WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-refutational text readers

  1. Narrative tension analysis: reader`s and text aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Вениаминовна Лещенко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article narrative tension is conceptualized as a complex cognitive and affective phenomenon being analysed in two dimensions: psychological and textological. In the receptive and psychological framework narrative tension is considered as reader`s psychological response to the fictional events of the storyworld. In modern text theory narrative tension is thought as a specific narrative strategy represented by definite narrative structures inducing the particular emotional state of the reader

  2. Narrative tension analysis: reader`s and text aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Анна Вениаминовна Лещенко

    2016-01-01

    In this article narrative tension is conceptualized as a complex cognitive and affective phenomenon being analysed in two dimensions: psychological and textological. In the receptive and psychological framework narrative tension is considered as reader`s psychological response to the fictional events of the storyworld. In modern text theory narrative tension is thought as a specific narrative strategy represented by definite narrative structures inducing the particular emotional state of the ...

  3. A Framework for Analyzing Reader-Text Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Margaret

    1986-01-01

    This article presents a framework for analyzing verbal report data, attempting to integrate Fillmore's levels of envisionment and Galda's differentiation between reader and text-centered responses. It examines the extent to which readers rely on text based, reader-based, or interactive processes to understand text. Case study data is presented.…

  4. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation,

  5. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation, summa

  6. Towards Text Simplification for Poor Readers with Intellectual Disability: When Do Connectives Enhance Text Cohesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Inmaculada; Tavares, Gema; Avila, Vicenta; Ferrer, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Cohesive elements of texts such as connectives (e.g., "but," "in contrast") are expected to facilitate inferential comprehension in poor readers. Two experiments tested this prediction in poor readers with intellectual disability (ID) by: (a) comparing literal and inferential text comprehension of texts with and without connectives and/or high…

  7. Children's Response to Literature: Author, Text, Reader, Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Lawrence R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how researchers can study children's interaction with literature, discussing various perspectives that can be taken on children's literary responses and suggesting lines of inquiry and concepts that might be useful for the continued examination of children's responses. Focuses on the author, the literary text itself, the reader, and the…

  8. Reading Arabic Texts: Effects of Text Type, Reader Type and Vowelization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, Salim

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effect of vowels on reading accuracy in Arabic orthography. Finds that vowels had a significant effect on reading accuracy of poor and skilled readers in reading each of four kinds of texts. (NH)

  9. Text Mining in Python through the HTRC Feature Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Organisciak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a toolkit for working with the 13.6 million volume Extracted Features Dataset from the HathiTrust Research Center. You will learn how to peer at the words and trends of any book in the collection, while developing broadly useful Python data analysis skills. The HathiTrust holds nearly 15 million digitized volumes from libraries around the world. In addition to their individual value, these works in aggregate are extremely valuable for historians. Spanning many centuries and genres, they offer a way to learn about large-scale trends in history and culture, as well as evidence for changes in language or even the structure of the book. To simplify access to this collection the HathiTrust Research Center (HTRC has released the Extracted Features dataset (Capitanu et al. 2015: a dataset that provides quantitative information describing every page of every volume in the collection. In this lesson, we introduce the HTRC Feature Reader, a library for working with the HTRC Extracted Features dataset using the Python programming language. The HTRC Feature Reader is structured to support work using popular data science libraries, particularly Pandas. Pandas provides simple structures for holding data and powerful ways to interact with it. The HTRC Feature Reader uses these data structures, so learning how to use it will also cover general data analysis skills in Python.

  10. Towards text simplification for poor readers with intellectual disability: when do connectives enhance text cohesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, Inmaculada; Tavares, Gema; Ávila, Vicenta; Ferrer, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Cohesive elements of texts such as connectives (e.g., but, in contrast) are expected to facilitate inferential comprehension in poor readers. Two experiments tested this prediction in poor readers with intellectual disability (ID) by: (a) comparing literal and inferential text comprehension of texts with and without connectives and/or high frequency content words (Experiment 1) and (b) exploring the effects of type and familiarity of connectives on two-clause text comprehension by means of a cloze task (Experiment 2). Neither the addition of high frequency content words nor connectives in general produced inferential comprehension improvements. However, although readers with ID were less likely to select the target connective in the cloze task than chronologically age-matched readers (mean age=21 years) in general, their performance was affected by the type of connective and its familiarity. Familiarity had a facilitative effect for additive and contrastive connectives, but interfered in the case of temporal and causal connectives. The average performance of a reading level-matched control group (typically developing children) was similar to the group of readers with ID although the pattern of interaction between familiarity and type of connectives varied between groups. The implications of these findings for the adaptation of texts in special education contexts are discussed.

  11. Simplification in Graded Readers: Measuring the Authenticity of Graded Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridge, Gillian

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics and quality of simplification in graded readers as compared to those of "normal" authentic English. Two passages from graded readers are compared with the original passages. The comparison uses a computer programme, RANGE (Nation and Heatley, 2003) to analyse the distribution of high and low frequency words…

  12. A Comparative Review of Stratification Texts and Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peoples, Clayton D.

    2012-01-01

    Social stratification is a core substantive area within sociology. There are a number of textbooks and readers available on the market that deal with this central topic. In this article, I conduct a comparative review of (a) four stratification textbooks and (b) four stratification readers. (Contains 2 tables.)

  13. Students Explore Text, Themselves, and Life through Reader Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutray, Carol L.; Pollard, Jean Ann; McGinley, Jill

    2001-01-01

    Examines the benefits of reader response by means of student letters to authors. Notes that students involved in response writing become more interested in reading, are more reflective individuals, and more responsible for monitoring and resolving their own questions. (SD)

  14. Reader Response: An Alternative Way to Teach Students to Think about Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Nancy D.; Hynd, Cynthia R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the fundamentals of reader response theory, focuses on the aspects most relevant to reading instruction, and presents a method of teaching using reader response as a vehicle for improving student ability to learn from text. (NKA)

  15. Comprehension Challenges in the Fourth Grade: The Roles of Text Cohesion, Text Genre, and Readers' Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Danielle S.; Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Floyd, Randy G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined young readers' comprehension as a function of text genre (narrative, science), text cohesion (high, low), and readers' abilities (reading decoding skills and world knowledge). The overarching purpose of this study was to contribute to our understanding of the "fourth grade slump". Children in grade 4 read four texts,…

  16. Follow the Reader: An Effective Strategy to Support Students Reading More Complex Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klvacek, Michelle L.; Monroe, Eula Ewing; Wilcox, Brad; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.; Morrison, Timothy G.

    2017-01-01

    This article describes how one second-grade teacher implemented Follow the Reader, her term for dyad reading. Common Core expects students to read increasingly complex texts. Teachers can implement dyad reading with this end in mind. It is a modified version of the neurological impress method in which a lead reader and an assisted reader sit side…

  17. THe Effects of Reader and Text Characteristics on Reports of Imagery during and after Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Shirley A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Explores reader and text effects on the production of mental imagery during and after reading a poem, a story, and two expository texts. Finds that imagery occurs spontaneously during and after reading all texts and that the production of imagery is affected by both reader and text. (RS)

  18. Understanding the Text Genre Preferences of Third-Grade Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Gina; Ness, Molly K.

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, researchers have indicated that U.S. schools have underexposed elementary grade students to informational text. The increased exposure to this genre should be a top instructional priority. In the present study, we explored 46 third-grade students' attitudes toward and perceptions of informational text. Using three data…

  19. Nontraditional Texts and the Struggling/Reluctant Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingon, Joan C.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the Wimpy Kid diary book series by Jeff Kenney and discusses how educators can increase their knowledge base and take advantage of integrating such highly visual and nontraditional texts within the reading and language arts curriculum to enhance students' vocabulary development and reading comprehension. The article…

  20. Moving out of Silence: Helping Struggling Readers Find Their Voices in Text-Based Discussions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Leigh A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how 3 sixth-grade social studies teachers increased struggling readers' participation in text-based discussions and changed how they applied reading comprehension strategies. Students worked in small groups with peers who read above, on, or below grade level but shared similar beliefs about themselves as readers. Discussion…

  1. [Readers' beliefs about text comprehension affect the quality of their summaries of a scientific article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Yuri; Ueda, Kazuhiro

    2013-04-01

    Readers' beliefs about text comprehension affect how they read texts. A previous study showed two types of readers' beliefs; one is a "transmission belief' which emphasizes the importance of understanding an author's intended meaning, while the other is a "transaction belief' which emphasizes the importance of reader-generated meaning. We expect that these beliefs also affect summarization, where readers need to effectively elicit important information from the text and reconstruct it. The present study examined how readers' beliefs were related to the quality of summaries they made for a scientific article. We used the followings as indicators of the quality of the summaries: how information from a scientific article was elicited and reconstructed, and to what extent the summaries were comprehensible. The results suggest that the stronger the transmission belief of a reader was, the less effectively the reader elicited and reconstructed information and the less comprehensible the summary was. Although it cannot reveal the relationships between the transaction belief and the quality of summaries, the present study suggests that readers' beliefs about text comprehension affect summarization.

  2. DECODING THE TEXT AND THE ‘POWER’ OF THE READER

    OpenAIRE

    Kalyan Das

    2014-01-01

    The process of interpretation and understanding of a literary text has always been thought of as an exercise controlled by either the text or the author. The reader has been given a peripheral role in the process of producing meaning. The recent emphasis on the reader as a very important entity, not just a ‘tabula rasa’ (Locke, 1996) gathers its strength from the new perspective in which the reading process is viewed. The philosophical notions developed by Edmund Husserl and Ro...

  3. DECODING THE TEXT AND THE ‘POWER’ OF THE READER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Das

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of interpretation and understanding of a literary text has always been thought of as an exercise controlled by either the text or the author. The reader has been given a peripheral role in the process of producing meaning. The recent emphasis on the reader as a very important entity, not just a ‘tabula rasa’ (Locke, 1996 gathers its strength from the new perspective in which the reading process is viewed. The philosophical notions developed by Edmund Husserl and Roman Ingarden, and the phenomenological theories of Schleiermacher and Don Ihde have paved way for the elevation of the reader to the position of the most important agent shaping and directing the process of decoding the meaning of a text. Literary theories proposed by Roman Ingarden, Hans Robert Jauss, Wolfgang Iser, Stanley Fish has brought the reader to the center stage. The gamut of ideas offered by these new groups of theoreticians has redefined the role of the text from an independent object into something that can only exist when it is read and when it interacts with the mind of the reader. This study describes how the philosophical notions combined with literary ideologies help the reader to emerge as the most powerful agent in the realization of the meaning of texts.

  4. The effects of readers' goals on inference generation and memory for texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, P; Lorch, R F; Linderholm, T; Gustafson, M

    2001-12-01

    We investigated the effects of readers' goals on inference generation and memory for expository text. College students (N = 82) read texts for the purpose of either study or entertainment. On-line inference generation was recorded via think-aloud procedures, and off-line memory was assessed via free recall. Reading goal strongly influenced inferential activity: Readers with a study goal produced more coherence-building (i.e., backward/explanatory and forward/predictive) inferences, whereas readers with an entertainment goal produced more associations and evaluations. These differences were associated with superior memory for the texts in the study condition. The results indicate that inference generation during reading is partly strategic and is influenced systematically by reading purpose. We propose that reading goals influence readers' standards of coherence, which in turn influence the types of inferences that they draw and the final memory representations that they construct.

  5. Reader-Text Interactions: How Differential Text and Question Types Influence Cognitive Skills Needed for Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Sarah H; Goldberg, Lindsay F; Young, Katherine M; Geist, Megan C; Cutting, Laurie E

    2012-08-01

    Current research has shown that comprehension can vary based on text and question types, and that readers' word recognition and background knowledge may account for these differences. Other reader characteristics such as semantic and syntactic awareness, inferencing, planning/organizing have also all been linked to reading comprehension, but have not been examined with regard to specific text and question types. The aim of this study was to explore the relationships between reader characteristics, text types, and question types, in children aged 10-14. We sought to compare children's performance when comprehending narrative, expository, and functional text, as well as to explore differences between children's performance on comprehension questions that assess their literal or inferential comprehension of a passage. To examine such differences, we analyzed the degree to which distinct cognitive skills (semantic and syntactic awareness, inferencing, planning/organizing) contribute to performance on varying types of texts and questions. This study found main effects of text and question types, as well as an interaction in which relations between question types varied between text types. Analyses indicated that higher order cognitive skills, including the ability to make inferences and to plan and organize information, contribute to comprehension of more complex text (e.g., expository vs. narrative) and question types (e.g., inferential vs. literal), and therefore are important components of reading for later elementary and middle school students. These findings suggest that developing these skills in early elementary school may better equip students for comprehending the texts they will encounter in higher grades.

  6. Gadamer's Philosophical Hermeneutics: The Vantage Points and the Horizons in Readers' Responses to an American Literature Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Dilys Karen

    2003-01-01

    Presents how Gadamer's philosophical hermeneutics can be used to analyze readers' responses to an American literature text. Readers are Brazilian college students reading a text by the American author, Amy Tan. (Author/VWL)

  7. Exploring the Readability of Assessment Tasks: The Influence of Text and Reader Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Wray

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Readability is the degree to which a text is matched to its intended and actual reader. The factors influencing readability, both text factors and reader factors, have been widely researched from the standpoint of attempts to maximise reader understanding of texts. The application of understandings in the area has not, however, always been applied systematically to the design and writing of assessment tasks and consequently test items are sometimes less accessible to the intended test takers than they might be.This paper is an attempt to provide a wide ranging review of literature which bears on the task of the assessment designer in ensuring that assessment items measure what they are supposed to measure, and not just the reading abilities of the test takers.

  8. The Role of the Reader: Explorations in the Semiotics of Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco, Umberto

    The essays in this book focus on the role of the reader in textual interpretation. Specifically, they examine "open" and "closed" texts. The three essays in Part I deal with both verbal and nonverbal texts. The first considers musical compositions that leave considerable autonomy to the individual performer and also discusses…

  9. The Role of the Reader: Explorations in the Semiotics of Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco, Umberto

    The essays in this book focus on the role of the reader in textual interpretation. Specifically, they examine "open" and "closed" texts. The three essays in Part I deal with both verbal and nonverbal texts. The first considers musical compositions that leave considerable autonomy to the individual performer and also discusses the phenomenon of the…

  10. Multiple Science Text Processing: Building Comprehension Skills for College Student Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Therriault, David J.; Kwon, Heekyung

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to determine which reading instruction improves multiple science text comprehension for college student readers. The authors first identified the cognitive processing strategies that are predictive of multiple science text comprehension (Study 1) and then used what they learned to experimentally test the…

  11. Differences in Text Structure and Its Implications for Assessment of Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Paul; Sheehan, Kathleen M.; Sabatini, John; Futagi, Yoko; Kostin, Irene

    2006-01-01

    One source of potential difficulty for struggling readers is the variability of texts across grade levels. This article explores the use of automatic natural language processing techniques to identify dimensions of variation within a corpus of school-appropriate texts. Specifically, we asked: Are there identifiable dimensions of lexical and…

  12. Metacomprehension and Negation: Assessing Readers' Awareness of the Difficulty of Negated Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sara J.; Hover, Paige A.

    2011-01-01

    The present research explored the awareness that readers have of the difficulty of negative text and the impact that awareness has on their comprehension of that text. Participants read narrative and expository paragraphs, rated their comprehension, and answered a comprehension question. The present research established detrimental effects of…

  13. Effects of Multimedia Annotations on Thai EFL Readers' Words and Text Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasigijtamrong, Jenjit

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of using multimedia annotations on EFL readers' word recall and text recall and to explore which type of multimedia annotations--L1 meaning, L2 meaning, sound, and image--would have a better effect on their recall of new words and text comprehension. The participants were 78 students who enrolled in an…

  14. Alternative Text Types to Improve Reading Fluency for Competent to Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Rupley, William H.; Pagie, David D.; Nichols, William Dee

    2016-01-01

    This article offers instructional suggestions and strategies based on research and theoretical literature for developing reading fluency through the use of rhyming poetry and other texts beyond the narrative and informational texts that have been traditionally used for reading instruction. Readers' lack of fluency in reading can be a monumental…

  15. The Role of the Reader: Explorations in the Semiotics of Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eco, Umberto

    The essays in this book focus on the role of the reader in textual interpretation. Specifically, they examine "open" and "closed" texts. The three essays in Part I deal with both verbal and nonverbal texts. The first considers musical compositions that leave considerable autonomy to the individual performer and also discusses…

  16. The Effect of Outlines and Headings on Readers' Recall of Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Damon; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of outlines prefacing text and headings inserted in the text on the recall of prose by 178 undergraduates. Results indicate that a combination of outlines and headings best benefit readers' recall. Results are discussed from a schema activation perspective. (SLD)

  17. Connected text reading and differences in text reading fluency in adult readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallot, S.; Hollis, G.; Rooij, M. de

    2013-01-01

    The process of connected text reading has received very little attention in contemporary cognitive psychology. This lack of attention is in parts due to a research tradition that emphasizes the role of basic lexical constituents, which can be studied in isolated words or sentences. However, this lac

  18. The Push for More Challenging Texts: An Analysis of Early Readers' Rate, Accuracy, and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendum, Steven J.; Conradi, Kristin; Liebfreund, Meghan D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between the challenge level of text and early readers' reading comprehension. This relationship was also examined with consideration to students' word recognition accuracy and reading rate. Participants included 636 students, in Grades 1-3, in a southeastern state. Results suggest that…

  19. In the Age of Analytic Reading: Understanding Readers' Engagement with Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Teaching children to inquire, discuss ideas, and defend thinking about a literary text is a key aim of the common core state standards (CCSS). This article describes how four third-grade, male struggling readers successfully co-constructed meaning during a discussion based reading intervention rooted in philosophical inquiry. Three elements that…

  20. Articulation of young adult readers in a digitalized and medialized landscape of texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henkel, Ayoe Qvist

    2015-01-01

    The digital turn does not bring about changes in young adultliterature considered as aesthetic artifacts and literary works but it changes the perception and reception of the reader. Digital young adult literature is increasingly multimodal, including interactivity and the integration of elements...... of game aesthetics. The way the young person is articulated within such texts must be presumed to be new, and the pivotal point of this paper will be to explore how the young adult reader is thematized in content, form, and medium in digital young adult literature....

  1. The Bridge from Text to Mind: Adapting Reader-Response Theory to Consumer Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Linda M.

    1994-01-01

    Consumer research on advertising response has gradually separated the act of reading an ad from the acquisition of brand information. Because the advertising text is the pathway through which brand information is accessed, current models truncate the process that leads to response in a way that distorts our view of both advertising and the mind that reads it. This author proposes that reader-response theory would help researchers study the process of reading as an essential link between adver...

  2. USING READER RESPONSE APPROACH TO GET ENGAGED IN ENGLISH TEXTS OF THE PAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Nafisah

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study investigates the students’ interpretations of English literary texts produced in the heyday of British and American Literature –the Victorian Age and Modernism.  The fact that the texts are so distant from the students’ time and cultural contexts often becomes the obstacles in understanding, in particular, canonized literary texts. Moreover, in EFL classes where students do not use English in daily basis, the problem is multifold. On the other hand, despite the advice to use texts that are more contextual and meaningful to EFL learners, it is unavoidable for EFL students majoring English literature to read some canonical texts. Although the use of canonical works may present ideological and political bias (see (Said, 1979 and (McCallum & Stephen, 2011, Lazar (2005 argues that literature, among others, opens access to cultural background, expands students’ language awareness and develops students’ interpretative abilities. Confronting with time and space so different from the students’ own, this study employing reader response theory and analyzes how these EFL students majoring English literature construct meaning from three texts they read and its effects towards their interpretative abilities. The data were collected through students’ responses, questionnaires and focus group discussions.   Keywords: English literature, canonized literary texts, EFL contexts, reader response

  3. VarifocalReader--In-Depth Visual Analysis of Large Text Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Steffen; John, Markus; Wörner, Michael; Müller, Andreas; Ertl, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    Interactive visualization provides valuable support for exploring, analyzing, and understanding textual documents. Certain tasks, however, require that insights derived from visual abstractions are verified by a human expert perusing the source text. So far, this problem is typically solved by offering overview-detail techniques, which present different views with different levels of abstractions. This often leads to problems with visual continuity. Focus-context techniques, on the other hand, succeed in accentuating interesting subsections of large text documents but are normally not suited for integrating visual abstractions. With VarifocalReader we present a technique that helps to solve some of these approaches' problems by combining characteristics from both. In particular, our method simplifies working with large and potentially complex text documents by simultaneously offering abstract representations of varying detail, based on the inherent structure of the document, and access to the text itself. In addition, VarifocalReader supports intra-document exploration through advanced navigation concepts and facilitates visual analysis tasks. The approach enables users to apply machine learning techniques and search mechanisms as well as to assess and adapt these techniques. This helps to extract entities, concepts and other artifacts from texts. In combination with the automatic generation of intermediate text levels through topic segmentation for thematic orientation, users can test hypotheses or develop interesting new research questions. To illustrate the advantages of our approach, we provide usage examples from literature studies.

  4. An Investigation of the Effects of Reader Characteristics on Reading Comprehension Of a General Chemistry Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiles, Kelly Y.

    There is great concern in the scientific community that students in the United States, when compared with other countries, are falling behind in their scientific achievement. Increasing students' reading comprehension of scientific text may be one of the components involved in students' science achievement. To investigate students' reading comprehension this quantitative study examined the effects of different reader characteristics, namely, students' logical reasoning ability, factual chemistry knowledge, working memory capacity, and schema of the chemistry concepts, on reading comprehension of a chemistry text. Students' reading comprehension was measured through their ability to encode the text, access the meanings of words (lexical access), make bridging and elaborative inferences, and integrate the text with their existing schemas to make a lasting mental representation of the text (situational model). Students completed a series of tasks that measured the reader characteristic and reading comprehension variables. Some of the variables were measured using new technologies and software to investigate different cognitive processes. These technologies and software included eye tracking to investigate students' lexical accessing and a Pathfinder program to investigate students' schema of the chemistry concepts. The results from this study were analyzed using canonical correlation and regression analysis. The canonical correlation analysis allows for the ten variables described previously to be included in one multivariate analysis. Results indicate that the relationship between the reader characteristic variables and the reading comprehension variables is significant. The resulting canonical function accounts for a greater amount of variance in students' responses then any individual variable. Regression analysis was used to further investigate which reader characteristic variables accounted for the differences in students' responses for each reading comprehension

  5. Alternative Text Types to Improve Reading Fluency for Competent to Struggling Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V. Rasinski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article offers instructional suggestions and strategies based on research and theoretical literature for developing reading fluency through the use of rhyming poetry and other texts beyond the narrative and informational texts that have been traditionally used for reading instruction. Readers’ lack of fluency in reading can be a monumental impediment to proficiency in good comprehension and overall reading competency. For all readers it is well established that as they progress in reading competence their reading ability grows (Stanovich, 1993/1994. This continued reading success begets continued reading growth; however, many struggling readers have difficulty in moving to a level of automaticity and fluency in their reading that enables them to engage in a successful practice. Lack of practice inhibits their reading comprehension. Readers’ abilities to effectively comprehend texts are significantly affected by their proficiency in accurate and automatic word recognition and prosody (May, 1998; Stanovich, 1993/1994; LaBerge & Samuels, 1974; Schreiber, 1991. Repeated reading practice has been shown to be a powerful way to improve these important fluency competencies. Certain texts are particularly well suited for repeated reading that improves both aspects of fluency

  6. One text, many stories: the (ir)relevance of reader-response criticism for apocryphal literature in the Septuagint

    OpenAIRE

    S. Philip Nolte

    2012-01-01

    This article investigated the value of reader-response theory for the reading of apocryphal texts in the Septuagint. The groundbreaking work on reader-response theory developed by Wolfgang Iser in his book The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response, written in 1978 served as the theoretical point of departure. Although the reader-response theory has been scrutinised and criticised heavily during the last three decades, Iser made a very valuable contribution to the reading of literatur...

  7. The use of graphic representations of sign language in leveled texts to support deaf readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Mary; Wang, Ye

    2010-01-01

    The study considered whether adding sign language graphics to the books being used for reading instruction in a first-grade classroom would promote the literacy development of students who are deaf or hard of hearing. The researchers also sought to discover whether materials existed to put the process of modifying leveled texts within the reach of the typical classroom teacher, in terms of cost and procedure. Students' reading behaviors seemed to indicate that the presence of sign graphics supported their development as readers. The materials needed to create sign support for the English print in the leveled books were commercially available.

  8. Moving from Reader Response to Critical Reading: Developing 10-11-Year-Olds' Ability as Analytical Readers of Literary Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    This article presents aspects of a research study into how a group of ten- and eleven-year-old students (in 5th Grade in Sydney, Australia) were apprenticed to view a literary text from critical reading positions. These ways of reading were an alternative to their more typical reader response interpretations of texts. The article contrasts…

  9. Toward a theory relating text complexity, reader ability, and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Carl W; Burdick, Donald S; Hanlon, Sean T; Stenner, A Jackson; Kyngdon, Andrew; Burdick, Harold; Smith, Malbert

    2014-01-01

    Validity of specification equations used by auto-text processors to estimate theoretical text complexity have increased importance because of the Common Core State Standards. Theoretical estimates of text complexity will inform (a) setting standards for college and career readiness, (b) grade-level standards, matching readers to text, and (d) creating a daily diet of stretch and targeted text designed to grow reading ability and content knowledge. The purpose of this research was to investigate the specification equation used in the Lexile Framework for Reading to measure text complexity. The Lexile Reading Analyzer contains a specification equation that uses proxies for the semantic difficulty and syntactic complexity to estimate the theoretical complexity of professionally-edited text. Differences between theoretical and empirical estimates of text complexity were examined for a set of 446 professionally authored, previously published passages. Students in grades 2-12 read these passages using A Learning Oasis, a web-based technology, to ensure that most of the articles read were well-targeted to student ability (+100L). Each article was response illustrated using an auto-generated semantic cloze item type embedded into passages. Observed student performance on this item type was used to derive an empirical estimate of text complexity for each passage. Theoretical estimates of text complexity accounted for approximately 90 percent of the variance in empirical estimates of text complexity. These findings suggest that the specification equation contains powerful predictors of empirical text complexity, speculation remains on what additional variables might account for the 10 percent of unexplained variation.

  10. Does Extra Interletter Spacing Help Text Reading in Skilled Adult Readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Giner, Lourdes; Marcet, Ana; Gomez, Pablo

    2016-05-23

    A number of experiments have shown that, in skilled adult readers, a small increase in interletter spacing speeds up the process of visual word recognition relative to the default settings (i.e., judge faster than judge). The goal of the present experiment was to examine whether this effect can be generalized to a more ecological scenario: text reading. Each participant read two stories (367 words each) taken from a standardized reading test. The stories were presented with the standard interletter spacing or with a small increase in interletter spacing (+1.2 points to default) in a within-subject design. An eyetracker was used to register the participants' eye movements. Comprehension scores were also examined. Results showed that, on average, fixation durations were shorter while reading the text with extra spacing than while reading the text with the default settings (237 vs. 245 ms, respectively; η2 =. 41, p = .01). However, the number of fixations (while nonsignificant) was slightly higher in the text with extra spacing than in the text with the default spacing, and cancelled out the effect of interletter spacing in total reading times (F reading.

  11. One text, many stories: The (irrelevance of reader-response criticism for apocryphal literature in the Septuagint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Philip Nolte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article investigated the value of reader-response theory for the reading of apocryphal texts in the Septuagint. The groundbreaking work on reader-response theory developed by Wolfgang Iser in his book The Act of Reading: A Theory of Aesthetic Response, written in 1978 served as the theoretical point of departure. Although the reader-response theory has been scrutinised and criticised heavily during the last three decades, Iser made a very valuable contribution to the reading of literature. My assumption is that religious texts have to be read in the same way as other literature and therefore literary theories such as Iser’s can be conducive for responsible interpretation. The article consists of the following parts: introductory remarks on the value of reader-response theory for the interpretation of apocryphal texts; a short overview of reader-response criticism; a discussion and evaluation of three different aspects of Iser’s theory, namely ‘gaps’ in texts, ‘asymmetry’ between readers and texts and the concept of ‘the implied reader’. The findings of the investigation will be given in part five (Findings.

  12. Predicting reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts among Hebrew-speaking readers with and without a reading disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primor, Liron; Pierce, Margaret E; Katzir, Tami

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate which cognitive and reading-related linguistic skills contribute to reading comprehension of narrative and expository texts. The study examined an Israeli national database of Hebrew-speaking readers in fourth grade, from which a subsample of 190 readers with a reading disability (RD) and 190 readers with no reading disability (NRD) was selected. IQ, text reading, reading comprehension, and various linguistic and cognitive skills were assessed. Structural equation modeling results suggested that both groups rely on lower level processes such as text reading accuracy and orthographic knowledge for reading comprehension of both genres. However, RD readers depend more heavily upon these lower level processes compared with NRD for whom higher level processes contribute more to reading comprehension. The various variables accounted for only 25-34% of reading comprehension variance, and possible explanations are discussed. Taken together, these findings highlight the variety of factors influencing reading comprehension and its multidimensional nature.

  13. Developing Written Text Production Competence Using the Reader-Response Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demény, Paraschiva

    2012-01-01

    The first part of the present paper deals with the analysis of the literary theory and linguistic background of the reader-response method, respectively with the presentation of the process of composition and its psychological components. The reader-response textual interpretation method can take several different approaches of literary theory,…

  14. Cruising Composition Texts: Negotiating Sexual Difference in First-Year Readers

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    Marinara, Martha; Alexander, Jonathan; Banks, William P.; Blackmon, Samantha

    2009-01-01

    The article describes and analyzes the exclusion of LGBT content in composition courses by reporting on a study of how queerness is (and is not) incorporated into first-year writing courses. The authors critically examine the presence or absence of LGBT issues in first-year composition readers; offer analyses of how some first-year readers handle…

  15. Reading Comprehension of Informative Texts in Secondary School: A Focus on Direct and Indirect Effects of Reader's Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarchi, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Text comprehension plays a fundamental role in the processes of acquisition, sharing, and construction of knowledge. Most definitions share the focus on the interaction between text and reader's prior knowledge. In this paper both direct and indirect effects of prior knowledge on reading comprehension have been analyzed, along with other…

  16. Promoting the Understanding of Photosynthesis among Elementary School Student Teachers through Text Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södervik, Ilona; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Vilppu, Henna

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary school pre-service teachers' understanding of photosynthesis and to examine if a refutational text can support understanding of photosynthesis better than a non-refutational text. A total of 91 elementary school pre-service teachers read either a refutational or a non-refutational text…

  17. Perceptions of Talk, Text, Transactions, and Technology: Preservice Teachers, CMC, and Reader Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Anne Trice Thompson

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study examined middle grades preservice language arts teachers' perceptions of young adult literature through the lenses of reader response, new literacy, and activity theory. Undergraduate preservice teachers used synchronous and asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) to respond online to three young adult books with…

  18. Context, Task, and Reader Effects in Children's Incidental Word Learning from Text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, L.C. de; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Incidental word learning is influenced by context, task, and reader characteristics. The present study aimed to determine the contribution and interactions of these factors for fifth-grade students. The focus was on contextual differences: words' meanings are inferred from local or global contexts.

  19. KOREAN FOLKLORE READER, TEXTS WITH PRESYNTACTIC ANALYSIS. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OLMSTED, D.L.; AND OTHERS

    THE 19 KOREAN FOLK TALES PRESENTED IN KOREAN ORTHOGRAPHY IN THIS READER ARE DESIGNED AS READING MATERIAL FOR ELEMENTARY- AND INTERMEDIATE-LEVEL STUDENTS OF KOREAN. EACH SELECTION IS PREFACED BY AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION AND FOLLOWED BY A PHONEMIC TRANSLITERATION WITH INTERLINEAR GLOSSES IN ENGLISH. THE ORTHOGRAPHY USED HERE FOLLOWS SAMUEL MARTIN'S…

  20. Self-Correction Patterns and Metalinguistic Awareness: A Proposed Typology for Studying Text-Processing Strategies of Proficient Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    Presents an exploratory investigation of six case study subjects (bilingual 4th and 6th grade students, speakers of Spanish and Nahuatl from Central Mexico) that seeks to develop a typology of one aspect of text processing by second language readers that would be difficult to assess by other evaluation approaches that do not require oral reading:…

  1. Self-Correction Patterns and Metalinguistic Awareness: A Proposed Typology for Studying Text-Processing Strategies of Proficient Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    Presents an exploratory investigation of six case study subjects (bilingual 4th and 6th grade students, speakers of Spanish and Nahuatl from Central Mexico) that seeks to develop a typology of one aspect of text processing by second language readers that would be difficult to assess by other evaluation approaches that do not require oral reading:…

  2. Eye-Movement Patterns and Reader Characteristics of Students with Good and Poor Performance When Reading Scientific Text with Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yu-Cin

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the cognitive processes and reader characteristics of sixth graders who had good and poor performance when reading scientific text with diagrams. We first measured the reading ability and reading self-efficacy of sixth-grade participants, and then recorded their eye movements while they were reading an illustrated…

  3. Teaching Matters: Is There a Text in This Class? E-readers, E-books, and Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle M. Zauha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This column explores current issues with e-books and e-readers in academic classrooms. It suggests ways the academic library can explore and meet the information literacy needs of students, faculty, and staff who are using these new devices or seeing them in use in their classrooms.

  4. Struggling readers learning with graphic-rich digital science text: Effects of a Highlight & Animate Feature and Manipulable Graphics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrance, Nancy L.

    Technology offers promise of 'leveling the playing field' for struggling readers. That is, instructional support features within digital texts may enable all readers to learn. This quasi-experimental study examined the effects on learning of two support features, which offered unique opportunities to interact with text. The Highlight & Animate Feature highlighted an important idea in prose, while simultaneously animating its representation in an adjacent graphic. It invited readers to integrate ideas depicted in graphics and prose, using each one to interpret the other. The Manipulable Graphics had parts that the reader could operate to discover relationships among phenomena. It invited readers to test or refine the ideas that they brought to, or gleaned from, the text. Use of these support features was compulsory. Twenty fifth grade struggling readers read a graphic-rich digital science text in a clinical interview setting, under one of two conditions: using either the Highlight & Animate Feature or the Manipulable Graphics. Participants in both conditions made statistically significant gains on a multiple choice measure of knowledge of the topic of the text. While there were no significant differences by condition in the amount of knowledge gained; there were significant differences in the quality of knowledge expressed. Transcripts revealed that understandings about light and vision, expressed by those who used the Highlight & Animate Feature, were more often conceptually and linguistically 'complete.' That is, their understandings included both a description of phenomena as well as an explanation of underlying scientific principles, which participants articulated using the vocabulary of the text. This finding may be attributed to the multiple opportunities to integrate graphics (depicting the behavior of phenomena) and prose (providing the scientific explanation of that phenomena), which characterized the Highlight & Animate Condition. Those who used the

  5. Text Genre and Science Content: Ease of Reading, Comprehension, and Reader Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetti, Gina N.; Bravo, Marco A.; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Pearson, P. David; Jaynes, Carolyn A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined ease of reading, comprehension, and recall and preference for the same scientific content under two conditions: an informational text and a fictional narrative text. Seventy-four third and fourth graders were assessed individually around the reading of fictional narrative and informational texts that were about either snails or…

  6. USING READER RESPONSE APPROACH TO GET ENGAGED IN ENGLISH TEXTS OF THE PAST

    OpenAIRE

    Nia Nafisah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: This study investigates the students’ interpretations of English literary texts produced in the heyday of British and American Literature –the Victorian Age and Modernism.  The fact that the texts are so distant from the students’ time and cultural contexts often becomes the obstacles in understanding, in particular, canonized literary texts. Moreover, in EFL classes where students do not use English in daily basis, the problem is multifold. On the other hand, despite the advice to ...

  7. Considering the Context and Texts for Fluency: Performance, Readers Theater, and Poetry

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    Chase YOUNG

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the importance of teaching reading fluency and all of its components, including automaticity and prosody. The authors explain how teachers can create a context for reading fluency instruction by engaging students in reading performance activities. To support the instructional contexts, the authors suggest particular text-types that are well-suited for reading fluency activities.

  8. Reader and text variables as determinants of discourse memory in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, J T

    1986-06-01

    Young students, old students, and old nonstudents read and recalled short texts that were in either narrative or expository form. In addition, a set of six verbal ability measures thought to be related to discourse memory was obtained for all of the participants. Older subjects recalled less from the texts than younger subjects, and neither type of text nor student status modified the magnitude of the age differences. The set of verbal ability measures was adequately described by two principal components, one consisting of simple, speed-related skills, and the other consisting of more complex skills. Each set of variables predicted a proportion of discourse memory variance, and accounted for some of the variance that would otherwise be attributed to age. The results suggest that age differences in some basic cognitive skills related to reading effectiveness might underlie age differences in memory for discourse.

  9. Comparing the Strategic Behavior of More Successful vs. Less Successful Readers of Multiple Technical Reading Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad Nabi; Shabani, Mohammad Bagher

    2013-01-01

    Recently, reading researchers have come to assume that the ability to synthesize units of information across multiple texts on a topic by comparing, contrasting, synthesizing, integrating, and building a mental representation of them--referred to as multiple-documents literacy--is a far more required literacy in the present knowledge societies…

  10. Modeling Reader and Text Interactions during Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen T.; Freed, Erin M.; Long, Debra L.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis regarding relations among word decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of three text properties (length,…

  11. Helping Poor Readers Demonstrate Their Science Competence: Item Characteristics Supporting Text-Picture Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saß, Steffani; Schütte, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Solving test items might require abilities in test-takers other than the construct the test was designed to assess. Item and student characteristics such as item format or reading comprehension can impact the test result. This experiment is based on cognitive theories of text and picture comprehension. It examines whether integration aids, which…

  12. Regional Consumer Magazines and the Ideal White Reader: Constructing and Retaining Geography as Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Katherine

    1994-01-01

    Examines representations of nature and culture in the consumer magazines "Midwest Living,""Southern Living," and "Sunset." Finds distinct patterns in each that construct the Midwest, South, and West as cultural/geographic texts. Finds that the magazines' emphasis on advertising and tourism both obscures and commodifies racial repression while…

  13. Regional Consumer Magazines and the Ideal White Reader: Constructing and Retaining Geography as Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Katherine

    1994-01-01

    Examines representations of nature and culture in the consumer magazines "Midwest Living,""Southern Living," and "Sunset." Finds distinct patterns in each that construct the Midwest, South, and West as cultural/geographic texts. Finds that the magazines' emphasis on advertising and tourism both obscures and…

  14. Readers, Texts, and the Fusion of Horizons: Theology and Gadamer’s Hermeneutics

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    Matthew W. Knotts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The practise of hermeneutics originates in a theological context, and indeed, the work of Hans-Georg Gadamer has exerted an influence over theologians and religious persons for the last half century. What if any relevance does a text, for instance, a biblical one, have for us today? Is it severed from us due to its historical and temporal distance? Even if it has some message which can be relevant today, how is one to access and interpret it? Gadamer deals with such issues in his masterwork Truth and Method, offering resources through his understanding of the nature of texts and what he calls the fusion of horizons. For Gadamer, an horizon constitutes one’s worldview. Yet this horizon is subject to expansion and revision, as well as contact with other horizons. In this process of fusing horizons, understanding occurs between minds, and one grows in one’s awareness and pursuit of truth. Gadamer maintains that this can happen across both hermeneutical and historical boundaries, hence preserving the applicability of a text to a different context without compromising its unique historical origins. Čtenář, text a splývání jejich horizontů: Teologie a Gadamerova hermeneutika Zájem o hermeneutiku se zrodil v teologickém prostředí. Jednou z nejvlivnějších postav a vzorů hermeneutiky od poloviny minulého století až dodnes se stal Hans-Georg Gadamer. Jaký má pro nás, lidi 21. století, smysl biblický text? Nebo se zeptejme takto: má pro nás vůbec nějaký smysl? Je od nás časově i dějinně vzdálen. I kdyby pro nás nějaké poselství přece jen měl, otázkou zůstává, jak jej interpretovat? Těmito a podobnými otázkami se zabývá Gadamer ve svém životním díle Pravda a Metoda. Ukazuje, jak s takovými texty pracovat. Jako klíče využívá způsob porozumění charakteru textů a to, čemu říká splývání horizontů. Horizontem se podle Gadamera rozumí náš světonázor. Každý horizont se rozp

  15. Modeling Reader- and Text- Interactions During Narrative Comprehension: A Test of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen T; Freed, Erin M; Long, Debra L

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine predictions derived from the Lexical Quality Hypothesis (Perfetti & Hart, 2002; Perfetti, 2007) regarding relations among word-decoding, working-memory capacity, and the ability to integrate new concepts into a developing discourse representation. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to quantify the effects of two text properties (length and number of new concepts) on reading times of focal and spillover sentences, with variance in those effects estimated as a function of individual difference factors (decoding, vocabulary, print exposure, and working-memory capacity). The analysis revealed complex, cross-level interactions that complement the Lexical Quality Hypothesis.

  16. Readers as overhearers and texts as objects: joint attention in reading communities DOI - 10.5752/P.2358-3428.2014v18n34p179

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    Vera Tobin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Models of language that emphasize the interactive dimension of meaning construction tend to talk about published texts such as the novel as an arena of language use in which writers and readers occupy the positions of speaker and addressee. This paper argues that readers of published texts function in many ways more like overhearers than addressees. It uses tools from Conversation Analysis and Mental Spaces Theory to examine several case study interactions, drawn from the Michigan Corpus of Spoken Academic English and videotaped data from gesture research, as well as illustrative examples from literary history. The overhearer model that emerges suggests that the interactions between different readers of the same text are a more important locus of collaboration in literary discourse than is typically assumed, and shows that joint activities between readers also often exclude authors in interesting and important ways.Keywords: Interaction. Literature. Overhearers. Addressees. Joint attention. Mental spaces

  17. Applying the Reader-Response Theory to Literary Texts in EFL-Pre-Service Teachers' Initial Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón, Eliana; Castañeda-Peña, Harold

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the pedagogical implementation of the reader-response theory in a class of English as a foreign language with language pre-service teachers as they experience the reading of two short stories. The research took place over a 16 week period in which students kept a portfolio of their written responses to the stories.…

  18. Reader and reading: considerations about text types and meaning construction / Leitor e leituras: considerações sobre gêneros textuais e construção de sentidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patrícia Ataíde Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasizes reading as an activity of meaning construction which implies the dynamic relationship between reader and text. First we present the idea that reading varies accord to the reader and his aims. The reader can concept it as a cognitive- affective activity and a social practice. Later we discuss the text concepts, context and textual types, with the focus in the idea the meaning is constituted in the dialectic relationship among author/text/reader/context. This relationship is which offers many meaning and at the same time, gives limits to the possibilities of the variations and also determines the game of the implicit and the explicit.

  19. A Comparison and Investigation of Frequency and Method of Interaction between the Writer and the Reader in Persian & English Teaching Texts

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    S. Esmaalizade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of a writer, when he/she writes a text, is to draw the reader’s attention to the text, and to make them converge with it. Therefore, a reading text includes an interaction between the writer and the reader. This interaction in instructional texts leads to a better learning by the language learners.There are some markers in the reading texts that create an interaction between the writer and the reader,and lead to a better comprehensionbythe reader of the text he/she is reading and a more detailed understanding.The use of these interactional markers in texts is an undeniable necessity. This study investigates the frequency of using these markers in Persian and English written texts by native speakers of Persian and non-Persians within the Hyland’sInteractional Model (Hyland, 2005, and analyzes the method of interaction between the writer and the reader in 3 categories of scientific articles (Persian articles by native speakers of Persian,Persian articles by nonnative speakers of Persian, English articles by non-Persians.This study is both quantitative and qualitative. The analysis of the data shows that the highest use of interactional markers in the whole corpus is in “personal asides” and the lowest use is in “interrogative sentences”.Furthermore, having in mind that these markers are divided into “stance” and “engagement” markers, in the stance marker category in Persian articles by native speakers of Persian and English articles by non-Persians, the highest use of these markers includes the “hedges” and the lowest useincludes “attitude markers,” and in Persian articles by non-native speakers of Persian, the highest frequency of use is that of “boosters” andthe lowest, like the other two categories, is that of “attitude markers”. Also, in the engagement category, in Persian articles by native speakers of Persian and Persian articles by non-native speakers of Persian, the highest frequency of

  20. Exploring eye movements of experienced and novice readers of medical texts concerning the cardiovascular system in making a diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilppu, Henna; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Södervik, Ilona; Österholm-Matikainen, Erika

    2017-01-01

    This study used the eye-tracking method to explore how the level of expertise influences reading, and solving, two written patient cases on cardiac failure and pulmonary embolus. Eye-tracking is a fairly commonly used method in medical education research, but it has been primarily applied to studies analyzing the processing of visualizations, such as medical images or patient video cases. Third-year medical students (n = 39) and residents (n = 13) read two patient case texts in an eye-tracking laboratory. The analysis focused on the diagnosis made, the total visit duration per text slide, and eye-movement indicators regarding task-relevant and task-redundant areas of the patient case text. The results showed that almost all participants (48/52) made the correct diagnosis of the first patient case, whereas all the residents, but only 17 students, correctly diagnosed the second case. The residents were efficient patient-case-solvers: they reached the correct diagnoses, and processed the cases faster and with a lower number of fixations than did the students. Further, the students and residents demonstrated different reading patterns with regard to which slides they proportionally paid most attention. The observed differences could be utilized in medical education to model expert reasoning and to teach the manner in which a good medical text is constructed. Eye-tracking methodology appears to have a great deal of potential in evaluating performance and growing diagnostic expertise in reading medical texts. However, further research using medical texts as stimuli is required. Anat Sci Educ 10: 23-33. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Indeterminate Texts, Responsive Readers, and the Idea of Difficulty in Literature Learning. Report Series 4.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    Assessors of literature learning have long been concerned with the issue of difficulty and the fundamental contradictions in the term "examination of literary understanding." An alternate view of literature is that although texts are finally indeterminate, a group of them has been set aside by communities as forming a part of the communal…

  2. Similarities and Differences in the Processing of Written Text by Skilled and Less Skilled Readers with Prelingual Deafness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on similarities and differences in the processing of written text by individuals with prelingual deafness from different reading levels that used Hebrew as their first spoken language and Israeli Sign Language as their primary manual communication mode. Data were gathered from three sources, including (a) a sentence…

  3. Readers respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra N. Wig

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Please allow me to congratulate you on bringing out Mens Sana 8th and 9th Monographs on Medical Practice, Psychiatry and the Pharmaceutical Industry. You and Shakuntala have obviously put in an enormous effort to study dozens of documents, articles and books to bring out such a comprehensive review of this topic with focus on important areas for debate in India. You deserve congratulations of all the readers of these Monographs.

  4. Three Properties of the Ideal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Paul

    The main experience of an ideal reader while reading a text is an "envisionment" of that text, a representation in the reader's mind of the content of the text. According to this view the envisionment grows and sometimes changes as the reader progresses through the text, and the ideal reader not only updates and supplements the…

  5. Leitor e leituras: considerações sobre gêneros textuais e construção de sentidos Reader and reading: considerations about text types and meaning construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Patrícia Ataíde Ferreira

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo aborda a leitura como uma atividade de construção de sentidos que implica a relação dinâmica entre leitor e texto. Primeiramente, apresenta-se a idéia de que a leitura varia de acordo com o leitor e seus objetivos, concebendo-a como uma atividade afetivo-cognitiva e como prática social. Posteriormente, discutem-se os conceitos de texto, contexto e gênero textual, enfatizando-se a idéia de que o sentido se constitui na relação dialética entre autor/texto/leitor/contexto, sendo esta relação a que favorece uma multiplicidade de sentidos e que, ao mesmo tempo, delimita as possibilidades desta variação, determinando o jogo do implícito e do explícito.The present paper emphasizes reading as an activity of meaning construction which implies the dynamic relationship between reader and text. First we present the idea that reading varies accord to the reader and his aims. The reader can concept it as a cognitive- affective activity and a social practice. Later we discuss the text concepts, context and textual types, with the focus in the idea the meaning is constituted in the dialectic relationship among author/text/reader/context. This relationship is which offers many meaning and at the same time, gives limits to the possibilities of the variations and also determines the game of the implicit and the explicit.

  6. Understanding Readers' Differing Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the characteristics of reader understandings that vary from those stated in the text. Eighty-seven fourth graders orally read complex academic literary and scientific texts, followed by probed retellings. Retold ideas not directly supported by, or reflective of, the texts were identified. These differing understandings…

  7. jmzReader: A Java parser library to process and visualize multiple text and XML-based mass spectrometry data formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griss, Johannes; Reisinger, Florian; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio

    2012-03-01

    We here present the jmzReader library: a collection of Java application programming interfaces (APIs) to parse the most commonly used peak list and XML-based mass spectrometry (MS) data formats: DTA, MS2, MGF, PKL, mzXML, mzData, and mzML (based on the already existing API jmzML). The library is optimized to be used in conjunction with mzIdentML, the recently released standard data format for reporting protein and peptide identifications, developed by the HUPO proteomics standards initiative (PSI). mzIdentML files do not contain spectra data but contain references to different kinds of external MS data files. As a key functionality, all parsers implement a common interface that supports the various methods used by mzIdentML to reference external spectra. Thus, when developing software for mzIdentML, programmers no longer have to support multiple MS data file formats but only this one interface. The library (which includes a viewer) is open source and, together with detailed documentation, can be downloaded from http://code.google.com/p/jmzreader/. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Readers Respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.N. Wig

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This is in response to the MSM theme monograph Academia-Industry Symposium 2007: Medical Practice and the Pharmaceutical Industry: And Ever the Duo shall Meet.I recall that it was just five years ago when you first wrote to me, informing me about the start of Mens Sana Monographs . I was excited because it was something new, something different that was happening in the field of mental health and philosophy in India.You have come a long way since then. In fact, it is amazing how rapidly MSM has progressed, as testified to by the present theme monograph. Your readers and contributors are no longer confined to India; you are now international in reach and outlook. Please allow me to wholeheartedly congratulate you. It is a remarkable achievement by any standard.The present volume is excellent in its design and contents. The two editorials by Jerome Kassirer and Joel Lexchin are outstanding and deeply thought provoking. The article by Martin Van Der Weyden is equally rewarding and has very useful information. The main monograph has been superbly, very competently, and comprehensively written by both of you.In the series "What Medicine Means To Me," I especially liked the piece by Helen Herrman. Her message of public health psychiatry is particularly relevant for developing countries.The book review of David Healy's book by Leemon McHenry is very refreshing and challenging. I congratulate you on your decision to publish it when other journals were still hesitating.And lastly, the obituary reference to my dear friend Dr. Ravi Kapur by Ajit Bhide and you were so touching; I cried all over again.So keep up your good work, dear friends. May God bless you and may you both achieve many more successes in your careers.

  9. Mid-frequency readers

    OpenAIRE

    Nation, Ian Stephen Paul; Anthony, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new free extensive reading resource for learning the mid-frequency words of English and for reading well known texts with minor vocabulary adaptation. A gap exists between the end of graded readers at around 3,000 word families and the vocabulary size needed to read unsimplified texts at around 8,000 word families. Mid-frequency readers are designed to fill this gap. They consist of texts from Project Gutenberg adapted for learners with a vocabulary size of 4,000 word...

  10. Promoting the Understanding of Photosynthesis Among Elementary School Student Teachers Through Text Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Södervik, Ilona; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija; Vilppu, Henna

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate elementary school pre-service teachers' understanding of photosynthesis and to examine if a refutational text can support understanding of photosynthesis better than a non-refutational text. A total of 91 elementary school pre-service teachers read either a refutational or a non-refutational text concerning photosynthesis and then answered open-ended questions. Our results indicate that there are critical problems associated with student teachers learning about the process of photosynthesis, even after it has been systematically taught in teacher education. However, the results positively indicate that refutational science texts seem to foster effective conceptual change among student teachers. The results interestingly showed that students who read a refutational text improved their systemic and factual understanding of photosynthesis more than did those who read a non-refutational text. Especially students who had naïve prior understanding regarding photosynthesis benefitted more from a refutational text. Thus, a refutational text may act as an effective facilitator of conceptual change. These results have implications for teacher education, where conceptual mastery of the most important science phenomena, such as photosynthesis, should be achieved. A refutational text is an easy and effective way to support conceptual change in higher education. Thus, this study highlights the importance of domain-specific science education in teacher programmes.

  11. First Steps toward Critical Literacy: Interactions with an English Narrative Text among Three English as a Foreign Language Readers in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Ju

    2017-01-01

    Three Korean children, whose English reading test scores were comparably lower than their peers' and who showed a tendency to withdraw from class activities or resist texts, participated in a reading tutoring programme in South Korea. By reflecting on the three students' interactions with an English text, the current paper argues that resistant…

  12. COCHABAMBA READER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LASTRA, YOLANDA

    INTENDED AS FOLLOWUP MATERIAL AFTER THE COMPLETION OF THE TWO-VOLUME SPOKEN COCHABAMBA COURSE, THIS READER CONSISTS OF A SINGLE LONG STORY, "JUANITO," WRITTEN BY OSCAR TERAN. IT HAS BEEN USED AS A RADIO SCRIPT FOR A SERIES OF BROADCASTS FROM A COCHABAMBA STATION WHICH SERVES THE SURROUNDING INDIGENOUS POPULATION. THE MATERIAL IS…

  13. Reader's Guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Dear readers: This is the last issue for year 2002. Thanks to your consistent assistance and concerns, our magazine has accordingly made much an effort to objectively and genuinely introduce and reflect new achievements and climate by port sector across the country in terms of reform, construction, operation and development.

  14. Comprehending Text versus Reading Words in Young Readers with Varying Reading Ability: Distinct Patterns of Functional Connectivity from Common Processing Hubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Katherine S.; Bailey, Stephen K.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2016-01-01

    Skilled reading depends on recognizing words efficiently in isolation ("word-level processing"; "WL") and extracting meaning from text ("discourse-level processing"; "DL"); deficiencies in either result in poor reading. FMRI has revealed consistent overlapping networks in word and passage reading, as well as…

  15. Comprehending text versus reading words in young readers with varying reading ability: distinct patterns of functional connectivity from common processing hubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboud, Katherine S; Bailey, Stephen K; Petrill, Stephen A; Cutting, Laurie E

    2016-07-01

    Skilled reading depends on recognizing words efficiently in isolation (word-level processing; WL) and extracting meaning from text (discourse-level processing; DL); deficiencies in either result in poor reading. FMRI has revealed consistent overlapping networks in word and passage reading, as well as unique regions for DL processing; however, less is known about how WL and DL processes interact. Here we examined functional connectivity from seed regions derived from where BOLD signal overlapped during word and passage reading in 38 adolescents ranging in reading ability, hypothesizing that even though certain regions support word- and higher-level language, connectivity patterns from overlapping regions would be task modulated. Results indeed revealed that the left-lateralized semantic and working memory (WM) seed regions showed task-dependent functional connectivity patterns: during DL processes, semantic and WM nodes all correlated with the left angular gyrus, a region implicated in semantic memory/coherence building. In contrast, during WL, these nodes coordinated with a traditional WL area (left occipitotemporal region). In addition, these WL and DL findings were modulated by decoding and comprehension abilities, respectively, with poorer abilities correlating with decreased connectivity. Findings indicate that key regions may uniquely contribute to multiple levels of reading; we speculate that these connectivity patterns may be especially salient for reading outcomes and intervention response.

  16. Text Illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchastel, Philippe C.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses three roles of textbook illustrations--to arrest the reader's attention and arouse interest, to provide explanation and clarification of complex verbal descriptions, and to aid retention of the information presented in the text. It is recommended that illustrations be designed with their specific role(s) in mind. (EAO)

  17. Examining Readers' Evaluations of Objectivity and Bias in News Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Peter; Eisenhart, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Readers' objectivity and bias evaluations of news texts were investigated in order to better understand the process by which readers make these kinds of judgments and the evidence on which they base them. Readers were primed to evaluate news texts for objectivity and bias, and their selections and metacommentary were analyzed. Readers detected…

  18. The Bakhtin Reader The Bakhtin Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Reid Thomas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The publication of Caryl Emerson’s book The First Hundred Years of Mikhail Bakhtin in December 1997 is an indication that interest in Bakhtin continues to flourish, among both Russian and Western scholars. Emerson’s book traces the interesting differences of attitude and emphasis between these two groups of critics and provides a broad-ranging and scholarly history of Bakhtin studies. The book I am concerned with here, The Bakhtin Reader, though of a different nature and designed for a different audience, is perhaps an even more significant testament to Bakhtin’s extraordinary and continuing influence. The publication of Caryl Emerson’s book The First Hundred Years of Mikhail Bakhtin in December 1997 is an indication that interest in Bakhtin continues to flourish, among both Russian and Western scholars. Emerson’s book traces the interesting differences of attitude and emphasis between these two groups of critics and provides a broad-ranging and scholarly history of Bakhtin studies. The book I am concerned with here, The Bakhtin Reader, though of a different nature and designed for a different audience, is perhaps an even more significant testament to Bakhtin’s extraordinary and continuing influence.

  19. Contrast Study of structuralism and reader- response criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建晓; 郑灵珍

    2012-01-01

    In literary criticism, both structuralism and reader-response criticism enjoy their positions. They share similarities in some ways, but obviously they are two different ways of literary criticism, with structuralism focusing on text and reader-response criti- cism focusing on readers. This essay attempts to contrast structuralism with reader-response criticism in their assumption on text's meaning and the reader's role in the process of reading a text.

  20. Reader Response in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Glenna

    2002-01-01

    Presents an overview of critical theory to show how the method of Reader Response evolved. Discusses theories of reading and the reader; variations within reader response; and implementing reader response in literacy programs. Includes a brief response by Robert E. Probst. (RS)

  1. A Sign Language Screen Reader for Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoul, Oussama; Jemni, Mohamed

    Screen reader technology has appeared first to allow blind and people with reading difficulties to use computer and to access to the digital information. Until now, this technology is exploited mainly to help blind community. During our work with deaf people, we noticed that a screen reader can facilitate the manipulation of computers and the reading of textual information. In this paper, we propose a novel screen reader dedicated to deaf. The output of the reader is a visual translation of the text to sign language. The screen reader is composed by two essential modules: the first one is designed to capture the activities of users (mouse and keyboard events). For this purpose, we adopted Microsoft MSAA application programming interfaces. The second module, which is in classical screen readers a text to speech engine (TTS), is replaced by a novel text to sign (TTSign) engine. This module converts text into sign language animation based on avatar technology.

  2. Intermediate Amharic Cultural Reader. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslau, Wolf

    This reader is intended to provide material for the intermediate-level student of Amharic, as well as to introduce the student to the cultural and social life of Ethiopia. The 39 texts were each prepared by a different student at Haile Selassie I University, thus providing the reader with a variety of language styles. The Amharic texts are…

  3. Readers Respond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhukar S. Bandisode

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Questions that this paper raisesResponse to- Where is Medical Practice in India Heading? - Sunil Pandya http://www.msmonographs.org/article.asp?issn=0973-1229;year=2006;volume= 4;issue=1;spage=50;epage=61;aulast=Pandya Q 1: Do you agree with the author and share his pessimism? If you do not, give examples of success stories in recent Indian medical education and practice benefiting poor patients.Ans: I agree with the author totally. I was fortunate to have studied under many teachers under whom he too had studied in the medical college. As Dr. Pandya described in his article, many of our teachers were compassionate, sincere, highly professional and considerate individuals. I totally agree with Dr. Pandya's views.The unprofessional and unethical acts of the present day teachers and medical practitioners sadden us. I hear of the examples indicating the prevalence of greed, corruption, plagiarism and favoritism every time I visit India. It is sad that the noble profession of medicine is maligned by unscrupulous and uncouth individuals.Q 2: The author does not consider the steps to be taken by the authorities. Can the Government, municipal corporations, associations of doctors, medical councils improve matters? If so, what steps do you suggest?Ans: The first choice must be, 'Physician, heal thyself.' Dr. Pandya has aptly emphasized that the 'unprofessional acts of teachers are likely to be followed by students.' (I would say they are being followed by many of their students. The healing process should begin with:1. Mandatory courses in medical ethics for medical students and house staff in medical colleges2. Nationwide mandatory conferences in medical ethics for the education of practicing physicians from all branches of Medicine, including teachers in medical colleges. One physician from Mumbai approached me during one of my visits and offered to pay the US Government officials to get a visa and a Residency position in a US hospital. He could not

  4. Readers Theatre: A different approach to English for struggling readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Drew

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of the use of Readers Theatre in English lessons with groups of academically-challenged pupils in a Norwegian lower secondary school. The study is based on the teacher’s logs, interviews with the teacher, a questionnaire answered by the pupils, and lesson observations. Readers Theatre, a group reading activity that can be used with a wide range of texts, was successfully incorporated into the curriculum with relatively small ‘fordypning’ (specialisation groups in English. These pupils had opted for more English lessons instead of learning a second foreign language. Most of them struggled with English as their first foreign language and were struggling readers. However, the majority of the pupils experienced Readers Theatre as both enjoyable and educational. The experience had a positive effect on their confidence and motivation to read. It also helped to improve their reading fluency and accuracy, for example pronunciation, and facilitated growth in vocabulary. The experience of practising and performing as a group was especially satisfying and motivating for the pupils involved. The majority were keen to participate in other Readers Theatre projects.

  5. Estudio de caso sobre la formación de lectores críticos mediante textos literarios en la Educación Primaria.Case study on the training of critical readers using literary texts in Elementary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Álvarez-Álvarez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper poses the importance of developing innovative didactic strategies in schools that contribute to improve reading competence and reading habit from an early age. In this context, a case study in a school book club has been done in order to develop a taste for reading and the critical spirit of the students. A research- action methodology, which allowed categorising forms of critical thinking in children, has been applied stemming from the key ideas put forward by the children belonging to the book club. The case study reveals the possibilities and limits of reflexive dialogue as a work method to ensure the formation of critical readers. The research concludes by highlighting the relevance of educational establishments to develop innovative practices in the field of reading promotion: educational policies so require and the reality proves that it is possible to achieve it.Se plantea la importancia de desarrollar en los centros escolares estrategias didácticas innovadoras que contribuyan a la mejora de la competencia lectora y el hábito lector desde los primeros años. En este marco, se realiza un estudio de caso de un club de lectura escolar orientado a desarrollar el gusto por la lectura y el espíritu crítico del alumnado. Se aplicó una metodología de investigación-acción que permitió categorizar formas de pensamiento crítico en la infancia a partir de las ideas clave expuestas por los niños y niñas pertenecientes al club de lectura. El estudio de caso revela las posibilidades y límites del diálogo reflexivo como método de trabajo para garantizar la formación de lectores críticos. La investigación concluye destacando la relevancia de que los centros educativos desarrollen prácticas innovadoras en materia de animación a la lectura: las políticas educativas lo exigen y la realidad demuestra que es posible conseguirlo.

  6. Turning Polite Guests into Executive Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Dale D.

    1983-01-01

    Expands the usual notion of critical reading from just the judgments readers make about the text to include judgments they make about their "reading" of the text. Describes activities to develop "executive" metacomprehension skills. (HTH)

  7. Enduring and Diagnosing Reader's Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Lisa Stapleton

    1990-01-01

    Describes a condition called "reader's block" whereby the mind fails to comprehend the meaning of the text because of digressing thoughts. Suggests that "freereading," like freewriting, can help to clarify thoughts. Argues that it is not necessary to read things correctly the first time through. (PRA)

  8. The active reader: what is active?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woerkum, van C.

    2012-01-01

    How writers can adapt to their readers is an important issue in effective communication strategies, and certainly crucial in the case of functional texts. Therefore, it is necessary to look at how readers are constructed as partners in a communication co-production. This article explores the concept

  9. Fiction Reading Strategies of College Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Research has shown that skilled college readers use a variety of strategies in flexible ways in order to comprehend academic texts. However, little is known about how skilled college readers use strategies when reading fiction, in spite of the fact that literature courses are required at many universities and thousands of students regularly major…

  10. Using Nooks to Hook Reluctant Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierking, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a two-year qualitative study of electronic reading device use with high school sophomores, most of whom self-identified as reluctant or struggling readers. Electronic readers were used primarily in one weekly fifty-minute class period, during silent sustained reading, wherein students chose freely their texts.…

  11. Developing Readers: Lessons from Agatha Christie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    Reminds readers that looking at individual authors rather than dealing in generalizations is a very meaningful approach to increasing an understanding of how reading works by making sense of the text. Discusses how Agatha Christie's writing follows very predictable patterns and may provide useful experiences for novice readers. (MG)

  12. Postmodern theories about readers in electronic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Kuić

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introductory part of the paper discusses theories about readers in the last decades of the 20th century. In particular, two big theoretical schools are discussed: aesthetic reception theory and reader-response-criticism movement. Readers are a subject of very different scientific disciplines: literature theory, sociology, anthropology, book history and library science. The idea that a reader is an essential subject for future life of a literary work is common to all theorists. By constructing the theory about a reader, theorists have thought about the reader who uses the conventions of printed text. The issue whether these concepts correspond to electronic surroundings is discussed. Characteristics of the hypertext are emphasized as a new paradigm, and also the issue weather readers enjoys in hypertextual fiction. In conclusion, paper expands the virtual dimension of Isers's theory about interaction between the text and the reader, and also Fish's concept of “interpretative community” which may be constituted on the Internet as a flexible virtual community.

  13. E-book Reader Devices and Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pažur, I.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Most library studies thematically related to electronic books don't consider readers of electronic books. Only in recent years librarians conduct studies in which they want to find out readers' opinions about the possibilities, advantages and disadvantages of reading using e-readers, as well as their possible application in the libraries.User studies of e-readers have shown that their opinion is generally positive, but great attachment to traditional books is still present, e-readers are still seen only as an additional tool for reading. Sony with its e-reader (the latest Reader model Daily and Reader Store online bookstore (http://ebookstore.sony.com/is the only one who cooperate with libraries and has made lending electronic books possible. Cooperation was launched in 2009th,and the New York Public Library was the first library that offered such a service.Cooperation between Sony and libraries, indicates clearly what the near future could be if other online booksellers / publishers begin to follow the model of lending e-books through the libraries over the network. However it is possible that a large online bookstores / publishers consider that the further price reduction of e-readers and electronic books will constantly increase their sales, and in that case lending e-books will be unnecessary.Are the libraries ready for this scenario?

  14. "Readers Forum" in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    On 23 April in Shanghai, a "Readers Forum" was held by Women of China to promote contact and exchangewith our readers and improve our work. It was a great honor that some of our foreign women readers, who areliving in Shanghai with their families on business at present, joined us, and nine of them made speeches at theforum. Moreover, two readers who couldn’t attend the forum in person, accepted a telephone interview. Shown hereare their kind comments and suggestions for our magazine.

  15. Teachers as Readers: Building Communities of Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremin, Teresa; Mottram, Marilyn; Collins, Fiona; Powell, Sacha; Safford, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Given the narrow scope of primary teachers' knowledge and use of children's literature identified in Phase I of "Teachers as Readers" (2006-2007), the core goal of the Phase II project was to improve teachers' knowledge and experience of such literature in order to help them increase children's motivation and enthusiasm for reading,…

  16. Cognitive Processes in Discourse Comprehension: Passive Processes, Reader-Initiated Processes, and Evolving Mental Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Paul; Helder, Anne

    2017-01-01

    As readers move through a text, they engage in various types of processes that, if all goes well, result in a mental representation that captures their interpretation of the text. With each new text segment the reader engages in passive and, at times, reader-initiated processes. These processes are strongly influenced by the readers'…

  17. Our Readers and Friends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In Shanghai,a rapidly-developing modern metropolisthere are a lot of foreign women who have moved with theirfamilies to live and work there.During their leisure time theytake sightseeing trips and study Chinese culture,so theybecome readers and friends of our magazine.Recently,at ourReaders Forum in Shanghai,women from the UK,Belgium,the

  18. Romancing the YA Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Mosley, Shelley; Bouricius, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the romance genre and provides guidelines for librarians with high school aged readers. Highlights include where to find information about the romance genre; the appeal of romance fiction; levels of sex and sensuality; reference tools; subgenres; and authors and titles that may be popular with young adult romance readers. (LRW)

  19. Dialect Readers Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickford, John R.; Rickford, Angela A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the results of three experiments using dialect readers in African American Vernacular English (AAVE) to improve the reading comprehension of African American elementary and secondary school students. It is concluded that dialect readers represent a viable alternative for teaching AAVE speakers to read. (61 references) (MDM)

  20. Romancing the YA Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, John; Mosley, Shelley; Bouricius, Ann

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the romance genre and provides guidelines for librarians with high school aged readers. Highlights include where to find information about the romance genre; the appeal of romance fiction; levels of sex and sensuality; reference tools; subgenres; and authors and titles that may be popular with young adult romance readers. (LRW)

  1. "It's All Coming Together": An Encounter between Implied Reader and Actual Reader in the Australian Rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sandra J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I discuss how taking a particular literary theory--the implied reader--serves to offer a focus for the teacher's initial reading of a text and provides a formative assessment tool. Iser's Implied Reader theory is discussed, after which a picture book, "Where the Forest Meets the Sea" by Jeannie Baker, is analysed from this…

  2. To Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor in Ch

    2006-01-01

    @@ Contemporary International Relations, the English journal published by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, is now 15 years old. Since its conception as the first Chinese journal in English covering the field of international relations, it has presented to our readers numerous articles written by the research fellows of our institutes on the subjects of international affairs, international relations, and international relations theories. We have received numerous letters of encouragement and positive comments. We have also gotten letters in which our readers have given their opinions on what they would like to see in this journal. Some readers pointed out to us the mistakes in the translation. Other readers noted the occasional delay in delivery or even missing issues. We are grateful to those who have always supported us. We also feel the need to improve for those who have not been totally satisfied with our journal.

  3. To our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Contemporary International Relations, the English journal published by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, is now 15 years old. Since its conception as the first Chinese journal in English covering the field of international relations, it has presented to our readers numerous articles written by the research fellows of our institutes on the subjects of international affairs, international relations, and international relations theories. We have received numerous letters of encouragement and positive comments. We have also gotten letters in which our readers have given their opinions on what they would like to see in this journal. Some readers pointed out to us the mistakes in the translation. Other readers noted the occasional delay in delivery or even missing issues. We are grateful to those who have always supported us. We also feel the need to improve for those who have not been totally satisfied with our journal.

  4. To Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Contemporary International Relations, the English journal published by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, is now 15 years old. Since its conception as the first Chinese journal in English covering the field of international relations, it has presented to our readers numerous articles written by the research fellows of our institutes on the subjects of international affairs, international relations, and international relations theories. We have received numerous letters of encouragement and positive comments. We have also gotten letters in which our readers have given their opinions on what they would like to see in this journal. Some readers pointed out to us the mistakes in the translation. Other readers noted the occasional delay in delivery or even missing issues. We are grateful to those who have alwayssupported us. We also feel the need to improve for those who have not been totally satisfied with our journal.

  5. Letters from Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    Since the first publication of Cultural Exchang-China& World in October 1992,we have received a unmber of verykind letters from Chinese and foreign readers giving support andencouagement to this magazine.We would like to take thisopportunity to thank them all and to invite others to write in as well,especially if they have suggestions or criticisms to make.Thefollowing are letters from two of our overseas readers.

  6. PANJABI READER, LEVEL 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    THIS SECOND-LEVEL READER IN THE PANJABI LANGUAGE CAN BE USED IN A SECOND- OR THIRD-YEAR COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. THE GRAMMAR APPENDIX INCLUDED IS IDENTICAL TO THAT FOUND IN THE FIRST-LEVEL PANJABI READER (ED 010 485). THE MAIN PORTION OF THE BOOK CONSISTS OF 23 UNITS,…

  7. Reader Response Approaches and the Growth of Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiegel, Dixie Lee

    1998-01-01

    Outlines what reader response might look like in the classroom. Presents four basic assumptions of reader response theory. Discusses ways reader response approaches to literature help students grow both in the depth and breadth of their responses to literature, and as strategic readers. (SR)

  8. Towards Quranic reader controlled by speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine Yekache

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the process of designing a task-oriented continuous speech recognition system for Arabic, based on CMU Sphinx4, to be used in the voice interface of Quranic reader. The concept of the Quranic reader controlled by speech is presented, the collection of the corpus and creation of acoustic model are described in detail taking into account a specificities of Arabic language and the desired application.

  9. A Reader-Response Criticism towards "Trifles"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莎莉

    2007-01-01

    Susan Glaspell's Trifles is considered one of the most important feminist works in last century.This play is about a murder mystery that explores gender relationships,power between the sexes,and the nature of truth.In this article we are going to examine and explain the relationship between the text and the reader in the process of reading with the view of reader-response criticism.

  10. Designating Reader Perspective to Increase Comprehension and Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Crystal M.; Sperling, Rayne A.

    2010-01-01

    In three experiments we examined whether reader perspective on a long expository text could be manipulated such that increased text interest and enhancement of two comprehension outcomes would result. In Experiment 1 we verified the viability of a new text for experimental purposes. We then assigned readers a perspective before reading in…

  11. The Reader's Devices: The affordances of ebook readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather MacFadyen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Print books and ebook devices now co-exist in a reading eco-system. The ways in which readers understand and describe their experience of reading on ebook devices is shaped by long-established cultural expectations about the abstract as well as the physical affordances of the print book. Ebook devices cannot help but challenge those expectations. A review of readers’ reactions to the emergence of ebook devices offers a glimpse into the complex cultural position of both the idea and the experience of reading.

  12. Reception theory and the Christian reader: A preliminary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Comhrink

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant shift in emphasis from text- centred criticism in literature to reader-centred criticism. This new field of criticism, called Reception Theory or Reader Response Criticism, denies the immutable nature of the "text” and regards as its object of study the work of literature that is created through the co-constituent creative and interpre­tive acts o f both writer and reader.

  13. Capacitive label reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlowe, H. Duane

    1985-01-01

    A capacitive label reader includes an outer ring transmitting portion, an inner ring transmitting portion, and a plurality of insulated receiving portions. A label is the mirror-image of the reader except that identifying portions corresponding to the receiving portions are insulated from only one of two coupling elements. Positive and negative pulses applied, respectively, to the two transmitting rings biased a CMOS shift register positively to either a 1 or 0 condition. The output of the CMOS may be read as an indication of the label.

  14. Using Twitter to Teach Reader-Oriented Biblical Interpretation: "Tweading" the Gospel of Mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Twitter offers an engaging way to introduce students to reader-oriented interpretation of the Bible. The exercise described here introduces students to the idea that the reader has a role in the production of a text's meaning, which thus varies from reader to reader. Twitter enables us to capture the real-time thoughts of a variety of…

  15. PANJABI READER. LEVEL 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VATUK, VED P.

    A FIRST-LEVEL READER IS PRESENTED, PRIMARILY FOR THOSE STUDENTS WHO HAVE A SPEAKING KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI AND SOME KNOWLEDGE OF PANJABI GRAMMAR. THIS VOLUME CAN BE USED IN A GENERAL PANJABI LANGUAGE COURSE AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CONVERSATIONAL MATERIALS, OR BY ITSELF IN A COURSE ON THE WRITTEN LANGUAGE. A GLOSSARY AND A BRIEF GRAMMATICAL APPENDIX HAVE…

  16. Rockin' Readers Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachua County Schools, Gainesville, FL.

    Designed for use by volunteers in the program, this handbook describes the "Rockin' Readers" program, in which senior-citizen volunteers are matched with specifically targeted at-risk children in Alachua County, Florida, who tested below their peer group in language development and reading readiness skills. The handbook notes that each…

  17. Rockin' Readers Coordinator Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachua County Schools, Gainesville, FL.

    This coordinator's handbook describes the "Rockin' Readers" program, in which senior-citizen volunteers are matched with specifically targeted at-risk children (usually of kindergarten age or slightly older) in Alachua County, Florida, who tested below their peer group in language development and reading readiness skills. The handbook…

  18. Readers of histone modifications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miyong Yun; Jun Wu; Jerry L Workman; Bing Li

    2011-01-01

    Histone modifications not only play important roles in regulating chromatin structure and nuclear processes but also can be passed to daughter cells as epigenetic marks.Accumulating evidence suggests that the key function of histone modifications is to signal for recruitment or activity of downstream effectors. Here, we discuss the latest discovery of histone-modification readers and how the modification language is interpreted.

  19. Understanding readers' understanding theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Tierney, Robert J; Mitchell, Judy Nichols

    2013-01-01

    This collection features papers addressing current issues in reading comprehension from cognitive and linguistic perspectives. Organized into three sections, the volume investigates text considerations and reader-text interactions. Each paper presents a substantial and comprehensive review of theory and research related to cognition and reading comprehension.

  20. Miscue Analysis: A Transformative Tool for Researchers, Teachers, and Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Yetta M.

    2015-01-01

    When a reader produces a response to a written text (the observed response) that is not expected by the listener, the result is called a miscue. Using psychosociolingustic analyses of miscues in the context of an authentic text, miscue analysis provides evidence to discover how readers read. I present miscue analysis history and development and…

  1. Investigating the Relationship between Connectives and Readers' Reading Comprehension Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…

  2. Investigating the Relationship between Connectives and Readers' Reading Comprehension Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gençer, Yusuf; ÇetiInkaya, Gökhan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between connectives in Turkish texts and readers' reading comprehension. Research was conducted with a total of 50 teachers. In the study group, readers' reading comprehension was determined through 10 descriptive texts by using open-ended questions. The results of the analysis revealed…

  3. E-Book Readers in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur N. Olsen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a research project at the University of Agder that has studied the use of e-readers as a tool for academic study. E-readers (Kindle DX and iPad were loaded with texts from required reading lists in five courses with 94 participating students. Initially, 87 students responded to the invitation to participate in a survey, but eventually 13 of these submissions had to be removed, as the degree of completion was not sufficient. The final response rate achieved was 79%. Students were in general positive to the use of e-readers but still show a preference for print on paper as the best medium for serious academic study. When reading books, 54% preferred print, 28% a combination of print and e-reader, and finally only 11% were satisfied solely using an e-reader. The iPad scored significantly better than the Kindle DX on tasks that required active interaction with the texts such as highlighting and note taking.

  4. The assessment of writing ability: Expert readers versus lay readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Vergeer, M.; Eiting, M.

    1997-01-01

    This article reports on three studies about the reading reliability of lay and expert readers in rating three kinds of writing assignments. Readers had to rate the Con tent and Language Usage of students' writing performances. The studies show that expert readers are more reliable in rating Usage, w

  5. Readers' Readings: Applications of Reader-Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Linda

    In the interest of applying reader response theory to journalism this paper posits that readers of newspapers, like readers of literature, take an active role in making meaning from the articles they read, rather than passively accepting news as a finished, static product. Additionally, it proposes that journalism textbooks pay little attention to…

  6. Crash course in readers' advisory

    CERN Document Server

    Orr, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    One of the key services librarians provide is helping readers find books they'll enjoy. This ""crash course"" will furnish you with the basic, practical information you need to excel at readers' advisory (RA) for adults and teens.

  7. Reception theory and the Christian reader: A preliminary perspective

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. Comhrink

    1983-01-01

    In recent years there has been a significant shift in emphasis from text- centred criticism in literature to reader-centred criticism. This new field of criticism, called Reception Theory or Reader Response Criticism, denies the immutable nature of the "text” and regards as its object of study the work of literature that is created through the co-constituent creative and interpre­tive acts o f both writer and reader.

  8. To Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Editor in Chief

    2006-01-01

    @@ Contemporary International Relations, the English journal published by China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations, is now 15 years old. Since its conception as the first Chinese journal in English covering the field of international relations, it has presented to our readers numerous articles written by the research fellows of our institutes on the subjects of international affairs, international relations, and international relations theories. We have received numerous letters of encouragement and positive comments.

  9. MODERN JAPANESE, A BASIC READER. VOLUME II, JAPANESE TEXTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIBBETT, HOWARD; ITASAKA, GEN

    VOLUME II OF THIS INTRODUCTION TO WRITTEN JAPANESE CONTAINS 60 READING PASSAGES IN JAPANESE SCRIPT TO BE USED WITH THE VOCABULARY AND NOTES IN VOLUME I. THE READINGS ARE GRADED AND HAVE BEEN SELECTED TO REPRESENT GOOD MODERN JAPANESE USAGE. THE BEGINNING LESSONS ARE IN EASY INFORMAL STYLES AND ARE CONCERNED WITH THE JAPANESE LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.…

  10. Critical Literacy as Comprehension: Expanding Reader Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Maureen; De Voogd, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical underpinnings of critical literacy and related principles. It also provides ideas for creating environments to promote reading from a critical stance, teaching strategies, sample classroom applications, and annotated lists of theme-related texts. When engaging in critical literacy, readers move beyond…

  11. Reader-Response and the Pathos Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nan

    1988-01-01

    Reviews and equates theories of reader-response and rhetorical theories on audience response (the pathos principle). Concludes that the fundamental synonymity between them represents a significant bridge between analysis of literary texts and the dynamics of formal and social discourse and provides a theoretical foundation for teaching reading and…

  12. Author and reader in Instructions for use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steehouder, Michael F.

    1997-01-01

    Instructions for use should not be seen as merely instrumental-they should also persuade the reader to read the text and to act accordingly. Moreover, they should establish a positive image of the product and the manufacturer. In this paper, a collection of instructions for use is used to identify s

  13. Advanced Vietnamese: A Reader in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Nguyen Dang

    This fourth-year reader in Vietnamese presents a broad picture of Vietnamese culture through a selection of scholarly texts written by Vietnamese. The book seeks to introduce students to the culture of the Vietnamese and facilitate a transition from general reading matter to a more literary and technical style of writing. General chapter…

  14. Towards a Culturally Situated Reader Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Wanda; Browne, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a theory of how culture enables literary interpretations of texts. We begin with a brief overview of the reader response field. From there, we introduce the theory and provide illustrative participant data examples. These data examples illustrate the four cultural positions middle grade students in our research assumed when…

  15. Shakespeare and Reader's Theatre: Fellow Traveling Companions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Gerald Lee

    2010-01-01

    Whether constructed on literary analysis models or inspired by conventional acting theories, Reader's Theatre performance techniques are an invaluable instructional tool available to teachers who want their students to see, hear and feel Shakespeare texts in classroom discussion and performance. These exercises are designed to promote both a…

  16. Bytes, Books and Readers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Krista Stinne Greve

    2016-01-01

    Geschichte von Editionen und der Entwicklung der Digital Humanities besonderes Augenmerk geschenkt, um zu demonstrieren, wie bedeutsam die Analyse der Überlieferung und der Textbegriff für die Geschichte von Editionen sind. Beispiele aus Alastair McKinnons erster digitaler Edition von Soren Kierkegaards......In diesem Beitrag werden Ergebnisse aus der Dissertation der Autorin Bytes, Books, and Readers. A Historical Analysis of the Transition from Printed to Digital Scholarly Editions Focusing on ‘The Writings of Søren Kierkegaard’ (2015) vorgestellt. Dabei wird dem Wechselverhältnis zwischen der...

  17. Chipless RFID reader architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Karmakar, Nemai Chandra; Kalansuriya, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    In the era of information communication technology (ICT), radio frequency identification (RFID) has been going through tremendous development. RFID technology has the potential of replacing barcodes due to its large information carrying capacity, flexibility in operations, and applications. The deployment of RFID has been hindered by its cost. However, with the advent of low powered ICs, energy scavenging techniques, and low-cost chipless tags, RFID technology has achieved significant development. This book addresses the new reader architecture, presents fundamentals of chipless RFID systems,

  18. Too Dumb for Complex Texts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    High school students' lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts is a primary cause of their difficulties with college-level reading. Filling the syllabus with digital texts does little to address this deficiency. Complex texts demand three dispositions from readers: a willingness to probe works characterized by dense meanings, the…

  19. Can Bold Typeface Improve Readers' Comprehension and Metacomprehension of Negation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolin, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research on negation has demonstrated that while readers are aware that this text construction is difficult, they seem to be able to do little to improve their comprehension. The present research evaluated whether a change in typeface could improve comprehension and metacomprehension of negation. Results indicated that while readers were…

  20. Finding versus Fixing: Self-Monitoring for Readers Who Struggle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nancy L.; Kaye, Elizabeth L.

    2017-01-01

    This article explains how teachers can understand, notice, and supportively respond to readers who struggle with self-monitoring during text reading. The unique strategic processing demands for readers who struggle support the argument that teaching children to find and notice errors is different than fixing a word, or getting it right. Three…

  1. Infographics for Educational Purposes: Their Structure, Properties and Reader Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Infographics are one of the new educational environments used to provide information to their readers in a visual way. Infographics are designed to provide information to their readers using various visuals such as texts, pictures, drawings, diagrams, graphs, etc. The use of infographics becomes increasingly widespread both in advertising…

  2. Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Accelerated Reader/Reading Renaissance program (now called Accelerated Reader Best Classroom Practices) is a guided reading intervention in which teachers direct student reading of text. It involves two components. Reading Renaissance, the first component, is a set of recommended principles on guided reading (or teachers' direction of…

  3. The e-Reader — an Educational or an Entertainment Tool? e-Readers in an Academic Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ahlroos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors will discuss a pilot project conducted at the Tritonia Academic Library, Vaasa, in Finland, from September 2010 until May 2011. The project was designed to investigate the application of e-readers in academic settings and to learn how teachers and students experience the use of e-readers in academic education. Four groups of students and one group of teachers used Kindle readers for varied periods of time in different courses. The course material and the textbooks were downloaded on the e-readers. The feedback from the participants was collected through questionnaires and teacher interviews. The results suggest that the e-reader is a future tool for learning, though some features need to be improved before e-readers can really enable efficient learning and researching.

  4. Limits of Identification: The Personal, Pleasurable, and Critical in Reader Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the most common use of reader-response theory in the classroom is misguided in its emphasis on personal response and identification. Discusses the social and political nature of readers, texts, and contexts. Suggests that when a text is about characters whose life and culture are very different from the reader's, it can heighten the…

  5. Alternate Reading Strategies and Variable Asymmetry of the Planum Temporale in Adult Resilient Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Suzanne E.; Leonard, Christiana M.; Chiarello, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Resilient readers are characterized by impaired phonological processing despite skilled text comprehension. We investigated orthographic and semantic processing in resilient readers to examine mechanisms of compensation for poor phonological decoding. Performance on phonological (phoneme deletion, pseudoword reading), orthographic (orthographic…

  6. Hypertextual Ultrastructures: Movement and Containment in Texts and Hypertexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Rosemarie L.

    2009-01-01

    The surface-level experience of hypertextuality as formless and unbounded, blurring boundaries among texts and between readers and writers, is created by a deep structure which is not normally presented to readers and which, like the ultrastructure of living cells, defines and controls texts' nature and functions. Most readers, restricted to…

  7. Comparing Reading Processing Strategies of Second Language Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parilah M. Shah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The message that a writer tries to convey in a text would be subjected to several interpretations by readers. Apparently, reading is a complex process of getting input. A well-known researcher offers two views of reading: (i reading is a process of decoding written symbols and (ii reading is a process of reconstructing meaning. It has also been proposed that readers used reading processing strategies in the process of understanding text. Most language educators are not aware of the specific reading strategies that second language readers utilize. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to conduct a study that could explore the specific types of strategies used and to compare the strategies utilized by readers of differing abilities. Approach: A study is conducted to examine the second language readers use of reading strategies at the Malaysian secondary schools. They read a piece of reading material, and then respond to questionnaires concerning reading strategies such as supervising strategies, support strategies and paraphrase strategies. Results: The findings indicate that there are differences in reading strategies used by second language readers of differing abilities for some of the question items. The results suggest the need to address the incorporation of reading strategy instruction in the language curriculum in order to produce more efficient readers. Conclusion: This investigation is another useful contribution to the applied linguistics research since second language educators would gain better insight into the readers comprehension process.

  8. Text Skimming: The Process and Effectiveness of Foraging through Text under Time Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggan, Geoffrey B.; Payne, Stephen J.

    2009-01-01

    Is Skim reading effective? How do readers allocate their attention selectively? The authors report 3 experiments that use expository texts and allow readers only enough time to read half of each document. Experiment 1 found that, relative to reading half the text, skimming improved memory for important ideas from a text but did not improve memory…

  9. To Our Readers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Golden October is a harvest month in China,bringing hope andjoy to people,so it is an appropriate time for us to dedicate,withgood wishes and deep friendship,Cultural Exchange—China World to both Chinese and foreign readers.Today the rising tide of reform and opening to the outside world inChina impels Chinese to pursue novelty and development.Looking tothe future,the Chinese are creating a beautiful life for themselves withunprecedented enthusiasm and ambition.This magazine is born at a timewhen exchanges in various fields between the Chinese people and thepeoples of the world are increasing and relationships are becoming closerand closer.The magazine will work to promote Chinese and foreigncultural exchanges.

  10. Magnetic Symbology Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F. (Inventor); Shih, William C. L. (Inventor); Fitzpatrick, Gerald L. (Inventor); Knisely, Craig (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A magnetic symbology reader has a housing containing a polarized light source which directs light though a magneto-optic sensor onto a reflector which reflects light least one analyzer and into at least one camera. A view finder allows the user to monitor the image on the sensor as seen by a viewfinder camera while a processor is coupled to possibly a second camera so that when an image is detected, the image from the camera may be processed by the processor to output information associated with the symbol to an external source. The analyzer and polarized light source provide contrast in the images detected by the sensor. A bias/erase coil located about the magneto-optic sensor can enhance or erase images on the sensor.

  11. Readers Responding--And Then?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Gunnar

    1992-01-01

    Argues that recognition of the reader's role in the production of meanings in literary works has major consequences for the theory, research, and teaching of literature. Discusses the need to include the reader's role when writing the history of literature; develop new language for the description of the meanings of works; and develop new models…

  12. THE E-READER BOOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU SHUJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The fire Amazon.com Inc.'s Kindle has kindled in the United States has spread to China. But it's not a buying spree of Kindle products, which aren't being sold here, but a manufacturing frenzy of Kindle-like products——electronicbook readers (e-readers).

  13. Shifting Perspectives on Struggling Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primeaux, Joan

    2000-01-01

    Draws on social constructivist theory to present principles of reading instruction for struggling readers. Focuses on three social constructivist-based components that have been used successfully with struggling readers to enhance their reading instruction: a responsive literacy environment, explicit comprehension-strategy instruction, and time…

  14. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad interpretation of the subject…

  15. The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "The Routledge Applied Linguistics Reader" is an essential collection of readings for students of Applied Linguistics. Divided into five sections: Language Teaching and Learning, Second Language Acquisition, Applied Linguistics, Identity and Power and Language Use in Professional Contexts, the "Reader" takes a broad…

  16. Are e-readers suitable tools for scholarly work?

    CERN Document Server

    Schomisch, Siegfried; Mayr, Philipp

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to offer insights into the usability, acceptance and limitations of e-readers with regard to the specific requirements of scholarly text work. To fit into the academic workflow non-linear reading, bookmarking, commenting, extracting text or the integration of non-textual elements must be supported. A group of social science students were questioned about their experiences with electronic publications for study purposes. This same group executed several text-related tasks with the digitized material presented to them in two different file formats on four different e-readers. Their performances were subsequently evaluated by means of frequency analyses in detail. Findings - e-Publications have made advances in the academic world; however e-readers do not yet fit seamlessly into the established chain of scholarly text-processing focusing on how readers use material during and after reading. Our tests revealed major deficiencies in these techniques. With a small number of participants (n=26) quali...

  17. Reading Logs: An Application of Reader-Response Theory in ELT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the activity of student-written reading logs as a practical application of reader-response theory in English-as-Foreign-Language literature teaching. Because reader-response theory stresses the synthesis between reader and text, it is proposed that practical applications should be based on the interaction. (Author/VWL)

  18. The Processing of Cohesion in Fiction and Non-fiction by Good and Poor Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Margaret; Chapman, L. John

    1989-01-01

    Investigates how readers use textual cohesion during reading by using a selective deletion procedure. Finds that good readers are able to maintain the global unity of text better than poor readers and that both groups find it easier to perceive cohesion in fiction than in non-fiction. (RS)

  19. On the Outside Looking In: A Study of Remedial Readers' Meaning-Making while Reading Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell-Gates, Victoria

    1991-01-01

    Compares remedial readers to more proficient readers in their meaning-making processes during the reading of literary text. Reveals that the remedial readers spend a disproportionate amount of being out of "envisionments"--either attempting to step into one or failing to step in. (MG)

  20. Quality text editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyöngyi Bujdosó

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Text editing is more than the knowledge of word processing techniques. Originally typographers, printers, text editors were the ones qualified to edit texts, which were well structured, legible, easily understandable, clear, and were able to emphasize the coreof the text. Time has changed, and nowadays everyone has access to computers as well as to text editing software and most users believe that having these tools is enough to edit texts. However, text editing requires more skills. Texts appearing either in printed or inelectronic form reveal that most of the users do not realize that they are not qualified to edit and publish their works. Analyzing the ‘text-products’ of the last decade a tendency can clearly be drawn. More and more documents appear, which instead of emphasizingthe subject matter, are lost in the maze of unstructured text slices. Without further thoughts different font types, colors, sizes, strange arrangements of objects, etc. are applied. We present examples with the most common typographic and text editing errors. Our aim is to call the attention to these mistakes and persuadeusers to spend time to educate themselves in text editing. They have to realize that a well-structured text is able to strengthen the effect on the reader, thus the original message will reach the target group.

  1. Formalist criticism and reader-response theory

    OpenAIRE

    MOHAMMAD AL FUADI

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with the interaction of formalism as a trend in language and literature studies, on the one hand, and a teaching method, a technique of teaching to understand and investigate literary text proceeding from its structure and content, on the other hand. One of the main principles is dialogism (M. Bakhtin) that creates the coeducation between the writer and reader. Thus the process becomes bilateral, or even multilateral and it includes criticism on both parts a teacher and a st...

  2. The StorySpinner Sculptural Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, Clare; Weal, Mark

    2005-01-01

    This demo is of a hypertext reading system called StorySpinner. It follows the sculptural hypertext methodology and has been used as a test bed for experimenting with the authoring of narrative flow in automatically generated stories. Readers are able to select and read one of two available stories. Reading a story involves selecting tarot cards which are mapped to chunks of story text based on possible interpretations of the cards and information concerning current story state.

  3. Choosing the Right Basal Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Ruth H.

    1980-01-01

    Looks at factors in the textbook publishing industry, especially costs and censorship, which affect the quality of available reading series. Notes the problem of readability and content bias. Finally, presents a checklist of basal reader evaluation criteria. (SJL)

  4. Measuring with the spiral reader

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The spiral reader shown here was at the time, together with the Shivamatic scanning system, the basic equipment used for measuring bubble chamber pictures. Anne Anton sits at the table. (See Photo Archive 7408343.)

  5. Writing for the Invisible Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Nancy

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the role of the lesbian writer in addressing the invisibility of teenage readers. Argues that writing about homosexuality is a matter of presenting it rather than promoting it. Includes a review of "The Year they Burned the Books." (NH)

  6. Teenagers Poor Readers: Evaluation of Basic Cognitive Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa del Carmen Flores Macías

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the cognitive processes associated with reading difficulties of teenage poor readers. Several studies suggest that this population presents a poor comprehension, despite reading the words properly and have good phonological skills (which distinguishes them from a population with dyslexia. With a comparative cross-sectional design the Sicole-R multimedia battery, which assesses basic cognitive processes related to reading, was applied to participants. Results indicate that poor reader students exhibit a lower performance than normal readers in phonological awareness, orthographic processing and processing syntax, although only the latter comparison was statistically significant.

  7. E-Books on the Mobile E-Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulyun Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for e-books has been established during the past several years. Many e-book readers are commercially available, and millions of e-book titles are available for purchase or free download. E-paper technology has matured enough to be used as the screen for dedicated e-book readers which make reading possible with the familiar feel of reading printed books. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of the status of the e-book, including the architecture and features of e-book readers, market adoption and e-book industry ecosystem.

  8. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  9. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  10. RFID reader immunity test against electrostatic discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pospisilik Martin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a description of an immunity test against the electrostatic discharge according to the standard EN 61000-4-2 that was applied to an RFID reader. The RFID reader was primarily developed for access systems, employing the on-board recognition of the RFID tags. The results obtained by the test are described hereby as well as the discussion on the security of this solution. The results of this experiment are beneficial for the developers of RFID devices, as these devices are endangered by the electrostatic discharge brought by their users. The hereby described results also shown a security hole in a simple access system based on the RFID technology. Details can be found in the paper.

  11. Developing the Reader Self-Efficacy Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan ÜLPER

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Reading comprehension has affective and social dimensions as well as its cognitive dimension. Thus, to understand and improve reading instruction, affective and social dimensions should be well understood. Perceived self-efficacy is one of affective issues influencing learning and it should be taken into consideration in reading instruction. With this in mind, this study aims at developing the Reader Self-Efficacy Scale with a group of 518 students as participants. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed a 6-item scale with one factor. The Cronbach Alpha coefficient was determined to be 0.948. This new Reader Self-Efficacy Scale could easily be used for training and research purposes depending on its high validity and reliability.

  12. Metacognition and Reading: Comparing Three Forms of Metacognition in Normally Developing Readers and Readers with Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnes, Bjarte; Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-08-01

    Metacognition refers to 'cognition about cognition' and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) versus normally developing readers (N = 22). Participants read two factual texts, with learning outcome measured by a memory task. Metacognitive knowledge and skills were assessed by self-report. Metacognitive experiences were measured by predictions of performance and judgments of learning. Individuals with dyslexia showed insight into their reading problems, but less general knowledge of how to approach text reading. They more often reported lack of available reading strategies, but groups did not differ in the use of deep and surface strategies. Learning outcome and mean ratings of predictions of performance and judgments of learning were lower in dyslexic readers, but not the accuracy with which metacognitive experiences predicted learning. Overall, the results indicate that dyslexic reading and spelling problems are not generally associated with lower levels of metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive strategies or sensitivity to metacognitive experiences in reading situations.

  13. Examining College Students’ Reading Behaviors and Needs for Ebook Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jane Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates college students’ reading behaviors and attitudes toward print and electronic carriers of books. With the prosperity and variety of ebook readers currently, it is important to understand the genuine needs of the users to better leverage the features and functions of the ebook readers. The methodology of survey research is conducted to explore 76 undergraduate students’ experiences, preferences and appraisals toward reading via the print books and ebook readers. Generally the college students possess positive attitudes toward and are willing to take advantage of the ebook and ebook reader services provided by libraries, but the current rate of use is low. The results suggested that student adoption of ebook readers are affected by their goals of reading. The college students prefer ebook readers significantly for leisure reading, and highly demand the functionality of multimedia presentations and file management. When reading academic contexts, the college students preferred hardcovers and online ebooks via the Web browser, and they value the functions of searching, marking and file management on ebook readers especially. [Article content in Chinese

  14. Readers' Theatre as a History Teaching Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Sandra D.; Riney-Kehrberg, Pamela; Westbury, Susan

    1999-01-01

    Describes the production of a readers' theater version of the first women's rights convention held at Seneca Falls, New York (includes script). Discusses the benefits of readers' theater for studying women's history and encouraging female student class participation; strategies for using readers' theater; and students creating their own readers'…

  15. A VIETNAMESE READER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIEP, NGUYEN DUC; THOMPSON, LAURENCE C.

    THIS TEXT IS INTENDED FOR STUDENTS WHO HAVE ALREADY COVERED BASIC SPOKEN VIETNAMESE AND ARE THUS PREPARED TO STUDY MORE TECHNICAL MATERIAL SUCH AS NEWSPAPER ARTICLES. THE COURSE, GIVEN ENTIRELY IN VIETNAMESE ORTHOGRAPHY, IS DIVIDED INTO CHAPTERS, CONTAINING SEVERAL SELECTIONS OR NARRATIVE PASSAGES PRESENTED WITHIN AN OVER-ALL STORY FRAMEWORK BASED…

  16. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  17. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  18. Dear Reader, Please Write!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Rebecca McMahon

    2008-01-01

    In our modern world of cellular phone calls, text messaging, and electronic mail, letter writing has become a lost art. What better way to motivate today's youth to experience the pleasure of "snail mail" than by reading a tale told through a series of such correspondence? The winning combination of a good story line and entertaining…

  19. E-readers and visual fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Benedetto

    Full Text Available The mass digitization of books is changing the way information is created, disseminated and displayed. Electronic book readers (e-readers generally refer to two main display technologies: the electronic ink (E-ink and the liquid crystal display (LCD. Both technologies have advantages and disadvantages, but the question whether one or the other triggers less visual fatigue is still open. The aim of the present research was to study the effects of the display technology on visual fatigue. To this end, participants performed a longitudinal study in which two last generation e-readers (LCD, E-ink and paper book were tested in three different prolonged reading sessions separated by--on average--ten days. Results from both objective (Blinks per second and subjective (Visual Fatigue Scale measures suggested that reading on the LCD (Kindle Fire HD triggers higher visual fatigue with respect to both the E-ink (Kindle Paperwhite and the paper book. The absence of differences between E-ink and paper suggests that, concerning visual fatigue, the E-ink is indeed very similar to the paper.

  20. A reader-response approach to Matthew 24:3-28

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Vorster

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that reading is an interactive process between a text and a reader. Attention is paid to how Matthew 24:3-28 evokes a reader’s response and what strategies readers apply as they read the text.

  1. Electronic Braille Document Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Arif, Shahab; Holmes, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation into developing a portable Braille device which would allow visually impaired individuals to read electronic documents by actuating Braille text on a finger. Braille books tend to be bulky in size due to the minimum size requirements for each Braille cell. E-books can be read in Braille using refreshable Braille displays connected to a computer. However, the refreshable Braille displays are expensive, bulky and are not portable. These factors restrict blin...

  2. Noticeable Focuses in Reading a Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between commanding those basic information contained in a text and the final p urpose of comprehending in a text-reading process. By using the main topic and the central meaning that all texts have as two main examples, the author mainly illustrates what a reader should pay attention to in reading a text.

  3. Readers as research detectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gøtzsche Peter C

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Flaws in research papers are common but it may require arduous detective work to unravel them. Checklists are helpful, but many inconsistencies will only be revealed through repeated cross-checks of every little detail, just like in a crime case. As a major deterrent for dishonesty, raw data from all trials should be posted on a public website. This would also make it much easier to detect errors and flaws in publications, and it would allow many research projects to be performed without collecting new data. The prevailing culture of secrecy and ownership to data is not in the best interests of patients.

  4. Turgenev as a Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петер Бранг

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his book Zvučaščee slovo (Moskva 2010 the author dealt with the mutual relations between the theory of versification and the theory of declamation and with the question of how Pushkin, Gogol, Dostoyevsky and Blok used to read literary texts aloud, and, in addition, with their general attitude towards the “sounding word”. In this study, starting from B.M. Ejchenbaum’s remark that Turgenev is always striving to “tell” and “always addresses himself to a listener”, the author examines several aspects of the role that the “sounding word” played in the writer’s life and work. The most important sources he used are the memoirs of Turgenev’s contemporaries and his letters. It turns out that readings of still unpublished literary works in small circles played an unexpectedly large role. This can be explained by the writer’s wish to test the reaction of the public, but also by sociocultural factors: the atmosphere of friendly competition that reigned during that period in the aristocratic republic of Russian ‘literary workers’.

  5. 阅读过程是读者与文本的交流过程--试析图示理论在阅读中的应用%The Interaction Between a Reader and a Text in Reading Process--the Application of Schemata Theory in Reading Two Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓娟

    2001-01-01

    In revealing the nature of reading process, more attention has been given to the role played by a reader. This paper discusses the application of Schemata theory in reading in the light of understanding and appreciation of two poems. By comparing the two poems in choice of words and in arrangement of the poems, this paper verifies the practical influence of schemata theory in reading process.

  6. Narcissism, Abjection and the Reader(e of Simone de Beauvoir's Les Belles Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E. Gray

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of Simone de Beauvoir's last novel, Les Belles Images (1966, tend to be in the mode of apology. The characters are shallow—runs the typical claim—the plot (essentially, Laurence's gradual awakening to her own "belle image" identity of feminine clichés as fulfilled wife, devoted mother, successful professional flimsy and predictable. Yet, in studying a specular dynamic of narcissism and abjection within the novel, we become aware of the discomforting ways in which our own scorn for Laurence and her world is anticipated by the text. As we attend upon the dismantling of Laurence's "belles images," we are made to witness the undoing of our own narcissism. Along the way, we acquire new understanding of an important aspect of this specular relationship: the novel's slippery use of the pronouns "I" and "she" to refer to Laurence, in an unstable grammar that has confounded critics. These pronouns and their imbrication are only too pertinent, I argue, for the reader's relationship to Laurence, and for the ways in which the reader's "I" sets itself loftily apart from Laurence's "she." Yet, in dismantling the reader's assumptions along with those of Laurence, the text offers each a new way forward, beyond the crippling confines of narcissism and abjection.

  7. Readers' Knowledge of Popular Genre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…

  8. Writing Reviews for Readers' Advisory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Reviews are an important resource for readers' advisory and collection development. They are also a helpful promotional tool, introducing patrons to what is new on the shelf. This resource includes: (1) Tips for writing strong, relevant reviews; (2) Different ways reviews can be used to promote your library; and (3) A chapter by Joyce Saricks…

  9. Readers' Reliance on Source Credibility in the Service of Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Jesse R.; Rapp, David N.

    2011-01-01

    The current project examined the impact of knowledge about the credibility of sources on readers' processing of texts. Participants read texts in which information about characters was provided by either a credible or a noncredible source; this information suggested that the character potentially possessed a particular trait. A subsequent text…

  10. Empowering Adolescent Readers: Intertextuality in Three Novels by David Almond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Don

    2008-01-01

    In "Skellig," "Kit's Wilderness," and "Clay", David Almond employs various types of intertextuality to enrich his narratives. Through the use of allusion, adaptation, collage, and mise-en-abyme, he encourages his adolescent readers to seek out precursor texts and to consider the interrelationships between these texts and his own. By so doing, he…

  11. RFID Reader Anticollision Protocols for Dense and Mobile Deployments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Aziz Mbacke

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification technology has allowed its large adoption and led to increasing deployments of RFID solutions in diverse environments under varying scenarios and constraints. The nature of these constraints ranges from the amount to the mobility of the readers deployed, which in turn highly affects the quality of the RFID system, causing reading collisions. Although several solutions were proposed to engage the issue of reading collision, few were ever concerned with the densification and/or mobility of readers. This paper proposes two distributed TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access approaches designed to reduce these collisions through local coordination between neighboring devices for different scenarios tested here. The first proposal is based on a reservation phase organized between readers with different priority levels given to readers depending on their previous success. The second one takes advantage of the particular case of RFID collisions, allowing a local and mutual decision of each reader to access or not tags in their vicinity. Simulations were run over different stressful environments in terms of tag/reader density and mobility, proving that our proposals achieved the best performance in terms of throughput, collision avoidance and coverage delay when compared to other collision reducing schemes.

  12. Techno-Literacy Practices of Emergent Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razeale G. Fernandez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available – This research explored the techno-literacy practices of emergent readers. The study found that young children experienced a multi-literate practices in their homes that comprised not only print and paper-based literacies but also techno-literacies. That television, games on tablets and phones are the sources of textual pleasure of young children.Families reported that children watched television and play games on tablets/phones regularly. This is due to the limited options of leisure activities available to younger children. Emergent readers are highly focused to televisual text as they demonstrate meaningmaking practices when they constantly ask questions and talk about what they are watching,hence they are active meaning-makers. The learning opportunities which include hand eye coordination, parallel processing, and problem solving skills young children acquired through playing computer games and games on tablet/iPad . Aside from these, they also developed a number of literacy skills as well as how to behave as players.It can be concluded thatexposure to imagery in electronic technologies contributed to the children’s literacy development. The literate identities of emergent readers can be further enhanced as they begin formal schooling. Data indicated that young children are developing techno-literacy practices and this concurs to the findings of Marsh (2010. Therefore, technology serves as a tool for the literacy development of young children. That techno-literacy practices of young children should be valued in school. Future research should also consider attitude, behavior and practices of parents towards the use of technology by children.

  13. Short Vowels versus Word Familiarity in the Reading Comprehension of Arab Readers: A Revisited Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraye, Abdullah M.

    2016-01-01

    Arab readers, both beginning and advanced, are encouraged to read and accustomed to unvowelized and undiacriticized texts. Previous literature claimed that the presence of short vowels in the text would facilitate the reading comprehension of both beginning and advanced Arab readers. However, with a claimed strict controlling procedure, different…

  14. A Christian Fundamentalist in a Reader-Response Class: Merging Transactions and Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    There is something very democratic and creative about reader-response criticism. In a reader-response classroom, students progress from passive to active reading, from discovering a text to creating one. Also, students progress from passive to active reading, from discovering a text to creating one. However, a problem emerges when the spirit and…

  15. A reader-response approach to Matthew 24:3-28

    OpenAIRE

    W. S. Vorster

    1991-01-01

    It is assumed that reading is an interactive process between a text and a reader. Attention is paid to how Matthew 24:3-28 evokes a reader’s response and what strategies readers apply as they read the text.

  16. The Role of Organizational Devices in ESL Readers' Construction of Mental Representations of Hypertext Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seghayer, Khalid

    2007-01-01

    The current electronic text format is inherent to the problem of text integration, or, alternatively, cohesion deficit, which greatly affects reading comprehension. The question remains as to whether well structured hypertext would enable L2 readers, particularly ESL readers, to overcome potential difficulties in integrating information and…

  17. Engaging Texts: Effects of Concreteness on Comprehensibility, Interest, and Recall in Four Text Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; Goetz, Ernest T.; Rodriguez, Maximo

    2000-01-01

    Investigates concreteness as a text feature that engaged undergraduate readers' comprehension, interest, and learning in four text types: persuasion, exposition, literary stories, and narratives. Results show that concrete texts were recalled better than abstract texts, although the magnitude of the advantage varied across text types. Concreteness…

  18. Engaging Texts: Effects of Concreteness on Comprehensibility, Interest, and Recall in Four Text Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; Goetz, Ernest T.; Rodriguez, Maximo

    2000-01-01

    Investigates concreteness as a text feature that engaged undergraduate readers' comprehension, interest, and learning in four text types: persuasion, exposition, literary stories, and narratives. Results show that concrete texts were recalled better than abstract texts, although the magnitude of the advantage varied across text types. Concreteness…

  19. On the Wording of Texts: A Study of Intra-Text Word Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kenneth S.; Bird, Lois Bridges

    1984-01-01

    Describes and examines the word choice and frequency in six tests and raises questions about the use of word lists and controlled vocabulary in producing basal readers, judging and manipulating readability of texts, and building vocabulary. (HOD)

  20. Reading of Foreign Language Technical Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metka Brkan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient foreign language reader is one who has approached the reading flexibility of a native speaker as he reads different texts presented in his environment: newspaper articles, magazins, personal letters, business correspondence, official documents, academic textbooks and scientific and technical texts. Flexibility in reading means increased speed as well as enhanced comprehension: an efficient re­ ader should read fast with needed comprehension. A poor reader is one who reacts everything slowly without getting much meaning from reading. The article focuses on techniques for developing foreign language reading skills of university students to cape with the reading of English technical texts.

  1. Mathematical Texts as Narrative: Rethinking Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietiker, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for reading mathematics texts as narratives. Building from a narrative framework of Meike Bal, a reader's experience with the mathematical content as it unfolds in the text (the "mathematical story") is distinguished from his or her logical reconstruction of the content beyond the text (the…

  2. Postmodern theories about readers in electronic environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanka Kuić

    2015-01-01

    Introductory part of the paper discusses theories about readers in the last decades of the 20th century. In particular, two big theoretical schools are discussed: aesthetic reception theory and reader-response-criticism movement. Readers are a subject of very different scientific disciplines: literature theory, sociology, anthropology, book history and library science. The idea that a reader is an essential subject for future life of a literary work is common to all theorists. By constructing...

  3. 38 CFR 21.150 - Reader service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reader service. 21.150... Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.150 Reader service. (a) Limitations on vision. A veteran considered to have a visual impairment necessitating reader service includes a veteran: (1) Whose best corrected...

  4. Moving Readers from Struggling to Proficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    If we want to move children from struggling to read to being proficient readers, we must address the disparate ways that teachers respond to readers with varying abilities. Restorative practices, akin to restorative justice, build relationships, make connections, and foster a reader's sense of ownership and empowerment. What would happen if…

  5. Graded Readers: Validating Reading Levels across Publishers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Graded readers can be an optimal resource to help language students improve and personalize their learning experience. An extensive reading library with graded readers and well-defined levels of reading difficulty increases language students' chances of having a successful reading experience and become independent readers. However, when it comes…

  6. Investigating Readers' Mental Maps of References in an Online System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Fen; Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yeh, Hui-Chin

    2009-01-01

    Referential identification and resolution are considered the keys to help readers grasp the main idea of a text and solve lexical ambiguities. The goal of this study is to design a computer system for helping college students who learn English as a Foreign Language (EFL) develop mental maps of referential identification and resolution in reading.…

  7. What It Means to Be Strategic: Good Readers as Informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harste, Jerome C.

    A study was conducted to identify strategies used by successful readers in comprehending and interpreting various kinds of texts. Seventy-three graduate students were asked to keep a journal (unedited and freely written) of what they were thinking as they were reading Umberto Eco's novel "The Name of the Rose." Selected journal entries…

  8. What It Means to Be Strategic: Good Readers as Informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harste, Jerome C.

    A study was conducted to identify strategies used by successful readers in comprehending and interpreting various kinds of texts. Seventy-three graduate students were asked to keep a journal (unedited and freely written) of what they were thinking as they were reading Umberto Eco's novel "The Name of the Rose." Selected journal entries were…

  9. BURIAT READER. URALIC AND ALTAIC SERIES, VOLUME 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOSSON, JAMES E.

    THE INTRODUCTION TO THIS PRIMER-READER CONTAINS A SHORT DESCRIPTION OF BURIAT (A MONGOLIAN LANGUAGE SPOKEN IN THE BURIAT AUTONOMOUS SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC) AND A BRIEF ACCOUNT OF THE BURIAT CULTURE AND HISTORY. THE BURIAT ORTHOGRAPHY (CYRILLIC-BASED), THE TRANSCRIPTION USED IN THE TEXT, AND VOWEL HARMONY, LENGTH, AND STRESS ARE ALSO TREATED IN…

  10. The Hands and Reading: What Deafblind Adult Readers Tell Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Cynthia L.; Andrews, Jean F.

    2010-01-01

    Deafblind readers are heterogeneous in reading skill acquisition. This qualitative study uses in-depth interviews and protocol analyses and queries the three deafblind adult participants in describing their metacomprehension, metacognitive and metalinguistic strategies used when reading different types of text. Using retrospective analysis, the…

  11. Literary Allusion and Reader Response: Possibilities for Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agee, Hugh

    1983-01-01

    This paper reviews the function of literary allusion and examines how this device helps readers relate to texts. Questions are raised about children's ability to understand allusions, particularly Biblical references. Suggestions for research to improve understanding of the role of allusions are given. (PP)

  12. Child Readers and the Worlds of the Picture Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Adela; Laugharne, Janet; Maagerø, Eva; Tønnessen, Elise Seip

    2016-01-01

    Children as readers of picture books and the ways they respond to, and make meaning from, such texts are the focus of this article, which reports on a small-scale study undertaken in Norway and Wales, UK. The theoretical framing of the research draws on concepts of the multimodal ensemble in picture books and of the reading event as part of a…

  13. Video Vortex reader II: moving images beyond YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.; Somers Miles, R.

    2011-01-01

    Video Vortex Reader II is the Institute of Network Cultures' second collection of texts that critically explore the rapidly changing landscape of online video and its use. With the success of YouTube ('2 billion views per day') and the rise of other online video sharing platforms, the moving image

  14. Using Explicit Instruction to Promote Vocabulary Learning for Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D. Bruce; Mraz, Maryann; Nichols, William D.; Rickelman, Robert J.; Wood, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Research supports the need for active vocabulary learning across grade levels and subject areas to help increase readers' comprehension of diverse texts that they encounter. Given the increasing emphasis on decoding and reading comprehension, the relative importance of vocabulary instruction has been diminished in recent years. The authors argue…

  15. What It Means to Be Strategic: Good Readers as Informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harste, Jerome C.

    A study was conducted to identify strategies used by successful readers in comprehending and interpreting various kinds of texts. Seventy-three graduate students were asked to keep a journal (unedited and freely written) of what they were thinking as they were reading Umberto Eco's novel "The Name of the Rose." Selected journal entries…

  16. Video Vortex reader II: moving images beyond YouTube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovink, G.; Somers Miles, R.

    2011-01-01

    Video Vortex Reader II is the Institute of Network Cultures' second collection of texts that critically explore the rapidly changing landscape of online video and its use. With the success of YouTube ('2 billion views per day') and the rise of other online video sharing platforms, the moving image h

  17. Texts in multiple versions: histories of editions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giuliani, L.; Brinkman, H.; Lernout, G.; Mathijsen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Texts in multiple versions constitute the core problem of textual scholarship. For texts from antiquity and the medieval period, the many versions may be the result of manuscript transmission, requiring editors and readers to discriminate between levels of authority in variant readings produced

  18. Texts in multiple versions: histories of editions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Giuliani; H. Brinkman; G. Lernout; M. Mathijsen

    2006-01-01

    Texts in multiple versions constitute the core problem of textual scholarship. For texts from antiquity and the medieval period, the many versions may be the result of manuscript transmission, requiring editors and readers to discriminate between levels of authority in variant readings produced alon

  19. A computerized track detector reader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosinski, S.W. (Centralne Lab. Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland))

    1993-01-01

    The structure and basic operation function of a computerized facility named Track Detection Reader is described. This facility is used for recording, counting and evaluation of defects made by [alpha]-particles in a solid state detector. It consists of a microscope equipped with the movable stage, a TV screen and PC-AT computer. The microscope stage is being controlled by a stepper motor. The TV screen enables surface visualization of the detector analyzed while the PC-AT computer is being used for digital analysis of the detector surface, according to the functions of the program. (author). 4 refs, 3 figs.

  20. Variable Distance Angular Symbology Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Harry F., Jr. (Inventor); Corder, Eric L. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A variable distance angular symbology, reader utilizes at least one light source to direct light through a beam splitter and onto a target. A target may be angled relative to the impinging light beam up to and maybe even greater than 45deg. A reflected beam from the target passes through the beam splitter and is preferably directed 90deg relative to the light source through a telecentric lens to a scanner which records an image of the target such as a direct part marking code.

  1. A Difficult Choice for Newspapers: Advertisers or Readers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış Bulunmnaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Almost entire advertisement revenues are acquired by newspapers in print media. Along with rapid technological developments and the intensive competitive climate in newspaper sector; the gulf between high cost and low revenue has widened, and newspapers are obliged to subsidize this deficit with advertisement revenues. Newspapers in Turkey have two separate groups of customers. The first one of those groups is the advertisers and the other is the readers of that newspaper. Due to economic reasons, this compulsory dependency on advertisement revenue causes newspapers to fall into a paradox between advertisers and readers. In this article we will firstly explain advertisement and its place in marketing; then give information about the advertising sector and the distribution of Turkish advertising pie among media. Later, the relation between advertisers and readers that place newspapers in difficult circumstances will be explicated in detail, analysis and assessments will be made regarding about it.

  2. Reader's Advisory and Bibliotherapy:Helping or Healing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Sturm

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Reader s advisory, helping library patrons find books to read based on their prior reading preferences, is a common endeavor for most librarians. Bibliotherapy, using books to promote healing, is a special kind of reader s advisory. This article traces the origins of these two concepts and examines their underlying assumptions. It addresses the process through which stories may aid in healing and the process librarians should follow if they decide to engage in bibliotherapy. It concludes that librarians must know the difference between advising and counseling on both a professional and personal level and that they should be wary of letting the power inherent in the readers advisory role endanger their professionalism.

  3. Putting Readers in Their Places: Some Alternatives to Cloning Stanley Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    The reader has replaced the text as the central figure in the teaching of literature. Three techniques that psychologists and educational researchers believe produce better reading comprehension are: the concept of schemata, or the kind of mental outline a reader has when perceiving something; the acquisition or development of an appropriate…

  4. Whose Story Is This? Discrepancy Triggers Readers' Attention to Source Information in Short Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouet, Jean-François; Le Bigot, Ludovic; de Pereyra, Guillaume; Britt, M. Anne

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the role of source information (i.e., who said what) in readers' comprehension of short informational texts. Based on the Discrepancy-Induced Source Comprehension assumption (Braasch, Rouet, Vibert, & Britt, 2012), we hypothesized that readers would be more likely to make use of source information when…

  5. Teaching Early Readers to Self-Monitor and Self-Correct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Sharon M.; Urbanowski, Melena

    2016-01-01

    Proficient readers self-monitor and self-correct to derive meaning from text. This article reviews research on how students learn to self-monitor and self-correct and describes a Reciprocal Teaching (RT) instructional routine that was successfully used with early readers to build their metacognitive processes. The RT routine included teacher…

  6. Putting Readers in Their Places: Some Alternatives to Cloning Stanley Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    The reader has replaced the text as the central figure in the teaching of literature. Three techniques that psychologists and educational researchers believe produce better reading comprehension are: the concept of schemata, or the kind of mental outline a reader has when perceiving something; the acquisition or development of an appropriate…

  7. When high-capacity readers slow down and low-capacity readers speed up: Working memory and locality effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno eNicenboim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effects of argument-head distance in SVO and SOV languages (Spanish and German, while taking into account readers’ working memory capacity and controlling for expectation (Levy, 2008 and other factors. We predicted only locality effects, that is, a slow-down produced by increased dependency distance (Gibson, 2000; Lewis & Vasishth, 2005. Furthermore, we expected stronger locality effects for readers with low working memory capacity. Contrary to our predictions, low-capacity readers showed faster reading with increased distance, while high-capacity readers showed locality effects. We suggest that while the locality effects are compatible with memory-based explanations, the speedup of low-capacity readers can be explained by an increased probability of retrieval failure. We present a computational model based on ACT-R built under the previous assumptions, which is able to give a qualitative account for the present data and can be tested in future research. Our results suggest that in some cases, interpreting longer RTs as indexing increased processing difficulty and shorter RTs as facilitation may be too simplistic: The same increase in processing difficulty may lead to slowdowns in high-capacity readers and speedups in low-capacity ones. Ignoring individual level capacity differences when investigating locality effects may lead to misleading conclusions.

  8. There is a Text in 'The Balloon'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2009-01-01

    From the Introduction: Camelia Elias' "There is a Text in 'The Balloon': Donald Barthelme's Allegorical Flights" provides its reader with a much-need and useful distinction between fantasy and the fantastic: "whereas fantasy in critical discourse can be aligned with allegory, in which a supernatu......From the Introduction: Camelia Elias' "There is a Text in 'The Balloon': Donald Barthelme's Allegorical Flights" provides its reader with a much-need and useful distinction between fantasy and the fantastic: "whereas fantasy in critical discourse can be aligned with allegory, in which...

  9. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Text can add a significant amount of detail and value to an information visualization. In particular, it can integrate more of the data that a visualization is based on, and it can also integrate information that is personally relevant to readers of a visualization. This may influence readers...... to consider a visualization a detailed enrichment of their personal experience instead of an abstract representation of anonymous numbers. However, the integration of textual detail into a visualization is often very challenging. This work discusses one particular approach to this problem, namely text...

  10. The Effect of Causal Diagrams on Text Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Schraw, Gregory; Lehman, Stephen; Poliquin, Anne

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effect of studying a causal diagram on comprehension of causal relationships from an expository science text. A causal diagram is a type of visual display that explicitly represents cause-effect relationships. In Experiment 1, readers between conditions did not differ with respect to memory for main ideas, but the readers who…

  11. Writer-reader contagion of inspiration and related states: Conditional process analyses within a cross-classified writer × reader framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrash, Todd M; Maruskin, Laura A; Moldovan, Emil G; Oleynick, Victoria C; Belzak, Will C

    2017-09-01

    A longstanding tradition in the humanities holds that a writer's inspiration is infectious, but this thesis has not been tested. We hypothesized that (a) inspiration is infectious, such that inspired writers are more inspiring to the average reader; (b) contagion is mediated by the insightfulness of the text; and (c) contagion is moderated by readers' openness to experience, such that open readers are more prone to contagion. To test these hypotheses, a sample of 195 student writers, each of whom wrote 1 poem, was crossed with a sample of 220 student readers, who read all poems. Data were available for 36,020 cells of the resulting Writer × Reader matrix. Our analytic approach integrated cross-classified multilevel modeling with conditional process analysis. As hypothesized, writers who were more inspired elicited higher levels of inspiration in the average reader. Inspiration contagion was mediated by the insightfulness and pleasantness of the text and was partially suppressed by originality. Inspiration contagion was moderated by reader openness. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that open readers were prone to contagion because they were tolerant of the originality and sublimity of inspired writing. Additional analyses differentiated contagion of inspiration from contagion of its covariates (awe, positive affect), documented effects of writer inspiration on reader enthrallment (awe, chills), and showed that writer effort is a poor predictor of reader states. The infectiousness of inspiration-through poetry, if not also through scripture and academic writing-suggests that a given instance of inspiration may have far-reaching cultural implications, including dissemination of innovations and ideologies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Usefulness Metrics of The Most Popular eReader Used by Higher Education Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the digital technology era, mobile devices have an important rule to deploy a copy of data and information through the network. An electronic reader (eReader allows readers to read written materials in an electronic manner that is available in many models. The objective of this study is to evaluate the usage of eReader by higher education students. We firstly identified the most frequently used eReader by surveying higher education students. The survey results showed that Apple iPad, Amazon Kindle, and Samsung Tablet are the most popular eReader devices used by higher education students. We presented these results, and then we analyzed the surveyed results in detail in order to develop an evaluation metric of the eReader in a mobile platform that clearly allows the selection of the most suitable eReader for higher education students. The main contribution of this paper is the development of a set of criteria that can be used by students in the selection of an eReader that matches their specific needs and requirements.

  13. Low self-concept in poor readers: prevalence, heterogeneity, and risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve McArthur

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that poor readers are at increased risk for various types of low self-concept—particularly academic self-concept. However, this evidence ignores the heterogeneous nature of poor readers, and hence the likelihood that not all poor readers have low self-concept. The aim of this study was to better understand which types of poor readers have low self-concept. We tested 77 children with poor reading for their age for four types of self-concept, four types of reading, three types of spoken language, and two types of attention. We found that poor readers with poor attention had low academic self-concept, while poor readers with poor spoken language had low general self-concept in addition to low academic self-concept. In contrast, poor readers with typical spoken language and attention did not have low self-concept of any type. We also discovered that academic self-concept was reliably associated with reading and receptive spoken vocabulary, and that general self-concept was reliably associated with spoken vocabulary. These outcomes suggest that poor readers with multiple impairments in reading, language, and attention are at higher risk for low academic and general self-concept, and hence need to be assessed for self-concept in clinical practice. Our results also highlight the need for further investigation into the heterogeneous nature of self-concept in poor readers.

  14. Normal Speed and Accuracy of Saccade and Vergence Eye Movements in Dyslexic Reader Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Bucci

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Latency of eye movements depends on cortical structures while speed of execution and accuracy depends mostly on subcortical brainstem structures. Prior studies reported in dyslexic reader children abnormalities of latencies of saccades (isolated and combined with vergence; such abnormalities were attributed to deficits of fixation control and of visual attention. In this study we examine speed and accuracy characteristics of horizontal eye movements in natural space (saccades, vergence and combined movements in dyslexic reader children. Methods. Two paradigms are tested: gap paradigm (fixation offset 200 ms prior to target onset, producing shorter latencies, in both non-dyslexic reader and dyslexic reader children and simultaneous paradigm. Seventeen dyslexic reader children (mean age: 12±0.08 years and thirteen non-dyslexic reader children (mean age: 12±1 years were tested. Horizontal eye movements from both eyes were recorded simultaneously by a photoelectric device (Oculometer, Dr. Bouis. Results. For all movements tested (saccades, vergence, isolated or combined and for both paradigms, the mean velocity and accuracy were similar in dyslexic readers and non-dyslexic readers; no significant difference was found. Conclusion. This negative but important result, suggests no dysfunction of brainstem ocular motor circuits in dyslexic readers. It contrasts results on latencies related to visual attention dysfunction at cortical level.

  15. Expanding the Four Resources Model: Reading Visual and Multi-Modal Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Freebody and Luke proffered an expanded conceptualization of the resources readers utilize when reading and the roles readers adopt during the act of reading. The four resources model, and its associated four roles of the reader, expanded the definition of reading from a simple model of decoding printed texts to a model of constructing meaning and…

  16. Trading Cards to Comic Strips: Popular Culture Texts and Literacy Learning in Grades K-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Xu, Shelley; Sawyer Perkins, Rachael; Zunich, Lark O.

    2005-01-01

    Incorporating popular culture texts in the classroom can motivate students--particularly reluctant or struggling readers. This resource gives the reader everything they need to use television, movies, video games, music, magazines, and other media to enhance students' literacy learning. The reader will find a balance of research, theory, and…

  17. Reader Response Theory and Classroom Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Harold K., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Presents annotations of nine journal articles, monographs, and "learning packages" (published between 1989 and 1993) that examine teaching approaches founded upon the insights of reader response theory. (RS)

  18. Selective targeting of epigenetic reader domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greschik, Holger; Schüle, Roland; Günther, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    Epigenetic regulators including writers, erasers, and readers of chromatin marks have been implicated in numerous diseases and are therefore subject of intense academic and pharmaceutical research. While several small-molecule inhibitors targeting writers or erasers are either approved drugs or are currently being evaluated in clinical trials, the targeting of epigenetic readers has lagged behind. Proof-of-principle that epigenetic readers are also relevant drug targets was provided by landmark discoveries of selective inhibitors targeting the BET family of acetyl-lysine readers. More recently, high affinity chemical probes for non-BET acetyl- and methyl-lysine reader domains have also been developed. Areas covered: This article covers recent advances with the identification and validation of inhibitors and chemical probes targeting epigenetic reader domains. Issues related to epigenetic reader druggability, quality requirements for chemical probes, interpretation of cellular action, unexpected cross-talk, and future challenges are also discussed. Expert opinion: Chemical probes provide a powerful means to unravel biological functions of epigenetic readers and evaluate their potential as drug targets. To yield meaningful results, potency, selectivity, and cellular target engagement of chemical probes need to be stringently validated. Future chemical probes will probably need to fulfil additional criteria such as strict target specificity or the targeting of readers within protein complexes.

  19. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.

  20. THE FUTURE OF THE READER OR THE READER OF THE FUTURE: CHILDREN’S INTERATIVE BOOKS AND MULTILITERACIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Frederico

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the interactive book app for children as a form of literary expression that requires from the young reader the capacity to orchestrate various forms of literacy to promote their ability of reading critically multimodal, digital and interactive texts. Serafini’s model for the analysis of picturebooks in three levels, perceptive, structural, and ideological (SERAFINI, 2010; 2015, is proposed as a didactic tool to promote these multiliteracies at school through the reading of picturebook apps.

  1. An analysis of the reading strategies used by adult and student deaf readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Alyssa; Wang, Ye

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and examine effective reading strategies used by adult deaf readers compared with student deaf readers. There were a total of 11 participants: 5 deaf adults ranging from 27 to 36 years and 6 deaf students ranging from 16 to 20 years. Assessment methods included interview and think-aloud procedures in which individuals were interrupted 3 times during the reading of a text to answer questions about their internal cognitive processes. It was found that both student and adult groups had highly skilled readers who demonstrated higher level reading strategies and less skilled readers who demonstrated lower level strategies, and only the highest skilled reader demonstrated both breadth and depth of strategies in all three categories: "constructing meaning," "monitoring and improving comprehension," and "evaluating comprehension." The study contributes evidence toward two identified gaps in the existing body of research: (a) the lack of investigation into the reading strategies utilized by deaf readers in text comprehension and (b) the overemphasis of most research on studying less skilled deaf readers while overlooking highly proficient deaf readers.

  2. Reader Profiles for Adults with Low Literacy Skills: A Quest to Find Resilient Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Katherine S.; Lee, Cheryl S.

    2012-01-01

    Resilient readers are those who, despite their poor phonological decoding skills, have good comprehension abilities (Jackson & Doellinger, 2002). Thus far, these readers have been identified in college settings. The purpose of this study was to a) determine if this reader profile was present in a sample taken from an Adult Basic Education…

  3. How Does a Reader Make a Poem Meaningful? Reader-Response Theory and the Poetry Portfolio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Sandra Lee

    1997-01-01

    Describes how a reader-response approach can help students construct a portfolio of readings that reflects their development as poetry readers. Describes using a reader-response journal, communal learning activities, and a portfolio to create a recursive process through which students develop a better understanding of how poetry works. Discusses…

  4. A Graphophonic Investigation of Beginning Level Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kevin Clark

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to provide a systematic framework for phonics instruction for beginning readers in literature-based classrooms based on relative frequency of phoneme-grapheme occurrences found in three distinct corpora. The first corpus contained an academic word list. The second corpus contained the running text from 363 books identified as…

  5. Reader responses to literary depictions of rape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Koopman (Emy); M. Hilscher (Michelle); G.C. Cupchik (Gerald)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis study explored reader responses to different literary depictions of rape. Four literary excerpts were used and divided as aesthetic versus nonaesthetic (style) and allusive versus explicit (detail). The general question was how readers would react to literary fragments depicting rap

  6. Advanced Hindi Reader in the Social Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatuk, Ved Prakash

    This reader contains 25 selections in standard Hindi by recognized authorities in the major fields of social science; namely sociology, anthropology, folklore, economics, and political science. The writings, evenly divided both in content and style, are intended to give the reader a broad perspective of Indian culture. A 128-page Hindi-English…

  7. Developing Preservice Teachers' Perspectives on Reader Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, Dana L.

    2001-01-01

    Examines preservice teachers' developing conceptions of reader response theory, specifically focusing on the importance of aesthetic response to students' engagement with and motivation for reading. Finds that the aesthetic reader stance predominated in students' written responses and discussions; and that written response did not influence the…

  8. An Overview of Reader-Response Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to give a brief introduction to reader-response theory.including its origin,main concepts and general classification. with the following conclusion drawn in the end: reader-response theory. in spite of its subjectivity,has provided a broader horizon for literary criticism due to its variety and openness.

  9. Reader Imposed Structure and Prose Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Mark D.

    1979-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the impact of a reader's perspective on prose learning: (1) subjects read stories from one of two directed perspectives or with no directed perspective; or (2) readers organized and familiarized themselves with a perspective before the perspective was applied to a story. Perspective influenced recall and organization.…

  10. Planning Behaviour in Good and Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Shamita

    2016-01-01

    A group of 50 good readers and a group of 50 poor readers of Grade 5 matched for age and intelligence and selected on the basis of their proficiency in reading comprehension were tested for their competence in word reading and the process of planning at three different levels, namely, perceptual, memory and conceptual in order to study the…

  11. "The Act of Reading" in the Foreign Language: Pedagogical Implications of Iser's Reader-Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, James N.

    1989-01-01

    Demonstrates Iser's reader-response theory provides a coherent framework for interpreting and teaching narratives in a foreign language. A sample lesson using the Iserian principle to improve students' reading of foreign language texts. (37 references) (CB)

  12. Reader-Centered Technical Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Technical writing is an essential part of professional communication and in recent years it has shifted from a genre-based approach. Formerly, technical writing primarily focused on generating templates of documents and sometimes it was creating or reproducing traditional forms with minor modifications and updates. Now, technical writing looks at the situations surrounding the need to write. This involves deep thinking about the goals and objectives of the project on hand. Furthermore, one observes that it is very important for any participatory process to have the full support of management. This support needs to be well understood and believed by employees. Professional writing may be very persuasive in some cases. When presented in the appropriate context, technical writing can persuade a company to improve work conditions ensuring employee safety and timely production. However, one must recognize that lot of professional writing still continues to make use of reports and instruction manuals. Normally, technical and professional writing addresses four aspects. Objective: The need for generating a given professionally written technical document and the goals the document is expected to achieve and accomplish. Clientele: The clientele who will utilize the technical document. This may include the people in the organization. This may also include "unintended readers." Customers: The population that may be affected by the content of the technical document generated. This includes the stakeholders who will be influenced. Environment: The background in which the document is created. Also, the nature of the situation that warranted the generation of the document. Swiss Psychologist Jean Piaget's view of Learning focuses on three aspects. The author likes to extend Jean Piaget's ideas to students, who are asked to prepare and submit Reader-Centered Technical Writing reports and exercises. Assimilation: Writers may benefit specifically, by assimilating a new object into

  13. Chemical Inhibitors of Epigenetic Methyllysine Reader Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevich, Natalia; Hof, Fraser

    2016-03-22

    Protein methylation is a common post-translational modification with diverse biological functions. Methyllysine reader proteins are increasingly a focus of epigenetics research and play important roles in regulating many cellular processes. These reader proteins are vital players in development, cell cycle regulation, stress responses, oncogenesis, and other disease pathways. The recent emergence of a small number of chemical inhibitors for methyllysine reader proteins supports the viability of these proteins as targets for drug development. This article introduces the biochemistry and biology of methyllysine reader proteins, provides an overview of functions for those families of readers that have been targeted to date (MBT, PHD, tudor, and chromodomains), and reviews the development of synthetic agents that directly block their methyllysine reading functions.

  14. Texts as Mirrors, Texts as Windows: Black Adolescent Boys and the Complexities of Textual Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciurba, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Discussions of culturally relevant and "boy" literature stress the importance of offering readers occasions to see themselves in texts. However, young men of color have had few opportunities within this discourse to reveal their own experiences with literature. Rather than make presumptions about how texts serve as mirrors to them, as…

  15. Texts as Mirrors, Texts as Windows: Black Adolescent Boys and the Complexities of Textual Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciurba, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Discussions of culturally relevant and "boy" literature stress the importance of offering readers occasions to see themselves in texts. However, young men of color have had few opportunities within this discourse to reveal their own experiences with literature. Rather than make presumptions about how texts serve as mirrors to them, as…

  16. Evidence for deficits in the temporal attention span of poor readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy A W Visser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While poor reading is often associated with phonological deficits, many studies suggest that visual processing might also be impaired. In particular, recent research has indicated that poor readers show impaired spatial visual attention spans in partial and whole report tasks. Given the similarities between competition-based accounts for reduced visual attention span and similar explanations for impairments in sequential object processing, the present work examined whether poor readers show deficits in their "temporal attention span"--that is, their ability to rapidly and accurately process sequences of consecutive target items. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Poor and normal readers monitored a sequential stream of visual items for two (TT condition or three (TTT condition consecutive target digits. Target identification was examined using both unconditional and conditional measures of accuracy in order to gauge the overall likelihood of identifying a target and the likelihood of identifying a target given successful identification of previous items. Compared to normal readers, poor readers showed small but consistent deficits in identification across targets whether unconditional or conditional accuracy was used. Additionally, in the TTT condition, final-target conditional accuracy was poorer than unconditional accuracy, particularly for poor readers, suggesting a substantial cost arising from processing the previous two targets that was not present in normal readers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mirroring the differences found between poor and normal readers in spatial visual attention span, the present findings suggest two principal differences between the temporal attention spans of poor and normal readers. First, the consistent pattern of reduced performance across targets suggests increased competition amongst items within the same span for poor readers. Second, the steeper decline in final target performance amongst poor readers

  17. Students Attendance Management System Based On RFID And Fingerprint Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moth Moth Myint Thein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Today students class attendance is become more important part for any organizationsinstitutions. The conventional method of taking attendance by calling names or signing on paper is very time consuming and insecure hence inefficient. This paper presents the manual students attendance management into computerized system for convenience or data reliability. So the system is developed by the integration of ubiquitous computing systems into classroom for managing the students attendance using RFID and fingerprint reader. The system is designed to implement an attendance management system based on RFID and fingerprint reader which students need to use their student identification card ID and their finger ID to success the attendance where only authentic student can be recorded the attendance during the class. In this system passive RFID tag and reader pairs are used to register the student ID cards individually and fingerprint reader is used for attendance. This system takes attendance electronically with the help of the RFID and finger print device and the records of the attendance are stored in a database. Students roll call percentages and their details are easily seenvia Graphical User Interface GUI. This system will have the required databases for students attendance teachers subjects and students details. This application is implemented by Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server as IDE. C language is used to implement this system.

  18. Selecting literature for beginner readers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Crous

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores complexities of choosing appropriate reading material which may provide maximum engagement for beginner readers in Southern Africa, with the aim of instilling a lifelong love of reading. The article presents a case in favour of literary criteria as base line for choices of reading material for beginner readers. Furthermore, the article outlines general characteristics of reading material for beginner readers, as well as specific criteria to be considered in the Southern African context, taking into account the linguistic diversity which exists in formal education and the vast literacy backlog in the region. Furthermore, it is argued that translated children’s stories should ideally be adapted rather than literally translated, in order to meet the requirements of what is universally regarded as good children’s literature for beginner readers. A culture of reading can only be instilled by adhering to the following criteria, i.e. ensuring affective engagement, maximum meaning-making potential, delight, the engagement of the imagination for the purposes of developing the creative mind, and strong identification with the material for the purposes of developing a sense of agency.

  19. READERS AS GATEKEEPERS OF ONLINE NEWS: Brazil, China, and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuli Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of online news items is calculated by news sites as afunction of reader behaviors, such as clicking on or reading articles,emailing them to others, commenting on or discussing them, andeven linking to them in blogs. Online news sites often provide rankorderedlists of popular articles that are updated throughout theday. Popularity reflects not only the interest of individuals, butit also can represent communication from an individual reader toother people. In the case of emailed articles, recipients may befriends, family or colleagues. When readers add comments belowan article, they may reach anyone on the internet. When readerscommunicate with other readers, they extend the usual gatekeepingprocess but their selections may not reflect the news values of thejournalists who put the sites together. This study compares thenews values of readers in Brazil, China and the United States.

  20. Reading Spaced and Unspaced Chinese Text: Evidence from Eye Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuejun; Yan, Guoli; Liversedge, Simon P.; Zang, Chuanli; Rayner, Keith

    2008-01-01

    Native Chinese readers' eye movements were monitored as they read text that did or did not demark word boundary information. In Experiment 1, sentences had 4 types of spacing: normal unspaced text, text with spaces between words, text with spaces between characters that yielded nonwords, and finally text with spaces between every character. The…

  1. Readers of histone methylarginine marks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayatri, Sitaram; Bedford, Mark T

    2014-08-01

    Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification (PTM) that alters roughly 0.5% of all arginine residues in the cells. There are three types of arginine methylation: monomethylarginine (MMA), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA). These three PTMs are enriched on RNA-binding proteins and on histones, and also impact signal transduction cascades. To date, over thirty arginine methylation sites have been cataloged on the different core histones. These modifications alter protein structure, impact interactions with DNA, and also generate docking sites for effector molecules. The primary "readers" of methylarginine marks are Tudor domain-containing proteins. The complete family of thirty-six Tudor domain-containing proteins has yet to be fully characterized, but at least ten bind methyllysine motifs and eight bind methylarginine motifs. In this review, we will highlight the biological roles of the Tudor domains that interact with arginine methylated motifs, and also address other types of interactions that are regulated by these particular PTMs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PressReader User Guide for Android eReader

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Представлено краткое руководство для работы с электронными газетами и журналами на платформе Library PressDisplay на английском языке с помощью Android eReader. "Библиотека ПрессДисплей" - самый большой киоск ежедневной прессы, предлагает полные цифровые копии (больше контента, чем на Google) более 2300 газет и журналов из 100 стран на 54 языках и мнгновенный перевод с 13 языков....

  3. Normalization of Mendeley reader impact on the reader- and paper-side

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haunschild, R.; Bornmann, L.

    2016-07-01

    For the normalization of citation counts, two different kinds of methods are possible and used in bibliometrics: the cited-side and citing-side normalizations both of which can also be applied in the normalization of “Mendeley reader counts”. Recently, we introduced the paper-side normalization of reader counts (mean normalized reader score, MNRS) which is an adaptation of the cited-side normalization. Since the calculation of the MNRS needs further data besides data from Mendeley (a field-classification scheme, such as the Web of Science subject categories), we introduce here the reader-side normalization of reader counts which is an adaptation of the citing-side normalization and does not need further data from other sources. In this study, all articles and reviews of the Web of Science core collection with publication year 2012 (and a DOI) are used to normalize their Mendeley reader counts. The newly proposed indicator (mean discipline normalized reader score, MDNRS) is obtained, compared with the MNRS and bare reader counts, and studied empirically. We find that: (i) normalization of Mendeley reader counts is necessary, (ii) the MDNRS is able to normalize Mendeley reader counts in several disciplines, and (iii) the MNRS is able to normalize Mendeley reader counts in all disciplines. This generally favorable result for the MNRS in all disciplines lead to the recommendation to prefer the MNRS over the MDNRS – provided that the user has an external field-classification scheme at hand. (Author)

  4. Influence of text cohesion on the persuasive power of expository text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaakinen, Johanna K; Salonen, Jonna; Venäläinen, Paula; Hyönä, Jukka

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined how global text cohesion affects persuasion and memory for message arguments presented in expository text. Sixty-nine participants who held a neutral prior attitude towards NATO read a persuasive text about NATO that was either high or low in global cohesion. After reading, participants voted whether Finland should seek NATO membership and filled in an attitude questionnaire. After a 1-week delay they returned for a surprise recall task. The results showed that the high cohesion text was more persuasive than the low cohesion text. Moreover, attitude after reading but not text cohesion predicted later recall of the message arguments. The results show that global text cohesion increases text's persuasive power and that readers who form a positive attitude have better memory of the persuasive arguments after a delay than readers who are less persuaded.

  5. The characteristics of struggling university readers and instructional approaches of academic reading in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latisha Asmaak Shafie

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many university students are struggling readers when they have to read academic texts. Thus these students are not able to comprehend academic texts which hinder their success academically. These students are forced to sit for Reading for Academic Purposes in order to improve their academic reading skills. This paper is a reflection of the authors’ experiences teaching reading for academic purposes at a local higher learning institution in Malaysia. In order to improve struggling readers’ reading abilities, the authors examine the ways struggling readers transacted with their academic reading demands. This paper examines reading strategies and characteristics of struggling readers. It also suggests a reading instructional approach for struggling readers and their instructors.

  6. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  7. Text-Filled Stacked Area Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraus, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Text can add a significant amount of detail and value to an information visualization. In particular, it can integrate more of the data that a visualization is based on, and it can also integrate information that is personally relevant to readers of a visualization. This may influence readers...... to consider a visualization a detailed enrichment of their personal experience instead of an abstract representation of anonymous numbers. However, the integration of textual detail into a visualization is often very challenging. This work discusses one particular approach to this problem, namely text......-filled stacked area graphs; i.e., graphs that feature stacked areas that are filled with small-typed text. Since these graphs allow for computing the text layout automatically, it is possible to include large amounts of textual detail with very little effort. We discuss the most important challenges and some...

  8. Social  reading - the reader on digital margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Despot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic books enrich the reading experience through a range of possibilities digital technology offers, such as commenting or adding content at the margin space, marking interesting chapters and sharing the content with other readers. The phenomenon of social reading emerges with the influence of technology in the sphere of reading books and creates interactions for readers with the content and other readers. The great potential of enriching the reading experience is visible in the digital platforms for social reading, where the interaction and the creation of new content encourages the development of new way of reading and creativity. These activities may contribute to better understanding of the text. This enhances the communication about the text thus revitalizing the content and moves the reading itself from private to public sphere. This paper will show how are the activities in the digital margins transformed into a good indicator of the reading behavior, as well as the importance and usefulness of such for publishers to create new publishing products and services.

  9. Modeling Reader's Emotional State Response on Document's Typographic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Tsonos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an experimental study towards modeling the reader's emotional state variations induced by the typographic elements in electronic documents. Based on the dimensional theory of emotions we investigate how typographic elements, like font style (bold, italics, bold-italics and font (type, size, color and background color, affect the reader's emotional states, namely, Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance (PAD. An experimental procedure was implemented conforming to International Affective Picture System guidelines and incorporating the Self-Assessment Manikin test. Thirty students participated in the experiment. The stimulus was a short paragraph of text for which any content, emotion, and/or domain dependent information was excluded. The Analysis of Variance revealed the dependency of (a all the three emotional dimensions on font size and font/background color combinations and (b the Pleasure dimension on font type and font style. We introduce a set of mapping rules showing how PAD vary on the discrete values of font style and font type elements. Moreover, we introduce a set of equations describing the PAD dimensions' dependency on font size. This novel model can contribute to the automated reader's emotional state extraction in order, for example, to enhance the acoustic rendition of the documents, utilizing text-to-speech synthesis.

  10. Effects of audience awareness on procedural text writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koichi; Matsushima, Kazutoshi

    2006-08-01

    Effects of audience awareness were examined. Some participants acted as writers and the others acted as readers. Writers wrote a text describing a geometrical figure. Readers read the text and tried to draw the figure according to the description. In Exp. 1, audience awareness was manipulated among undergraduate students, 11 men and 34 women. Writers in the high audience-awareness condition spent more time planning and writing texts than writers in the low audience-awareness condition. Texts in the high audience-awareness condition consisted of more letters and sentences with descriptions elaborating the texts. In Exp. 2, prototype texts were constructed based on the results of Exp. 1. Undergraduate students, 11 men and 47 women, who read the prototype text in the high audience-awareness condition could draw the figure more accurately. In Exp. 3, effects of feedback from readers were examined. Ninth-grade students, 22 boys and 34 girls, participated as writers and 7th-grade students, 22 boys and 34 girls, participated as readers. Merely being told to attend to an audience did not improve the quality of texts written by 9th-grade students. However, feedback from the readers who were 7th-grade students was effective. Writers could revise the texts appropriately according to feedback and improve the quality of texts. In addition, the experience of revising the text according to feedback transferred to later writing. Educational implications of the results are discussed.

  11. Kobo eReader for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sandler, Corey

    2010-01-01

    Here's how to use and love your Kobo eReader, the gadget dedicated to reading! Want to carry hundreds of books, magazines, and newspapers everywhere and not hurt your back? Load this e-book onto your Kobo eReader and we'll show you how! It's a quick-and-easy course in reading electronically, shopping for e-books, converting your own files for the eReader, getting the most from the device, and keeping your Kobo happy. Hello, Kobo - get acquainted with all the features and controls and learn how to charge the battery Go shopping - download e-books, find free books, an

  12. Quantized Algebra I Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBuvitz, William

    2014-01-01

    I am a volunteer reader at the Princeton unit of "Learning Ally" (formerly "Recording for the Blind & Dyslexic") and I recently discovered that high school students are introduced to the concept of quantization well before they take chemistry and physics. For the past few months I have been reading onto computer files a…

  13. Co-editors’ Note to Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hsin Yeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dear Cross-Currents readers, We are pleased to present you with the fifteenth quarterly issue of the Cross-Currents e-journal. The research articles in the June 2015 issue—guest edited by Elena Barabantseva (University of Manchester, Xiang Biao (University of Oxford, and Antonia Chao (Tunghai University—explore the theme “Governing Marriage Migrations: Perspectives from Mainland China and Taiwan.” The issue includes five articles by scholars from Japan, Germany, the UK, Taiwan, and Hong Kong who are engaged in critical analysis of cross-border migration for the purpose of marriage in the People’s Republic of China and Taiwan as a subject of governance. As the guest editors emphasize in their introduction, cross-border marriage is “perceived to be inseparable from a wide range of other issues, such as sexual morality, family norms, national identity, and border security.” The contributors—Hongfang Hao (Kyoto University, Caroline Grillot (Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology, Elena Barabantseva (University of Manchester, Mei-Hua Chen (National Sun Yat-sen University, and Hsun-Hui Tseng (Chinese University of Hong Kong—offer valuable new insights on international marriage migration in their multidisciplinary and fieldwork-based studies...

  14. The Accuracy of Metacomprehension Judgments: The Biasing Effect of Text Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderholm, Tracy; Wang, Xuesong; Therriault, David; Zhao, Qin; Jakiel, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Two experiments tested the hypothesis that relative metacomprehension accuracy is vulnerable when readers' cognitive efforts are biased by text order. It is proposed that the difficulty level of initial text information biases readers' estimates of text comprehension but is correctable when more cognitive effort is applied. Method:…

  15. E-Text and E-Books Are Changing the Literacy Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Bridget

    2014-01-01

    The digital world is expanding the reading palette, offering readers--especially readers who struggle with printed text--new possibilities for to engage in reading via e-text and e-books. This expanded view of text is consistent with the Common Core's vision of a successful 21st century learner who is able to critically read and communicate…

  16. Towards Quranic reader controlled by speech

    CERN Document Server

    Yekache, Yacine; Kouninef, Belkacem

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the process of designing a task-oriented continuous speech recognition system for Arabic, based on CMU Sphinx4, to be used in the voice interface of Quranic reader. The concept of the Quranic reader controlled by speech is presented, the collection of the corpus and creation of acoustic model are described in detail taking into account a specificities of Arabic language and the desired application.

  17. Exploring Ghost Worlds: A Review of 'The Daniel Clowes Reader'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy Johnston

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Clowes is undoubtedly one of the most influential and prolific cartoonists working today, with a career spanning many decades. 'The Daniel Clowes Reader' (Parille 2013 comes at the perfect time – when interest in Clowes from scholars and critics is at a high, but in which he is still perhaps given less critical attention than his peers Chris Ware, Art Spiegelman, and Marjane Satrapi, all of whom are cited twice as often as Clowes despite his large canon of significant works in comics. With recent books being published on Chris Ware by The University Press of Mississippi and the forthcoming Art Spiegelman collection from Drawn and Quarterly, more significant focused, monographic books are emerging in comics and comics criticism, and 'The Daniel Clowes Reader' is a more than welcome addition to this emergence.

  18. Inner speech during silent reading reflects the reader's regional accent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Filik

    Full Text Available While reading silently, we often have the subjective experience of inner speech. However, there is currently little evidence regarding whether this inner voice resembles our own voice while we are speaking out loud. To investigate this issue, we compared reading behaviour of Northern and Southern English participants who have differing pronunciations for words like 'glass', in which the vowel duration is short in a Northern accent and long in a Southern accent. Participants' eye movements were monitored while they silently read limericks in which the end words of the first two lines (e.g., glass/class would be pronounced differently by Northern and Southern participants. The final word of the limerick (e.g., mass/sparse then either did or did not rhyme, depending on the reader's accent. Results showed disruption to eye movement behaviour when the final word did not rhyme, determined by the reader's accent, suggesting that inner speech resembles our own voice.

  19. Social Imaginary in web advertising of e-readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Marcela Angelozzi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the imaginary meanings that appear in the advertising discourses on e-book reading devices commonly known as e-readers. It starts from the assumption that imaginary meanings are associated with both: the imaginary associated to digital technologies (Cabrera, 2006, 2011 and to the imaginary of "order of books" (Chartier, 2000, 2005. In order to carry out the exploration, the advertising discourses in the homepages of three cases are analized: The Amazon Kindle, Kobo and MovistarBq brands. The conclusion is that e-readers are devices that participate of the imaginary of the digital technologies as other devices in the complex of digital technologies in everyday life, and also refers strongly to the imaginary meanings related to printed books.

  20. [Impact on reading scientific articles:an attempt to dialogue with "my reader"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerman, Marco

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the concept of "impact" and is based on the scientific output of the author that is examined for the analysis of impacts from the qualitative standpoint. It is done not as an end in itself, but under the aegis of the author/text/reader relationship. Seeking to establish this relationship, the way in which the author is quoted in a selected article, entering each of the quotes and identifying what aspects were emphasized by the readers who referenced the quote is explored in detail. This qualitative observation of each of the quotes provided an indication of how each author/reader perceived the original text. This personal experience of this finite and delicate dialogue with "my reader" is presented here as a recommendation, to anyone who may be interested, of a viable device that can be repeated by authors in order to re-visit their writings based on the acknowledgement of the impact that it has on others.

  1. Featured Article: Genotation: Actionable knowledge for the scientific reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahawatte, Panduka; Willis, Ethan; Sakauye, Mark; Jose, Rony; Chen, Hao; Davis, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    We present an article viewer application that allows a scientific reader to easily discover and share knowledge by linking genomics-related concepts to knowledge of disparate biomedical databases. High-throughput data streams generated by technical advancements have contributed to scientific knowledge discovery at an unprecedented rate. Biomedical Informaticists have created a diverse set of databases to store and retrieve the discovered knowledge. The diversity and abundance of such resources present biomedical researchers a challenge with knowledge discovery. These challenges highlight a need for a better informatics solution. We use a text mining algorithm, Genomine, to identify gene symbols from the text of a journal article. The identified symbols are supplemented with information from the GenoDB knowledgebase. Self-updating GenoDB contains information from NCBI Gene, Clinvar, Medgen, dbSNP, KEGG, PharmGKB, Uniprot, and Hugo Gene databases. The journal viewer is a web application accessible via a web browser. The features described herein are accessible on www.genotation.org The Genomine algorithm identifies gene symbols with an accuracy shown by .65 F-Score. GenoDB currently contains information regarding 59,905 gene symbols, 5633 drug-gene relationships, 5981 gene-disease relationships, and 713 pathways. This application provides scientific readers with actionable knowledge related to concepts of a manuscript. The reader will be able to save and share supplements to be visualized in a graphical manner. This provides convenient access to details of complex biological phenomena, enabling biomedical researchers to generate novel hypothesis to further our knowledge in human health. This manuscript presents a novel application that integrates genomic, proteomic, and pharmacogenomic information to supplement content of a biomedical manuscript and enable readers to automatically discover actionable knowledge.

  2. The Narratological Style and the Reader of Evelyn Waugh’s Early Satires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roksana Zgierska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the role of the implied reader in Evelyn Waugh’s novels. An attempt will be made to define who the implied reader is and what is his position and role in fictional realm. By analysing narrative strategies and techniques within a selection of Waugh’s works, I attempt to discuss the changing relationship between author/narrator and the implied reader. I try to point that within Evelyn Waugh’s writing one can observe a simultaneous evolution of the narrator voice and the role ascribed to the implied reader. What is more, I discuss the limits of interpretation. I try to present and analyse how both the author/narrator and the text can impose limitations on the implied reader allowing him to move freely, however, within a set frame. Intertextuality is one of the focal points of the article, as I try to propose that the use of specific intertextual references in several different novels enhances the reader’s understanding of  Waugh’s fictional world. An attempt is made to prove that through analysis of different levels of understanding intertextual relation the reader takes on himself a role of creator. Furthermore, I draw attention to the places of indeterminacy. In this discussion I include both structures of indeterminacy proposed by Roman Ingarden i.e. blanks and negations, as both are needed not only to establish the interaction that takes place between text and the implied reader, but also to try to regulate such relation. An attempt will be made to explain how important filling the gaps within the text is and how completing the blanks affects the reader and the process of reading as such.

  3. Integrated Fluency Instruction: Three Approaches for Working with Struggling Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie KUHN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective fluency instruction should focus on reading with understanding, rather than simply reading quickly or expressively. This article outlines three research-based instructional approaches that assist students in developing accurate, automatic word recognition and prosody; at the same time, they ensure learners attend to the text’s meaning as they read. All three approaches integrate instructional principles known to improve reading fluency (modeling, scaffolding, repetition, and extensive opportunity for the reading of connected text. They are also clear and easy-to-implement and have proven successful with struggling readers. As a result, these approaches contribute to learners’ reading success both within and outside of the classroom.

  4. Retrieving Rightfulness – The White Moor Fairy Tale Comic Strip And The Acnowledgment By Postmodernist Readers Of An Emerging Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Andreea-Nicoleta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the impact of the Romanian The White Moor fairy tale adaptation into comic strip format on its various readers. The results of a well-developed questionnaire, randomly sent to some of the graphic version readers, are interpreted and unforeseen results thereafter highlight the weightiness of comics, despite steady disesteem and recurrent association with low-culture.

  5. Geometric Distribution-Based Readers Scheduling Optimization Algorithm Using Artificial Immune System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litian Duan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the multiple-reader environment (MRE of radio frequency identification (RFID system, multiple readers are often scheduled to interrogate the randomized tags via operating at different time slots or frequency channels to decrease the signal interferences. Based on this, a Geometric Distribution-based Multiple-reader Scheduling Optimization Algorithm using Artificial Immune System (GD-MRSOA-AIS is proposed to fairly and optimally schedule the readers operating from the viewpoint of resource allocations. GD-MRSOA-AIS is composed of two parts, where a geometric distribution function combined with the fairness consideration is first introduced to generate the feasible scheduling schemes for reader operation. After that, artificial immune system (including immune clone, immune mutation and immune suppression quickly optimize these feasible ones as the optimal scheduling scheme to ensure that readers are fairly operating with larger effective interrogation range and lower interferences. Compared with the state-of-the-art algorithm, the simulation results indicate that GD-MRSOA-AIS could efficiently schedules the multiple readers operating with a fairer resource allocation scheme, performing in larger effective interrogation range.

  6. RAC-Multi: Reader Anti-Collision Algorithm for Multichannel Mobile RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwangcheol Shin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, RFID is installed on mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs and provides a means to obtain information about objects equipped with an RFID tag over a multi-channeled telecommunication networks. To use mobile RFIDs, reader collision problems should be addressed given that readers are continuously moving. Moreover, in a multichannel environment for mobile RFIDs, interference between adjacent channels should be considered. This work first defines a new concept of a reader collision problem between adjacent channels and then suggests a novel reader anti-collision algorithm for RFID readers that use multiple channels. To avoid interference with adjacent channels, the suggested algorithm separates data channels into odd and even numbered channels and allocates odd-numbered channels first to readers. It also sets an unused channel between the control channel and data channels to ensure that control messages and the signal of the adjacent channel experience no interference. Experimental results show that suggested algorithm shows throughput improvements ranging from 29% to 46% for tag identifications compared to the GENTLE reader anti-collision algorithm for multichannel RFID networks.

  7. Networks of reader and country status: an analysis of Mendeley reader statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Haunschild

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of papers published in journals indexed by the Web of Science core collection is steadily increasing. In recent years, nearly two million new papers were published each year; somewhat more than one million papers when primary research papers are considered only (articles and reviews are the document types where primary research is usually reported or reviewed. However, who reads these papers? More precisely, which groups of researchers from which (self-assigned scientific disciplines and countries are reading these papers? Is it possible to visualize readership patterns for certain countries, scientific disciplines, or academic status groups? One popular method to answer these questions is a network analysis. In this study, we analyze Mendeley readership data of a set of 1,133,224 articles and 64,960 reviews with publication year 2012 to generate three different networks: (1 The network based on disciplinary affiliations of Mendeley readers contains four groups: (i biology, (ii social sciences and humanities (including relevant computer sciences, (iii bio-medical sciences, and (iv natural sciences and engineering. In all four groups, the category with the addition “miscellaneous” prevails. (2 The network of co-readers in terms of professional status shows that a common interest in papers is mainly shared among PhD students, Master’s students, and postdocs. (3 The country network focusses on global readership patterns: a group of 53 nations is identified as core to the scientific enterprise, including Russia and China as well as two thirds of the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.

  8. Reader Response Theory in the High School English Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Karen Yvonne

    A study examined the theory concerning reader response and the rationale and practice of reader response in the high school English curriculum. Formal experimental studies existed that explored reader response practices in the high school setting, but no formal studies existed on the questioning practices of potential reader response teachers. A…

  9. A Customizable Text Classifier for Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-liang Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Text mining deals with complex and unstructured texts. Usually a particular collection of texts that is specified to one or more domains is necessary. We have developed a customizable text classifier for users to mine the collection automatically. It derives from the sentence category of the HNC theory and corresponding techniques. It can start with a few texts, and it can adjust automatically or be adjusted by user. The user can also control the number of domains chosen and decide the standard with which to choose the texts based on demand and abundance of materials. The performance of the classifier varies with the user's choice.

  10. The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Heath, R.

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a

  11. The differential effects of position, ad and reader characteristics on readers' processing of newspaper ads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.G.; Neijens, P.C.; Heath, R.

    2013-01-01

    Building on previous research on the processing of newspaper ads, this comprehensive field study, with 26,556 newspaper readers and 290 unique advertisements, investigated the combined effects of position in the newspaper, ad characteristics and reader characteristics. The results show a differentia

  12. Using Diagnostic Text Information to Constrain Situation Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutke, S.; Baadte, C.; Hähnel, A.; Hecker, U. von; Rinck, M.

    2010-01-01

    During reading, the model of the situation described by the text is continuously accommodated to new text input. The hypothesis was tested that readers are particularly sensitive to diagnostic text information that can be used to constrain their existing situation model. In 3 experiments, adult part

  13. Using texts in science education: cognitive processes and knowledge representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, Paul

    2010-04-23

    Texts form a powerful tool in teaching concepts and principles in science. How do readers extract information from a text, and what are the limitations in this process? Central to comprehension of and learning from a text is the construction of a coherent mental representation that integrates the textual information and relevant background knowledge. This representation engenders learning if it expands the reader's existing knowledge base or if it corrects misconceptions in this knowledge base. The Landscape Model captures the reading process and the influences of reader characteristics (such as working-memory capacity, reading goal, prior knowledge, and inferential skills) and text characteristics (such as content/structure of presented information, processing demands, and textual cues). The model suggests factors that can optimize--or jeopardize--learning science from text.

  14. Readers with Autism Can Produce Inferences, but they Cannot Answer Inferential Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Maria J; Saldaña, David

    2016-03-01

    Readers with autism (ASD), poor comprehension (PC), and typical development (TD) took part in three reading experiments requiring the production of inferences. In Experiments 1 and 2 reading times for target phrases-placed immediately after text implicitly indicating the emotion of a protagonist or after a number of filler sentences, respectively--were used as measures of inferencing. In Experiment 3, participants were explicitly asked to identify the protagonist's emotion. There were no significant differences among groups in Experiment 1. Compared to TD readers, the PC group performed poorly in Experiments 2 and 3. ASD readers performed worse than PC participants only in the explicit-question task. Although ASD readers can produce inferences, they respond to questions about them with difficulty.

  15. A Critical Review of Librarians’ Ideology of Good Reading, from Reader-response Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-ming Lai

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available “The best reading for the largest number at the least cost” has been the most influential motto for librarians since 19th century. Under the motto, librarians intend to collect the best reading for the largest number of reader to read. However, studies have shown that librarians have no power over the creation of the best reading. The making of canons actually, is dominated by scholarly community. Also, from reader-response theory, each reader has his/her own interpretative community, how can we expect him/her to esteem the elitist's best reading? The author finally, advocates that librarians should let the reader to gear his/her interpretation.[Article content in Chinese

  16. To Our Readers In the New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    WITH the deepening of China’s reform and the expansion of the policy of opening to the world, we greet the year 1995. A new year means a chance for development and a new beginning for any person or career. The editorial department of Women of China sends its best wishes to all our readers. Women of China magazine has entered its 39th year since its establishment. With love and concern from our large readership, the magazine has made friends with readers from countries and regions all over the

  17. Passive microfluidic array card and reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Lawrence Christopher [Modesto, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA

    2011-08-09

    A microfluidic array card and reader system for analyzing a sample. The microfluidic array card includes a sample loading section for loading the sample onto the microfluidic array card, a multiplicity of array windows, and a transport section or sections for transporting the sample from the sample loading section to the array windows. The microfluidic array card reader includes a housing, a receiving section for receiving the microfluidic array card, a viewing section, and a light source that directs light to the array window of the microfluidic array card and to the viewing section.

  18. Reader construction in interactive online journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    how online journalists are constructing their readers, seeking to explain how these views affect practices of journalism. Gans idea of the “constructed public” is re-visited, by analyzing the newsroom negotiations between one hand enabling the user participation and on the other hand their very...... be seen as journalistic positioning strategies and interactivity and mediated connectivity as both vital and challenging for the very field of journalism. This indicates that not only do the different kinds of interactivity seem to imply different kind of readers – they also seem to imply different ideals...

  19. Computational text analysis and reading comprehension exam complexity towards automatic text classification

    CERN Document Server

    Liontou, Trisevgeni

    2014-01-01

    This book delineates a range of linguistic features that characterise the reading texts used at the B2 (Independent User) and C1 (Proficient User) levels of the Greek State Certificate of English Language Proficiency exams in order to help define text difficulty per level of competence. In addition, it examines whether specific reader variables influence test takers' perceptions of reading comprehension difficulty. The end product is a Text Classification Profile per level of competence and a formula for automatically estimating text difficulty and assigning levels to texts consistently and re

  20. Reader preference for report typefaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M B; Daglish, H N; Adams, J A

    1979-06-01

    A postal survey of typeface preference is described. The survey was designed to help in the choice of typeface to be used for the internal technical Reports produced by the Post Office Research Department. Type setting for these Reports is carried out using an IBM Selectric Composer for which seven typefaces suitable for reports are available. One hundred and twenty-five people who regularly receive copies of these Reports and 57 Trainee Technicians (Apprentices) were asked to arrange these seven typefaces in order of preference and record this ranking on a response sheet. About 85% of both groups returned response sheets for statistical analysis. The results showed a significant preference for three of the typefaces: Press Roman, Theme and Univers. Of these, Press Roman is used for the text of Research Department Reports and Univers is used on diagrams and tables.

  1. Cartography "LEAi" of the International Network of Universities Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Ramírez Leyva

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the project of Cartography "LEAi" which aims to create a cartographic information system on the actions, achievements and experiences of reading, writing and information literacy in the Mexican universities. The methodology behind the project is the social mappings, which allows information and systematize it. The project is based on the participatory action research. It includes the first results of the implementation of an electronic questionnaire to the first participants of the project are presented. The Cartography is part of the collaborative activities that encouraged the International Network of Universities Readers (RIUL.

  2. Language Learner Strategy by Chinese-Speaking EFL Readers When Comprehending Familiar and Unfamiliar Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jia-Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the language learner and test-taking strategies used by Chinese-speaking graduate students when confronted with familiar versus unfamiliar topics in an English multiple-choice format reading comprehension test. Thirty-six participants at a large mid-western university performed three tasks: A content knowledge vocabulary…

  3. Considering the Context and Texts for Fluency: Performance, Readers Theater, and Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Nageldinger, James

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the importance of teaching reading fluency and all of its components, including automaticity and prosody. The authors explain how teachers can create a context for reading fluency instruction by engaging students in reading performance activities. To support the instructional contexts, the authors suggest particular…

  4. Get A.C.T.I.V.E: Engaging Middle School Readers with Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Explains that a Middle School Literacy Teacher Expert supports and guides teachers with innovative strategies to help students master basic literacy skills to become lifelong learners. Explains the A.C.T.I.V.E. strategy to encourage students to ask, comment, track down, infer, visualize, and Eureka! (synthesize). (PM)

  5. The Reader, The Text, The Response: Literary Theory and Reading Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Robert F.

    1985-01-01

    Explores the possibility that literary theorists and reading researchers are unconscious of each others interests, goals, and assumptions. Seeks to explore how the gaps between these two areas might best be bridged. (EL)

  6. Prizing Children's Science Information Books: The Text, Reading and the Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Joy; Jarman, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The Royal Society Young People's Book Prize is awarded annually in the United Kingdom for the best science information book, and the winning book is chosen by panels of young people. This article discusses the findings of a study of the responses to the books and to their judging experience of young people who participated on panels in the 2011…

  7. Hedging: An Exploratory Study of Authors' and Readers' Identification of "Toning Down" in Scientific Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Beverly A.

    2005-01-01

    In preparing students for their future discourse communities, the EAP/ESP literature has shown interest in the role of hedges in scientific literature. This interest has resulted in several studies that define and classify hedges, and hypothesize about their purpose. With these as our theoretical basis, we are led to ask "What is the relation to…

  8. Comparing the Readability of Text Displays on Paper, E-Book Readers, and Small Screen Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Rebecca Dawn

    2010-01-01

    Science fiction has long promised the digitalization of books. Characters in films and television routinely check their palm-sized (or smaller) electronic displays for fast-scrolling information. However, this very technology, increasingly prevalent in today's world, has not been embraced universally. While the convenience of pocket-sized…

  9. Readerly and Writerly "Letters from the Park."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Susana

    1993-01-01

    Discusses in depth the film "Cartas del parque" ("Letters from the Park"), the first of six films in the "Amores Dificiles" series. Notes that the film is pervaded by the traditional overdetermination of gender roles. Suggests that an intrusive and authoritative narrator makes of this both a "readerly" and a…

  10. Reader Response: Young Children Can Do That!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Kaye; Johnston, Cammie

    2000-01-01

    Describes "reader response" teaching techniques to enhance young children's critical thinking skills, build a sound literacy foundation, and clarify the relationship between reading and writing. Provides examples of response logs/journal entries, aesthetic responses such as drawings and dramatic reenactments, and student discussions…

  11. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  12. Japanese-American Internment. A Historical Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This Historical Reader on "Japanese American Internment" in World War II introduces students to key events and issues during the period through the voices of people with firsthand experienced. Source documents and illustrations are arranged in chronological order and/or thematic units that establish context. Each selection is followed by…

  13. Identification of N(6)-methyladenosine reader proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Katherine I; Liu, Nian; Pan, Tao

    2017-08-15

    The reversible N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modification of eukaryotic messenger RNAs (mRNAs) is a widespread regulatory mechanism that impacts every step in the mRNA life cycle. The effect of m(6)A on mRNA fate depends on the binding of "m(6)A reader" proteins - RNA binding proteins that specifically bind to RNAs containing m(6)A. Here, we describe an RNA pull-down method that can be used to identify novel m(6)A reader proteins starting from a known m(6)A-modified site in cellular or viral RNA. We further describe how a combination of immunoprecipitation-based sequencing methods can be used to identify m(6)A-modified sites bound by an m(6)A reader protein on a transcriptome-wide level. The discovery of new m(6)A reader proteins and their m(6)A-modified targets would provide further insight into the mechanisms and functions of m(6)A in the cell. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Understanding Deaf Readers: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelstone, Aaron Weir

    2013-01-01

    The development of reading skills, beyond a functional level, is difficult for most deaf readers. Standardized testing demonstrates a median 4th grade reading level that remains consistent even after national norming of the Stanford Achievement test on the population of deaf school children. Deaf education continues to generate various educational…

  15. Classic Readers Theatre for Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchers, Suzanne I.; Kroll, Jennifer L.

    This book presents 16 original scripts that have been adapted from classic works of literature for use for readers theatre with young adults and ESL (English as a Second Language) students. Adaptations of the following works are included: "Little Women" (Louisa May Alcott); episodes from "Don Quixote" (Miguel de Cervantes; "The Necklace" (Guy de…

  16. Revisiting the Reader's Rudder: A Comprehension Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    Presents the structured comprehension method, a strategy that facilitates literal, inferential, and critical reading comprehension for passive readers who can decode but not comprehend. Uses the method to illustrate how other areas of students' instruction (e.g., vocabulary enhancement through morphemic analysis, use of a phonogram approach to…

  17. The Emergent Reader's Working Kit of Stereotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This article draws on a careful study of series fiction read in the 1950s to explore how stereotypes feature in the development of a young reader's competence in learning to process stories in print. Five categories of stereotype are teased out: "embodied stereotypes," understood through physical experience; "working stereotypes," discerned…

  18. Vocabulary Instruction for Second Language Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, Deanna L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, research has consistently affirmed the importance of explicit vocabulary instruction for adult learners of English as a second language (ESL). Given the significant vocabulary demands faced by adult second language readers, ESL teachers must carefully target their instruction for maximum impact and to foster meaningful…

  19. Print Readers' Perceptions of Various Advertising Formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Charles W., Jr.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The findings of a study of print readers' perceptions of the believability and interest of various advertising formats fail to support increasing either the frequency or specificity of comparative messages. The findings suggest that advertisers should consider the dimensions of intensity and directionality in their message development. (GT)

  20. Transcending Bias through Reader-Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soublis, Theoni; Winkler, Erik

    2004-01-01

    The preservice teachers from all disciplines will be benefited if they incorporate reading in their classes according to Dr. Louise Rosenblatt's reader-response theory. A teacher's experience with her students while reading Chris Crutcher's "Staying Fat for Sarah Byanes" in the Secondary Content Area and a student's response on the novel are…

  1. Combining Phonics: Approaches for Problem Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, M. K.

    1982-01-01

    A method of teaching phonics to primary grade disabled readers which combines analytic, synthetic, and linguistic methods is described. The method involves starting with sight words, starting phonics synthetically with consonants, teaching other consonants analytically, adapting linguistic methods for vowels, and encouraging the use of context.…

  2. Filling Empty Pockets: Remedial Readers Make Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisio, Marie

    1989-01-01

    Describes the effect on junior high remedial readers of a reading workshop applying principles from Nancie Atwell's "In the Middle," including self-selection of adolescent literature books, silent reading, dialogue journal writing, and sharing work with others. Augments the workshop with "mini-lessons" on elements of reading…

  3. An Approach to Making Students Autonomous Readers of the English Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perdomo C María Elena

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to point out the need to make students autonomous readers through the development of thinking skills such as the ability to classify, compare, deduce, induce and synthesise and reading strategies (prediction, global understanding of a text, inferences, and deduction of meaning through vocabulary.

  4. Sexualities in Education: A Reader. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 367

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Erica R., Ed.; Quinn, Therese, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With germinal texts, new writings, and related art, "Sexualities in Education: A Reader" illuminates a broad scope of analysis and organization. Composed of a framing essay and nine sections edited by established and emerging scholars and addressing critical topics for researchers and students of sexualities and education, the text provides a…

  5. Self-Assessment of Word Knowledge with Graded Readers: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan-a-rom, Udorn

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated how second language (L2) learners self-assessed word knowledge on a page of text taken from a graded reader. The case study subjects were five Thai high school learners of English. They were asked to assess their word knowledge using a page of continuous text. Data gained through observation, interviews, self-assessment and…

  6. Is It Still Considered Reading? Using Digital Video Storytelling to Engage Adolescent Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Ginger

    2010-01-01

    In order to comprehend and ultimately enjoy reading a text, a reader must first be engaged in it. However, many high school students have difficulty engaging with texts for a variety of reasons. This study was interested in innovative solutions to this problem and examined the educational and aesthetic value of a particular digital video reading…

  7. ESL Readers' Perceptions of Reading in Well Structured and Less Structured Hypertext Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Seghayer, Khalid

    2005-01-01

    Current electronic text formats can hinder the acquisition of main ideas or the central representation of a text unless some structural cues are embedded in the reading environment. This principle is based on the premise of cognitive psychology that learning is a reorganization of cognitive structure and that readers are most likely incapable of…

  8. Text Maps: Helping Students Navigate Informational Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that a text map is an instructional approach designed to help students gain fluency in reading content area materials. Discusses how the goal is to teach students about the important features of the material and how the maps can be used to build new understandings. Presents the procedures for preparing and using a text map. (SG)

  9. How readers perceive translated literary works: an analysis of reader reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela D'Egidio

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - The aim of this paper is to investigate the reader’s reception of translated literary texts and to explore the reader’s expectations about literary works. For this purpose, three comparable corpora of British, American and Italian online book reviews commenting on the English version of Andrea Camilleri’s La forma dell’acqua (The Shape of Water and on the Italian version of Stephen King’s Joyland were assembled and analysed. The way active target language readers perceive and evaluate a translated literary work was then explored by taking the language they actually used in book recommendation websites. The analysis demonstrates that the Anglo-American and Italian readers’ reception of the translated text is different, in terms of focus and perception. Riassunto - Il presente articolo esplora il modo in cui i lettori recepiscono testi letterari tradotti e quali sono le loro aspettative. A tale scopo sono stati raccolti e analizzati tre corpora comparabili di recensioni online scritte da lettori britannici, americani e italiani sulla versione inglese de La forma dell’acqua di Andrea Camilleri e sulla versione italiana di Joyland di Stephen King. In particolare, l’articolo esplora il modo in cui i lettori della lingua di arrivo percepiscono e valutano un’opera letteraria tradotta partendo dal linguaggio da usato dai lettori nei siti web di recensioni di libri. L’analisi dimostra che i lettori anglo-americani e italiani percepiscono un testo tradotto in modo differente e ne commentano aspetti differenti.

  10. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception "could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people" (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000). The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female) were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers) or slow speech (female only). These recordings were then played back to 48 female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader's breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialog, no clear evidence for a listener-reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener-speaker coupling.

  11. A study on the development of an infographic reader questionnaire and reader opinions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yıldırım Serkan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational materials are commonly used to assist with communication during learning. One of the ways to determine the use of educational materials and their contribution to the learning process is to ask students for their opinions. Student opinions provide useful information regarding various objectives such as making both the learning process and resources more effective, bringing about the necessary improvements and organising the teaching process. In this study, we developed a questionnaire for determining the opinions of information graphics (infographics readers on information graphics prepared for teaching purposes. This study was conducted in the fall semester of the 2013-2014 academic year with the participation of 59 students from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies Education of the Kazım Karabekir Faculty of Education. The students were provided with a questionnaire consisting of 29 items that inquired their opinions on infographics. The collected data were assessed using Principal Component Analysis. Based on the analysis results, a second questionnaire consisting of 23 items and six factors (Learnability, Selection Preferences, Sharing, Basic Presentation Structure, Memorability, and Role in the Learning Process was developed. According to the study results, the students considered infographics as highly instructive, and described that they help ensure a more lasting learning experience.

  12. Reading on the Internet: Realizing and Constructing Potential Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Byeong-Young; Afflerbach, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Successful Internet reading requires making strategic decisions about what texts to read and a sequence for reading them, all in accordance with readers' goals. In this paper, we describe the process of realizing and constructing potential texts as an important and critical part of successful Internet reading and use verbal report data to…

  13. Comprehending Conflicting Science-Related Texts: Graphs as Plausibility Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias; Maier, Johanna; Knuth-Herzig, Katja; Horz, Holger; Schnotz, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    When reading conflicting science-related texts, readers may attend to cues which allow them to assess plausibility. One such plausibility cue is the use of graphs in the texts, which are regarded as typical of "hard science." The goal of our study was to investigate the effects of the presence of graphs on the perceived plausibility and…

  14. Slaying Monsters: Students' Aesthetic Transactions with Gothic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nero, Jennifer Renner

    2017-01-01

    This study employed case study methodology and design research to examine what aesthetic transactions (readers' thoughts, feelings, associations, etc. that arise during a text encounter) students constructed in response to texts in a Gothic studies reading unit created by the author. The study was conducted in a seventh-grade reading classroom.…

  15. Effectiveness of Critical Thinking Skills for English Literature Study with Reader Response Theory: Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Qamar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Since Socrates’ time, reasoning is considered valuable for the justification of speaker’s belief along with Thomas Aquinas’ testing of his thinking to answer his own thinking. Critical thinking has been part of discussion among the educators for its significance and application for last many decades. Many educators have conducted researches on the assessment of critical thinking within a domain or across the domain in order to test students’ critical thinking skills and its effect on their learning. Similarly, critical thinking is highly valuable for the study of literature as it explicitly asked for learners’ beliefs, perceptions, and judgments in order to remove the ambiguity of thought. Perfection of thought can be achieved with the use of critical thinking skills while training of mind needs interaction between literary text and the reader as literature has the capacity to achieve mental traits specified to critical thinking. Accordingly, this report presents a relationship between critical thinking skills and English literature study along with reader response theory techniques considering that without the use of critical thinking skills and reader response theory, study of literature is haphazard hence for the application of reader response theory, literary text is inevitable. In essence, I aim to highlight the effectiveness of critical thinking skills for the study of literature while emphasizing the significance of reader response theory which is also inevitable for the study of literature and for the use of critical thinking skills.

  16. Individual differences in children’s knowledge of expository text structures: A review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa N. RAY

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this review of literature we examine empirical research of individual differences in younger readers’ knowledge and use of expository text structures. The goal of this review is to explore the influence of reader and text characteristics in order to better understand the instructional needs of elementary school readers. First we review research which has examined the influence of two textual characteristics: the hierarchical organization of macro-and micro-level propositions and the type of text structure (e.g. collection, comparison, problem-and-solution. Then we review research of three reader characteristics: overall comprehension skill, age, and prior knowledge and how their influences may vary in relation to the aforementioned text characteristics. Our review of research suggests that readers of all ages may benefit from explicit instruction in text structure, particularly less-skilled comprehenders. Text structure instruction should focus on highly structured texts like comparison, causation, and problem-and solution.

  17. Metacognition and reading: Comparing three forms of metacognition in normally developing readers and readers with dyslexia

    OpenAIRE

    Furnes, Bjarte Reidar; Norman, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition refers to ‘cognition about cognition’ and includes metacognitive knowledge, strategies and experiences (Efklides, 2008; Flavell, 1979). Research on reading has shown that better readers demonstrate more metacognitive knowledge than poor readers (Baker & Beall, 2009), and that reading ability improves through strategy instruction (Gersten, Fuchs, Williams, & Baker, 2001). The current study is the first to specifically compare the three forms of metacognition in dyslexic (N = 22) ...

  18. An MILP-Based Cross-Layer Optimization for a Multi-Reader Arbitration in the UHF RFID System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaewoo Lee

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In RFID systems, the performance of each reader such as interrogation range and tag recognition rate may suffer from interferences from other readers. Since the reader interference can be mitigated by output signal power control, spectral and/or temporal separation among readers, the system performance depends on how to adapt the various reader arbitration metrics such as time, frequency, and output power to the system environment. However, complexity and difficulty of the optimization problem increase with respect to the variety of the arbitration metrics. Thus, most proposals in previous study have been suggested to primarily prevent the reader collision with consideration of one or two arbitration metrics. In this paper, we propose a novel cross-layer optimization design based on the concept of combining time division, frequency division, and power control not only to solve the reader interference problem, but also to achieve the multiple objectives such as minimum interrogation delay, maximum reader utilization, and energy efficiency. Based on the priority of the multiple objectives, our cross-layer design optimizes the system sequentially by means of the mixed-integer linear programming. In spite of the multi-stage optimization, the optimization design is formulated as a concise single mathematical form by properly assigning a weight to each objective. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimization design.

  19. Using miscue analysis to assess comprehension in deaf college readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, John; Mayer, Connie

    2011-01-01

    For over 30 years, teachers have used miscue analysis as a tool to assess and evaluate the reading abilities of hearing students in elementary and middle schools and to design effective literacy programs. More recently, teachers of deaf and hard-of-hearing students have also reported its usefulness for diagnosing word- and phrase-level reading difficulties and for planning instruction. To our knowledge, miscue analysis has not been used with older, college-age deaf students who might also be having difficulty decoding and understanding text at the word level. The goal of this study was to determine whether such an analysis would be helpful in identifying the source of college students' reading comprehension difficulties. After analyzing the miscues of 10 college-age readers and the results of other comprehension-related tasks, we concluded that comprehension of basic grade school-level passages depended on the ability to recognize and comprehend key words and phrases in these texts. We also concluded that these diagnostic procedures provided useful information about the reading abilities and strategies of each reader that had implications for designing more effective interventions.

  20. Using Reader Response in a College Literature Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soles, Derek

    1995-01-01

    Claims that the insights of reader response theory can be brought into the teaching of poetry in college literature courses. Outlines methods for utilizing reader response techniques to help students enjoy and understand poetry. (HB)

  1. 21 CFR 866.2850 - Automated zone reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2850 Automated zone reader. (a) Identification. An automated zone reader is a mechanical device intended for medical purposes...

  2. A Problem Solving Framework for Managing Poor Readers in Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Judith S.

    1988-01-01

    Points out that poor readers may exhibit behavioral, cognitive, and emotional problems. Offers a problem-solving framework for intervention in poor readers' nonacademic problems, and describes several possible types of intervention. (ARH)

  3. A study of primary science teachers' ability to restructure knowledge in scientific texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh-Yeo, Wan Inn

    The ability of elementary science teachers to restructure knowledge in an unfamiliar scientific text is investigated in this study. Science in schools is said to be characterized by an extensive reliance on textbooks with little evidence of inquiry on the part of students and teachers. The successful implementation of any inquiry science program can only be achieved if teachers can access knowledge in resources such as scientific books and journals which they are able to read critically, and translate and transform that knowledge. Participants were twelve high school graduates undertaking a teacher training course in Singapore. Recalls, problem solving, and ConSAT maps were used as a measure of readers' textbase representation, situational representation and cognitive structures respectively. The target text rewritten for a colleague and for 6sp{th} graders were used as a measure of readers' ability to restructure knowledge. Qualitative and quantitative analyses have shown a difference between able and less able readers on these measures. Able readers recalled more key concepts than less able readers and used the global text structure. Problem solutions of able readers were based on the principles of fermentation with immediate recognition of the variable and its implied consequences and likely solution. The more coherent textbase and situational representations of able readers is reflected in the ConSAT maps of such readers which approximated 44.45% of the criterion map in contrast to less than 25% for less able readers. Not surprisingly, able readers demonstrated to some degree, an ability to restructure knowledge while less able readers did not. Based on the findings of the study the investigator challenges the assumption about reading proficiency of trainee teachers and suggests attention should be paid to literacy requirements and practices. If teachers are unable to restructure knowledge in scientific texts, it is highly unlikely that they would be able to

  4. Effects of preferred retinal locus placement on text navigation and development of advantageous trained retinal locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gale R; Schuchard, Ronald A; De l'Aune, William R; Watkins, Erica

    2006-01-01

    Sixty readers were evaluated for visual function and text-navigation ability. The visual field and preferred retinal locus (PRL) were measured with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO). We found significant differences in text-navigation ability based on scotoma and PRL placement. Readers with a PRL to the left of or above a scotoma had significantly less text-navigation abilities. Readers with a PRL to the left of a scotoma tended to misread words with similar beginnings and omit the last word on a line. Readers with a PRL above a scotoma tended to skip a line or reread the same line twice. In a follow-up study, seven subjects with a nonadvantageous PRL quickly developed a trained retinal locus (TRL) during instruction with an SLO. Although the readers developed the TRL in about 15 minutes, they read slower with the TRL than the PRL. This TRL research provides promising pilot data.

  5. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  6. Reader construction in interactive online journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    Studies suggest that online news journalists are very sceptical towards the value of the user participation, because of what they perceive as poor quality of the public participation, the scepticism varies from one interactivity feature to another and from newsroom to newsroom. This paper examines...... how online journalists are constructing their readers, seeking to explain how these views affect practices of journalism. Gans idea of the “constructed public” is re-visited, by analyzing the newsroom negotiations between one hand enabling the user participation and on the other hand their very...... be seen as journalistic positioning strategies and interactivity and mediated connectivity as both vital and challenging for the very field of journalism. This indicates that not only do the different kinds of interactivity seem to imply different kind of readers – they also seem to imply different ideals...

  7. Common Core Standards, Professional Texts, and Diverse Learners: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanoff, Elizabeth; LaDuke, Aja; Lindner, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This research study questioned the degree to which six professional texts guiding implementation of the Common Core Standards in reading address the needs of diverse learners. For the purposes of this research, diverse learners were specifically defined as above grade level readers, below grade level readers, and English learners. The researchers…

  8. Effects of Task Instruction and Personal Epistemology on the Understanding of Multiple Texts about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braten, Ivar; Stromso, Helge I.

    2010-01-01

    In present-day knowledge societies, readers cannot understand complex issues without constructing meaning across multiple information sources. To what extent they are able to do so may depend on both characteristics of reading tasks and characteristics of readers themselves. In this study, 184 undergraduates read multiple texts about the complex…

  9. Plastic Logic quits e-reader market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perks, Simon

    2012-07-01

    A UK firm spun out from the University of Cambridge that sought to be a world leader in flexible organic electronic circuits and displays has pulled out of the competitive e-reader market as it struggles to find a commercial outlet for its technology. Plastic Logic announced in May that it is to close its development facility in Mountain View, California, with the loss of around 40 jobs.

  10. Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Broughton, John

    2008-01-01

    Wikipedia Reader's Guide: The Missing Manual gives you the essential tools for getting the most out of Wikipedia. As a supplement to Wikipedia: The Missing Manual, this handbook provides a basic road map to the largest online collaborative encyclopedia. You'll learn the best ways to search Wikipedia for the information you need, how to navigate the encyclopedia by category, and what to do if you spot an error in an article.

  11. A Comparison of Laterality Between Normal and Dyslexic Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Barbara

    Examined with 38 right-handed boys who were either dyslexic or normal readers and matched for age and IQ (mean age both groups=10.6, mean IQ normal readers=106, mean IQ dyslexic readers=105) were the weak, strong, and equal lateralization theories of dyslexia. Cerebral lateralization was measured for linguistic material (digits) using the dichotic…

  12. 21 CFR 886.5800 - Ophthalmic bar reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic bar reader. 886.5800 Section 886.5800...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5800 Ophthalmic bar reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic bar reader is a device that consists of a magnifying lens intended for use by a...

  13. Are You a Reader? 5th Graders Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Diane; Barone, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    The author tells the story of a 5th-grade teacher who challenges her class to take on self-identities as readers. Students defined seven characteristics of what it means to be a good reader and considered whether those characteristics applied to them: Good readers read for fun, talk about books, usually finish the book they're reading, can relate…

  14. 21 CFR 886.5810 - Ophthalmic prism reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ophthalmic prism reader. 886.5810 Section 886.5810...) MEDICAL DEVICES OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 886.5810 Ophthalmic prism reader. (a) Identification. An ophthalmic prism reader is a device intended for use by a patient who is in a supine position...

  15. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  16. Reader Engagement in English and Persian Applied Linguistics Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansarin, Ali Akbar; Tarlani-Aliabdi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in the way academic writers establish the presence of their readers over the past few years. Establishing the presence of readers or what Kroll (1984, p.181) calls imagining "a second voice" is accomplished when a writer refers "explicitly" to their readers using explicit linguistic resources…

  17. Inferential processes in readers with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosende-Vázquez, Marta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to know if the source of the difficulty in making inferences, readers with Down syndrome, is in access to prior knowledge or constructing ideas from purely textual knowledge (based on Saldaña and Frith, 2002 for autism. Involved a sample of 20 students with Down syndrome and mild mental retardation (mean IQ = 60 and a control group of 20 children without cognitive deficits. They were matched as to their extent read metal age via Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (average 8 years. We created two experimental situations: a subjects had to generate inferences based on physical knowledge, b social inferences about knowledge. The ability to check and reaction times in the activation of inferences about physical and social knowledge. We also analyzed the influence that the effect "priming". Results showed: a a rate of correct inferences similar verification tasks between the two groups, b Down subjects take longer to access knowledge that the previous text, c reaction times used by subjects Down were higher in activating physical inferences, d there were no significant differences in the population without reaction times gap between physical and social inferences e subjects without deficits benefited effect "priming" in both types of inferences f Down subjects only improve reaction time in the inferences of social nature. El presente estudio pretende conocer si el origen de la dificultad para realizar inferencias, en lectores con Síndrome de Down, se encuentra en el acceso al conocimiento previo o en la construcción de ideas a partir del conocimiento puramente textual (basándonos en Saldaña y Frith, 2002 para autismo. Participó una muestra de 20 alumnos con Síndrome de Down y discapacidad mental leve (media de C.I.= 60 y un grupo control de 20 alumnos sin déficit cognitivo. Ambos fueron igualados en cuanto a su edad mental lectora medida a través de la Prueba de Evaluación del Retraso Lector (media 8 a

  18. Text analysis with R for students of literature

    CERN Document Server

    Jockers, Matthew L

    2014-01-01

    Text Analysis with R for Students of Literature is written with students and scholars of literature in mind but will be applicable to other humanists and social scientists wishing to extend their methodological tool kit to include quantitative and computational approaches to the study of text. Computation provides access to information in text that we simply cannot gather using traditional qualitative methods of close reading and human synthesis. Text Analysis with R for Students of Literature provides a practical introduction to computational text analysis using the open source programming language R. R is extremely popular throughout the sciences and because of its accessibility, R is now used increasingly in other research areas. Readers begin working with text right away and each chapter works through a new technique or process such that readers gain a broad exposure to core R procedures and a basic understanding of the possibilities of computational text analysis at both the micro and macro scale. Each c...

  19. Becoming an Efficient Reader: A Proposal for a School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaona G Esperanza

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Reading should be the cornerstone of a school’s curriculum in order to build up the other skills. Despite the fact that reading tends to be an obligation and a hard task, it should be seen as a fun activity which will extend the student’s knowledge of the world. Reading efficiently in volves not only understanding, speed and fluency, but also the application of the student’s knowledge, thus promoting critical thinking. That is to say, the “ability to reach sound conclusions based on observation and information”. Due to the importance of acquiring reading skills in a foreign language, we see the necessity to stimulate students toward becoming efficient readers. That means avoiding word by word reading (Williams: 1984, and developing students’ abilities to understand and comprehend a text and to read fluently

  20. O Globo´s new website and the sudden change of authority in the relationship with readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa de Morais Ribeiro Mendes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This essay addresses O Globo’s campaign to reaffirm its authority in relation to its readers, starting with the launching of its new site in November 2011. In this space, some instruments of public participation were removed – some temporarily, others not – and all commentary on material prior to the change disappeared. The reader´s articles area was also excluded. We tried to understand what this and other changes incorporated in the site project represented for the relationship of O Globo and its readers.

  1. Changes in breathing while listening to read speech: the effect of reader and speech mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochet-Capellan, Amélie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    The current paper extends previous work on breathing during speech perception and provides supplementary material regarding the hypothesis that adaptation of breathing during perception “could be a basis for understanding and imitating actions performed by other people” (Paccalin and Jeannerod, 2000). The experiments were designed to test how the differences in reader breathing due to speaker-specific characteristics, or differences induced by changes in loudness level or speech rate influence the listener breathing. Two readers (a male and a female) were pre-recorded while reading short texts with normal and then loud speech (both readers) or slow speech (female only). These recordings were then played back to 48 female listeners. The movements of the rib cage and abdomen were analyzed for both the readers and the listeners. Breathing profiles were characterized by the movement expansion due to inhalation and the duration of the breathing cycle. We found that both loudness and speech rate affected each reader’s breathing in different ways. Listener breathing was different when listening to the male or the female reader and to the different speech modes. However, differences in listener breathing were not systematically in the same direction as reader differences. The breathing of listeners was strongly sensitive to the order of presentation of speech mode and displayed some adaptation in the time course of the experiment in some conditions. In contrast to specific alignments of breathing previously observed in face-to-face dialog, no clear evidence for a listener–reader alignment in breathing was found in this purely auditory speech perception task. The results and methods are relevant to the question of the involvement of physiological adaptations in speech perception and to the basic mechanisms of listener–speaker coupling. PMID:24367344

  2. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  3. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that T

  4. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  5. How to diagnose any type of TLD Reader?; Como diagnosticar cualquier tipo de TLD Reader?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Manuel Lopez; Garcia, Jose A. Tamayo; Gil, Alex Vergara; Lores, Stefan Gutierrez; Acosta, Andry Romero; Villanueva, Gilberto Alonso, E-mail: manolo@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: jotag@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: alex@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: stefan@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: andy@cphr.edu.cu, E-mail: gilberto@cphr.edu.cu [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), La Habana (Cuba)

    2013-07-01

    The acquisition of know how of practical experiences obtained in the repair and maintenance of readers TLD RADOS for five years of work and the request by the International Atomic Energy for signing new Research Contracts (CRP), made possible the CRP 13328, in which the specialist is committed in the course of a year, to deliver educational software in order to train personnel associated with the operation of the TLD readers RADOS. Due to the importance of continuous transfer of knowledge for new generations of technicians and specialists who join our laboratories, the idea came when the first interactive CD that grouped 19 videos, divided into three blocks was ready: learning, repair and maintenance; it was suggested to expand the training for any TLD reader. Thus a much more complete than the first version package emerged. 7 cases were subsequently published in an IAEA TECDOC, 1599 were included.

  6. Towards a Revaluation of Reader Response and School Literature. Report Series 1.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    This paper reconsiders the nature of literature as a school subject. Musing on three anomalies that occur when language arts teachers consider their professions about school literature and what occurs in literature classrooms: (1) the anomaly of the text and the textbook; (2) the anomaly of the idolatry of naive readers whose heads have been…

  7. Reading with a Crayon: Pre-Conventional Marginalia as Reader Response in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Child-produced marginalia, annotations written or drawn in the margins of a text by a young reader, have been stigmatized as devaluing the book on which it was created and often dismissed as "graffiti." Recent historical studies of marginalia created by older children, those who have mastered conventional writing and drawing, have…

  8. "Spaces Invested with Content": Crossing the "Gaps" in Comics with Readers in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, reading scholars have increasingly attended to children's responses to picturebook page breaks, reasoning that the inferences young readers make during the turning of the page are central to understanding how children construct continuous narratives in semiotically rich texts. In this paper I argue that comics (including comic…

  9. "Spaces Invested with Content": Crossing the "Gaps" in Comics with Readers in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, David

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, reading scholars have increasingly attended to children's responses to picturebook page breaks, reasoning that the inferences young readers make during the turning of the page are central to understanding how children construct continuous narratives in semiotically rich texts. In this paper I argue that comics (including comic…

  10. Reading in the Digital Age: Using Electronic Books as a Teaching Tool for Beginning Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Katia

    2012-01-01

    Beginning readers' motivation to read and the texts they choose to read impact on their literacy achievement and willingness to engage with reading activities in the primary years of schooling. This study investigated the eBook reading experiences of eight grade 1 students. Eight students were given ten 25-minute sessions with the software…

  11. The Legibility of Typefaces for Readers with Low Vision: A Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Minda, Elizabeth; Jutai, Jeffrey W.; Strong, J. Graham; Campbell, Kent A.; Gold, Deborah; Pretty, Lisa; Wilmot, Lesley

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a systematic review of the research evidence on the effects of the characteristics of typefaces on the legibility of text for adult readers with low vision. The review revealed that research has not produced consistent findings and thus that there is a need to develop standards and guidelines that are informed by evidence.…

  12. Readers with Autism Can Produce Inferences, but They Cannot Answer Inferential Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado, Maria J.; Saldaña, David

    2016-01-01

    Readers with autism (ASD), poor comprehension (PC), and typical development (TD) took part in three reading experiments requiring the production of inferences. In Experiments 1 and 2 reading times for target phrases--placed immediately after text implicitly indicating the emotion of a protagonist or after a number of filler sentences,…

  13. A Comparison of the Metacognitive Reading Strategies Used by EFL and ESL Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbalaei, Alireza

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether there are any significant differences between EFL and ESL readers in metacognitive reading strategies when they are reading academic texts in English. One hundred and ninety undergraduate students (96 Iranians and 93 Indians) completed an instrument designed to measure the students' metacognitive awareness of…

  14. Promoting Learner Autonomy Through Reader-response Approach in EFL Literature Classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐湖

    2014-01-01

    A number of methods and approaches have been practiced in recent communicative language teaching, the applying of the reader-response approach has seen the effectiveness in the EFL literature classes. Learner autonomy in EFL literature classes is reader’s ability to regard the reading text as his/her own both in the act of reading and after the act of reading.

  15. Digital Readers: The Next Chapter in E-Book Reading and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lotta C.

    2010-01-01

    The basic features of digital reading devices (such as the Amazon Kindle) are described in this article. The author also considers how such devices can advance e-book readership among primary students by offering new avenues for accessing and interacting with a wide array of texts. Rooted in the transactional theory of reader response and a new…

  16. The Power of Life Histories: Moving Readers to Greater Acts of Empathy through Literature and Memoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Valarie G.; Madden, Marjorie E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that narratives, specifically literature and memoir, offer a way to build empathy and understanding by moving readers to deeper levels of text interpretation and critique. The paper examines a new literacy framework, Life Histories, that uses talk, collaboration, writing, and performance to understand the complex relationships…

  17. Digital Readers: The Next Chapter in E-Book Reading and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Lotta C.

    2010-01-01

    The basic features of digital reading devices (such as the Amazon Kindle) are described in this article. The author also considers how such devices can advance e-book readership among primary students by offering new avenues for accessing and interacting with a wide array of texts. Rooted in the transactional theory of reader response and a new…

  18. Reading from Multimedia Materials: Benefits of Non-Congruent Pictures on Reading Comprehension for Dyslexic Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brante, Eva Wennås; Holmqvist, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Pictures are often integrated in digital learning materials with the purpose of enhancing learning. This mixed methods study uses quantitative eye-tracking data and qualitative data such as oral answers to discover whether characteristics of pictures influence patterns of text-picture transition in readers with (n = 10) and without (n = 14)…

  19. Sexualities in Education: A Reader. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education. Volume 367

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiners, Erica R., Ed.; Quinn, Therese, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    With germinal texts, new writings, and related art, "Sexualities in Education: A Reader" illuminates a broad scope of analysis and organization. Composed of a framing essay and nine sections edited by established and emerging scholars and addressing critical topics for researchers and students of sexualities and education, the text…

  20. Racial Harmony & Heroes: A Content Analysis of the Pearson Reading Program "Good Habits, Great Readers"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosolt, Brandelyn; Love, Bettina L.

    2011-01-01

    Multicultural education is a term with a variety of definitions growing from a number of different disciplines. These authors conducted a content analysis of the Pearson reading program "Good Habits, Great Readers" for grades four and five. The qualitative approach of content analysis allowed researchers to examine text "through the…

  1. AUTOMATION OF THE ACQUISITION AND PROCESSING OF DATA FROM THERMOLUMINESCENCE DOSIMETER READERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Benavides-Benitez

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The thermolumlnescence dosimeter (TLD readers used In the Laboratory of External Dosimetry of the Center of Protection and Hygiene from the Radiations are old-fashioned. The data obtained by this equipment must be manually written down In arder to subsequently, process them and these data do not remain registered In any memory for future analysis. This paper describes the desing and creation of a system that conneds these TLD readers to a personal computer. The system Includes a data acquisition card with several analogue input channels, counters, timers as well as digital inputs/outputs and software, In arder to control the acquisition and processing of the data.

  2. Tracking the emergence of the consonant bias in visual-word recognition: evidence with developing readers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Soares

    Full Text Available Recent research with skilled adult readers has consistently revealed an advantage of consonants over vowels in visual-word recognition (i.e., the so-called "consonant bias". Nevertheless, little is known about how early in development the consonant bias emerges. This work aims to address this issue by studying the relative contribution of consonants and vowels at the early stages of visual-word recognition in developing readers (2(nd and 4(th Grade children and skilled adult readers (college students using a masked priming lexical decision task. Target words starting either with a consonant or a vowel were preceded by a briefly presented masked prime (50 ms that could be the same as the target (e.g., pirata-PIRATA [pirate-PIRATE], a consonant-preserving prime (e.g., pureto-PIRATA, a vowel-preserving prime (e.g., gicala-PIRATA, or an unrelated prime (e.g., bocelo -PIRATA. Results revealed significant priming effects for the identity and consonant-preserving conditions in adult readers and 4(th Grade children, whereas 2(nd graders only showed priming for the identity condition. In adult readers, the advantage of consonants was observed both for words starting with a consonant or a vowel, while in 4(th graders this advantage was restricted to words with an initial consonant. Thus, the present findings suggest that a Consonant/Vowel skeleton should be included in future (developmental models of visual-word recognition and reading.

  3. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  4. Semantic Text Indexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Kaleta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a specific issue of the semantic analysis of texts in natural language – text indexing and describes one field of its application (web browsing.The main part of this article describes the computer system assigning a set of semantic indexes (similar to keywords to a particular text. The indexing algorithm employs a semantic dictionary to find specific words in a text, that represent a text content. Furthermore it compares two given sets of semantic indexes to determine texts’ similarity (assigning numerical value. The article describes the semantic dictionary – a tool essentialto accomplish this task and its usefulness, main concepts of the algorithm and test results.

  5. Functions of Case Statements in the Kazakh Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almagul S. Adilova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the functioning of universally decisional or foreign statements. Foreign precedent statements in Kazakh texts are used in canonic and modified forms and fulfill connotative, text-forming, informative functions. These quotations, having lost connection with their context not always preserve perception invariant due to the diversity of linguistic competence and cognitive basis of an author or a reader

  6. A BALANCED APPROACH TO TEXT-TEACHING IN MIDDLE SCHOOLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the approach used by middle school teachers to teaching texts and argues against thetraditional practice of exploiting texts just to teach grammar and vocabulary.A more balanced approach ispresented,involving all four-language skills,concentrating on output as well as input,and training stu-dents to extract relevant information from texts,making them more efficient readers.

  7. "Gentle Doses of Racism": Racist Discourses in the Construction of Scientific Literacy, Mathematical Literacy, and Print-Based Literacies in Children's Basal Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belle, Leah Allison

    2010-01-01

    Basal readers have long been problematized for a lack of diversity among the characters and experiences represented in the text selections. Building on this, and informed by critical theory, critical race theory, and Bourdieuian perspectives, this dissertation examines racist discourses in a set of third grade basal readers. In order to explore…

  8. Considering Visual Text Complexity: A Guide for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappello, Marva

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first century literacy requires students to analyze and create images for communication across and within academic disciplines. Thus, literacy teachers are now responsible for supporting students as they engage with visual texts. We must carefully and intentionally choose images for teaching practice and consider the reader, instructional…

  9. Sourcing in Professional Education: Do Text Factors Make Any Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bråten, Ivar; Strømsø, Helge I.; Andreassen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which the text factors of source salience and emphasis on risk might influence readers' attention to and use of source information when reading single documents to make behavioral decisions on controversial health-related issues. Participants (n = 259), who were attending different bachelor-level…

  10. How to read a text with reading comprehension skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; zhao

    2015-01-01

    Reading is a process in which the reader must be actively involved.You must use what knowledge you can gain from the text and what you knows about the world in general in order to infer meanings and other sorts of information.This paper will puts forward some skills for reading comprehension.

  11. How to read a text with reading comprehension skills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Reading is a process in which the reader must be actively involved. You must use what knowledge you can gain fromthe text and what you knows about the world in general in order to infer meanings and other sorts of information. This paper willputs forward some skills for reading comprehension.

  12. Strategische Fokussierung der Aufmerksamkeit beim Lesen narrativer Texte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hähnel, A.; Rinck, M.

    1999-01-01

    In 2 experiments based on the constructionist view of text comprehension, we investigated whether readers are able to strategically use, in a problem solving matter, spatial and temporal information that varies in its relevance to the goals of the protagonists. In order to accomplish this, we varied

  13. "Texts Like a Patchwork Quilt": Reading Picturebooks about Slavery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Paula T.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines narrative strategies present in picturebooks about slavery that feature quilts. Against the depicted dangers of slavery, images of quilts serve to offer a sense of hope and in that way they provide a means of discussing difficult subjects with very young readers. As a central image in these texts, the quilt is variously…

  14. Reading Thematically Related Texts to Develop Knowledge and Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelzheiser, Lynn; Hallgren-Flynn, Laura; Connors, Margaret; Scanlon, Donna

    2014-01-01

    When literacy instruction uses books selected on the basis of thematic content, it can foster the attainment of literacy goals while developing readers' knowledge. This paper provides a rationale for the use of thematically-related texts in literacy instruction and describes some thematic units that have been a part of literacy intervention…

  15. Interoperation of an UHF RFID Reader and a TCP/IP Device via Wired and Wireless Links

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik Soo Jin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A main application in radio frequency identification (RFID sensor networks is the function that processes real-time tag information after gathering the required data from multiple RFID tags. The component technologies that contain an RFID reader, called the interrogator, which has a tag chip, processors, coupling antenna, and a power management system have advanced significantly over the last decade. This paper presents a system implementation for interoperation between an UHF RFID reader and a TCP/IP device that is used as a gateway. The proposed system consists of an UHF RFID tag, an UHF RFID reader, an RF end-device, an RF coordinator, and a TCP/IP I/F. The UHF RFID reader, operating at 915 MHz, is compatible with EPC Class-0/Gen1, Class-1/Gen1 and 2, and ISO18000-6B. In particular, the UHF RFID reader can be combined with the RF end-device/coordinator for a ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4 interface, which is a low-power wireless standard. The TCP/IP device communicates with the RFID reader via wired links. On the other hand, it is connected to the ZigBee end-device via wireless links. The web based test results show that the developed system can remotely recognize information of multiple tags through the interoperation between the RFID reader and the TCP/IP device.

  16. Text Mining: (Asynchronous Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheema Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we tried to correlate text sequences those provides common topics for semantic clues. We propose a two step method for asynchronous text mining. Step one check for the common topics in the sequences and isolates these with their timestamps. Step two takes the topic and tries to give the timestamp of the text document. After multiple repetitions of step two, we could give optimum result.

  17. New Historicism: Text and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta M. Vesić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During most of the twentieth century history was seen as a phenomenon outside of literature that guaranteed the veracity of literary interpretation. History was unique and it functioned as a basis for reading literary works. During the seventies of the twentieth century there occurred a change of attitude towards history in American literary theory, and there appeared a new theoretical approach which soon became known as New Historicism. Since its inception, New Historicism has been identified with the study of Renaissance and Romanticism, but nowadays it has been increasingly involved in other literary trends. Although there are great differences in the arguments and practices at various representatives of this school, New Historicism has clearly recognizable features and many new historicists will agree with the statement of Walter Cohen that New Historicism, when it appeared in the eighties, represented something quite new in reference to the studies of theory, criticism and history (Cohen 1987, 33. Theoretical connection with Bakhtin, Foucault and Marx is clear, as well as a kind of uneasy tie with deconstruction and the work of Paul de Man. At the center of this approach is a renewed interest in the study of literary works in the light of historical and political circumstances in which they were created. Foucault encouraged readers to begin to move literary texts and to link them with discourses and representations that are not literary, as well as to examine the sociological aspects of the texts in order to take part in the social struggles of today. The study of literary works using New Historicism is the study of politics, history, culture and circumstances in which these works were created. With regard to one of the main fact which is located in the center of the criticism, that history cannot be viewed objectively and that reality can only be understood through a cultural context that reveals the work, re-reading and interpretation of

  18. Short Vowels Versus Word Familiarity in the Reading Comprehension of Arab Readers: A Revisited Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. SERAYE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arab readers, both beginning and advanced, are encouraged to read and accustomed to unvowelized and undiacriticized texts. Previous literature claimed that the presence of short vowels in the text would facilitate the reading comprehension of both beginning and advanced Arab readers. However, with a claimed strict controlling procedure, different results emerged, revealing that the only variable that affected the reading process of Arab adult skilled readers was word frequency, and its effect was limited to the time load of the reading process; this result raised the question of whether the neutral role of short vowels in the text reading process of experienced Arab readers would be maintained for less experienced readers, as represented by fourth graders, or whether word frequency would be the only variable that plays a role in their reading process. In experiment, 1,141 fourth-grade students were randomly assigned to 5 reading conditions: plain, only shaddah, short vowels plus shaddah, only short vowels, and finally the wrong short vowels plus shaddah. In experiment 2, 38 participants from the same population were assigned to a fully vowelized and diacriticized reading condition. Each participant was asked to read two texts, of high and low frequency words and then given recall and multiple-choice tests. In general, the multivariate analysis showed that the only manipulated variable that was found to affect their reading process in terms of reading time load and, to some degree, reading comprehension was word frequency, although its effect was marginal. Accordingly, pedagogical recommendations and future research were proposed.

  19. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  20. Word-Sized Graphics for Scientific Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Fabian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2017-02-24

    Generating visualizations at the size of a word creates dense information representations often called sparklines. The integration of word-sized graphics into text could avoid additional cognitive load caused by splitting the readers' attention between figures and text. In scientific publications, these graphics make statements easier to understand and verify because additional quantitative information is available where needed. In this work, we perform a literature review to find out how researchers have already applied such word-sized representations. Illustrating the versatility of the approach, we leverage these representations for reporting empirical and bibliographic data in three application examples. For interactive Web-based publications, we explore levels of interactivity and discuss interaction patterns to link visualization and text. We finally call the visualization community to be a pioneer in exploring new visualization-enriched and interactive publication formats.

  1. «Reader! Bruder!»: The Rhetoric of Narration and the Rhetoric of Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bertoni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the relation of power established by narrative texts, exploring the many-sided field of articulation among the related subjects: the narrator as a subject of power, the text as a rhetorical device, and the reader as an ultimate guarantor of meaning. After a brief introduction on the “rebirth of rhetoric” in the second half of the Twentieth century, drawing attention to its links with Reader-response criticism, the paper  focuses on the “power of words” and analyzes three case-studies: Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov (1955, Money by Martin Amis (1984 and The Kindly Ones by Jonathan Littell (2006. These novels depend for their rhetorical effect on the invention of a special narrating voice and on the relationship that it establishes with the reader – an odd mixture of antagonism and complicity, seduction and persuasion. The reader is thus invoked as a brother, but an ambiguous and untrustworthy one, as archetypally described in last verse of the opening poem from Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du mal: «hypocrite lecteur – mon semblable, mon frère». 

  2. Proficient Readers' Reading Behavior in Taiwan: The Study of Young Chinese Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Li-Chun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the reading behavior of young proficient Chinese readers at preschool age. Especially, the roles of phonetic skill and Chinese Character recognition in reading comprehension were explored. 10 kindergartens were recruited to participate in the study. Subjects were 72-98 kindergarten children. Instruments…

  3. Error Detection Mechanism for Words and Sentences: A Comparison between Readers with Dyslexia and Skilled Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The activity level of the error monitoring system for processing isolated versus contextual words in Hebrew was studied in adults with dyslexia and skilled readers while committing reading errors. Behavioural measures and event-related potentials were measured during a lexical decision task using words in a list and sentences. Error-related…

  4. Are Avid Readers Lurking in Your Language Arts Classroom? Myths of the Avid Adolescent Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nance S.; Kelley, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a pilot study conducted with 10 identified avid adolescent readers who completed the Adolescent Motivation to Read Profile (AMRP) (Pitcher, Albright, DeLaney, Walker, Seunarienesingh, & Moggie, 2007) that includes both a survey to determine students' self-concept and value of reading and an interview that sheds light on what…

  5. A Memory-Retrieval View of Discourse Representation: The Recollection and Familiarity of Text Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Debra L.; Johns, Clinton L.; Jonathan, Eunike

    2012-01-01

    According to most theories of text comprehension, readers construct and store in memory at least two inter-related representations: a text base containing the explicit ideas in a text and a discourse model that contains the overall meaning or "gist" of a text. The authors propose a refinement of this view in which text representations are…

  6. Pathology of Commentary in Persian Literary Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    احمد رضی

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Today commentary work has a significant role and place among the readers of Persian literary texts and those interested in them. The growing importance of commentary works in helping the readers understand and popularity of commentary works, notably in recent decades, has caused different commentators with different knowledge level and abilities to write comments and foster this disorganized market. This study intends to investigate the published commentary works in the past decades, analyze their week points. To do so, over 250 works, which have been written and published between 1300 AP (circa 1921 AD and 1387 AP (circa2008 AD and an attempt has been made to classify, describe, and analyze their most important problems and week points, and at the end, the most important items of best commentary and best commentators have been explained. This article intends to analyz the most important problems and week points of commentary works, which can be summarized in seven broad categories: 1 content shortcomings; 2 inappropriate approach; 3 incongruence between the structure of commentary work and type of the work and the commentator's objective; 4 lack of attention towards the readership; 5 carelessness and incompetency of the commentator; 6 complex statement and insensible language; 7 inaudibility of introductions. Key words: research methodology, commentary works, pathology, literary works

  7. Text and Subject Position after Althusser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony Easthope

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Althusser's achievement is that he redefined Marxism. He reconceptualizes history and totality in terms of different times, construes knowledge as the outcome of a process of construction, and interprets subjectivity as an effect of ideology and unconscious processes. Unfortunately, Althusser's functionalist view of ideology claims that the subject recognizes itself as a subject because it duplicates— reflects—an absolute subject. However, Lacan's notion of the mirror stage remedies this fault. Lacan's subject always misrecognizes itself in a process of contradiction that threatens the stability of any given social order. Moreover, unlike Foucault's subject, which is limited in that subjectivity is folded back into a vaguely expanded notion of "power," this revised Althusserian subject allows careful reading of texts. The critic does not simply read against the grain; he or she exposes the multiple points of identification offered the reader. For example, Wordsworth's "The Solitary Reaper" installs the reader in multiple positions: a devotee of high culture and the national canon, a lover of the verbal signifier and its play, a consumer of confessional discourse, and a masculine "I" desiring a laboring, singing woman.

  8. Planning Argumentative Texts

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, X

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents \\proverb\\, a text planner for argumentative texts. \\proverb\\'s main feature is that it combines global hierarchical planning and unplanned organization of text with respect to local derivation relations in a complementary way. The former splits the task of presenting a particular proof into subtasks of presenting subproofs. The latter simulates how the next intermediate conclusion to be presented is chosen under the guidance of the local focus.

  9. Chinese deaf readers have early access to parafoveal semantics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Pan, Jinger; Bélanger, Nathalie N; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how deaf readers make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that although the reading-level matched hearing readers make greater use of orthographic information in the parafovea, parafoveal semantic information is obtained earlier among the deaf readers. In addition, a phonological preview benefit effect was found for the better deaf readers (relative to less-skilled deaf readers), although we also provide an alternative explanation for this effect. Providing evidence that Chinese deaf readers have higher efficiency when processing parafoveal semantics, the study indicates flexibility across individuals in the mechanisms underlying word recognition adapting to the inputs available in the linguistic environment.

  10. Type Testing of Model 7200 Automatic TLD Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek Mohammadi, M; Hosseini Pooya, S M

    2017-04-20

    The type testing of measuring devices is one of the most important parts of a quality management system in a personal dosimetry services program. In this study, based upon the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 62387 criteria, a reader-testing program was performed for a home-made personal thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) reader. The stability of the reader, the effects of light exposure, temperature and fluctuations of primary power supply on TLD read-outs as the main parameters were investigated in this program. Moreover, this study assesses some important criteria of dosimetry system including the non-linearity of response, reusability, after effect and overload that may include significant contribution in the performance of a reader. The results showed that the TLD reader met all requirements of the IEC for the reader tests by a large margin. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Mining text data

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2012-01-01

    Text mining applications have experienced tremendous advances because of web 2.0 and social networking applications. Recent advances in hardware and software technology have lead to a number of unique scenarios where text mining algorithms are learned. ""Mining Text Data"" introduces an important niche in the text analytics field, and is an edited volume contributed by leading international researchers and practitioners focused on social networks & data mining. This book contains a wide swath in topics across social networks & data mining. Each chapter contains a comprehensive survey including

  12. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  13. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  14. Making Sense of Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the triadic nature regarding meaning construction of texts. Grounded in Rosenblatt's (1995; 1998; 2004) Transactional Theory, research conducted in an undergraduate Language Arts curriculum course revealed that when presented with unfamiliar texts, students used prior experiences, social interactions, and literary strategies…

  15. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  16. Clustering Text Data Streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bao Liu; Jia-Rong Cai; Jian Yin; Ada Wai-Chee Fu

    2008-01-01

    Clustering text data streams is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as news group filtering, text crawling, document organization and topic detection and tracing etc. However, most methods are similarity-based approaches and only use the TF*IDF scheme to represent the semantics of text data and often lead to poor clustering quality. Recently, researchers argue that semantic smoothing model is more efficient than the existing TF.IDF scheme for improving text clustering quality. However, the existing semantic smoothing model is not suitable for dynamic text data context. In this paper, we extend the semantic smoothing model into text data streams context firstly. Based on the extended model, we then present two online clustering algorithms OCTS and OCTSM for the clustering of massive text data streams. In both algorithms, we also present a new cluster statistics structure named cluster profile which can capture the semantics of text data streams dynamically and at the same time speed up the clustering process. Some efficient implementations for our algorithms are also given. Finally, we present a series of experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of our technique.

  17. [Traditional midwife texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Ingela; Stolt, Carl-Magnus

    2007-01-01

    We report an hermeneutic text study in two early midwife text books. In Louise Bourgeois book from early 17th century the individual caring perspective is more present than in Helena Malhiems book from the middle of the 18th century. In both books, however, non-technological aspects of child birth delivery is more prominent than in books written by doctors.

  18. The Reader Response Approach to Teaching of English Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳

    2008-01-01

    During interview with English majors, it was found that a majority of students expressed disappointment with their experience of English literature classes. Students' dislike of learning English literature appears to be the major problem of teaching English literature in China. Reader response approach is a good way to solve this problem. In this paper, I explain the rationale behind the reader response approach, such as its origin, definition, features, assumptions, and strategies. Then I illustrate how reader response approach works as a teaching strategy by presenting several teaching models. At last I evaluate its usefuiness for teachers and present the advantages of reader response approach in Chinese context.

  19. Improved reader for magnetically-encoded ID cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, T. T.

    1979-01-01

    Hybrid demodulator in electronic card reader for magnetically encoded identification cards, accommodates variations in insertion speeds, yet is simpler and less expensive than equivalent all-digital circuits.

  20. [The effect of working memory on learning from texts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yoshinobu; Kawasaki, Eriko

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of working memory on learning from texts. In Experiment 1, participants preformed a word clustering task involving key words from an explanatory text (pretest), and then read the text, which was presented sentence-by-sentence. Next, they performed a second clustering task (post-test), a problem solving task, and a reading span test (RST). The results suggested that the individual differences of the RST scores correlated with the scores for problem solving. In Experiment 2, the results suggested that the individual differences of the RST scores influenced the clustering performance at the level of the situation model when the text was presented all together. Moreover, the result of multiple dimension scaling suggested that the situation models of high-span readers reflected the structure of the text more than those of low-span readers. These results indicate that readers with high reading span scores construct coherent situation models of texts and make use of them for learning from texts.

  1. Extracting Text from Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  2. EXTRACTING TEXT FROM VIDEO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayshree Ghorpade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The text data present in images and video contain certain useful information for automatic annotation,indexing, and structuring of images. However variations of the text due to differences in text style, font, size, orientation, alignment as well as low image contrast and complex background make the problem of automatic text extraction extremely difficult and challenging job. A large number of techniques have been proposed to address this problem and the purpose of this paper is to design algorithms for each phase of extracting text from a video using java libraries and classes. Here first we frame the input video into stream of images using the Java Media Framework (JMF with the input being a real time or a video from the database. Then we apply pre processing algorithms to convert the image to gray scale and remove the disturbances like superimposed lines over the text, discontinuity removal, and dot removal.Then we continue with the algorithms for localization, segmentation and recognition for which we use the neural network pattern matching technique. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by presenting experimental results for a set of static images.

  3. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International( CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health,our Internet Resources and Abstract Journals. There are currently over 60,000 full text articles available to access. These documents,made possible by agreement with third

  4. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly

  5. Emotion Detection from Text

    CERN Document Server

    Shivhare, Shiv Naresh

    2012-01-01

    Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

  6. Rhetorical structure theory and text analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, William C.; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.; Thompson, Sandra A.

    1989-11-01

    Recent research on text generation has shown that there is a need for stronger linguistic theories that tell in detail how texts communicate. The prevailing theories are very difficult to compare, and it is also very difficult to see how they might be combined into stronger theories. To make comparison and combination a bit more approachable, we have created a book which is designed to encourage comparison. A dozen different authors or teams, all experienced in discourse research, are given exactly the same text to analyze. The text is an appeal for money by a lobbying organization in Washington, DC. It informs, stimulates and manipulates the reader in a fascinating way. The joint analysis is far more insightful than any one team's analysis alone. This paper is our contribution to the book. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), the focus of this paper, is a way to account for the functional potential of text, its capacity to achieve the purposes of speakers and produce effects in hearers. It also shows a way to distinguish coherent texts from incoherent ones, and identifies consequences of text structure.

  7. What do mind readers know and what do we know about mind readers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Jacqueline D

    2014-11-01

    In this commentary, I raise various questions about Kim and Harris's fascinating findings. I ask what kind of knowledge children expect telepathic individuals to have, who children might consider to be good mind readers, why children value telepathy, and how puzzled children are by telepathy. I suggest potential ways to address some of these questions and end by reiterating the importance of probing individual differences in scepticism and credulity.

  8. The Use of Adjunct Displays to Facilitate Comprehension of Causal Relationships in Expository Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Schraw, Gregory; Lehman, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether making cause and effect relationships explicit with an adjunct display improves different facets of text comprehension compared to a text only condition. In two experiments, participants read a text and then either studied a causal diagram, studied a list, or reread the text. In both experiments, readers who studied the adjunct…

  9. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health

  10. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain.It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment.CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.CABI’s full text repository is growing rapidly and has now been integrated into all our databases including CAB Abstracts,Global Health,our Internet Resources and Jour-

  11. Eye Movements Reveal Readers' Lexical Quality and Reading Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jessica Nelson; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments demonstrate that individual differences among normal adult readers, including lexical quality, are expressed in silent reading at the word level. In the first of two studies we identified major dimensions of variability among college readers and among words using factor analysis. We then examined the effects of these dimensions of…

  12. Chinese Mandarin Advanced Course: Newspaper and Periodicals Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsett, Dale F.; Poelman, James S.

    This reader provides supplementary materials for improvement of reading fluency and expansion of vocabulary for advanced students of Chinese. It familiarizes students with terminology used in mainland China publications. Twenty articles, taken from several newspapers, are compiled in this reader. Vocabulary lists are provided for each selection.…

  13. Helping the Slow-Reader in the Primary School Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund V.

    1988-01-01

    A strategy is proposed for primary teachers to use with children who have reading difficulties. It includes developing a profile of each slow reader, testing each slow reader to determine reading level and specific weaknesses, and using certain practical methods to help solve the problem. (two references) (LB)

  14. Teaching Materials for German. G3: Readers. Teaching Materials Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centre for Information on Language Teaching, London (England).

    This publication, part of a bibliography of language teaching materials, lists 91 readers. It contains a contents list, annotated entries, an index of authors, editors, compilers and adapters, and a title index. In addition to basic bibliographical details, the following are provided for each entry: an annotation describing the reader, a statement…

  15. Homophone Effects in Deaf Readers: Evidence from Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the nature of deaf readers' phonological processing during online word recognition, and how this compares to similar effects in hearing individuals. Unlike many previous studies on phonological activation, we examined whether deaf readers activated phonological representations for words as opposed to pseudohomophones.…

  16. Chinese Deaf Readers Have Early Access to Parafoveal Semantics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Pan, Jinger; Bélanger, Nathalie N.; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we manipulated different types of information available in the parafovea during the reading of Chinese sentences and examined how deaf readers make use of the parafoveal information. Results clearly indicate that although the reading-level matched hearing readers make greater use of orthographic information in the parafovea,…

  17. Sexism Springs Eternal--in the Reader's Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G.; Meadow, Wendy

    This document reports on an empirical investigation of anti-women humor appearing in the Reader's Digest over three decades, revealing the operation of an unconscious sexist ideology. A systematic analysis was made of 1,069 jokes appearing in two featured columns of the Reader's Digest for the two-year periods 1947-48, 1957-58, and 1967-68.…

  18. Learning to Choose: The Hidden Art of the Enthusiastic Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Often the difference between a successful and unsuccessful reader is that the former is simply better at finding enjoyable books to read. The capacity to select appealing reading is not developed in classrooms where the decision about what book to read is made by someone other than the reader: the teacher, the curriculum planner, the person who…

  19. Breaking the Silence: Toward Improving LGBTQ Representation in Composition Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John

    2014-01-01

    Lesbian-Gay-Bisexual-Transgender-Queer (LGBTQ) representation in composition readers remains limited and is frequently nonexistent. In addition, the LGBTQ-related materials that do find their way into composition readers are often problematic. In this essay I explain why WPAs and composition teachers should be concerned about LGBTQ representation…

  20. Stance, Navigation, and Reader Response in Expository Hypertext

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEneaney, John E.; Li, Ledong; Allen, Kris; Guzniczak, Lizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on two studies investigating reader stance, navigation, and response in expository hypertext. Subjects in the studies included 69 and 147 adult readers prompted to adopt either an efferent or aesthetic stance when reading a 36-node expository hypertext. Reading was followed by recall and essay writing tasks. Results of the…

  1. How Think-and-Feel-Aloud Instruction Influences Poetry Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva-Wood, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Assuming readers' emotional responses can inform literary analysis, this study of poetry readers featured an instructional intervention that involved modeling both cognitive and affective reading processes through a think-and-feel-aloud pedagogy. Eleventh-grade students in 2 conditions participated in a 4-week unit on reading poetry. Control group…

  2. Abusing text in the Roman and contemporary worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Middleton

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this comparison of portraits of authorial anxiety, I focus on contemporary attitudes to fan fiction and on discussions of authors in Imperial Rome (notably Galen and Martial to consider the assumptions of textuality that frame imagined textual abuse. Revealed are parallel discourses for different concerns—for the reader as a potentially ill-educated consumer and the text as an object in the ancient world; in the contemporary world, for the author's personal violation and the text as an agent within readerly experience. I discuss how fan fiction's lack of commercial publication is used to distinguish it from other contemporary literature within this framework. Fan fiction's noncommercial publication can thus be appreciated as a marginalizing act in itself.

  3. Text mining resources for the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyła, Piotr; Shardlow, Matthew; Aubin, Sophie; Bossy, Robert; Eckart de Castilho, Richard; Piperidis, Stelios; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Text mining is a powerful technology for quickly distilling key information from vast quantities of biomedical literature. However, to harness this power the researcher must be well versed in the availability, suitability, adaptability, interoperability and comparative accuracy of current text mining resources. In this survey, we give an overview of the text mining resources that exist in the life sciences to help researchers, especially those employed in biocuration, to engage with text mining in their own work. We categorize the various resources under three sections: Content Discovery looks at where and how to find biomedical publications for text mining; Knowledge Encoding describes the formats used to represent the different levels of information associated with content that enable text mining, including those formats used to carry such information between processes; Tools and Services gives an overview of workflow management systems that can be used to rapidly configure and compare domain- and task-specific processes, via access to a wide range of pre-built tools. We also provide links to relevant repositories in each section to enable the reader to find resources relevant to their own area of interest. Throughout this work we give a special focus to resources that are interoperable-those that have the crucial ability to share information, enabling smooth integration and reusability. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. A method of text watermarking using presuppositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vybornova, O.; Macq, B.

    2007-02-01

    We propose a method for watermarking texts of arbitrary length using natural-language semantic structures. For the key of our approach we use the linguistic semantic phenomenon of presuppositions. Presupposition is the implicit information considered as well-known or which readers of the text are supposed to treat as well-known; this information is a semantic component of certain linguistic expressions (lexical items and syntactical constructions called presupposition triggers). The same sentence can be used with or without presupposition, or with a different presupposition trigger, provided that all the relations between subjects, objects and other discourse referents are preserved - such transformations will not change the meaning of the sentence. We define the distinct rules for presupposition identification for each trigger and regular transformation rules for using/non-using the presupposition in a given sentence (one bit per sentence in this case). Isolated sentences can carry the proposed watermarks. However, the longer is the text, the more efficient is the watermark. The proposed approach is resilient to main types of random transformations, like passivization, topicalization, extraposition, preposing, etc. The web of resolved presupposed information in the text will hold the watermark of the text (e.g. integrity watermark, or prove of ownership), introducing "secret ordering" into the text structure to make it resilient to "data loss" attacks and "data altering" attacks.

  5. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    and free online dictionaries. The Diccionario español para la producción de textos is an example of a general text production dictionary that makes use of internet technologies, is based on a lexicographic theory, contains all the lexicographic data that users need in a production situation, and aims...

  6. Text as Image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woal, Michael; Corn, Marcia Lynn

    As electronically mediated communication becomes more prevalent, print is regaining the original pictorial qualities which graphemes (written signs) lost when primitive pictographs (or picture writing) and ideographs (simplified graphemes used to communicate ideas as well as to represent objects) evolved into first written, then printed, texts of…

  7. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International( CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.

  8. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI) is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people’s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.

  9. About CABI Full Text

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International(CABI)is a not-for-profit international Agricultural Information Institute with headquarters in Britain. It aims to improve people s lives by providing information and applying scientific expertise to solve problems in agriculture and the environment. CABI Full-text is one of the publishing products of CABI.

  10. Text analysis and computers

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    Content: Erhard Mergenthaler: Computer-assisted content analysis (3-32); Udo Kelle: Computer-aided qualitative data analysis: an overview (33-63); Christian Mair: Machine-readable text corpora and the linguistic description of danguages (64-75); Jürgen Krause: Principles of content analysis for information retrieval systems (76-99); Conference Abstracts (100-131).

  11. The Emar Lexical Texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantzert, Merijn

    2011-01-01

    This four-part work provides a philological analysis and a theoretical interpretation of the cuneiform lexical texts found in the Late Bronze Age city of Emar, in present-day Syria. These word and sign lists, commonly dated to around 1100 BC, were almost all found in the archive of a single school.

  12. E-text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2017-01-01

    modality, which is both an independent modality and a container in which other modalities may be contained. In the first case, the notion of electronic text would be paradigmatically formed around the e-book, conceived as a digital copy a printed book, but now produced as a deliberately closed work. Even...

  13. New mathematical cuneiform texts

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, Jöran

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents in great detail a large number of both unpublished and previously published Babylonian mathematical texts in the cuneiform script. It is a continuation of the work A Remarkable Collection of Babylonian Mathematical Texts (Springer 2007) written by Jöran Friberg, the leading expert on Babylonian mathematics. Focussing on the big picture, Friberg explores in this book several Late Babylonian arithmetical and metro-mathematical table texts from the sites of Babylon, Uruk and Sippar, collections of mathematical exercises from four Old Babylonian sites, as well as a new text from Early Dynastic/Early Sargonic Umma, which is the oldest known collection of mathematical exercises. A table of reciprocals from the end of the third millennium BC, differing radically from well-documented but younger tables of reciprocals from the Neo-Sumerian and Old-Babylonian periods, as well as a fragment of a Neo-Sumerian clay tablet showing a new type of a labyrinth are also discussed. The material is presen...

  14. Polymorphous Perversity in Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

    2012-01-01

    Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

  15. Texts On-Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  16. Summarizing Expository Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…

  17. Texts On-Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  18. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  19. Performance-Effective and Low-Complexity Redundant Reader Detection in Wireless RFID Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Heau-Jo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The problems of redundant RFID reader detection and coverage have instigated researchers to propose different optimization heuristics due to the rapid advance of technologies in large-scale RFID systems. In this paper, we present a layered elimination optimization (LEO which is an algorithm-independent technique aims to detect maximum amount of redundant readers that could be safely removed or turned off with preserving original RFID network coverage. A significant improvement of the LEO scheme is that amount of "write-to-tag" operations could be largely reduced during the redundant reader identification phase. Moreover, LEO is a distributed approach which does not need to collect global information for centralizing control, leading to no communications or synchronizations among RFID readers. To evaluate the performance of the proposed techniques, we have implemented the LEO technique along with other methods. Both theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the LEO is reliable, effective, and efficient. The proposed techniques can provide reliable performance with detecting higher redundancy and has lower algorithm overheads.

  20. Do Chinese readers follow the national standard rules for word segmentation during reading?

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    Ping-Ping Liu

    Full Text Available We conducted a preliminary study to examine whether Chinese readers' spontaneous word segmentation processing is consistent with the national standard rules of word segmentation based on the Contemporary Chinese language word segmentation specification for information processing (CCLWSSIP. Participants were asked to segment Chinese sentences into individual words according to their prior knowledge of words. The results showed that Chinese readers did not follow the segmentation rules of the CCLWSSIP, and their word segmentation processing was influenced by the syntactic categories of consecutive words. In many cases, the participants did not consider the auxiliary words, adverbs, adjectives, nouns, verbs, numerals and quantifiers as single word units. Generally, Chinese readers tended to combine function words with content words to form single word units, indicating they were inclined to chunk single words into large information units during word segmentation. Additionally, the "overextension of monosyllable words" hypothesis was tested and it might need to be corrected to some degree, implying that word length have an implicit influence on Chinese readers' segmentation processing. Implications of these results for models of word recognition and eye movement control are discussed.

  1. Reading in Arabic orthography: the effect of vowels and context on reading accuracy of poor and skilled native Arabic readers in reading paragraphs, sentences, and isolated words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rabia, S

    1997-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of vowels and context on the reading accuracy of poor and skilled native Arabic readers in reading paragraphs, sentences, and words. Central to this study is the belief that reading theory today should consider additional variables, especially when explaining the reading process in Arabic orthography among poor and normal/skilled readers. This orthography has not been studied. Reading theory today is the sum of conclusions from studies conducted in Latin orthography. The subjects were 77 native Arabic speakers, 34 of them poor readers and 44 normal/skilled readers. The subjects had to read in Arabic 15 paragraphs, 60 sentences, and 210 words. There were three reading conditions: fully vowelized, partially vowelized, and unvowelized texts. The results showed that vowels and contexts were important variables to facilitate word recognition in poor and normal/skilled readers in Arabic orthography.

  2. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information about characters'…

  3. Handheld E-Book Readers and Scholarship Report and Reader Survey: ACLS Humanities E-Book. White Paper No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Nina

    2010-01-01

    This report describes a conversion experiment and subsequent reader survey conducted by the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS) Humanities E-Book (HEB) in late 2009 and early 2010 to assess the viability of using scholarly monographs with handheld e-readers. As sample content, HEB selected six titles from its own online collection, three…

  4. Readers' Responses When Characters Act on Completed Goals: Impact of Characters' Mental States and Readers' Task Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Jeffrey E.; Gerrig, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that readers track the objective status of characters' goals (i.e., whether the goals have been completed). We suggest that readers also use characters' subjective representations--characters' mental states with respect to goals--to comprehend actions. We explored circumstances in which local information about characters'…

  5. Wisdom Texts and Philosophy

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    Anthony Preus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The last essay of this issue concerns to a more "technical" subject: in many ancient cultures, literary monuments are mainly "wisdom literature". In these early works. Philosophy and Literature are more closely related than in many contemporary approaches. The author here tries to sketch the relationships between the ancient wisdom literatures of Egipt, Greece and Israel, and to show how this literary genre precedes "philosophy".

  6. The Birthing of Things: Bergson as a Reader of Lucretius

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    Patrick Healy

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available I examine, in this short paper, the work of Henri Bergson on Lucretius first published in 1884, and argue for its vital significance in understanding the development of his philosophical thinking. This publication was to serve as an introduction to extracts from Lucretius, for his students at Clermont-Ferrand, with a commentary and notes on the poetry, philosophy, the physics, language and text of his poem De Rerum Natura. In the published volume most of the overview of Lucretius by Bergson is given in the long preface, and this is followed by extracts in Latin, without translation into French, with comments on lines and individual words, which covers all the books of the original poem. By 1899 it had gone to a third edition, and was still in print until the 1960's. Copies today are very difficult to obtain, and only recently has a full electronic version become available on the Internet Archive, to which readers are here directly referred.

  7. Weaving with text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn-Rasmussen, Peter

    This paper explores how a school principal by means of practical authorship creates reservoirs of language that provide a possible context for collective sensemaking. The paper draws upon a field study in which a school principal, and his managerial team, was shadowed in a period of intensive cha...... changes. The paper explores how the manager weaves with text, extracted from stakeholders, administration, politicians, employees, public discourse etc., as a means of creating a new fabric, a texture, of diverse perspectives that aims for collective sensemaking....

  8. Visual and Auditory Synchronization Deficits Among Dyslexic Readers as Compared to Non-impaired Readers: A Cross-Correlation Algorithm Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itamar eSela

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Visual and auditory temporal processing and crossmodal integration are crucial factors in the word decoding process. The speed of processing gap (Asynchrony between these two modalities, which has been suggested as related to the dyslexia phenomenon, is the focus of the current study. Nineteen dyslexic and 17 non-impaired University adult readers were given stimuli in a reaction time procedure where participants were asked to identify whhether the stimulus type was only visual, only auditory or crossmodally integrated. Accuracy, reaction time, and Event Related Potential (ERP measures were obtained for each of the three conditions. An algorithm to measure the contribution of the temporal speed of processing of each modality to the crossmodal integration in each group of participants was developed. Results obtained using this model for the analysis of the current study data, indicated that in the crossmodal integration condition the presence of the auditory modality at the pre-response time frame (between 170- 240 ms after stimulus presentation, increased processing speed in the visual modality among the non-impaired readers, but not in the dyslexic group. The differences between the temporal speed of processing of the modalities among the dyslexics and the non-impaired readers give additional support to the theory that an asynchrony between the visual and auditory modalities is a cause of dyslexia.

  9. Metacomprehension of text material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, R H; Berry, S L

    1984-10-01

    Subjects' abilities to predict future multiple-choice test performance after reading sections of text were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, subjects who scored above median test performance showed some accuracy in their predictions of that test performance. They gave higher mean ratings to material related to correct than to incorrect test answers. Subjects who scored below median test performance did not show this prediction accuracy. The retention interval between reading and the test was manipulated in Experiment 2. Subjects who were tested after at least a 24-hr delay showed results identical to those of Experiment 1. However, when subjects were tested immediately after reading, subjects above and below median test performance gave accurate predictions for the first immediate test. In contrast, both types of subjects gave inaccurate predictions for the second immediate test. Structural variables, such as length, serial position, and hierarchical level of the sections of text were related to subjects' predictions. These variables, in general, were not related to test performance, although the predictions were related to test performance in the conditions described above.

  10. Using Eye Tracking to Investigate Semantic and Spatial Representations of Scientific Diagrams During Text-Diagram Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Yu-Cin; Wu, Chao-Jung

    2015-02-01

    We investigated strategies used by readers when reading a science article with a diagram and assessed whether semantic and spatial representations were constructed while reading the diagram. Seventy-one undergraduate participants read a scientific article while tracking their eye movements and then completed a reading comprehension test. Our results showed that the text-diagram referencing strategy was commonly used. However, some readers adopted other reading strategies, such as reading the diagram or text first. We found all readers who had referred to the diagram spent roughly the same amount of time reading and performed equally well. However, some participants who ignored the diagram performed more poorly on questions that tested understanding of basic facts. This result indicates that dual coding theory may be a possible theory to explain the phenomenon. Eye movement patterns indicated that at least some readers had extracted semantic information of the scientific terms when first looking at the diagram. Readers who read the scientific terms on the diagram first tended to spend less time looking at the same terms in the text, which they read after. Besides, presented clear diagrams can help readers process both semantic and spatial information, thereby facilitating an overall understanding of the article. In addition, although text-first and diagram-first readers spent similar total reading time on the text and diagram parts of the article, respectively, text-first readers had significantly less number of saccades of text and diagram than diagram-first readers. This result might be explained as text-directed reading.

  11. Processamento cognitivo em crianças com e sem dificuldades de leitura Cognitive skills in children: comparing good readers and poor readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra Capovilla

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Para buscar identificar habilidades cognitivas mais freqüentemente prejudicadas nas dificuldades de leitura, 90 crianças de pré-escola e 1ª Série foram avaliadas em leitura, escrita, consciência fonológica, memória fonológica, vocabulário, aritmética, processamento visual e seqüenciamento. Comparando as habilidades de bons e maus leitores (acima e abaixo de 1 desvio-padrão em relação à média, respectivamente, observou-se que bons leitores foram significativamente superiores em escrita, consciência fonológica, vocabulário, memória fonológica e memória visual. Resultados sugerem uma relação funcional e forte entre processamento fonológico e leitura; funcional e moderada entre processamento seqüencial, aritmética e leitura; e fraca e correlacional entre processamento visual e leitura.To identify cognitive skills that may be diminished in reading difficulties, 90 preschoolers and first graders were tested in reading, spelling, phonological awareness, phonological memory, vocabulary, arithmetic, visual processing, and sequential processing. Comparison between good readers and poor readers (above and below one standard deviation, respectively, revealed that good readers were significantly superior to poor readers in spelling, phonological awareness, vocabulary, phonological memory and visual memory. Results suggest strong functional relationship between phonological processing and reading, moderate functional relationships between sequential processing and arithmetic on one hand and reading on the other, and weak correlation between visual processing and reading.

  12. Sentence and text comprehension: roles of linguistic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, C; Duffy, S A

    2001-01-01

    Readers and listeners use linguistic structure in comprehending sentences and texts. We review research, mostly published in the past five years, that addresses the question of how they use it. We consider effects of syntactic, lexical, prosodic, morphological, semantic, and discourse structure, as well as reviewing research on how discourse context and frequency of experience, the contents of long-term memory, and the mental models being constructed by a reader or listener affect sentence and text comprehension. We point out areas of theoretical debate including depth-first versus breadth-first models of parsing and memory-based versus constructionist models of discourse comprehension, attempt to show how the empirical effects we review bear on such theoretical questions, and discuss how new lines of research, including research on languages other than English, may enrich the discussion of these questions.

  13. A Critical Dialogue of Structure and Reader in Romans 11: 16-24

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    P. J. Maartend

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical dialogue of structure and reader interprets Paul's allegory of the 'wild olive branches' beyond functionalistic methods of interpretation. Structuralism analyses the antithetical contrasts of the 'wild' and 'cultivated' branches, faith and unfaithfulness, and the kindness and severity of God which abounds in 'double parallelisms'. Reader semiotics identifies the recipient of grace ingrafted by God as participant in salvation. Grace shows no partiality of persons. The symbolism of 'wild olive branches' leads via the 'root' to the righteous servant as interpretant. Neither the Jews nor the Gentiles, as 'wild olive branches', have a claim to any 'prerogative of salvation'. The only privilege which prevails is one of service and allegiance to the divine call. The variegated perspectives generated by this analysis contribute to the polymorphous character of the meaning of the text. The critical dialogue of literary semiotics challenges the reader of every generation to enter into the ensuing debate and interpret the text in a way which is relevant to his/her historical context.

  14. RFID reader design for identification of industrial metallic objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurkowski, M.; Jankowski, H.; Worek, C.; Maksymowicz, L. J.

    2006-10-01

    An electronic circuit design of the RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) reader was the aim of our research. This device is designed for identification of transponders, which are present on the surface of metal elements or inside machine elements made of metal. In order to achieve that, we optimized the antenna reader circuit, that works in near field (magnetic coupling), by means of field flux lines analysis (using finite elements method) and experimental data collecting. Finally, one obtaines a specific shaped magnetic field around the reader.

  15. Usability and Accessibility of eBay by Screen Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Akhter, Fahim

    The evolution of Information and Communication Technology and the rapid growth of the Internet have fuelled a great diffusion of eCommerce websites. Usually these sites have complex layouts crowded with active elements, and thus are difficult to navigate via screen reader. Interactive environments should be properly designed and delivered to everyone, including the blind, who usually use screen readers to interact with their computers. In this paper we investigate the interaction of blind users with eBay, a popular eCommerce website, and discuss how using the W3C Accessible Rich Internet Applications (WAI-ARIA) suite could improve the user experience when navigating via screen reader.

  16. A Study of Readability of Texts in Bangla through Machine Learning Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Manjira; Basu, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated text readability in Bangla language. Text readability is an indicator of the suitability of a given document with respect to a target reader group. Therefore, text readability has huge impact on educational content preparation. The advances in the field of natural language processing have enabled the automatic…

  17. An Eye-Movement Analysis of the Refutation Effect in Reading Science Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariasi, N.; Hyönä, J.; Kaakinen, J. K.; Mason, L.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we used eye-tracking methodology for deeper understanding of the refutation text effect on online text comprehension. A refutation text acknowledges the reader's alternative conceptions about a phenomenon, refutes them and presents the correct conceptions. We tested two hypotheses about its facilitation effect: the coherence…

  18. Interconnectedness und digitale Texte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev Doherr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Die multimedialen Informationsdienste im Internet werden immer umfangreicher und umfassender, wobei auch die nur in gedruckter Form vorliegenden Dokumente von den Bibliotheken digitalisiert und ins Netz gestellt werden. Über Online-Dokumentenverwaltungen oder Suchmaschinen können diese Dokumente gefunden und dann in gängigen Formaten wie z.B. PDF bereitgestellt werden. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet die Funktionsweise der Humboldt Digital Library, die seit mehr als zehn Jahren Dokumente von Alexander von Humboldt in englischer Übersetzung im Web als HDL (Humboldt Digital Library kostenfrei zur Verfügung stellt. Anders als eine digitale Bibliothek werden dabei allerdings nicht nur digitalisierte Dokumente als Scan oder PDF bereitgestellt, sondern der Text als solcher und in vernetzter Form verfügbar gemacht. Das System gleicht damit eher einem Informationssystem als einer digitalen Bibliothek, was sich auch in den verfügbaren Funktionen zur Auffindung von Texten in unterschiedlichen Versionen und Übersetzungen, Vergleichen von Absätzen verschiedener Dokumente oder der Darstellung von Bilden in ihrem Kontext widerspiegelt. Die Entwicklung von dynamischen Hyperlinks auf der Basis der einzelnen Textabsätze der Humboldt‘schen Werke in Form von Media Assets ermöglicht eine Nutzung der Programmierschnittstelle von Google Maps zur geographischen wie auch textinhaltlichen Navigation. Über den Service einer digitalen Bibliothek hinausgehend, bietet die HDL den Prototypen eines mehrdimensionalen Informationssystems, das mit dynamischen Strukturen arbeitet und umfangreiche thematische Auswertungen und Vergleiche ermöglicht. Summary The multimedia information services on Internet are becoming more and more comprehensive, even the printed documents are digitized and republished as digital Web documents by the libraries. Those digital files can be found by search engines or management tools and provided as files in usual formats as

  19. Mobile characters, mobile texts: homelessness and intertextuality in contemporary texts for young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavis Reimer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, narratives about homelessness for and about young people have proliferated around the world. A cluster of thematic elements shared by many of these narratives of the age of globalization points to the deep anxiety that is being expressed about a social, economic, and cultural system under stress or struggling to find a new formation. More surprisingly, many of the narratives also use canonical cultural texts extensively as intertexts. This article considers three novels from three different national traditions to address the work of intertextuality in narratives about homelessness: Skellig by UK author David Almond, which was published in 1998; Chronicler of the Winds by Swedish author Henning Mankell, which was first published in 1988 in Swedish as Comédia Infantil and published in an English translation in 2006; and Stained Glass by Canadian author Michael Bedard, which was published in 2002. Using Julia Kristeva's definition of intertextuality as the “transposition of one (or several sign systems into another,” I propose that all intertexts can be thought of as metaphoric texts, in the precise sense that they carry one text into another. In the narratives under discussion in this article, the idea of homelessness is in perpetual motion between texts and intertexts, ground and figure, the literal and the symbolic. What the child characters and the readers who take up the position offered to implied readers are asked to do, I argue, is to put on a way of seeing that does not settle, a way of being that strains forward toward the new.

  20. V. Nabokov’s play with a reader in his written in Russian novels

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    Uzbekova G. F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Playing with the reader is one of the main characteristics of V. Nabokov’s creativity. His books is a “literary crossword puzzle”, charade, and mystification that demand parity, intellectually equal, and with the similar art preferences reader. Reader equally participates with author in an esthetic process. The reader follows the writer-“wizard” in the text, and first, enters game process to take esthetic “pleasure from the text”; second, he is getting involved in the “composite games by rules”. The main means of the organization of literary game in Russian-language novels of V. Nabokov is a play with “someone else’s word”. V. Nabokov addressed to someone else’s texts to mock social writers (N. Chernyshevsky, N. Nekrasov, N. Dobrolyubov, V. Mayakovsky or to degrade a certain hero in parodic and ironic ways. The writer in “someone else’s word” did not mock predecessors similar to his own spirit (W. Shakespeare, A. Pushkin, M. Lermontov, A. Blok, etc., but discredited a modern person who disappeared from the world of the real culture. One of the important composition elements of game in V. Nabokov’s novels is symbolics of key. The theme of keys obviously or indirectly sounds both in the debut Nabokov’s novel “Mashenka” (1926, and in later books: “Invitation to execution” (1936, “Luzhin’s Protection” (1930, “Feat” (1932, and “Gift” (1937. A number of motives is connected with the theme of keys and the closed doors: wandering, homelessness, downtime, initiation, and crossing. The process of searching for those keys is an attempt to find answers to ontological questions, and this is essential for V. Nabokov.