentes provocados por serpientes poseen importancia sanitaria debido a la frecuencia y gravedad. La estandarización de la atención es imprescindible para auxiliar a los equipos de salud en el diagnóstico precoz y en el tratamiento específico a las víctimas. Pero, la evolución clínica del caso presenta particularidades, principalmente en accidentes infantiles y en ancianos. El objetivo fue describir y analizar dos casos clínicos de accidentes infantiles con serpientes de los géneros Bothrops spp. y Crotallus spp., notificados a un centro de información y asistencia toxicológica del Noroeste del Paraná/Brasil. Se encontraron aspectos positivos en la atención, como precocidad del acceso a la unidad de salud, identificación de síntomas y seroterapia precoz, y no ocurrencia de reacciones adversas a la seroterapia antivenenosa, y como aspectos negativos, la ausencia de la solicitud de exámenes bioquímicos preconizados y alta hospitalaria precoz pos seroterapia, considerando la posibilidad de reacciones adversas.

  18. Burkholderia and Cupriavidus spp. are the preferred symbionts of Mimosa spp. in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, XiaoYun; Wei, Shuang; Wang, Fang; James, Euan K; Guo, XiaoYe; Zagar, Catherine; Xia, Liu Gui; Dong, Xin; Wang, Yi Peng

    2012-05-01

    Rhizobia were isolated from invasive Mimosa spp. (M. diplotricha and M. pudica) in Dehong district of the province of Yunnan in subtropical southern China. Almost all of the 98 isolates were β-rhizobia in the genera Burkholderia and Cupriavidus. These strains were analysed for their distribution characteristics together with strains from a previous study from Sishuangbanna. The proportion of nodules containing each β-rhizobial genus varied between Mimosa species, with Cupriavidus being predominant in M. diplotricha nodules (63.3% compared to 36.7% occupation with Burkholderia), but with M. pudica showing a slight preference for Burkholderia over Cupriavidus, with them occupying 56.5% and 43.5% of nodules, respectively. The symbiosis-essential genes nodA and nifH were present in all the Burkholderia and Cupriavidus strains tested, and their phylogenies indicated that these Mimosa symbionts share symbiotic genes with native South American rhizobia. The evolutionary discrepancies among 16S rRNA genes, nodA and nifH of Mimosa spp. symbionts, suggests that the nod and nif genes of β-rhizobia evolved independently. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Rangelia vitalii, Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. in dogs in Passo Fundo, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Gottlieb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pathogens transmitted by ticks are an emerging problem worldwide, this study aimed to diagnose the causal agents of infection in dogs presenting suspected hemoparasitoses. Fifty-eight dogs with clinical signs such as depression, hemorrhagic diathesis and fever were evaluated regarding clinical presentation, hemogram, blood smears and serological tests, using the indirect immunofluorescence method for the agents Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis and conventional PCR for Babesia spp. (gene 18S rRNA, Rangelia vitalii (gene 18S rRNA and Ehrlichia spp. (gene dsb. Five (8.6% of the 58 dogs were serologically positive for Babesia spp. and three (5.1% for E. canis. Four dogs (6.8% were positive for R. vitalii through the molecular diagnosis. The PCR products were sequenced and the DNA from R. vitalii was found to be 99% genetically identical to samples of R. vitalii that had been isolated in Brazil. No presence of Babesia spp. or E. canis was observed through PCR on the dogs evaluated here. The results indicate the presence of R. vitalii and exposure to Babesia spp. and Ehrlichia spp. among the dogs analyzed.

  20. Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in birds of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest detected by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Tostes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years haemosporidian infection by protozoa of the genus Plasmodium and Haemoproteus, has been considered one of the most important factors related to the extinction and/or population decline of several species of birds worldwide. In Brazil, despite the large avian biodiversity, few studies have been designed to detect this infection, especially among wild birds in captivity. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection in wild birds in captivity in the Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil using microscopy and the polymerase chain reaction. Blood samples of 119 different species of birds kept in captivity at IBAMA during the period of July 2011 to July 2012 were collected. The parasite density was determined based only on readings of blood smears by light microscopy. The mean prevalence of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. infection obtained through the microscopic examination of blood smears and PCR were similar (83.19% and 81.3%, respectively, with Caracara plancus and Saltator similis being the most parasitized. The mean parasitemia determined by the microscopic counting of evolutionary forms of Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. was 1.51%. The results obtained from this study reinforce the importance of the handling of captive birds, especially when they will be reintroduced into the wild.

  1. Transcriptomic signatures of ash (Fraxinus spp. phloem.

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    Xiaodong Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ash (Fraxinus spp. is a dominant tree species throughout urban and forested landscapes of North America (NA. The rapid invasion of NA by emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis, a wood-boring beetle endemic to Eastern Asia, has resulted in the death of millions of ash trees and threatens billions more. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue, which girdles and kills the tree. While NA ash species including black (F. nigra, green (F. pennsylvannica and white (F. americana are highly susceptible, the Asian species Manchurian ash (F. mandshurica is resistant to A. planipennis perhaps due to their co-evolutionary history. Little is known about the molecular genetics of ash. Hence, we undertook a functional genomics approach to identify the repertoire of genes expressed in ash phloem. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using 454 pyrosequencing we obtained 58,673 high quality ash sequences from pooled phloem samples of green, white, black, blue and Manchurian ash. Intriguingly, 45% of the deduced proteins were not significantly similar to any sequences in the GenBank non-redundant database. KEGG analysis of the ash sequences revealed a high occurrence of defense related genes. Expression analysis of early regulators potentially involved in plant defense (i.e. transcription factors, calcium dependent protein kinases and a lipoxygenase 3 revealed higher mRNA levels in resistant ash compared to susceptible ash species. Lastly, we predicted a total of 1,272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 980 microsatellite loci, among which seven microsatellite loci showed polymorphism between different ash species. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The current transcriptomic data provide an invaluable resource for understanding the genetic make-up of ash phloem, the target tissue of A. planipennis. These data along with future functional studies could lead to the identification/characterization of defense genes involved in resistance of ash to A. planipennis

  2. The effects of transgenic Bt insect-resistant crops on non-target organisms%转Bt基因抗虫作物对非靶标生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶恭银; 陈洋; 田俊策; 彭于发

    2011-01-01

    迄今为止,已经获得了大量的抗虫转Bt基因作物.尽管这些作物中表达的Bt蛋白只是针对靶标害虫起到杀虫效果,但是抗虫转Bt基因作物是否会对非靶标生物产生影响一直存在争议.本文就抗虫转Bt基因作物对节肢动物群落、非靶标植食性昆虫、天敌和有益昆虫的影响进行了综述.综合评价认为,现有的抗虫转Bt基因作物对非靶标生物是安全的.%To date, many crop plants have been genetically modified through recombinant genes responsible for expressing Bt insecticidal proteins. Although the mechanism of Bt insecticidal protein targets specific pests, debates persist regarding the potential effects of transgenic Bt insect-resistant crops on non-target organisms (NT-Os). In this review, we briefly introduce how risk assessment of the effects of Bt crops on NTOs evaluated, and summarize the data and results with respect to the effects of Bt crops on the communities of NTOs, non-target pests, natural enemies and beneficial insects. In general, transgenic crops containing Bt genes with insect-resistance had no significant adverse effects on NTOs, which is therefore regarded as safe.

  3. Transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H+epsps Rice with Insect and Herbicide Resistance Acted No Adverse Impacts on the Population Growth of a Non-Target Herbivore, the White-Backed Planthopper, Under Laboratory and Field Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Zeng-bin; HAN Nai-shun; TIAN Jun-ce; PENG Yu-fa; HU Cui; GUO Yu-yuan; SHEN Zhi-cheng; YE Gong-yin

    2014-01-01

    Numerous Bt rice lines expressing Cry protein derived from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) have been developed since 1989. However, the potential risks posed by Bt rice on non-target organisms still remain debate. The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), is one of the most economically important insect pests of rice in Asian countries and also one of the main non-target herbivores of transgenic rice. In the current study, impacts of transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H+epsps rice (G6H1) with both insect and herbicide resistance on WBPH were evaluated to ascertain whether this transgenic rice line had potential risks for this sap-sucking pest under laboratory and ifeld conditions. The laboratory results showed that no signiifcant difference in egg developmental duration, nymphal survival rate and female fecundity was found for WBPH between G6H1 and its non-transgenic isoline (XS110). However, the development duration of nymphs was signiifcantly shorter and female longevity signiifcantly longer when WBPH fed on G6H1 by comparison with those on its control. To verify the results found in laboratory, a 3-yr ifeld trial was conducted to monitor WBPH population using both the vacuum-suction machine and beat plate methods. Although the seasonal density of WBPH nymphs and total density of nymphs and adults were not signiifcantly affected by transgenic rice regardless of the sampling methods, the seasonal density of WBPH adults in transgenic rice plots was slightly lower than that in the control when using the vacuum-suction machine. Based on these results both from laboratory and ifeld, it is clear that our tested transgenic rice line will not lead higher population of WBPH. However, long-term ifeld experiments to monitor the population dynamics of WPBH at large scale need to be conducted to conifrm the present conclusions in future.

  4. Sensitivity improvement in hydrophilic interaction chromatography negative mode electrospray ionization mass spectrometry using 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol as a post-column modifier for non-targeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wendelin; Forcisi, Sara; Lehmann, Rainer; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2014-09-26

    The application of ammonia acetate buffered liquid chromatography (LC) eluents is known to concomitantly lead to ion suppression when electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection is used. In negative ESI mode, post column infusion of 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol (2-MEE) was shown in the literature to help to compensate this adverse effect occurring in reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (RP-LC-MS) analyses. Here a setup of direct infusion and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) post-column infusion experiments was established in order to investigate systematically the beneficial effects of 2-MEE. We demonstrate that, 2-MEE can help to improve ESI-MS sensitivity in HILIC too and reveal analyte structure specific behaviors. Our study indicates that 2-MEE especially improves ESI response for small and polar molecules. The ESI response of stable isotope labeled amino acids spiked into biological matrices increases up to 50-fold (i.e. D5-l-glutamic acid) when post column infusion of 2-MEE is applied. A non-targeted analysis of a pooled urine sample via HILIC-ESI-QTOF-MS supports this hypothesis. In direct infusion, the combined application of an ammonia acetate buffered solution together with 2-MEE results in an improved ESI response compared to a non-buffered solution. We observed up to 60-fold increased ESI response of l-lysine. We propose this effect is putatively caused by the formation of smaller ESI droplets and stripping of positive charge from ESI droplets due to evaporation of acetic acid anions. In summary, post-column infusion of 2-MEE especially enhances ESI response of small and polar molecules. Therefore it can be regarded as a valuable add-on in targeted or non-targeted metabolomic HILIC-MS studies since this method sets a focus on this molecule category.

  5. The Activation and Inhibition of Non-target Language in Bilingual Speech Production%语言产生过程中非目标语言的激活与抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶嘉文; 王瑞明; 李利; 范梦

    2011-01-01

    An important question in research on bilinguals is whether bilinguals activate information in both languages even when they intend to speak in only one of their two languages. Psycholinguistic and neuroscientific investigations have provided inconsistent data regarding activation of the two languages by using explicit task paradigms. However, most prominent theories of bilingualism assume that mental representation of languages can be divided into a lexical (word form) and a conceptual (word meaning) level. Thus, the notion of activation was ill-defined in previous studies and it is unclear to which degree words from the non-target language are processed by bilinguals. Therefore, innovative paradigms, conceptual decision tasks and lexical decision tasks were designed in this study to further explore the activation and inhibition of non-target language in bilingual speech production.In the present study, we used the task of cross-language repetition priming. Participants from South China Normal University included sixty students of non-English-majors who did not pass CET Band 4 and forty students of English-majors. All participants were Chinese natives aging 18~25 years, who learned English as a second language from about the age of 11. Participants were randomly divided into different experiments. Each experiment consisted of a study block and a test block. In the study block, bilingual participants named thepictures in the target language, and in the test block they were instructed to make a concept decision (Experiment 1 and 2) or a lexical decision (Experiment 3). Non-target language words were presented in the test block and half of their translation equivalents were used in the study block. Some new words never used in study block as fillers appeared in test block. Then, Study status (studied vs. Non-studied) was manipulated in the test block. The response times and accurate rates were recorded.In experiment 1, there was no cross language repetition priming

  6. Molecular Detection of Legionella spp. and their associations with Mycobacterium spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and amoeba hosts in a drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Struewing, I; Vereen, E; Kirby, A E; Levy, K; Moe, C; Ashbolt, N

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated waterborne opportunistic pathogens (OPs) including potential hosts, and evaluated the use of Legionella spp. for indicating microbial water quality for OPs within a full-scale operating drinking water distribution system (DWDS). To investigate the occurrence of specific microbial pathogens within a major city DWDS we examined large volume (90 l drinking water) ultrafiltration (UF) concentrates collected from six sites between February, 2012 and June, 2013. The detection frequency and concentration estimates by qPCR were: Legionella spp. (57%/85 cell equivalent, CE l(-1) ), Mycobacterium spp. (88%/324 CE l(-1) ), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (24%/2 CE l(-1) ), Vermamoeba vermiformis (24%/2 CE l(-1) ) and Acanthamoeba spp. (42%/5 cyst equivalent, CE l(-1) ). There was no detection of the following microorganisms: human faecal indicator Bacteroides (HF183), Salmonella enterica, Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp. or Naegleria fowleri. There were significant correlations between the qPCR signals of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp., and their potential hosts V. vermiformis and Acanthamoeba spp. Sequencing of Legionella spp. demonstrated limited diversity, with most sequences coming from two dominant groups, of which the larger dominant group was an unidentified species. Other known species including Legionella pneumophila were detected, but at low frequency. The densities of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were generally higher (17 and 324 folds, respectively) for distal sites relative to the entry point to the DWDS. Legionella spp. occurred, had significant growth and were strongly associated with free-living amoebae (FLA) and Mycobacterium spp., suggesting that Legionella spp. could provide a useful DWDS monitoring role to indicate potential conditions for non-faecal OPs. The results provide insight into microbial pathogen detection that may aid in the monitoring of microbial water

  7. Thermophilic Campylobacter spp. in salad vegetables in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lay Ching; Robin, Tunung; Ragavan, Usha Menon; Gunsalam, Jurin Wolmon; Bakar, Fatimah Abu; Ghazali, Farinazleen Mohamad; Radu, Son; Kumar, Malakar Pradeep

    2007-06-10

    The main aim of this study was to combine the techniques of most probable number (MPN) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for quantifying the prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter spp. in ulam, a popular Malaysian salad dish, from a traditional wet market and two modern supermarkets in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 309 samples of raw vegetables which are used in ulam were examined in the study. The prevalences of campylobacters in raw vegetables were, for supermarket I, Campylobacter spp., 51.9%; Campylobacter jejuni, 40.7%; and Campylobacter coli, 35.2%: for supermarket II, Campylobacter spp., 67.7%; C. jejuni, 67.7%; and C. coli, 65.7%: and for the wet market, Campylobacter spp., 29.4%; C. jejuni, 25.5%; and C. coli, 22.6%. In addition Campylobacter fetus was detected in 1.9% of raw vegetables from supermarket I. The maximum numbers of Campylobacter spp. in raw vegetables from supermarkets and the wet market were >2400 and 460 MPN/g, respectively.

  8. Candida spp. in periodontal disease: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Janaina C O; Duque, Cristiane; Mariano, Flávia S; Peixoto, Iza T A; Höfling, José F; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B

    2010-06-01

    Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. Such interactions are associated with the capacity of Candida spp. to invade gingival conjunctive tissue, and may be important in the microbial colonization that contributes to progression of oral alterations caused by diabetes mellitus, some medications, and immunosuppressive diseases such as AIDS. In addition, immune deficiency can result in proliferation of Candida spp. and germination of forms that are more virulent and have a higher capacity to adhere to and penetrate cells in host tissues. The virulence factors of Candida spp. increase host susceptibility to proliferation of these microorganisms and are likely to be important in the study of periodontal disease. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining to the role of Candida spp. in periodontal disease, and consider the main virulence factors, the host immune response to these microorganisms, and the effect of concomitant immunosuppressive conditions.

  9. Presence of Campylobacter spp. in refrigerated chicken cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Alves

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter spp. is a common cause of bacterial food-borne illness. Birds, especially poultry are primary reservoirs of C. jejuni. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Campylobacter spp. in chicken cuts purchased in supermarkets of Londrina, Parana. A total of 50 samples of chicken cuts, such as breasts, thighs and drumsticks were analyzed. The confirmation of the presence of Campylobacter spp. was performed by identifying the suspected colonies on the selective medium using the polymerase chain reaction. Of the 50 samples analyzed, 28 (56% were positive for Campylobacter spp. Chicken meat, as observed in this study, is a possible source of Campylobacter transmission to humans. This study alerts for the importance to analyze the occurrence of Campylobacter in chicken meat, due to the significant number of positive samples observed and no available epidemiological data in Brazil. The correct orientation about handling and cooking of chicken meat is also necessary to prevent human infection by Campylobacter spp.

  10. Herbal products containing Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp., and Panax spp.: Labeling and safety concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Maria Antónia; Rodrigues, Francisca; Alves, Rita C; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2017-10-01

    Herbs have been used from ancient times for infusion preparation based on their potential health effects. In particular, the consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Crataegus spp. and Panax spp. has been largely associated to cardiovascular benefits. In this work, the label information of 52 herbal products for infusion preparation containing the referred herbs was analyzed and discussed, taking into consideration the European Union regulation for herbal products, which intends to protect public health and harmonize the legal framework in Member States. Details about the cardiovascular-related statements and warning notifications about consumption were considered. Also, regulatory issues and possible herb-drug interactions were explored and discussed. A total of 14 of the 52 herbal products selected presented health claims/statements on the label. Hibiscus was present in the majority of the products and, in some cases, it was mentioned only in the ingredients list and not on the product front-of-pack. Despite the promising outcomes of these plants to modulate cardiovascular risk markers, consumers with some sort of cardiovascular dysfunction and/or under medication treatments should be aware to carefully analyze the labels and consult additional information related to these herbal products. Manufacturers have also a huge responsibility to inform consumers by presenting awareness statements. Lastly, health professionals must advise and alert their patients about possible interactions that could occur between the concomitant consumption of drugs and herbs. Overall, there is still a real need of additional studies and clinical trials to better understand herbs effects and establish a science-based guidance to assess their safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Novel Zoonotic Activity of Bartonella spp., France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayssier-Taussat, Muriel; Moutailler, Sara; Féménia, Françoise; Raymond, Philippe; Croce, Olivier; La Scola, Bernard; Fournier, Pierre-Edouard; Raoult, Didier

    2016-03-01

    Certain Bartonella species are known to cause afebrile bacteremia in humans and other mammals, including B. quintana, the agent of trench fever, and B. henselae, the agent of cat scratch disease. Reports have indicated that animal-associated Bartonella species may cause paucisymptomatic bacteremia and endocarditis in humans. We identified potentially zoonotic strains from 6 Bartonella species in samples from patients who had chronic, subjective symptoms and who reported tick bites. Three strains were B. henselae and 3 were from other animal-associated Bartonella spp. (B. doshiae, B. schoenbuchensis, and B. tribocorum). Genomic analysis of the isolated strains revealed differences from previously sequenced Bartonella strains. Our investigation identifed 3 novel Bartonella spp. strains with human pathogenic potential and showed that Bartonella spp. may be the cause of undifferentiated chronic illness in humans who have been bitten by ticks.

  12. Helminth fauna of Talpa spp. in the Palaearctic Realm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas, A; Casanova, J C

    2006-03-01

    The helminth fauna of the genus Talpa in the Palaearctic Realm is reviewed. Several helminth species reported in Talpa spp. by a number of authors are discussed, with reference to host specificity, parasite biology, and host ethology, ecology and phylogeny. Twelve species of cestodes were found, two of which exhibit stenoxenous specificity (Staphylocystis bacillaris and Multitesticulata filamentosa). Only three species of trematodes, Ityogonimus lorum, Ityogonimus ocreatus and Combesia macrobursata, are exclusive parasites of Talpa spp. The largest group are nematodes, with 37 species. Species of Tricholinstowia are parasites of holarctic talpids and several species of distinct genera, such as Capillaria, Soboliphyme and Trichuris, are found only in Talpa spp. Only acanthocephalans of the genus Moniliformis have been reported in moles of the genus Talpa. On the basis of these helminthological findings, the close phylogenetic relationship between moles (Talpidae) and shrews (Soricidae) supports the separation of the ordinal levels Soricomorpha and Erinaceomorpha.

  13. Frecuencia de aislamiento de Staphylococcus spp meticilina resistentes y Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistentes en hospitales de Cuba Frequency of methicilline-resistant Staphylococcus spp and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp isolates in Cuban hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonora González Mesa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia a meticilina en el género Staphylococcus spp es un problema creciente en el ámbito mundial. La producción de una PBP alterada (PBP2a con baja afinidad a betalactámicos, mediada por el gen mec A, es la responsable de esta resistencia. Mientras que los Staphylococcus spp todavía permanecen sensibles a vancomicina, algunos Enterococcus spp han adquirido la capacidad de neutralizar esta droga. En nuestro país no se conocen datos actualizados sobre la tasa de infección por S. aureus meticilina resistente (SAMR, ni sobre la circulación de este germen en la comunidad, tampoco existen reportes de Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR. En este estudio fueron analizadas 774 cepas, colectadas en hospitales del país. Se determinó el mecanismo de resistencia utilizando métodos sugeridos por las guías NCCLS. El 9.3 % (23 de los S. aureus aislados en los hospitales y 4.0% (7 S. aureus aislados en la comunidad, fueron SAMR, portadores del gen mec A, el 69.9 % (72 de Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo, fueron resistentes a oxacilina. En la detección del Enterococcus spp vancomicina resistente (EVR, se encontró una cepa portadora de este fenotipo. Nuestros resultados revelan que en nuestro país los SAMR no son un problema en los hospitales, ni en el ambiente comunitario, a pesar de que se reporta por primera vez la circulación de estos en la comunidad y la circulación de EVR en el ambiente hospitalario, su frecuencia es muy baja lo que refleja los avances obtenidos en la aplicación de políticas encaminadas a racionalizar el uso y consumo de antibióticos.Resistance to methicilline in Staphylococcus spp genus is a growing problem worldwide. The production of an altered penicillin-fixing protein with low mecA gen-mediated affinity to beta-lactams is responsible for this resistance. Although Staphylococcus spp still remain susceptible to vancomycin, some Enterococcus spp have acquired the capacity of neutralizing this drug. In

  14. Small rodents and other mammals associated with mountain meadows as reservoirs of Giardia spp. and Campylobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacha, R E; Clark, G W; Williams, E A; Carter, A M; Scheffelmaier, J J; Debusschere, P

    1987-07-01

    Sixty-five percent (469 of 722) of the fecal samples collected from small rodents in the central Washington Cascade mountains were positive for Giardia spp. Trapping studies showed that microtines of the genus Microtus were heavily infected with the parasite. Morphologically the cysts and trophozoites were of the Giardia duodenalis type. Small-rodent populations appear to maintain their infection throughout the year. Our data suggest that there is no difference in the percentage of positive animals in areas receiving a lot of human use as opposed to animals in those areas receiving very little or no human use. Giardia spp. were also found in elk and beaver fecal samples. Campylobacter spp. were recovered infrequently from the small rodents inhabiting alpine meadows. Of 551 specimens cultured, less than 1% were positive for the bacterium, and the isolates were identified as Campylobacter coli. Water voles were susceptible to a human isolate of Campylobacter jejuni and shed the bacterium for several weeks. C. jejuni was also isolated from a bear fecal sample collected from a protected watershed. Our studies indicate that microtines and possibly other small rodents inhabiting mountain meadows have a potential to act as a reservoir for both Giardia spp. and Campylobacter spp. Because these animals may carry human pathogens, they should be included in animal surveys designed to assess the health risks associated with mountain watersheds.

  15. High Prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in Small Ruminants in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Lbacha, H; Alali, S; Zouagui, Z; El Mamoun, L; Rhalem, A; Petit, E; Haddad, N; Gandoin, C; Boulouis, H-J; Maillard, R

    2017-02-01

    The prevalence of infection by Anaplasma spp. (including Anaplasma phagocytophilum) was determined using blood smear microscopy and PCR through screening of small ruminant blood samples collected from seven regions of Morocco. Co-infections of Anaplasma spp., Babesia spp, Theileria spp. and Mycoplasma spp. were investigated and risk factors for Anaplasma spp. infection assessed. A total of 422 small ruminant blood samples were randomly collected from 70 flocks. Individual animal (breed, age, tick burden and previous treatment) and flock data (GPS coordinate of farm, size of flock and livestock production system) were collected. Upon examination of blood smears, 375 blood samples (88.9%) were found to contain Anaplasma-like erythrocytic inclusion bodies. Upon screening with a large spectrum PCR targeting the Anaplasma 16S rRNA region, 303 (71%) samples were found to be positive. All 303 samples screened with the A. phagocytophilum-specific PCR, which targets the msp2 region, were found to be negative. Differences in prevalence were found to be statistically significant with regard to region, altitude, flock size, livestock production system, grazing system, presence of clinical cases and application of tick and tick-borne diseases prophylactic measures. Kappa analysis revealed a poor concordance between microscopy and PCR (k = 0.14). Agreement with PCR is improved by considering microscopy and packed cell volume (PCV) in parallel. The prevalence of double infections was found to be 1.7, 2.5 and 24% for Anaplasma-Babesia, Anaplasma-Mycoplasma and Anaplasma-Theileria, respectively. Co-infection with three or more haemoparasites was found in 1.6% of animals examined. In conclusion, we demonstrate the high burden of anaplasmosis in small ruminants in Morocco and the high prevalence of co-infections of tick-borne diseases. There is an urgent need to improve the control of this neglected group of diseases. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. OCCURRENCE OF Blastocystis spp. IN UBERABA, MINAS GERAIS, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene CABRINE-SANTOS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are a problem for public health all over the world. The infection with Blastocystis, a protozoan of controversial pathogenicity, is one of the most common among them all. In this study, the occurrence of intestinal parasites, with emphasis on Blastocystis, in patients at the Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro was investigated in Uberaba (MG through microscopy of direct smears and fecal concentrates using Ritchie’s method. Feces of 1,323 patients were examined from April 2011 to May 2012. In 28.7% of them at least one intestinal parasite was identified, and the most frequent organisms were Blastocystis spp. (17.8% and Giardia intestinalis (7.4%. The occurrence of parasitism was higher in children aged 6 -10 years old, and the infection with Blastocystis spp. was higher above the age of six (p < 0.001. The exclusive presence of G. intestinalis and of Blastocystis spp. was observed in 5.4% and 12.2% of the patients, respectively. Regarding patients with diarrheic feces, 8% revealed unique parasitism of Blastocystis spp. Other intestinal parasites observed in children were Ascaris lumbricoides (0.3% and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskii (1.4%. The Ritchie’s method was more sensitive (92.8% when compared to direct microscopy (89.8%, with high agreement between them (97.7%, kappa = 0.92. In conclusion, the occurrence of Blastocystis spp. in Uberaba is high and the presence of diarrheic feces with exclusive presence of the parasite of Blastocystis spp. was observed.

  17. Deep Characterization of the Microbiomes of Calophya spp. (Hemiptera: Calophyidae Gall-Inducing Psyllids Reveals the Absence of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Three Dominant Endosymbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will A Overholt

    a candidate biological control agent, and coupled with previous work demonstrating a high degree of host specificity and absence of plant viruses, suggests that releasing Calophya spp. in United States poses minimal risk to non-target plants.

  18. SPP propagation in nonlinear glass-metal interface

    KAUST Repository

    Sagor, Rakibul Hasan

    2011-12-01

    The non-linear propagation of Surface-Plasmon-Polaritons (SPP) in single interface of metal and chalcogenide glass (ChG) is considered. A time domain simulation algorithm is developed using the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method. The general polarization algorithm incorporated in the auxiliary differential equation (ADE) is used to model frequency-dependent dispersion relation and third-order nonlinearity of ChG. The main objective is to observe the nonlinear behavior of SPP propagation and study the dynamics of the whole structure. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Findings of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. in homemade cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambur Zoran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the period from February until March 2004, 108 samples of soft cheese originating from markets of Pancevo, Subotica and Belgrade were examined. Microbiological analyses of the cheese samples to the presence of Escherichia coli was performed using methods described in the Regulations on methods for performing microbiological analyses and super analyses of consumer articles, while the presence of bacteria Enteroccocus spp. was performed on the dexter agar. From 108 samples of soft cheese from the territories of Pancevo, Belgrade and Subotica were isolated: Enterococcus spp. from 96% and Escherichia coli from 69%, cheese samples. Verocytotoxic E.coli was not isolated from any of the taken cheese samples.

  20. Molecular Differentiation of Shigella Spp. from Enteroinvasive E. Coli

    OpenAIRE

    Løbersli, I.; Wester, A. L.; Kristiansen, Å.; Brandal, L. T.

    2016-01-01

    A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, amplifying the genes encoding lactose permease (lacY) and invasion plasmid antigen H (ipaH), was run on 121 isolates phenotypically classified as Shigella spp., enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), or EIEC O nontypable (ONT). The results were compared with data from a generic E. coli multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and a Shigella MLVA. The real-time PCR verified all Shigella spp. (n = 53) as Shigella (lacY n...

  1. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  2. Epidemiological study on feline gastric Helicobacter spp. in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    KUBOTA-AIZAWA, Sanae; OHNO, Koichi; KANEMOTO, Hideyuki; NAKASHIMA, Ko; FUKUSHIMA, Kenjiro; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; CHAMBERS, James K.; GOTO-KOSHINO, Yuko; Mimuro, Hitomi; Watanabe, Takayasu; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; TSUJIMOTO, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological and pathological studies on Helicobacter spp. in feline stomachs in Japan were conducted using genus- and species-specific (H. felis, H. bizzozeronii, H. heilmannii sensu stricto [s.s.] and H. pylori) polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), ureAB gene sequencing and histopathology. PCR results showed that 28 of 56 cats were infected with Helicobacter spp., and H. heilmannii s.s. was the most prevalent species by both PCR (28/28) and ureAB gene sequencing (26/28). Some of the sequen...

  3. Effects of chemical treatments on infestation of Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. in correlation with technological wheat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Jovana N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the time of infestation by fungi from genus Alternaria spp. and Fusarium spp. was investigated in different stages of wheat maturity (milk, waxy, and technological maturity; the effects of different fungicides on the yield, technological properties, and content of mycotoxin DON were studied also. The results showed that Alternaria spp. attacked spike and kernel in f lowering and end-f lowering stage, as it was already known for Fusarium species. Fungicide treatment increases the yield up to 20%, test weight by 3.7%, and thousand-kernel weight up to 19.1%. High content of mycotoxin DON, above tolerable limits, was detected only in the treatment with fungicide Caramba and in untreated control.

  4. Toxicity of Alkaloid-based Products from Tripterygium wilfordii on Non-target Organisms%雷公藤生物碱制品对非靶标生物的毒性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王李斌; 李婷; 何军; 冯俊涛; 马志卿; 张兴

    2012-01-01

    安全性评价是新农药开发及应用的重要基础.参照国家环保总局和农业部农药检定所制定的《化学农药环境安全评价试验准则》,测定了95%雷公藤总生物碱、1.0%雷公藤生物碱微乳剂、雷公藤乙醇浸膏和助剂系统对生态环境中非靶标生物的毒性.结果表明:95%雷公藤总生物碱对鹌鹑为高毒,对蜜蜂、家蚕为中毒,对鲤鱼、蚯蚓、蝌蚪均为低毒;1.0%雷公藤生物碱微乳剂对蝌蚪为高毒,对鹌鹑和家蚕为中毒,对鲤鱼、蜜蜂和蚯蚓均为低毒;雷公藤乙醇浸膏对鹌鹑为中毒,对蜜蜂、家蚕、鲤鱼、蚯蚓和蝌蚪均为低毒;助剂系统对供试生物均为低毒.由此可见,雷公藤生物碱制品对环境生物较为安全,但在桑园和水田附近慎用,并应注意对鸟类的保护.%Safety assessment is critically necessary for the development and application of new pesticides. Following the Experimental Guideline for Environmental Safety Evaluation of Chemical Pesticide, we evaluated the toxicity of 95% total alkaloid, 1.0% alkaloid ME , ethanol extract from Triperygiy wilfordii and the adjuvant on non-target organisms including quail( Cotumix chinensis), hee(Apis mellifera L.), silk-worm(Bombyx mori), fish( Cyprinus carpio), tadpole(Rana limnocharu )and earthwormt Eiseniafoelide). The results indicated that the toxicity of 95% total alkaloid is low on fish, earthworm and tadpole, moderate on bee and silkworm, and high on quail. The toxicity of 1.0% T. Wilfordii alkaloid ME is high on tadpole, moderately toxic on quail and silkworm, and low toxic on others. The toxicity of extract from T. Wilfordii is low on bee, silkworm, fish, earthworm and tadpole. And is moderately toxic on quail. The toxicity of adjuvant is low on all non-target organisms tested. We conclude that the alkaloid-based products from T. Wilfordii are generally safe to non-target animals; however, they should be applied cautiously in rice paddies and

  5. Variables Associated with Infections of Cattle by Brucella abortus., Leptospira spp. and Neospora spp. in Amazon Region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiebao, D P; Valadas, S Y O B; Minervino, A H H; Castro, V; Romaldini, A H C N; Calhau, A S; De Souza, R A B; Gennari, S M; Keid, L B; Soares, R M

    2015-10-01

    The frequency of Neospora spp., Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus infections in adult cattle was determined in herds of the State of Pará, Brazil, which is an important region for cattle production located in the Amazon region. A total of 3466 adult female cattle from 176 herds were tested, leading to a frequency of seropositive animals of 14.7%, 3.7% and 65.5% and a herd positivity of 87.4%, 41.3% and 98.8% for infections caused by Neospora spp., B. abortus and Leptospira spp., respectively. The five most frequently diagnosed serologic responses to Leptospira spp. were those against serovars hardjo, wolfii, grippotyphosa, hebdomadis and shermani. The following associations were found: practice of artificial insemination, large farm size, large herd size, large number of dogs and high number of total abortions per year with the presence of antibodies against serovar hardjo; positive results to serovar grippotyphosa with the presence of dogs; inappropriate disposal of aborted foetuses with positivity to serovar hebdomadis. Serovar grippotyphosa was also associated with number of episodes of abortions. Neospora spp. positive herds were associated with episodes of abortion and B. abortus infection with the disposal of dead animals and aborted foetuses on pastures and with the use of artificial insemination. In conclusion, the high frequency of brucellosis, leptospirosis and neosporosis in the region may be a consequence of social, natural and raising conditions as: (i) climate conditions that favour the survival and spread of pathogens in the environment; (ii) farms located in regions bordering forest areas; (iii) farms in areas of difficult access to the veterinary service; (iv) extensive beef herds raised at pastures with different age and productive groups inter-mingled; and (v) minimal concerns regarding hygiene practices and disease prevention measures.

  6. Prevalence of Staphylococcus spp and Candida spp in the oral cavity and periodontal pockets of periodontal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Alicia I; Jewtuchowicz, Virginia; Brusca, María I; Nastri, María L; Rosa, Alcira C

    2010-01-01

    The oral cavity can act as a reservoir of certain pathogens that can cause systemic infections. The periodontal pocket is an ecological niche appropriate for hosting microorganisms that could act as opportunistic pathogens. The ability of Staphylococcus spp and Candida spp to form a biofilm and live within certain niches allows them to develop mechanisms that increase persistence, such as the evasion of host defenses and antibiotic efficacy. These microorganisms can easily be or become resistant to antibiotics and lead to superinfection. The aims of this study were to assess the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus spp in biofilm in subgingival plaque and oral cavity of individuals with gingival-periodontal disease, to identify isolates and the relationship with Candida spp. The study included eighty-two patients, aged 18-70 years with periodontal disease and at least two sites with probing depth > or = 3 mm. Participants' data were evaluated individually. Subgingival biofilm samples were obtained using Gracey curettes 7/8, after supragingival biofilm removal, and a sample from the oral cavity (buccal mucosa, tongue and cheek mucosa) by sterile swab. Of all the patients studied, 42.7% exhibited Staphylococcus spp in the periodontal pocket and 69.5% in the oral cavity while 25.6% exhibited Candida spp in the periodontal pocket and 42.7% in the oral cavity. However, 13.4% had both microorganisms in the periodontal pocket and 36.6% in the oral cavity. The prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus was 13.4% in the periodontal pocket and 15.8% in the oral cavity. Candida albicans was the most prevalent yeast in the periodontal pocket (76.2%) and in the oral cavity (63.0%).

  7. Invasion Assays and Genomotyping to Investigate Differences in Virulence of Campylobacter spp. Isolates from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campylobacter spp. are the leading cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Epithelial cell invasion is thought to be essential for Campylobacter spp. infection. Previous invasion studies with intestinal epithelial cells revealed that the ability of different Campylobacter jejuni isolates to inva...

  8. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. in domestic and stray cats from Madrid, Spain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Díaz-Regañón, David; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Ayllón, Tania; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Baneth, Gad; Calleja-Bueno, Lydia; García-Sancho, Mercedes; Agulla, Beatriz; Sainz, Ángel

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to assess the molecular prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. and to identify associated risk factors and clinical and laboratory abnormalities in a population of cats from Madrid, Spain...

  9. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.), Grain Mites (Acarus siro), and Flour Beetles (Tribolium spp.): 'Other Pests' Occasionally Found in Laboratory Animal Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Douglas K

    2016-11-01

    Pests that infest stored food products are an important problem worldwide. In addition to causing loss and consumer rejection of products, these pests can elicit allergic reactions and perhaps spread disease-causing microorganisms. Booklice (Liposcelis spp.), grain mites (Acarus siro), and flour beetles (Tribolium spp.) are common stored-product pests that have previously been identified in our laboratory animal facility. These pests traditionally are described as harmless to our animals, but their presence can be cause for concern in some cases. Here we discuss the biology of these species and their potential effects on human and animal health. Occupational health risks are covered, and common monitoring and control methods are summarized.

  10. Patella spp. as na alternative to Mytilus spp in marine pollution studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Pérez-Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The most widely used species for marine pollution studies is mussel, Mytilus spp., as it is a filter feeder, sessile, easy to get and present in most worldwide coasts. However, sometimes it is necessary to have an alternative for areas where mussels are scarce or even absent. Patella spp. could be a useful substitute to Mytilus as these organisms have already been used in some pollution studies (Bartolomé, 2011 and both groups have similar characteristics except for the feeding strategy that in limpets is based on grazing on the small algae that grow on the rocks where they live. For this study, four sampling sites where selected: two in Galicia (Ría de Arousa and Ría de Ferrol and two in the Bay of Biscay (Suances and Fuenterrabía. In the four sampling sites both mussels and limpets were collected and 12 parent PAHs were analysed by means of HPLC and fluorescence detector with programmable wavelength (Viñas 2002. The method is subject to a strict quality control that guarantees the quality of the data. Mussels always present a higher PAH content than limpets sampled in the same area. When comparing the value for the sum of PAHs, it is shown that the maximum value measured in limpets (26.0 µg/kg d.w. in Arousa is less than the minimum value measured in mussels (63.7 µg/kg d.w. in Fuenterrabía. However, the sites pointed as more polluted using limpets coincide with the ones that are pointed out using mussels and the other way around. The individual PAH distribution pattern also presents some differences in both species mainly due to the phenathrene proportion that is higher in limpets than in mussels and this is clearer in the Bay of Biscay area. The main conclusion of the study is that there is no direct conversion factor between the PAH burden in both species but it could be possible to estimate the pollution status of an area using limpets. To compare levels between species it would be necessary to do some more work including more

  11. In-vitro anti fungal activity of Propolis alcoholic extract on Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diba K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Several studies have shown that propolis has antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic activity. Furthermore propolis has been described to have medicinal usages in some fungal infections like Candidiasis. Our aim is to study the inhibitory effects of alcoholic extract of propolis on Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. "n"n Methods: To determine inhibitory and fatality dose of propolis extract, we prepared serial dilution of the extract including 1/20, 1/40, 1/80, 1/160, 1/320 and 1/640 in 1 ml of liquid medium sabouraud broth. Given numbers of Candida yeasts in 1ml were added to above dilution tubes. Candida and Aspergillus cultures were incubated at 30°C and 25°C respectively for 24-72 hours."n"n Results: We obseved that the concentration of 0.25 g/dl of propolis extract showed an inhibitory and killing effect on more than 50% of the isolates. But there were no inhibitory and killing by the concentrations 0.0312 g/dl and 0.0625 g/dl on Candida isolates. Our findings showed that 0.0312 g/dl of the extract was partially active on Aspergillus fumigatus and dilution of 0.125 g/dl was active on Aspergillus. niger. In the agar dilution method, some changes were observed on morphological features

  12. Evaluation of the Vitek EPS enteric pathogen screen card for detecting Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Imperatrice, C A; Nachamkin, I

    1993-01-01

    We evaluated the Vitek EPS card as a screen for the enteric pathogens Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Y. enterocolitica (125, 54, and 5 isolates, respectively) and 81 nonenteric pathogens that might be selected for screening from primary plates (non-lactose fermenters) were tested. The EPS card correctly identified 183 of 184 pathogens tested (sensitivity, 99.5%). Of 81 nonenteric pathogens screened with the EPS card, 8 were ide...

  13. Ultrastructural comparison of Bonamia spp (Haplosporidia) infecting ostreid oysters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hine, P.M.; Carnegie, R.B.; Kroeck, M.A.; Villalba, A.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Burreson, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The ultrastructure of Bonamia from Ostrea angasi from Australia, Crassostrea ariakensis from the USA, O. puelchana from Argentina and O. edulis from Spain was compared with described Bonamia spp. All appear conspecific with B. exitiosa. The Bonamia sp. from Chile had similarities to the type B. exit

  14. Characterization of Lavandula spp. Honey Using Multivariate Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, melissopalynological and physicochemical analyses have been the most used to determine the botanical origin of honey. However, when performed individually, these analyses may provide less unambiguous results, making it difficult to discriminate between mono and multifloral honeys. In this context, with the aim of better characterizing this beehive product, a selection of 112 Lavandula spp. monofloral honey samples from several regions were evaluated by association of multivariate statistical techniques with physicochemical, melissopalynological and phenolic compounds analysis. All honey samples fulfilled the quality standards recommended by international legislation, except regarding sucrose content and diastase activity. The content of sucrose and the percentage of Lavandula spp. pollen have a strong positive association. In fact, it was found that higher amounts of sucrose in honey are related with highest percentage of pollen of Lavandula spp.. The samples were very similar for most of the physicochemical parameters, except for proline, flavonoids and phenols (bioactive factors). Concerning the pollen spectrum, the variation of Lavandula spp. pollen percentage in honey had little contribution to the formation of samples groups. The formation of two groups regarding the physicochemical parameters suggests that the presence of other pollen types in small percentages influences the factor termed as “bioactive”, which has been linked to diverse beneficial health effects. PMID:27588420

  15. Banana (Musa spp.) Production Characteristics and Performance in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagamba, F.; Burger, C.P.J.; Tushemereirwe, W.K.

    2010-01-01

    The highland cooking banana (Musa spp., AAA-EA genome) is the most important crop in the East African Great Lakes region. In Uganda, production has expanded and productivity increased in the country’s southwest and declined in the Central region where the crop has traditional roots. Analyzing crop c

  16. Fungi inhabiting healthy grapevine canes (Vitis spp. in some nurseries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Król

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, conducted in the years 2000 - 2002, was to identify fungi species colonizing apparently healthy canes and to investigate whether canes storage modify the quantitative and qualitative composition of these fungi. The plant material was collected from 5 commercial plantations growing in various regions of Poland, taking into consideration 8 cultivars which were the most frequently cultivated. From each plantation and cultivar 20 apparently healthy canes were randomly sampled in two terms: before storage - November/December (term I and 3-4 months after storage - February/March (term II. The results showed that from asymptomatic canes 2746 isolates of fungi belonging to 23 species were obtained, but the majority of them origined from canes analysed after storage. It was found that P. viticola is able to live latently within grapevine tissue in Polish conditions because isolates of this fungus from visually healty canes the all studied plantations and terms were obtained. Among the other fungi species inhabiting grapevine canes Alternaria alternata and Fusarium spp. dominated. Moreover, both in term I and term II Botrytis cinerea, Phoma spp., Epicoccum purpurascens and Cladosporium cladosporioides were frequently isolated, whereas fungi from the genus Acremonium only in the term I. Each time isolates of Trichoderma spp. and Gliocladium spp. were also obtained. Inhabitation of grapevine canes by various fungi species shown in the present experiment indicate the danger of pathogens spread with propagation material on the new plantations.

  17. The isoprenoid-precursor dependence of Plasmodium spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Jan-Ytzen; Hirsch, Anna K. H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the increase in resistance of Plasmodium spp. against available antimalarials, there is a need for new, effective and innovative drugs. The non-mevalonate pathway for the biosynthesis of the universal isoprenoid precursors, which is absent in humans, is suggested as an attractive source of

  18. Detection, occurence, growth and inactivation of Cronobacter spp. (Enterobacter sakazakii)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandhai, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The genus Cronobacter consists of Gram-negative, motile, non-spore forming, facultative anaerobic bacteria, and was originally defined as one species “Enterobacter sakazakii” within the genus Enterobacter in 1980. Cronobacter spp. have been documented as a rare cause of outbreaks and sporadic cases

  19. A Novel Dimeric Eremophilane from Ligularia virgaurea spp. Oligocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quan Xiang WU; Xia LIU; Yan Ping SHI

    2005-01-01

    A novel dimeric eremophilane, ligulolide B, was isolated from the alcoholic extract of the whole plant of Ligularia virgaurea spp. oligocephala. The structure was elucidated by various spectroscopic methods including intensive 2D NMR techniques (1H-1H COSY, gHMQC,gHMBC and 1H-1H NOESY) and HR-ESI-MS.

  20. Investigation of tick-borne bacteria (Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia spp.) in ticks collected from Andean tapirs, cattle and vegetation from a protected area in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesquera, Cristina; Portillo, Aránzazu; Palomar, Ana M; Oteo, José A

    2015-01-24

    Ixodid ticks play an important role in the transmission and ecology of infectious diseases. Information about the circulation of tick-borne bacteria in ticks is lacking in Ecuador. Our aims were to investigate the tick species that parasitize Andean tapirs and cattle, and those present in the vegetation from the buffer zone of the Antisana Ecological Reserve and Cayambe-Coca National Park (Ecuador), and to investigate the presence of tick-borne bacteria. Tick species were identified based on morphologic and genetic criteria. Detection of tick-borne bacteria belonging to Rickettsia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and Borrelia genera was performed by PCRs. Our ticks included 91 Amblyomma multipunctum, 4 Amblyomma spp., 60 Rhipicephalus microplus, 5 Ixodes spp. and 1 Ixodes boliviensis. A potential Candidatus Rickettsia species closest to Rickettsia monacensis and Rickettsia tamurae (designated Rickettsia sp. 12G1) was detected in 3 R. microplus (3/57, 5.3%). In addition, Anaplasma spp., assigned at least to Anaplasma phagocytophilum (or closely related genotypes) and Anaplasma marginale, were found in 2 A. multipunctum (2/87, 2.3%) and 13 R. microplus (13/57, 22.8%). This is the first description of Rickettsia sp. in ticks from Ecuador, and the analyses of sequences suggest the presence of a potential novel Rickettsia species. Ecuadorian ticks from Andear tapirs, cattle and vegetation belonging to Amblyomma and Rhipicephalus genera were infected with Anaplasmataceae. Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato were not found in any ticks.

  1. ISOLATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CRUDE OIL DEGRADING BACILLUS SPP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Akhavan Sepahi, I. Dejban Golpasha, M. Emami, A. M. Nakhoda

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, application of microorganisms for removing crude oil pollution from contaminated sites as bioremediation studies, was considered by scientists because other methods such as surfactant washing and incineration lead to production of more toxic compounds and they are non-economic. Fifteen crude oil degrading bacillus spp. were isolated from contaminated sites. Two isolated showed best growth in liquid media with 1-3% (v/v crude oil and mineral salt medium, then studied for enzymatic activities on tested media. The results showed maximal increase in optical densities and total viable count concomitant with decrease in pH on fifth day of experimental period for bacillus S6. Typical generation time on mineral salt with 1% crude oil is varying between 18-20h, 25-26h respectively for bacillus S6 and S35. Total protein was monitored at determined time intervals as biodegradation indices. Increasing of protein concentration during the incubation period reveals that isolated bacillus can degrade crude oil and increase microbial biomass. These bacillus spp. reduced surface tension from 60 (mN/m to 31 and 38 (mN/m, It means that these bacillus spp. can produce sufficient surfactant and have good potential of emulsification capacity. The results demonstrated that these bacillus spp. can utilize crude oil as a carbon and energy source.

  2. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method. PMID:27853716

  3. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I

    2016-10-20

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  4. Prevalence of Demodex spp among alcohol-dependent patients

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    Mehmet Hanifi Kokacya

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: Demodex spp. are more common in alcohol-dependent patients due conditions of reduced self-care and immunosuppression. Demodex parasites should be considered in alcohol-dependent patients with skin lesions, especially on the face, and should to be treated if needed. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(2.000: 259-263

  5. The copepod Calanus spp. (Calanidae) is repelled by polarized light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Amit; Browman, Howard I.

    2016-10-01

    Both attraction and repulsion from linearly polarized light have been observed in zooplankton. A dichotomous choice experiment, consisting of plankton light traps deployed in natural waters at a depth of 30 m that projected either polarized or unpolarized light of the same intensity, was used to test the hypothesis that the North Atlantic copepod, Calanus spp., is linearly polarotactic. In addition, the transparency of these copepods, as they might be seen by polarization insensitive vs. sensitive visual systems, was measured. Calanus spp. exhibited negative polarotaxis with a preference ratio of 1.9:1. Their transparency decreased from 80% to 20% to 30% in the unpolarized, partially polarized, and electric (e-) vector orientation domains respectively - that is, these copepods would appear opaque and conspicuous to a polarization-sensitive viewer looking at them under conditions rich in polarized light. Since the only difference between the two plankton traps was the polarization cue, we conclude that Calanus spp. are polarization sensitive and exhibit negative polarotaxis at low light intensities (albeit well within the sensitivity range reported for copepods). We hypothesize that Calanus spp. can use polarization vision to reduce their risk of predation by polarization-sensitive predators and suggest that this be tested in future experiments.

  6. Isolation of Acanthamoeba spp. from Different Environmental Sources

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    A Motevalli Haghi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acanthamoeba spp. are free-living amebas found in a wide variety of natural habitats. The high percentage of Acanthamoeba in different environmental sources represents a sanitary risk for public health especially contact lens users and immunocompromised patients. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of Acanthamoeba spp. in different environments such as water, soil, dust a