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Sample records for non-pungent jalapeno peppers

  1. Transformation, Conjugation, and Sequestration Following the Uptake of Triclocarban by Jalapeno Pepper Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Khang; Banach, Emily; Reinhold, Dawn

    2018-04-25

    Plant uptake and metabolism of emerging organic contaminants, such as personal-care products, pose potential risks to human health. In this study, jalapeno pepper ( Capsicum annuum) plants cultured in hydroponic media were exposed to both 14 C-labeled and unlabeled triclocarban (TCC) to investigate the accumulation, distribution, and metabolism of TCC following plant uptake. The results revealed that TCC was detected in all plant tissues; after 12 weeks, the TCC concentrations in root, stem, leaf, and fruit tissues were 19.74 ± 2.26, 0.26 ± 0.04, 0.11 ± 0.01, and 0.03 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. More importantly, a substantial portion of the TCC taken up by plants was metabolized, especially in the stems, leaves, and fruits. Hydroxylated TCC (e.g., 2'-OH TCC and 6-OH TCC) and glycosylated OH-TCC were the main phase I and phase II metabolites in plant tissues, respectively. Bound (or nonextractable) residues of TCC accounted for approximately 44.6, 85.6, 69.0, and 47.5% of all TCC species that accumulated in roots, stems, leaves, and fruits, respectively. The concentrations of TCC metabolites were more than 20 times greater than the concentrations of TCC in the above-ground tissues of the jalapeno pepper plants after 12 weeks; crucially, approximately 95.6% of the TCC was present as metabolites in the fruits. Consequently, human exposure to TCC through the consumption of pepper fruits is expected to be substantially higher when phytometabolism is considered.

  2. Production and characterization of tearless and non-pungent onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Masahiro; Masamura, Noriya; Shono, Jinji; Okamoto, Daisaku; Abe, Tomoko; Imai, Shinsuke

    2016-04-06

    The onion lachrymatory factor (LF) is produced from trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (PRENCSO) through successive reactions catalyzed by alliinase (EC 4.4.1.4) and lachrymatory factor synthase (LFS), and is responsible for the tear inducing-property and the pungency of fresh onions. We developed tearless, non-pungent onions non-transgenically by irradiating seeds with neon-ion at 20 Gy. The bulbs obtained from the irradiated seeds and their offspring bulbs produced by selfing were screened by organoleptic assessment of tear-inducing property or HPLC analysis of LF production. After repeated screening and seed production by selfing, two tearless, non-pungent bulbs were identified in the third generation (M3) bulbs. Twenty M4 bulbs obtained from each of them showed no tear-inducing property or pungency when evaluated by 20 sensory panelists. The LF production levels in these bulbs were approximately 7.5-fold lower than those of the normal onion. The low LF production levels were due to reduction in alliinase activity, which was a result of low alliinase mRNA expression (less than 1% of that in the normal onion) and consequent low amounts of the alliinase protein. These tearless, non-pungent onions should be welcomed by all who tear while chopping onions and those who work in facilities where fresh onions are processed.

  3. Pepper, Sweet (Capsicum annuum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidmann, I.; Boutilier, K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Capsicum (pepper) species are economically important crops that are recalcitrant to genetic transformation by Agrobacterium ( Agrobacterium tumefaciens ). A number of protocols for pepper transformation have been described but are not routinely applicable. The main bottleneck in pepper

  4. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theresa A; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Yao, JiQiang; Stoffel, Kevin; Truco, Maria-Jose; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome

  5. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Hill

    Full Text Available The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP. Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and

  6. Aleurotrachelus trachoides (pepper whitefly)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleurotrachelus trachoides Back also known as solanum or pepper whitefly is a new addition to the list of serious whitefly pests found in Florida. According to EPPO global database, it is a pest of over 70 different crops worldwide, which include a combination of edibles, ornamentals, palms, and wee...

  7. Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin Determination in Chili Pepper Genotypes Using Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaji G. Usman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research was carried out to estimate the levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin that may be found in some heat tolerant chili pepper genotypes and to determine the degree of pungency as well as percentage capsaicin content of each of the analyzed peppers. A sensitive, precise, and specific ultra fast liquid chromatographic (UFLC system was used for the separation, identification and quantitation of the capsaicinoids and the extraction solvent was acetonitrile. The method validation parameters, including linearity, precision, accuracy and recovery, yielded good results. Thus, the limit of detection was 0.045 µg/kg and 0.151 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin, respectively, whereas the limit of quantitation was 0.11 µg/kg and 0.368 µg/kg for capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin. The calibration graph was linear from 0.05 to 0.50 µg/g for UFLC analysis. The inter- and intra-day precisions (relative standard deviation were <5.0% for capsaicin and <9.9% for dihydrocapsaicin while the average recoveries obtained were quantitative (89.4%–90.1% for capsaicin, 92.4%–95.2% for dihydrocapsaicin, indicating good accuracy of the UFLC method. AVPP0705, AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 showed the highest concentration of capsaicin (12,776, 5,828, 4,393, 4,760, 3,764 and 4,120 µg/kg and the highest pungency level, whereas AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 recorded no detection of capsaicin and hence were non-pungent. All chili peppers studied except AVPP9703, AVPP0512, AVPP0307, AVPP0803 and AVPP0102 could serve as potential sources of capsaicin. On the other hand, only genotypes AVPP0506, AVPP0104, AVPP0002, C05573 and AVPP0805 gave a % capsaicin content that falls within the pungency limit that could make them recommendable as potential sources of capsaicin for the pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhousegrown pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Severe systemic viral symptoms were observed on the leaves of infected pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants cultivated in Antalya located in the Mediterranean coast of Turkey, in 2008. The symptoms on the diseased pepper plants included, mosaic, mottle, chlorosis coupled with stunting, chlorotic spots, distortion of the ...

  9. Decontamination of Black Pepper (Pepper Negrum) in grains by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Pino, J.; Zayas, M.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of irradiation with doses ranging between 3 and 10 kGy on the microbiological quality, on different chemical components and on the organoleptic quality of black pepper in grains was studied in this paper. The results showed the effectiveness of treatment in the decontamination of this spice. Piperin content, yield of essential oil and its composition as well as the organoleptic quality did not change with applied doses to black pepper in grains

  10. EFFECT OF ALLIGATOR PEPPER (ZINGIBERACEAE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    proven fertility from a pilot study were randomly paired in fifteen cages in a well ventillated room. After three days of ... Key words : Effect, Alligator pepper, Herbal remedy, Nutrition, Pregnancy. Introduction ... ad libitum. Experimental drug.

  11. Resistance to thrips in pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maharijaya, A.

    2013-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum) production is constrained by heavy infestations of thrips, causing direct and indirect (by transmitting viruses) damage. Thrips control using chemical insecticides, biological agents, culture practices and integrated pest management has limited success. The

  12. Mutation breeding in pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daskalov, S [Plant Breeding Unit, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Seibersdorf Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1986-03-01

    Pepper (Capsicum sp.) is an important vegetable and spice crop widely grown in tropical as well as in temperate regions. Until recently the improvement programmes were based mainly on using natural sources of germ plasma, crossbreeding and exploiting the heterosis of F{sub 1} hybrids. However, interest in using induced mutations is growing. A great number of agronomically useful mutants as well as mutants valuable for genetic, cytological and physiological studies have been induced and described. In this review information is presented about suitable mutagen treatment procedures with radiation as well as chemicals, M{sub 1} effects, handling the treated material in M{sub 1}, M{sub 2} and subsequent generations, and mutant screening procedures. This is supplemented by a description of reported useful mutants and released cultivars. Finally, general advice is given on when and how to incorporate mutation induction in Capsicum improvement programmes. (author)

  13. Mutation breeding in pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalov, S.

    1986-01-01

    Pepper (Capsicum sp.) is an important vegetable and spice crop widely grown in tropical as well as in temperate regions. Until recently the improvement programmes were based mainly on using natural sources of germ plasma, crossbreeding and exploiting the heterosis of F 1 hybrids. However, interest in using induced mutations is growing. A great number of agronomically useful mutants as well as mutants valuable for genetic, cytological and physiological studies have been induced and described. In this review information is presented about suitable mutagen treatment procedures with radiation as well as chemicals, M 1 effects, handling the treated material in M 1 , M 2 and subsequent generations, and mutant screening procedures. This is supplemented by a description of reported useful mutants and released cultivars. Finally, general advice is given on when and how to incorporate mutation induction in Capsicum improvement programmes. (author)

  14. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Ochiai, Junko; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    1988-01-01

    Black pepper, white pepper, frozen green pepper and real pink pepper (kept in vinegar) were analyzed by reversed phase IIPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C 8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile - 0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. The different constituents were observed clearly on chromatogram between black pepper and white pepper. The different constituents were observed between different producing white peppers, and as the result that the analyzed pepper was distinguished its producing district by HPLC chromatogram. In order to investigate of effect of lyophilization on white pepper extracts, lyophilized extraction was analyzed by this HPLC method. Some peaks were decreased by lyophilization. The effect of heat on white pepper constituents was examined. White pepper was heated by electronic oven and thermostat. When the former method was used, decreased peak number (peak height was lower than without heat treatment) was more than latter method. These subtle change was able to be recognized by these HPLC chromatograms. (author)

  15. Decontamination of black pepper and red pepper by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oularbi, S.; Mansouri, B.

    1993-04-01

    In the present work, it has been studied the decontamination of two types of spices (black pepper and red pepper) by gamma radiation. The initial microbial population of spices not treated is about 10 (7) to 10 (8) per gram. The population decrease exponentially with irradiation dose. By this, it has been established that a dose of 6 kGy reduces the microbial flora low than 10 (3) per gram. A total elimination of moulds is obtained at dose of 8 kGy

  16. Cayenne pepper in a meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B. V.; Byrne, D. V.; Bredie, W. L.P.

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated appetite sensations, hedonics, sensory specific desires, physical- and psychological well-being sensations during and after intake of a meal with- and without increased oral heat induced by addition of cayenne pepper. Subjects (n = 66) completed a randomized cross......-over study involving a tomato soup with and without added cayenne pepper (0.593 mg capsaicin). Self-reports were evaluated at 5 min intervals during intake and at 1 h intervals until four hours post intake using VAS-scales and 9-point scales. Sensory specific desires were further studied by liking...... and wanting of food samples representing the sensory profiles: sweet, sour, salt, bitter, fat and spicy, respectively. The soup with cayenne pepper added was perceived significantly more spicy but equally liked, and resulted in significant higher satiation at the end of the meal and one hour post intake...

  17. Identification of irradiated pepper by ESR measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, Norio; Kume, Tamikazu; Kawakami, Waichiro; Ishigaki, Isao

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of using electron spin resonance (ESR) for identification of irradiated black and white pepper was examined. The ESR spectra induced by irradiation with 10 kGy are clearly distinguishable from that of unirradiated samples. The intensity of signal induced by irradiation was markedly reduced during 2 weeks storage but it was slowly reduced on further storage. The difference of intensity between the irradiated and unirradiated samples can be distinguished after 13 weeks storage. In this experiment, ground black pepper, ground white pepper and whole white pepper can be identified after 13 weeks. On the other hand, whole black pepper cannot be identified after 8 weeks because of the variation of values. It suggests that the suitable method for sample preparation such as separation of pellicle of whole black pepper is required before ESR measurement. (author)

  18. Mutation breeding in diffrent types of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This project was carried out under the collaboration of TAEK, SANAEM, and BATEM within 1999-2005 period. The aim of this project was to create new pepper varieties in Sera Demre 8 (green pepper) and ST59 (green pepper) cultivars which are important greenhouse cultivars by using mutation breeding methods. The Effective Mutagen Dose (ED50) was calculated by linear regression analyses. According to results, 166 Gy dose was found as ED50. At the end of the breeding cycle 14 new mutant lines were obtained from mutant population. These mutant lines are still using as genitor for F1 hybrid pepper breeding programs

  19. Pepper EST database: comprehensive in silico tool for analyzing the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woo Taek

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is no dedicated database available for Expressed Sequence Tags (EST of the chili pepper (Capsicum annuum, although the interest in a chili pepper EST database is increasing internationally due to the nutritional, economic, and pharmaceutical value of the plant. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing of the ESTs of chili pepper cv. Bukang have produced hundreds of thousands of complementary DNA (cDNA sequences. Therefore, a chili pepper EST database was designed and constructed to enable comprehensive analysis of chili pepper gene expression in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Results We built the Pepper EST database to mine the complexity of chili pepper ESTs. The database was built on 122,582 sequenced ESTs and 116,412 refined ESTs from 21 pepper EST libraries. The ESTs were clustered and assembled into virtual consensus cDNAs and the cDNAs were assigned to metabolic pathway, Gene Ontology (GO, and MIPS Functional Catalogue (FunCat. The Pepper EST database is designed to provide a workbench for (i identifying unigenes in pepper plants, (ii analyzing expression patterns in different developmental tissues and under conditions of stress, and (iii comparing the ESTs with those of other members of the Solanaceae family. The Pepper EST database is freely available at http://genepool.kribb.re.kr/pepper/. Conclusion The Pepper EST database is expected to provide a high-quality resource, which will contribute to gaining a systemic understanding of plant diseases and facilitate genetics-based population studies. The database is also expected to contribute to analysis of gene synteny as part of the chili pepper sequencing project by mapping ESTs to the genome.

  20. Visualizing Capsaicinoids: Colorimetric Analysis of Chili Peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Q.; Chu, Christopher; Gent, Robin; Gould, Alexandra P.; Rios, Laura; Vertigan, Theresa M.

    2012-01-01

    A colorimetric method for total capsaicinoids in chili pepper ("Capsicum") fruit is described. The placental material of the pepper, containing 90% of the capsaicinoids, was physically separated from the colored materials in the pericarp and extracted twice with methanol, capturing 85% of the remaining capsaicinoids. The extract, evaporated and…

  1. Method of detecting irradiated pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumaru, Takaaki; Furuta, Masakazu; Katayama, Tadashi; Toratani, Hirokazu; Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1989-01-01

    Spices represented by pepper are generally contaminated by microorganisms, and for using them as foodstuffs, some sterilizing treatment is indispensable. However, heating is not suitable to spices, accordingly ethylene oxide gas sterilization has been inevitably carried out, but its carcinogenic property is a problem. Food irradiation is the technology for killing microorganisms and noxious insects which cause the rotting and spoiling of foods and preventing the germination, which is an energy-conserving method without the fear of residual chemicals, therefore, it is most suitable to the sterilization of spices. In the irradiation of lower than 10 kGy, the toxicity test is not required for any food, and the irradiation of spices is permitted in 20 countries. However, in order to establish the international distribution organization for irradiated foods, the PR to consumers and the development of the means of detecting irradiation are the important subjects. The authors used pepper, and examined whether the hydrogen generated by irradiation remains in seeds and it can be detected or not. The experimental method and the results are reported. From the samples without irradiation, hydrogen was scarcely detected. The quantity of hydrogen generated was proportional to dose. The measuring instrument is only a gas chromatograph. (K.I.)

  2. Study on some chemical changes in irradiated pepper and parsley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josimovic, L.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on some water soluble components (carbohydrates, carbonyl compounds) of pepper and parsley, as well as on piperine in pepper and chlorophyll in parsley has been investigated. The irradiation of parsley with doses as high as 5 Mrad does not bring about any distinct qualitative and quantitative changes. In irradiated pepper qualitative changes were also not observed, but quantitative changes were measured even for doses lower than 1 Mrad. However, piperine in pepper is quite resistant against radiation. (author)

  3. Study on some chemical changes in irradiated pepper and parsley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josimovic, L [Institut za Nuklearne Nauke Boris Kidric, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1983-05-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on some water soluble components (carbohydrates, carbonyl compounds) of pepper and parsley, as well as on piperine in pepper and chlorophyll in parsley has been investigated. The irradiation of parsley with doses as high as 5 Mrad does not bring about any distinct qualitative and quantitative changes. In irradiated pepper qualitative changes were also not observed, but quantitative changes were measured even for doses lower than 1 Mrad. However, piperine in pepper is quite resistant against radiation.

  4. -pumping pyrophosphatase in pepper plants

    KAUST Repository

    Vigani, Gianpiero; Rolli, Eleonora; Marasco, Ramona; Dell'Orto, Marta; Michoud, Gregoire; Soussi, Asma; Raddadi, Noura; Borin, Sara; Sorlini, Claudia; Zocchi, Graziano; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    It has been previously shown that the transgenic overexpression of the plant root vacuolar proton pumps H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase) confer tolerance to drought. Since plant-root endophytic bacteria can also promote drought tolerance, we hypothesize that such promotion can be associated to the enhancement of the host vacuolar proton pumps expression and activity. To test this hypothesis, we selected two endophytic bacteria endowed with an array of in vitro plant growth promoting traits. Their genome sequences confirmed the presence of traits previously shown to confer drought resistance to plants, such as the synthesis of nitric oxide and of organic volatile organic compounds. We used the two strains on pepper (Capsicuum annuum L.) because of its high sensitivity to drought. Under drought conditions, both strains stimulated a larger root system and enhanced the leaves' photosynthetic activity. By testing the expression and activity of the vacuolar proton pumps, H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase), we found that bacterial colonization enhanced V-PPase only. We conclude that the enhanced expression and activity of V-PPase can be favoured by the colonization of drought-tolerance-inducing bacterial endophytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. -pumping pyrophosphatase in pepper plants

    KAUST Repository

    Vigani, Gianpiero

    2018-05-22

    It has been previously shown that the transgenic overexpression of the plant root vacuolar proton pumps H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase) confer tolerance to drought. Since plant-root endophytic bacteria can also promote drought tolerance, we hypothesize that such promotion can be associated to the enhancement of the host vacuolar proton pumps expression and activity. To test this hypothesis, we selected two endophytic bacteria endowed with an array of in vitro plant growth promoting traits. Their genome sequences confirmed the presence of traits previously shown to confer drought resistance to plants, such as the synthesis of nitric oxide and of organic volatile organic compounds. We used the two strains on pepper (Capsicuum annuum L.) because of its high sensitivity to drought. Under drought conditions, both strains stimulated a larger root system and enhanced the leaves\\' photosynthetic activity. By testing the expression and activity of the vacuolar proton pumps, H+ -ATPase (V-ATPase) and H+ -PPase (V-PPase), we found that bacterial colonization enhanced V-PPase only. We conclude that the enhanced expression and activity of V-PPase can be favoured by the colonization of drought-tolerance-inducing bacterial endophytes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Okuyama, Tsuneo; Ishikawa, Toshihiro.

    1988-01-01

    Gamma irradiated peppers (10 krad, 100 krad, 1 Mrad) were analyzed by HPLC. The extraction method and HPLC conditions were same as the first report, that is, the extraction from pepper was performed by Automatic Air Hammer and the extracted samples were separated on a reversed phase C 8 column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro aceticacid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile-0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes and detected at 210 nm, 280 nm. It is difficult to compare with irradiated and unirradiated pepper constituents by their peak height or area. And the method of multi variant statistically analysis was introduced. The 'peak n area/peak n + 1 area' ratio was calculated by computer. Each peak area was accounted by integrator. The value of these ratio were called 'parameter'. Each chromatogram has 741 parameters calculated with 39 chromatographic peaks. And these parameters were abopted to the multi variant statiscally analysis. Comparison of constituents between irradiated pepper and unirradiated pepper was done by 741 parameters. The correlation of parameters between irradiated and unirradiated was investigated by use of computer. Some parameters of irradiated case were selected as which had no correlation with unirradiated case. That is to say these parameters were thought to be changed with gamma spectrum irradiation. By this method, Coumarin was identified as a changed component with gamma irradiation. (author)

  7. Copper and manganese content of the leaves of pepper ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The degree of Cu uptake by pepper plants was highest in the treatment on chernozem, lower on fluvisol and pseudogley, and lowest on vertisol, while the degree of Mn uptake by pepper plants was highest on chernozem and lowest on pseudogley. The Cu content of pepper leaves in all the treatments was low as compared ...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in pest-proof...

  9. ESR analysis of irradiated red peppers and commercial red peppers in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2011-01-01

    ESR analysis of γ-ray irradiated and being treated with different processing red pepper was studied. All the red peppers were commercial expect irradiated one. Processing treatment of red pepper was sun drying, mechanical processing (heating sterilization and powdering treatment). All the samples were weighted and analyzed. The ESR spectrum of the red pepper is composed of a singlet at g=2.00. This signal was originated from organic free radical. It is suggested the effect of heating treatment on the radical formation is not so large and powdering treatment will promote the radical formation of red pepper. ESR singlet signal of the irradiated red pepper showed the large signal intensity and the dose-dependence. The singlet signal intensity of irradiated powder sample showed the almost same value as compared with that of the powder sample with heating treatment. Relaxation times (T 1 and T 2 ) of the singlet signal were calculated. The relaxation behavior and relaxation times of the irradiated sample were different from that of the non-irradiated sample. The value of T 1 , the spin lattice relaxation time, of irradiated sample was increased and T 2 , the spin-spin relaxation time, of irradiated sample was decreased. We concluded that the radical formation of the red pepper is mainly depended on the powdering treatment and irradiation. (author)

  10. Hybrid breeding in pepper (capsicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milkova, L.; Daskalov, S.

    1981-01-01

    Male sterile forms of peppers with gene sterility were produced by ν- and X-irradiation of dry seeds of cv. Pazarjishka kapiya 794 and Zlaten medal and subsequent selection in M 2 . Male sterile lines suitable for developing hybrid cultivars intended for various kinds of production were obtained by backcrossing with lines and cultivars having valuable economic characters and high combining ability. The promising pepper Belasitsa, Prista, Lyulin and Strouma (all of them for early field production), and Izoumroud and Prevuzhoden (for glasshouse production) are described. (authors)

  11. [Beliefs about chili pepper consumption and health in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Carrillo, L; Fernández-Ortega M, C; Costa-Dias, R; Franco-Marina, J; Alejandre-Badillo, T

    1995-01-01

    Eating chili peppers is a cultural tradition in Mexico. Controversial characteristics have been empirically associated to chili pepper consumption and human health. In this paper, the beliefs about the health impacts of chili pepper consumption in two independent groups of Mexico City residents are described. The results confirm, on the one hand, that there is a wide variety of health benefits and damages associated with chili pepper consumption, but on the other hand, that the levels of chili pepper consumption are not related to beliefs about its human health impact.

  12. PROSPECT OF INDONESIA BLACK AND WHITE PEPPERS EXPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavi Supriana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis study analyzes the behavior of pepper exports, consisting of black pepper and white pepper, to various destination countries. The results of this study showed that black pepper exports affected by the destination country's gross domestic product (GDP, the price of white pepper, the population of the country of destination and the exchange rate against the dollar. Meanwhile, white pepper exports affected by the destination country's GDP, the population of the country of destination, the price of black pepper, white pepper prices and the exchange rate against the dollar. The results also showed that black pepper and white pepper are not mutually substituted.Keywords: pepper, exports, GDP, population, exchange rate JEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19AbstrakPenelitian ini menganalisis perilaku ekspor lada, terdiri dari lada hitam dan lada putih, ke berbagai negara tujuan. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa ekspor lada hitam dipengaruhi oleh Pendapatan domestik bruto (PDB negara tujuan, harga lada putih, populasi negara tujuan dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Sementara itu, ekspor lada putih dipengaruhi oleh PDB negara tujuan, populasi negara tujuan, harga lada hitam, harga lada putih dan nilai tukar rupiah terhadap dolar. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa lada hitam dan lada putih tidak saling bersubstitusi.Keywords: Lada, ekspor, PDB, populasi, kursJEL Classificaiton Numbers: F14, F19

  13. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Okuyama, Tsuneo; Yamauchi, Yoshio; Saito, Muneo.

    1988-01-01

    The extraction of pepper perfume by use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was investigated. Carbon dioxide was used as supercritical mobile phase. SFE was achieved by follow conditions, temperature was 40deg C, pressure was 200 kgf/cm 2 , 5 % methanol was added to mobile phase and the extraction time was 60 minutes. The extracted fraction by this method was yellow oily substance and was pepper perfume rich fraction, while the residue of extraction had not only perfume but also any pungency. And it seems that most part of pepper perfume was extracted by Supercritical fluid extraction. The perfume fraction was analyzed by two way method, that is, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and reversed phase HPLC. SFC conditions were same as SFE. HPLC conditions were described as the first report. By both methods, about 7 peaks were detected. According to their analysis of this fraction, the main component was identified as piperine. On the chromatogram of reversed phase HPLC of extract, most peaks were eluted later than piperine. And it is thought that most perfume components have high hydrophobicity more than piperine. The change of perfume of pepper was able to be discussed based on the extraction by SFE. (author)

  14. Effect of alligator pepper (Zingiberaceae Aframomum melegueta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fifteen male rats and fifteen female rats of proven fertility from a pilot study were randomly paired in fifteen cages in a well ventillated room. After three days of mating, the males were withdrawn from ... risk to women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Key words : Effect, Alligator pepper, Herbal remedy, Nutrition, Pregnancy ...

  15. New Insights on Eggplant/Tomato/Pepper Synteny and Identification of Eggplant and Pepper Orthologous QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Rinaldi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eggplant, pepper and tomato are the most exploited berry-producing vegetables within the Solanaceae family. Their genomes differ in size, but each has 12 chromosomes which have undergone rearrangements causing a redistribution of loci. The genome sequences of all three species are available but differ in coverage, assembly quality and percentage of anchorage.Determining their syntenic relationship and QTL orthology will contribute to exploit genomic resources and genetic data for key agronomic traits.The syntenic analysis between tomato and pepper based on the alignment of 34,727 tomato CDS to the pepper genome sequence, identified 19,734 unique hits. The resulting synteny map confirmed the 14 inversions and 10 translocations previously documented, but also highlighted 3 new translocations and 4 major new inversions. Furthermore, each of the 12 chromosomes exhibited a number of rearrangements involving small regions of 0.5-0.7 Mbp.Due to high fragmentation of the publicly available eggplant genome sequence, physical localization of most eggplant QTL was not possible, thus, we compared the organization of the eggplant genetic map with the genome sequence of both tomato and pepper. The eggplant/tomato syntenic map confirmed all the 10 translocations but only 9 of the 14 known inversions; on the other hand, a newly detected inversion was recognized while another one was not confirmed. The eggplant/pepper syntenic map confirmed 10 translocations and 8 inversions already detected and suggested a putative new translocation.In order to perform the assessment of eggplant and pepper QTL orthology, the eggplant and pepper sequence-based markers located in their respective genetic map were aligned onto the pepper genome. GBrowse in pepper was used as reference platform for QTL positioning. A set of 151 pepper QTL were located as well as 212 eggplant QTL, including 76 major QTL (PVE ≥ 10% affecting key agronomic traits. Most were confirmed to cluster in

  16. New Sources of Tobamoviruses, CMV and Bacterial Spot Resistance in Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Stoimenova, Elisaveta; Mitrev, Sasa; Bogatzevska, Nevena

    2005-01-01

    The pepper cultivars Zlaten medal, Alfi and Zalfi, the six Macedonian pepper accessions and the five Bulgarian lines have been screening for the resistance to cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), tobamoviruses and Xanthomonas vesicatoria pepper - tomato pathotype (XvPT).

  17. Genetic variability of Indonesian local chili pepper: The facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumingtyas, Estri Laras; Kusnadi, Joni; Sari, Dewi Ratih Tirto; Ratih, Nursita

    2017-11-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens) is one species of Solanaceae family that is very popular in Indonesia and some other tropical countries because of its pungency. Chili pepper is an important spice in Indonesia and is also eaten fresh as a pickle to increase appetite. In Indonesia, there are various local names for chili pepper includingcabai, cengek, lombok, pedesan etc. These varied local names represent the various morphological shapes of the chili pepper fruit. We have investigated the variability of some chili cultivars based on morphological characteristics, molecular markers, pungency, and capsaicin content. Some biological facts, such as the tendency of chili pepper to outbreed, have also been found. In this paper, the source of variability and the possible mechanism of increasing genetic variability of Indonesian local chili pepper are also discussed.

  18. Brazilian Capsicum peppers: capsaicinoid content and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Stanislau; Libardi, Silvia H; Dias, Fernanda Fg; Coutinho, Janclei P; Bochi, Vivian C; Rodrigues, Daniele; Melo, Arlete Mt; Godoy, Helena T

    2018-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are known as a source of capsaicinoids, phenolic compounds and antioxidants. Brazilian Capsicum peppers are important spices used in foods worldwide. However, little information is available on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of these peppers. Capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were investigated in extracts of three Brazilian peppers: Capsicum frutescens, C. chinense and C. baccatum var. pendulum, in two different harvest years and at two ripening stages. The bioactive compound content was dependent on harvest year, and changes in the concentration profiles were found for capsaicin. Mature fruits of C. chinense harvested in the first year had the highest capsaicin concentration (2.04 mg g -1 fresh pepper), and mature fruits of C. frutescens harvested in the same first year had the highest dihydrocapsaicin content (0.95 mg g -1 fresh pepper). Mature fruits of C. frutescens harvested in the first year showed the major total phenolic compound content (2.46 mg g -1 fresh pepper). The total phenolic compound content was directly related to antioxidant activity. Our results suggest that phenolic compounds significantly contribute to the antioxidant activity of the investigated peppers. Also, these data add valued novel information that enhances current knowledge of Brazilian pepper fruits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Analysis of gamma irradiated pepper constituents, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Kazuko; Okuyama, Tsuneo

    1988-01-01

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the analysis of many constituents of pepper at the same time. And a extraction method of ultraviolet absorbing constituents from pepper was developed for the HPLC analysis. The Ultraviolet absorbing constituents were extracted by precooled Automatic Air-Hammer from frozen pepper with 20% acetonitrile in water. The process of extraction was achieved under cooling by liquid nitrogen from start to end. The extracted constituents were separated on a reversed phase C 8 (LiChrospher 300 RP - 8 10 μm 0.4 I.D. x 0.4 cm and LiChrosorb RP - 8 SelectB 0.4 I. D. x 25 cm) column with a concave gradient from 0.1% trifluoro acetic acid (TFA) in water to 75% acetonitrile and 0.1% TFA in water for 60 minutes. The eluted constituents were detected 210 nm and 280 nm. The present method permits the detection of about 50 peaks by 280 nm. (author)

  20. Sodium fluxes in sweet pepper exposed to varying sodium concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom-Zandstra, M.; Vogelzang, S.A.; Veen, B.W.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium transport and distribution of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) under saline conditions were studied after transferring the plants to a sodium-free nutrient solution. Sodium stress up to 60 mM did not affect the growth of sweet pepper, as it appears able to counteract the unfavourable

  1. Haematology and serum biochemistry of laying hens fed red pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hematology and serum biochemistry of ISA brown laying hens fed red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as feed additive in their diet was studied. Sixty (60) laying birds (in their 32nd week) were randomly allotted to four different dietary treatments with graded levels of red pepper (Capsicum annum. L.) as additive.

  2. Toward Valid Measurement of Stephen Pepper's World Hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, John A.

    Two measures of the "world hypotheses" of Stephen Pepper were mailed to 100 sociobiologists, 87 behaviorists, 79 personality psychologists, and 45 human developmentalists. The World Hypothesis Scale (WHS) was designed to measure Pepper's four world views: (1) formism; (2) mechanism; (3) organicism; and (4) contextualism. The…

  3. Emittance formula for slits and pepper-pot measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, M.

    1996-10-01

    In this note, a rigid formula for slits and pepper-pot emittance measurement is derived. The derivation is based on the one- dimensional slit measurement setup. A mathematical generalization of the slit emittance formula to the pepper-pot measurement is discussed

  4. Physicochemical properties of black pepper (Piper nigrum) starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Mojel, Reuben; Li, Guantian

    2018-02-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is among the most popular spices around the world. Starch is the major component of black pepper. However, little is known about functional properties of this starch. In this study, swelling, solubility, thermal properties, rheology, and enzyme susceptibility of 2 black pepper starches were studied and compared with those of maize starch. Pepper starch had lower water solubility and swelling power than maize starch. It had higher viscosity during pasting event. In dynamic oscillatory analysis, pepper starch had lower storage modulus. Thermal analysis showed that pepper starch had much higher gelatinization temperatures (e.g., conclusion temperature of 94°C) than maize starch. The susceptibility to α-amylolysis of pepper starch was not very different from that of maize starch. Overall, the differences in the physicochemical properties of the 2 pepper starches are non-significant. The relationships between structure (especially amylopectin internal molecular structure) and properties of starch components are highlighted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Coevolution of a Persistent Plant Virus and Its Pepper Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Maliheh; Roossinck, Marilyn J

    2018-05-30

    There are many nonpathogenic viruses that are maintained in a persistent lifestyle in plants. Plant persistent viruses are widespread, replicating in their hosts for many generations. So far, Endornaviridae is the only family of plant persistent viruses with a single-stranded RNA genome, containing one large open reading frame. Bell pepper endornavirus (BPEV), Hot pepper endornavirus, Capsicum frutescens endornavirus 1 (CFEV 1) have been identified from peppers. Peppers are native to Central and South America and, as domesticated plants, human selection accelerated their evolution. We investigated the evolution of these endornaviruses in different peppers including Capsicum annuum, C. chacoense, C.chinense, C. frutescens, C.bacccutum, and C. pubescens using two fragments from the viral helicase (Hel) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains. In addition, using single nucleotide polymorphisms, we analyzed the pepper host populations and phylogenies. The endornaviruses phylogeny was correlated with its Capsicum species host. In this study, BPEV was limited to C. annuum species, and the RdRp and Hel phylogenies identified two clades that correlated with the host pungency. No C. annuum infected with CFEV 1 was found in this study, but the CFEV 1 RdRp fragment was recovered from C. chinense, C. frutescens, C. bacccutum, and C. pubescens. Hence, during pepper speciation, the ancestor of CFEV 1 may have evolved as a new endornavirus, BPEV, in C. annuum peppers.

  6. Production of cell wall enzymes in pepper seedlings, inoculated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pepper seedlings inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum, produced cellulase, polygal-acturonase and pectin methylestrase enzymes. The activities of the enzymes increased as the pepper seedlings matured in age, showing that the activity of the enzymes in the seedlings was age mediated.

  7. Quantification of the gene expression of bell peppers ( Capsicum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fruits can be divided into two groups according to the regulatory mechanisms underlying their ripening process. The two ripening processes are climacteric and non-climacteric process; bell peppers are part of the non-climacteric plant groups. Bell peppers are members of the Solanacaea family. The Solanacaea family is ...

  8. Occurrence of pepper mild mottle virus in greenhouse- grown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-08

    Jun 8, 2011 ... Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most ... Figure 1. Map of the West Mediterranean region of Turkey showing areas in which the surveys were conducted. showing virus-like symptoms were taken from symptomatic pepper .... SM, Maniloff J, Mayo MA, McGeoch D, Pringle CR, Wickner RB (eds).

  9. Serological detection of viruses infecting tomato and pepper in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... one tomato leaf sample while PVMV + CMV occurred on three pepper leaf samples. The control of aphid vectors that transmit these viruses and good sanitary practices against soil borne ToMV would minimize disease incidences and subsequent yield loss. Keywords: Tomato, Pepper, virus distribution, PVMV, CMV, PVY ...

  10. Nitrogen determination in pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) plants by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-05

    Dec 5, 2011 ... significant negative relations between G/(R+G+B) ratio of coverage image and the indexes of pepper nitrogen status in this experiment. Hence, the suitable index of assessing pepper N status by color image analysis was discussed. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Experimental design. Experiment was made ...

  11. Identification of whitefly resistance in tomato and hot pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firdaus, S.

    2012-01-01

    Key words: Capsicum, Bemisia tabaci, trichome density, cuticle thickness
    Whitefly is economically one of the most threatening pests of pepper worldwide, which is mainly caused by its ability to transmit many different viruses. In this research, we characterized pepper germplasm to identify

  12. First report of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" on pepper in Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2012, bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants exhibiting symptoms that resembled those of the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” infection were observed in commercial pepper fields in several departments in Honduras, including Francisco Morazán, Ocotepeque, El Paraíso, and Olancho. Man...

  13. Effect of aqueous extract of alligator pepper ( Aframomum malegueta )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... concentration 7days post intervention; and a significant decrease in Cl− concentration 14 days post-intervention. Our findings suggest that intraperitoneally injected aqueous extract of alligator pepper induces reversible changes in serum electrolytes. Key words: Alligator pepper, Electrolytes, Homeostasis, Renal function ...

  14. Investigations of the surviving microflora in irradiated black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Andrassy, E.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitizing effect of irradiation on the microflora of ground black pepper was studied with respect to heat, reduced pH-value, salt and nitrite, and the possible relationship between the sensitizing effects of irradiation and the water activity of the spice. The change of the sensitizing effect of irradiation after irradiation during storage of the black pepper was also studied at different storage temperatures and under various conditions of humidity. The effectivity of irradiation depends to a much lesser extent on the conditions of humidity than that of ethylene-oxide treatment. Following decontamination, the remaining microflora of irradiated black pepper would be more sensitive to antimicrobial influences predominating during its use in the food industry than that of ethylene-oxide treated black pepper. The increased sensitivity of the remaining microflora of the irradiated black pepper remains unchanged for at least 6 months. (author)

  15. Detection of gamma irradiated pepper and papain by chemiluminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, Abdus; Delincee, H.; Diehl, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Chemiluminescence (CL) measurements of black pepper and of papain using luminol and lucigenin reactions were studied. Effects of grinding, irradiation (5-20 kGy) and particle size (750-140 μm) on CL of pepper, and of irradiation (10-30 kGy) on CL of papain, were investigated. All the tested treatments affected the luminescence response in both the luminol and lucigenin reactions; however, the pattern of changes in each case, was inconsistent. Optimum pepper size for maximum luminescence was 560 μm, and optimum irradiation doses were > 15 kGy for pepper and > 20 kGy for papain. Chemiluminescence may possibly be used as an indicator or irradiation treatment for pepper and papain at a dose of 10 kGy or higher, but further research is needed to establish the reliability of this method. (author)

  16. 7 CFR 457.148 - Fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions. 457.148... pepper crop insurance provisions. The fresh market pepper crop insurance provisions for the 1999 and... Fresh Market Pepper Crop Provisions If a conflict exists among the policy provisions, the order of...

  17. IMPROVED METHODS OF OBTAINING PEPPER SEEDLINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Florina Uleanu

    2012-01-01

    This paper refers to the effect of different types of pots on the level of growth and development of the pepper seedlings in order to clarify the influences caused by use of different recipes transplanters pots. Different biocomposites from renewable resources biodegradable nutritive support were studied. Seedlings were grown in 4 variants of pots M1 (V1), M2 (V2), M3 (V3) and jiffy- pots (V4). The height of the aerial part varied from 14.5 (V1) to 17.4 cm (V4), whereas the root length varied...

  18. Irradiated black pepper identification based on thermoluminescence of silicate minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faycal Kharfi; Randa Ketfi

    2018-01-01

    In this work we have successfully implemented thermoluminescence TL method for irradiated food identification. First tests are performed on Indian black pepper and show promising results to extend the proposed method to many other foods. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that SiO 2 (p3 2 21) is the main component of the separated mineral phase. A saturation dose of ∼ 100 Gy is determined for this pepper above which all thermoluminescent centers of the quartz are activated. Thus, above this threshold dose, only the pepper irradiation will be confirmed but no accuracy on the exact dose received. (author)

  19. Conditions of viscosity measurement for detecting irradiated peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Kohyama, Kaoru

    1995-01-01

    Viscosity of gelatinized suspensions of black and white peppers decreased depending upon dose. The viscosity was influenced by gelatinization and viscosity measurement conditions. The difference between unirradiated pepper and an irradiated one was larger at a higher pH and temperature for gelatinization. A viscosity parameter normalized with the starch content of pepper sample and the viscosity of a 5% suspension of corn starch could get rid of the influence of the conditions for viscosity measurement such as type of viscometer, shear rate and temperature. (author)

  20. Irradiated pepper and ginger detected by viscosity and starch measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegmueler, F.; Meier, W.

    1999-01-01

    Starch and rheological measurements of alkaline suspensions of white pepper, black pepper and ginger are a useful tool to distinguish not irradiated samples from the gamma-treated spices (dose gtoreq 2 kGy). In addition it is shown that starch is not the material which determines the different rheological behaviour of the alkaline suspensions of the spices. The differences in the viscosity data are rather due to irradiation damages of polymers which are enriched in the cell wall material of the pepper grains and the roots of the ginger

  1. Local and systemic hormonal responses in pepper leaves during compatible and incompatible pepper-tobamovirus interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dziurka, M.; Janeczko, A.; Juhasz, C.; Gullner, G.; Oklešťková, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Saja, D.; Skoczowski, A.; Tobias, I.; Barna, B.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 109, DEC (2016), s. 355-364 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-34792S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : tobacco-mosaic-virus * pathogenesis-related proteins * salicylic-acid * abscisic-acid * acquired- resistance * disease resistance * nicotiana-benthamiana * arabidopsis-thaliana * defense response * immune-responses * Brassinosteroids * Ethylene * Hormone * Pepper * Phenylalanine ammonia lyase * Progesterone * Salicylic acid * Tobamovirus Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.724, year: 2016

  2. Diagnostic of the beam by pepper-pot method

    CERN Document Server

    Dolinskaya, M E; Zajchenko, A K

    2002-01-01

    The new method for the measuring of the particle distribution in the transversal plane with pepper-pot device is described. The algorithm for the beam emittance and Twiss parameters determination, using such measurements is presented. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Hot Chili Peppers: Extraction, Cleanup, and Measurement of Capsaicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiping; Mabury, Scott A.; Sagebiel, John C.

    2000-12-01

    Capsaicin, the pungent ingredient of the red pepper or Capsicum annuum, is widely used in food preparation. The purpose of this experiment was to acquaint students with the active ingredients of hot chili pepper (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin), the extraction, cleanup, and analysis of these chemicals, as a fun and informative analytical exercise. Fresh peppers were prepared and extracted with acetonitrile, removing plant co-extractives by addition to a C-18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. Elution of the capsaicinoids was accomplished with a methanol-acetic acid solution. Analysis was completed by reverse-phase HPLC with diode-array or variable wavelength detection and calibration with external standards. Levels of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were typically found to correlate with literature values for a specific hot pepper variety. Students particularly enjoyed relating concentrations of capsaicinoids to their perceived valuation of "hotness".

  4. Genetic diversity in some Turkish pepper (Capsicum annuum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, and micro-satellites have been beneficial by being ... List of pepper genotypes used in the experiment. Genotype. Type. Source. Classification of ..... Artificial selection might decrease the genetic diversity ...

  5. Identification of irradiated pepper with comet assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Miranda, Enrique Fco.; Moreno Alvarez, Damaris L.; Carro Palacio, Sandra; Iglesia Enriquez, Isora

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of foods with ionizing radiations is a technological process utilized in order to increase the hygienic quality and the storage time of the foods. Several methods of detection of irradiated foods have been recommended. The comet assay of DNA is one fast and economical technique for the qualitative identification of irradiated foods. The objective of the present paper was to identify with the comet assay technique the modifications of the DNA molecule of irradiated pepper storage at environment and refrigeration temperatures and different post-irradiation times for different absorbed dose values, (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 kGy). It was demonstrated that for the high absorbed dose values was observed a greater break into fragments of the DNA molecule, which shows the application of this technique for the identification of irradiated foods. (author)

  6. Evidence for a complex of emergent poleroviruses affecting pepper worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Navas-Hermosilla, Elisa; Ferro, Camila G; Zerbini, F Murilo; Navas-Castillo, Jesús

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, symptoms of vein yellowing and leaf roll in pepper crops associated with the presence of poleroviruses (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) have been emerging in many countries worldwide. Spain was the first country in Europe where the yellowing disease of pepper was observed. In this work, a polerovirus isolate from Spain that infects pepper and has been shown to be transmitted by the aphid Aphis gossyppii (Spain-Almería 2-2013) was sequenced and compared with isolates from Japan, Israel, China and Australia. The genome (6125 nt in length, GenBank accession number KY523072) of the isolate from Spain has the typical organization of poleroviruses and contains seven open reading frames (ORF0 to ORF5 and ORF3a), putatively encoding proteins P0 to P5 and P3a. A comparison of the sequence from Spain with the four complete sequences available for poleroviruses infecting pepper showed a closer relationship to the isolate from Israel and supports the existence of a complex of at least five polerovirus species. Given that the symptoms caused by all pepper poleroviruses described to date are similar, if not identical, we propose to name them "pepper vein yellows virus 1" to "pepper vein yellows virus 5" (PeVYV-1 to PeVYV-5), with PeVYV-5 corresponding to the polerovirus from Spain described in this work. Our results and those published over the last few years have shown that the emergent poleroviruses threatening pepper crops around the world are highly complex due to recombination events.

  7. Drying hot red pepper using solar tunnel drier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, M.A; Bala, B.K.

    2006-01-01

    A solar tunnel drier was used to dry red hot pepper under the tropical weather conditions of Bangladesh in order to investigate its performance and the quality of the drier product. The drier comprises a plastic sheet-covered flat plate collector and a drying tunnel. The drier is arranged to supply hot air to the drying tunnel using two small fans powered by a 40 watt PV module. Fresh red pepper was water blanched before drying. In each drying batch in the solar tunnel drier, 20 kg of dried red pepper with 4 to 6% moisture content (wb) was obtained from 80 kg of fresh red pepper with initial moisture content of 73 to 75% (wb) in 20 to 22 hours of drying while it took 32 to 34 hours to bring down the moisture content of similar sample to 8 to 10% (wb) in sun drying methods. The pepper dried in the solar tunnel drier was completely protected from dust, dirt, rain, insects, birds, rodents and microorganisms and it was a quality-dried product in term of colour and pungency. The solar tunnel drier is recommended for drying of pepper as well as vegetables and fruits in developing countries especially in Bangladesh

  8. Effect of Red Pepper ( Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaqiang Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3. In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3. In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (p0.05. However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (p<0.05. All the red pepper powder treatments also increased (p<0.05 the yolk color score compared with the control. The results of the present study suggest that both red pepper powder and pigment are effective feed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  9. Decontamination of Black Pepper (Pepper Negrum) in grains by irradiation. Descontaminacion de pimienta negra (Pipper Negrum) en grano por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, M; Pino, J; Zayas, M [Instituto de Investigaciones para la Industria Alimenticia, La Habana (Cuba)

    1991-01-01

    The effect of irradiation with doses ranging between 3 and 10 kGy on the microbiological quality, on different chemical components and on the organoleptic quality of black pepper in grains was studied in this paper. The results showed the effectiveness of treatment in the decontamination of this spice. Piperin content, yield of essential oil and its composition as well as the organoleptic quality did not change with applied doses to black pepper in grains.

  10. Black pepper and health claims: a comprehensive treatise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Masood Sadiq; Pasha, Imran; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Saeed, Farhan; Ahmed, Waqas

    2013-01-01

    For millennia, spices have been an integral part of human diets and commerce. Recently, the widespread recognition of diet-health linkages bolsters their dietary importance. The bioactive components present in them are of considerable significance owing to their therapeutic potential against various ailments. They provide physiological benefits or prevent chronic ailment in addition to the fundamental nutrition and often included in the category of functional foods. Black pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) is an important healthy food owing to its antioxidant, antimicrobial potential and gastro-protective modules. Black pepper, with piperine as an active ingredient, holds rich phytochemistry that also includes volatile oil, oleoresins, and alkaloids. More recently, cell-culture studies and animal modeling predicted the role of black pepper against number of maladies. The free-radical scavenging activity of black pepper and its active ingredients might be helpful in chemoprevention and controlling progression of tumor growth. Additionally, the key alkaloid components of Piper Nigrum, that is, piperine assist in cognitive brain functioning, boost nutrient's absorption and improve gastrointestinal functionality. In this comprehensive treatise, efforts are made to elucidate the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, gastro-protective, and antidepressant activities of black pepper. Moreover, the synergistic interaction of black pepper with different drugs and nutrients is the limelight of the manuscript. However, the aforementioned health-promoting benefits associated with black pepper are proven in animal modeling. Thus, there is a need to conduct controlled randomized trials in human subjects, cohort studies, and meta-analyses. Such future studies would be helpful in recommending its application in diet-based regimens to prevent various ailments.

  11. Susceptibility of ornamental pepper banker plant candidates to common greenhouse pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susceptibility of four potential ornamental pepper banker plant candidates [Black Pearl (BP), Explosive Ember (EE), Masquerade (MA), Red Missile (RM), and a commercial pepper cultivar Blitz (BL)] were evaluated against three common greenhouse pests - Bemisia tabaci, Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Fra...

  12. Technological innovation of induced breeding of space and selection of new variety on pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yahua; Xie Libo; Wang Xue; Deng Liping

    2004-01-01

    New pepper variety Yujiao No.1 and new pepper lines with different horticultural characters are obtained by new breeding technique: combination of space inducement and regular breeding, field selection and inherited marker

  13. Research of photoinduced potentials of pepper leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Chernetchenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioelectrical potentials of the plants during photostimulation with various intensity values and wave lengths are studied. Suchstimulation provides light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis. The universal scheme of registration of bioelectric potentials, which allowsto carry out the experimental study of light stimuli effect on the plant is proposed. All registrations of potentials are observed on the pepper leaves. Photoinduced stimuli are different with intensity changed from 150 to 450 lux and different spectrums of white light and red light with wave length 690 nm. Different parameters of stimuli drive to different types of biopotentials of the plant, quantitative and qualitative relationships of this process are obtained. It is also found that bioelectrical reaction of the leaves is quantitatively different in various spectral ranges of light, but the quality remains the same for all cases, as shown in the study of bioelectric responses during exposure to the light in red spectrum range. The explanation of the additional depolarization phase that occurs during the running of dark reparative process of photosynthesis is given. Light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis are accompanied by significant changes in the electrical potential of chloroplasts’ membrane. Besides, the dependence of bioelectrical reaction of the plant on different spectra of light is found. By this way, biophysical relation of plant potentials to the intracellular biophysical mechanisms during photo stimulation is obtained.

  14. IMPROVED METHODS OF OBTAINING PEPPER SEEDLINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Uleanu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers to the effect of different types of pots on the level of growth and development of the pepper seedlings in order to clarify the influences caused by use of different recipes transplanters pots. Different biocomposites from renewable resources biodegradable nutritive support were studied. Seedlings were grown in 4 variants of pots M1 (V1, M2 (V2, M3 (V3 and jiffy- pots (V4. The height of the aerial part varied from 14.5 (V1 to 17.4 cm (V4, whereas the root length varied from 5.4 (V1 to 12.6 cm (V4. The number of leaves ranged from 7 (V2 to 12 (V4. The total volume was lowest for V2 (1.5 cm3 and highest for V4 (2.5 cm3, but the root volume was lowest for V2 (0.5 cm3 and highest for V1 (1 cm3. V2 also resulted in the smallest total seedling mass (1.6 g aerial part mass (1.1 g and root mass (0.5 g. Excepting the root volume V4 had the greatest values for the studied indicators.

  15. Bioactivities of anastasia black (Russian sweet pepper).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Kawase, Masami; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hideki; Tani, Satoru; Tanaka, Toru; Sohara, Yoshitaka; Schelz, Zsuzsanna; Molnar, Joseph; Motohashi, Noboru

    2005-01-01

    Anastasia Black (Russian sweet pepper) of Capsicum annuum L. var. angulosum Mill. (Solanaceae) was successively extracted with hexane, acetone, methanol and 70% methanol, and the extracts were further separated into a total of twenty-three fractions by silica gel or octadecylsilane (ODS; C18) column chromatography. These extracts and fractions were investigated for their cytotoxicity, anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), urease inhibition and multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity. Some fractions of hexane and acetone extracts showed higher cytotoxic activity against three human oral tumor cell lines (squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2, HSC-3, submandibular gland carcinoma HSG) than against three normal human oral cells (gingival fibroblast HGF, pulp cell HPC, periodontal ligament fibroblast HPLF), suggesting a tumor-specific cytotoxic activity. No fractions displayed anti-HIV activity, but some hydrophobic fractions showed higher anti-H. pylori activity, urease inhibition activity and MDR reversal activity. The higher MDR activity of these fractions against MDR gene-transfected L5178 mouse lymphoma T cells may possibly be due to their higher content of carotene or polyphenol. These data suggest that Anastasia Black should be further investigated as a potent supplement for cancer chemotherapy.

  16. Pungency Quantitation of Hot Pepper Sauces Using HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Thomas A.

    1999-02-01

    A class of compounds known as capsaicinoids are responsible for the "heat" of hot peppers. To determine the pungency of a particular pepper or pepper product, one may quantify the capsaicinoids and relate those concentrations to the perceived heat. The format of the laboratory described here allows students to collectively develop an HPLC method for the quantitation of the two predominant capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) in hot-pepper products. Each small group of students investigated one of the following aspects of the method: detector wavelength, mobile-phase composition, extraction of capsaicinoids, calibration, and quantitation. The format of the lab forced students to communicate and cooperate to develop this method. The resulting HPLC method involves extraction with acetonitrile followed by solid-phase extraction clean-up, an isocratic 80:20 methanol-water mobile phase, a 4.6 mm by 25 cm C-18 column, and UV absorbance detection at 284 nm. The method developed by the students was then applied to the quantitation of capsaicinoids in a variety of hot pepper sauces. Editor's Note on Hazards in our April 2000 issue addresses the above.

  17. Garlic exerts allelopathic effects on pepper physiology in a hydroponic co-culture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Ding

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A hydroponic co-culture system was adopted to determine the allelopathic potential of garlic on the growth of pepper plants. Different numbers of garlic plants (0, 2, 4, 8 and 12 were hydroponically co-cultured with two pepper plants to investigate allelopathic effects on the growth attributes and antioxidative defense system of the test pepper plants. The responses of the pepper plants depended on the number of garlic plants included in the co-culture system, indicating an association of pepper growth with the garlic root exudate concentration. When grown at a pepper/garlic ratio of 1:1 or 1:2, the pepper plant height, chlorophyll content, and peroxidase (POD, catalase (CAT and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL activities were significantly increased after 30 days of co-culture; in contrast, reduction in methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA content was observed. However, when the pepper/garlic ratio was 1:4 or higher, these morphological indices and protective enzyme activities were significantly inhibited, whereas MDA levels in the pepper leaves were significantly increased due to severe membrane lipid peroxidation. The results indicate that although low concentrations of garlic root exudates appear to induce protective enzyme systems and promote pepper growth, high concentrations have deleterious effects. These findings suggest that further investigations should optimize the co-culture pepper/garlic ratio to reduce continuous cropping obstacles in pepper production.

  18. Why are chillies pungent?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    use the misleading but widely used name by which they are called in the United ... peppers as the principal food of native Americans and compared them to the turnip ... The seeds of the chili pepper were brought back to Spain and the plant was .... germination trials of C. chacoense fruit (non-pungent chilli) showed that ...

  19. Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhangliang; Gu Hongya; Li Yi; Su Yilan; Wu Ping; Jiang Zhicheng; Ming Xiaotian; Tian Jinhua; Pan Naisui; Qu Lijia

    2003-01-01

    The coat protein (CP) gene of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was cloned from a Chinese CMV isolate, the CaMV promoter and NOS terminator added and the gene construct was transformed into both sweet pepper and tomato plants to confer resistance to CMV. Safety assessments of these genetically modified (GM) plants were conducted. It was found that these two GM products showed no genotoxicity either in vitro or in vivo by the micronucleus test, sperm aberration test and Ames test. Animal feeding studies showed no significant differences in growth, body weight gain, food consumption, hematology, blood biochemical indices, organ weights and histopathology between rats or mice of either sex fed with either GM sweet pepper or tomato diets compared with those with non-GM diets. These results demonstrate that the CMV-resistant sweet pepper and tomato are comparable to the non-GM counterparts in terms of food safety

  20. Investigating radiostimulation effects of tomatoes, pepper and aubergines productivity improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daskalov, Khr.; Mal'tseva, S.

    1974-01-01

    The paper presents results of a study on the stimulating effect of ionizing radiation with low doses on tomatoes, pepper, and eggplants with a view to determining optimal radiation doses and possible practical applications of this method. The tomato varieties used were those most common in Bulgaria. It was found that (a) presowing irradiation of tomato, pepper, and eggplant seeds (graded by moisture content) with low doses of gamma rays from Co 60 had a strong stimulating effect; (b) radiation did not cause any changes in chemical composition or palatability; (c) irradiated variants produced more fruits per plant; and (d) the optimal doses are 1500-2500 r for tomatoes, 1200-1800 r for pepper, and 1500-3000 r for eggplants. (E.T.)

  1. Bioactive compounds of fresh and dehydrated green pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marinho do Nascimento

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Pepper Capsicum annuum L., belongs to the Solanaceae family, which contains approximately 31 species. Bioactive compounds also known as phytochemicals are chemical and biochemical components that are present in most fruits and vegetables. The objective of the present study was to verify if the bioactive compounds of the green pepper remain after being submitted to the drying process. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments and 5 replicates. Green peppers were used from the (Economic Center of Supply Corporation of the city of Patos, Paraíba. The peppers were packed in plastic boxes and transported to the Laboratory of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Food Analysis of the Federal University of Campina Grande, Campus Pombal. Where they were selected, washed and sanitized. After that, the minimum processing was done and the drying was carried out in a circulation oven at 60 ºC. At the end of the drying, the samples were crushed and sieved. After this process, the analyzes of ascorbic acid, chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyanin flavonoids and phenolic compounds. It was found that there was a significant difference between treatments. The bioactive properties of green pepper were not lost after the heat treatment. Some phytochemicals as ascorbic acid, carotenoids and phenolic compounds were concentrated. Therefore the loss of water during the drying process increased the concentration of the bioactive compounds of dehydrated pepper, the product obtained with this method exhibited high levels of phytochemicals, the use of drying may be an alternative to prolong the shelf life of the vegetable.

  2. Applicability of viscosity measurement to the detection of irradiated peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, T.; Todoriki, S.; Kohyama, K.

    1996-01-01

    Starch is degraded by ionising radiation, resulting in a decrease in viscosity. The viscosities of black and white peppers which contain large amounts of starch are reduced by irradiation so, therefore, viscosity measurement has been proposed as a method to detect the irradiation treatment of these food products. Although detection of irradiated spices by thermoluminescence measurement has been established, it is useful to establish the viscosity measuring technique for detecting irradiated peppers, as this method is carried out widely in the laboratories of food controlling authorities and food processing companies. (author)

  3. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues in green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Yan; Shen, Yan; Sun, Xing; Zhu, Hong; Liu, Xian-Jin

    2013-09-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in food has caused much concern. The low health risks and environmental impacts of limonene make it a very interesting solvent for use in green chemistry. Washing effects of limonene on pesticide residues of methyl chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, fenpropathrin and deltamethrin were investigated in green pepper. Results showed that washing with a low concentration of limonene for 5 min (where LOQ is limit of quantitation) caused 53.67%, limonene for 10 min produced 55.90%, limonene for 5 min was the optimal treatment for elimination of pesticide residues in green pepper, considering effect and treatment time as well as cost. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Virus diseases of peppers (Capsicum spp.) and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lawrence; Kumar, Sanjeet; Tsai, Wen-Shi; Hughes, Jacqueline d'A

    2014-01-01

    The number of virus species infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) crops and their incidences has increased considerably over the past 30 years, particularly in tropical and subtropical pepper production systems. This is probably due to a combination of factors, including the expansion and intensification of pepper cultivation in these regions, the increased volume and speed of global trade of fresh produce (including peppers) carrying viruses and vectors to new locations, and perhaps climate change expanding the geographic range suitable for the viruses and vectors. With the increased incidences of diverse virus species comes increased incidences of coinfection with two or more virus species in the same plant. There is then greater chance of synergistic interactions between virus species, increasing symptom severity and weakening host resistance, as well as the opportunity for genetic recombination and component exchange and a possible increase in aggressiveness, virulence, and transmissibility. The main virus groups infecting peppers are transmitted by aphids, whiteflies, or thrips, and a feature of many populations of these vector groups is that they can develop resistance to some of the commonly used insecticides relatively quickly. This, coupled with the increasing concern over the impact of over- or misuse of insecticides on the environment, growers, and consumers, means that there should be less reliance on insecticides to control the vectors of viruses infecting pepper crops. To improve the durability of pepper crop protection measures, there should be a shift away from the broadscale use of insecticides and the use of single, major gene resistance to viruses. Instead, integrated and pragmatic virus control measures should be sought that combine (1) cultural practices that reduce sources of virus inoculum and decrease the rate of spread of viruliferous vectors into the pepper crop, (2) synthetic insecticides, which should be used judiciously and only when the

  5. Chemical constituents of pungent spice pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) from Macedonian origin

    OpenAIRE

    Rafajlovska, Vesna; Slaveska-Raicki, Renata; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana; Mitrev, Sasa; Srbinoska, Marija

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the chemical constituents of the pungent spice pepper Capsicum annuum L.ssp. Microcarpum from Macedonian origin are estimated. Content of moisture, proteins and soluble sugar is 9.60% and 20.33%, respectively. Color capacity of the pungent spice pepper is 5.60g capsanthin/kg pepper dry matter. The influence of organic solvents on the pepper oleoresin extraction and contents of colored components and capsaicin content in it is also studied. The highest quantity of pepper oleor...

  6. Mona F1: New pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrid in the Centre for Vegetable Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvikić Dejan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The planted area various ways of pepper consumption (fresh or processed, make pepper one of the most important cultivars in vegetable breeding. In our country, up until now, the producers have usually grown varieties and domestic populations of pepper, while in more developed countries the usage of F1 hybrids is much more popular. The first pepper hybrids have been created in the Centre for Vegetable Crops by crossing new lines with male sterility gene ms-3 and selected genotypes from pepper collection. Created hybrids have higher yield, quality fruits and early ripening. This paper is the result of comparative trial in controlled conditions. Pepper varieties Župska rana, Zlatna medalja, Palanačka kapija and Duga bela, as well as new hybrid Mona F1 were the research matherial in order to observe the most important pepper traits.

  7. Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream Containing Fermented Pepper Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Su-Jung; Kim, Ji-Han; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, Woojoon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Seo, Han-Geuk; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the physical and sensory properties of ice cream containing fermented pepper powder. Three ice cream formulas were manufactured: 1, control; 2, supplemented with 0.1% fermented pepper powder; and 3, supplemented with 0.2% fermented pepper powder. Formulas 2 and 3 had significantly higher viscosity and lower overrun than formula 1 ( p ice creams supplemented with fermented pepper powder were harder and maintained their forms longer than the controls. 0.2% fermented pepper powder added ice cream had no pungency as much as that of control and overall sensory attribute was not significantly different from control. Therefore, ice cream containing fermented pepper powder maintained physical and sensory properties similar to the controls, and maintenance was better. It means fermented pepper powder ice cream can be utilized as the material of functional food (dessert).

  8. streamgap-pepper: Effects of peppering streams with many small impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovy, Jo; Erkal, Denis; Sanders, Jason

    2017-02-01

    streamgap-pepper computes the effect of subhalo fly-bys on cold tidal streams based on the action-angle representation of streams. A line-of-parallel-angle approach is used to calculate the perturbed distribution function of a given stream segment by undoing the effect of all impacts. This approach allows one to compute the perturbed stream density and track in any coordinate system in minutes for realizations of the subhalo distribution down to 10^5 Msun, accounting for the stream's internal dispersion and overlapping impacts. This code uses galpy (ascl:1411.008) and the streampepperdf.py galpy extension, which implements the fast calculation of the perturbed stream structure.

  9. Comparative analysis of pepper and tomato reveals euchromatin expansion of pepper genome caused by differential accumulation of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahn Jong Hwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the Solanaceae plants, the pepper genome is three times larger than that of tomato. Although the gene repertoire and gene order of both species are well conserved, the cause of the genome-size difference is not known. To determine the causes for the expansion of pepper euchromatic regions, we compared the pepper genome to that of tomato. Results For sequence-level analysis, we generated 35.6 Mb of pepper genomic sequences from euchromatin enriched 1,245 pepper BAC clones. The comparative analysis of orthologous gene-rich regions between both species revealed insertion of transposons exclusively in the pepper sequences, maintaining the gene order and content. The most common type of the transposon found was the LTR retrotransposon. Phylogenetic comparison of the LTR retrotransposons revealed that two groups of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements (Tat and Athila were overly accumulated in the pepper genome. The FISH analysis of the pepper Tat elements showed a random distribution in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, whereas the tomato Tat elements showed heterochromatin-preferential accumulation. Conclusions Compared to tomato pepper euchromatin doubled its size by differential accumulation of a specific group of Ty3/Gypsy-like elements. Our results could provide an insight on the mechanism of genome evolution in the Solanaceae family.

  10. [Evaluation of the mercury accumulating capacity of pepper (Capsicum annuum)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Vargas, Híver M; Vidal-Durango, Jhon V; Marrugo-Negrete, José L

    2014-01-01

    To assess the mercury accumulating capacity in contaminated soils from the community of Mina Santa Cruz, in the south of the department of Bolívar, Colombia, of the pepper plant (Capsicum annuum), in order to establish the risk to the health of the consuming population. Samples were taken from tissues (roots, stems, and leaves) of pepper plants grown in two soils contaminated with mercury and a control soil during the first five months of growth to determine total mercury through cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Total mercury was determined in the samples of pepper plant fruits consumed in Mina Santa Cruz. The mean concentrations of total mercury in the roots were higher than in stems and leaves. Accumulation in tissues was influenced by mercury levels in soil and the growth time of the plants. Mercury concentrations in fruits of pepper plant were lower than tolerable weekly intake provided by WHO. Percent of translocation of mercury to aerial parts of the plant were low in both control and contaminated soils. Despite low levels of mercury in this food, it is necessary to minimize the consumption of food contaminated with this metal.

  11. Growth and physiological aspects of bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum )

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate growth and physiological aspects of 'All Big' bell pepper, under saline stress and exogenous application of proline on the leaves. The research was conducted in pots adapted as drainage lysimeters under greenhouse conditions, using sandy-loam eutrophic Regolithic Neosol, in the ...

  12. Influence of turmeric rhizome and black pepper on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) and black pepper (BP) on blood components and performance of male broiler chickens. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of TRP (0 and 0.5 g/kg) and three levels of BP (0, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) were used to provide six dietary treatments ...

  13. High-throughput sequencing of black pepper root transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is one of the most popular spices in the world. It is used in cooking and the preservation of food and even has medicinal properties. Losses in production from disease are a major limitation in the culture of this crop. The major diseases are root rot and foot rot, which are results of root infection by Fusarium solani and Phytophtora capsici, respectively. Understanding the molecular interaction between the pathogens and the host’s root region is important for obtaining resistant cultivars by biotechnological breeding. Genetic and molecular data for this species, though, are limited. In this paper, RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the root transcriptome of black pepper. Results The root transcriptome of black pepper was sequenced by the NGS SOLiD platform and assembled using the multiple-k method. Blast2Go and orthoMCL methods were used to annotate 10338 unigenes. The 4472 predicted proteins showed about 52% homology with the Arabidopsis proteome. Two root proteomes identified 615 proteins, which seem to define the plant’s root pattern. Simple-sequence repeats were identified that may be useful in studies of genetic diversity and may have applications in biotechnology and ecology. Conclusions This dataset of 10338 unigenes is crucially important for the biotechnological breeding of black pepper and the ecogenomics of the Magnoliids, a major group of basal angiosperms. PMID:22984782

  14. Poultry manure application and varietal effects of chilli-pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultural practices such as organic manure application can affect soil fertility and also insect pest and disease incidence on the plant. The effect of poultry manure application was therefore evaluated in relation to the infestation by major insect pests and disease of pepper in a humid tropical agro-ecosystem. Treatments ...

  15. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Altomani Neves Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS for this purpose. The experiment was performed using four seed lots of bell pepper hybrids in two periods, and the evaluations involved germination, seedling emergence, seedling emergence speed index, saturated salt accelerated aging and image analysis. The use of seedling imaging analysis by SVISis a new approach for bell pepper seed vigor evaluation. Both the software and traditional tests provided sufficient information for seed vigor analysis, enabling the segregation of the analyzed seed lots. Thus, the new method fulfills the requirement for an efficient, rapid, cost-effective and standardized method that allows comparisons among laboratories and avoids human influence on the interpretation of the results. SVIS can be considered a feasible option to be included in quality assurance programs of the bell pepper seed industry.

  16. High-throughput sequencing of black pepper root transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordo Sheila MC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum L. is one of the most popular spices in the world. It is used in cooking and the preservation of food and even has medicinal properties. Losses in production from disease are a major limitation in the culture of this crop. The major diseases are root rot and foot rot, which are results of root infection by Fusarium solani and Phytophtora capsici, respectively. Understanding the molecular interaction between the pathogens and the host’s root region is important for obtaining resistant cultivars by biotechnological breeding. Genetic and molecular data for this species, though, are limited. In this paper, RNA-Seq technology has been employed, for the first time, to describe the root transcriptome of black pepper. Results The root transcriptome of black pepper was sequenced by the NGS SOLiD platform and assembled using the multiple-k method. Blast2Go and orthoMCL methods were used to annotate 10338 unigenes. The 4472 predicted proteins showed about 52% homology with the Arabidopsis proteome. Two root proteomes identified 615 proteins, which seem to define the plant’s root pattern. Simple-sequence repeats were identified that may be useful in studies of genetic diversity and may have applications in biotechnology and ecology. Conclusions This dataset of 10338 unigenes is crucially important for the biotechnological breeding of black pepper and the ecogenomics of the Magnoliids, a major group of basal angiosperms.

  17. Molecular characterization and diversity analysis in chilli pepper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    India is considered to be the secondary center of diversity of chilli pepper, especially of Capsicum annuum. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are the most widely used marker system for plant variety characterization and diversity analysis especially in cultivated species which have low levels of polymorphism. The diversity ...

  18. Influence of turmeric rhizome and black pepper on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-04-26

    ) and black pepper. (BP) on blood components and performance of male broiler chickens. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement with two levels of TRP (0 and 0.5 g/kg) and three levels of BP (0, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) were used to provide six.

  19. Detection and Quantification of Leveillula taurica Growth in Pepper Leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Z.; Nonomura, T.; Bóka, K.; Matsuda, Y.; Visser, R.G.F.; Toyoda, H.; Kiss, L.; Bai, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Leveillula taurica is an obligate fungal pathogen that causes powdery mildew disease on a broad range of plants, including important crops such as pepper, tomato, eggplant, onion, cotton, and so on. The early stage of this disease is difficult to diagnose and the disease can easily spread

  20. Breeding for pepper fruit quality: a genitical metabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A diverse collection of 32 pepper accessions was analysed for variation in health-related metabolites, such as carotenoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids and vitamins C and E. For each of the metabolites analysed, there was a lot of variation among the accessions and it was possible to

  1. Variation in Yugoslavian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) accessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeven, A.C.; Zewdie, Y.

    1997-01-01

    A total of 67 hot pepper accessions were evaluated based on 35 morphological and physiological characters. Differences were observed in a number of characters. The accessions were grouped into six clusters, mainly based on fruit weight, 1000 seed weight, and fruit number per plant. accessions -

  2. Comparative studies of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) and black pepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracts of two spices namely ginger (Zingiber officinale) and black pepper (Piper guinenses) were prepared in 0.4, 1.2, 2.4 and 3.6% concentrations. Soymilk and kunuzaki, were treated, respectively with the different concentrations and stored at ambient temperature for 5 days. The microbial load and identification were ...

  3. Effect of aqueous extract of alligator pepper (Zingiberaceae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty female and ten male Sprague-Dawley rats of proven fertility from a pilot study were randomly mated in groups of two females and one male. Three days later, female rats in the ... weight gain reduction. Key words: Gestational weight gain, Aqueous Extract, Intra-peritoneal injection, Alligator Pepper, Nutrition.

  4. Fulvic acid affects pepper antioxidant activity and fruit quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fulvic acid has been considered as a valuable fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effect of fulvic acid (FA) on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of pepper under field conditions. Plants were grown in the Department of Horticulture Farm, Ferdowsi University of ...

  5. The effects of Hot Pepper Extract and Capsaicin on Adipocyte Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Sheng, Chu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on the adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, lipolysis in rat epididymal adipocytes and histological changes in porcine adipose tissue. Methods : Inhibiton of preadipocyte differentiation and/or stimulation of lipolysis play important roles in reducing obesity. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with adipogenic reagents by incubating for 3 days in the absence or presence of hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to 1㎎/㎖. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on adipogenesis were examined by measuring GPDH activity and by Oil Red O staining. Mature adipocytes from rat epididymal fat pad was incubated with hot pepper extract or capsaicin ranging from 0.01 to 1㎎/㎖ for 3 hrs. The effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on lipolysis were examined by measuring free glycerol released. Fat tissue from pig skin was injected with hot pepper extract or capsaicinCFP ranging from 0.1 to 10㎎/㎖ to examine the effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin on histological changes under light microscopy. Results : The following results were obtained from present study on adipogenesis of preadipocytes, lipolysis of adipocytes and histological changes in fat tissue. 1. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin inhibited adipogenic differentiation at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.01㎎/㎖, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenesis than hot pepper extract. 2. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin decreased the activity of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase(GPDH at the concentration of 0.1 and 0.01㎎/㎖, respectively, indicating that capsaicin was more effective in inhibiting adipogenic differentiation than hot pepper extract. 3. Hot pepper extract and capsaicin increased glycerol release at the concentration of 0.1㎎/㎖. There was no difference in lipolytic activity between hot pepper extract and

  6. Improvement of hygienic quality and long-term storage of dried red pepper by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, M.W.; Yook, H.S.; Kwon, J.H.; Kim, J.O.

    1996-01-01

    Dried-red pepper, whole and powdered types, was subjected to a storage-study by investigation the effects of packaging methods (polycloth & polyethylene/polycloth, whole dried-red pepper; nylon/polyethylene-lam-inated film, red pepper powder), temperature and gamma irradiation doses (0-10 kGy). After 6 months storage in polyclith sack at ambient temperature, all whole dried-red pepper showed quality deterioration, such as weight change, insect infestation, discoloration and chemical changes, After 2 years storage in combined packaging with polyethylene/polycloth sack of 5-7.5 kGy irradiated whole dried-red pepper at ambient temperature, however, quality deterioration was not observed. Gamma-irradiated red pepper powder (7.5-10kGy) showed a good quality in hygienic, physicochemical and organoleptic evaluation after 2 years of storage at ambient temperature

  7. Key Microbiota Identification Using Functional Gene Analysis during Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiachao; Hu, Qisong; Xu, Chuanbiao; Liu, Sixin; Li, Congfa

    2016-01-01

    Pepper pericarp microbiota plays an important role in the pepper peeling process for the production of white pepper. We collected pepper samples at different peeling time points from Hainan Province, China, and used a metagenomic approach to identify changes in the pericarp microbiota based on functional gene analysis. UniFrac distance-based principal coordinates analysis revealed significant changes in the pericarp microbiota structure during peeling, which were attributed to increases in bacteria from the genera Selenomonas and Prevotella. We identified 28 core operational taxonomic units at each time point, mainly belonging to Selenomonas, Prevotella, Megasphaera, Anaerovibrio, and Clostridium genera. The results were confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. At the functional level, we observed significant increases in microbial features related to acetyl xylan esterase and pectinesterase for pericarp degradation during peeling. These findings offer a new insight into biodegradation for pepper peeling and will promote the development of the white pepper industry.

  8. Relaxation behavior of radicals produced in irradiated black pepper under various moisture conditions by ESR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameya, Hiromi; Kawauchi, Risa; Shimoyama, Yuhei; Kaeda, Yoko; Ogawa, Satoko; Nakamura, Hideo; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2008-01-01

    Black pepper is easy to be contaminated by microorganism and often processed to γ-irradiation. ESR has been used for the detection of radicals induced in irradiated spices. Using ESR, we revealed the effects of moisture condition during storage of irradiated black pepper on the saturation behavior of ESR signal. The ESR spectrum of black pepper consists of a broad sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet as same g-value and a singlet at g=4.0. The irradiation causes two new signals, one is the strong and sharp singlet signal at g=2.0 and the other is the side signal. We found that the signal intensity originated by the radicals of black pepper with and without radiation decayed in the high humidity condition during storage. The ESR signal intensity of irradiated black pepper decayed during storage and showed almost the same intensity level as that of non-irradiated black pepper during storage. (author)

  9. Identification of irradiated peppers by electron spin resonance, thermoluminescence and viscosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonia, I.; Esteves, M.P.; Andrade, M.E.; Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia e Tecnologia Industrial, Sacavem; Empis, J.

    1995-01-01

    White and black pepper purchased in local retailers were analysed by electron spin resonance (ESR), thermoluminescence (TL) and viscosimetry (VISC) in order to establish a viable method for identifying possibly irradiated peppers. Samples studied were non irradiated or irradiated in a cobalt-60 plant with the absorbed doses of 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy. Confirming the data found in the literature TL was revealed by our results the best method to identify irradiated peppers. Nevertheless, the dose received by the samples could not be estimated. The ESR signal of irradiated peppers is similar to the spectrum of cellulose radical but very short lived at ambient temperature. The study on the alteration of viscosity of heat-treated alkaline pepper suspensions indicate that VISC is a very promising method for detection of irradiated peppers. (Author)

  10. Antioxidant, Antinociceptive, and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Carotenoids Extracted from Dried Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortega, Marcela; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia; Hernández-Navarro, María Dolores; Chamorro-Cevallos, Germán; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Necoechea-Mondragón, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids extracted from dried peppers were evaluated for their antioxidant, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Peppers had a substantial carotenoid content: guajillo 3406 ± 4 μg/g, pasilla 2933 ± 1 μg/g, and ancho 1437 ± 6 μg/g of sample in dry weight basis. A complex mixture of carotenoids was discovered in each pepper extract. The TLC analysis revealed the presence of chlorophylls in the pigment extract from pasilla and ancho peppers. Guajillo pepper carotenoid extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity and had the best scavenging capacity for the DPPH+ cation (24.2%). They also exhibited significant peripheral analgesic activity at 5, 20, and 80 mg/kg and induced central analgesia at 80 mg/kg. The results suggest that the carotenoids in dried guajillo peppers have significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory benefits and could be useful for pain and inflammation relief. PMID:23091348

  11. Detection of irradiated peppers by viscosity measurement at extremely high pH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru; Todoriki, Setsuko

    1996-01-01

    The viscosities of aqueous suspensions of irradiated peppers determined after heat gelatinization were influenced by the pH of the suspension to a greater degree than those of unirradiated ones. Viscosity measurement under an extremely alkaline condition (pH 13.8) resulted in a significant different between irradiated peppers and unirradiated ones, irrespective of the planting locality and storage period. All of the pepper samples irradiated at 5 kGy showed viscosity values significantly lower than unirradiated ones. (Author)

  12. Mixed noble gas effect on cut green peppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, L. V.; Zhang, M.; Karangwa, E.; Chesereka, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing attempts at using gas which leads to hydrate formation as a preservative tool in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables have been reported. In this study, changes in some physical and biochemical properties of fresh-cut green peppers under compressed noble gas treatments were examined. Mixed argonkrypton and argon treatments were performed before cold storage at 5°C for 15 days. Mass loss and cell membrane permeability were found to be the lowest in mixed argon-krypton samples. Besides, a lower CO2 concentration and vitamin C loss were detected in gastreated samples compared to untreated samples (control). While the total phenol degradation was moderately reduced, the effect of the treatment on polyphenoloxidase activity was better at the beginning of the storage period. The minimum changes in quality observed in cut peppers resulted from both mixed and gas treatment alone.

  13. Isolation of microorganisms from red pepper powder and their radiosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, E H; Kim, Y B; Lee, S R [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1977-01-01

    From samples of red pepper powder sold in Korea were isolated and identified 13 species of molds (Aspergillus amsteodami, Asp. chevalieri, Asp. clavatus, Asp. Flavus, Asp. janus var. effusus, Asp. oryzae, Asp. oryzae var. brevis, Asp. repens, Asp. sydowi, Asp. thomii, Asp. tubingensis, Penicillium thomii, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) and 5 species of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus, Bac. subtilis, Micrococus luteus, M. varians, Staphylococcus aureus). Radiosensitivity of these microorganisms was examined to give D/sub 10/ values of 14-41 krad for molds, 11-24 krad for bacterial vegetative cells and 190-250 krad for bacterial spores. The red pepper powder was contaminated with 2-3x10/sup 2/ mold counts/g and 3-6x10/sup 7/ bacterial counts/g, which would be sufficiently destroyed by irradiating 200 krad r-rays.

  14. Storage stability and irradiation effect of red pepper powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C H; Choi, E H; Lee, S R [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Seoul (Republic of Korea); Kim, H S [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Republic of Korea)

    1977-01-01

    To improve the storage stability of Korea red pepper (Capsicum annuum), the equilibrium moisture content of the powder and effects of irradiation on the capsicin, capsanthin and microorganisms were investigated during its storage. The equilibrium moisture contents of the powder at 25 /sup 0/C and relative humidities of 43.7, 53.3, 64.4, 75.4, and 84.3% were 13, 18, 25, 28, and 37%, respectively, and the larger the particle size was, the lower the equilibrium moisture content was under the same storage conditions. Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation degraded partly the capsaicin in red pepper or in solution at dose levels above 500 krad, but did not affect the moisture and capsanthin contents during its storage. Total visible cell count of the powder was around 10/sup 8/ per gram and D/sub 10/ value for the mixed organisms was 210 krad.

  15. Slit scattering effects in a well aligned pepper pot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    A pepper pot is a device used to measure a medium energy (< 20 MeV) electron beam's transverse emittance by sampling its transverse phase space. This is accomplished by blocking most of the incident electron beam, while allowing small 'beamlets' to pass through openings in a mask. The accuracy of the transverse emittance measured by a pepper pot is limited by several factors including, electrons leaking through the solid region of the mask, the imaging system resolution and dynamic range, scattering, etc. While the noise contributions from the prior quantities can be easily estimated, scattering effects have previously been neglected due to the difficulty in estimating the effect. In this paper, EGS4 simulations are presented to determine the affect of scattering on emittance measurements for an 8 MeV electron beam

  16. Vacuum-assisted microwave drying characteristics of green bell pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Chopped green bell pepper pieces were blanched (95 °C, 5 min and chemically pretreated (1% potassium metabisulphite solution, 25 min at room temperature before drying in hot air dryer (HAD at various temperature ranges (60 – 80 °C. Three vacuum levels (200, 400, 600 mm Hg and microwave power levels (100, 200, 300 W were also used to dry green bell pepper samples in a vacuum assisted microwave (VAM (2.45 GHz, 0.8 kW dryer. VAM drying methods offered a maximum reduction by four to five times in drying time as compared to that in HAD. The logarithmic model was found to have the best fit based on high R2 and small values of reduced χ2 and RMSE.  VAM method has higher values for effective moisture diffusivity (Deff and lower values for activation energy (Ea, in comparison to the HAD method. 

  17. Isolation of microorganisms from red pepper powder and their radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, E.H.; Kim, Y.B.; Lee, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    From samples of red pepper powder sold in Korea were isolated and identified 13 species of molds (Aspergillus amsteodami, Asp. chevalieri, Asp. clavatus, Asp. Flavus, Asp. janus var. effusus, Asp. oryzae, Asp. oryzae var. brevis, Asp. repens, Asp. sydowi, Asp. thomii, Asp. tubingensis, Penicillium thomii, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis) and 5 species of bacteria (Bacillus pumilus, Bac. subtilis, Micrococus luteus, M. varians, Staphylococcus aureus). Radiosensitivity of these microorganisms was examined to give D 10 values of 14-41 krad for molds, 11-24 krad for bacterial vegetative cells and 190-250 krad for bacterial spores. The red pepper powder was contaminated with 2-3x10 2 mold counts/g and 3-6x10 7 bacterial counts/g, which would be sufficiently destroyed by irradiating 200 krad r-rays. (Author)

  18. The Dynamic Microbiota Profile During Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Peeling by Solid-State Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qisong; Zhang, Jiachao; Xu, Chuanbiao; Li, Congfa; Liu, Sixin

    2017-06-01

    White pepper (Piper nigrum L.), a well-known spice, is the main pepper processing product in Hainan province, China. The solid-state method of fermentation can peel pepper in a highly efficient manner and yield high-quality white pepper. In the present study, we used next-generation sequencing to reveal the dynamic changes in the microbiota during pepper peeling by solid-state fermentation. The results suggested that the inoculated Aspergillus niger was dominant throughout the fermentation stage, with its strains constituting more than 95% of the fungi present; thus, the fungal community structure was relatively stable. The bacterial community structure fluctuated across different fermentation periods; among the bacteria present, Pseudomonas, Tatumella, Pantoea, Acinetobacter, Lactococcus, and Enterobacter accounted for more than 95% of all bacteria. Based on the correlations among the microbial community, we found that Pseudomonas and Acinetobacter were significantly positively related with A. niger, which showed strong synergy with them. In view of the microbial functional gene analysis, we found that these three bacteria and fungi were closely related to the production of pectin esterase (COG4677) and acetyl xylan esterase (COG3458), the key enzymes for pepper peeling. The present research clarifies the solid-state fermentation method of pepper peeling and lays a theoretical foundation to promote the development of the pepper peeling process and the production of high-quality white pepper.

  19. Influence of the heat treatment on the color of ground pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vračar Ljubo O.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. is one of the most important vegetables in the world. The main ground pepper quality attributes are extractable color, surface color, qualitative and quantitative carotenoid content. In this work, the influence of heat treatment on ground pepper quality was investigated. Microbiological status was examined in non-sterilized and sterilized ground pepper. Color changes were assessed by measuring the extractable color (ASTA and surface color, using a photocolorimeter. The obtained results showed that at the end of experiment, non-sterilized samples had higher color values in comparison to the sterilized ones. Also, color deterioration was heightened at room temperature.

  20. Preliminary examination of induced radioactivity in pepper by 10 MeV electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Tadashi; Furuta, Masakazu; Sibata, Setsuko; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Toratani, Hirokazu; Takeda, Atsuhiko.

    1991-01-01

    β-ray measurement was performed on 10 MeV electron-irradiated black pepper and white pepper with liquid scintillation counter in order to reconfirm the wholesomeness of irradiated foods and present unambiguous data to general consumers concerning about the induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods. In irradiated black pepper no radioactivity other than from natural source, un-irradiated one, was detected. But in irradiated white pepper, it was suggested that induced radioactivity might be detected if the detection method was more improved. (author)

  1. The decrease in aqueous tear production associated with pepper spray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasier, Rifat; Kukner, Amber Senel; Sengul, Elvan Alper; Yalcin, Nazli Gul; Temizsoylu, Onur; Bahcecioglu, Halil Onder

    2015-04-01

    Pepper spray is used both by civilians and by law enforcement. Burning sensation occurs when exposed to skin, pain and temporary blindness occurs when exposed to the eyes. This study focused on the effect of pepper spray on lacrimal tear production and subsequently on corneal sensitivity in a large group after an intense exposure. Ninety-six people who were exposed to pepper spray during the Gezi park protests volunteered. Subjects were asked if they wore any protective goggles and if they irrigated their eyes after exposure. They were asked to record their symptoms regarding dry eye in a standardized questionnaire. Schirmer I and II tests were performed. Eighty-two people wore protective goggles during exposure, whereas 14 people did not have any protection. Both Schirmer results in unprotected subjects were significantly lower than that in protected subjects. Schirmer I and II results of unprotected subjects were not statistically different, whereas they were statistically different in protected subjects. Thirty-five percent of unprotected subjects and 24% of protected subjects expressed symptoms of dry eye. The active ingredient of pepper spray is oleoresin capsicum. It is randomly diffused to polymodal nerve terminals, leading to opening of non-selective cationic channels and block neuronal transmission. The lower results of both Schirmer in unprotected group emphasize the importance of a protective Google glass around the eyes during exposal, serving as a barrier minimalizing the contact of the spray with the eyes. The combination of the low results and lack of symptoms could suggest that corneal reflex lacrimation in our subjects was not abundant enough. The findings of this study could not fully represent long term findings but it could be assumed that our findings could be indicative of the sensory denervation and alterations demonstrated in studies investigating the long term effects of oleoresin capsicum.

  2. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing.

    OpenAIRE

    DIAS, M. A. N.; MONDO, V. H. V.; CICERO, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) for this...

  3. Recent approaches for bell pepper seed vigor testing

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Marcos Altomani Neves; Mondo, Vitor Henrique Vaz; Cicero, Silvio Moure

    2014-01-01

    Seed vigor is a major attribute in the determination of whether a seed lot can be commercialized. Different physiological tests are used to assess seed vigor and are generally based on different concepts, which could lead to variable interpretations, particularly when comparing lots presenting different vigor levels. This study was conducted to compare the different approaches used to evaluate bell pepper seed vigor and verify the applicability of the Seed Vigor Imaging System (SVIS) for this...

  4. Detection and quantification of Leveillula taurica growth in pepper leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zheng; Nonomura, Teruo; Bóka, Károly; Matsuda, Yoshinori; Visser, Richard G F; Toyoda, Hideyoshi; Kiss, Levente; Bai, Yuling

    2013-06-01

    Leveillula taurica is an obligate fungal pathogen that causes powdery mildew disease on a broad range of plants, including important crops such as pepper, tomato, eggplant, onion, cotton, and so on. The early stage of this disease is difficult to diagnose and the disease can easily spread unobserved; for example, in pepper and tomato production fields and greenhouses. The objective of this study was to develop a detection and quantification method of L. taurica biomass in pepper leaves with special regard to the early stages of infection. We monitored the development of the disease to time the infection process on the leaf surface as well as inside the pepper leaves. The initial and final steps of the infection taking place on the leaf surface were consecutively observed using a dissecting microscope and a scanning electron microscope. The development of the intercellular mycelium in the mesophyll was followed by light and transmission electron microscopy. A pair of L. taurica-specific primers was designed based on the internal transcribed spacer sequence of L. taurica and used in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to quantify the fungal DNA during infection. The specificity of this assay was confirmed by testing the primer pair with DNA from host plants and also from another powdery mildew species, Oidium neolycopersici, infecting tomato. A standard curve was obtained for absolute quantification of L. taurica biomass. In addition, we tested a relative quantification method by using a plant gene as reference and the obtained results were compared with the visual disease index scoring. The real-time PCR assay for L. taurica provides a valuable tool for detection and quantification of this pathogen in breeding activities as well in plant-microbe interaction studies.

  5. Characterization of a pepper collection (Capsicum frutescens L.) from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, M F; Carvalho, S I C; Ragassi, C F; Bianchetti, L B; Faleiro, F G; Reifschneider, F J B

    2017-08-31

    Germplasm banks are essential as sources of genetic variability for plant breeding programs. To characterize a Brazilian Capsicum frutescens collection, 21 malagueta and 5 Tabasco hot pepper accessions were evaluated under field and greenhouse conditions regarding morphological and molecular traits, as well as resistance to viruses. Morphological characterization was performed using 53 IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute) descriptors, 15 vegetative, 13 inflorescence, 22 fruit, and 3 seed. Molecular characterization was carried out with 60 polymorphic markers from 29 RAPD primers. The incidence of major viruses infecting Capsicum spp, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), Groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV), Potato virus Y (PVY), Pepper yellow mosaic virus (PepYMV), Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was evaluated by ELISA. Based on the average genetic distance among genotypes, six groups were defined for the 53 IPGRI descriptors. When considering only 11 quantitative traits (five vegetative and six fruit), six groups were also determined, and the traits plant canopy width (56.05%) and days to fruiting (25.07%) most explained the genetic diversity among genotypes. Molecular analysis defined five groups of accessions with partial correspondence to the morphological characterization data. The incidence of viruses in field-grown plants varied among genotypes and according to virus species, from 5.6% (GRSV; CNPH 3286) to 100% (PMMoV; CNPH2871), and indicated some accessions as potential sources of virus resistance. These results demonstrate the genetic variability within the group of 26 hot pepper accessions, as well as virus-resistant genotypes that can be used in breeding programs.

  6. Reaction of sweet pepper to the potato virus y (PVYm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Echer Márcia de Moraes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sweet pepper cultivars showing susceptibility to the Potato virus Y (PVY are being replaced by resistant hybrids with higher commercial value. Despite of much information about resistance source reaction and their inheritance, there is no knowledge about the genetic background of commercial resistant hybrids. Reaction of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. hybrids to the Potato virus Y (PVYm such as Acuario, Magali R, Nathalie and their respective generations F2 and F3 as well as hybrids Amanda, Corteso W208, CPC-6272, Dagmar, Elisa, Magali, Margarita, Monteiro, Quantum, Vivo W205 was evaluated. Reaction to PVYm was evaluated as resistant or susceptible. Magali R and Nathalie hybrid did not show any mosaic symptoms. Magali R and Nathalie hybrids resistance is due to a single dominant gene indicating resistant versus susceptible parental lines crossing pedigree. Amanda, Acuario, Corteso W208, Dagmar, Elisa, Margarita, Monteiro, Quantum and Vivo W205, considered resistant to PVY, were highly susceptibility to PVY strain m. Hybrids, claimed as resistant to the Pepper mottle virus (PepMoV, were also resistant to PVYm.

  7. Introducing Natural Farming in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L. Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Muyang Tawie Sulok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the role of Natural Farming as an ecological farming method to produce organically grown food of safe and high quality and at the same time improve soil quality and soil health. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the effects of Natural Farming approach on black pepper farms particularly in Sarawak, Malaysia. Previous studies on other crops had indicated positive outcome using the Natural Farming method. Thus, this paper discusses the essential role of effective microorganisms in Natural Farming and their potential in pepper cultivation. Through the action of effective microorganisms, this approach should be able to transform a degraded soil ecosystem into one that is fertile and has high nutrients availability. The mixed culture of effective microorganisms applied must be mutually compatible and coexist with one another to ensure its favorable establishment and interaction in the soil. Therefore, it is anticipated that introducing Natural Farming in black pepper cultivation can enhance the predominance of effective microorganisms in the soil, which in turn could lead to promising growth and yield of the crop.

  8. Tissue culture of black pepper (piper nigrum l.) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Naz, S.; Nazir, H.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2011-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) the 'King of Spices' is a universal table condiment. It is extensively used in Pakistani cuisines and herbal medicines and imported in bulk from neighboring countries. The black pepper vine is generally cultivated by seed because other vegetative propagation methods are slow and time consuming. Therefore the tissue culture technique is considered more efficient and reliable method for rapid and mass propagation of this economically important plant. The present study was initiated to develop protocol for micro-propagation of black pepper vine. The stem, leaf and shoot tip explants from mature vine were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulators (2,4-D, BA, IBA). Best callus was produced on MS medium with 1.5 mg/l BA by shoot tip explant. Shoot regeneration was excellent on MS medium with 0.5 mg/l BA. The plantlets formed were rooted best on 1.5 mg/l IBA. The rooted plants were transplanted in soil medium and acclimatized in growth room. The plants raised were test planted under the local conditions of Hattar. (author)

  9. Observation of a H- Beam at the CERN Linac 4 Test Stand using a Pepper-pot

    CERN Document Server

    Delerue, N; Midttun, O; Scrivens, R; Tsesmelis, E

    2010-01-01

    Pepper-pot based transverse emittance measurement has the advantage of providing a fast (single shot) measurement with a relatively simple hardware. We report on the installation of a pepper-pot at the CERN Linac 4 test stand.

  10. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kirubakaran

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L., garlic (Allium sativum, and black pepper (Piper nigrum powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR. Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Cumulative feed consumption was significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (p<0.01. Conclusion: The combination of garlic and black pepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR.

  11. A seasonal model of contracts between a monopsonistic processor and smallholder pepper producers in Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sáenz Segura, F.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Schipper, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We model the contractual arrangements between smallholder pepper (Piper nigrum L.) producers and a single processor in Costa Rica. Producers in the El Roble settlement sell their pepper to only one processing firm, which exerts its monopsonistic bargaining power by setting the purchase price of

  12. Tospoviruses and Thrips and Integrated Resistance Management Strategies in Pepper in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida ranks second in the production and value of bell pepper in the U.S. In 2015, Florida produced over one-half billion pounds of bell pepper on over 12,000 acres, valued at over 220 million dollars. In recent years, several invasive species of thrips and thrips-vectored tospoviruses have beco...

  13. Diversity and activity of biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas in the rhizosphere of black pepper in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, H.; Kruijt, M.; Raaijmakers, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: Phytophthora capsici is a major pathogen of black pepper and zoospores play an important role in the infection process. Fluorescent pseudomonads that produce biosurfactants with zoosporicidal activities were isolated from the black pepper rhizosphere in Vietnam, and their genotypic diversity

  14. Screening of pepper accessions for resistance against two thrips species (Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips parvispinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maharijaya, A.; Vosman, B.; Steenhuis-Broers, M.M.; Harpenas, Asep; Purwito, A.; Visser, R.G.F.; Voorrips, R.E.

    2011-01-01

    Thrips are damaging pests in pepper worldwide. They can cause damage directly by feeding on leaves, fruits or flowers, and also indirectly by transferring viruses, especially tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). Although thrips are among the most damaging pests in pepper, until now there is no

  15. A semiochemical-based push-pull management strategy for pepper weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pepper weevil Anthonomus eugeenii is a serious pest on peppers in southern United States. The weevils lay their eggs in flower buds and immature fruit where the larvae feed on the developing seed. Consequently, infestations are hard to control by pesticide applications. The aggregation pheromo...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-24 - Lettuce and peppers from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lettuce and peppers from Israel. 319.56-24 Section 319... Lettuce and peppers from Israel. (a) Lettuce may be imported into the United States from Israel without... protected with sticky traps and prophylactic sprays approved for the crop by Israel; (v) The lettuce must be...

  17. Effect of cultivar and roasting technique on sensory quality of Bierzo roasted pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Marcos; Sanz, Miguel A; Valenciano, José B; Casquero, Pedro A

    2011-10-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is one of the main horticultural products in the world. Roasted pepper is a high quality transformed product in the Iberian Peninsula, and obtained the recognition of 'Protected Geographical Indication' (PGI) of 'Pimiento Asado del Bierzo' in 2002. Roasted pepper has been traditionally processed with a steel-sheet hob. However, there are no data available about the effect of roasting technique in the quality of roasted pepper. The objective of this work was to compare the sensory quality of roasted pepper using industrial roasting techniques. Sensory properties that showed significant differences between roasting techniques were colour, thickness and charred remains (appearance descriptors), bitterness (taste descriptor) and smokiness (after-taste descriptor). Higher value of descriptors such as colour, charred remains and smokiness for peppers elaborated in a rotary oven, helped roasted pepper to reach a higher level of overall quality, although rotary oven samples reached the lowest roast yield. Roasting technique, rather than landrace, had the greatest effect on the sensory quality of roasted pepper, so the rotary oven was the roasting technique that achieved the highest quality score. This will contribute to improve sensory quality and marketing of PGI 'Pimiento Asado del Bierzo' in high quality markets. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Fruit cuticle lipid composition and water loss in a diverse collection of pepper (capsicum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper (Capsicum spp.) fruits are covered by a relatively thick coating of cuticle that limits fruit water loss, a trait previously associated with maintenance of post-harvest fruit quality during commercial marketing. We’ve examined the fruit cuticles from 50 diverse pepper genotypes from a world c...

  19. Integrated crop management of hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) in tropical lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.G.M.

    1994-01-01

    Hot pepper ( Capsicum spp.) is the most important low elevation vegetable commodity in Indonesia. Yields are low, in part due to crop health problems. Farmers' practices were surveyed by means of exploratory surveys. Hot pepper pests and diseases were identified and

  20. Diversity and activity of biosurfactant-producing Pseudomonas in the rhizosphere of black pepper in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, H; Kruijt, M; Raaijmakers, J M

    2008-03-01

    Phytophthora capsici is a major pathogen of black pepper and zoospores play an important role in the infection process. Fluorescent pseudomonads that produce biosurfactants with zoosporicidal activities were isolated from the black pepper rhizosphere in Vietnam, and their genotypic diversity and potential to control Phy. capsici root rot was determined. Biosurfactant-producing pseudomonads were genotypically and biochemically characterized by BOX-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 16S-rDNA sequencing, reverse-phase-high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. Biosurfactant-producing fluorescent pseudomonads make up c. 1.3% of the culturable Pseudomonas population in the rhizosphere of black pepper. Although BOX-PCR revealed substantial genotypic diversity, the isolates were shown to produce the same biosurfactants and were all identified as Pseudomonas putida. When applied to black pepper stem cuttings, several of the biosurfactant-producing strains provided significant disease control. In absence of the disease, several of the bacterial strains promoted shoot and root growth of black pepper stem cuttings. Biosurfactant-producing pseudomonads indigenous to the rhizosphere of black pepper plants are genotypically diverse and provide a novel resource for the control of Phy. capsici root rot and growth promotion of black pepper stem cuttings. The results of this study provide a strong basis for further development of supplementary strategies with antagonistic bacteria to control foot and root rot of black pepper and to promote plant growth.

  1. First Complete Genome Sequence of Pepper vein yellows virus from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Solomon; Edwards, Owain R.

    2016-01-01

    We present here the first complete genomic RNA sequence of the polerovirus Pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) obtained from a pepper plant in Australia. We compare it with complete PeVYV genomes from Japan and China. The Australian genome was more closely related to the Japanese than the Chinese genome. PMID:27231375

  2. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Adriana Régia Marques; Arthur, Valter; Nogueira, Danielle Pires

    2012-08-01

    Pink peppers, also known as "pimenta-rosa" and "poivre rose", are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (ppreservation process for pink peppers.

  3. Turmeric and black pepper spices decrease lipid peroxidation in meat patties during cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanjun; Henning, Susanne M.; Lee, Ru-Po; Huang, Jianjun; Zerlin, Alona; Li, Zhaoping; Heber, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Spices are rich in natural antioxidants and have been shown to be potent inhibitors of lipid peroxidation during cooking of meat. Turmeric contains unique conjugated curcuminoids with strong antioxidant activity. Piperine, one of the main constituents of black pepper, is known to increase the bioavailability of curcuminoids in mouse and human studies when consumed with turmeric. We investigated whether adding black pepper to turmeric powder may further inhibit lipid peroxidation when added to meat patties prior to cooking. The addition of black pepper to turmeric significantly decreased the lipid peroxidation in hamburger meat. When investigating the antioxidant activity of the main chemical markers, we determined that piperine did not exhibit any antioxidant activity. Therefore, we conclude that other black pepper ingredients are responsible for the increased antioxidant activity of combining black pepper with turmeric powder. PMID:25582173

  4. Genome sequence of the hot pepper provides insights into the evolution of pungency in Capsicum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungill; Park, Minkyu; Yeom, Seon-In; Kim, Yong-Min; Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Seo, Eunyoung; Choi, Jaeyoung; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jung, Kyongyong; Lee, Gir-Won; Oh, Sang-Keun; Bae, Chungyun; Kim, Saet-Byul; Lee, Hye-Young; Kim, Shin-Young; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Jo, Yeong Deuk; Yang, Hee-Bum; Jeong, Hee-Jin; Kang, Won-Hee; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Shin, Chanseok; Lim, Jae Yun; Park, June Hyun; Huh, Jin Hoe; Kim, June-Sik; Kim, Byung-Dong; Cohen, Oded; Paran, Ilan; Suh, Mi Chung; Lee, Saet Buyl; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Shin, Younhee; Noh, Seung-Jae; Park, Junhyung; Seo, Young Sam; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kim, Hyun A; Park, Jeong Mee; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Choi, Sang-Bong; Bosland, Paul W; Reeves, Gregory; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Bong-Woo; Cho, Hyung-Taeg; Choi, Hee-Seung; Lee, Min-Soo; Yu, Yeisoo; Do Choi, Yang; Park, Beom-Seok; van Deynze, Allen; Ashrafi, Hamid; Hill, Theresa; Kim, Woo Taek; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Yeam, Inhwa; Giovannoni, James J; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Sørensen, Iben; Lee, Sang-Jik; Kim, Ryan W; Choi, Ik-Young; Choi, Beom-Soon; Lim, Jong-Sung; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2014-03-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuum), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the Americas, is the most widely grown spice crop in the world. We report whole-genome sequencing and assembly of the hot pepper (Mexican landrace of Capsicum annuum cv. CM334) at 186.6× coverage. We also report resequencing of two cultivated peppers and de novo sequencing of the wild species Capsicum chinense. The genome size of the hot pepper was approximately fourfold larger than that of its close relative tomato, and the genome showed an accumulation of Gypsy and Caulimoviridae family elements. Integrative genomic and transcriptomic analyses suggested that change in gene expression and neofunctionalization of capsaicin synthase have shaped capsaicinoid biosynthesis. We found differential molecular patterns of ripening regulators and ethylene synthesis in hot pepper and tomato. The reference genome will serve as a platform for improving the nutritional and medicinal values of Capsicum species.

  5. Natural biostimulants reduce the incidence of BER in sweet yellow pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Parađiković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Modern greenhouse pepper production should evolve towards more sustainable systems. The growing technique which combines soilless culture and biostimulants may reduce nutrient and water use with beneficial impact on the environment. Therefore, this work aimed to investigate effects of biostimulants application on hydroponically produced pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. in conditions of reduced fertilization. Positive influence of biostimulant treatment on yield parameters was observed along with significant decrease in incidence of blossom-end rot (BER in two pepper cultivars. Biostimulants application resulted in overall increase in macro- and microelement content in fruits of treated pepper cultivars. Generally, biostimulants improved the yield of pepper plants grown hydroponically by increasing the nutrient uptake and decreasing the occurrence of BER. Thus, the application of biostimulants could be considered as a good production strategy for obtaining high yields of nutritionally valuable vegetables with lower impact on the environment.

  6. Pepper seed variety identification based on visible/near-infrared spectral technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun; Fan, Pengfei; Cai, Jichen

    2016-11-01

    Pepper is a kind of important fruit vegetable, with the expansion of pepper hybrid planting area, detection of pepper seed purity is especially important. This research used visible/near infrared (VIS/NIR) spectral technology to detect the variety of single pepper seed, and chose hybrid pepper seeds "Zhuo Jiao NO.3", "Zhuo Jiao NO.4" and "Zhuo Jiao NO.5" as research sample. VIS/NIR spectral data of 80 "Zhuo Jiao NO.3", 80 "Zhuo Jiao NO.4" and 80 "Zhuo Jiao NO.5" pepper seeds were collected, and the original spectral data was pretreated with standard normal variable (SNV) transform, first derivative (FD), and Savitzky-Golay (SG) convolution smoothing methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was adopted to reduce the dimension of the spectral data and extract principal components, according to the distribution of the first principal component (PC1) along with the second principal component(PC2) in the twodimensional plane, similarly, the distribution of PC1 coupled with the third principal component(PC3), and the distribution of PC2 combined with PC3, distribution areas of three varieties of pepper seeds were divided in each twodimensional plane, and the discriminant accuracy of PCA was tested through observing the distribution area of samples' principal components in validation set. This study combined PCA and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to identify single pepper seed varieties, results showed that with the FD preprocessing method, the discriminant accuracy of pepper seed varieties was 98% for validation set, it concludes that using VIS/NIR spectral technology is feasible for identification of single pepper seed varieties.

  7. Microbial quality and bioactive constituents of sweet peppers from sustainable production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Alicia; Gil, María I; Flores, Pilar; Hellín, Pilar; Selma, María V

    2008-12-10

    Integrated, organic, and soil-less production systems are the principal production practices that have emerged to encourage more sustainable agricultural practices and safer edible plants, reducing inputs of plaguicides, pesticides, and fertilizers. Sweet peppers grown commercially under integrated, organic, and soil-less production systems were compared to study the influence of these sustainable production systems on the microbial quality and bioactive constituents (vitamin C, individual and total carotenoids, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids). The antioxidant composition of peppers was analyzed at green and red maturity stages and at three harvest times (initial, middle, and late season). Irrigation water, manure, and soil were shown to be potential transmission sources of pathogens to the produce. Coliform counts of soil-less peppers were up to 2.9 log units lower than those of organic and integrated peppers. Soil-less green and red peppers showed maximum vitamin C contents of 52 and 80 mg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (fw), respectively, similar to those grown in the organic production system. Moreover, the highest content of total carotenoids was found in the soil-less red peppers, which reached a maximum of 148 mg 100 g(-1) fw, while slightly lower contents were found in integrated and organic red peppers. Hydroxycinnamic acids and flavonoids represented 15 and 85% of the total phenolic content, respectively. Total phenolic content, which ranged from 1.2 to 4.1 mg 100 g(-1) fw, was significantly affected by the harvest time but not by the production system assayed. Soil-less peppers showed similar or even higher concentrations of bioactive compounds (vitamin C, provitamin A, total carotenoid, hydroxycinnamic acids, and flavonoids) than peppers grown under organic and integrated practices. Therefore, in the commercial conditions studied, soil-less culture was a more suitable alternative than organic or integrated practices, because it improved the microbial

  8. Prehispanic use of chili peppers in Chiapas, Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry G Powis

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum is New World in origin and represents a complex of a wide variety of both wild and domesticated taxa. Peppers or fruits of Capsicum species rarely have been identified in the paleoethnobotanical record in either Meso- or South America. We report here confirmation of Capsicum sp. residues from pottery samples excavated at Chiapa de Corzo in southern Mexico dated from Middle to Late Preclassic periods (400 BCE to 300 CE. Residues from 13 different pottery types were collected and extracted using standard techniques. Presence of Capsicum was confirmed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC/MS-MS Analysis. Five pottery types exhibited chemical peaks for Capsicum when compared to the standard (dihydrocapsaicin. No peaks were observed in the remaining eight samples. Results of the chemical extractions provide conclusive evidence for Capsicum use at Chiapas de Corzo during a 700 year period (400 BCE-300 CE. Presence of Capsicum in different types of culinary-associated pottery raises questions how chili pepper could have been used during this early time period. As Pre-Columbian cacao products sometimes were flavored using Capsicum, the same pottery sample set was tested for evidence of cacao using a theobromine marker: these results were negative. As each vessel that tested positive for Capsicum had a culinary use we suggest here the possibility that chili residues from the Chiapas de Corzo pottery samples reflect either paste or beverage preparations for religious, festival, or every day culinary use. Alternatively, some vessels that tested positive merely could have been used to store peppers. Most interesting from an archaeological context was the presence of Capsicum residue obtained from a spouted jar, a pottery type previously thought only to be used for pouring liquids.

  9. Role of the fermentation process in off-odorant formation in white pepper: on-site trial in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhaus, Martin; Schieberle, Peter

    2005-07-27

    In white pepper samples, directly taken from a retting batch at a pepper production plant in Thailand, 3-methylindole, 4-methylphenol, 3-methylphenol, and butanoic acid, recently confirmed to be responsible for the characteristic fecal off-odor frequently detected in white pepper powders, were quantified by stable isotope dilution analyses. The results clearly showed that, in particular, 3-methylindole (fecal, swine-manure-like), 4-methylphenol (fecal, horse-like), and butanoic acid (cheese-like) were biochemically formed during retting, thus indicating that fermentation is the crucial step for off-odorant formation during white pepper processing. Model fermentation experiments performed with different manufacturing regimens revealed that white pepper, containing no substantial amounts of these odorants, can be produced from ripe starting material by a short fermentation under water and with frequent exchange of water. The overall aroma of such pepper was superior as compared to the aroma of white pepper produced according to the traditional procedure.

  10. Effect of Red Pepper (Capsicum frutescens) Powder or Red Pepper Pigment on the Performance and Egg Yolk Color of Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huaqiang; Jin, Liji; Wu, Feifei; Thacker, Philip; Li, Xiaoyu; You, Jiansong; Wang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Sizhao; Li, Shuying; Xu, Yongping

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of red pepper (Capsicum frutescens) powder or red pepper pigment on the performance and egg yolk color of laying hens. In Exp. 1, 210, thirty-wk old, Hy-line Brown laying hens were fed one of seven diets containing 0.3, 0.6, 1.2, 2.0, 4.8 or 9.6 ppm red pepper pigment or 0.3 ppm carophyll red. Each diet was fed to three replicate batteries of hens with each battery consisting of a row of five cages of hens with two hens per cage (n = 3). In Exp. 2, 180, thirty-wk old, Hyline Brown laying hens, housed similarly to those in Exp. 1, were fed an unsupplemented basal diet as well as treatments in which the basal diet was supplemented with 0.8% red pepper powder processed in a laboratory blender to an average particle size of 300 μm, 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill (44 μm) and finally 0.8% red pepper powder processed as a super fine powder with a vibrational mill but mixed with 5% Na2CO3 either before or after grinding. A diet supplemented with 0.3 ppm carophyll red pigment was also included (n = 3). In both experiments, hens were fed the red pepper powder or pigment for 14 days. After feeding of the powder or pigment was terminated, all hens were fed the basal diet for eight more days to determine if the dietary treatments had any residual effects. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio due to inclusion of red pepper pigment in the diet. Average egg weight was higher (pfeeding red pepper powder did not affect egg-laying performance, feed consumption or feed conversion ratio (p>0.05). However, compared with the control group, supplementation with all of the red pepper powder treatments increased egg weight (pfeed additives for improving egg yolk color for laying hens.

  11. Evaluation of antioxidant potential of pepper sauce (Capsicum frutescens L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Freire de Moura Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of substances present in in natura foods such as fruits and vegetables are well documented; however, the activity that remains after processing needs more research. The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant potential in fruit processed as sauce and quantify the compounds able to contribute to such activity. Three different treatments were developed varying only the concentration of pepper Capsicum frutescens L., with treatment ratios (fruit: water: vinegar: salt being: treatment 1 (0.5: 1: 0.5: 0.33, 2 (1: 1: 0.5: 0.33, and 3 (2: 1: 0.5: 0.33. By the DPPH method, the values found for EC50 (g g DPPH−1 from 3726.9 to 5425.9 for the alcoholic extract were the most significant. The content of total phenols did not vary between the three treatments. While the content of carotenoids found was significantly different in the treatment with lower content of the fruit in natura, when compared to the treatment with higher content (44.02 and 56.09 μg of β-carotene 100 g−1, respectively and the content of ascorbic acid varied between 10.95 and 21.59 mg 100−1 g. Therefore, the pepper sauce was presented as an alternative to the consumption of bioactive compounds that may have antioxidant potential.

  12. Radiation sterilization of red chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyenekwe, P.C.; Ogbadu, G.H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of radapertization using 60Co gamma radiation on the chemical and organoleptic properties of ground and whole dry pungent red pepper has been investigated. The fungal population was eliminated with a dose of 7.5 kGy and a dose of 10 kGy was required to radapertize the samples. Irradiation up to 10 kGy did not produce any significant (P 0.05) changes in the contents of capsaicin and carbohydrate. Oleoresin content was significantly (P 0.05) increased from 24.45 to 31.61% and lipid from 16.80 to 19.30%. The observed effect on apparent oleoresin and lipid contents was due to enhanced extractability. Storage time had no effect on the sensory properties of the spice but rather enhanced microbial load reduction in the medium dose (5.0 and 7.5 kGy) treated samples. A dose of 10 kGy has been certified to pose no health hazard to humans; hence decontamination of red pepper with up to 10 kGy gamma radiation does not require any further toxicological study and is therefore recommended

  13. Microbiological and Physicochemical Quality Characterization of Commercial Red Pepper Powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, M.S.; Ahn, J.J.; Kashig, A.; Kim, G.R.; Kwon, J.H.; Im, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Ten commercially available red pepper powders were investigated for their hygienic quality (total aerobic count, yeasts and molds, and coliforms) and physicochemical properties (moisture content, pH, Hunters color values, American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) color and particle size). Microbial analysis resulted in 10 3 -10 6 CFU/g of total aerobic count and same of yeasts and molds, where 2 samples were positive (103 CFU/g) for coliforms. The moisture contents (7.25% to 12.73%) were with in the range as described in the Korean Food Standards Codex. Noteworthy variations were observed in pH (4.97 to 5.15), Hunters E values (47.19 to 58.04) and ASTA color values (89.31 to 98.61). Although the color differences were evident among the samples, but the Hunter values were not in good correlations with ASTA color values. The average particle sizes of the all samples were comparable ranging from 605 μm to 1251 μm with few exceptions. There was a great variation in the key quality attributes of commercially available red pepper powders that should be considered for their various uses in food products. (author)

  14. Ascorbic Acid Contents in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum commonly known as chili pepper is a major spice crop and is almost cosmopolitan in distribution. The nutritive value of chili pepper is largely determined by ascorbic acid content. The fruits at five ripening stages viz., (M1, M2, M3, M4 and M5 from seventeen cultivars of Capsicum annuum L and one cultivar of Capsicum frutescens L were analyzed for ascorbic acid content. Among eighteen genotypes the C. annuum var. IC: 119262(CA2 showed higher ascorbic acid content (mg/100g FW i.e., 208.00.68 (M1, 231.00.66 (M2, 280.00.31 (M3, 253.00.34 (M4 and 173.70.27 (M5. The study revealed that the gradual increase in ascorbic acid content from green to red and subsequently declined in the lateral stages (red partially dried and red fully dried fruits. The variability of ascorbic acid content in the genotypes suggests that these selected genotypes may be use full as parents in hybridization programs to produce fruits with good nutritional values.

  15. Influence of radappertization upon some sensory properties of black pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchman, W; Fiszer, W; Pawlik, A [Wyzsza Szkola Rolnicza, Poznan (Poland)

    1983-01-01

    Radappertization may be used as an effective method for sterilization of spices. A possible influence of irradiation upon the sensoric qualities should be considered in this context. Therefore the objectives of the work were the determination of the influence of pepper irradiation on its sensoric quality, on the qualitative changes of volatile chemical substances and on the correlation between changes resulting from irradiation and the sensoric quality of pepper. The spice was irradiated with doses of 10, 0, 40 and 60 kGy. Thresholds of recognition and difference were determined. The quantity of the dose was related to the values of thresholds mentioned above. The larger the dose, the less intensive the flavor and the higher the thresholds. A significant influence of irradiation upon the decrease of the quantity of essential oils and carbohydrates was noticed. There was a relation between the results of sensoric assessments and the chemical characteristics (the content of volatile carbonyl, sulphuric and nitrogenic substances). Correlation between these factors was determined on the basic statistical analysis of the results obtained during investigation.

  16. Napropamide residues in runoff and infiltration water from pepper production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F; Patterson, Matthew A

    2005-01-01

    A field study was conducted on a Lowell silty loam soil of 2.7% organic matter at the Kentucky State University Research Farm, Franklin County, Kentucky. Eighteen universal soil loss equation (USLE) standard plots (22 x 3.7 m each) were established on a 10% slope. Three soil management practices were used: (i) class-A biosolids (sewage sludge), (ii) yard waste compost, each mixed with native soil at a rate of 50 ton acre(-1) on a dry-weight basis, and (iii) a no-mulch (NM) treatment (rototilled bare soil), used for comparison purposes. Devrinol 50-DF "napropamide" [N,N-diethyl-2-(1-naphthyloxy) propionamide] was applied as a preemergent herbicide, incorporated into the soil surface, and the plots were planted with 60-day-old sweet bell pepper seedlings. Napropamide residues one hour following spraying averaged 0.8, 0.4, and 0.3 microg g(-1) dry soil in sewage sludge, yard waste compost, and no-mulch treatments, respectively. Surface runoff water, runoff sediment, and napropamide residues in runoff were significantly reduced by the compost and biosolid treatments. Yard waste compost treatments increased water infiltration and napropamide residues in the vadose zone compared to sewage sludge and NM treatments. Total pepper yields from yard waste compost amended soils (9187 lbs acre(-1)) was significantly higher (P soil amended with class-A biosolids (6984 lbs acre(-1)) or the no-mulch soil (7162 lbs acre(-1)).

  17. Electron spin resonance characterization of radical components in irradiated black pepper skin and core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoki, Rumi; Kimura, Shojiro; Ohta, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    Characteristics of free radical components of irradiated black pepper fruit (skin) and the pepper seed (core) were analyzed using electron spin resonance. A weak signal near g=2.005 was observed in black pepper before irradiation. Complex spectra near g=2.005 with three lines (the skin) or seven lines (the core) were observed in irradiated black pepper (both end line width; ca. 6.8 mT). The spectral intensities decreased considerably at 30 days after irradiation, and continued to decrease steadily thereafter. The spectra simulated on the basis of the content and the stability of radical components derived from plant constituents, including fiber, starch, polyphenol, mono- and disaccharide, were in good agreement with the observed spectra. Analysis showed that the signal intensities derived from fiber in the skin for an absorbed dose were higher, and the rates of decrease were lower, than that in the core. In particular, the cellulose radical component in the skin was highly stable. - Highlights: → We identified the radical components in irradiated black pepper skin and core. → The ESR spectra near g=2.005 with 3-7 lines were emerged after irradiation. → Spectra simulated basing on the content and the stability of radical from the plant constituents. → Cellulose radical component in black pepper skin was highly stable. → Single signal near g=2.005 was the most stable in black pepper core.

  18. Whole-genome sequencing of cultivated and wild peppers provides insights into Capsicum domestication and specialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cheng; Yu, Changshui; Shen, Yaou; Fang, Xiaodong; Chen, Lang; Min, Jiumeng; Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Shancen; Xu, Meng; Luo, Yong; Yang, Yulan; Wu, Zhiming; Mao, Likai; Wu, Haiyang; Ling-Hu, Changying; Zhou, Huangkai; Lin, Haijian; González-Morales, Sandra; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L.; Tian, Hao; Tang, Xin; Zhao, Maojun; Huang, Zhiyong; Zhou, Anwei; Yao, Xiaoming; Cui, Junjie; Li, Wenqi; Chen, Zhe; Feng, Yongqiang; Niu, Yongchao; Bi, Shimin; Yang, Xiuwei; Li, Weipeng; Cai, Huimin; Luo, Xirong; Montes-Hernández, Salvador; Leyva-González, Marco A.; Xiong, Zhiqiang; He, Xiujing; Bai, Lijun; Tan, Shu; Tang, Xiangqun; Liu, Dan; Liu, Jinwen; Zhang, Shangxing; Chen, Maoshan; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yinchao; Liao, Weiqin; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Min; Lv, Xiaodan; Wen, Bo; Liu, Hongjun; Luan, Hemi; Zhang, Yonggang; Yang, Shuang; Wang, Xiaodian; Xu, Jiaohui; Li, Xueqin; Li, Shuaicheng; Wang, Junyi; Palloix, Alain; Bosland, Paul W.; Li, Yingrui; Krogh, Anders; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F.; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Yin, Ye; Yu, Jiping; Hu, Kailin; Zhang, Zhiming

    2014-01-01

    As an economic crop, pepper satisfies people’s spicy taste and has medicinal uses worldwide. To gain a better understanding of Capsicum evolution, domestication, and specialization, we present here the genome sequence of the cultivated pepper Zunla-1 (C. annuum L.) and its wild progenitor Chiltepin (C. annuum var. glabriusculum). We estimate that the pepper genome expanded ∼0.3 Mya (with respect to the genome of other Solanaceae) by a rapid amplification of retrotransposons elements, resulting in a genome comprised of ∼81% repetitive sequences. Approximately 79% of 3.48-Gb scaffolds containing 34,476 protein-coding genes were anchored to chromosomes by a high-density genetic map. Comparison of cultivated and wild pepper genomes with 20 resequencing accessions revealed molecular footprints of artificial selection, providing us with a list of candidate domestication genes. We also found that dosage compensation effect of tandem duplication genes probably contributed to the pungent diversification in pepper. The Capsicum reference genome provides crucial information for the study of not only the evolution of the pepper genome but also, the Solanaceae family, and it will facilitate the establishment of more effective pepper breeding programs. PMID:24591624

  19. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legind, Charlotte Nielsen; Kennedy, C. M.; Rein, Arno

    2011-01-01

    irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. RESULTS: The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging...... from 0.002 to 0.034 mg kg fw—1. Maximum measured concentrations in pepper fruit were approximately 0.22 mg kg fw—1. Temperature was the most sensitive component for predicting the peak and final concentration in pepper fruit, through its influence on soil and plant degradation rates...

  20. The Effect of Red Pepper Waste Added to Compost on Selenium Content of Pleurotus citrinopileatus Singer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kalyoncu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selenium levels of P.citrinopileatus added different rates of red pepper waste to compost as a source of selenium were determined. For this purpose, six different compost groups were prepared and inoculated with P.citrinopileatus mycelia. Selenium levels of harvested mushrooms were analysed. In conclusion, 0.338 µg/g selenium were determined in one gram dry mushroom that red pepper waste added to compost at 5%. Mycelia growth and selenium accumulation were negatively affected by higher rates of red pepper waste.

  1. X-band ESR study on evaluation of radicals induced in pasteurized pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Masaaki; Ogawa, Satoko; Ukai, Mitsuko; Oowada, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    The radical properties of pasteurized pepper were investigated by means of X-band ESR spectroscopy. Pasteurization process was done by irradiation or steam. There were three radicals in the specimens before and after pasteurization. Upon irradiation a new radical was found. ESR peak intensity of specimen before and after parturition with steam was almost same level. Peak intensity of radiated pepper showed almost 4 times as compare with that of non treated pepper. Radical activity of the specimens after pasteurization showed almost same value. We concluded that radicals were induced by irradiation. But the radical activity was not changed before and after pasteurization. (author)

  2. Comparative genomics reveals diversity among xanthomonads infecting tomato and pepper

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Potnis, Neha

    2011-03-11

    Abstract Background Bacterial spot of tomato and pepper is caused by four Xanthomonas species and is a major plant disease in warm humid climates. The four species are distinct from each other based on physiological and molecular characteristics. The genome sequence of strain 85-10, a member of one of the species, Xanthomonas euvesicatoria (Xcv) has been previously reported. To determine the relationship of the four species at the genome level and to investigate the molecular basis of their virulence and differing host ranges, draft genomic sequences of members of the other three species were determined and compared to strain 85-10. Results We sequenced the genomes of X. vesicatoria (Xv) strain 1111 (ATCC 35937), X. perforans (Xp) strain 91-118 and X. gardneri (Xg) strain 101 (ATCC 19865). The genomes were compared with each other and with the previously sequenced Xcv strain 85-10. In addition, the molecular features were predicted that may be required for pathogenicity including the type III secretion apparatus, type III effectors, other secretion systems, quorum sensing systems, adhesins, extracellular polysaccharide, and lipopolysaccharide determinants. Several novel type III effectors from Xg strain 101 and Xv strain 1111 genomes were computationally identified and their translocation was validated using a reporter gene assay. A homolog to Ax21, the elicitor of XA21-mediated resistance in rice, and a functional Ax21 sulfation system were identified in Xcv. Genes encoding proteins with functions mediated by type II and type IV secretion systems have also been compared, including enzymes involved in cell wall deconstruction, as contributors to pathogenicity. Conclusions Comparative genomic analyses revealed considerable diversity among bacterial spot pathogens, providing new insights into differences and similarities that may explain the diverse nature of these strains. Genes specific to pepper pathogens, such as the O-antigen of the lipopolysaccharide cluster

  3. Effect of the smoking process and firewood type in the phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity of red Jalapeño pepper during its transformation to chipotle pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Escamilla, Jesús Omar; de la Rosa, Laura A; López-Díaz, José Alberto; Rodrigo-García, Joaquín; Núñez-Gastélum, José Alberto; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio

    2015-10-01

    Chipotle pepper is a dry smoked red Jalapeño pepper well appreciated in the Mexican and American cuisines. Phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of red Jalapeño pepper has been previously reported, however, the effect of the smoking process in the content of phytochemicals, antioxidant capacity and capsaicinoids has not been previously reported. In the present study we found that the smoking process had a significant effect on the content of polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of red Jalapeño pepper. It induced a nearly 50% increase in total phenols and 15% increase in antioxidant capacity in chipotle pepper compared to fresh samples (in dry weight basis). Capsaicinoids and ascorbic acid content decreased in smoked samples, while carotenoids remained practically unchanged. The strongest effect of smoking was observed in the content of total flavonoids and catechin determined by HPLC. Therefore we can conclude that smoking process has a positive effect in the fruit because it raises its phytochemical properties. The type of wood used in the smoking process also had an effect on the phytochemical content and antioxidant capacity with traditional pecan wood being the best. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Detection of organic free radicals in irradiated pepper by electron spin resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2002-01-01

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed various free radicals in a Japanese commercially available black pepper before and after γ-irradiation. The representative ESR spectrum of the pepper is composed of a sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet at the same g-value and a singlet at g=4.0. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine interactions of Mn 2+ ion (7.4 mT). The second one is due to an organic free radical. The third one may be originated from Fe 3+ ion of the non-hem Fe in proteins. A pair of signals appeared in the black pepper after γ-irradiation. The progressive saturation behavior reconfirmed the signal identification for the radicals in the black pepper. (author)

  5. Effect of sweet pepper cultivation on the content of phytotoxic phenolic compounds in substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Politycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the conducted study was to determine to what extent the cultivation of sweet pepper lowers the phytotoxicity of a substrate. The examined material was a highly phytotoxic substrate due to repeated cucumber growing on it. This substrate was a mixture of pine and beech bark, low peat and sawdust. Five sweet pepper cultivars: Amador, Bell Boy, Culinar, Poznańska Słodka and WSE 2/82 were planted. During vegetation of the sweet pepper phytotoxicity and phenolics levels were determined in the substrate. It was found that cultivation of sweet pepper had a significant effect on lowering phytotoxicity and phenolics content in the substrate. Among the five tested cultivars, the highest detoxicating ability was exhibited by Amador, Culinar and WSE 2/82 while the Poznańska Słodka did not show such abilities.

  6. Pepper-pot diagnostic method to define emittance and Twiss parameters on low energies accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Dolinska, M E

    2002-01-01

    The new complex mathematical algorithm to determine beam transverse emittance data and the Twiss parameters from intensity measured with pepper-por diagnostic device on rf low energies accelerators is described.

  7. A new environment-friendly hot pepper variety "Shiyan No. 1"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianming; Xu, Shuzhen; Wang, Ruiling; Zhang, Yanzhao; Yun, Chao

    2018-04-01

    Hot pepper has rich genetic diversity which is the important base of breeding of new variety, and it is also one of the important vegetable in the word. In this study, we bred the "Shiyan No. 1" environment-friendly hot pepper variety using hybrid method on the basis of hot pepper genetic diversity. "Shiyan No. 1" is a new F1 hybrid of hot pepper variety with mid-early maturity. The new variety has a high productivity of 3000-5000kg(667m2)-1 with thick oxhorn shape fruits, green skin, thick flesh, mild-hot taste, good quality and marketable characters. It can reduce chemical pesticides usage and thereby protect environment because it is resistant to virus disease, highly resistant to phytophthora blight, anthracnose and bacterial wilt. In conclusion, the new bred "Shiyan No.1" is suitable for protected cultivation and open field cultivation in China.

  8. Physiological, Biochemical and Genetic Characteristics of Ralstonia solanacearum Strains Isolated from Pepper Plants in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kee Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Totally sixty three bacteria were isolated from lower stems showing symptoms of bacterial wilt on pepper plants in 14 counties of 7 provinces, Korea. The isolates showed strong pathogenicity on red pepper (cv. Daewang and tomato (cv. Seogwang seedlings. All virulent bacteria were identified as Ralstonia solanacearum based on colony types, physiological and biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR. All R. solanacearum isolates from peppers were race 1. The bacterial isolates consisted of biovar 3 (27% and biovar 4 (73%. Based on polymorphic PCR bands generated by repetitive sequence (rep-PCR, the 63 R. solanacearum isolates were divided into 12 groups at 70% similarity level. These results will be used as basic materials for resistant breeding program and efficient control against bacterial wilt disease of pepper.

  9. Deficiency symptoms of nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium and sulphur in pepper (Capsicum spp) cv malagueta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruca, F.A.; Gouveia, P.R.; Teixeira, N.T.

    1989-01-01

    The pepper (Capsium spp) was cultivated in sand and nutritive solution to describe the deficiency symptoms of N, P, Ca and S. The deficiency symptoms and the first lack signals were clear to P and N nutrient. (author) [pt

  10. Sensory properties of chile pepper heat - and its importance to food quality and cultural preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Ivette; Bosland, Paul W

    2017-10-01

    Chile peppers are one of the most important vegetable and spice crops in the world. They contain capsaicinoids that are responsible for the characteristic burning (pungency) sensation. Currently, there are 22 known naturally occurring capsaicinoids that can cause the heat sensation when consumed. Each produces a different heat sensation effect in the mouth. A need exists for a standard and new terminology to describe the complex heat sensation one feels when eating a chile pepper. A comprehensive set of descriptors to describe the sensory characteristics of chile pepper heat was developed. It was validated with trained panelists tasting samples representing the five domesticated species and 14 pod-types within these species. Five key attributes that define and reference a lexicon for describing the heat sensation of chile peppers were determined to describe the heat sensation in any product, and importantly, can be used in the food industry worldwide. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Normalization of qPCR Analysis during Pepper Fruit Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its high sensitivity and reproducibility, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR is practiced as a useful research tool for targeted gene expression analysis. For qPCR operations, the normalization with suitable reference genes (RGs is a crucial step that eventually determines the reliability of the obtained results. Although pepper is considered an ideal model plant for the study of non-climacteric fruit development, at present no specific RG have been developed or validated for the qPCR analyses of pepper fruit. Therefore, this study aimed to identify stably expressed genes for their potential use as RGs in pepper fruit studies. Initially, a total of 35 putative RGs were selected by mining the pepper transcriptome data sets derived from the PGP (Pepper Genome Platform and PGD (Pepper Genome Database. Their expression stabilities were further measured in a set of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. 007e fruit samples, which represented four different fruit developmental stages (IM: Immature; MG: Mature green; B: Break; MR: Mature red using the qPCR analysis. Then, based on the qPCR results, three different statistical algorithms, namely geNorm, Normfinder, and boxplot, were chosen to evaluate the expression stabilities of these putative RGs. It should be noted that nine genes were proven to be qualified as RGs during pepper fruit development, namely CaREV05 (CA00g79660; CaREV08 (CA06g02180; CaREV09 (CA06g05650; CaREV16 (Capana12g002666; CaREV21 (Capana10g001439; CaREV23 (Capana05g000680; CaREV26 (Capana01g002973; CaREV27 (Capana11g000123; CaREV31 (Capana04g002411; and CaREV33 (Capana08g001826. Further analysis based on geNorm suggested that the application of the two most stably expressed genes (CaREV05 and CaREV08 would provide optimal transcript normalization in the qPCR experiments. Therefore, a new and comprehensive strategy for the identification of optimal RGs was developed. This strategy allowed for the effective normalization of the q

  12. Tocopherol synthesis from homogentisate in Capsicum anuum L. (yellow pepper) chromoplast membranes: evidence for tocopherol cyclase.

    OpenAIRE

    Arango, Y; Heise, K P

    1998-01-01

    The present study shows for the first time appreciable tocopherol cyclase activities in plastidial membrane preparations of Capsicum annuum L. (yellow pepper) fruits. When chromoplast membranes from yellow peppers were incubated with [3H]homogentisate and phytyl pyrophosphate under strictly reducing conditions, all biosynthesis precursors were labelled. The main labelling was found in gamma-tocopherol. These observations contradict the hypothesis that assigns a rate-limiting function to tocop...

  13. An l1-TV Algorithm for Deconvolution with Salt and Pepper Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    deblurring in the presence of impulsive noise ,” Int. J. Comput. Vision, vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 279–298, Dec. 2006. [13] A. E. Beaton and J. W. Tukey, “The...AN 1-TV ALGORITHM FOR DECONVOLUTIONWITH SALT AND PEPPER NOISE Brendt Wohlberg∗ T-7 Mathematical Modeling and Analysis Los Alamos National Laboratory...and pepper noise , but the extension of this formulation to more general prob- lems, such as deconvolution, has received little attention. We consider

  14. Metabolite Profiling of Peppers of Various Colors Reveals Relationships Between Tocopherol, Carotenoid, and Phytosterol Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jin; Choi, Jaehyuk; Kim, Kil Won; Ahn, Soon Kil; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Yongsoo; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2017-12-01

    Peppers are widely consumed in Korea; the varietal development of peppers with increased content of beneficial plant metabolites is, therefore, of considerable interest. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic profile of pepper plants and the factors affecting this profile. To this end, we determined the content of various metabolites, such as hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and capsaicinoids in peppers of various colors (green, red, pale green, and violet peppers) and in a high-pungency (green) pepper. We also performed principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson's correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) to determine the relationships among these metabolites in peppers. PCA results indicated no significant variances among the 3 sample replicates. The HCA showed correlations between the metabolites resulting from common or closely linked biosynthesis pathways. Our results showed that carotenoids correlated positively with tocopherols and negatively with phytosterols; our findings also indicated a close relationship between the methylerythritol 4-phosphate and mevalonic acid biosynthesis pathways, providing evidence in favor of an earlier hypothesis regarding crosstalk across the chloroplast membrane. We, thus, demonstrate that metabolic profiling combined with multivariate analysis is a useful tool for analyzing metabolic networks. A total of 71 metabolites were measured in 5 peppers of different colors. The metabolic profiling with multivariate analysis revealed that tocopherol content had a positive correlation with the carotenoid content and a negative correlation with the phytosterol content. The results of this study may help in breeding programs to produce new germplasm with enhanced nutritional quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  15. Cause of the Scion Death in Green Pepper Grafting System by a Tobamovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gug-Seoun Choi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was attempted to investigate a cause of the scion death in green pepper grafting system. A tobamovirus particle examined in the rootstock of the sample but not in the scion showing necrosis. The virus isolated from the rootstock was identified as Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV, pepper tobamovirus pathotype P1.2. (PMMoV-2, by nucleotide sequence analysis and host plant reaction. The virus isolate infected systematically in 6 commercial rootstock varieties using for green pepper grafting seedling production. Green pepper varieties ``Long green mart`` and ``Daechan`` represented resistance to the virus showing local lesions only on the inoculated leaves and ``Manitda`` was systematically infected. In the experiment with grafting ``Long green mart`` or ``Daechan`` onto the those rootstocks, the upper leaves of the scions first showed vein necrosis and wilt symptoms 7 days after inoculation with PMMoV-2 on the cotyledon of the rootstock, following to the scion stem necrosis and then only the scion death. The virus was detected in the rootstock but not in the scion. However, ``Manitda`` of susceptible variety in the grafting system showed mottle symptom on the leaves of the scion but not necrosis on the plant. PMMoV-3 isolate, pepper tobamovirus pathotype P1.2.3, did not cause the scion death in the grafting system. All of the varieties were susceptible to PMMoV-3. These results suggest that the scion death is caused by infecting with pepper tobamovirus pathotype P1.2. in the green pepper grafting system combined with the susceptible rootstock and the resistance scion to the virus pathotype.

  16. Xanthomonas euvesicatoria Causes Bacterial Spot Disease on Pepper Plant in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seong Kyeon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, bacterial spot-causing xanthomonads (BSX were reclassified into 4 species—Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, X. vesicatoria, X. perforans, and X. gardneri. Bacterial spot disease on pepper plant in Korea is known to be caused by both X. axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and X. vesicatoria. Here, we reidentified the pathogen causing bacterial spots on pepper plant based on the new classification. Accordingly, 72 pathogenic isolates were obtained from the lesions on pepper plants at 42 different locations. All isolates were negative for pectolytic activity. Five isolates were positive for amylolytic activity. All of the Korean pepper isolates had a 32 kDa-protein unique to X. euvesicatoria and had the same band pattern of the rpoB gene as that of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans as indicated by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. A phylogenetic tree of 16S rDNA sequences showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all the reference strains of X. euvesicatoria and X. perforans. A phylogenetic tree of the nucleotide sequences of 3 housekeeping genes—gapA, gyrB, and lepA showed that all of the Korean pepper plant isolates fit into the same group as did all of the references strains of X. euvesicatoria. Based on the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, we identified the pathogen as X. euvesicatoria. Neither X. vesicatoria, the known pathogen of pepper bacterial spot, nor X. perforans, the known pathogen of tomato plant, was isolated. Thus, we suggest that the pathogen causing bacterial spot disease of pepper plants in Korea is X. euvesicatoria.

  17. Foliar Application of the Fungicide Pyraclostrobin Reduced Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Beom Ryong Kang; Jang Hoon Lee; Young Cheol Kim

    2018-01-01

    Pyraclostrobin is a broad-spectrum fungicide that inhibits mitochondrial respiration. However, it may also induce systemic resistance effective against bacterial and viral diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether pyraclostrobin enhanced resistance against the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas euvesicatora on pepper (Capsicum annuum). Although pyraclostrobin alone did not suppressed the in vitro growth of X. euvesicatoria, disease severity in pepper was significantly lower by 69% after...

  18. Comparison between apparent viscosity related to irradiation dose for corn starch and black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casandroiu, T.; Oprita, N.; Ferdes, O.S.

    1999-01-01

    Dose-effect relationship was studied in the rheoviscometric behaviour of geliffied suspensions of irradiated corn starch and black pepper, as the variation of the apparent viscosity and the shear stress related to the dose. Irradiation has been performed up to 16 kGy. Black pepper was ground and sieved to three particle sizes to analyse also the influence of particle size on the apparent viscosity variation by dose. The rheoviscometric measurements have been carried out by a rotationary viscometer on geliffied suspensions of starch and black pepper, into equivalent starch concentration and alkalinised suspensions for pepper. For starch, shear stress variation by dose is exponential, where the coefficients depend on the shear rate. For black pepper, the curves of apparent viscosity relation to dose also fit an exponential equation and the influence of particle size is discussed, too. Viscometric behaviour similar to irradiation of both corn starch and black pepper could be attributed to starch degradation at relatively high doses and should be used to develop an identification and control method for the ionizing treatment of starch-based food materials. (author)

  19. Influence of combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder on production traits of the broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirubakaran, A.; Moorthy, M.; Chitra, R.; Prabakar, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of combinations of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), garlic (Allium sativum), and black pepper (Piper nigrum) powder supplementation on production traits of broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 288 commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 1-9 groups with 4 replicates each. An experiment was conducted in broilers with different feed formulations; control feed, with no added fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder; and 8 treatment groups receiving feed supplemented with different combinations of fenugreek, garlic, and black pepper powder. The individual broilers’ body weight and feed consumption were recorded and calculate the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Results: Broiler’s weight gain and FCR were significantly higher in groups receiving feed supplemented with garlic and black pepper powder combinations (ppepper powder combinations (ppepper powder supplemented broiler feed fed groups showed higher production performance. The 5 g/kg garlic powder+1 g/kg black pepper powder and 10 g/kg garlic powder+2 g/kg black pepper powder significantly improved the weight gain and FCR. PMID:27284222

  20. Hydrodynamics study on drying of pepper in swirling fluidized bed dryer (SFBD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syaif Haron, Nazrul; Hazri Zakaria, Jamal; Faizal Mohideen Batcha, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Malaysia is one of the pepper producer with exports quantity reaching more than 90000 tonnes between 2010 until 2016. Drying of pepper is mandatory before their export and at present, pepper was dried by sun drying to reduce cost. This conventional drying method was time consuming and may take four days during rainy season, which retards the production of pepper. This paper proposes the swirling fluidized bed drying (SFBD) method, which was known to have high mixing ability and improved solid-gas contact to shorten the drying time of products. A lab scale SFBD system was constructed to carry out this study. Hydrodynamic study was conducted for three beds loadings of 1.0 kg, 1.4 kg at a drying temperature of 90°C. The SFBD has shown excellent potential to dry the pepper with a relatively short drying time compared to the conventional method. Batch drying for the bed loads studied only took 3 hours of drying time only. It was found that bed higher bed loading of wet pepper requires longer drying time due to higher amount of moisture content in the bed. Four distinct regimes of operation were found during drying in the SFBD and these regimes offer flexibility of operation. The total bed pressure drop was relatively low during drying.

  1. Color and illuminance level of lighting can modulate willingness to eat bell peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenbeck, Aimee; Cho, Sungeun; Meullenet, Jean-François; Tokar, Tonya; Yang, Famous; Huddleston, Elizabeth A; Seo, Han-Seok

    2014-08-01

    Food products are often encountered under colored lighting, particularly in restaurants and retail stores. However, relatively little attention has been paid to whether the color of ambient lighting can affect consumers' motivation for consumption. This study aimed to determine whether color (Experiment 1) and illuminance level (Experiment 2) of lighting can influence consumers' liking of appearance and their willingness to eat bell peppers. For red, green, and yellow bell peppers, yellow and blue lighting conditions consistently increased participants' liking of appearance the most and the least, respectively. Participants' willingness to consume bell peppers increased the most under yellow lighting and the least under blue lighting. In addition, a dark condition (i.e. low level of lighting illuminance) decreased liking of appearance and willingness to eat the bell peppers compared to a bright condition (i.e. high level of lighting illuminance). Our findings demonstrate that lighting color and illuminance level can influence consumers' hedonic impression and likelihood to consume bell peppers. Furthermore, the influences of color and illuminance level of lighting appear to be dependent on the surface color of bell peppers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rocío Gómez-García

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed.

  3. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Chili Peppers (Capsicum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rocío Gómez-García, María; Ochoa-Alejo, Neftalí

    2013-01-01

    Capsicum species produce fruits that synthesize and accumulate carotenoid pigments, which are responsible for the fruits’ yellow, orange and red colors. Chili peppers have been used as an experimental model for studying the biochemical and molecular aspects of carotenoid biosynthesis. Most reports refer to the characterization of carotenoids and content determination in chili pepper fruits from different species, cultivars, varieties or genotypes. The types and levels of carotenoids differ between different chili pepper fruits, and they are also influenced by environmental conditions. Yellow-orange colors of chili pepper fruits are mainly due to the accumulation of α- and β-carotene, zeaxanthin, lutein and β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoids such as capsanthin, capsorubin and capsanthin-5,6-epoxide confer the red colors. Chromoplasts are the sites of carotenoid pigment synthesis and storage. According to the most accepted theory, the synthesis of carotenoids in chili peppers is controlled by three loci: c1, c2 and y. Several enzymes participating in carotenoid biosynthesis in chili pepper fruits have been isolated and characterized, and the corresponding gene sequences have been reported. However, there is currently limited information on the molecular mechanisms that regulate this biosynthetic pathway. Approaches to gain more knowledge of the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:24065101

  4. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Quantification of Phytophthora capsici in Different Pepper Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvar, C; Díaz, J; Merino, F

    2005-12-01

    ABSTRACT Reliable and sensitive quantification of Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants is of crucial importance in managing the multiple syndromes caused by this pathogen. A real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was developed for the determination of P. capsici in pepper tissues. DNA levels of a highly virulent and a less virulent isolate were measured in different pepper genotypes with varying degrees of resistance. Using SYBR Green and specific primers for P. capsici, the minimal amount of pathogen DNA quantified was 10 pg. Pathogen DNA was recorded as early as 8 h postinoculation. Thereafter, the increase was rapid in susceptible cultivars and slower in resistant ones. The amount of pathogen DNA quantified in each pepper genotype correlated with susceptibility to Phytophthora root rot. Likewise, there was a relationship between the virulence of the pathogen and the degree of colonization. Differences also were found in oomycete amount among pepper tissues, with maximal pathogen biomass occurring in stems. The real-time PCR technique developed in this study was sensitive and robust enough to assess both pathogen development and resistance to Phytophthora root rot in different pepper genotypes.

  5. Insights Into the Etiology of Polerovirus-Induced Pepper Yellows Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotos, Leonidas; Olmos, Antonio; Orfanidou, Chrysoula; Efthimiou, Konstantinos; Avgelis, Apostolos; Katis, Nikolaos I; Maliogka, Varvara I

    2017-12-01

    The study of an emerging yellows disease of pepper crops (pepper yellows disease [PYD]) in Greece led to the identification of a polerovirus closely related to Pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV). Recovery of its full genome sequence by next-generation sequencing of small interfering RNAs allowed its characterization as a new poleroviruses, which was provisionally named Pepper yellows virus (PeYV). Transmission experiments revealed its association with the disease. Sequence similarity and phylogenetic analysis highlighted the common ancestry of the three poleroviruses (PeVYV, PeYV, and Pepper yellow leaf curl virus [PYLCV]) currently reported to be associated with PYD, even though significant genetic differences were identified among them, especially in the C-terminal region of P5 and the 3' noncoding region. Most of the differences observed can be attributed to a modular type of evolution, which produces mosaic-like variants giving rise to these different poleroviruses Overall, similar to other polerovirus-related diseases, PYD is caused by at least three species (PeVYV, PeYV, and PYLCV) belonging to this group of closely related pepper-infecting viruses.

  6. Effect of gamma radiation and storage time on the volatile constituents, pirerine, piperettine and sensory quality of pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahari, I; Ishak, S; Ayub, M K [National Univ. of Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor

    1983-12-01

    The use of gamma radiation in prolonging the storage life of black and white peppers is promising. Doses up to 9 kGy and storage period up to 6 months did not significantly change (P<0.05) the volatile constituents of the peppers. Besides the increase in piperine content of unirradiated pepper there was no change in piperettine and piperine contents of both pepper with respect to increase in dose and storage time. No sensory change was detected for the treatments used (author).

  7. The effect of gamma radiation and storage time on the volatile constituents, pirerine, piperettine and sensory quality of pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahari, I.; Ishak, S.; Ayub, M.K.

    1983-01-01

    The use of gamma radiation in prolonging the storage life of black and white peppers is promising. Doses up to 9 kGy and storage period up to 6 months did not significantly change (P<0.05) the volatile constituents of the peppers. Besides the increase in piperine content of unirradiated pepper there was no change in piperettine and piperine contents of both pepper with respect to increase in dose and storage time. No sensory change was detected for the treatments used (author)

  8. Inhibitory effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum) extracts and compounds on human tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes, lipid peroxidation and nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Yadev, Vivek R; Aggarwal, Bharat B; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2010-08-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum) and hot pepper (Capsicum spp.) are widely used in traditional medicines. Although hot Capsicum spp. extracts and its active principles, capsaicinoids, have been linked with anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities, whether black pepper and its active principle exhibit similar activities is not known. In this study, we have evaluated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of extracts and compounds from black pepper by using proinflammatory transcription factor NF-kappaB, COX-1 and -2 enzymes, human tumor cell proliferation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). The capsaicinoids, the alkylamides, isolated from the hot pepper Scotch Bonnet were also used to compare the bioactivities of alkylamides and piperine from black pepper. All compounds derived from black pepper suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation, but alkyl amides, compound 4 from black pepper and 5 from hot pepper, were most effective. The human cancer cell proliferation inhibitory activities of piperine and alklyl amides in Capsicum and black pepper were dose dependant. The inhibitory concentrations 50% (IC50) of the alklylamides were in the range 13-200 microg/mL. The extracts of black pepper at 200 microg/mL and its compounds at 25 microg/mL inhibited LPO by 45-85%, COX enzymes by 31-80% and cancer cells proliferation by 3.5-86.8%. Overall, these results suggest that black pepper and its constituents like hot pepper, exhibit anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anticancer activities.

  9. Desempenho agronômico de linhas endogâmicas recombinadas de pimenta em dois sistemas de cultivo Agronomic performance of recombinant chili pepper inbred lines in two cultivation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ola Moreira

    2009-08-01

    .Climate and management diversity play an important role in crop production, since these characteristics are related to genotype and cultivation environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of genotype, environment and genotype-environmental interaction (GE in 12 recombinant inbred lines of C. annuum. These lines were originated from crosses between the following accessions: a sweet pepper cultivar (susceptible to bacterial spot and a chili pepper (resistant to bacterial spot. Two tests were conducted, the first in a conventional agriculture system, under field conditions and the second in ecological or organic system, under greenhouse conditions. The field experiment was carried out in Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ. The greenhouse experiment was conducted in Seropédica, RJ. Both experiments were performed using a randomized block design with three replications. The measured variables were total fruit number (TFN; total fruit weight (TFW; mean fruit weight (MFW; fruit length (FL; fruit diameter (FD; length/diameter fruit ratio (FL/FD and capsaicin presence (CAPS. Data obtained for each experimental condition were submitted to variance analysis, joint variance analysis, and partitioning of genotype environment interaction. Genotype and GE quadratic components, genotypic determination coefficient, genetic variation coefficient and variation index were determined. The GE interaction was significant for TFN, TFW, MFN, FD, and FL/FD. Cultivation under greenhouse conditions was responsible for the highest mean performance for every trait studied but FL. Values observed for genetic variation were greater than values obtained for environmental variation. For field conditions, the high yield ability observed for line 2 (pungent is suggestive of a potential to be used as a commercial genotype. For greenhouse conditions, line 8 (pungent, had higher fruit number yield. Line 1 (non-pungent also seems promising for commercial cultivation under both conditions.

  10. Application of microwaves for microbial load reduction in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevitha, G Chengaiyan; Sowbhagya, H Bogegowda; Hebbar, H Umesh

    2016-09-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is exposed to microbial contamination which could potentially create public health risk and also rejection of consignments in the export market due to non-adherance to microbial safety standards. The present study investigates the use of microwave (MW) radiation for microbial load reduction in black pepper and analyses the effect on quality. Black pepper was exposed to MWs at two different power levels (663 and 800 W) at an intensity of 40 W g(-1) for different time intervals (1-15 min) and moisture content (110 and 260 g kg(-1) on a wet basis). The exposure of black pepper to MWs at 663 W for 12.5 min was found to be sufficient to reduce the microbial load to the permissible level suggested by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods and the European Spice Association. The retention of volatile oil, piperine and resin was 91.3 ± 0.03, 87.6 ± 0.02 and 90.7 ± 0.05%, respectively, in MW-treated black pepper. The final moisture content after MW treatment was found to be 100 ± 1 g kg(-1) for black pepper containing initial moisture of 260 ± 3 g kg(-1) . These results suggest that MW heating can be effectively used for microbial load reduction of black pepper without a significant loss in product quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Molecular detection and characterization of a phytoplasma from xianlajiao chili pepper in shaanxi province, china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, C.M.; Lu, M.H.; Zhao, Z.L.; Hu, J.C.; Nie, W.Y.; Guo, J.W.

    2017-01-01

    Surveys were performed in the main Xianlajiao chili pepper-producing areas of Shaanxi Province to determine whether a phytoplasma was associated with the incidence of Arbuscular Lobular Disease (ALD). During July 2012 and 2013, 92 and 86 chili pepper plants, respectively, showing ALD-like symptoms were collected from 12 counties and the cities of Baoji, Weinan, Xianyang, and Xian. Samples from paulownia trees and plantain with symptoms of paulownia witches' broom and little leaf, respectively, located in pepper fields in Baoji city, Fengxiang county were also collected. Universal DNA primers for amplification of the phytoplasma 16S rRNA gene were used for nested PCR assays and DNA sequencing. Phytoplasma DNA was amplified from two chili pepper plants, the paulownia trees, and the plantain collected from Baoji city. The phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA sequences of the phytoplasmas detected in the chili pepper confirmed that these phytoplasmas are members of the 16SrI group "Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris". The results of virtual RFLP analysis and sequence homology comparison showed that the two Xianlajiao phytoplasmas have high homology with phytoplasmas 16SrI-B and 16SrI-M. Transmission electron microscopy assays revealed the presence of typical phytoplasma pleomorphic bodies in the phloem of phytoplasma-infected Xianlajiao chili pepper plants. Although our results did not establish a strong association between the presence of the phytoplasma and ALD, the simultaneous detection of a 16SrI phytoplasma in two symptomatic Xianlajiao chili peppers, the paulownia trees, and the plantain suggests a complex epidemiology related to the 16SrI phytoplasma pathogen in these new plant hosts. (author)

  12. Management of blight of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum var. grossum) caused by Drechslera bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadon, Kuldeep Singh; Shah, Rakesh; Gour, Hari Narayan; Sharma, Pankaj

    Sweet or bell pepper is a member of the Solanaceae family and is regarded as one of the most popular and nutritious vegetable. Blight, in the form of leaf and fruit blight, has been observed to infect bell pepper crops cultivated at the horticulture farm in Rajasthan College of Agriculture, Udaipur, India. Based on disease severity, we attempted to curb this newly emerged problem using different fungicides, plant extracts, bio-control agents, and commercial botanicals against the fungus in laboratory and pot experiments. Bio-control agent Trichoderma viride and plant growth promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolate Neist-2 were found to be quite effective against bell pepper blight. All evaluated fungicides, botanicals, commercial botanicals, and bio-control agents in vitro were further studied as seed dressers and two foliar sprays at ten days interval in pot experiments. The combinations of Vitavax, PGPR isolate Neist-2, and Mehandi extract were found to be very effective against bell pepper blight followed by Vitavax, T. viride, and Mehandi extract used individually. All treatments in the pot experiments were found to significantly reduce seedling mortality and enhance plant biomass of bell pepper. Thus, these experimental findings suggest that a better integrated management of bell pepper blight could be achieved by conducting field trials in major bell pepper- and chilli-cultivated areas of the state. Besides fungicides, different botanicals and commercial botanicals also seem to be promising treatment options. Therefore, the outcome of the present study provides an alternate option of fungicide use in minimizing loss caused by Drechslera bicolor. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae) by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad SAADOUN; Mohamed Bechir ALLAGUI

    2013-01-01

    Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicoti...

  14. A study on the comparison of antioxidant effects between hot pepper extract and capsaicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Min Gang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The objective of this study was to compare the antioxidant effects of hot pepper extract and capsaicin. Methods : In vitro, antioxidant activities were examined by DPPH radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity(TAC, oxygen radical scavenging capacity(ORAC, inhibition of induced lipid peroxidation using liver mitochonria and total phenolic contents. Results : 1. DPPH free radical scavenging actiivities at the concentrations of both 1 and 10㎎/㎖ were 1.2 to 1.9 times higher in capsaicin than in hot pepper extract. The concentration of capsaicin required for 50% radical scavenging was lower than that of hot pepper extract(3.9 vs 5.9㎎/㎖, indicating that capsaicin had higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than hot pepper extract. 2. Total antioxidant capacities of capsaicin at the concentrations of 0.1 and 1mg/ml(13.8 and 41.3 nmol Trolox equivalent were not significantly different from those at the concentrations of 1 and 10㎎/㎖(11.4 and 41.2nmol Trolox equivalent, indicating that capsaicin showed 10 times higher ABTS radical scavenging activity compared to hot pepper extract. 3. ORAC of capsaicin at the concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 100 mg/ml were 0.04, 0.17, 0.29 and 1.74nmol gallic acid equivalent, respectively. On the other hand, ORAC of hot pepper extract at the concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 100㎍/㎖ were 0.15, 0.44, 0.75 and 2.49nmol gallic acid equivalent, respectively, indicating that capsaicin showed higher peroxyl radical scavenging activity than hot pepper extract. 4. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation caused by hot pepper extract at the concentrations of 1 and 10mg/㎖ were 12.2 and 61.4%, respectively. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation caused by capsaicin at the concentrations of 1 and 10㎎/㎖l were 64.0 and 96.8%, respectively. Thus capsaicin showed 10 times stronger effect in inhibiton of lipid peroxidation than hot pepper extract. 5. Total phenolic contents of hot pepper extract at the

  15. Attachment of 13 Types of Foodborne Bacteria to Jalapeño and Serrano Peppers and Antibacterial Effect of Roselle Calyx Extracts, Sodium Hypochlorite, Colloidal Silver, and Acetic Acid against These Foodborne Bacteria on Peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Falfan-Cortes, Reyna N; Rodríguez-Marín, María L; Godínez-Oviedo, Angélica; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2017-03-01

    Chili peppers are a very important crop in Mexico. However, these peppers have been associated with Salmonella infection outbreaks in the United States, and Salmonella and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes have been isolated from jalapeño and serrano peppers in Mexico. To decrease microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables, chemical agents are commonly used; however, chemical agents used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria on vegetables have a limited antimicrobial effect. Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) calyces have been reported to have an antimicrobial effect on pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the antibacterial effect of four roselle calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid against foodborne bacteria was evaluated on contaminated jalapeño and serrano peppers. The 13 types of foodborne bacteria evaluated were Listeria monocytogenes , Shigella flexneri , Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Montevideo, Staphylococcus aureus , E. coli O157:H7, five E. coli pathotypes (Shiga toxin producing, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enteroaggregative), and Vibrio cholerae O1. All 13 types attached to both pepper types, with no significant differences in attachment between jalapeño and serrano peppers. Roselle calyx extract treatment resulted in a greater reduction in levels of all foodborne bacteria than did treatment with sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid on both pepper types. Roselle calyx extracts may be a useful for disinfection of chili peppers in the field, processing plants, restaurants, and homes.

  16. Proteomic analysis reveals strong mitochondrial involvement in cytoplasmic male sterility of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinju; Wang, Peng; Cheng, Qing; Sun, Limin; Wang, Hongyu; Wang, Yutong; Kao, Lina; Li, Yanan; Qiu, Tuoyu; Yang, Wencai; Shen, Huolin

    2017-09-25

    Although cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is widely used for developing pepper hybrids, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we used a high-throughput proteomics method called label-free to compare protein abundance across a pepper CMS line (A-line) and its isogenic maintainer line (B-line). Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD006104. Approximately 324 differentially abundant protein species were identified and quantified; among which, 47 were up-accumulated and 140 were down-accumulated in the A-line; additionally, 75 and 62 protein species were specifically accumulated in the A-line and B-line, respectively. Protein species involved in pollen exine formation, pyruvate metabolic processes, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, and oxidative stress response were observed to be differentially accumulated between A-line and B-line, suggesting their potential roles in the regulation of pepper pollen abortion. Based on our data, we proposed a potential regulatory network for pepper CMS that unifies these processes. Artificial emasculation is a major obstacle in pepper hybrid breeding for its high labor cost and poor seed purity. While the use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in hybrid system is seriously frustrated because a long time is needed to cultivate male sterility line and its isogenic restore line. Transgenic technology is an effective and rapid method to obtain male sterility lines and its widely application has very important significance in speeding up breeding process in pepper. Although numerous studies have been conducted to select the genes related to male sterility, the molecular mechanism of cytoplasmic male sterility in pepper remains unknown. In this study, we used the high-throughput proteomic method called "label-free", coupled with liquid chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), to perform a novel comparison of expression profiles in a CMS pepper line

  17. Anatomical traits of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The micromorphology of the epidermis as well as the anatomy of the pericarp and fruit pedicle in Capsicum annuum L., cv. 'Red Knight F1', were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. The pericarp was found to consist of an epidermis with strongly thickened outer walls, several layers of tangential and angular collenchyma as well as multi-layered parenchyma composed of cells of varying size in which very large lobed nuclei were observed. Chromoplasts were found in the cells of the above-mentioned tissues. The inner epidermis of the pericarp was characterized by thick cell walls and numerous straight pits. Among the tissues of the fruit pedicle, we observed epidermis with numerous stomata, collenchyma, chlorenchyma with very large intercellular spaces, small clusters of sclerenchyma, secondary phloem and xylem as well live and dead cells of the pith which were characterized by the presence of thin walls with numerous pits. The structural traits of the pericarp of the red pepper cultivar under study show adaptations to significantly reduced transpiration, which is an important feature during storage. At the same time, the strongly thickened and cutinized walls of the fruit contribute to a reduction in its digestibility and impede nutrient penetration in non-root feeding.

  18. Proteome analysis of bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) chromoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Muhammad Asim; Grossmann, Jonas; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Baginsky, Sacha

    2006-12-01

    We report a comprehensive proteome analysis of chromoplasts from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). The combination of a novel strategy for database-independent detection of proteins from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) data with standard database searches allowed us to identify 151 proteins with a high level of confidence. These include several well-known plastid proteins but also novel proteins that were not previously reported from other plastid proteome studies. The majority of the identified proteins are active in plastid carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Among the most abundant individual proteins are capsanthin/capsorubin synthase and fibrillin, which are involved in the synthesis and storage of carotenoids that accumulate to high levels in chromoplasts. The relative abundances of the identified chromoplast proteins differ remarkably compared with their abundances in other plastid types, suggesting a chromoplast-specific metabolic network. Our results provide an overview of the major metabolic pathways active in chromoplasts and extend existing knowledge about prevalent metabolic activities of different plastid types.

  19. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

    2014-06-01

    The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

  20. Phytotoxicity of sarmentine isolated from long pepper (Piper longum) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huazhang; Morgan, Christy M; Asolkar, Ratnakar N; Koivunen, Marja E; Marrone, Pamela G

    2010-09-22

    Discovery of novel natural herbicides has become crucial to overcome increasing weed resistance and environmental issues. In this article, we describe the finding that a methanol extract of dry long pepper (Piper longum L.) fruits is phytotoxic to lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seedlings. The bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of the crude extract led to isolation of sarmentine (1), a known compound, as the active principle. Phytotoxicity of 1 was examined with a variety of seedlings of field crops and weeds. Results indicated that 1 was a contact herbicide and possessed broad-spectrum herbicidal activity. Moreover, a series of sarmentine analogues were then synthesized to study the structure-activity relationship (SAR). SAR studies suggested that phytotoxicity of sarmentine and its analogues was specific due to chemical structures, i.e., the analogues of the acid moiety of 1 were active, but the amine and its analogues were inactive; the ester analogues and amide analogues with a primary amine of 1 were also inactive. In addition, quantification of 1 from different resources of the dry P. longum fruits using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry showed a wide variation, ranging from almost zero to 0.57%. This study suggests that 1 has potential as an active lead molecule for synthesized herbicides as well as for bioherbicides derived from natural resources.

  1. IMPROVEMENT OF SHELF LIFE QUALITY OF GREEN BELL PEPPERS USING EDIBLE COATING FORMULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Ochoa-Reyes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In Latin-America, there are countries with high production levels of green bell peppers, which requires of new strategies of conservation for their international trade. Traditional techniques of preservations do not guarantee to prolong the shelf life of these kinds of fruits, for this reason, in the present study, the Influence of different edible coating formulations on shelf-life quality of green bell peppers was studied. Three different biopolymers (pectin, arabic, and xanthan gums were evaluated in mixtures with candelilla wax as hydrophobic phase, jojoba oil as plasticizer and a crude extract of polyphenols as source of bioactive compounds. Green bell peppers were immersion-treated and then stored at room temperature. Response variables were: weight loss, color, appearance, pH, total soluble solids and firmness changes which were kinetically determined. All peppers treated with edible-coating showed a significant difference (Tukey, p≤0.05 in weight loss compared to control treatment (without edible coating, while a lower level of deterioration was observed in fruits treated with edible coating formulated with arabic gum, but appearance remained similar among fruits treated with different edible coatings. Use of mixtures of biopolymers, candelilla wax, jojoba oil and polyphenols to develop edible and functionalized coatings significantly extended shelf life of green bell pepper.

  2. Biocontrol of Phytophthora Blight and Anthracnose in Pepper by Sequentially Selected Antagonistic Rhizobacteria against Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Mee Kyung; Shrestha, Anupama; Kim, Du-Yeon; Park, Kyungseok; Pak, Chun Ho; Kim, Ki Deok

    2013-06-01

    We previously developed a sequential screening procedure to select antagonistic bacterial strains against Phytophthora capsici in pepper plants. In this study, we used a modified screening procedure to select effective biocontrol strains against P. capsici; we evaluated the effect of selected strains on Phytophthora blight and anthracnose occurrence and fruit yield in pepper plants under field and plastic house conditions from 2007 to 2009. We selected four potential biocontrol strains (Pseudomonas otitidis YJR27, P. putida YJR92, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens YJR102, and Novosphingobium capsulatum YJR107) among 239 bacterial strains. In the 3-year field tests, all the selected strains significantly (P anthracnose incidence in at least one of the test years, but their biocontrol activities were variable. In addition, strains YJR27, YJR92, and YJR102, in certain harvests, increased pepper fruit numbers in field tests and red fruit weights in plastic house tests. Taken together, these results indicate that the screening procedure is rapid and reliable for the selection of potential biocontrol strains against P. capsici in pepper plants. In addition, these selected strains exhibited biocontrol activities against anthracnose, and some of the strains showed plant growth-promotion activities on pepper fruit.

  3. Fire feedbacks facilitate invasion of pine savannas by Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jens T; Beckage, Brian

    2009-10-01

    * Fire disturbance can mediate the invasion of ecological communities by nonnative species. Nonnative plants that modify existing fire regimes may initiate a positive feedback that can facilitate their continued invasion. Fire-sensitive plants may successfully invade pyrogenic landscapes if they can inhibit fire in the landscape. * Here, we investigated whether the invasive shrub Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) can initiate a fire-suppression feedback in a fire-dependent pine savanna ecosystem in the southeastern USA. * We found that prescribed burns caused significant (30-45%) mortality of Brazilian pepper at low densities and that savannas with more frequent fires contained less Brazilian pepper. However, high densities of Brazilian pepper reduced fire temperature by up to 200 degrees C, and experienced as much as 80% lower mortality. * A cellular automaton model was used to demonstrate that frequent fire may control low-density populations, but that Brazilian pepper may reach a sufficient density during fire-free periods to initiate a positive feedback that reduces the frequency of fire and converts the savanna to an invasive-dominated forest.

  4. The effect of irradiation in the preservation of pink pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Régia Marques de Souza, Adriana; Arthur, Valter; Pires Nogueira, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Pink peppers, also known as “pimenta-rosa” and “poivre rose”, are the fruit of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species of pepper cultivated in Brazil, and have great potential for the exploration of uses. In efforts to lengthen the shelf life of this pepper, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of radiation on its physical composition and color. The pink pepper samples were irradiated with doses of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 kGy, and the moisture, ash and lipid contents, pH and color were analyzed. The moisture content, lipid content and pH analysis indicated effects due to the irradiation (p>0.05) in which the higher doses resulted in decreases in the attribute. In contrast, there were no significant differences for the ash analysis (p ⁎ and b ⁎ were the most affected by the intermediate doses (0.2 and 0.8 kGy), which induced their elevation, enhancing the reddish and yellowish colors. Based on the presented data, irradiation is as an alternative preservation process for pink peppers.

  5. Honeybees as an aid in improving labour conditions in sweet bell pepper greenhouses: reduction of pollen allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, van der J.J.M.; Blacquière, T.; Jong, de N.W.; Groot, de H.

    2004-01-01

    Sweet bell pepper is the most important greenhouse vegetable crop in the Netherlands. It is grown on an area of 10,000 hectares, and about 8000 people are working in these greenhouses. One third of these workers sooner or later develop an occupational allergy to the sweet bell pepper pollen. The

  6. Development of a sweet cherry pepper line with resistance to the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major pathogen of pepper (Capsicum spp.), causing significant yield losses in heavily infected plants. The N-gene confers resistance to M. incognita, and has been successfully used to mitigate nematode damage in specific pepper varieties f...

  7. Potential for breeding sweet pepper adapted to cooler growing conditions : a physiological and genetic analysis of growth traits in Capsicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, de E.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important greenhouse crop in theNetherlands. In 2005, the production area of sweet pepper in the

  8. Non-destructive quality evaluation of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seeds using LED-induced hyperspectral reflectance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we develop a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumin...

  9. Solanum americanum: reservoir for Potato virus Y and Cucumber mosaic virus in sweet pepper crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Fecury Moura

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Weeds can act as important reservoirs for viruses. Solanum americanum (Black nightshade is a common weed in Brazil and samples showing mosaic were collected from sweet pepper crops to verify the presence of viruses. One sample showed mixed infection between Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV and Potato virus Y (PVY and one sample showed simple infection by PVY. Both virus species were transmitted by plant extract and caused mosaic in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Santa Clara, sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Magda, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabaccum TNN, and local lesions on Chenopodium quinoa, C. murale and C. amaranticolor. The coat protein sequences for CMV and PVY found in S. americanum are phylogenetically more related to isolates from tomato. We conclude that S. americanum can act as a reservoir for different viruses during and between sweet pepper crop seasons.

  10. Analysis of the blackening of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-06-01

    This paper investigates polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity, reduced weight percentage after sun drying, and the changes in colour and appearance of green pepper (Piper nigrum Linnaeus) berries after blanching and sun drying. The results show that the degree of reduced weight percentage and browning in green pepper berries after blanching for 10 min is greater at 100°C than at 90 and 80°C. Moreover, the samples blanched at 100°C for 10 min had the fastest water loss, but the lowest PPO activity. Thus, the PPO enzymatic oxidation of polyphenols might not be the only reason for the browning of green pepper berries. This result is significantly different from that of Variyar, Pendharkar, Banerjeea, and Bandyopadhyay (1988) and therefore deserves further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of irradiation on nutritional quality of chicken feet with pickled peppers in shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shurong; Zhou Linyan; Yi Jianyong; Feng Min; Li Li; Yang Ping; Wang Dening; Gu Guiqiang; Zhu Jiating

    2013-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on nutritional quality of soft packaged chicken feet with pickled peppers within shelf life were investigated. Chicken feet were irradiated by E-beam which max dose was 10 kGy, and all the samples were stored at 0 ∼ 10℃ and analyzed one month after irradiation treatment. Significant sterilizing effect was got for soft packaged chicken feet with pickled peppers by irradiation; The contents of protein and fat were changed after irradiation treatment; the contents of V_A, V_E and V_B_3 in irradiated chicken feet were increased; The total contents of amino acids increased when irradiation dose were more than 4 kGy; The contents of total acids decreased after irradiation treatment, but the contents of cholesterol and nitrite increased. Above all, irradiation treatment can be used to improve nutritional quality of chicken feet with pickled peppers in shelf life. (authors)

  12. Transverse emittance measurement of high-current single pulse beams using pepper-pot method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke Jianlin; Zhou Changgeng; Qiu Rui

    2013-01-01

    A pepper pot-imaging plate system has been developed and used to measure the 4-D transverse emittance of a vacuum arc ion source. Single beam pulses of tens to hundreds milliamperes were extracted from the plasma with 64 kV high voltage. An imaging plate was laid after the pepper pot to visualize the ion beamlets passing though the holes on the pepper pot. An application program was developed to show the phase-space distribution and calculate the ellipse and RMS emittances. The normalized RMS emittances are about 6.41 π·mm·mrad in x-direction and 4.61 π·mm·mrad in y-direction. It is shown that the emittance of the vacuum arc ion source is much larger than that of other types of ion sources, which is mainly attributed to the high current and the convex meniscus of this source. (authors)

  13. Sanity of bell pepper fruit fertigated with wastewater from hog production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Rodrigues de Souza

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the microbiological quality of bell pepper fruits produced with swine wastewater (SW, after preliminary treatment, pepper seedlings of variety Casca Dura Elquida were grown and fertigated with different levels of this wastewater providing 100 and 200% of the amount of the nitrogen needed for cultivation, with and without supplementation of fertilization. The fruits were analyzed for the presence of thermo-tolerant and total coliforms, and of Salmonella sp. The results showed that fertigation with SW, by trickle irrigation system, resulted in bell pepper fruits uncontaminated by fecal coliform and Salmonella spp., in accordance with the microbiological standards required by RDC n°12 02/01/2001.

  14. Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and toxigenic capacity of Alternaria strains from mouldy peppers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cruz Cabral, Lucía; Terminiello, Laura; Fernández Pinto, Virginia

    2016-01-01

    Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important crop cultivated worldwide, with Argentina being one of the major producers in South America. The fruit is susceptible to several fungal diseases, leading to severe economic losses for producers. In this study, Alternaria was found as the prevalent...... genus in mouldy peppers (50% fruits infected). Morphological identification revealed that all 64 Alternaria isolates belonged to small-spored species, most of them corresponding to A. tenuissima, A. arborescens and A. alternata species-groups. Their secondary metabolite profile was evaluated in vitro......; alternariols were synthesized by most of the isolates (91% for alternariol and 92% for alternariol monomethyl ether). A high number of Alternaria spp. also produced tenuazonic acid (64%), altenuene (84%) and tentoxin (72%). In addition, damaged pepper fruits were analysed for the presence of tenuazonic acid...

  15. Rapid biodiesel synthesis from waste pepper seeds without lipid isolation step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jechan; Kim, Jieun; Ok, Yong Sik; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2017-09-01

    In situ transformation of lipid in waste pepper seeds into biodiesel (i.e., fatty acid methyl esters: FAMEs) via thermally-induced transmethylation on silica was mainly investigated in this study. This study reported that waste pepper seeds contained 26.9wt% of lipid and that 94.1% of the total lipid in waste pepper seeds could be converted into biodiesel without lipid extraction step for only ∼1min reaction time. This study also suggested that the optimal temperature for in situ transmethylation was identified as 390°C. Moreover, comparison of in situ process via the conventional transmethylation catalyzed by H 2 SO 4 showed that the introduced biodiesel conversion in this study had a higher tolerance against impurities, thereby being technically feasible. The in situ biodiesel production from other oil-bearing food wastes can be studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Foliar Application of the Fungicide Pyraclostrobin Reduced Bacterial Spot Disease of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beom Ryong Kang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pyraclostrobin is a broad-spectrum fungicide that inhibits mitochondrial respiration. However, it may also induce systemic resistance effective against bacterial and viral diseases. In this study, we evaluated whether pyraclostrobin enhanced resistance against the bacterial spot pathogen, Xanthomonas euvesicatora on pepper (Capsicum annuum. Although pyraclostrobin alone did not suppressed the in vitro growth of X. euvesicatoria, disease severity in pepper was significantly lower by 69% after treatments with pyraclostrobin alone. A combination of pyraclostrobin with streptomycin reduced disease by over 90% that of the control plants. The preventive control of the pyraclostrobin against bacterial spot was required application 1-3 days before pathogen inoculation. Our findings suggest that the fungicide pyraclostrobin can be used with a chemical pesticide to control bacterial leaf spot diseases in pepper.

  17. Info (TR Rao)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ) measured in Scoville Units (SUs). Pure capsaicin: 16 M SU. Smoking Ed's Carolina reaper: 1.47 MSU. Tezpur mirchi: 0.855 MSU; 163 times the jalapeno pepper. Bhut Jolokia 1.6M; infinity chilli: 1.2M, Naga Viper: 1.4 M; Trinidad Moruga ...

  18. Physiology of pepper fruit and the metabolism of antioxidants: chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, José M.; Sevilla, Francisca; Jiménez, Ana; del Río, Luis A.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Camejo, Daymi M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Pepper (Capsicum annuum) contains high levels of antioxidants, such as vitamins A and C and flavonoids. However, information on the role of these beneficial compounds in the physiology of pepper fruit remains scarce. Recent studies have shown that antioxidants in ripe pepper fruit play a key role in responses to temperature changes, and the redox state at the time of harvest affects the nutritional value for human consumption. In this paper, the role of antioxidant metabolism of pepper fruit during ripening and in the response to low temperature is addressed, paying particular attention to ascorbate, NADPH and the superoxide dismutase enzymatic system. The participation of chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes in the ripening process is also investigated. Scope and Results Important changes occur at a subcellular level during ripening of pepper fruit. Chloroplasts turn into chromoplasts, with drastic conversion of their metabolism, and the role of the ascorbate–glutathione cycle is essential. In mitochondria from red fruits, higher ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and Mn-SOD activities are involved in avoiding the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in these organelles during ripening. Peroxisomes, whose antioxidant capacity at fruit ripening is substantially affected, display an atypical metabolic pattern during this physiological stage. In spite of these differences observed in the antioxidative metabolism of mitochondria and peroxisomes, proteomic analysis of these organelles, carried out by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF and provided here for the first time, reveals no changes between the antioxidant metabolism from immature (green) and ripe (red) fruits. Conclusions Taken together, the results show that investigation of molecular and enzymatic antioxidants from cell compartments, especially chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes, is a useful tool to study the physiology of pepper fruit, particularly in the context of

  19. Constitutive expression of a fungus-inducible carboxylesterase improves disease resistance in transgenic pepper plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Moonkyung; Cho, Jung Hyun; Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Lee, Hyun-Hwa; Kang, Ha-Young; Nguyen, Thai Son; Soh, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Young Soon; Kim, Jeong-Il

    2016-08-01

    Resistance against anthracnose fungi was enhanced in transgenic pepper plants that accumulated high levels of a carboxylesterase, PepEST in anthracnose-susceptible fruits, with a concurrent induction of antioxidant enzymes and SA-dependent PR proteins. A pepper esterase gene (PepEST) is highly expressed during the incompatible interaction between ripe fruits of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and a hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). In this study, we found that exogenous application of recombinant PepEST protein on the surface of the unripe pepper fruits led to a potentiated state for disease resistance in the fruits, including generation of hydrogen peroxide and expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes that encode mostly small proteins with antimicrobial activity. To elucidate the role of PepEST in plant defense, we further developed transgenic pepper plants overexpressing PepEST under the control of CaMV 35S promoter. Molecular analysis confirmed the establishment of three independent transgenic lines carrying single copy of transgenes. The level of PepEST protein was estimated to be approximately 0.002 % of total soluble protein in transgenic fruits. In response to the anthracnose fungus, the transgenic fruits displayed higher expression of PR genes, PR3, PR5, PR10, and PepThi, than non-transgenic control fruits did. Moreover, immunolocalization results showed concurrent localization of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and PR3 proteins, along with the PepEST protein, in the infected region of transgenic fruits. Disease rate analysis revealed significantly low occurrence of anthracnose disease in the transgenic fruits, approximately 30 % of that in non-transgenic fruits. Furthermore, the transgenic plants also exhibited resistance against C. acutatum and C. coccodes. Collectively, our results suggest that overexpression of PepEST in pepper confers enhanced resistance against the anthracnose fungi by activating the defense signaling

  20. Hybrid breeding in pepper (capsicum annuum L. ). [Gamma and x radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milkova, L; Daskalov, S [Akademiya na Selskostopanskite Nauki, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. po Genetika

    1981-01-01

    Male sterile forms of peppers with gene sterility were produced by ..gamma..- and X-irradiation of dry seeds of cv. Pazarjishka kapiya 794 and Zlaten medal and subsequent selection in M/sub 2/. Male sterile lines suitable for developing hybrid cultivars intended for various kinds of production were obtained by backcrossing with lines and cultivars having valuable economic characters and high combining ability. The promising pepper Belasitsa, Prista, Lyulin and Strouma (all of them for early field production), and Izoumroud and Prevuzhoden (for glasshouse production) are described.

  1. Simple emittance measurement of negative hydrogen ion beam using pepper-pot method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamabe, M.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Asano, E.; Kawamoto, T.; Kuroda, T.; Guharay, S.K.

    1997-01-01

    A simple apparatus for emittance measurement using pepper-pot method is developed. The pepper-pot patterns are directly exposed and recorded on a Kapton foil. Using this apparatus, emittance was measured in the case of the negative hydrogen (H - ) beam from the large negative ion source, which is the 1/3 scaled test device for the negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (N-NBI) on the Large Helical Device (LHD). As the consequence of the first trial, the 95% normalized emittance value is measured as 0.59 mm mrad. (author)

  2. Influence of Copigment derived from Tasmannia Pepper Leaves on Davidson’s Plum Anthocyanins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Busch; López-de-Dicastillo Bergamo, Carolina Ana; Payet, René Marc

    2011-01-01

    . An addition of a variety of phenolic acids significantly increased color intensity indicating the formation of copigmentation complexes. Commercial chlorogenic acid as well as extract from a native Australian herb rich in chlorogenic acid, Tasmannia pepper leaf (Tasmannia lanceolata, R. Br.), were both tested...... in model soft drink solutions subjected to light irradiation and heat treatment. In both cases the addition of the copigment resulted in a lasting increase in color intensity. In conclusion, Davidson’s plum extract can successfully be utilized as a source of natural food color. Extract from Tasmania pepper...

  3. Rheological behaviour of white pepper gels - a new method for studying the effect of irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteves, M. Paula E-mail: paula.esteves@ineti.pt; Raymundo, Anabela; Sousa, Isabel de; Andrade, M. Eduarda; Empis, Jose

    2002-07-01

    Ground white pepper was treated by gamma radiation at average doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy and the alterations in the rheological properties of its aqueous suspensions were used to study the radiation effects. Amylose and amylopectin suspensions were used as model systems. Ground pepper gels presented decreased strength expressed by a decrease of G' and G'' values and smaller limiting viscosity ({eta}{sub 0}), as the irradiation dose increased. A similar behaviour was shown by the amylopectin gels. For the amylose gels, in opposition, irradiation induced a higher level of gel structure.

  4. Consumers’ Preference for Sweet Peppers with different Process Attributes: A Discrete Choice Experiment in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hua Yeh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on an online discrete choice experiment (DCE this study investigates the relative importance of food label information (country of origin, production methods, chemical residue testing (CRT and price for Taiwanese consumers’ in their purchase of sweet peppers. Results show that respondents focus mostly on the COO labeling during their sweet-pepper shopping, followed by price. Information concerning CRT results and production methods are of less importance. Our findings also indicate that interaction between attributes matter and that preference for attribute levels differs depending on socioeconomic characteristics.

  5. Preliminary examination of induced radio activity in pepper by 10 MeV electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Masakazu; Katayama, Tadashi; Ito, Norio; Mizohata, Akira; Matsunami, Tadao; Toratani, Hirokazu; Takeda, Atsuhiko

    1989-01-01

    β-ray measurement was performed on 10 MeV electron-irradiated black pepper and white pepper in order to reconfirm the wholesomeness of irradiated food and present unambiguous data to general consumers concerning about the induced radioactivity in the irradiated foods. From elemental composition of the samples and investigation of photonuclear reactions, several β-emmitters were listed up. But no radioactivity other than from natural sources was detected in the irradiated sample by β-ray counting with 2 π gass flow counter, suggesting that the induced β-emmitters in the irradiated sample was below the detection limit of its induced radioactivity. (author)

  6. Rheological behaviour of white pepper gels - a new method for studying the effect of irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, M. Paula; Raymundo, Anabela; Sousa, Isabel de; Andrade, M. Eduarda; Empis, Jose

    2002-01-01

    Ground white pepper was treated by gamma radiation at average doses of 5, 10 and 15 kGy and the alterations in the rheological properties of its aqueous suspensions were used to study the radiation effects. Amylose and amylopectin suspensions were used as model systems. Ground pepper gels presented decreased strength expressed by a decrease of G' and G'' values and smaller limiting viscosity (η 0 ), as the irradiation dose increased. A similar behaviour was shown by the amylopectin gels. For the amylose gels, in opposition, irradiation induced a higher level of gel structure

  7. Simple emittance measurement of negative hydrogen ion beam using pepper-pot method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamabe, M.; Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Asano, E.; Kawamoto, T.; Kuroda, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Guharay, S.K.

    1997-02-01

    A simple apparatus for emittance measurement using pepper-pot method is developed. The pepper-pot patterns are directly exposed and recorded on a Kapton foil. Using this apparatus, emittance was measured in the case of the negative hydrogen (H{sup -}) beam from the large negative ion source, which is the 1/3 scaled test device for the negative-ion-based neutral beam injection (N-NBI) on the Large Helical Device (LHD). As the consequence of the first trial, the 95% normalized emittance value is measured as 0.59 mm mrad. (author)

  8. Resolution of "salt and pepper" appearance of the skull with vitamin D therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gursimran Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hypovitaminosis D leads to state of decreased mineralization and generalized osteomalacia. It also results in secondary hyperparathyroidism causing increased bone turn over and decreased bone mass, manifested radiologically as a "salt and pepper" appearance in skull, subperiosteal resorption, bone cysts and lytic lesions. In this case, a young male patient with hypovitaminosis D and secondary hyperparathyroidism, radiological features show resolution of "salt and pepper" appearance of the skull with vitamin D in 11 months and regression of other lytic lesions.

  9. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H. J.; Sehr, Eva M.; Barboza, Gloria E.; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A.; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Methods Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Key Results Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. Conclusions New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum. A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western–north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The

  10. [Growth and photochemical efficiency of photosystem ii in seedlings of two varieties of Capsicum annuum L. inoculated with rhizobacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo-Castro, Azareel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Alarcón, Alejandro; Almaraz-Suárez, Juan José; Delgadillo-Martínez, Julián; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel; García-Barradas, Oscar

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a biological alternative for the sustainable management of Capsicum annuum L. This research work evaluated the effects of both PGPR and AMF on bell pepper and jalapeno pepper plants. Five bacterial strains isolated from several locations in Estado de Mexico were used: [P61 (Pseudomonas tolaasii), A46 (P. tolaasii), R44 (Bacillus pumilus), BSP1.1 (Paenibacillus sp.), and OLs-Sf5 (Pseudomonas sp.)], and three treatments with AMF [H1 (consortium isolated from pepper crops in the State of Puebla), H2 (Rhizophagus intraradices), and H3 (consortium isolated from the rhizosphere of lemon trees, State of Tabasco)]. In addition, a fertilized treatment (Steiner nutrient solution at 25%) and an unfertilized control were included. Seedlings of "Caloro" jalapeno pepper and "California Wonder" bell pepper were inoculated with AMF at seed sowing, and PGPR were inoculated after 15 days of seedling emergence; seedlings were grown under plant growth chamber conditions. P61 bacterium and H1 AMF consortia were the most effective microorganisms for jalapeno pepper whereas R44 bacterium and AMF H3 and H1 were the most effective for bell peppers, when compared to the unfertilized control. Furthermore, P61 and R44 bacteria showed beneficial effects on PSII efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Isolation, characterization and identification of pericarp-degrading bacteria for the production of off-odour-free white pepper from fresh berries of Piper nigrum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, V; Kumar, A; Zachariah, T J

    2014-04-01

    To isolate, fermentatively evaluate and identify black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)-associated bacteria for the microbial decortication of fresh ripened berries and dried black pepper for preparation of off-odour-free white pepper. Among 45 bacterial isolates obtained from black pepper, seven of them were found to decorticate black pepper (>60%) and fresh pepper berries (98-100%) into white pepper within 5 days of immersion in bacterial suspension. The 16S rRNA genes (1500-bp amplicon) of these bacteria were sequenced, and species identity was established by closest match in GenBank. Superior-quality white pepper was obtained with Bacillus subtilis (IISR WP 33, 34, 38), Bacillus licheniformis (IISR WP 43), Acinetobacter baumanii (IISR WP 35), Klebsiella pneumoniae (IISR WP 19) and Microbacterium barkeri (IISR WP25). The bacterial isolates were found to secrete multiple hydrolytic enzymes such as cellulase, pectinase, amylase, protease and xylanase. Bacterial cultures were deposited with International Depository Authority at Microbial Type Culture Collection, India, as patent deposits as prescribed in Budapest Treaty for microbial deposits. The white pepper, thus obtained from bacterial decortication process, was free from off-odour compound, especially skatole. Other biochemical constituents such as oleoresin, piperine and essential oils were found in the acceptable range. The bacterial decortication did not affect inherent constituents of pepper such as essential oil constituents, oleoresin and piperine content. One of the most significant findings of the work is identification of specific bacterial species for decortication of fresh berries or black pepper berries into value-added white pepper. This work paved way for developing a technological process for microbial decortication of fresh/black pepper for the production of superior-quality white pepper. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Infection of some cayenne pepper varieties (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco mosaic virus at different growth stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, N.; Sofita, I. S.; Effend, T. A.; Rahim, S. E.

    2017-09-01

    This research aimed to study the infection of three varieties of cayenne pepper (Capsicum frustescens L.) by Tobacco Mosaic Virus when they were inoculated at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 weeks old after planting. This experiment was conducted in a green house, at the Plant pests and diseases department, Agriculture Faculty, Sriwijaya University, Indralaya, South Sumatra Indonesia from March to October 2014. The study was arranged in factorial completely randomized design with three replicates. First factor was varieties of cayenne pepper namely green, white and small. Second factor was growth stage. Results of the study showed that TMV inoculated at different growth stages of three cayenne pepper varieties affected the incubation period of TMV symptom, time for flowering and productions. The infection of TMV on various ages affected the disease severity on cayenne pepper variety. The highest disease severity was taking place on small cayenne pepper variety that was inoculated at the early stages of age namely 2 weeks after planting. Inoculation of TMV at younger stages of all Cayenne peppers varieties caused a significant reduction in the number of fruits and its weights. TMV has caused a reduction of more than 50% in weight of cayenne pepper fruits regardless of the variety.

  13. An ESR protocol based on relaxation phenomena of irradiated Japanese pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Nakamura, Hideo; Shimoyama, Yuhei

    2006-03-01

    We found various free radicals in a commercially available pepper in Japan before and after irradiation using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The typical ESR spectrum of the pepper consists of a sextet centered at g = 2.0, a singlet at the same g-value and a singlet at g = 4.0. Upon gamma ray irradiation, a new pair of signals appeared in the pepper. The progressive saturation behavior (PSB) at various microwave power levels indicated quite different relaxation behaviors of those radicals. Namely, the peak intensity of the organic free radical component decreases in a monotonic fashion, whereas the Mn 2+ and Fe 3+ ESR signals substantially keep constant. This reflects the evidence of three independent radicals in the pepper before irradiation. The PSB of the pair peaks as induced by irradiation possessed quite different PSB from that of the free radical located at g = 2.0. We proposed a new protocol for the ESR detection of irradiated foods by the PSB method at different microwave power levels. This would call for a major modification of the CEN protocol in European Union.

  14. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF RED PEPPER ON THE STOMACH OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiah O. Adjene

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of red pepper commonly used as spice in food on the stomach of adult wistar rats were carefully investigated. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 200g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=6 groups. The rats in the treatments groups received 1g and 2g of red pepper thoroughly mixed with 20g of their feeds for 7 and 14 days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without the red pepper added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo feeds and flour mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day eight and fifteen of the experiment respectively.The stomach was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formol saline for routine histological procedure after H & E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the stomach showed some level of cellular hypertrophy, congestion of blood vessels degenerative changes disruption and distortion of the cytoarchitecture of the stomach.These findings indicate that red pepper may have some deleterious effects on the microanatomy of the stomach of adult wistar rat at higher doses. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  15. Aroma changes in fresh bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) after hot-air drying.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Yuksel, D.; Vuurst de Vries, van R.; Roozen, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The aroma of fresh and hot-air dried bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) was evaluated by sensory and instrumental methods. Hot-air drying decreased levels of the odor compounds (Z)-3-hexenal, 2-heptanone, (Z)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, hexanol, (Z)-3-hexanol, (E)-2-hexenol, and linalool, which have

  16. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.

  17. Evaluation of pepper spent as an egg yolk colouring agent in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of pepper spent as an egg yolk colouring agent in the diet of white leghorn layers. ... Evaluation was based on egg yolk colour intensity measured based on Roche colour fan scores, potassium dichromate grades and consumer preference scores on raw, boiled and fried egg samples. Egg production, feed ...

  18. Effects of moisture content on some physical properties of red pepper

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... In the moisture range of 7.27 to 20.69% dry basis (d.b.), studies on rewetted red pepper seed ... m-3; ρt, true density, kg m-3; φ, sphericity of seed; al, ... the experiments in this study. ... For each experiment, a sample was.

  19. Anaerobic soil disinfestation reduces survival and infectivity of Phytophthora nicotianae chlamydospores in pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora nicotianae is the principal causal agent of root and crown rot disease of pepper plants in Extremadura (western Spain), a spring-summer crop in this region. Preplant soil treatment by anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) may effectively control plant pathogens in many crop production sys...

  20. Constraints and potential of Sweet Pepper cultivation in plastic houses in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunadi, N.; Everaarts, A.P.; Adiyoga, W.; Moekasan, T.

    2007-01-01

    At the start of a research project on the improvement of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) cultivation in plastic houses in Indonesia, an inventory of the present cultivation methods and constraints was made, together with an analysis of production costs and benefits. The inventory was carried out in

  1. Determination of drying kinetics and sorption isotherm of black pepper (Piper Nigrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Flordeliza C.; Atienza, Vanessa Bernadette B.; Capili, Jomicah B.; Sauli, Zaliman

    2017-11-01

    In the present study of food products, determination of the drying characteristics of black pepper using an oven is not yet completely established. This study aimed to determine the drying kinetics and sorption isotherm of black pepper using a convective oven at 30°C, 40°C and 50°C. The data gathered in this study were used to fit in selected mathematical models for drying kinetics and sorption isotherm. Among these models, the Midilli model (MR=0.5338exp(0.7273t-0.0551)+-0.0005t for 30°C, MR=0.5814exp(0.6293t-0.0764)+ -0.0008t for 40°C and MR=0.3187exp(1.1777t-0.0466)+ -0.0011t for 50°C) was the best fit to explain the moisture transfer in black pepper, while the GAB Model (m/0.1302=((0.1906)(0.7811)aw)/(1-(0.7811)aw)[1-(0.7811)aw+(0.1906)(0.7811)aw])) was for the equilibrium moisture content and water activity relationship. After evaluating the data, the drying characteristics of black pepper at 40°C yielded better results than 30°C and 50°C. XLSTAT and ANOVA Add-in of Microsoft Excel was the software used to compute for the necessary values in the assessment of the mathematical models for this study.

  2. Improvement of red pepper yield and soil environment by summer catch aquatic crops in greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, X. F.; Wang, L. Z.; Peng, J.; Wang, G. L.; Guo, X. S.; Wen, T. G.; Gu, D. L.; Wang, W. Z.; Wu, C. W.

    2016-08-01

    To investigate effects of the rotation of summer catch crops on remediation retrogressed soils in continuous cropping, a field experiment was conducted. Rice, water spinach, or cress were selected as summer catch crops; bare fallow during summer fallow was used as the control group. Results showed that aquatic crops grown in summer fallow period could effectively reduce soil bulk density and pH, facilitate soil nutrient release, and improve soil physical and chemical properties compared with those grown in fallow period. Paddy-upland rotation could improve soil microbial members and increase bacterial and actinomycete populations; by contrast, paddy-upland rotation could reduce fungal populations and enhance bacterium-to-fungus ratio. Paddy-upland rotation could also actively promote activities of soil enzymes, such as urease, phosphatase, invertase, and catalase. The proposed paddy-upland rotation significantly affected the growth of red pepper; the yield and quality of the grown red pepper were enhanced. Summer catch crops, such as rice, water spinach, and cress significantly increased pepper yield in the following growing season by 15.4%, 10.2% and 14.0%, respectively, compared with those grown in fallow treatment. Therefore, the proposed paddy-upland crop rotation could be a useful method to alleviate continuous cropping problems involved in cultivating red pepper in greenhouses.

  3. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Fruit Transcriptome in Black Pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lisong; Hao, Chaoyun; Fan, Rui; Wu, Baoduo; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong

    2015-01-01

    Black pepper is one of the most popular and oldest spices in the world and valued for its pungent constituent alkaloids. Pinerine is the main bioactive compound in pepper alkaloids, which perform unique physiological functions. However, the mechanisms of piperine synthesis are poorly understood. This study is the first to describe the fruit transcriptome of black pepper by sequencing on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 56,281,710 raw reads were obtained and assembled. From these raw reads, 44,061 unigenes with an average length of 1,345 nt were generated. During functional annotation, 40,537 unigenes were annotated in Gene Ontology categories, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, Swiss-Prot database, and Nucleotide Collection (NR/NT) database. In addition, 8,196 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were detected. In a detailed analysis of the transcriptome, housekeeping genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction internal control, polymorphic SSRs, and lysine/ornithine metabolism-related genes were identified. These results validated the availability of our database. Our study could provide useful data for further research on piperine synthesis in black pepper.

  4. Biting into the Yellow Pepper: The Development of the Interdisciplinary Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    In the opening credits of the television cult classic "Iron Chef," Chairman Kaga takes a huge bite out of a big yellow bell pepper. With the ensuing smirk on his face, he introduces the famous "Kitchen Stadium," which he notes is his "dream in a form never seen before." What follows is a learning experience in which…

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation on the cigarette beetles reared on cayenne pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Taro; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2009-01-01

    Effect of gamma irradiation on the survival of the cigarette beetles reared on cayenne pepper was investigated. Gamma ray at a dose of 62 Gy completely killed eggs and larvae of the beetles. Some pupae survived at 540 Gy, but all pupae were killed at 1076 Gy. (author)

  6. Rheoviscometric measurements on starch, flour and black pepper treated by electron-beam and microwaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferdes, O.S.; Tirlea, A.; Badea, M.; Casandroiu, T.; Oprita, N.

    1998-01-01

    Irradiation was performed with an ALIN-7 linac within the dose range of 0 to 16 kGy at a dose rate of approximately 1.5 kGy/min. The samples were accommodated in a cavity which was also used for the microwave treatment. The microwave irradiation was carried out inside a special designed system using a 2.45 GHz CW magnetron of 850 W maximum output power. The samples were treated using various power values for irradiation periods varying between 10 and 120 s. Combined treatment by both methods was also applied. The rheoviscometric measurements were carried out on gelified suspensions of starch, flour and black pepper in equivalent starch concentration conditions. For the black pepper suspensions the pH value was adjusted to more than 12 units by adding 33 % NaOH solution. The effects of electromagnetic field and irradiation on starch, flour and pepper were described in terms of apparent viscosity and shear stress. All the samples investigated exhibited similar rheoviscometric behaviour, which can be attributed to starch degradation caused by microwave and electron-beam irradiation, the latter having a more significant effect on the rheological properties. Some consideration were also made concerning the thermal and non-thermal effects of microwaves and of the combined (e-beam and microwave) treatments of starch, flour and pepper

  7. An electron spin resonance study of γ-ray irradiated pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ukai, Mitsuko; Hamaya, Naruki; Ichii, Akane; Abe, Aika

    2003-01-01

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed four radical species in the irradiated pepper. The representative ESR spectrum of the pepper is composed of a sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet at the same g-value, a singlet at g=4.0 and side peaks near g=2.0. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine (hf) interactions of Mn 2+ ion (hf constant=7.4 mT). The second one is due to an organic free radical that may be induced by the (γ-ray irradiation. The third one may be originated from Fe 3+ ion in the non-hem proteins. Those three signals were found in the pepper sample before irradiation. The fourth signals were found at the symmetric position of the organic free radical, i.e., the second signal. The progressive saturation method of the ESR microwave power indicated quite different relaxation behaviors of those radicals. The method reflects four independent radical species in the irradiated pepper. Relaxation time for the singlet signal centered at g=2.0 revealed that the signal is due to the typical organic free radical. (author)

  8. Design and Development of Emittance Measurement Device by Using the Pepper-pot Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakluea, S.; Rimjaem, S.

    2017-09-01

    Transverse emittance of a charged particle beam is one of the most important properties that reveals the quality of the beam. It is related to charge density, transvers size and angular displacement of the beam in transverse phase space. There are several techniques to measure the transverse emittance value. One of practical methods is the pepper-pot technique, which can measure both horizontal and vertical emittance value in a single measurement. This research concentrates on development of a pepper-pot device to measure the transverse emittance of electron beam produced from an accelerator injector system, which consists of a thermionic cathode RF electron gun and an alpha magnet, at the Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Chiang Mai University. Simulation of beam dynamics was conducted with programs PARMELA, ELEGANT and self-developed codes using C and MATLAB. The geometry, dimensions and location of the pepper-pot as well as its corresponding screen station position were included in the simulation. The result from this study will be used to design and develop a practical pepper-pot experimental station.

  9. Enzymatic firming of processed red pepper by means of exogenous pectinesterase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, M.; Petersen, B.R.; Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to demonstrate that the firmness of a commercial vegetable product, diced and frozen red pepper (Capsicum annum var. Sendt), could be improved by the use of exogenous pectinesterase in an industrially relevant process. The diced pepper pieces 10 x 10 x 7 mm(3......) were infused under vacuum with a commercially available pectinesterase. The range of optimal process conditions was: 15-20degrees C, 45 min infusion time, a 10-25 mM CaCl2 infusion brine, a w/w ratio of pepper fruit to infusion brine of 1.5:1, and an enzyme dosage of 30-60 pectinesterase units (PEU......) per kg pepper fruit. The firmness as measured by back extrusion was improved by a factor of two to three. The effect of firming was robust and conserved after freezing and heating in a simulated household cooking process. The firming process seems easily adaptable to industrial conditions and may...

  10. Factors affecting oviposition of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in sweet pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Larissa C. de; Campos, Alcebiades R.

    2008-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.) biotype B is considered a pest of economical importance for several vegetables. The oviposition behaviour of the while fly was evaluated in sweet pepper plants. The trials were carried out under greenhouse condition and in the Laboratory of Entomology of DEFERS/ UNESP, Campus of Ilha Solteira-SP, with the sweet pepper Magali-R genotype. The effect of plant age on the whitefly oviposition was evaluated in free-choice tests, in plants, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45- day-old, as egg distribution in the plant and on the leaf blade was evaluated in 35-days-old plants. In a no-choice tests, 35-day-old plants were used to evaluate the effect of the densities of 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 adults per plant on the number of eggs laid by insects. The silver leaf whitefly preferred to oviposition the third to sixth leaflets, of the medium and superior part of plants of sweet pepper; the leaf blade areas, located in the lobes right and left close the base of the leaf were the preferential site for whitefly oviposition. Older plants, 40- and 45-day-old, were preferentially used for oviposition, and 200 and 250 adults per plant were both enough to lay a number of eggs that allowed to differentiate among sweet pepper genotypes with different whitefly resistance levels. (author)

  11. Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP modulates pepper growth and resistance against Phytophthora capsici

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.M.; Hamayun, M.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2016-01-01

    Biological control of crop diseases is desirable for sustainable agriculture as it minimizes chemical inputs in the agricultural system and promotes eco-friendly environment. We analyzed the favorable role of Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP against the pathogen Phytophthora capsici in pepper. We screen thirty rhizobateria for their anti-pathogen activity, and found that Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP exhibits maximum growth inhibition of the pathogen P. capsici. The bacterium inoculation to pepper plants significantly enhanced growth attributes of pepper in infected and control treatments. The total proteins (10.9%), and the amino acids viz. glycine (4.08 ug/g), leucine (3.3 ug/g), and alanine (3.26 ug/g) were preset in considerably higher quantities in Burkholderia sp. applied treatments as compare to control. The systemic acquired resistance (SAR) of the host plant was up-regulated by Burkholderia sp. KCTC, as endogenous salicylic acid (235.5 ng/g) and jasmonic acid (22.8 ng/g) levels were found higher in such treatments. It was concluded that Burkholderia sp. KCTC 11096BP mitigates the adverse effects of P. capsici on pepper crop and can improve crop productivity at the field level. (author)

  12. Development of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from green pepper in different culture media, temperatures, and light regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mello Alexandre Furtado Silveira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of anthracnose in green pepper involves the use of resistant varieties and/or fungicides. The selection of varieties and efficient products demands great amounts of conidia as inoculum. It is thus necessary to optimize the production of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides conidia in the laboratory, establishing the best conditions for fungus development. The present study aimed at determining the most favorable culture media, temperature, and light conditions for the production of fungus inoculum. The fungus was isolated from green pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L. and transferred to four culture media (PDA, oat, filtered pepper extract, and autoclaved pepper extract, under different temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35ºC and light conditions (24h dark, and 24h light. Colony growth was evaluated after 7 and 12 days of incubation. No differences were found between the culture media. However, the greatest number of conidia was obtained from colonies grown in oat medium at 25ºC. Temperatures of 20 and 25ºC were the most favorable for colony growth and sporulation. Higher sporulation was obtained under incubation in constant light. Cultivation of C. gloeosporioides in oat medium, at 25ºC, and constant light is recommended.

  13. An investigation of a defensive chitinase against Fusarium oxysporum in pepper leaf tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khemika S. Lomthaisong

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant chitinase is classified as a PR-protein involved in a defense mechanism against a pathogen. This research aims to investigate a specific type of chitinase which is produced by pepper in response to an early defense against Fusarium oxysporum, which causes wilt disease. The changes of chitinase isozyme patterns in the inter- and intracellular fluids in the leaf of four cultivars of pepper (Capsicum annuum L. at day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 from fungal inoculation were analysed using SDS-PAGE in polyacrylamide gel supplemented with glycol chitin as a substrate. The levels of disease severity in the four varieties of pepper were also compared with the isozyme patterns. The results showed that the resistance of pepper to F. oxysporum attack corresponded to the expression of ~70 kDa chitinase band (Chi-3 in the intercellular fluid. Therefore, such chitinase could possibly be used as a protein marker to identify the tolerant line and as a springboard for further study of wilt disease control.

  14. Toward an optimal control strategy for sweet pepper cultivation : a dynamic crop model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, F.; Henten, van E.J.; Gelder, de A.; Bontsema, J.; Hemming, J.

    2006-01-01

    Sweet pepper production is characterized by large fluctuations in fruit yield per week. Synchronization of yield patterns between nurseries in response to weather conditions leads to variations in market supply and affects price formation. In order to improve supply chain efficiency, auctions and

  15. Chitosan controls postharvest anthracnose in bell pepper by activating defense-related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edirisinghe, Madushani; Ali, Asgar; Maqbool, Mehdi; Alderson, Peter G

    2014-12-01

    Anthracnose, a postharvest disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum capsici is the most devastating disease of bell pepper that causes great economic losses especially in tropical climates. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal properties of chitosan (low molecular weight from crab shell, Mw: 50 kDa and 75-85 % deacetylated) against anthracnose by inducing defense-related enzymes. The concentrations of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan were used to control the fungus in vitro and postharvest. There was a reduction in C. capsici mycelial growth and the highest chitosan concentration (2.0 %) reduced the growth by 70 % after 7 days incubation. In germination test, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan reduced spore germination in C. capsici between 80 % and 84 %, respectively. In postharvest trial the concentration of 1.5 % decreased the anthracnose severity in pepper fruit by approximately 76 % after 28 days of storage (10 ± 1 °C; 80 % RH). For enzymatic activities, the concentration of 1.5 and 2.0 % chitosan increased the polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD) and total phenolics in inoculated bell pepper during storage. Based on these results, the chitosan presents antifungal properties against C. capsici, as well as potential to induce resistance on bell pepper.

  16. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeum Kyu Hong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  17. Application of Volatile Antifungal Plant Essential Oils for Controlling Pepper Fruit Anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jeum Kyu; Yang, Hye Ji; Jung, Heesoo; Yoon, Dong June; Sang, Mee Kyung; Jeun, Yong-Chull

    2015-09-01

    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides has been destructive during pepper fruit production in outdoor fields in Korea. In vitro antifungal activities of 15 different plant essential oils or its components were evaluated during conidial germination and mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides. In vitro conidial germination was most drastically inhibited by vapour treatments with carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, p-cymene and linalool. Inhibition of the mycelial growth by indirect vapour treatment with essential oils was also demonstrated compared with untreated control. Carvacrol, cinnamon oil, trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral and eugenol were among the most inhibitory plant essential oils by the indirect antifungal efficacies. Plant protection efficacies of the plant essential oils were demonstrated by reduced lesion diameter on the C. gloeosporioides-inoculated immature green pepper fruits compared to the inoculated control fruits without any plant essential oil treatment. In planta test showed that all plant essential oils tested in this study demonstrated plant protection efficacies against pepper fruit anthracnose with similar levels. Thus, application of different plant essential oils can be used for eco-friendly disease management of anthracnose during pepper fruit production.

  18. Abortion of reproductive organs in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wubs, A.M.; Heuvelink, E.; Marcelis, L.F.M.

    2009-01-01

    Levels of abortion of reproductive organs (i.e., buds, flowers, and young fruits) in sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) are high, and cyclical fluctuations occur in fruit set. Stages susceptible to abortion are very young buds (<2.5 mm), buds close to anthesis, and flowers and fruits up to

  19. Employing airborne multispectral digital imagery to map Brazilian pepper infestation in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in south Texas to determine the feasibility of using airborne multispectral digital imagery for differentiating the invasive plant Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) from other cover types. Imagery obtained in the visible, near infrared, and mid infrared regions of th...

  20. Structure and genetic diversity of natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares-Carvalho, S V; Duarte, J F; Santos, T C; Santos, R M; Silva-Mann, R; Carvalho, D

    2016-06-17

    In the face of a possible loss of genetic diversity in plants due the environmental changes, actions to ensure the genetic variability are an urgent necessity. The extraction of Brazilian pepper fruits is a cause of concern because it results in the lack of seeds in soil, hindering its distribution in space and time. It is important to address this concern and explore the species, used by riparian communities and agro-factories without considering the need for keeping the seeds for natural seed banks and for species sustainability. The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure and the genetic diversity in natural Brazilian pepper populations (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi). Twenty-two alleles in 223 individuals were identified from eight forest remnants located in the states of Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, and Sergipe. All populations presented loci in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium deviation. Four populations presented six combinations of loci in linkage disequilibrium. Six exclusive alleles were detected in four populations. Analysis of molecular variance showed the absence of diversity between regions and that between the populations (GST) was 41%. Genetic diversity was structured in seven clusters (ΔK7). Brazilian pepper populations were not structured in a pattern of isolation by distance and present genetic bottleneck. The populations São Mateus, Canastra, Barbacena, and Ilha das Flores were identified as management units and may support conservation projects, ecological restoration and in implementation of management plans for Brazilian pepper in the State of Sergipe.

  1. Foliar diagnosis, nutrition and yield stability of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) in Sarawak

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de P.W.F.

    1969-01-01

    Until 1942 cultivation of pepper P. nigrum L. in Sarawak produced relatively small but regular yields. High demands after 1945 and restricted use of "burnt earth" compelled farmers to abandon the application of this traditional fertilizer. Instead, "fool proof" manufactured fertilizers

  2. Cytokinin response in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) exposed to silver nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinković, T.; Novák, Ondřej; Strnad, Miroslav; Goessler, W.; Jurašin, D. D.; Parađiković, N.; Vrček, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 156, JUL (2017), s. 10-18 ISSN 0013-9351 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Abiotic stress * Biodistribution * Cytokinin response * Pepper * Silver nanoparticles * Uptake Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.835, year: 2016

  3. The evolution of chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae): a cytogenetic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capsicum (chili peppers) is a New World genus with five crop species of great economic importance for food and spices. An up-to-date summary of the karyotypic knowledge is presented, including data on classical staining (chromosome number, size and morphology), silver impregnation (number and positi...

  4. Gamma radiation effect on Bacillus cereus spores inoculated in black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, Angela; Axeredo, Raquel M.C.; Vanetti, Maria Cristina D.

    2000-01-01

    It had been analyzed 37 samples of worn out black pepper and in 85% of these samples was observed the presence of Bacillus cereus in numbers of up to 4,6 x 10 4 UFC/g. The population of aerobic mesofilis bacteria varied of 2,8 x 10 5 the 1,9 x 10 8 UFC/g. The black pepper used during the experiment was evaluated, evidencing the aerobic presence of one aerobic mesofilis microbiota of, approximately, 2,6 x 10 6 UFC/g, consisting, mainly, for species of the Bacillus sort. It was observed that the absence of B. cereus, coliforms, filamentous fungus and leavenings. The evaluation of the irradiation of the black pepper inoculated with 10 6 UFC/g of B. cereus spores of with doses of gamma radiation varying between 2 and 10 kGy evidenced that doses up to 5 kGy had been enough to reduce the counting of, approximately, 10 6 UFC/g of aerobic mesofilis organisms and 10 4 UFC/g of B. cereus spores the not detectable numbers by the used methodology. The dose of reduction decimal (D 10 ) for the inoculated B. cereus spores in black pepper was of 1,78 kGy

  5. Interactions of Phytophthora capsici with Resistant and Susceptible Pepper Roots and Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Amara R; Smart, Christine D

    2015-10-01

    Using host resistance is an important strategy for managing pepper root and crown rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. An isolate of P. capsici constitutively expressing a gene for green fluorescent protein was used to investigate pathogen interactions with roots, crowns, and stems of Phytophthora-susceptible bell pepper 'Red Knight', Phytophthora-resistant bell pepper 'Paladin', and Phytophthora-resistant landrace Criollos de Morelos 334 (CM-334). In this study, the same number of zoospores attached to and germinated on roots of all cultivars 30 and 120 min postinoculation (pi), respectively. At 3 days pi, significantly more secondary roots had necrotic lesions on Red Knight than on Paladin and CM-334 plants. By 4 days pi, necrotic lesions had formed on the taproot of Red Knight but not Paladin or CM-334 plants. Although hyphae were visible in the crowns and stems of all Red Knight plants observed at 4 days pi, hyphae were observed in crowns of only a few Paladin and in no CM-334 plants, and never in stems of either resistant cultivar at 4 days pi. These results improve our understanding of how P. capsici infects plants and may contribute to the use of resistant pepper cultivars for disease management and the development of new cultivars.

  6. Effectiveness and safety of botanical pesticides applied in black pepper (Piper nigrum) plantations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiratno,

    2008-01-01

    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L) is an important commodity of Indonesia, which has been cultivated since the 6th century. The plant plays an important role in local economies since 95% of the plantations are cultivated by smallholder farmers. Because of this important economic value, proper plant

  7. Surveys of virus diseases on pepper ( Capsicum spp.) in South-west ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surveys to determine the incidence, diversity and distribution of viruses infecting pepper (Capsicum spp.) were conducted in six states (Oyo, Ondo, Osun, Ogun, Ekiti and Lagos) of South-west Nigeria in 2010 and 2011. Leaf samples from symptomatic and asymptomatic plants were collected at random from farmers' fields ...

  8. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Moreno, J.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Wiratno,; Falke, H.E.; Rietjens, I.; Murk, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being

  9. Innovations in microspore embryogenesis in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Brassica napus L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Supena, E.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) is the most important vegetable in

  10. Phylogenetic relationships, diversification and expansion of chili peppers (Capsicum, Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrizo García, Carolina; Barfuss, Michael H J; Sehr, Eva M; Barboza, Gloria E; Samuel, Rosabelle; Moscone, Eduardo A; Ehrendorfer, Friedrich

    2016-07-01

    Capsicum (Solanaceae), native to the tropical and temperate Americas, comprises the well-known sweet and hot chili peppers and several wild species. So far, only partial taxonomic and phylogenetic analyses have been done for the genus. Here, the phylogenetic relationships between nearly all taxa of Capsicum were explored to test the monophyly of the genus and to obtain a better knowledge of species relationships, diversification and expansion. Thirty-four of approximately 35 Capsicum species were sampled. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference analyses were performed using two plastid markers (matK and psbA-trnH) and one single-copy nuclear gene (waxy). The evolutionary changes of nine key features were reconstructed following the parsimony ancestral states method. Ancestral areas were reconstructed through a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis. Capsicum forms a monophyletic clade, with Lycianthes as a sister group, following both phylogenetic approaches. Eleven well-supported clades (four of them monotypic) can be recognized within Capsicum, although some interspecific relationships need further analysis. A few features are useful to characterize different clades (e.g. fruit anatomy, chromosome base number), whereas some others are highly homoplastic (e.g. seed colour). The origin of Capsicum is postulated in an area along the Andes of western to north-western South America. The expansion of the genus has followed a clockwise direction around the Amazon basin, towards central and south-eastern Brazil, then back to western South America, and finally northwards to Central America. New insights are provided regarding interspecific relationships, character evolution, and geographical origin and expansion of Capsicum A clearly distinct early-diverging clade can be distinguished, centred in western-north-western South America. Subsequent rapid speciation has led to the origin of the remaining clades. The diversification of Capsicum has culminated in the origin

  11. Aconitase B is required for optimal growth of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria in pepper plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Kirchberg

    Full Text Available The aerobic plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv colonizes the intercellular spaces of pepper and tomato. One enzyme that might contribute to the successful proliferation of Xcv in the host is the iron-sulfur protein aconitase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate to isocitrate in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and might also sense reactive oxygen species (ROS and changes in cellular iron levels. Xcv contains three putative aconitases, two of which, acnA and acnB, are encoded by a single chromosomal locus. The focus of this study is aconitase B (AcnB. acnB is co-transcribed with two genes, XCV1925 and XCV1926, encoding putative nucleic acid-binding proteins. In vitro growth of acnB mutants was like wild type, whereas in planta growth and symptom formation in pepper plants were impaired. While acnA, XCV1925 or XCV1926 mutants showed a wild-type phenotype with respect to bacterial growth and in planta symptom formation, proliferation of the acnB mutant in susceptible pepper plants was significantly impaired. Furthermore, the deletion of acnB led to reduced HR induction in resistant pepper plants and an increased susceptibility to the superoxide-generating compound menadione. As AcnB complemented the growth deficiency of an Escherichia coli aconitase mutant, it is likely to be an active aconitase. We therefore propose that optimal growth and survival of Xcv in pepper plants depends on AcnB, which might be required for the utilization of citrate as carbon source and could also help protect the bacterium against oxidative stress.

  12. Using Of Viscosity Property For Identification Of Irradiated Black Pepper And Cumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALI, H.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, the viscosity measurement was used for detecting irradiated black pepper and cumin during storage period. All samples under investigation were packed in polyethylene bags then irradiated at 3, 5, 7 and 10 kGy and stored for 12 months at room temperature then viscosity were measured under extremely alkaline condition (ph 13.8). The results indicated that irradiation treatment caused significant decrease in apparent viscosity values, where it decreased from 67.3 in control sample to 49.7, 42.3, 38.7 and 32.7 mpa.s in black pepper, while the viscosity of cumin was decreased from 74 mpa.s for control to 64.9, 41.7, 25.3 and 11.3 mpa.s for samples. The viscosity of black pepper and cumin were decreased significantly with increasing the radiation dose and during storage period. It was decreased from 67.3 for control to 67.0, 47.7, 32.3 and 17.7 mpa.s after 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively, in black pepper while the viscosity of cumin samples was decreased significantly from 74 for control to 50.3, 17.1, 9.5 and 7.2 mpa.s after the same months. The data also showed that the moisture and carbohydrate contents were decreased by increasing the radiation dose. It could be concluded that the viscosity parameter can be used to identify of black pepper and cumin samples after irradiation and during 12 months of storage at ambient temperature.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bio protector agents against wilt induced by Verticillium spp. in pepper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goicoechea, N.; Garmendia, I.; Sanchez-Diaz, M.; Aguirreolea, J.

    2010-07-01

    Verticillium dahliae Kleb. is a vascular pathogen that alters water status and growth of pepper plants and causes drastic reductions in yield. Its control is difficult because it can survive in field soil for several years. The application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) as bio protector agents against V. dahliae is an alternative to the use of chemicals which, in addition, is more respectful with the environment. The establishment of the mutualistic association of plant roots and AMF involves a continuous cellular and molecular dialogue between both symbionts that includes the pre activation of plant defense responses that may enhance the resistance or tolerance of mycorrhizal plants to soil-borne pathogens. Some AMF can improve the resistance of Capsicum annuum L. against V. dahliae. This is especially relevant for pepper cultivars (i.e. cv. Piquillo) that exhibit high susceptibility to this pathogen. Compared with non-mycorrhizal plants, mycorrhizal pepper can exhibit more balanced antioxidant metabolism in leaves along the first month after pathogen inoculation, which may contribute to delay both the development of disease symptoms and the decrease of photosynthesis in Verticillium-inoculated plants with the subsequent benefit for yield. In stems, mycorrhizal pepper show earlier and higher deposition of lignin in xylem vessels than non mycorrhizal plants, even in absence of the pathogen. Moreover, AMF can induce new isoforms of acidic chitinases and superoxide dismutase in roots. Mycorrhizal-specific induction of these enzymatic activities together with enhanced peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in roots may also be involved in the bio protection of Verticillium-induced wilt in pepper by AMF. (Author) 81 refs.

  14. Antioxidant activity and prevention of pork meat lipid oxidation using traditional Mexican condiments (pasilla dry pepper, achiote, and mole sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Alvarez-Parrilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering the extensive use of hot peppers and spicy sauces in the Mexican cuisine, in the present paper, three widely consumed Mexican condiments (mole sauce, achiote, and pasilla hot pepper were analyzed for their total phenols, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, and protective effect against lipid oxidation in chopped pork meat. All samples were extracted first with methanol and then with acetone, and the extracts were compared. Pasilla pepper showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid content in both solvents, followed by mole and achiote. Achiote showed the highest proanthocyanidin concentration. All samples showed high antioxidant activity, and good correlations with phenolic compounds and flavonoids, while no correlation was observed in the case of condensed tannins. Mole sauce methanolic extract showed the highest inhibition of pork meat oxidation, followed by pasilla pepper, and finally achiote paste extracts. These results suggest that these condiments are useful to prevent meat lipid oxidation during storage.

  15. Rapid Determination of the Geographical Origin of Chinese Red Peppers (Zanthoxylum Bungeanum Maxim. Based on Sensory Characteristics and Chemometric Techniques

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    Xiangqian Yin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, principal component analysis (PCA, linear discriminant analysis (LDAp, artificial neural networks (ANN, and support vector machine (SVM were applied to discriminate the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers (Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.. The models based on color, smell and taste may discriminate quickly and effectively the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers from different regions, but the successful identification rates may vary with different kinds of parameters and chemometric methods. Among them, all models based on taste indexes showed an excellent ability to discriminate the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers with correct classifications of 100% for the training set and the 100% for test set. The present study provided a simple, efficient, inexpensive, practical and fast method to discriminate the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers from different regions, which was of great importance for both consumers and producers.

  16. Effect of ripening, heat processing, and fat type on the micellarization of pigments from jalapeño peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoria-Campos, Claudia I; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; Yahia, Elhadi M; Jiménez-Castro, Jorge A; Cervantes-Paz, Braulio; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime David; Zamudio-Flores, Paul B; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar

    2013-10-16

    Raw and heat-processed (boiled and grilled) jalapeño peppers at three intermediate ripening stages (brown, 50% red, and 75% red) were digested in vitro without fat and in the presence of soybean oil (SO) or beef tallow (BT), and the micellarization of their lipid soluble pigments (LSP) was measured. The micelles from digestions with brown, 50% red, and 75% red peppers contained up to 27, 35, and 29 different LSP, respectively. Boiling and grilling decreased the micellarization of LSP from brown peppers, whereas the opposite was observed with 75% red peppers. Heat processing did not clearly affect the micellarization of LSP from 50% red fruits. The impact of fat on LSP micellarization was ripening-dependent, but the micellarization of the less polar carotenoids was always increased by SO or BT. This positive effect of fat was higher with SO than with BT.

  17. Rapid Determination of the Geographical Origin of Chinese Red Peppers (Zanthoxylum Bungeanum Maxim.) Based on Sensory Characteristics and Chemometric Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiangqian; Xu, Xiaoxue; Zhang, Qiang; Xu, Jianguo

    2018-04-24

    In this paper, principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDAp, artificial neural networks (ANN), and support vector machine (SVM) were applied to discriminate the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers ( Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.). The models based on color, smell and taste may discriminate quickly and effectively the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers from different regions, but the successful identification rates may vary with different kinds of parameters and chemometric methods. Among them, all models based on taste indexes showed an excellent ability to discriminate the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers with correct classifications of 100% for the training set and the 100% for test set. The present study provided a simple, efficient, inexpensive, practical and fast method to discriminate the geographical origin of Chinese red peppers from different regions, which was of great importance for both consumers and producers.

  18. Arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculant increases yield of spice pepper and affects the indigenous fungal community in the field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernádi, I.; Sasvári, Z.; Albrechtová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav; Posta, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2012), s. 603-606 ISSN 0018-5345 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : yield of pepper * diversity of fungi * AMS inoculation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.938, year: 2012

  19. Red pepper (Capsicum annuum) carotenoids as a source of natural food colors: analysis and stability-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimboor, Ranjith; Natarajan, Ramesh Babu; Menon, K Ramakrishna; Chandrasekhar, Lekshmi P; Moorkoth, Vidya

    2015-03-01

    Carotenoids are increasingly drawing the attention of researchers as a major natural food color due to their inherent nutritional characteristics and the implicated possible role in prevention and protection against degenerative diseases. In this report, we review the role of red pepper as a source for natural carotenoids. The composition of the carotenoids in red pepper and the application of different methodologies for their analysis were discussed in this report. The stability of red pepper carotenoids during post-harvest processing and storage is also reviewed. This review highlights the potential of red pepper carotenoids as a source of natural food colors and also discusses the need for a standardized approach for the analysis and reporting of composition of carotenoids in plant products and designing model systems for stability studies.

  20. Antimicrobial effects of pepper, parsley, and dill and their roles in the microbiological quality enhancement of traditional Egyptian Kareish cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, Nahed M; Ahmed, Amany S; Ebraheim, Zedan Z

    2010-04-01

    This study was designed to assess the application of some edible plants including cayenne, green pepper, parsley, and dill to Kareish cheese and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of these plant materials against natural microflora, coliforms, molds, and Staphylococcus aureus. Twelve different concentrations of ethanol extract of the plants were prepared for determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration. Cayenne and green pepper extracts showed highest activity followed by dill and parsley against S. aureus. Addition of cayenne or green pepper to Kareish cheese during manufacture revealed that both plants were able reduce the S. aureus population to undetectable level within the first and second days of storage. To study the effect of combining plant materials on the microbiological quality of ready-to-eat Kareish cheese, the total bacterial count, coliform count, and yeast and molds counts were determined. It has been found that addition of plant materials to Kareish cheese reduced the total bacterial and coliform populations. All concentrations of cayenne, green pepper, dill, and parsley (9%) completely reduced the yeast count within 2 hours. Cayenne and green pepper completely reduced the mold count within 2 days, whereas parsley and dill were found to be less effective. Kareish cheese prepared with 1% cayenne pepper and 3% and 6% each of green pepper, dill, and parsley were found strongly acceptable to the consumer and considered the most preferable type. Therefore, this study revealed that pepper, parsley, and dill exhibited antibacterial activity against natural microflora, coliforms, yeast and molds, and S. aureus in Kareish cheese, and the addition of these plants is acceptable to the consumer and may contribute to the development of new and safe varieties of Kareish cheese.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of geminivirus-infected pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Góngora-Castillo Elsa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses are a large and important family of plant viruses that infect a wide range of crops throughout the world. The Begomovirus genus contains species that are transmitted by whiteflies and are distributed worldwide causing disease on an array of horticultural crops. Symptom remission, in which newly developed leaves of systemically infected plants exhibit a reduction in symptom severity (recovery, has been observed on pepper (Capsicum annuum plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV. Previous studies have shown that transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms are involved in the reduction of viral nucleic acid concentration in recovered tissue. In this study, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods to assess transcriptional variation in healthy (mock, symptomatic, and recovered pepper leaves following PepGMV infection. Results Differential expression analyses of the pepper leaf transcriptome from symptomatic and recovered stages revealed a total of 309 differentially expressed genes between healthy (mock and symptomatic or recovered tissues. Computational prediction of differential expression was validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR confirming the robustness of our bioinformatic methods. Within the set of differentially expressed genes associated with the recovery process were genes involved in defense responses including pathogenesis-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, systemic acquired resistance, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and ethylene signaling. No major differences were found when compared the differentially expressed genes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. On the other hand, a set of genes with novel roles in defense responses was identified including genes involved in histone modification. This latter result suggested that post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing may be one of the major mechanisms involved in the

  2. Yield Traits and Water and Nitrogen Use Efficiencies of Bell Pepper Grown in Plastic-Greenhouse

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    Vincenzo Candido

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of a two-year study assessing the effects of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation regimes on yield traits and on water and nitrogen use efficiency of greenhouse-grown bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. The trials involved the combination of four N doses (0, 100, 200, 300 kg ha-1 with two irrigation regimes (100% restitution of ETc; repeated cycles of water stress starting from fruit set. In the second year, the crop was transplanted one month earlier than in the first year and was mulched with plastic sheeting. The highest yield in both years was obtained by associating 100% restitution of ETc and the N dose of 200 kg ha-1. The marketable yields were 37 and 72 t ha-1 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. Doubling of the yield in the second year was probably due to the earlier transplantation and mulching, confirming the numerous benefits of the latter technique. The water deficit imposed during the late flowering-early fruit set phase had negative effects on the crop, with declines of the marketable yield of up to 44% due to the reduced number and weight of the fruit and the increased waste, mainly peppers with blossom-end rot, cracking, sun-burn and malformations. The peppers grown under water stress were richer in dry matter and soluble solids. The yield declines due to water deficit varied in relation to the N dose, as confirmed by the numerous interactions recorded between irrigation regime and nitrogen level.Without nitrogen fertilization, the quantity and quality of the fruits remained unchanged, while the maximum dose (300 kg ha-1 enhanced the negative effects of the water deficit on the number (-52% and weight (-161% of marketable peppers. Moreover, the waste peppers reached 31% of the total production (by weight, with over 21% affected by blossom-end rot. Water stress led to a drastic reduction of the total above-ground dry biomass (40% and a significant decrease of nitrogen absorption by the plant (54% with preferential

  3. Transcriptome analysis of symptomatic and recovered leaves of geminivirus-infected pepper (Capsicum annuum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses are a large and important family of plant viruses that infect a wide range of crops throughout the world. The Begomovirus genus contains species that are transmitted by whiteflies and are distributed worldwide causing disease on an array of horticultural crops. Symptom remission, in which newly developed leaves of systemically infected plants exhibit a reduction in symptom severity (recovery), has been observed on pepper (Capsicum annuum) plants infected with Pepper golden mosaic virus (PepGMV). Previous studies have shown that transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanisms are involved in the reduction of viral nucleic acid concentration in recovered tissue. In this study, we employed deep transcriptome sequencing methods to assess transcriptional variation in healthy (mock), symptomatic, and recovered pepper leaves following PepGMV infection. Results Differential expression analyses of the pepper leaf transcriptome from symptomatic and recovered stages revealed a total of 309 differentially expressed genes between healthy (mock) and symptomatic or recovered tissues. Computational prediction of differential expression was validated using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR confirming the robustness of our bioinformatic methods. Within the set of differentially expressed genes associated with the recovery process were genes involved in defense responses including pathogenesis-related proteins, reactive oxygen species, systemic acquired resistance, jasmonic acid biosynthesis, and ethylene signaling. No major differences were found when compared the differentially expressed genes in symptomatic and recovered tissues. On the other hand, a set of genes with novel roles in defense responses was identified including genes involved in histone modification. This latter result suggested that post-transcriptional and transcriptional gene silencing may be one of the major mechanisms involved in the recovery process. Genes

  4. Influence of repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on esophageal secondary peristalsis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T T; Yi, C H; Lei, W Y; Hung, X S; Yu, H C; Chen, C L

    2014-10-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 has been implicated as a target mediator for heartburn perception and modulation of esophageal secondary peristalsis. Our aim was to determine the effect of repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce on heartburn perception and secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. Secondary peristalsis was performed with mid-esophageal injections of air in 15 healthy adults. Two separate protocols including esophageal infusion with saline and capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce and 2 consecutive sessions of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce were randomly performed. After repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce, the threshold volume to activate secondary peristalsis was significantly increased during slow (p sauce enhanced heartburn perception (p sauce infusion (p = 0.007). Acute infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly increased pressure wave amplitudes of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.003) and rapid air injections (p = 0.01), but repeated infusion of capsaicin-contained red pepper sauce significantly decreased pressure wave amplitude of distal esophagus during slow (p = 0.0005) and rapid air injections (p = 0.003). Repeated esophageal infusion of capsaicin appears to attenuate heartburn perception and inhibit distension-induced secondary peristalsis in healthy adults. These results suggest capsaicin-sensitive afferents in modulating sensorimotor function of secondary peristalsis in human esophagus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Pulverizing processes affect the chemical quality and thermal property of black, white, and green pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zheng, Jie; Liu, Pengzhan; Zeng, Fankui

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effects of different pulverizing methods on the chemical attributes and thermal properties of black, white and green pepper were evaluated. Cryogenic grinding minimally damaged the lipid, moisture, crude protein, starch, non-volatile ether extract, piperine, essential oil and the typical pepper essential oil compounds of the spices. The pulverizing methods and storage significantly affected the compositions of the fatty acid in the peppers, except for palmitic acid and lignoceric acid. The amino acid contents and the thermo-gravimetric analysis curve were hardly influenced by the grinding techniques. The use of cryogenic grinding to prepare pepper ensured the highest quality of pepper products. Regardless of grinding technique, the values of moisture, piperine, unsaturated fatty acids, essential oil, monoterpenes, and the absolute concentrations of typical pepper essential oil constituents (except caryophyllene oxide) decreased, whereas the amino acid, lipid, protein, starch, and non-volatile ether extract content as well as the thermal properties were insignificantly changed after storage at 4 °C for 6 months.

  6. The Effect of Long-Term Continuous Cropping of Black Pepper on Soil Bacterial Communities as Determined by 454 Pyrosequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Li, Zhigang; Liu, Hongjun; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, 3 replanted black pepper orchards with continuously cropping histories for 10, 21, and 55 years in tropical China, were selected for investigating the effect of monoculture on soil physiochemical properties, enzyme activities, bacterial abundance, and bacterial community structures. Results showed long-term continuous cropping led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, and resulted in a decrease in soil bacterial abundance. 454 pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the Acidobacteria and Proteobacteria were the main phyla in the replanted black pepper orchard soils, comprising up to 73.82% of the total sequences; the relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla decreased with long-term continuous cropping; and at genus level, the Pseudomonas abundance significantly depleted after 21 years continuous cropping. In addition, bacterial diversity significantly decreased after 55 years black pepper continuous cropping; obvious variations for community structures across the 3 time-scale replanted black pepper orchards were observed, suggesting monoculture duration was the major determinant for bacterial community structure. Overall, continuous cropping during black pepper cultivation led to a significant decline in soil pH, organic matter contents, enzymatic activities, resulted a decrease in soil bacterial abundance, and altered soil microbial community membership and structure, which in turn resulted in black pepper poor growth in the continuous cropping system. PMID:26317364

  7. Yield Loss Assessment and Determination of Control Thresholds for Anthracnose on Red Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to develop control thresholds for anthracnose on red pepper. To investigate relationship between anthracnose incidence and diseased fruits, experimental plots with six treatments were established. There existed close correlation between rate of diseased fruits and yields in field (Y = -16.83X + 327.57, R² = 0.83, in rain shelter (Y = -4.92X + 361.02, R² = 0.84, and in rain shelter with rain (Y = -5.91X + 359.71, R² = 0.76. Control thresholds for anthracnose of pepper were 0.9% diseased fruits per plant in field and from 1.7 to 2.3% diseased fruits rate per plant in rain shelter.

  8. Characters of tomato and pepper bred by space mutation in glasshouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Xiaobo; Gu Xiaojun; Chen Chunhong; Li Shicheng

    2004-01-01

    Plant growth and yield of tomato and pepper bred by space mutation and materials carried by aero-craft 'Shenzhou' No.4 and its parent variety as control were studied in glasshouse. The results show that all varieties grew vigorously in glasshouse and the average fruit weight was about 221 g for tomato variety 641 and 648 and material HT10-3-2 and HT10-2. Accumulated yield for variety 648 was 2847.5 g, which was 9.9% higher than variety 641, indicating that they are suitable for glasshouse cultivation. Average fruit weight for pepper variety 616 was about 76 g, potential with accumulated yield of 440.9 g, indicating that it can be used for glasshouse cultivation. There was no significant difference between the Aero-craft carried materials and but the yield range change of among and its the carried materials 7.5%-8.0%

  9. Analytical studies into radiation-induced starch damage in black and white peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.M.; Farkas, J.

    1993-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the apparent viscosity of heat-generalized suspensions of untreated and irradiated pepper samples has been investigated. There was a close linear correlation between the logarithm of ''fluidity'' (reciprocal of the apparent viscosity) and the reciprocal absolute temperature of the measurement. The slope of the regression line (the temperature dependence of fluidity) increased with the radiation dose. Gelatinization thermograms of aqueous suspensions of ground pepper samples were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature characteristics of heat-gelatinization endotherms showed no significant differences between untreated and irradiated samples. A calorimetric method for damaged starch, the estimation of reducing power, and the alcohol-induced turbidity of aqueous extracts showed statistically significant increases of starch damage at doses higher than 4 kGy. These indices of starch-depolymerization have been changed less dramatically by irradiation than the apparent viscosity of the heat-gelatinized suspensions. (author)

  10. Effects of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuifeng; Wang Bingliang; Guan Xueyu; Zhang Yan

    2006-01-01

    The effect of boarding return satellite on antioxidant enzyme activities during germination of hot pepper seed was studied. The results showed that the germination potentiality and germination rate of hot pepper seed after boarding return satellite were increased by 3.5% and 5.3%, respectively. During seed germination, soluble protein and MDA contents decreased, however, the SOD activities increased. SOD activity of treated seeds was higher than that of the control especially during the initial period of germination, while the content of soluble and MDA contents were much lower than those of control. The activities of SOD, G-POD, APX and CAT in 13d seedlings of treated seeds were increased by 14.29%, 25.23%, 1.84% and 21.52%, respectively. It was concluded that space flight enhanced antioxidant enzyme activities of seeds and seedlings, which were very important to prevent membrane lipid superoxide. (authors)

  11. Influence of nitrogen deficiency on photosynthesis and chloroplast ultrastructure of pepper plants (Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. DONCHEVA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Zlaten Medal were grown on nutrient solution without nitrogen, and photosynthetic response of plants was examined by determination of leaf CO2 fixation and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents. The absence of nitrogen in the medium resulted in a decrease of the leaf area and of plant biomass accumulation, and in an increase of the root-shoot dry weight ratio. The photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased significantly under nitrogen deprivation. Examination of nitrogen deficient leaves by transmission electron microscopy showed dramatic changes in chloroplast ultrastructure. The proportion of starch granules and plastoglobules in the stroma matrix was increased and internal membrane system was greatly reduced. It seems that nitrogen plays an important role in the formation of chloroplast structure and hence to the photosynthetic intensity and productivity of pepper plants.

  12. RESEARCH ON STOLBUR OF PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM L. CULTIVATED UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF ORGANIC FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In Bulgaria stolbur is a disease of economic significance that affects pepper, eggplant, tomatoes, and potatoes. Stolbur is referred to the transmission diseases, i.e. the agent is being transferred via vector, namely cicada Hyalesthes obsoletus in this specific case. This research aims at following the stolbur disease of pepper of the variety of Sofiiska Kapiya. The experiment took place in 2010 and in 2011 on the experimental fields of the Agroecological Centre at the Agricultural University- Plovdiv. The occurence of Hyalesthes obsoletus was determined via visual observations of flower sticky traps (yellow, blue, and white. Route investigations were carried out for the purpose of tracking the symptoms of the disease. Reinforced migration of cicadas was established during the second ten days of July. It was established that the larger number of cicadas were reported for the yellow sticky traps, which may be recommended for practical application as a successful fight against cicada and limitation of its flight.

  13. Isolation of Chromoplasts and Suborganellar Compartments from Tomato and Bell Pepper Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsan, Cristina; Kuntz, Marcel; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2017-01-01

    Tomato is a model for fruit development and ripening. The isolation of intact plastids from this organism is therefore important for metabolic and proteomic analyses. Pepper, a species from the same family, is also of interest since it allows isolation of intact chromoplasts in large amounts. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for the isolation of tomato plastids at three fruit developmental stages, namely, nascent chromoplasts from the mature green stage, chromoplasts from an intermediate stage, and fully differentiated red chromoplasts. The method relies on sucrose density gradient centrifugations. It yields high purity organelles suitable for proteome analyses. Enzymatic and microscopy assays are summarized to assess purity and intactness. A method is also described for subfractionation of pepper chromoplast lipoprotein structures.

  14. Metabolomic Characterization of Hot Pepper (Capsicum annuum "CM334") during Fruit Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yu Kyung; Jung, Eun Sung; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2015-11-04

    Non-targeted metabolomic analysis of hot pepper (Capsicum annuum "CM334") was performed at six development stages [16, 25, 36, 38, 43, and 48 days post-anthesis (DPA)] to analyze biochemical changes. Distinct distribution patterns were observed in the changes of metabolites, gene expressions, and antioxidant activities by early (16-25 DPA), breaker (36-38 DPA), and later (43-48 DPA) stages. In the early stages, glycosides of luteolin, apigenin, and quercetin, shikimic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and putrescine were highly distributed but gradually decreased over the breaker stage. At later stages, leucine, isoleucine, proline, phenylalanine, capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and kaempferol glycosides were significantly increased. Pathway analysis revealed metabolite-gene interactions in the biosynthesis of amino acids, capsaicinoids, fatty acid chains, and flavonoids. The changes in antioxidant activity were highly reflective of alterations in metabolites. The present study could provide useful information about nutrient content at each stage of pepper cultivation.

  15. The Growth of Root Rot Disease on Pepper Seed Applied by Trichoderma Harzianum Inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sofian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Root rot disease on pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici is one of the most important diseases on pepper. The using of antagonistic fungus of Trichoderma harzianum as a biological control agent of the pathogen is one of the important alternatives in controlling P. capsici without causing negative effects on the environment. The objectives of the research were to study about the ability of T. harzianum inoculum application in inhibiting the development of root-rot disease, influenced the growth of pepper seed, to studythe effective length time application of T. harzianum inoculum in inhibiting the development of root rot disease, and increased the growth of pepper seedlings. This research was arranged in a completely randomized design, with five treatments of length time application of T. harzianum inoculum i.e. control treatment without applicationtime of T. harzianum inoculum (K, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 0 week (S0, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 1 week (S1, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for two weeks (S2, application time of T. harzianum inoculum for three weeks (S3, and application time of T. harzianum inoculum for 4 weeks (S4 before planting. Each treatment was repeated15 times. The observed parameterswere disease percentage, the inhibition of antagonistic fungus, disease infection rate, plant height, number of leaves, wet and dry weight of plant, stem and leaves on pepper seed, and P. capsici population density. The result showed that application time of T. harzianum inoculumfor 4 weeks (S4 before planting is the most effective time in inhibiting the development of root rot disease than the other treatment sand also had significant effect on increasing the growth of pepper seed. The antagonism test showed that T. harzianum could inhibit P. capsiciin vitro. This result proves that application time of T. harzianum inoculums

  16. Chemical control trials against Phytophthora capsici (Leon on pepper cultivations in Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pussemier, L.

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical control trials against Phytophthora capsici (Leon on pepper cultivations in Morocco. Pepper protection trials against collar and root rot have been undertaken under laboratory and culture conditions using Aliette (80 % of phosethylaluminium and Ridomil M 58 (10 % of metalaxyl associated to 48 % of maneb. It has been proved that, contrary to Ridomil M 58, Aliette does not protect the hostplant when the Phytophthora capsici (Leon zoospores are used as inoculum. But both fongicides are active when inoculating with a mycelian suspension. Trials undertaken under plastic glasshouses confirmed the laboratory results both with an artificial inoculation and with a natural one on contaminated soil. Only Ridomil M 58 provides satisfactory protection during the first weeks after the treatment. When disease propagation conditions are particularly favorable (permanent presence of an active inoculum source, the protection given by repeated Ridomil M 58 applications gradually disappears after a few weeks.

  17. Antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of essential oils and oleoresins extracted from eight pepper species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laira Martinelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Essential oils are the most important compounds produced during secondary metabolism in aromatic plants. Essential oils are volatile, have characteristic odor and are used as defensive agents by plants. In pepper, it is possible to say that essential oils are the “flavor fingerprint” of each species. In the present article, eight species of pepper were studied in order to extract their essential oils and oleoresins, test their antibacterial and antifungal activities and also to identify the compounds present in the most bioactive samples. Results demonstrated that two essential oils [Pimenta dioica (L. Merr. and Schinus terebinthifolius] and three oleoresins (Schinus terebinthifolius and Piper nigrum white and black recorded significant antimicrobial activity. These active essential oils and oleoresins are interesting for use in biotechnological processes employed in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  18. Changes in structure of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings shoots under aluminum stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The seedlings of the red pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv. Trapez grown in water culture for a period of 14 days with Al (0, 10, 20 and 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O. Some morphological and anatomical features of red pepper shoots were analyzed. Reduction in height and diameter of stems as well as decrease in fresh mass of shoots were observed after Al-treatment. In the hypocotyl the thickness of cortex parenchyma layer and the size of their cells were reduced. The aluminum treatment resulted in the increased in thickness of the epidermis outer cell wall. Under Al stress in the cotrex and the central cylinder parenchyma cells were present numerous enlarge plastids which contained large grains of starch and dark little bodies which were possible aluminum deposits. They weren`t observed in control seedlings.

  19. One-step Multiplex RT-PCR Method for Simultaneous Detection of Seed Transmissible Bacteria and Viruses in Pepper and Tomato Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyusik Jeong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop specific and sensitive PCR-based procedures for simultaneous detection of economically important plant seed infection pathogenic bacteria and virus, Xanthomonns campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm, Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora (Ecc, Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV and Tobacco mild green mosaic virus (TMGMV in pepper and tomato seeds. Most of pepper and tomato bacterial and virus diseases are responsible for germination and growth obstruction. PCR with arbitral primers: selection of specific primers, performance of PCR with specific primers and determination of the threshold level for pathogens detection. To detect simultaneously the Xcv, Cmm, Ecc, PMMoV and TMGMV in pepper and tomato seeds, five pairs (Cmm-F/R, Ecc-F/R, Xcv-F/R, PMMoV-F/R, TMGMV-F/R of specific primer were synthesized by primer-blast program. The multiplex PCR for the five pathogens in pepper and tomato seeds could detect specially without interference among primers and/or cDNA of plant seeds and other plant pathogens. The PCR result for pathogen detection using 20 commercial pepper and 10 tomato seed samples, Ecc was detected from 4 pepper and 2 tomato seed samples, PMMoV was detected from 1 pepper seed sample, and PMMoV and TMGMV were simultaneously detected from 1 pepper seed sample.

  20. In vitro investigation of the potential immunomodulatory and anti-cancer activities of black pepper (Piper nigrum) and cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdalawieh, Amin F; Carr, Ronald I

    2010-04-01

    Although the immunomodulatory effects of many herbs have been extensively studied, research related to possible immunomodulatory effects of various spices is relatively scarce. Here, the potential immunomodulatory effects of black pepper and cardamom are investigated. Our data show that black pepper and cardamom aqueous extracts significantly enhance splenocyte proliferation in a dose-dependent, synergistic fashion. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiments reveal that black pepper and cardamom significantly enhance and suppress, respectively, T helper (Th)1 cytokine release by splenocytes. Conversely, Th2 cytokine release by splenocytes is significantly suppressed and enhanced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Experimental evidence suggests that black pepper and cardamom extracts exert pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively. Consistently, nitric oxide production by macrophages is significantly augmented and reduced by black pepper and cardamom, respectively. Remarkably, it is evident that black pepper and cardamom extracts significantly enhance the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells, indicating their potential anti-cancer effects. Our findings strongly suggest that black pepper and cardamom exert immunomodulatory roles and antitumor activities, and hence they manifest themselves as natural agents that can promote the maintenance of a healthy immune system. We anticipate that black pepper and cardamom constituents can be used as potential therapeutic tools to regulate inflammatory responses and prevent/attenuate carcinogenesis.

  1. The larvicidal effects of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and piperine against insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles malaria vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Michael; Oliver, Shüné V; Coetzee, Maureen; Brooke, Basil D

    2016-04-26

    Insecticide resistance carries the potential to undermine the efficacy of insecticide based malaria vector control strategies. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new insecticidal compounds. Black pepper (dried fruit from the vine, Piper nigrum), used as a food additive and spice, and its principal alkaloid piperine, have previously been shown to have larvicidal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the larvicidal effects of ground black pepper and piperine against third and fourth instar Anopheles larvae drawn from several laboratory-reared insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of Anopheles arabiensis, An. coluzzii, An. gambiae, An. quadriannulatus and An. funestus. Larvae were fed with mixtures of standard larval food and either ground black pepper or piperine in different proportions. Mortality was recorded 24 h after black pepper and 48 h after piperine were applied to the larval bowls. Black pepper and piperine mixtures caused high mortality in the An. gambiae complex strains, with black pepper proving significantly more toxic than piperine. The An. funestus strains were substantially less sensitive to black pepper and piperine which may reflect a marked difference in the feeding habits of this species compared to that of the Gambiae complex or a difference in food metabolism as a consequence of differences in breeding habitat between species. Insecticide resistant and susceptible strains by species proved equally susceptible to black pepper and piperine. It is concluded that black pepper shows potential as a larvicide for the control of certain malaria vector species.

  2. Physicochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of pectin extracted from hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminatum (Fingerh.)) residues with hydrochloric and sulfuric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Honggao; Tai, Kedong; Wei, Tong; Yuan, Fang; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-11-01

    Transformation of hot pepper residues to value-added products with concomitant benefits on environmental pollution would be of great value to capsicum oleoresin manufacturers. Pectin, a soluble dietary fiber with multiple functions, from hot pepper residues was investigated in this study. The extraction of hot pepper pectin using hydrochloric acid was first optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The most efficient parameters for maximum hot pepper pectin yield (14.63%, dry basis) were a pH of 1.0, a temperature of 90 °C, an extraction time of 2 h and a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 L g -1 . The pectin was mainly composed of uronic acids, and the major neutral sugars were galactose and glucose. The structure of hot pepper pectin was characterized by homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan I elements. The physicochemical properties of hot pepper pectin extracted by sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid were further investigated. The content of protein and degree of esterification in hot pepper pectin extracted with sulfuric acid solution (SP) were higher (P hot pepper pectin, hot pepper residues would be a new source to obtain pectin, and SP would be more preferred than HP. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Radiosensitivity of California Wonder pepper variety to Co-60 gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas Arias, Ana Leonor; Gonzalez Nunez, Luis Manuel; Ramirez Fernandez, Ramiro

    1998-01-01

    Seeds of California wonder pepper variety were irradiated with dosages among 100-800 Gy, to intervals of 100 Gy, in a source of Co 60 gamma rays, with the objective of determining its radiosensitivity and to establish the adequate interval of dosage for the mutation breeding. A decrease of the growing indicators, productivity and plant fertility was observed with the increasing of irradiation dosages and the interval among 130-460 Gy was established as the most adequate

  4. Growth and survival of Salmonella in ground black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Susanne E; VanDoren, Jane M; Grasso, Elizabeth M; Halik, Lindsay A

    2013-05-01

    A four serovar cocktail of Salmonella was inoculated into ground black pepper (Piper nigrum) at different water activity (aw) levels at a starting level of 4-5 log cfu/g and incubated at 25 and at 35 °C. At 35 °C and aw of 0.9886 ± 0.0006, the generation time in ground black pepper was 31 ± 3 min with a lag time of 4 ± 1 h. Growth at 25 °C had a longer lag, but generation time was not statistically different from growth at 35 °C. The aw threshold for growth was determined to be 0.9793 ± 0.0027 at 35 °C. To determine survival during storage conditions, ground black pepper was inoculated at approximately 8 log cfu/g and stored at 25 and 35 °C at high (97% RH) and ambient (≤40% RH) humidity. At high relative humidity, aw increased to approximately 0.8-0.9 after approximately 20 days at both temperatures and no Salmonella was detected after 100 and 45 days at 25 and 35 °C, respectively. Under ambient humidity, populations showed an initial decrease of 3-4 log cfu/g, then remained stable for over 8 months at 25 and 35 °C. Results of this study indicate Salmonella can readily grow at permissive aw in ground black pepper and may persist for an extended period of time under typical storage conditions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Dietary Brazilian red pepper essential oil on pork meat quality and lipid oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Dias Gois

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding pigs with diets containing increasing levels of Brazilian red pepper essential oil ( Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi on the physical attributes, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of precooked meat. Seventy-two weanling pigs (5.7±0.8kg were allotted in a completely randomized block design experiment with four treatments, six replicates per treatment, and three animals per experimental unit (pen. Animals were fed with a basal diet supplemented with 0, 500, 1,000, or 1,500mg kg-1 Brazilian red pepper essential oil during the 35-d experimental period. At the end of the experiment, one animal per experimental unit (16.4±2.2kg was slaughtered to sample Longissimus dorsi muscle for analysis. Dietary supplementation of Brazilian red pepper had no effect (P>0.05 on pork meat color, pH, cooking loss and shear force. Inclusion of essential oil in the diet provided a linear increase (P<0.05 of the saturated fatty acids content of L. dorsi, especially myristic (C14:0 and stearic (C18:0 fatty acids. Utilization of essential oil in pig diets reduced significantly the production of secondary lipid oxidation compounds measured as TBARS in raw pork meat (P<0.001 and immediately after cooking (P<0.001. However, during 8-d storage assay, the addition of essential oil in the diet did not protect pork meat lipids from oxidation. Therefore, Brazilian red pepper added to pig diets increased the saturated fatty acids content and reduced lipid oxidation in fresh meat and short-term heat treatment without affecting pork meat physical attributes.

  6. Seed yield and quality of pepper plants grown under salt stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of salinity on seed yield and quality of pepper plants were evaluated. Plants were grown in five salt levels (electrical conductivity, EC): 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0 dSm-1 in glasshouse. Seed yield was assessed by seed weight/fruit, seed weight/plant and individual seed weight. Seed quality was measured by ...

  7. Kinetics and thermodynamic properties related to the drying of 'Cabacinha' pepper fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Hellismar W. da Silva; Renato S. Rodovalho; Marya F. Velasco; Camila F. Silva; Luís S. R. Vale

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine and model the drying kinetics of 'Cabacinha' pepper fruits at different temperatures of the drying air, as well as obtain the thermodynamic properties involved in the drying process of the product. Drying was carried out under controlled conductions of temperature (60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 °C) using three samples of 130 g of fruit, which were weighed periodically until constant mass. The experimental data were adjusted to different mathemati...

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling to Improve Natural Flow Rate and Sweet Pepper Productivity in Greenhouse

    OpenAIRE

    W. Limtrakarn; P. Boonmongkol; A. Chompupoung; K. Rungprateepthaworn; J. Kruenate; P. Dechaumphai

    2012-01-01

    Natural flow rate and sweet peppers productivity in tropical greenhouse are improved by CFD simulation is the main objective of this research work. Most of the greenhouse types today are in the arch shape. To develop an improved greenhouse structure for the region, the arch type was built and used as the control model. Mae Sar Mai agriculture research station under the royal project foundation was selected as the field test site. Temperature sensors with data logger were installed to monitor ...

  9. Overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Hyoun Seo

    Full Text Available Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL-1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose disease, J1-1 cDNA under the control of 35S promoter was introduced into pepper via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that a single copy of the transgene in selected transgenic plants was normally expressed and also stably transmitted to subsequent generations. The insertion of T-DNA was further analyzed in three independent homozygous lines using inverse PCR, and confirmed the integration of transgene in non-coding region of genomic DNA. Immunoblot results showed that the level of J1-1 proteins, which was not normally accumulated in unripe fruits, accumulated high in transgenic plants but appeared to differ among transgenic lines. Moreover, the expression of jasmonic acid-biosynthetic genes and pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines, which is co-related with the resistance of J1-1 transgenic plants to anthracnose disease. Consequently, the constitutive expression of J1-1 in transgenic pepper plants provided strong resistance to the anthracnose fungus that was associated with highly reduced lesion formation and fungal colonization. These results implied the significance of the antifungal protein, J1-1, as a useful agronomic trait to control fungal disease.

  10. Overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hyo-Hyoun; Park, Sangkyu; Park, Soomin; Oh, Byung-Jun; Back, Kyoungwhan; Han, Oksoo; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kim, Young Soon

    2014-01-01

    Functional characterization of a defensin, J1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. To determine antifungal activity, J1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against C. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·mL-1. To develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose disease, J1-1 cDNA under the control of 35S promoter was introduced into pepper via Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation method. Southern and Northern blot analyses confirmed that a single copy of the transgene in selected transgenic plants was normally expressed and also stably transmitted to subsequent generations. The insertion of T-DNA was further analyzed in three independent homozygous lines using inverse PCR, and confirmed the integration of transgene in non-coding region of genomic DNA. Immunoblot results showed that the level of J1-1 proteins, which was not normally accumulated in unripe fruits, accumulated high in transgenic plants but appeared to differ among transgenic lines. Moreover, the expression of jasmonic acid-biosynthetic genes and pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated in the transgenic lines, which is co-related with the resistance of J1-1 transgenic plants to anthracnose disease. Consequently, the constitutive expression of J1-1 in transgenic pepper plants provided strong resistance to the anthracnose fungus that was associated with highly reduced lesion formation and fungal colonization. These results implied the significance of the antifungal protein, J1-1, as a useful agronomic trait to control fungal disease.

  11. Multiple lines of evidence for the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Kraig H.; Brown, Cecil H.; Nabhan, Gary P.; Luedeling, Eike; Luna Ruiz, José de Jesús; Coppens d’Eeckenbrugge, Geo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Gepts, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The study of crop origins has traditionally involved identifying geographic areas of high morphological diversity, sampling populations of wild progenitor species, and the archaeological retrieval of macroremains. Recent investigations have added identification of plant microremains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains), biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, and dating through 14C accelerator mass spectrometry. We investigate the origin of domesticated chili pepper, Capsicum annuum, by combining two approaches, species distribution modeling and paleobiolinguistics, with microsatellite genetic data and archaeobotanical data. The combination of these four lines of evidence yields consensus models indicating that domestication of C. annuum could have occurred in one or both of two areas of Mexico: northeastern Mexico and central-east Mexico. Genetic evidence shows more support for the more northern location, but jointly all four lines of evidence support central-east Mexico, where preceramic macroremains of chili pepper have been recovered in the Valley of Tehuacán. Located just to the east of this valley is the center of phylogenetic diversity of Proto-Otomanguean, a language spoken in mid-Holocene times and the oldest protolanguage for which a word for chili pepper reconstructs based on historical linguistics. For many crops, especially those that do not have a strong archaeobotanical record or phylogeographic pattern, it is difficult to precisely identify the time and place of their origin. Our results for chili pepper show that expressing all data in similar distance terms allows for combining contrasting lines of evidence and locating the region(s) where cultivation and domestication of a crop began. PMID:24753581

  12. Dietary Brazilian red pepper essential oil on pork meat quality and lipid oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Gois, Franz Dias; Sbardella, Maicon; Lima, Cristiane Bovi de; Migotto, Dannielle Leonardi; Cairo, Pedro Leon Gomes; Garbossa, Cesar Augusto Pospissil; Racanicci, Aline Mondini Calil; Costa, Leandro Batista

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding pigs with diets containing increasing levels of Brazilian red pepper essential oil ( Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) on the physical attributes, fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of precooked meat. Seventy-two weanling pigs (5.7±0.8kg) were allotted in a completely randomized block design experiment with four treatments, six replicates per treatment, and three animals per experimental unit (pen). Animals were ...

  13. Le syndrome de Pepper: à propos de deux cas observés au Centre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le syndrome de Pepper est une forme métastatique hépatique du neuroblastome. C'est une entité spécifique du nourrisson de moins de six mois qui a la particularité de pouvoir régresser de façon spontanée avec un pronostic favorable dans 80% des cas. A cause de sa rareté, nous rapportons deux cas du syndrome de ...

  14. Seed yield and quality of pepper plants grown under salt stress

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    İbrahim Demir

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... The effect of salinity on seed yield and quality of pepper plants were evaluated. Plants were grown in five salt levels (electrical conductivity, EC): 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0 dSm-1 in glasshouse. Seed yield was assessed by seed weight/fruit, seed weight/plant and individual seed weight. Seed quality was.

  15. Innovations in microspore embryogenesis in Indonesian hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and Brassica napus L.

    OpenAIRE

    Supena, E.D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Hot pepper (Capsicum annuumL.) is the most important vegetable inIndonesia, but the yield is low, and the breeding programs are confined to the conventional methods and not efficient. To improve the efficiency of the breeding programs by speeding up the production of homozygous lines, studies were aimed at the introduction of haploid technology, which includes the regeneration and the production of doubled haploid plants from gametes. This technique is well developed in the model speciesBrass...

  16. Performance Testing of Thermal Cutting Systems for Sweet Pepper Harvesting Robot in Greenhouse Horticulture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachche, Shivaji; Oka, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes design of end-effector and prototype of thermal cutting system for harvesting sweet peppers. The design consists of two parallel gripper bars mounted on a frame connected by specially designed notch plate and operated by servo motor. Based on voltage and current, two different types of thermal cutting system prototypes; electric arc and temperature arc respectively were developed and tested for performance. In electric arc, a special electric device was developed to obtain high voltage to perform cutting operation. At higher voltage, electrodes generate thermal arc which helps to cut stem of sweet pepper. In temperature arc, nichrome wire was mounted between two electrodes and current was provided directly to electrodes which results in generation of high temperature arc between two electrodes that help to perform cutting operation. In both prototypes, diameters of basic elements were varied and the effect of this variation on cutting operation was investigated. The temperature arc thermal system was found significantly suitable for cutting operation than electric arc thermal system. In temperature arc thermal cutting system, 0.5 mm nichrome wire shows significant results by accomplishing harvesting operation in 1.5 seconds. Also, thermal cutting system found suitable to increase shelf life of fruits by avoiding virus and fungal transformation during cutting process and sealing the fruit stem. The harvested sweet peppers by thermal cutting system can be preserved at normal room temperature for more than 15 days without any contamination.

  17. Physiological changes of pepper accessions in response to salinity and water stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Serrano, L.; Penella, C.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Calatayud, A.

    2017-07-01

    New sources of water stress and salinity tolerances are needed for crops grown in marginal lands. Pepper is considered one of the most important crops in the world. Many varieties belong to the genus Capsicum spp., and display wide variability in tolerance/sensitivity terms in response to drought and salinity stress. The objective was to screen seven salt/drought-tolerant pepper accessions to breed new cultivars that could overcome abiotic stresses, or be used as new crops in land with water and salinity stress. Fast and effective physiological traits were measured to achieve the objective. The present study showed wide variability of the seven pepper accessions in response to both stresses. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration reduced mainly under salinity due to stomatal and non-stomatal (Na+ accumulation) constraints and, to a lesser extent, in the accessions grown under water stress. A positive relationship between CO2 fixation and fresh weight generation was observed for both stresses. Decreases in Ys and YW and increased proline were observed only when accessions were grown under salinity. However, these factors were not enough to alleviate salt effects and an inverse relation was noted between plant salt tolerance and proline accumulation. Under water stress, A31 was the least affected and A34 showed the best tolerance to salinity in terms of photosynthesis and biomass.

  18. Mitigation of waterlogging-induced damages to pepper by exogenous meja

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, O.; Bin, L.; Zhi, Y.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we studied the mitigation effects of exogenous Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on waterlogging-induced damages to Xinyou No.5 wrinkled skin pepper cultivar by spraying MeJA on leave's surface at different waterlogging periods and investigated its underlying mechanisms. The results showed that administration of MeJA increased antioxidant enzymes' activities, proline and soluble sugar contents and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity, reduced relative conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxyl free radical (.OH) accumulation, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and lactic acid and acetaldehyde accumulation, and maintained high root malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities and certain aerobic respiratory metabolism. The study also found that there were significant differences among exogenous MeJA treatments at different waterlogging periods. Peppers treated with exogenous MeJA 1 day and 2 days prior to waterlogging had optimal agronomic traits, higher chlorophyll content, enzymatic activities and osmolytic substances, as well as lower relative conductivity, MDA and ·OH accumulation. Overall, the results suggest that MeJA mitigates waterlogging-induced damages to pepper by adjusting osmolytic substances contents, antioxidant enzymatic activities and root respiration and metabolism and achieves better alleviation effects by spraying prior to waterlogging. (author)

  19. Evolution of Capsaicinoids in Peter Pepper (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) During Fruit Ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Gerardo F; de Aguiar, Ana C; Carrera, Ceferino; Olachea, Ángel; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Martínez, Julian; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G

    2016-08-01

    The evolution of individual and total contents of capsaicinoids present in Peter peppers (Capsicum annuum var. annuum) at different ripening stages has been studied. Plants were grown in a glasshouse and the new peppers were marked in a temporal space of ten days. The extraction of capsaicinoids was performed by ultrasound-assisted extraction with MeOH. The capsaicinoids nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, homocapsaicin, and homodihydrocapsaicin were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-fluorescence and identified by UHPLC-Q-ToF-MS. The results indicate that the total capsaicinoids increase in a linear manner from the first point of harvest at ten days (0.283 mg/g FW) up to 90 days, at which point they reach a concentration of 1.301 mg/g FW. The evolution as a percentage of the individual capsaicinoids showed the initial predominance of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and n-DHC. Dihydrocapsaicin was the major capsaicinoid up to day 50 of maturation. After 50 days, capsaicin became the major capsaicinoid as the concentration of dihydrocapsaicin fell slightly. The time of harvest of Peter pepper based on the total capsaicinoids content should be performed as late as possible. In any case, harvesting should be performed before overripening of the fruit is observed. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  20. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin a reduction in black and white pepper by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili, M.; Jinap, S.; Noranizan, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Irradiation is an important means of decontamination of food commodities, especially spices. The aim of the current study was to investigate the efficacy of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) for decontaminating ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins B 1 (AFB 1 ), B 2 (AFB 2 ), G 1 (AFG 1 ) and G 2 (AFG 2 ) residues in artificially contaminated black and white pepper samples. The moisture content of the pepper samples was set at 12% or 18%, and the applied gamma dose ranged from 5 to 30 kGy. Mycotoxin levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after immunoaffinity column (IAC) chromatography. Both the gamma irradiation dose and moisture content showed significant effects (P<0.05) on mycotoxin reduction. The maximum toxin reductions, found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy, were 55.2%, 50.6%, 39.2%, 47.7% and 42.9% for OTA, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. - Highlights: ► The effect of gamma ray on the reduction of AFs and OTA in pepper was investigated. ► The gamma dose and moisture showed significant effects on mycotoxin reduction. ► The maximum reduction was found at 18% moisture content and 30 kGy gamma ray. ► The method, even at 30 kGy and 18% moisture, failed to destroy total of mycotoxins.

  1. Vegetative and reproductive evaluation of hot peppers under different plastic mulches in poly/plastic tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Q.; Amjad, M.; Ahmad, R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the beginning of civilization, the man has developed technologies to increase the efficiency of food production. The use of plastic mulch in commercial vegetable production is one of these traditional techniques that have been used for centuries. Studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of plastic mulch on growth and yield of two hot pepper hybrids, viz. Sky Red and Maha in poly/plastic tunnel. The treatments were black plastic mulch, clear plastic mulch and bare soil as control. Both hot pepper hybrids mulched with black plastic showed significantly better vegetative growth (plant height, leaf area etc) and fruit yield. Clear plastic mulch significantly increased soil temperature and reduced the number of days to first flower than black plastic mulch and bare soil. However, fruit yield was higher by 39.56 and 36.49% respectively in both hybrids when they were grown on black and clear plastic mulch as compared to bare soil. Overall results indicated that the use of plastic mulch is an ideal option to maximize hot pepper productivity as well as to extend their production season in poly/plastic tunnels. (author)

  2. Prototype Design of Smart System as A Vines Medium of Javanese Long Pepper (Piper Retrofractum Vahl)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudia, M.; Umami, K. K.

    2018-01-01

    Javanese long pepper is one of the Indonesia’s native medicinal plants which is included in the family Piperaceae. This plant has a characteristic thrives on plains which high rainfall between 1,200 - 3,000 mm per year and the level of soil moisture ranges from 80-100%. In the area of Bluto, Madura, these plants are generally grown on farmland by using a moringa tree as a vines medium. However, in line with technological developments, the vines media plants of Javanese long pepper begin to be replaced by technology that utilizes a concrete cylindrical as the vines media. In this research, the vines media are made from hollow concrete cylindrical with a height of 180 cm which is controlled automatically by the device of Arduino Uno as a microcontroller and its connected with ultrasonic sensors, light dependent resistor sensors, soil moisture sensors, and solar cell as an alternative energy source which called smart system. It has several main functions such as medium vines of Javanese long pepper plants, keep the moisture of plants, store the water as well as being able to do the watering automatically. This prototype design is expected to be an alternative solution to improve the quality of plant growth, especially in the dry season.

  3. Effect of compost on antioxidant components and fruit quality of sweet pepper (capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad AMINIFARD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the effect of compost (CO on antioxidant compounds and fruit quality of sweet pepper (Capsicum annum L., an experiment was conducted in open field. Treatments consisted of four levels of compost (0, 5, 10 and 15 ton ha-1.The experiment was designed in randomized block design with three replications. Compost treatments positively affected fruit antioxidant compounds of pepper (antioxidant activity, total phenolic and carbohydrate content.But, no significant difference was found in total flavonoid content between compost and control treatments. The highest antioxidant activity and carbohydrate content were obtained in plants treated with10 ton ha-1 of compost. Fruit quality factors (pH, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and fruit firmness were influenced by compost treatments. Total soluble solids, and fruit firmness significantly increased in response to compost treatments and the highest values were obtained from the most level of compost treatment (15 t ha-1. Thus, these results showed that compost has strong impact on fruit quality and antioxidant compounds of pepper plants under field conditions.

  4. Water use efficiency and productivity of habanero pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.) based on two transplanting dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Rutilo; Inzunza-Ibarra, Marco Antonio; Sánchez-Cohen, Ignacio; Fierro-Álvarez, Andrés; Sifuentes-Ibarra, Ernesto

    2015-01-01

    Habanero pepper production was assessed with drip irrigation and plastic mulch, based on two transplanting dates. The objectives of the study were: (i) to evaluate the effect of two transplanting dates and the use of plastic mulch on water productivity and habanero pepper fruit yield under drip irrigation conditions; and (ii) to determine the profitability and economic viability of the product in the regional market. The work was conducted in the municipality of Huimanguillo, state of Tabasco, Mexico, in loam soils classified as Eutric Fluvisol. The Jaguar variety of habanero pepper, developed by INIFAP and possessing better genetic and productive characteristics, was used. Two transplanting dates were studied, (i) 30 January 2013 and (ii) 15 February 2013, with and without plastic mulch. The conclusions were: (i) application of irrigation depths based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc) and plastic mulch transplanted on 30 January increased the fruit yield of the crop and improved the benefit-cost ratio of the production system; and (ii) water use efficiency based on the 30 January transplanting date was 8.68 kg m⁻³ of water applied with plastic mulch, 6.51 kg m⁻³ without plastic mulch, and 3.65 kg m⁻³ for the 15 February transplanting date with plastic mulch.

  5. Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity in Different Grafted Varieties of Bell Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Grafting favors the presence of bioactive compounds in the bell pepper, but many species and varieties have not yet been analyzed in this sense, including commonly grafted varieties. The aim of the present study is to characterize the content in β-carotenes, vitamin C, lycopene, total phenols, and the antioxidant activity of bell pepper (Capsicum annum L. using the cultivar/rootstock combinations: Jeanette/Terrano (yellow, Sweet/Robusto (green, Fascinato/Robusto (red, Orangela/Terrano (orange, and Fascinato/Terrano (red. The plants were grown in a net-shading system and harvested on three sampling dates of the same crop cycle. The results show statistical differences (p ≤ 0.05 between cultivar/rootstock combinations and sampling dates for the content in bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. Fascinato/Robusto presented the highest concentration of lycopene and total phenols as well as the greatest antioxidant activity of all cultivar/rootstock combinations evaluated. In addition, it was found that the best sampling time for the peppers to have the highest concentrations of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity was September.

  6. Performance of Sweet Pepper under Protective Structure in Gazipur of Bangladesh

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    GMA Halim

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of sweet pepper cultivation under different protective structures was made in two consecutive seasons of 2007-08 and 2008-09 at the experimental field of Horticulture Research Center of BARI, Gazipur. One popular commercial capsicum variety California Wonder was included in the study with four protective structures (low height poly tunnel, polytunnel with side open, poly tunnel with side closed and poly house including control (open field. Protective structures had remarkable and significant influence on plant growth and yield of sweet pepper. The plants grown under protective structures had higher plant height compared to that of plants grown in open field. The highest individual fruit weight (65.2g was recorded form the plants grown under poly house condition while it was the lowest from open field grown plant (3.34 g. More than five fruits were harvested when the plants were grown under poly tunnel (side closed or poly house. The maximum fruit yield per plant (334.0g was recorded from poly house, which was 160.4% higher than that of plants grown under open field condition. The second highest yield was recorded from the plants of poly tunnel (212.5 indicating bright scope for sweet pepper cultivation under protective structures.

  7. Effects of different irrigation methods on pepper yield and soilborne diseases incidence

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    Seral YÜCEL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of different irrigation strategies and irrigation methods on yields and the incidence of wilt (Fusarium oxysporum and root rot (Fusarium solani and Macrophomina phaseolina diseases causing significant yield losses on field grown processing red pepper is determined. Experiments were carried out at Topçu Station of the Soil and Water Resources Research Institute of Tarsus in 2010 and 2011. Karaisalı processing pepper (Capsicum annuum L. was used in the experiments. Three furrows and five drip irrigation treatments were used in the study. The disease incidence rates were found 8.0-18.2% in furrow irrigation plots and 4.5-10.0% in drip irrigation plots in 2010, while it was 3.4-9.7% in furrow irrigation plots and 2.2-4.5% in drip irrigation plots in 2011. Pepper yields ranged from 3 416 to 4 417 kg da-1 and 3 376 to 4 779 kg da-1 in drip irrigated plots in 2010 and 2011, respectively. However, yields varied between 3 172-3 559 kg da-1 and 2 932-4 150 kg da-1 in furrow irrigated plots in 2010 and 2011 growing seasons.

  8. Screening of bacterial antagonists for biological control of Phytophthora blight of pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, M; Lee, Wang Hyu; Lee, Kui Jae

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the potential of bacterial antagonists to control Phytophthora blight of pepper caused by P. capsici using different screening methods. Among a collection of fluorescent pseudomonas isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper, twelve isolates were initially selected based on dual culture assay on potato dextrose agar and corn meal agar. Further, these twelve isolates were screened for the reduction of disease severity caused by P. capsici using detached leaves and seedling assay. Most of the antagonists showed varying levels of antagonism against P. capsici in both detached leaves and seedlings assay. In addition, few isolates increased shoot and root length of pepper in seedling assays. Among them, isolate PS119 showing highest ability to reduce the disease severity in the in vitro seedling assay was found to be the most efficient antagonists against P. capsici in the in vivo biological control tests. These results indicate that the in vitro seedling assay can be used as a rapid and more accurate technique for the selection of promising biocontrol agents against P. capsici. ((c) 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim).

  9. Cumulative trauma disorders in betel pepper leaf-cullers visiting a rehabilitation clinic: experience in Taitung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Yi; Pong, Ya-Ping; Wang, Her-Cherng; Su, Sheng-Hsiang; Tsai, Chang-Hsueh; Leong, Chau-Peng

    2005-04-01

    Betel pepper (Piper betle L.) cultivation is an important agricultural industry in Taitung, Taiwan, and culling leaves is very labor-intensive. This case study compares the proportion of cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) between cullers and those with other occupations. Patients with musculoskeletal disorders in the rehabilitation clinic of a local hospital in Taitung were enrolled. This all female cohort was divided into a culler group (betel pepper cullers, n = 20), and a non-culler group (other occupations, n = 47). Three cullers were interviewed, and were also recorded to elucidate the related ergonomics. Patients were diagnosed using plain radiography and ultrasonography. The act of culling involves an overhead internal rotation of both shoulders with extended elbows while standing, followed by wrist flexion and forearm pronation. Flexing of the fingers is also required by the tools, 'iron nails' fitted onto both thumbs. The proportions of patients with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS) and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) were significantly higher among cullers than non-cullers (0.45 vs. 0.15, p = 0.011 and 0.40 vs. 0.06, p = 0.002, respectively). Furthermore, the total frequency of CTDs displayed a positive linear correlation with employment duration (r = 0.618, p = 0.004). Proportions of occupational SIS and CTS were higher among betel pepper cullers than those with other occupations. These CTDs may have resulted from a prolonged static posture and repetitive motions during culling.

  10. Effect of polyethylene coated calcium carbide on physiology, photosynthesis, growth and yield of sweet pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Yaseen, M.; Arshad, M.; Shahid, M.

    2014-01-01

    Polyethylene coated calcium carbide (PCC) is a potent and continuous slowly releasing source of acetylene and ethylene. It potentially improves plant growth by affecting physiology of plant. A pot study was conducted to investigate comparative effects of different rates of PCC on growth and yield attributes of sweet pepper. PCC performed better when applied with soil applied fertilizers. Results revealed that hormonal properties of calcium carbide significantly influenced physiological nutrient use efficiency and vegetative growth by affecting photosynthetic and physiological parameters of sweet pepper. Application of 20 mg PCC kg/sup -1/ soil with soil applied recommended dose of NPK fertilizers significantly improved the net photosynthetic rate by 32%, stomatal conductance by 11%, transpiration rate by 14%, carboxylation efficiency by 47%, physiological water use efficiency by 13%, physiological nitrogen use efficiency by 29% over the control treatment. This improvement in physiological attributes resulted in increase in leaf area by 20%, leaf area index by 78%, total plant dry weight by 35%, flower and fruits by 29% and fruit yield by 24% compared to the treatment of alone recommended dose of NPK fertilizers. Present study suggests that application of PCC particularly at the rate of 20mg PCC kg/sup -1/ soil plus recommended dose of NPK fertilizers improved about 25% sweet pepper production compared to its production in the alone recommended fertilizer treatment. (author)

  11. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

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    Lina Garcia-Mier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  12. Dynamic plant uptake model applied for drip irrigation of an insecticide to pepper fruit plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legind, Charlotte N; Kennedy, Coleen M; Rein, Arno; Snyder, Nathan; Trapp, Stefan

    2011-05-01

    Drip application of insecticides is an effective way to deliver the chemical to the plant that avoids off-site movement via spray drift and minimizes applicator exposure. The aim of this paper is to present a cascade model for the uptake of pesticide into plants following drip irrigation, its application for a soil-applied insecticide and a sensitivity analysis of the model parameters. The model predicted the measured increase and decline of residues following two soil applications of an insecticide to peppers, with an absolute error between model and measurement ranging from 0.002 to 0.034 mg kg fw(-1). Maximum measured concentrations in pepper fruit were approximately 0.22 mg kg fw(-1). Temperature was the most sensitive component for predicting the peak and final concentration in pepper fruit, through its influence on soil and plant degradation rates. Repeated simulations of pulse inputs with the cascade model adequately describe soil pesticide applications to an actual cropped system and reasonably mimic it. The model has the potential to be used for the optimization of practical features, such as application rates and waiting times between applications and before harvest, through the integrated accounting of soil, plant and environmental influences. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Isolation and Characterization of Pepper Genes Interacting with the CMV-P1 Helicase Domain.

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    Yoomi Choi

    Full Text Available Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV is a destructive pathogen affecting Capsicum annuum (pepper production. The pepper Cmr1 gene confers resistance to most CMV strains, but is overcome by CMV-P1 in a process dependent on the CMV-P1 RNA1 helicase domain (P1 helicase. Here, to identify host factors involved in CMV-P1 infection in pepper, a yeast two-hybrid library derived from a C. annuum 'Bukang' cDNA library was screened, producing a total of 76 potential clones interacting with the P1 helicase. Beta-galactosidase filter lift assay, PCR screening, and sequencing analysis narrowed the candidates to 10 genes putatively involved in virus infection. The candidate host genes were silenced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants that were then inoculated with CMV-P1 tagged with the green fluorescent protein (GFP. Plants silenced for seven of the genes showed development comparable to N. benthamiana wild type, whereas plants silenced for the other three genes showed developmental defects including stunting and severe distortion. Silencing formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor led to reduced virus accumulation. Formate dehydrogenase-silenced plants showed local infection in inoculated leaves, but not in upper (systemic leaves. In the calreticulin-3 precursor-silenced plants, infection was not observed in either the inoculated or the upper leaves. Our results demonstrate that formate dehydrogenase and calreticulin-3 precursor are required for CMV-P1 infection.

  14. Biochar potential in intensive cultivation of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper): crop yield and plant protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhay; Elad, Yigal; Tsechansky, Ludmila; Abrol, Vikas; Lew, Beni; Offenbach, Rivka; Graber, Ellen R

    2018-01-01

    The influence of various biochars on crop yield and disease resistance of Capsicum annuum L. (sweet pepper) under modern, high input, intensive net house cultivation was tested over the course of 2011-2014 in the Arava desert region of Israel. A pot experiment with Lactuca sativa L. (lettuce) grown in the absence of fertilizer employed the 3-year-old field trial soils to determine if biochar treatments contributed to soil intrinsic fertility. Biochar amendments resulted in a significant increase in the number and weight of pepper fruits over 3 years. Concomitant with the increased yield, biochar significantly decreased the severity of powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica) disease and broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus) pest infestation. Biochar additions resulted in increased soil organic matter but did not influence the pH, electrical conductivity or soil or plant mineral nutrients. Intrinsic fertility experiments with lettuce showed that two of the four biochar-treated field soils had significant positive impacts on lettuce fresh weight and total chlorophyll, carotenoid and anthocyanin contents. Biochar-based soil management can enhance the functioning of intensive, commercial, net house production of peppers under the tested conditions, resulting in increased crop yield and plant resistance to disease over several years. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Detection and Host Range Study of Virus Associated with Pepper Yellow Leaf Curl Disease

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    SRI SULANDARI

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available High incidence of Pepper yellow leaf curl virus (PepYLCV was observed in Indonesia since early 2000. Disease incidence in Yogyakarta, Central and West Java reached 100% on Capsicum frutescens, but only 10-35% on C. annuum. As an exception, the disease incidence on C. annuum cv. TM 999 was in the range of 70-100%. The causal agent of the disease, PepYLCV, was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Viral specific DNA fragment of the size ~1600 bp and ~550 bp was amplified from infected plants using two pairs of geminivirus universal primers pAL1v1978/pAL1c715, and pAv494/pAc1048, respectively. The PepYLCV has an intermediate host range including plants belonging to the family of Solanaceae, Leguminosae, and Compositae. The species belonging to the families of Cucurbitaceae, Malvaceae, Chenopodiaceae, and Amaranthaceae were resistant to the virus. Physalis floridana, is very prospective as a propagation host for the geminivirus infecting pepper. Nicotiana spp., cucumber, watermelon, cotton, and Sida sp. could be used as a differential host. Besides, Capsicum frutescens cv. Cakra, tomato, N. benthamiana, N. glutinosa, and Ageratum conyzoides could be used as indicator plants for the geminivirus infecting pepper.

  16. Developmentally regulated sesquiterpene production confers resistance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in ripe pepper fruits.

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    Sangkyu Park

    Full Text Available Sesquiterpenoid capsidiol, exhibiting antifungal activity against pathogenic fungus, is accumulated in infected ripe pepper fruits. In this study, we found a negative relation between the capsidiol level and lesion size in fruits infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, depending on the stage of ripening. To understand the developmental regulation of capsidiol biosynthesis, fungal-induced gene expressions in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways were examined in unripe and ripe pepper fruits. The sterol biosynthetic pathway was almost shut down in healthy ripe fruits, showing very low expression of hydroxymethyl glutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR and squalene synthase (SS genes. In contrast, genes in the carotenoid pathway were highly expressed in ripe fruits. In the sesquiterpene pathway, 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS, belonging to a sesquiterpene cyclase (STC family, was significantly induced in the ripe fruits upon fungal infection. Immunoblot and enzyme activity analyses showed that the STCs were induced both in the infected unripe and ripe fruits, while capsidiol was synthesized discriminatively in the ripe fruits, implying diverse enzymatic specificity of multiple STCs. Thereby, to divert sterol biosynthesis into sesquiterpene production, infected fruits were pretreated with an SS inhibitor, zaragozic acid (ZA, resulting in increased levels of capsidiol by more than 2-fold in the ripe fruits, with concurrent reduction of phytosterols. Taken together, the present results suggest that the enhanced expression and activity of EAS in the ripe fruits play an important role in capsidiol production, contributing to the incompatibility between the anthracnose fungus and the ripe pepper fruits.

  17. Effectiveness of biological control of Phytophthora capsici in pepper by Trichoderma asperellum strain T34

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    Guillem SEGARRA

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pepper (Capsicum annuum L., one of the most widely grown vegetables worldwide, is susceptible to root rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. Many biocides have recently been banned in Europe because of human health and environmental concerns. Integrated pest management is a European priority, where biological control together with other agronomic practices should replace pesticide management of plant diseases in the future. Application of different concentrations of the fungus Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 (the in T34 Biocontrol® on incidence of disease caused by P. capsici in pepper was studied. Different methods of application of the microbial control agent and inoculation of the pathogen were examined. T34 and etridiazole (Terrazole® were compared for their ability to suppress P. capsici. T34 reduced disease in most of the assayed situations (up to 71% disease reduction, while etridiazole was effective only when applied at the same time as the pathogen. The results obtained are discussed on the basis of the different modes of action of T34 and etridiazole. T34 is a useful biological alternative to chemicals for the control of P. capsici in pepper.

  18. Physiological changes of pepper accessions in response to salinity and water stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-Serrano, L.; Penella, C.; San Bautista, A.; López-Galarza, S.; Calatayud, A.

    2017-01-01

    New sources of water stress and salinity tolerances are needed for crops grown in marginal lands. Pepper is considered one of the most important crops in the world. Many varieties belong to the genus Capsicum spp., and display wide variability in tolerance/sensitivity terms in response to drought and salinity stress. The objective was to screen seven salt/drought-tolerant pepper accessions to breed new cultivars that could overcome abiotic stresses, or be used as new crops in land with water and salinity stress. Fast and effective physiological traits were measured to achieve the objective. The present study showed wide variability of the seven pepper accessions in response to both stresses. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration reduced mainly under salinity due to stomatal and non-stomatal (Na+ accumulation) constraints and, to a lesser extent, in the accessions grown under water stress. A positive relationship between CO2 fixation and fresh weight generation was observed for both stresses. Decreases in Ys and YW and increased proline were observed only when accessions were grown under salinity. However, these factors were not enough to alleviate salt effects and an inverse relation was noted between plant salt tolerance and proline accumulation. Under water stress, A31 was the least affected and A34 showed the best tolerance to salinity in terms of photosynthesis and biomass.

  19. Biochemical and Molecular Analysis of Some Commercial Samples of Chilli Peppers from Mexico

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    Ivonne Guadalupe Troconis-Torres

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum provides antioxidant compounds, such as phenolics and carotenoids, into the diet. In Mexico, there is a wide diversity of species and varieties of chilli peppers, a fruit which has local cultural and gastronomic importance. In the present study, the relationship of the carotenoid and phenolic profiles with the RAPD fingerprint of three different commercial cultivars of chilli peppers of seven regions of Mexico was investigated. Through RAPD, the species of chilli were differentiated by means of different primers (OPE-18, MFG-17, MFG-18, C51, and C52. The genetic distance found with OPE 18 was in the order of 2.6. The observed differences were maintained when the chromatographic profile of carotenoids, and the molecular markers were analyzed, which suggest a close relationship between carotenoids and the genetic profile. While the chromatographic profile of phenols and the molecular markers were unable to differentiate between genotypes of chilli peppers. In addition, by using infrared spectroscopy and statistical PCA, differences explained by geographic origin were found. Thus, this method could be an alternative for identification of chilli species with respect to their geographic origin.

  20. Increasing solubility of red bell pepper carotenoids by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Petito, Nicolly; da Silva Dias, Daiana; Costa, Valéria Gonçalves; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; de Lima Araujo, Kátia Gome

    2016-10-01

    Red bell pepper carotenoids were complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2-HPβCD) in different mass ratios (1:4, 1:6, 1:8 and 1:10) through ultrasonic homogenization in order to increase carotenoid solubility and their use as natural pigment in food. Inclusion complexes, red bell pepper extract and physical mixtures were analyzed by DSC, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and DLS. Solubility assay was performed to identify the effect of complexation on the solubility of carotenoids. From characterization assays, results showed that inclusion process occurred for all tested ratios. Results for water solubility assays demonstrated clear differences between solubility index of inclusion complexes (8.06±2.59-16.55±4.40mg/mL) and physical mixtures (3.53±1.44-7.3±1.88mg/mL), while carotenoid extract was no water soluble, as expected. These results indicated that molecular inclusion of carotenoids in 2-HPβCD was efficient to enhance their solubility in water, enabling application of red bell pepper carotenoid as natural pigment and/or bioactive substances in food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ochratoxin A Contamination of Red Chili Peppers from Chile, Bolivia and Peru, Countries with a High Incidence of Gallbladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoma, Toshikazu; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Asai, Takao; Okano, Kiyoshi; Ito, Naoko; Endoh, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2015-01-01

    Our previous study detected aflatoxins in red chili peppers from Chile, Bolivia, and Peru, each of which have a high incidence of gallbladder cancer (GBC). Since the aflatoxin B1 concentration was not so high in these peppers, it is important to clarify the presence of other mycotoxins. Here we attempted to determine any associations between the concentrations of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in red chili peppers, and the corresponding GBC incidences. We collected red chili peppers from three areas in Peru: Trujillo (a high GBC incidence area), Cusco (an intermediate GBC incidence area), and Lima (a low GBC incidence rate), and from Chile and Bolivia. Aflatoxins and OTA were extracted with organic solvents. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, and OTA were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The values obtained were compared with the incidence of GBC in each area or country. All of the red chili peppers from the three areas showed contamination with aflatoxins below the Commission of the European Communities (EC) recommended limits (5 μg/kg), but the OTA contamination of two samples was above the EC recommended limit (15 μg/kg). The mean concentrations of OTA in the peppers from Chile (mean 355 μg/kg, range Bolivia (mean 207 μg/kg, range 0.8-628 μg/kg), which has a high incidence of GBC, were higher than that in Peru (14 μg/kg, range Bolivia, and Peru was stronger than that of aflatoxins. Our data suggest that OTA in red chili peppers may be associated with the development of GBC.

  2. Nitrogen utilization efficiencies and yield responses of drip-irrigated tomatoes and peppers as influenced by soil application and fertigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elinc, F.; Deviren, A.; Oeztuerk, A.

    1996-01-01

    These greenhouse studies conducted on a Mediterranean Terra Rose soil in an plastic greenhouse, were designed to investigate the response of drip-irrigated tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)grown as a spring production and peppers (Capsicum annuum) heated for anti frost to four nitrogen levels continually applied with the irrigation stream. Water containing 0,50,100 or 150 mgN/l for tomatoes, 0,70,140 or 210 mgN/l for peppers as NH 4 S 2 O 4 , and uniformly supplied with 60 and 180 mg/l of P and K respectively were applied two times a week. Three adjacent plants in each plot were fertigated with N labeled NH 4 S 2 O 4 (2% a.e. enrichment). These treatments were compared with banded application of NH 4 S 2 O 4 at the rate of 320 kgN/ha for tomatoe sand 350 kgN/ha for peppers that were equivalent to the 100 mgN/l and 140 mgN/l treatments. The total amount of water applied was 345 mm for tomatoes and 260 mm for peppers. The results obtained showed that the highest yield was achieved in 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and in 140 mgN/l for peppers. The percentage fertilizer N utilization and yield increase by tomatoes and peppers were significantly increased with applying the N fertilizer by the irrigation water, fertigation, relative to the soil application of N at the same level fertilization. Evidently, the nutrient uptake efficiency as indicated by the highest yield is higher with fertigation which is extend means more environmental friendly approach. These experiments demonstrated that the amount of N fertilizer by applying in the irrigation water is to be recommended 100 mgN/l for tomatoes and 140 mgN/l for peppers to obtain high yield

  3. Pick and Eat Crop Testing: Dwarf Tomato and Pepper as Candidate Space Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, R. M.; Massa, G. D.; Stutte, G. W.; Spencer, L. E.; Hummerick, M. E.; Sirmons, T.; Douglas, G. L.

    2016-01-01

    Several dwarf tomato and pepper varieties were evaluated under International Space Station (ISS)-simulated growth conditions (22 degrees Centigrade, 50 percent relative humidity, 1500 parts per million CO2, and 300 micromoles per square meter per second of light for 16 hours per day) with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic potential for use in a pick and eat salad crop system on ISS and future exploration flights. Testing included six cultivars of tomato (Red Robin, Scarlet Sweet 'N' Neat, Tiny Tim, Mohamed, Patio Princess, and Tumbler) and six cultivars of pepper (Red Skin, Fruit Basket, Cajun Belle, Chablis, Sweet Pickle, and Pompeii). Plants were grown to an age sufficient to produce fruit (up to 106 days for tomato and 109 days for pepper) using Turface (arcillite) potting media with 18-6-8 control-release fertilizer and supplemental nutrient solution beginning around 60-days-age. Tomato fruits were harvested when they showed full red color, beginning around 70-days age and then at weekly intervals thereafter, while peppers were grown until fruits showed color and were harvested twice (first test) and just once at the end of the second test, with the final harvests including colored and green fruit. Plant sizes, yields, and nutritional attributes were measured and used to down-select to three cultivars for each species. In particular, we were interested in cultivars that were short (dwarf) but still produced high yields. Nutritional data included elemental (Ca, Mg, Fe, and K) content, vitamin K, phenolics, lycopene (for tomato), anthocyanin, lutein, and zeaxanthin. The three down-selected cultivars for each species were grown again and the harvested fruit sent to NASA's Johnson Space Center for sensory evaluation, which included overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, aroma, flavor and texture. The combined data were compared and given weighting factors to rank the cultivars as candidates for testing in

  4. Ripening of pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit is characterized by an enhancement of protein tyrosine nitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Mounira; Álvarez de Morales, Paz; Ruiz, Carmelo; Begara-Morales, Juan C; Barroso, Juan B; Corpas, Francisco J; Palma, José M

    2015-09-01

    Pepper (Capsicum annuum, Solanaceae) fruits are consumed worldwide and are of great economic importance. In most species ripening is characterized by important visual and metabolic changes, the latter including emission of volatile organic compounds associated with respiration, destruction of chlorophylls, synthesis of new pigments (red/yellow carotenoids plus xanthophylls and anthocyanins), formation of pectins and protein synthesis. The involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in fruit ripening has been established, but more work is needed to detail the metabolic networks involving NO and other reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the process. It has been reported that RNS can mediate post-translational modifications of proteins, which can modulate physiological processes through mechanisms of cellular signalling. This study therefore examined the potential role of NO in nitration of tyrosine during the ripening of California sweet pepper. The NO content of green and red pepper fruit was determined spectrofluorometrically. Fruits at the breaking point between green and red coloration were incubated in the presence of NO for 1 h and then left to ripen for 3 d. Profiles of nitrated proteins were determined using an antibody against nitro-tyrosine (NO2-Tyr), and profiles of nitrosothiols were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Nitrated proteins were identified by 2-D electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis. Treatment with NO delayed the ripening of fruit. An enhancement of nitrosothiols and nitroproteins was observed in fruit during ripening, and this was reversed by the addition of exogenous NO gas. Six nitrated proteins were identified and were characterized as being involved in redox, protein, carbohydrate and oxidative metabolism, and in glutamate biosynthesis. Catalase was the most abundant nitrated protein found in both green and red fruit. The RNS profile reported here indicates that ripening of pepper fruit is characterized by an enhancement of S

  5. Unravelling the complexity of microRNA-mediated gene regulation in black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) using high-throughput small RNA profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asha, Srinivasan; Sreekumar, Sweda; Soniya, E V

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of high-throughput small RNA deep sequencing data, in combination with black pepper transcriptome sequences revealed microRNA-mediated gene regulation in black pepper ( Piper nigrum L.). Black pepper is an important spice crop and its berries are used worldwide as a natural food additive that contributes unique flavour to foods. In the present study to characterize microRNAs from black pepper, we generated a small RNA library from black pepper leaf and sequenced it by Illumina high-throughput sequencing technology. MicroRNAs belonging to a total of 303 conserved miRNA families were identified from the sRNAome data. Subsequent analysis from recently sequenced black pepper transcriptome confirmed precursor sequences of 50 conserved miRNAs and four potential novel miRNA candidates. Stem-loop qRT-PCR experiments demonstrated differential expression of eight conserved miRNAs in black pepper. Computational analysis of targets of the miRNAs showed 223 potential black pepper unigene targets that encode diverse transcription factors and enzymes involved in plant development, disease resistance, metabolic and signalling pathways. RLM-RACE experiments further mapped miRNA-mediated cleavage at five of the mRNA targets. In addition, miRNA isoforms corresponding to 18 miRNA families were also identified from black pepper. This study presents the first large-scale identification of microRNAs from black pepper and provides the foundation for the future studies of miRNA-mediated gene regulation of stress responses and diverse metabolic processes in black pepper.

  6. Effect of gamma radiation from 60C in conservation and quality of pepper fresh and pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milagres, Regina Celia Rodrigues de Miranda

    2014-01-01

    Capsicum peppers are among the most used and most valued seasoning spices in the world. They are highly susceptible to post harvest decay, therefore the use of irradiation may contribute to conservation of this fruit which has significant nutritional, economic and social value. Were evaluated the effects of gamma radiation of 60 Co in increasing the shelf-life and preservation of quality of pepper 'Dedo-de-moca' (Capsicum baccatum var. Pendulum) fresh and pulp associated or not with another conservation methods. Gamma radiation doses were investigated of 0,25; 0,50; 0,75; 1,00; 1,25; 1,50; 2,00 e 3,00 kGy in fresh fruit and 1,50; 2,00; 3,00; 4,50 e 6,00 kGy in pepper pulp. The use of laboratory pasteurization (85°C/3min), the addition of citric acid (5%) and 5% NaCl were also investigated in the pepper pulp. The samples were stored at 5 °C and or 25 °C. Were performed analysis: visual (disease incidence, turgidity and color); bioactive compounds (carotenoids, capsaicinoids, antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds); physicochemical (Weight loss, firmness, soluble solids (SS), pH, titratable acidity (TA), ratio, color and moisture); respiratory rate and ethylene production; proximate composition (moisture, soluble and insoluble fiber, ash, protein, ether extract, total and available carbohydrate); microbiological contamination (mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, coliforms at 45 °C, Salmonella spp. and yeasts and molds) and sensory (acceptance test, difference test and paired preference). Radiation doses between 0.25 and 3.00 kGy were not effective to increase shelf-life and maintain fresh pepper quality during storage. There was increased intensity of red color, of incidence of disease, decreased turgidity and changes in physical, chemical and nutritional parameters. In pulp, the doses of gamma radiation of 4.50 and 6.00 kGy and the addition of 5% NaCl no changing sensory attributes, physical-chemical and bioactive compounds. Only the antioxidant

  7. Defense Response and Suppression of Phytophthora Blight Disease of Pepper by Water Extract from Spent Mushroom Substrate of Lentinula edodes

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    Dae-Sun Kang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The spent mushroom substrate (SMS of Lentinula edodes that was derived from sawdust bag cultivation was used as materials for controlling Phytophthora blight disease of pepper. Water extract from SMS (WESMS of L. edodes inhibited mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici, suppressed Phytophthora blight disease of pepper seedlings by 65% and promoted growth of the plant over 30%. In high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC analysis, oxalic acid was detected as the main organic acid compound in WESMS and inhibited the fungal mycelium at a minimum concentration of 200 mg/l. In quantitative real-time PCR, the transcriptional expression of CaBPR1 (PR protein 1, CaBGLU (β-1,3-glucanase, CaPR-4 (PR protein 4, and CaPR-10 (PR protein 10 were significantly enhanced on WESMS and DL-β-aminobutyric acid (BABA treated pepper leaves. In addition, the salicylic acid content was also increased 4 to 6 folds in the WESMS and BABA treated pepper leaves compared to water treated leaf sample. These findings suggest that WESMS of L. edodes suppress Phytophthora blight disease of pepper through multiple effects including antifungal activity, plant growth promotion, and defense gene induction.

  8. Effect of Low Dose gamma-ray Irradiation on the Germination and Growth in Red Pepper (Capcicum annuum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Eun-Kyung; Kim Jae-Sung

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of low dose gamma-ray irradiation in red pepper. The germination percentage, plant, the number of flower, chlorophyll contents, leaf length and width were observed from plants grown with red pepper seeds irradiated with various low dose of gamma-ray. The germination percentage of irradiation group treatmented gamma-ray was much higher than that of the control. Specially the germination percentage after sowing red pepper seeds on paper towel was higher than 1,000 and 2,000 rad irradiation group. The height of plants grown with red pepper seeds irradiated with gamma-ray was increased in 100, 200 and 400 rad irradiation group compared to that of the control. The height of plant from 2,400 rad irradiation group, however, was shorter than that of the control. Nutrient contents of leaves of plants grown with red pepper seeds irradiated with various dose of gamma-ray were significantly increased in 800 and 1,200 rad irradiation group. Electric conductivity (EC) of the water used for seed germination was lower irradiation group than control group. Therefore, there was the possibility to increase the germination and plant growth with gamma-ray of adequate low dose

  9. Development of dielectric barrier discharge for reducing microbial contamination in pepper (Piper nigrum) and sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promping, J.; Prakongsil, P.; Picha, R.; Traikool, T.

    2017-09-01

    This research is designed to determine the efficacy of DBD plasma to reduce the microbial contamination of pepper and sesame powder. The AC high voltage power supply was used with voltages of up to 20 kV and the frequency of 5.5 kHz was applied to the DBD. The gap of DBD electrodes was set at 5 mm. In raw initial samples, the total aerobic count of pepper (Piper nigrum) was found at quite a high level at 5.40 × 105 CFU/g. Coliform bacteria was also found in both the sesame (Sesamum indicum Linn.) powder and pepper (Piper nigrum) powder. Both kinds of samples were treated with plasma for 2, 4, 6 and 10 minutes. Results indicated that plasma treatment at 2-10 minutes reduced the total aerobic count of pepper allowed to achieve the acceptable microbial level for spices. The plasma treatment times in this experiment were also effective in reducing faecal coliform bacteria in both pepper and sesame powders (MPN/g <3) as indicated in the standard. Plasma from dielectric barrier charge can reduce Staphylococcus epidermidis in sesame powder which was artificially contaminated with 3.50 × 102 CFU/g resulting in 0.15-0.5 log cycle reductions of microbial load.

  10. Effect of four growth-promoting rhizobacteria on crown blight caused by Phytophthora capsici in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum

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    Carlos Ramírez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Crown blight, caused by Phytophthora capsici, is the most important disease of pepper (Capsicum annuum in the world and causes great economic losses in Costa Rica. Alternatives to chemical control against this disease are crucial to prevent damage to human health and the environment. The antagonism of Plant-Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR on P. capsici, and its ability to reduce wilt in pepper plants were evaluated. PGPR strains previously isolated from sugarcane and rice were identified, using 16S RNA gene sequence, as Pseudomonas fluorescens PC4, Stenotrophomonas rhizophila PC9, Pseudomonas fragi PC11 and Azospirillum lipoferum PCJ2. The inhibition of P. capcisi growth was evaluated in vitro, in the presence of the PGPR. The effect of the four bacterial strains on pepper plants inoculated with P. capsici (100 zoospores.plant-1 was evaluated in the greenhouse. P. fluorescens PC4, S. rhizophila PC9 and A. lipoferum PCJ2, inhibited in vitro growth of the oomycete by 54%, 30% and 50 % respectively, while S. rhizophila PC9 increased by 14% shoot fresh weight of pepper plants at the greenhouse. Furthermore, PCJ2 and PC9 strains reduced the shoot and root severity of the disease, and PCJ2-inoculated plants showed no symptoms at all, indicating that PC9 and PCJ2 are promising rizobacteria for the control of crown blight in pepper.

  11. Functional study of hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 induced by Tobacco mosaic virus from nuclear proteome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Kwon, Sun Jae; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Park, Chang-Jin; Kim, Young-Jin; Park, Ohkmae K.; Paek, Kyung-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was applied for the screening of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-induced hot pepper (Capsicum annuum cv. Bugang) nuclear proteins. From differentially expressed protein spots, we acquired the matched peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) data, analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS, from the non-redundant hot pepper EST protein FASTA database using the VEMS 2.0 software. Among six identified nuclear proteins, the hot pepper 26S proteasome subunit RPN7 (CaRPN7) was subjected to further study. The level of CaRPN7 mRNA was specifically increased during incompatible TMV-P 0 interaction, but not during compatible TMV-P 1.2 interaction. When CaRPN7::GFP fusion protein was targeted in onion cells, the nuclei had been broken into pieces. In the hot pepper leaves, cell death was exacerbated and genomic DNA laddering was induced by Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaPRN7. Thus, this report presents that the TMV-induced CaRPN7 may be involved in programmed cell death (PCD) in the hot pepper plant

  12. Molecular and phenotypic characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose disease in peppers from Sichuan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangling; Tang, Guiting; Zheng, Xiaojuan; Li, Ying; Sun, Xiaofang; Qi, Xiaobo; Zhou, You; Xu, Jing; Chen, Huabao; Chang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Sirong; Gong, Guoshu

    2016-09-09

    The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is an important disease that primarily causes fruit rot in pepper. Eighty-eight strains representing seven species of Colletotrichum were obtained from rotten pepper fruits in Sichuan Province, China, and characterized according to morphology and the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) sequence. Fifty-two strains were chosen for identification by phylogenetic analyses of multi-locus sequences, including the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and the β-tubulin (TUB2), actin (ACT), calmodulin (CAL) and GAPDH genes. Based on the combined datasets, the 88 strains were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. siamense, C. fructicola, C. truncatum, C. scovillei, and C. brevisporum, and one new species was detected, described as Colletotrichum sichuanensis. Notably, C. siamense and C. scovillei were recorded for the first time as the causes of anthracnose in peppers in China. In addition, with the exception of C. truncatum, this is the first report of all of the other Colletotrichum species studied in pepper from Sichuan. The fungal species were all non-host-specific, as the isolates were able to infect not only Capsicum spp. but also Pyrus pyrifolia in pathogenicity tests. These findings suggest that the fungal species associated with anthracnose in pepper may inoculate other hosts as initial inoculum.

  13. [Effect of grafting on rhizosphere soil environment and its relationship with disease resistance and yield of pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xi; Bi, Huan Gai; Wei, You Ying; Li, Ting; Wang, Hong Tao; Ai, Xi Zhen

    2016-11-18

    We investigated the effect of grafting on the root rhizosphere soil microorganisms, physical properties, nutrient content, soil-borne disease and yield of pepper, using 'Weishi' (WS) and 'Buyeding' (BYD) as rootstocks, the cultivar pepper 'Xinfeng 2' (XF) as scion, and the own-root (XF/XF) pepper as the control. The results indicated that XF/WS and XF/BYD significantly increased the populations of fungi and actinomycetes and the percentage of actinomycetes. 60 days after transplanting, the activities of catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were much higher in root rhizosphere soil of grafted pepper. 90 days after transplanting, the activities of phosphatase, invertase, urease, and nitrate reductase (NR) were much higher in root rhizosphere soil of XF/WS. In addition, The XF/WS and XF/BYD also highly increased hydrocarbon compounds in soil extraction, slightly increased electric conductivity (EC) but lowered nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in root rhizosphere soil. Higher pH in root rhizosphere soil was found in XF/WS but not in XF/BYD. These data indicated that grafting could optimize the rhizosphere soil environment of pepper and enhance the resistance of soil-borne diseases. The yields of XF/WS and XF/BYD were increased by 40.8% and 28.7%, respectively.

  14. New Korean isolates of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) differ in symptom severity and subcellular localization of the 126 kDa protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two isolates of Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) were selected from a nationwide survey of pepper fields in South Korea in 2014 and 2015, in which Cucumber mosaic virus was also detected; the two PMMoV isolates, Sangcheong 47 (S-47, KX399390) and Jeongsong 76 (J-76, KX399389), share ~99% nucleotide ...

  15. Non-destructive and rapid prediction of moisture content in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder using near-infrared spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the non-destructive and rapid prediction of the moisture content in red pepper powder using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Methods: Three red pepper powder products were separated in...

  16. Effect of Meadowsweet Flower Extract-Pullulan Coatings on Rhizopus Rot Development and Postharvest Quality of Cold-Stored Red Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Synowiec

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study involved an examination of the antifungal activity on red peppers of pullulan coating (P and pullulan coating containing either water-ethanol (P + eEMF or ethanol extract of meadowsweet flowers (P + eEMF. Pullulan was obtained from a culture of Aureobasidium pullulans B-1 mutant. Both non-inoculated peppers and those artificially inoculated with Rhizopus arrhizus were coated and incubated at 24 °C for 5 days. The intensity of the decay caused by Rhizopus arrhizus in the peppers with P and P + eEMF coatings was nearly 3-fold lower, and in the case of P + weEMF 5-fold lower, than that observed in the control peppers. Additionally, the P + weEMF coating decreased, almost two-fold the severity of pepper decay compared to other samples. The influence of coating of pepper postharvest quality was examined after 30 days of storage at 6 °C and 70%–75% RH. All coatings formed a thin and well-attached additional layer of an intensified gloss. During storage, color, total soluble solid content and weight loss of coated peppers were subject to lower changes in comparison with uncoated ones. The results indicate the possibility of the application of pullulan coatings containing MFEs as an alternative to the chemical fungicides used to combat pepper postharvest diseases.

  17. 1H NMR-based metabolomic fingerprinting to determine metabolite levels in serrano peppers (Capsicum annum L.) grown in two different regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra-Martínez, Elvia; Florentino-Ramos, Elideth; Pérez-Hernández, Nury; Gerardo Zepeda-Vallejo, L; Villa-Ruano, Nemesio; Velázquez-Ponce, Manuel; García-Mendoza, Felipe; Bañuelos-Hernández, Angel E

    2017-12-01

    Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum) is the most important and emblematic condiment in Mexican food. Serrano pepper is a variety of C. annuum that is traditionally cultivated in Mexico and commercialized in local markets. The aim of this study was to describe the 1 H NMR metabolomic profiling of the aqueous phase of serrano peppers harvested from two distinct regions, in the states of Veracruz and Oaxaca, Mexico. According to the current results, aspartate citrate, lactate, leucine and sucrose were found at higher amount in the serrano peppers from Veracruz. On the other hand, acetate, formate, fumarate, malonate, phosphocholine, pyruvate and succinate showed the highest abundance in this product from Oaxaca. These are the main metabolites that distinguish one group from the other. The spectrometric method reported presently is characterized by great simplicity, robustness and reproducibility. Thus, this technique can be used for establishing reliable metabolomic fingerprints of serrano peppers grown under different environmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of different ripening conditions on pigments of pepper for paprika production at green stage of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevrešan, Žarko S; Mastilović, Jasna S; Mandić, Anamarija I; Torbica, Aleksandra M

    2013-09-25

    The content and composition of pigments and CIELab color properties in fruits ripened in the field were compared with those obtained in ground paprika produced from green pepper fruits after postharvest ripening for 15 days in a greenhouse under different conditions. Obtained data for pigment content, composition, and esterification rate have shown that the processes of pigment biosynthesis in fruits ripened under greenhouse conditions are different from those occurring in fruits naturally matured in the field: the red/yellow pigment ratio (3:1) in greenhouse-ripened fruits is much higher than in naturally ripened pepper in breaker (1:1) and also in faint red (2:1) ripening stages from the field. Additionally, during the postharvest ripening of green pepper in the greenhouse esterification processes are less expressed than during the ripening of the fruits in the field. Postharvest ripening under natural daylight resulted in higher content of red pigments, followed by higher ASTA value.

  19. Effect of growing conditions at greenhouse on vitamin E content in sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L. fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The studies on effect of growing conditions on vitamin E content in fruits of two cultivars of sweet pepper (Bendigo F1 and Lamuyo F1 were carried out. The influence of growing substrate type (sphagnum peat or rockwool, Flormin, Poland, season of fruits harvesting (Summer or Autumn and dosages of mineral Iiquid nutrition were investigated. It was found that fruits of sweet pepper grown in rockwool contained more vitamin E than those from sphagnum peat substrate (ring culture, during Summer harvesting„ ln Autumn differences appeared too. but most of them were not statistically proved. The sweet pepper fruits harvested at Summer contained more vitamin E than fruits from Autumn. There were not significant differences among vitamin E level in fruits of the plants cultivated in rockwool at different dosages of fertilizers.

  20. Identifikasi Pepper vein yellows virus yang Berasosiasi dengan Penyakit Yellow Vein Banding pada Tanaman Mentimun di Bali

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    I Dewa Nyoman Nyana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Yellowing vein banding disease has been reported infecting cucurbit plants in Bali since 2014. Similar vein banding symptom on chilli pepper was observed previously, and early diagnosis indicated infection of Polerovirus. The objective of this research was to confirm the presence of Polerovirus infection on cucumber plant showing yellow vein banding symptom in Bali. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction – based detection method was conducted using specific primer pairs PeVYV-CP-F-BamH1/ PeVYV-CP-R-Pst1followed by sequencing and nucleotide sequence analysis.  Specific DNA fragments of ± 650 bp was successfully amplified from field samples.  Nucleotide sequence analysis showed that the sequence has the highest similarity > 95% with Pepper vein yellow virus (PeVYV infecting chili pepper from Indonesia (Bali, and Rembang, Japan, and Greece.

  1. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  2. The DnaJ Gene Family in Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.: Comprehensive Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyan Kang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The DnaJ proteins which function as molecular chaperone played critical roles in plant growth and development and response to heat stress (HS and also called heat shock protein 40 based on molecular weight. However, little was reported on this gene family in pepper. Recently, the release of the whole pepper genome provided an opportunity for identifying putative DnaJ homologous. In this study, a total of 76 putative pepper DnaJ genes (CaDnaJ01 to CaDnaJ76 were identified using bioinformatics methods and classified into five groups by the presence of the complete three domains (J-domain, zinc finger domain, and C-terminal domain. Chromosome mapping suggested that segmental duplication and tandem duplication were occurred in evolution. The multiple stress-related cis-elements were found in the promoter region of these CaDnaJ genes, which indicated that the CaDnaJs might be involved in the process of responding to complex stress conditions. In addition, expression profiles based on RNA-seq showed that the 47 CaDnaJs were expressed in at least one tissue tested. The result implied that they could be involved in the process of pepper growth and development. qRT-PCR analysis found that 80.60% (54/67 CaDnaJs were induced by HS, indicated that they could participated in pepper response to high temperature treatments. In conclusion, all these results would provide a comprehensive basis for further analyzing the function of CaDnaJ members and be also significant for elucidating the evolutionary relationship in pepper.

  3. Genetic and biochemical analysis reveals linked QTLs determining natural variation for fruit post-harvest water loss in pepper (Capsicum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovsky-Sarid, Sigal; Borovsky, Yelena; Faigenboim, Adi; Parsons, Eugene P; Lohrey, Gregory T; Alkalai-Tuvia, Sharon; Fallik, Elazar; Jenks, Matthew A; Paran, Ilan

    2017-02-01

    Molecular markers linked to QTLs controlling post-harvest fruit water loss in pepper may be utilized to accelerate breeding for improved shelf life and inhibit over-ripening before harvest. Bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) is an important vegetable crop world-wide. However, marketing is limited by the relatively short shelf life of the fruit due to water loss and decay that occur during prolonged storage. Towards breeding pepper with reduced fruit post-harvest water loss (PWL), we studied the genetic, physiological and biochemical basis for natural variation of PWL. We performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of fruit PWL in multiple generations of an interspecific cross of pepper, which resulted in the identification of two linked QTLs on chromosome 10 that control the trait. We further developed near-isogenic lines (NILs) for characterization of the QTL effects. Transcriptome analysis of the NILs allowed the identification of candidate genes associated with fruit PWL-associated traits such as cuticle biosynthesis, cell wall metabolism and fruit ripening. Significant differences in PWL between the NILs in the immature fruit stage, differentially expressed cuticle-associated genes and differences in the content of specific chemical constituents of the fruit cuticle, indicated a likely influence of cuticle composition on the trait. Reduced PWL in the NILs was associated with delayed over-ripening before harvest, low total soluble solids before storage, and reduced fruit softening after storage. Our study enabled a better understanding of the genetic and biological processes controlling natural variation in fruit PWL in pepper. Furthermore, the genetic materials and molecular markers developed in this study may be utilized to breed peppers with improved shelf life and inhibited over-ripening before harvest.

  4. Management of chili pepper root rot and wilt (caused by Phytophthora nicotianae by grafting onto resistant rootstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad SAADOUN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Root rot and plant wilting caused by Phytophthora nicotianae is a severe disease of chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. in open fields and under greenhouse production in Tunisia. Chili pepper grafting for disease manage- ment is attracting increased interest in recent years. Using the tube grafting technique, different compatible scion/rootstock combinations were obtained with the wild-type pepper SCM334 and the local chili pepper cultivars ‘Beldi’ and ‘Baker’. SCM334 was resistant to P. nicotianae, while the cultivars Beldi and Baker were susceptible. Plant inoculations were performed with P. nicotianae zoospores, and severity of root rot was rated 30 days post- inoculation using a 0 (healthy plant to 5 (dead plant severity score. On SCM334 rootstock and with ‘Beldi’ or ‘Baker’ scions, the intensity of root rot was very low (mean score 0.1–0.2 and plants were healthy. However, with Baker or Beldi rootstocks and SCM334 scions, root rot was severe (mean score 3.1–4.6, leading to high numbers of wilting and dead plants. This severe root rot was similar to that observed on non-grafted plants of ‘Baker’ and ‘Beldi’ inoculated with the pathogen. Under greenhouse conditions, measurements of agronomic characters indicated non-consistent improvement of these features on the scion cultivar when SCM334 was the rootstock. Since plant foliage is not attacked by this pathogen, these results show that susceptible chili pepper scions grafted onto SCM334 rootstocks could be used for root rot management and improvement of pepper yields in P. nicotianae infested soils.

  5. Essential Oils in Ginger, Hops, Cloves, and Pepper Flavored Beverages-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameh, Sunday J; Ibekwe, Nneka N; Ebeshi, Benjamin U

    2014-08-28

    ABSTRACT In the West, sugar-based, ginger flavored beverages may contain hops, other flavorings, fruit juices, and varying levels of ethanol. Ginger ales contain 0.5%v/v; ginger beers >0.5%; and alcoholic ginger beers 0.5 ≤ 11%. Ales are carbonated by pressurized CO 2 , while beers and alcoholic beers are carbonated by yeast or ginger beer plant (GBP). In Africa, grain-based beverages include "fura da nono," "kunu," and "akamu," which are spiced with one or more flavorings including ginger, black pepper, clove, chili pepper, or Aframomum alligator peppers. Spices have flavor because they contain essential oils (EOs), which are composed of aroma-active compounds (AACs). The benefits and toxicities of spices are ascribed to their EOs/AACs contents. Aim: Given the toxic potentials of EOs/AACs vis-à-vis their benefits, this review aimed to investigate the means by which the levels of EOs/AACs in spiced beverages are regulated. Methodology: The benefits and liabilities of key EOs/AACs of spices were identified and described. The methods for assaying them in raw materials and beverages were also identified. Results: There was a dearth of data on the levels of EOs/AACs in both raw and finished goods. Moreover, their assay methods were found to be tedious and costly. The implications of these findings on regulation are discussed. Conclusions: Owing to the practical difficulties in assaying flavors in beverages, both manufacturers and regulators should focus on: (i) the wholesomeness of raw materials; and (ii) good manufacturing practice (GMP). However, studies aimed at developing more robust methods for flavor should continue.

  6. The Use of Antioxidants to Control Root Rot and Wilt Diseases of Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montaser Fawzy ABDEL-MONAIM

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of Fusarium spp were isolated from pepper plants collected from different locations in New Valley Governorate, Egypt. Fusarium solani isolate FP2 and F. oxysporum isolate FP4 were highly pathogenic isolates but the other isolates moderate or less pathogenic to pepper plants (cv. Anaheim-M. The four antioxidant compounds (coumaric acid, citric acid, propylgalate and salicylic acid each at 100 and 200 ppm were evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo agonist to Fusarium pathogenic isolates caused root rot and wilt diseases in pepper plants. All tested antioxidant compounds reduced damping-off, root rot/wilt and area under root rot/wilt progress curve when used as seed soaking, seedling soaking, and soil drench especially at 200 ppm under greenhouse and field conditions compared with untreated plants. All chemicals increased fresh and dry weight of seedling grown in soil drenching or seed treatment with any antioxidants. At the same time, all tested chemicals significantly increase plant growth parameters i.e plant length, plant branching, and total yield per plant in case of seedling soaking or soil drench. In general, propylgalate at 200 ppm was more efficient in reducing infection with damping-off, root rot and wilt diseases as well as increasing the seedling fresh weight, dry weight, plant length, plant branching, number of pod plant-1 and pod yield plant-1. On the other hand, all tested antioxidants had less or no effect on mycelial dry weight and mycelial leaner growth. On the contrary, all chemicals much reduced spore formation in both Fusarium species at 100 or 200 ppm and the inhibitory effect of antioxidants increased with increasing their concentrations.

  7. Conservation by irradiation of vacuum packed spices (black pepper and curcuma)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassad, Hela

    2007-01-01

    This work has been carried out to study the effectiveness of the irradiation gamma and its influence on the conservation of the black pepper and curcuma. The latter are used for culinary seasoning and conservation. Moreover, they have phytotherapic properties but remain very contaminated for a use without treatment. Accordingly, after packing them in vacuum plastic films, the powder of the black pepper and the one of curcuma are irradiated at a different doses (3, 6, 10 and 12 kGy). The results show that the irradiation is very effective from a microbiological point of view. indeed, from 10 kGy the spices became sterile. Admittedly, this dose radically inhibited the development of the micro-organisms which were present at very high rates in the non treated spices; and eliminated the agents of toxi-infections ( salmonella, staphylococcus aureus). Moreover, the irradiation doses not have a significant effect on the physicochemical and organoleptic parameters, except for the viscosity which decreased. Concerning the black pepper, it proved that the irradiation does have a significant effect on the piperine whose value is maintained almost stable. As for the curcuma the irradiation improves its color; it actually changed from dark yellow to bright yellow. For the packing the amounts used do not generate significant modification of polyethylene. Throughout the follow-up a significant proliferation of all the germs present in non t reated spices was observed. μIn contrast, there was no recontamination for spices treated with 10 kGy. At the end of storage the contents of piperine and curcuminoids decreased but they remain higher that their corresponding standards. Consequently, we conclude that the irradiation increases the shelf life. (Author)

  8. ToF-SIMS imaging of capsaicinoids in Scotch Bonnet peppers (Capsicum chinense).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Bonnie J; Peterson, Richard E; Lee, Therese G; Draude, Felix; Pelster, Andreas; Arlinghaus, Heinrich F

    2016-06-13

    Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are well known for their ability to cause an intense burning sensation when eaten. This organoleptic response is triggered by capsaicin and its analogs, collectively called capsaicinoids. In addition to the global popularity of peppers as a spice, there is a growing interest in the use of capsaicinoids to treat a variety of human ailments, including arthritis, chronic pain, digestive problems, and cancer. The cellular localization of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation has previously been studied by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, both of which require immunostaining. In this work, ToF-SIMS has been used to image the distribution of capsaicinoids in the interlocular septum and placenta of Capsicum chinense (Scotch Bonnet peppers). A unique cryo-ToF-SIMS instrument has been used to prepare and analyze the samples with minimal sample preparation. Samples were frozen in liquid propane, cryosectioned in vacuum, and analyzed without exposure to ambient pressure. ToF-SIMS imaging was performed at -110 °C using a Bi3 (+) primary ion beam. Molecular ions for capsaicin and four other capsaicinoids were identified in both the positive and negative ToF-SIMS spectra. The capsaicinoids were observed concentrated in pockets between the outer walls of the palisade cells and the cuticle of the septum, as well as in the intercellular spaces in both the placenta and interlocular septum. This is the first report of label-free direct imaging of capsaicinoids at the cellular level in Capsicum spp. These images were obtained without the need for labeling or elaborate sample preparation. The study demonstrates the usefulness of ToF-SIMS imaging for studying the distribution of important metabolites in plant tissues.

  9. Stability of Capsaicinoids and Antioxidants in Dry Hot Peppers under Different Packaging and Storage Temperatures

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    Qumer Iqbal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the quality and storage life of perishable fruits and vegetables is a major challenge for the food industry. In this study, the effects of different temperatures, packaging materials and storage time on the stability of capsaicinoids and antioxidants, such as total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolic compounds, were studied in three commercially cultivated hot pepper hybrids, namely Sky Red, Maha and Wonder King. For this purpose, dry whole pods were packed in jute bags and low-density polyethylene bags (LDPE, stored for five months under controlled conditions at 20, 25 or 30 ○C and analyzed on Day 0 and at 50-day intervals until Day 150. The three hot pepper hybrids differed significantly with respect to their capsaicinoids and antioxidant concentrations, but the results indicated that with the increase in storage temperature and time, a gradual and steady decrease in these levels was equally observed for all hybrids. Overall, mean concentrations after five months were significantly reduced by 22.6% for ascorbic acid, 19.0% for phenolic compounds, 17% for carotenoids and 12.7% for capsaicinoids. The trends of capsaicinoids and antioxidants evolution were decreasing gradually during storage until Day 150, this effect being more pronounced at higher temperature. Furthermore, the disappearance rates of capsaicinoids and antioxidants were higher in peppers packed in jute bags than in those wrapped with LDPE. In conclusion, despite the sensitivity of capsaicinoids and antioxidants to oxygen, light and moisture, the packaging in natural jute or synthetic LDPE plastic bags, as well as the storage at ambient temperature preserved between 77.4% and 87.3% of the initial amounts of these health- and nutrition-promoting compounds during five months’ storage.

  10. Determination of Economic Control Thresholds for Bacterial Spot on Red Pepper Caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria

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    Ju-Hee Kim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to develop the economic thresholds for the control of bacterial spot of red pepper. The correlation between diseased leaf rate and yield in field was Y = -0.724X + 281.58, R² = 0.78, r = -0.88**. The correlation between diseased leaf rate and yield loss in field was Y = 0.813X + 15.95, R² = 0.78, r = 0.88*. We found that control thresholds was below 30.3% diseased leaves rate per plant in field. The economic control thresholds for bacterial spot of red pepper was below 16.3%.

  11. Research work to obtain pepper (Piper negrum l.) mutants resistant to Fusarium disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, A.; Menten, J.O.M.; Tulmann Neto, A.; Albuquerque, F.C. de

    1984-01-01

    Cuttings of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) variety Singapore were irradiated at different doses (from 3.0-7.0 kR) of gamma radiation in the 60 Co source. After two successive prunings of surviving M 1 plants (from the irradiated cuttings), hundreds of vM 3 cuttings were planted separately in pots and artificially inoculated with Fusarium solani f. piperi. The surviving vM 3 plantlets were transplanted to an experimental field highly infested with this patogen. After two years in the infested field, only three UM 3 plants continue to grow. (M.A.C.) [pt

  12. Alleviation of Low-Temperature Photoinhibition in Gamma-Irradiated Red Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, J.S.; An, B.C.; Chung, B.Y.

    2006-01-01

    We studied the radiation-induced stress resistance in red pepper leaves under conditions of low-temperature photoinhibition or artificially induced photo-oxidative stress. Plants irradiated with 4, 8, or 16-Gy gamma rays were more resistant to both stress factors than were the controls. However, exposure to a low temperature for 12 h with illumination or photo-oxidative treatment for 1 h differentially affected the irradiated leaves, although they had similar stress intensities as defined by their maximal photochemical efficiencies (Fv/Fm)

  13. Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Activity in Stem of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) Infected by Phytophthora capsici L.

    OpenAIRE

    KOC, Esra; USTUN, Ayşen Sulun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, PAL activity in stems of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants infected by the root rot pathogen Phytophthora capsici-22 in a resistant (PM-702) and two susceptible (Kahramanmaraş-Hot (KM-Hot) and Demre-8) cultivar were studied. The response of the PAL activity in the resistant cultivar was faster and higher than in the susceptible cultivars (p < 0.01). The increase in production of  PAL upon Phytophthora capsici-22 were higher in the infected plants compared to the non-in...

  14. The genome sequence of pepper vein yellows virus (family Luteoviridae, genus Polerovirus)

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami, Ritsuko; Nakashima, Nobuhiko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kawano, Shinji; Toyosato, Tetsuya

    2011-01-01

    The complete genome of pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) was sequenced using random amplification of RNA samples isolated from vector insects (Aphis gossypii) that had been given access to PeVYV-infected plants. The PeVYV genome consisted of 6244 nucleotides and had a genomic organization characteristic of members of the genus Polerovirus. PeVYV had highest amino acid sequence identities in ORF0 to ORF3 (75.9 - 91.9%) with tobacco vein distorting polerovirus, with which it was only 25.1% iden...

  15. Pepper Extract 'Biquinho' as an edible coating on conservation of guavas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelly Rodrigues Dantas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Belonging to the species Capsicum chinense, ‘Pout’ Pepper differs from the other due to its salient characteristics of shape, color and absence of pungency, but its use is currently limited, basically in the ornamentation of dishes in cooking, being left aside the numerous other benefits chemicals existing in it. It was aimed the elaboration of edible lining with different concentrations of 'Pout’ pepper extract, besides applying it in the conservation of guavas marketed in the backwoods of Paraiba. For this, the extracts were obtained following to the method of extracting alcohol, incorporated in the coating prepared edible, applied by immersion in the steal and conducted the analyzes. The microbiological results, fruits in which there was the application of the coating, in other words, with extract present, showed a great efficiency in their conservation, especially under the action of yeasts and molds in the fungicidal action was not observed in the guavas were applied to the coating with a greater quantity of extract. Concerning to physical-chemical, all the guavas have achieved good results, especially in the quantification of vitamin C, that the application of the coating caused a lower degradation of vitamin according to the period of analysis. It remains clear then, the effective proof of the action of the edible coating elaborated, thus understanding the proposed objective.The effective proof of the antifungal action of the elaborated coating was achieved, as expected in previous studies, and could be applied in guavas and delayed in the senescence process.

  16. Assessment of combining ability for yield and quality components in hot pepper (Capsicum annuum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohini, N.; Lakshmanan, V.; Saraladevi, D.; Amalraj, J.J.; Govindaraju, P.

    2017-07-01

    Six parental genotypes and their thirty F1 hybrids in a full diallel cross system with reciprocals, were used in the present study to estimate combining ability for five quantitative and five qualitative traits in hot pepper. The mean sum of squares due to general combining ability (GCA), specific combining ability (SCA) and reciprocal combining ability (RCA) were significant for all the characters which suggest that these parents could have performed differently in different combinations indicating interallelic interactions. All the traits studied exhibited greater SCA variance than GCA, suggesting that these traits are controlled by non-additive gene action. Analysis of the GCA effects of parents for various traits revealed that LCA625, K1 and PKM1 were the best general combiners for almost all the traits. Estimates of SCA effects showed that the hybrids LCA625 × K1, K1 × Arka LohitandPusa Jwala × PKM1were found to be the best combiners for yield and its attributes. The hybrid K1 × Arka Lohitwas the best reciprocal combiner for quality parameters based on its better mean performance and combining ability. These results suggest that commercial production of hot pepper hybrids and isolation of pure lines from these hybrids is a possible way to enhance the yield and fruit quality.

  17. Growth, photosynthetic pigments and production of essential oil of long-pepper under different light conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Vandimilli A; Pacheco, Fernanda V; Avelar, Rafaella P; Alvarenga, Ivan C A; Pinto, José Eduardo B P; Alvarenga, Amauri A DE

    2017-01-01

    Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN) and blue (BN) both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade). The results showed that the treatments of 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  18. Flask sealing on in vitro seed germination and morphogenesis of two types of ornamental pepper explants

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    Diego Silva Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The influence of flask sealing and explant source on the in vitro morphogenesis of pepper, were evaluated in Capsicum annuum. Seeds were sterilized and inoculated in Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with vitamins, myo-inositol, sucrose, and agar. Gas exchange was evaluated in the germination stage by comparing 3 flask-sealing systems: rigid polypropylene lids (PLs without vents, PLs with 1 vent, and PLs with 2 vents covered with membranes. In the regeneration stage, cotyledon and hypocotyl segments were transferred to the organogenesis-inducing media, being the different sealing types also tested in a factorial scheme. Photosynthetic pigments, morphological and hystological analyses were conducted for each treatment. Plants maintained in glass flasks capped with vented lids showed more vigorous growth and differentiated anatomical structures. These treatments resulted in taller plants, higher numbers and more expanded leaves, higher fresh and dry weights, and an increase in photosynthetic pigments. Cultivation of C. annuum in flasks with reduced gas exchange was more effective on callus induction. During the regeneration stage, hypocotyls were more effective than cotyledons. Sealing type influenced the morphogenic responses of pepper, demonstrating that an increase in gas exchange has a positive effect on biomass production and acclimatization of the plantlets.

  19. Consumer and farmer safety evaluation of application of botanical pesticides in black pepper crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Moreno, David; Soffers, Ans E M F; Wiratno; Falke, Hein E; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2013-06-01

    This study presents a consumer and farmer safety evaluation on the use of four botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop protection. The pesticides evaluated include preparations from clove, tuba root, sweet flag and pyrethrum. Their safety evaluation was based on their active ingredients being eugenol, rotenone, β-asarone and pyrethrins, respectively. Botanical pesticides from Acorus calamus are of possible concern because of the genotoxic and carcinogenic ingredient β-asarone although estimated margins of exposure (MOE) for consumers indicate a low priority for risk management. For the other three botanical pesticides the margin of safety (MOS) between established acute reference doses and/or acceptable daily intake values and intake estimates for the consumer, resulting from their use as a botanical pesticide are not of safety concern, with the exception for levels of rotenone upon use of tuba root extracts on stored berries. Used levels of clove and pyrethrum as botanical pesticides in pepper berry crop production is not of safety concern for consumers or farmers, whereas for use of tuba root and sweet flag some risk factors were defined requiring further evaluation and/or risk management. It seems prudent to look for alternatives for use of sweet flag extracts containing β-asarone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of the Bs2 pepper gene confers resistance to bacterial spot disease in tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, T H; Dahlbeck, D; Clark, E T; Gajiwala, P; Pasion, R; Whalen, M C; Stall, R E; Staskawicz, B J

    1999-11-23

    The Bs2 resistance gene of pepper specifically recognizes and confers resistance to strains of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria that contain the corresponding bacterial avirulence gene, avrBs2. The involvement of avrBs2 in pathogen fitness and its prevalence in many X. campestris pathovars suggests that the Bs2 gene may be durable in the field and provide resistance when introduced into other plant species. Employing a positional cloning strategy, the Bs2 locus was isolated and the gene was identified by coexpression with avrBs2 in an Agrobacterium-mediated transient assay. A single candidate gene, predicted to encode motifs characteristic of the nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat class of resistance genes, was identified. This gene specifically controlled the hypersensitive response when transiently expressed in susceptible pepper and tomato lines and in a nonhost species, Nicotiana benthamiana, and was designated as Bs2. Functional expression of Bs2 in stable transgenic tomatoes supports its use as a source of resistance in other Solanaceous plant species.

  1. Salt-and-pepper noise removal using modified mean filter and total variation minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajarian, Mickael; McInroy, John E.; Wright, Cameron H. G.

    2018-01-01

    The search for effective noise removal algorithms is still a real challenge in the field of image processing. An efficient image denoising method is proposed for images that are corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise. Salt-and-pepper noise takes either the minimum or maximum intensity, so the proposed method restores the image by processing the pixels whose values are either 0 or 255 (assuming an 8-bit/pixel image). For low levels of noise corruption (less than or equal to 50% noise density), the method employs the modified mean filter (MMF), while for heavy noise corruption, noisy pixels values are replaced by the weighted average of the MMF and the total variation of corrupted pixels, which is minimized using convex optimization. Two fuzzy systems are used to determine the weights for taking average. To evaluate the performance of the algorithm, several test images with different noise levels are restored, and the results are quantitatively measured by peak signal-to-noise ratio and mean absolute error. The results show that the proposed scheme gives considerable noise suppression up to a noise density of 90%, while almost completely maintaining edges and fine details of the original image.

  2. Structural and sensory characterization of key pungent and tingling compounds from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawid, Corinna; Henze, Andrea; Frank, Oliver; Glabasnia, Anneke; Rupp, Mathias; Büning, Kirsten; Orlikowski, Diana; Bader, Matthias; Hofmann, Thomas

    2012-03-21

    To gain a more comprehensive knowledge on whether, besides the well-known piperine, other compounds are responsible for the pungent and tingling oral impression imparted by black pepper, an ethanol extract prepared from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was screened for its key sensory-active nonvolatiles by application of taste dilution analysis (TDA). Purification of the compounds perceived with the highest sensory impact, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments as well as synthesis, led to the structure determination of 25 key pungent and tingling phytochemicals, among which the eight amides 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,13Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,13Z)-N-isobutyl-octadeca-2,4,13-trienamide, 1-(octadeca-2E,4E,12Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)piperidine, 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,15Z-trienyl)pyrrolidine, (2E,4E,15Z)-N-isobutyl-eicosa-2,4,15-trienamide, and 1-(eicosa-2E,4E,14Z-trienoyl)-pyrrolidine were not yet reported in literature. Sensory studies by means of a modified half-tongue test revealed recognition thresholds ranging from 3.0 to 1150.2 nmol/cm² for pungency and from 520.6 to 2162.1 nmol/cm² for the tingling orosensation depending on their chemical structure.

  3. Growth, photosynthetic pigments and production of essential oil of long-pepper under different light conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VANDIMILLI A. LIMA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Piper hispidinervum C. DC. is popularly known as long-pepper and it owns a commercial value due to the essential oil it produces. Long-pepper oil is rich in safrole and eugenoln components that have insecticidal, fungicidal and bactericidal activity. It has been establish that to medicinal plants light influences not only growth but also essential oil production. The growth, the content of photosynthetic pigments and the essential oil production of Piper hispidinervum at greenhouses with different light conditions was evaluated. The treatments were characterized by cultivation of plants for 180 days under different light conditions, produced by shading greenhouses with 50% and 30% of natural incident irradiance, two colored shading nets red (RN and blue (BN both blocking 50% of the incident radiation and one treatment at full-sun (0% of shade. The results showed that the treatments of 50% shade and RN and BN were the ones which stimulated the greater growth. Blue and red light also had the best production of photosynthetic pigments. Essential oil yielded more under full sun therefore this is the most indicated condition to produce seedlings for the chemical and pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Ethylene, 1-methylcyclopropene and silver thiosulfate on the post-production of ornamental pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Carvalho Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Species from Capsicum genus are used for different purposes and in more recent years as ornamental potted plant. Despite the increased commercial importance, there are only a few studies on the environmental factors affecting the post-production shelf life of these ornamental plants. The presence of ethylene induces various responses on potted peppers, reducing the shelf life of sensitive cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ethylene and the inhibitors of ethylene action, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and silver thiosulfate (STS on the shelf life of potted 'Calypso' and 'MG 302' peppers. Cultivar 'MG 302' showed intermediate sensitivity to ethylene action, while the cultivar 'Calypso' showed complete abscission of leaves when exposed to ethylene. In both cultivars, treatment with STS + Ethylene presented symptoms of phytotoxicity in plants, while treatment with 1-MCP + Ethylene was effective in delaying senescence and abscission for the cultivar 'MG 302', while cultivar 'Calypso' showed abscission similar to control plants. Plants treated with STS showed the longest durability when compared to the other treatments, about six days for 'Calypso' and 18 days for 'MG 302'. Nevertheless, plants treated with 1-MCP also exhibited good shelf life, about six days for 'Calypso' and nine days for the 'MG 302'. Although the treatment with STS was more efficient on the plants shelf life, did not completely block the action of ethylene and exhibited some phytotoxicity, while the treatment with 1-MCP had good efficiency without inducing any toxicity.

  5. Chemistry and in vitro antioxidant activity of volatile oil and oleoresins of black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, I P S; Singh, Bandana; Singh, Gurdip; De Heluani, Carola S; De Lampasona, M P; Catalan, Cesar A N

    2009-06-24

    Essential oil and oleoresins (ethanol and ethyl acetate) of Piper nigrum were extracted by using Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatus, respectively. GC-MS analysis of pepper essential oil showed the presence of 54 components representing about 96.6% of the total weight. beta-Caryophylline (29.9%) was found as the major component along with limonene (13.2%), beta-pinene (7.9%), sabinene (5.9%), and several other minor components. The major component of both ethanol and ethyl acetate oleoresins was found to contain piperine (63.9 and 39.0%), with many other components in lesser amounts. The antioxidant activities of essential oil and oleoresins were evaluated against mustard oil by peroxide, p-anisidine, and thiobarbituric acid. Both the oil and oleoresins showed strong antioxidant activity in comparison with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) but lower than that of propyl gallate (PG). In addition, their inhibitory action by FTC method, scavenging capacity by DPPH (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical), and reducing power were also determined, proving the strong antioxidant capacity of both the essential oil and oleoresins of pepper.

  6. Gas exchange and leaf contents in bell pepper under energized water and biofertilizer doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca R. M. Borges

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of energized water and bovine biofertilizer doses on the gas exchange and NPK contents in leaves of yellow bell pepper plants. The experiment was conducted at the experimental area of the Federal University of Ceará, in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil, from June to November 2011. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, in a split-plot scheme; the plots were composed of treatments with energized and non-energized water and the subplots of five doses of liquid biofertilizer (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mL plant-1 week-1. The following variables were analyzed: transpiration, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and leaf contents of nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K. Water energization did not allow significant increases in the analyzed variables. The use of biofertilizer as the only source of fertilization was sufficient to provide the nutrients N, P and K at appropriate levels for the bell pepper crop.

  7. Phytophthora capsici Epidemic Dispersion on Commercial Pepper Fields in Aguascalientes, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Vázquez, Adrián; Sánchez-Sánchez, Mario; del-Río-Robledo, Alicia; Silos-Espino, Héctor; Perales-Segovia, Catarino; Flores-Benítez, Silvia; González-Chavira, Mario Martín; Valera-Montero, Luis Lorenzo

    2012-01-01

    Chili pepper blight observed on pepper farms from north Aguascalientes was monitored for the presence of Phytophthora capsici during 2008–2010. Initially, ELISA tests were directed to plant samples from greenhouses and rustic nurseries, showing an 86% of positive samples. Later, samples of wilted plants from the farms during the first survey were tested with ELISA. The subsequent survey on soil samples included mycelia isolation and PCR amplification of a 560 bp fragment of ITS-specific DNA sequence of P. capsici. Data was analyzed according to four geographical areas defined by coordinates to ease the dispersal assessment. In general, one-third of the samples from surveyed fields contained P. capsici, inferring that this may be the pathogen responsible of the observed wilt. Nevertheless, only five sites from a total of 92 were consistently negative to P. capsici. The presence of this pathogen was detected through ELISA and confirmed through PCR. The other two-thirds of the negative samples may be attributable to Fusarium and Rhizoctonia, both isolated instead of Phytophthora in these areas. Due to these striking results, this information would be of interest for local plant protection committees and farmers to avoid further dispersal of pathogens to new lands. PMID:22629131

  8. Characterization of the Nutraceutical Quality and Antioxidant Activity in Bell Pepper in Response to Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Chávez-Mendoza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The grafting of fruits and vegetables influences fruit quality. The aim of the present work was to assess the effect of the rootstock and the scion on the antioxidant activity and the content in vitamin C, total phenols, lycopene and β-carotene of bell pepper. The cultivars Fascinato and Jeanette were used as scion and Terrano was used as rootstock. Four harvests in the production cycle of the vegetable were analyzed in a cultivation system under shading nets. The results indicate statistical differences in the content of these bioactive compounds between the varieties, between grafting and not grafting and between sampling dates (p ≤ 0.05. The vitamin C content, β-carotene, and antioxidant capacity proved significantly higher in Fascinato than in Janette. On average, grafting increased β-carotene and vitamin C concentrations and improved the antioxidant capacity, but had no influence on the total phenol or lycopene contents. It is concluded that grafting to the rootstock Terrano improves the nutritional quality of the fruit produced in both varieties of bell pepper studied.

  9. Selective bird predation on the peppered moth: the last experiment of Michael Majerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, L M; Grant, B S; Saccheri, I J; Mallet, J

    2012-08-23

    Colour variation in the peppered moth Biston betularia was long accepted to be under strong natural selection. Melanics were believed to be fitter than pale morphs because of lower predation at daytime resting sites on dark, sooty bark. Melanics became common during the industrial revolution, but since 1970 there has been a rapid reversal, assumed to have been caused by predators selecting against melanics resting on today's less sooty bark. Recently, these classical explanations of melanism were attacked, and there has been general scepticism about birds as selective agents. Experiments and observations were accordingly carried out by Michael Majerus to address perceived weaknesses of earlier work. Unfortunately, he did not live to publish the results, which are analysed and presented here by the authors. Majerus released 4864 moths in his six-year experiment, the largest ever attempted for any similar study. There was strong differential bird predation against melanic peppered moths. Daily selection against melanics (s ≈ 0.1) was sufficient in magnitude and direction to explain the recent rapid decline of melanism in post-industrial Britain. These data provide the most direct evidence yet to implicate camouflage and bird predation as the overriding explanation for the rise and fall of melanism in moths.

  10. Impact of insecticides on parasitoids of the leafminer, Liriomyza trifolii, in pepper in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ricardo; Harris, Marvin; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2011-01-01

    Liriomyza leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae) are cosmopolitan, polyphagous pests of horticultural plants and many are resistant to insecticides. Producers in South Texas rely on insecticides as the primary management tool for leafminers, and several compounds are available. The objective of this study is to address the efficacy of these compounds for controlling Liriomyza while minimizing their effects against natural enemies. Research plots were established at Texas AgriLife research center at Weslaco, Texas in fall 2007 and spring 2008 seasons, and peppers were used as a model crop. Plots were sprayed with novaluron, abamectin, spinetoram, lambda-cyhalothrin and water as treatments according to leafminer infestation; insecticide efficacy was monitored by collecting leaves and infested foliage. Plant phenology was also monitored. Novaluron was the most effective insecticide and lambda-cyhalothrin showed resurgence in leafminer density in fall 2007 and no reduction in spring 2008. Other compounds varied in efficacy. Novaluron showed the least number of parasitoids per leafminer larva and the lowest parasitoid diversity index among treatments followed by spinetoram. Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) was the sole leafminer species on peppers, and 19 parasitoid species were found associated with this leafminer. Application of these insecticides for management of leafminers with conservation of natural enemies is discussed.

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling to Improve Natural Flow Rate and Sweet Pepper Productivity in Greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Limtrakarn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural flow rate and sweet peppers productivity in tropical greenhouse are improved by CFD simulation is the main objective of this research work. Most of the greenhouse types today are in the arch shape. To develop an improved greenhouse structure for the region, the arch type was built and used as the control model. Mae Sar Mai agriculture research station under the royal project foundation was selected as the field test site. Temperature sensors with data logger were installed to monitor variation of temperature inside the greenhouse. The measured temperature data were used as the boundary conditions for the CFD analysis. A new greenhouse model with two-step roof shape was designed and the air flow behavior was simulated by using CFD. Regarding CFD results the air flow rate of the new model is about 39% higher than that of old model. The maximum temperature of the new model is lower than that of the old one. The sweet paper growths in both greenhouse models were measured and compared. Results show that the new model obtains 4°C lower maximum temperature in day time, 97% in number and 90% in weight higher the first grade pepper productivity than the old one.

  12. Novel Approaches to Extraction Methods in Recovery of Capsaicin from Habanero Pepper (CNPH 15.192).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Frederico S; Borges, Leonardo L; Ribeiro, Claudia S C; Reifschneider, Francisco J B; Conceição, Edemilson C

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare three capsaicin extraction methods: Shoxlet, Ultrasound-assisted Extraction (UAE), and Shaker-assisted Extraction (SAE) from Habanero pepper, CNPH 15.192. The different parameters evaluated were alcohol degree, time extraction, and solid-solvent ratio using response surface methodology (RSM). The three parameters found significant ( p Soxhlet increased the extraction in 10-25%; however, long extraction times (45 minutes) degraded 2% capsaicin. The extraction of capsaicin was influenced by extraction method and by the operating conditions chosen. The optimized conditions provided savings of time, solvent, and herbal material. Prudent choice of the extraction method is essential to ensure optimal yield of extract, thereby making the study relevant and the knowledge gained useful for further exploitation and application of this resource. Habanero pepper , line CNPH 15.192, possess capsaicin in higher levels when compared with others speciesHigher levels of ethanolic strength are more suitable to obtain a higher levels of capsaicinBox-Behnken design indicates to be useful to explore the best conditions of ultrasound assisted extraction of capsaicin. Abbreviations used: Nomenclature UAE: Ultrasound-assisted Extraction; SAE: Shaker-assisted Extraction.

  13. The influence of radappertization upon some sensory properties of black pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchman, W.; Fiszer, W.; Pawlik, A.

    1983-01-01

    Radappertization may be used as an effective method for sterilization of spices. A possible influence of irradiation upon the sensoric qualities should be considered in this context. Therefore the objectives of the work were the determination of the influence of pepper irradiation on its sensoric quality, on the qualitative changes of volatile chemical substances and on the correlation between changes resulting from irradiation and the sensoric quality of pepper. The spice was irradiated with doses of 10, 0, 40 and 60 kGy. Thresholds of recognition and difference were determined. The quantity of the dose was related to the values of thresholds mentioned above. The larger the dose, the less intensive the flavor and the higher the thresholds. A significant influence of irradiation upon the decrease of the quantity of essential oils and carbohydrates was noticed. There was a relation between the results of sensoric assessments and the chemical characteristics (the content of volatile carbonyl, sulphuric and nitrogenic substances). Correlation between these factors was determined on the basic statistical analysis of the results obtained during investigation. (author)

  14. Evaluation of different physical treatments in minimally processed green and red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M Rodoni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates three different conservation methods for red and green fresh-cut peppers. Red and green fruit were processed into sticks and treated as follows: A water batch immersion (45 oC, 3 min (TT, B UV-C radiation (20 kJ m-2 or C modified atmosphere storage (AM. Other group of pepper sticks were left untreated (control. The sticks were stored at 5 oC during 12 d. Fruit decay, soft-rot and respiratory rate were evaluated during storage. The three treatments were effective to reduce sticks deterioration and the treated fruit evidenced lower respiratory rate at 7 d of storage with respect to control. While the three methods were beneficial to maintain quality, in the red sticks the best results were found with TT and UV, mainly because the AM had less control of the soft-rot at the end of storage. In green sticks all the treatments were equally effective.

  15. Ultrastructural study on dynamics of lipid bodies and plastids during ripening of chili pepper fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin

    2013-03-01

    Dynamics of lipid bodies and plastids in chili pepper fruits during ripening were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy. Mesocarp of chili pepper fruits consists of collenchyma, normal parenchyma, and huge celled parenchyma. In mature green fruits, plastids contain numerous thylakoids that are well organized into grana in collenchyma, a strikingly huge amount of starch and irregularly organized thylakoids in normal parenchyma, and simple tubes rather than thylakoids in huge celled parenchyma. These morphological features suggest that plastids are chloroplasts in collenchyma, chloroamyloplasts in normal parenchyma, proplastids in huge celled parenchyma. As fruits ripen to red, plastids in all cell types convert to chromoplasts and, concomitantly, lipid bodies accumulate in both cytoplasm and chromoplasts. Cytosolic lipid bodies are lined up in a regular layer adjacent to plasma membrane. The cytosolic lipid body consists of a core surrounded by a membrane. The core is comprised of a more electron-dense central part enclosed by a slightly less electron-dense peripheral layer. Plastidial lipid bodies in collenchyma, normal parenchyma, and endodermis initiate as plastoglobuli, which in turn convert to rod-like structures. Therefore, plastidial lipid bodies are more dynamic than cytosolic lipid bodies. Both cytosolic and plastidial lipid bodies contain rich unsaturated lipids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Organ-specific defence strategies of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) during early phase of water deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziderics, Astrid Heide; Oufir, Mouhssin; Trognitz, Friederike; Kopecky, Dieter; Matusíková, Ildikó; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Wilhelm, Eva

    2010-03-01

    Drought is one of the major factors that limits crop production and reduces yield. To understand the early response of plants under nearly natural conditions, pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) were grown in a greenhouse and stressed by withholding water for 1 week. Plants adapted to the decreasing water content of the soil by adjustment of their osmotic potential in root tissue. As a consequence of drought, strong accumulation of raffinose, glucose, galactinol and proline was detected in the roots. In contrast, in leaves the levels of fructose, sucrose and also galactinol increased. Due to the water deficit cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine and spermine accumulated in leaves, whereas the concentration of polyamines was reduced in roots. To study the molecular basis of these responses, a combined approach of suppression subtractive hybridisation and microarray technique was performed on the same material. A total of 109 unique ESTs were detected as responsive to drought, while additional 286 ESTs were selected from the bulk of rare transcripts on the array. The metabolic profiles of stressed pepper plants are discussed with respect to the transcriptomic changes detected, while attention is given to the differences between defence strategies of roots and leaves.

  17. Ontogenetic Variation of Individual and Total Capsaicinoids in Malagueta Peppers (Capsicum frutescens) during Fruit Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayos, Oreto; de Aguiar, Ana Carolina; Jiménez-Cantizano, Ana; Ferreiro-González, Marta; Garcés-Claver, Ana; Martínez, Julián; Mallor, Cristina; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Ana; Palma, Miguel; Barroso, Carmelo G; Barbero, Gerardo F

    2017-05-03

    The ontogenetic variation of total and individual capsaicinoids (nordihydrocapsaicin (n-DHC), capsaicin (C), dihydrocapsaicin (DHC), homocapsaicin (h-C) and homodihydrocapsaicin (h-DHC)) present in Malagueta pepper ( Capsicum frutescens ) during fruit ripening has been studied. Malagueta peppers were grown in a greenhouse under controlled temperature and humidity conditions. Capsaicinoids were extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and the extracts were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with fluorescence detection. A significant increase in the total content of capsaicinoids was observed in the early days (between 12 and 33). Between day 33 and 40 there was a slight reduction in the total capsaicinoid content (3.3% decrease). C was the major capsaicinoid, followed by DHC, n-DHC, h-C and h-DHC. By considering the evolution of standardized values of the capsaicinoids it was verified that n-DHC, DHC and h-DHC (dihydrocapsaicin-like capsaicinoids) present a similar behavior pattern, while h-C and C (capsaicin-like capsaicinoids) show different evolution patterns.

  18. Determination of an optimal priming duration and concentration protocol for pepper seeds (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen ALOUI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed priming is a simple pre-germination method to improve seed performance and to attenuate the effects of stress exposure. The objective of this study was to determinate an optimal priming protocol for three pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum L.: ‘Beldi’, ‘Baklouti’ and ‘Anaheim Chili’. Seeds were primed with three solutions of NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 (0, 10, 20 and 50 mM for three different durations (12, 24 and 36h. Control seeds were soaked in distilled water for the same durations. After that, all seeds were kept to germinate in laboratory under normal light and controlled temperature. Results indicated that priming depends on concentration, duration and cultivar. The best combinations that we obtained were: KCl priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Beldi’ cultivar, CaCl2 priming (10 mM, 36h for ‘Baklouti’ cultivar and finally NaCl priming (50 mM, 24h for ‘Anaheim Chili’ cultivar. Generally, priming had an effect on total germination percentage, mean germination time, germination index and the coefficient of velocity compared to control seeds. The beneficial effect of seed priming could be used for improving salt tolerance on germination and early seedling growth for pepper cultivar.

  19. Characterization and expression profile of CaNAC2 pepper gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Li eGuo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC transcription factors have diverse role in development and stress regulation. A new transcript encoding NAC protein, homologous to nam-like protein 4 from Petunia was identified from an ABA-regulated subtractive cDNA library of Capsicum annuum seedling. Here, this homolog (named CaNAC2 from Capsicum annuum was characterized and investigated its role in abiotic stress tolerance. Our results indicated that a plant-specific and conserved NAC domain was located in the N-terminus domain of CaNAC2 which was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 410 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CaNAC2 belonged to the NAC2 subgroup of the orthologous group 4d. The protein CaNAC2 was subcellularly localized in the nucleus and it had transcriptional activity in yeast cell. CaNAC2 was expressed mainly in seed and root. The transcription expression of CaNAC2 was strongly induced by cold, salt and ABA treatment and inhibited by osmotic stress and SA treatment. Silence of CaNAC2 in virus-induced gene silenced pepper seedlings resulted in the increased susceptibility to cold stress and delayed the salt-induced leaf chlorophyll degradation. These results indicated that this novel CaNAC2 gene might be involved in pepper response to abiotic stress tolerance.

  20. Genotypic character relationship and phenotypic path coefficient analysis in chili pepper genotypes grown under tropical condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Magaji G; Rafii, Mohd Y; Martini, Mohammad Y; Oladosu, Yusuff; Kashiani, Pedram

    2017-03-01

    Studies on genotypic and phenotypic correlations among characters of crop plants are useful in planning, evaluating and setting selection criteria for the desired characters in a breeding program. The present study aimed to estimate the phenotypic correlation coefficients among yield and yield attributed characters and to work out the direct and indirect effects of yield-related characters on yield per plant using path coefficient analysis. Twenty-six genotypes of chili pepper were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Yield per plant showed positive and highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlations with most of the characters studied at both the phenotypic and genotypic levels. By contrast, disease incidence and days to flowering showed a significant negative association with yield. Fruit weight and number of fruits exerted positive direct effect on yield and also had a positive and significant (P ≤ 0.01) correlation with yield per plant. However, fruit length showed a low negative direct effect with a strong and positive indirect effect through fruit weight on yield and had a positive and significant association with yield. Longer fruits, heavy fruits and a high number of fruits are variables that are related to higher yields of chili pepper under tropical conditions and hence could be used as a reliable indicator in indirect selection for yield. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Heritability and Genetic Advance among Chili Pepper Genotypes for Heat Tolerance and Morphophysiological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaji G. Usman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available High temperature tolerance is an important component of adaptation to arid and semiarid cropping environment in chili pepper. Two experiments were carried out to study the genetic variability among chili pepper for heat tolerance and morphophysiological traits and to estimate heritability and genetic advance expected from selection. There was a highly significant variation among the genotypes in response to high temperature (CMT, photosynthesis rate, plant height, disease incidence, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. At 5% selection intensity, high genetic advance as percent of the mean (>20% was observed for CMT, photosynthesis rate, fruit length, fruit weight, number of fruits, and yield per plant. Similarly, high heritability (>60% was also observed indicating the substantial effect of additive gene more than the environmental effect. Yield per plant showed strong to moderately positive correlations (r=0.23–0.56 at phenotypic level while at genotypic level correlation coefficient ranged from 0.16 to 0.72 for CMT, plant height, fruit length, and number of fruits. Cluster analysis revealed eight groups and Group VIII recorded the highest CMT and yield. Group IV recorded 13 genotypes while Groups II, VII, and VIII recorded one each. The results showed that the availability of genetic variance could be useful for exploitation through selection for further breeding purposes.

  2. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Min, E-mail: jemin@knu.ac.kr [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Horticultural Science, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Jik [Biotechnology Institute, Nongwoo Bio Co, Ltd, Yeoju (Korea, Republic of); Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Rose, Jocelyn K.C. [Department of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (United States); Yeam, Inhwa [Department of Horticulture and Breeding, Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung-Dong [Department of Plant Science, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening.

  3. Assessment of root-associated paenibacillus polymyxa groups on growth promotion and induced systemic resistance in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phi, Quyet-Tien; Park, Yu-Mi; Seul, Keyung-Jo; Ryu, Choong-Min; Park, Seung-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Guk; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2010-12-01

    Twenty-nine P. polymyxa strains isolated from rhizospheres of various crops were clustered into five genotypic groups on the basis of BOX-PCR analysis. The characteristics of several plant growth-promoting factors among the isolates revealed the distinct attributes in each allocated group. Under gnotobiotic conditions, inoculation of pepper roots with P. polymyxa isolates significantly increased the biomass in 17 of total 29 treated plants with untreated plants. Experiments on induced systemic resistance (ISR) against bacterial spot pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper by P. polymyxa strains were conducted and only one isolate (KNUC265) was selected. Further studies into ISR mediation by the KNUC265 strain against the soft-rot pathogen Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora in tobacco demonstrated that the tobacco seedlings exposed to either bacterial volatiles or diffusible metabolites exhibited a reduction in disease severity. In conclusion, ISR and plant growth promotion triggered by P. polymyxa isolates were systemically investigated on pepper for the first time. The P. polymyxa KNUC265 strain, which elicited both ISR and plant growth promotion, could be potentially used in improving the yield of pepper and possibly of other crops.

  4. Effects of Different Sowing Depths and Soil Compactions on Emergence and Initial Growth of Pepper Varieties (Capsicum annum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Shahriari

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in the mass production of pepper transplant is the stickiness of seed coat to the cotyledony leaves that can lead to no emergence or having poor emergence of pepper seedlings. Therefore, in order to evaluate the effects of different sowing depths and soil compactions on emergence and early seedlings growth of pepper, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in the Faculty of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2010, using a completely randomized design with factorial arrangement and four replications. The experimental factors included different levels of soil compactions (0 (no compaction, 150.5, 681.340 and 1201.7 Pa, different sowing depths (0 (surface, 1 and 2 cm and different pepper varieties (Olter, California Wonder, EM Bell, Anahiem and Iranian Falei. The results indicated that except the seed coat adherence to cotyledon leaves and the emergence percentage traits, the compaction treatments had a significant effect on (dry matter of seedlings, height, leaf area, number of abnormal seedling and mean emergence time were significant. In addition, sowing depth treatments had positive and significant effects on increasing the number of seedling with releasing seed coats from the cotyledony leaves.

  5. Statistical methods for QTL mapping and genomic prediction of multiple traits and environments: case studies in pepper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alimi, Nurudeen Adeniyi

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we describe the results of a number of quantitative techniques that were used to understand the genetics of yield in pepper as an example of complex trait measured in a number of environments. Main objectives were; i) to propose a number of mixed models to detect QTLs for multiple

  6. Improvement of the safety of the red pepper spice with FMEA and post processing EWMA quality control charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozilgen, Sibel; Bucak, Seyda; Ozilgen, Mustafa

    2013-06-01

    Although there are numerous decades-old studies drawing attention to the presence of aflatoxins in spices, and particularly in red pepper spice, the problem has not been eradicated. In the present study, information presented in the literature, about production method of red pepper spice, its contamination with aflatoxin, and the uncertainty about the data are assessed to find out the points where improvement may be achieved. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) are performed to assess the risk. The highest total risk attributable to chemical plus physical plus biological causes is associated with the washing stage (RPN=363), which is followed by the receiving (RPN=342) and the storage (RPN=342) stages. The highest risk attributable to biological causes (RPN=180) is associated with microbial growth and aflatoxin production due to insufficient control of drying conditions. The highest chemical risk (RPN=144) is found for the presence of unintentional food additives, such as pesticides, herbicides, hormones, and heavy metals in fresh red pepper fruits. EWMA (exponentially weighted average) charts are employed to monitor aflatoxin production during storage. They successfully distinguished between the batches, which turned to be unsafe. Risk associated with unintentional additives may be reduced by using certified additives only. Better drying control will definitely reduce the risk associated with the drying process. Codex Alimentarius plan has worldwide acceptance for assessing safety of the nuts. Risk of accepting the batches contaminated with aflatoxin may be eliminated by applying the Codex Alimentarius sampling plan before putting the dry pulverized red pepper into the storage facility.

  7. First report of new phytoplasma diseases associated with soybean, sweet pepper, and passion fruit in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new soybean disease outbreak occurred in 2002 in a soybean (Glycine max) plantation in Alajuela Province, Costa Rica. Symptoms in the affected plants included general stunting, little leaf, formation of excessive buds, and aborted seed pods. Another two diseases occurred in sweet pepper (Capsicum ...

  8. Evapotranspiration and water balance in a hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) field during a dry season in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, S.; Oue, H.; Rampisela, D. A.

    2018-05-01

    Evapotranspiration and water balance in a hot pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) field during the 2nd dry season were analyzed in this study. Actual evapotranspiration (ET) was estimated by Bowen Ratio Energy Budget (BREB) method, potential evaporation (EP) was calculated by Penman method, and irrigation volume of water was measured manually. Meteorological instruments were installed in the experimental field during hot pepper cultivation. Leaf area index increased during the growing stages where the highest LAI of 1.65 in the generative stage. The daily average of ET was 1.94 and EP was 6.71 mm resulting in low Kc. The Kc values were significantly different between stage to stage under T-test analysis (α = 0.05). Moreover, Kc in every stage could be related to soil water content (SWC) in logarithmic function. Totally, ET during hot pepper cultivation was 179.19 mm, while rainfall was 180.0 mm and irrigation water was 27.42 mm. However, there was a water shortages during vegetative and generative stages. This study suggested that consumptive water of hot pepper was complimented by soil and groundwater under the condition of water shortages in the vegetative and generative stages during the 2nd dry season.

  9. Effect of temperature on water diffusion during rehydration of sun-dried red pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Rehydration, which is a complex process aimed at the restoration of raw material properties when dried material comes in contact with water. In the present research, studies were conducted to probe the kinetics of rehydration of sun-dried red peppers. The kinetics associated with rehydrating sun-dried red peppers was studied at three different temperatures (25, 35 and 45 °C). To describe the rehydration kinetics, four different models, Peleg's, Weibull, first order and exponential association, were considered. Between these four models proposed Weibull model gave a better fit for all rehydration conditions applied. The effective moisture diffusivity values of red peppers increased as water rehydration temperature increased. The values of the effective moisture diffusivity of red peppers were in the range 1.37 × 10-9-1.48 × 10-9 m2 s-1. On the other hand, the activation energy for rehydration kinetic was also calculated using Arrhenius equation and found as 3.17 kJ mol-1.

  10. Identifying World Views Projected by Science Teaching Materials: A Case Study Using Pepper's WORLD HYPOTHESES to Analyze a Biology Textbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilbourn, Brent

    The purpose of this study is to develop and demonstrate the use of a conceptual framework for assessing the potential of "world view" as a concept for understanding important issues in science education. The framework is based on Stephen C. Pepper's treatment of six world hypotheses (animism, mysticism, formism, mechansim, contextualism, and…

  11. Evaluation of three gas chromatography and two direct mass spectrometry techniques for aroma analysis of dried red bell peppers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Boscaini, E.; Mayr, D.; Pugh, J.; Posthumus, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Three gas chromatography methods and two direct mass spectrometry techniques were compared for the analysis of the aroma of rehydrated diced red bell peppers. Gas chromatography methods included systems with olfactometry detection (GC-O), flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry

  12. Toward an optimal control strategy for sweet pepper production 2. optimization of the yield pattern and energy efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henten, van E.J.; Buwalda, F.; Zwart, de H.F.; Gelder, de A.; Hemming, J.

    2006-01-01

    Sweet pepper production is characterized by large fluctuations in fruit yield in time. These fluctuations have a detrimental effect on the operational planning of labor at nursery level as well as on the efficiency of the supply chain. At the same time, the dependence of temperate zone greenhouse

  13. Application of Rhizobacteria for Plant Growth Promotion Effect and Biocontrol of Anthracnose Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum on Pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Sang Woo; Kim, Yun Seok

    2012-01-01

    In vitro and greenhouse screening of seven rhizobacterial isolates, AB05, AB10, AB11, AB12, AB14, AB15 and AB17, was conducted to investigate the plant growth promoting activities and inhibition against anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in pepper. According to identification based on 16S rDNA sequencing, the majority of the isolates are members of Bacillus and a single isolate belongs to the genus Paenibacillus. All seven bacterial isolates were capable of inhibiting C. acutatum to various degrees. The results primarily showed that antibiotic substances produced by the selected bacteria were effective and resulted in strong antifungal activity against the fungi. However, isolate AB15 was the most effective bacterial strain, with the potential to suppress more than 50% mycelial growth of C. acutatum in vitro. Moreover, antibiotics from Paenibacillus polymyxa (AB15) and volatile compounds from Bacillus subtilis (AB14) exerted efficient antagonistic activity against the pathogens in a dual culture assay. In vivo suppression activity of selected bacteria was also analyzed in a greenhouse with the reference to their prominent in vitro antagonism efficacy. Induced systemic resistance in pepper against C. acutatum was also observed under greenhouse conditions. Where, isolate AB15 was found to be the most effective bacterial strain at suppressing pepper anthracnose under greenhouse conditions. Moreover, four isolates, AB10, AB12, AB15, and AB17, were identified as the most effective growth promoting bacteria under greenhouse conditions, with AB17 inducing the greatest enhancement of pepper growth. PMID:23323049

  14. Protective Activity of the Mixtures of Pine Oil and Copper Hydroxide against Bacterial Spot and Anthracnose on Red Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Woo Soh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to examine the protective activities of the mixtures of pine oil and copper hydroxide against bacterial spot and anthracnose on pepper plants. As for bacterial spot, the treatment of pine oil alone displayed high disease incidence (59.6% and low protective effect (28.9%. In comparison, the treatments of mixtures and copper hydroxide alone showed protective activities of 66.8-76.1%. The mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 suppressed the most effectively bacterial spot on pepper. On the other hand, the mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 also showed the strongest protective effect against pepper anthracnose among the 4 treatments tested; its disease incidence and disease control value were 49.8% and 41.7%, respectively. The other treatments showed low protective activities with control values of 7.4-17.1%. These results suggested that the mixture of pine oil and copper hydroxide (4:1 can be used for the environmental-friendly disease control of bacterial spot and anthracnose on pepper.

  15. Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mustika, I.

    1990-01-01

    This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and

  16. Capsicum annuum S (CaS) promotes reproductive transition and is required for flower formation in pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Oded; Borovsky, Yelena; David-Schwartz, Rakefet; Paran, Ilan

    2014-05-01

    The genetic control of the transition to flowering has mainly been studied in model species, while few data are available in crop species such as pepper (Capsicum spp.). To elucidate the genetic control of the transition to flowering in pepper, mutants that lack flowers were isolated and characterized. Genetic mapping and sequencing allowed the identification of the gene disrupted in the mutants. Double mutants and expression analyses were used to characterize the relationships between the mutated gene and other genes controlling the transition to flowering and flower differentiation. The mutants were characterized by a delay in the initiation of sympodial growth, a delay in the termination of sympodial meristems and complete inhibition of flower formation. Capsicum annuum S (CaS), the pepper (Capsicum annuum) ortholog of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) COMPOUND INFLORESCENCE and petunia (Petunia hybrida) EVERGREEN, was found to govern the mutant phenotype. CaS is required for the activity of the flower meristem identity gene Ca-ANANTHA and does not affect the expression of CaLEAFY. CaS is epistatic over other genes controlling the transition to flowering with respect to flower formation. Comparative homologous mutants in the Solanaceae indicate that CaS has uniquely evolved to have a critical role in flower formation, while its role in meristem maturation is conserved in pepper, tomato and petunia. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Distributions of the Stereoisomers of β-Mercaptoheptanones and β-Mercaptoheptanols in Cooked Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nörenberg, Svenja; Kiske, Christiane; Burmann, Andrea; Poplacean, Iulia; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2017-11-29

    2-Mercapto-4-heptanone, 4-mercapto-2-heptanone, and the corresponding mercaptoalcohols, previously identified in cooked red bell pepper (Capsicum annuum), were used as examples to determine the distributions of stereoisomers of naturally occurring polyfunctional thiols. The thiols were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction and enriched by affinity chromatography. Enantioselective analysis was performed via multidimensional gas chromatography. For the studied cultivar California Wonder, the investigation of different batches of cooked red bell pepper revealed consistent ratios of the stereoisomers independent of origin and date of purchase. Quantitative estimations showed that the stereoisomers were present in cooked red bell peppers at concentrations in the range of 0.04-10.2 μg/kg. Lower concentrations were observed in cooked green bell peppers. The change from green to red color was also accompanied by shifts in the proportions of stereoisomers in favor of the (S)-enantiomers of the mercaptoheptanones and of the (4S)-configured stereoisomers of 4-mercapto-2-heptanol.

  18. Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf's essential oil from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius, Raddi)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, A.B.; Silva, T.; Franco, E.S.; Rabelo, S.A.; Lima, E.R.; Mota, R.A.; Câmara, C.A.G. da; Pontes-Filho, N.T.; Lima-Filho, J.V.

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of leaf's essential oil (EO) from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 fg/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals.

  19. Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf's essential oil from brazilian pepper tree (schinus terebinthifolius, raddi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A B; Silva, T; Franco, E S; Rabelo, S A; Lima, E R; Mota, R A; da Câmara, C A G; Pontes-Filho, N T; Lima-Filho, J V

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of leaf's essential oil (EO) from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 μg/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals.

  20. Mining secreted proteins that function in pepper fruit development and ripening using a yeast secretion trap (YST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Sang-Jik; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.; Yeam, Inhwa; Kim, Byung-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Yeast secretion trap (YST) is a valuable tool for mining secretome. • A total of 80 secreted proteins are newly identified via YST in pepper fruits. • The secreted proteins are differentially regulated during pepper development and ripening. • Transient GFP-fusion assay and in planta secretion trap can effectively validate the secretion of proteins. - Abstract: Plant cells secrete diverse sets of constitutively- and conditionally-expressed proteins under various environmental and developmental states. Secreted protein populations, or secretomes have multiple functions, including defense responses, signaling, metabolic processes, and developmental regulation. To identify genes encoding secreted proteins that function in fruit development and ripening, a yeast secretion trap (YST) screen was employed using pepper (Capsicum annuum) fruit cDNAs. The YST screen revealed 80 pepper fruit-related genes (CaPFRs) encoding secreted proteins including cell wall proteins, several of which have not been previously described. Transient GFP-fusion assay and an in planta secretion trap were used to validate the secretion of proteins encoded by selected YST clones. In addition, RNA gel blot analyses provided further insights into their expression and regulation during fruit development and ripening. Integrating our data, we conclude that the YST provides a valuable functional genomics tool for the identification of substantial numbers of novel secreted plant proteins that are associated with biological processes, including fruit development and ripening

  1. Preliminary study on peroxidase isoenzyme detection and RAPD molecular verification for sweet pepper 87-2 carried by a recoverable satellite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Min; Li Jinguo; Wang Yalin; Zhang Zan; Xue Huai; Zhang Chunhua; Li Sherong

    1999-01-01

    The detection technology of peroxidase isoenzyme pattern and RAPD (Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA) analysis were used to space-flown sweet pepper variety of 87-2 carried by a recoverable satellite, and its correspondent ground control Longjiao-2. Determination of peroxidase isoenzyme revealed that the physiological activities of space-flown sweet pepper were significantly higher than those of its ground control. To detect the polymorphism of gene sequence and the difference in molecular level. 42 primers were used, among them, 38 primers amplified polymorphic products, and the amplified products from 5 primers of sweet pepper 87-2 differed from those of ground control

  2. Microbiological profile and incidence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes on hydroponic bell peppers and greenhouse cultivation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Vega, Dulce E; Alvarez-Mayorga, Beatriz; Arvizu-Medrano, Sofía M; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramiro; Martínez-Peniche, Ramón; Hernández-Iturriaga, Montserrat

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to generate information regarding the microbiological profile, including Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes incidence, of hydroponically grown bell peppers and materials associated with their production in greenhouses located in Mexico. Samples of coconut fiber (24), knives (30), drippers (20), conveyor belts (161), pepper transportation wagons (30), air (178), water (16), nutrient solution for plant irrigation (78), and bell pepper fruits (528) were collected during one cycle of production (2009 to 2010) for the quantification of microbial indicators (aerobic plate counts [APC], molds, coliforms, and Escherichia coli) and the detection of Salmonella and L. monocytogenes. With regard to surfaces (conveyor belts and wagons) and utensils (knives and drippers), the APC, coliform, and mold counts ranged from 3.0 to 6.0, from 1.4 to 6.3, and from 3.6 to 5.2 log CFU/100 cm(2) or per utensil, respectively. The air in the greenhouse contained low median levels of APC (1.2 to 1.4 log CFU/100 liters) and molds (2.2 to 2.5 log CFU/100 liters). The median content of APC and coliforms in water were 0.5 log CFU/ml and 0.3 log MPN/100 ml, respectively. The median content of coliforms in nutrient solution ranged from 1.8 to 2.4 log MPN/100 ml, and E. coli was detected in 18 samples (range, fruit, respectively; E. coli was detected in 5.1% of the samples (range, 0.23 to 1.4 log MPN per fruit). Salmonella was isolated from only one sample (1.6%) of conveyor belt located at the packing area and in four bell pepper samples (3%). L. monocytogenes was not detected. This information could help producers to establish effective control measures to prevent the presence of foodborne pathogens in bell peppers based on a scientific approach.

  3. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey M Neyrinck

    Full Text Available Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®, at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity.Mice were fed either a control diet (CT, a high fat (HF diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet associated with white pepper (0.01 % for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation.These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  4. Functional roles of the pepper RING finger protein gene, CaRING1, in abscisic acid signaling and dehydration tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chae Woo; Hwang, Byung Kook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-09-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses, which include pathogens and conditions of high salinity, low temperature, and drought. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a major plant hormone involved in signal transduction pathways that mediate the defense response of plants to abiotic stress. Previously, we isolated Ring finger protein gene (CaRING1) from pepper (Capsicum annuum), which is associated with resistance to bacterial pathogens, accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Here, we report a new function of the CaRING1 gene product in the ABA-mediated defense responses of plants to dehydration stress. The expression of the CaRING1 gene was induced in pepper leaves treated with ABA or exposed to dehydration or NaCl. Virus-induced gene silencing of CaRING1 in pepper plants exhibited low degree of ABA-induced stomatal closure and high levels of transpirational water loss in dehydrated leaves. These led to be more vulnerable to dehydration stress in CaRING1-silenced pepper than in the control pepper, accompanied by reduction of ABA-regulated gene expression and low accumulation of ABA and H2O2. In contrast, CaRING1-overexpressing transgenic plants showed enhanced sensitivity to ABA during the seedling growth and establishment. These plants were also more tolerant to dehydration stress than the wild-type plants because of high ABA accumulation, enhanced stomatal closure and increased expression of stress-responsive genes. Together, these results suggest that the CaRING1 acts as positive factor for dehydration tolerance in Arabidopsis by modulating ABA biosynthesis and ABA-mediated stomatal closing and gene expression.

  5. Curcuma longa extract associated with white pepper lessens high fat diet-induced inflammation in subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyrinck, Audrey M; Alligier, Maud; Memvanga, Patrick B; Névraumont, Elodie; Larondelle, Yvan; Préat, Véronique; Cani, Patrice D; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2013-01-01

    Supra-nutritional doses of curcumin, derived from the spice Curcuma longa, have been proposed as a potential treatment of inflammation and metabolic disorders related to obesity. The aim of the present study was to test whether Curcuma longa extract rich in curcumin and associated with white pepper (Curcuma-P®), at doses compatible with human use, could modulate systemic inflammation in diet-induced obese mice. We questioned the potential relevance of changes in adiposity and gut microbiota in the effect of Curcuma-P® in obesity. Mice were fed either a control diet (CT), a high fat (HF) diet or a HF diet containing Curcuma longa extract (0.1 % of curcumin in the HF diet) associated with white pepper (0.01 %) for four weeks. Curcumin has been usually combined with white pepper, which contain piperine, in order to improve its bioavailability. This combination did not significantly modify body weight gain, glycemia, insulinemia, serum lipids and intestinal inflammatory markers. Tetrahydrocurcumin, but not curcumin accumulated in the subcutaneous adipose tissue. Importantly, the co-supplementation in curcuma extract and white pepper decreased HF-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines expression in the subcutaneous adipose tissue, an effect independent of adiposity, immune cells recruitment, angiogenesis, or modulation of gut bacteria controlling inflammation. These findings support that nutritional doses of Curcuma longa, associated with white pepper, is able to decrease inflammatory cytokines expression in the adipose tissue and this effect could be rather linked to a direct effect of bioactive metabolites reaching the adipose tissue, than from changes in the gut microbiota composition.

  6. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT SOURCES OF WATER FOR IRRIGATION ON PEPPER (Capsicum annuum L. YIELD IN GLASSHOUSE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Šoštarić

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to determine the influence of different sources of water used for irrigation on the yield of pepper hybrids Cecil F1 and Bianca F1 in the early glasshouse production for the period 1998 - 2000 in the controlled glasshouse conditions in «D.G. – PROMET», Magadenovac, Croatia. Lagoon water and well water were two main sources of water used for irrigation in this experiment. Drip irrigation system was applied for pepper production. In comparison to lagoon water, chemical analyses of well water have shown increased values of the following elements: EC, sodium, potassium, calcium, chlorine, magnesium, bicarbonate, sulphate, iron and boron. Temperature of well water was lower than the allowed minimum and therefore had direct influence on the yield decrease. Consequently, areas which have been irrigated by well water have had problems with accumulation of slime and blocking of sprinklers, disturbed soil structure, fruit deformation and decreased crop yield. Statistical data analysis was conducted by the method of covariation three factorial trial (ABC with three repetitions for each treatment. The trial showed absolute difference regarding water efficiency of irrigation water from two sources, which has also been statistically determined (P<0,05. Furthermore, statistically justified difference in the average weight of the fruit of each investigated pepper hybrid (P<0,05 has been proven. Codependence of «water for irrigation» (A and «pepper hybrid» (B, i.e. (AB is statistically significant as well, and justified at the P<0,05 limit. This means that both pepper hybrids (Cecil F1 i Bianca F1 reacted differently to lagoon water and well water. Factor «year» (C has not proven to be statistically justified, and therefore does not have any significant influence on the crop yield due to controlled conditions in the glasshouse.

  7. Effect of Gamma Irradiation, Organic and Mineral Fertilizers on Growth, Yield and Fruit Quality of Sweet Pepper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    Field experiment was carried out for two successive seasons 2011 and 2012, on sweet pepper ( Capsicum annuum L. ) cv. California wonder in the Research Station of Atomic Energy Authority at Inshas, Egypt. This research aimed to evaluate response of sweet pepper to chemical and organic manure (poultry or sheep) fertilizers. Organic manures were treated with gamma rays at the dose of 10 KGy to keep it free from pathogenic organism pests and weed seeds. Growth characters such as plant height, num - ber of leaves, number of stems and dry weight per plant in the two seasons were significantly respond to tested factors. The highest vegetative growth characters were induced by 100% mineral fertilizer. Meanwhile, the lowest vegetative growth characters were recorded by using 100% organic manure as compared to mineral fertilizer. On the other hand dry weight of plants treated with organic manure treatment significantly decreased as compared to mineral fertilizer in the two seasons. Furthermore, using organic manure had enhanced or improved the quality of sweet pepper fruits. In conclusion, mineral fertilizers combined with organic fertilizers were the best treatment resulted in the highest vegetative growth, yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper. This treatment resulted in not only higher total chlorophyll in leave content compared to control plants, but also the highest chemical properties values of fruits, total soluble solids, acidity, vitamin C. and carotenoids in the two seasons. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium content non significantly increased with all treatments except that of 100% chemical fertilizer. The improvement of plant growth and production recorded with the irradiated organic manure as compared to the unirradiated one. All parameters were higher in sweet pepper fertilized with poultry manure as compared to that fertilized with sheep manure. Although the treatment of organic manure only gave to some extent, less total yield, it has great impact on the

  8. Multiple plasmid-borne virulence genes of Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. capsici critical for disease development in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Sun; Oh, Eom-Ji; Kim, Donghyuk; Oh, Chang-Sik

    2018-02-01

    Clavibacter michiganensis ssp. capsici is a Gram-positive plant-pathogenic bacterium causing bacterial canker disease in pepper. Virulence genes and mechanisms of C. michiganensis ssp. capsici in pepper have not yet been studied. To identify virulence genes of C. michiganensis ssp. capsici, comparative genome analyses with C. michiganensis ssp. capsici and its related C. michiganensis subspecies, and functional analysis of its putative virulence genes during infection were performed. The C. michiganensis ssp. capsici type strain PF008 carries one chromosome (3.056 Mb) and two plasmids (39 kb pCM1 Cmc and 145 kb pCM2 Cmc ). The genome analyses showed that this bacterium lacks a chromosomal pathogenicity island and celA gene that are important for disease development by C. michiganensis ssp. michiganensis in tomato, but carries most putative virulence genes in both plasmids. Virulence of pCM1 Cmc -cured C. michiganensis ssp. capsici was greatly reduced compared with the wild-type strain in pepper. The complementation analysis with pCM1 Cmc -located putative virulence genes showed that at least five genes, chpE, chpG, ppaA1, ppaB1 and pelA1, encoding serine proteases or pectate lyase contribute to disease development in pepper. In conclusion, C. michiganensis ssp. capsici has a unique genome structure, and its multiple plasmid-borne genes play critical roles in virulence in pepper, either separately or together. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  9. Effect of curing time on the physicochemical and sensory properties of beef jerky replaced salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H J; Kim, G D; Jung, E Y; Seo, H W; Joo, S T; Jin, S K; Yang, H S

    2014-08-01

    This study was done to investigate the quality properties of beef jerky with soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste replacing salt. Sliced beef samples were cured in salt (control), soy sauce, red pepper paste, and soybean paste for 24 or 48 h and then dried at 70°C for 8 h. Treatments showed higher final moisture content and lower Na(+) concentration than the control after drying for 8 h. The lightness and shear force values were lower in all treatment samples than in the control during 48 h of curing time. In particular, lower lipid oxidation was found in the jerky cured with red pepper paste than in the control. Sensory evaluation showed that color, flavor, and tenderness of jerky samples were improved by replacing salt with soy sauce, red pepper paste and soybean paste, and higher likeability scores of the beef jerky were obtained among those treatments after 48 h of curing time.

  10. Study on the technology of irradiation on hot pepper to inhibit Aspergllens flavus. Final report for the period 15 May 1987 - 15 May 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qixun

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness of irradiation on the sterilization of microorganisms and insects in dry hot pepper, as well as the changes in chemical composition and free radicals at different radiation doses, have been investigated

  11. Study on the technology of irradiation on hot pepper to inhibit Aspergllens flavus. Final report for the period 15 May 1987 - 15 May 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qixun, Chen [Sichuan Province Inst. of Nuclear Technology Application, Chengdu (China). Div. of Irradiation on Food

    1988-03-24

    The effectiveness of irradiation on the sterilization of microorganisms and insects in dry hot pepper, as well as the changes in chemical composition and free radicals at different radiation doses, have been investigated.

  12. Metabolite biodiversity in pepper (Capsicum) fruits of thirty-two diverse accessions : variation in health-related compounds and impliciations for breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahyuni, Y.; Ballester, A.R.; Sudarmonowati, E.; Bino, R.J.; Bovy, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive study on morphology and biochemical compounds of 32 Capsicum spp. accessions has been performed. Accessions represented four pepper species, Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum chinense and Capsicum baccatum which were selected by their variation in morphological

  13. Root-Knot Nematode Management in Double-Cropped Plasticulture Vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Desaeger, J. A.; Csinos, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    Combination treatments of chisel-injected fumigants (methyl bromide, 1,3-D, metam sodium, and chloropicrin) on a first crop, followed by drip-applied fumigants (metam sodium and 1,3-D ± chloropicrin) on a second crop, with and without oxamyl drip applications were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne incognita in three different tests (2002 to 2004) in Tifton, GA. First crops were eggplant or tomato, and second crops were cantaloupe, squash, or jalapeno pepper. Double-cropped vegetables suffe...

  14. Antimicrobial wound dressing films containing essential oils and oleoresins of pepper encapsulated in sodium alginate films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Miranda Rosa

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Medicated wound dressings are important barriers to avoid contamination and, when they contain antimicrobial additives, can be used as treatment for infected wounds. There are several types of polysaccharide materials that serve as matrices for medicated wound dressings, among them, sodium alginate. For the preparation of the films studied in this paper, sodium alginate was employed in combination with essential oils/oleoresins (EO/OL of six peppers that are commonly used in cooking. The EO/OL were incorporated at three different concentrations (low, intermediate and high. Most of the films prepared had better dispersion of the EO/OL at the intermediate concentration. All films studied in this research were dissolved in water at different rates. The antibacterial activity of the prepared films showed significant results against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus, and demonstrated that the films studied may be a new alternative for medicated wound dressings.

  15. The organic fertilizers in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. and the impact on yield and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Reyes Pérez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic fertilizers in the fertilization of crops is an alternative to the problems generated by the intensive use of chemical fertilizers. The objective of this research was to evaluate the application to soil of organics fertilizers compared with a control treatment with chemical fertilization on the yield and its components in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.. Treatments consisted in to apply worm humus, water hyacinth compost, a mixture with 50 % worm humus and 50 % of water hyacinth compost, and a chemical control. It was evaluated fruits quantity per harvest, fruit length, diameter and fruit weight per harvest and yield. Results showed that the plants that were supplemented with worm humus, followed by worm humus + water hyacinth they had significantly better response with respect to the length, diameter and weight of the fruits.

  16. Analytical studies into radiation-induced starch damage in black and white peppers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.; Sharif, M.M.; Barabassy, S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to develop detection methods of radiation treatment, ground black pepper samples equilibrated to water activity levels of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 a w , respectively, were irradiated with gamma radiation doses of 0, 4, 8, 16 or 32 kGy, and their damaged starch content, reduced sugar content and alcohol induced turbidity of their aqueous extracts were investigated. The colorimetric method and the alcohol-induced turbidity showed statistically significant increase of starch damage at 4 kGy or higher dose levels. However, all investigated analytical indices of starch radio-depolymerization were changed less dramatically by irradiation than the apparent viscosity of the gelatinized suspensions of spices reported previously. (author) 15 refs.; 4 tabs

  17. Protocols for Improvement of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.) Utilizing Biotechnological Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Yamuna, G; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Black pepper, Piper nigrum L., the "King of spices" is the most widely used spice growing in the South-Western region of India. The humid tropical evergreen forest bordering the Malabar Coast (Western Ghats is one of the hot spot areas of plant bio-diversity on earth) is its center of origin and diversity. However, the crop faces constraints like rampant fungal and viral diseases, lack of disease free planting material, hence biotechnological tools can be utilized to address these problems and strides have been made successfully. The standardization of micropropagation, somatic embryogenesis, in vitro conservation, protoplast isolation, and genetic transformation protocols are described here. The protocols could be utilized to achieve similar goals in the related species of Piper too.

  18. Preliminary Study of Water Repellent Properties of Red Pepper Seed Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniawan, F.; Madurani, K. A.; Wahyulis, N. C.

    2017-03-01

    The water-repellent properties of red pepper seed oil (capsicol) have been studied. The oil was coated on the glass surface by spray technique. Water repellent properties were performed by measuring the contact angle of water droplets. The measurement was conducted by varying the drying time of the oil coating at room temperature. The optimum contact angle of the droplets on the glass with capsicol coating is 46.77°, which can be achieved in 30 min of drying time. It also obtained the smallest diameter of the droplets (0.47 cm). The longer drying time decrease the contact angles and increases the diameter. The results were compared with the bare glass and commercial water repellent. The contact angle of the droplets on the glass surface with capsicol coating is higher than bare glass, but lower than glass with commercial water repellent coating. It means that capsicol has the water-repellent properties.

  19. Proteomics assisted profiling of antimicrobial peptide signatures from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umadevi, P; Soumya, M; George, Johnson K; Anandaraj, M

    2018-05-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides are the interesting source of studies in defense response as they are essential components of innate immunity which exert rapid defense response. In spite of abundant reports on the isolation of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from many sources, the profile of AMPs expressed/identified from single crop species under certain stress/physiological condition is still unknown. This work describes the AMP signature profile of black pepper and their expression upon Phytophthora infection using label-free quantitative proteomics strategy. The differential expression of 24 AMPs suggests that a combinatorial strategy is working in the defense network. The 24 AMP signatures belonged to the cationic, anionic, cysteine-rich and cysteine-free group. As the first report on the possible involvement of AMP signature in Phytophthora infection, our results offer a platform for further study on regulation, evolutionary importance and exploitation of theses AMPs as next generation molecules against pathogens.

  20. SDS-Page Seed Storage Protein Profiles in Chili Peppers (Capsicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owk ANIEL KUMAR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed protein banding patterns (SDS-PAGE were studied from eighteen genotypes of chili pepper (Capsicum L. A total of 21 protein polypeptide bands with molecular weight ranging from 18.6 to 72.0 kD were recorded. Among the genotypes CA18, CA21 and CA27 represented maximum number of protein bands (12. Band no. (11 and (5,12 are exclusive to C. annuum L. and C. frutescens L. genotypes respectively. Average percent similarity was highest (100% between CA2 and CA8 genotypes and the UPGMA dendrogram represented low genetic diversity. The study revealed that considerable intra and inter-specific differences were found in the genotypes. The variability of protein profiles in the genotypes suggested that these selected genotypes can be a good source for crop improvement through hybridization programs.

  1. Artificial neural networks employment in the prediction of evapotranspiration of greenhouse-grown sweet pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héliton Pandorfi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate the applicability of artificial neural networks (ANNs in the prediction of evapotranspiration of sweet pepper cultivated in a greenhouse. The used data encompass the second crop cycle, from September 2013 to February 2014, constituting 135 days of daily meteorological data, referring to the following variables: temperature and relative air humidity, wind speed and solar radiation (input variables, as well as evapotranspiration (output variable, determined using data obtained by load-cell weighing lysimeter. The recorded data were divided into three sets for training, testing and validation. The ANN learning model recognized the evapotranspiration patterns with acceptable accuracy, with mean square error of 0.005, in comparison to the data recorded in the lysimeter, with coefficient of determination of 0.87, demonstrating the best approximation for the 4-21-1 network architecture, with multilayers, error back-propagation learning algorithm and learning rate of 0.01.

  2. An Experimental Test of a Biodynamic Method of Weed Suppression: The Biodynamic Seed Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kenneth Kirchoff

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of a biodynamic agriculture method of weed suppression was carried out in growth chambers to establish the feasibility of the method as a preliminary to field trials. Four generations of Brassica rapa plants were used in a randomized block design. Treated flats received ashed seeds prepared according to biodynamic indications. Seed weight and counts were measured at the end of each generation, and germination of the control and experimental seed was investigated at the end of generation four. The biodynamic seed peppers, created and applied as described here, had no effect on seed production or viability, and did not effectively inhibit reproduction of the targeted species over the course of four consecutive treatments.

  3. Characterization of phenolic compounds in Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) exocarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuereisen, Michelle M; Hoppe, Julia; Zimmermann, Benno F; Weber, Fabian; Schulze-Kaysers, Nadine; Schieber, Andreas

    2014-07-02

    The objective of this study was to characterize the phenolic composition of Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) exocarp extract. Using UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis, four anthocyanins, three biflavonoids, gallic acid, and two types of hydrolyzable tannins (galloyl glucoses, galloyl shikimic acids) were tentatively identified. The structure of the so far unknown 7-O-methylpelargonidin 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside was elucidated by 2D NMR. Within the group of gallotannins, galloyl shikimic acids with uncommon degrees of galloylation (tetra- to hexagalloyl shikimic acids) were detected. Among the biflavonoids, I3',II8-biapigenin (amentoflavone), I6,II8-biapigenin (agathisflavone), and II-2,3-dihydro-I3',II8-biapigenin were identified, which have already been described for Anacardiaceae. From the results of the present study together with previous findings on the phenolic profile of other Anacardiaceae plants, it is concluded that 7-methoxylated flavonoids are a chemotaxonomic trait frequently found in this family.

  4. Changes induced by the Pepper mild mottle tobamovirus on the chloroplast proteome of Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M; Sajnani, C; Barón, M

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed the chloroplast proteome of Nicotiana benthamiana using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry followed by a database search. In order to improve the resolution of the two-dimensional electrophoresis gels, we have made separate maps for the low and the high pH range. At least 200 spots were detected. We identified 72 polypeptides, some being isoforms of different multiprotein families. In addition, changes in this chloroplast proteome induced by the infection with the Spanish strain of the Pepper mild mottle virus were investigated. Viral infection induced the down-regulation of several chloroplastidic proteins involved in both the photosynthetic electron-transport chain and the Benson-Calvin cycle.

  5. Partitioning of 14C-photosynthate in fruiting and deblossomed bell-pepper plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, R.M.; Srinivasa Rao, N.K.

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive carbon movement was studied after 10; 20 and 30 days of flowering in fruiting and deblossomed plants of bell-pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. Arka Gaurav). There was a considerable difference in the distribution pattern of exported carbon among different plant organs (sink) between fruiting and deblossomed plants. With the advancement of fruit growth the first flowering node fruit acts as a major sink for carbon (10.2%) up to 20 days and afterwards becomes a weaker sink as other growing fruits imported a major amount of carbon (46.7%). In the deblossomed plants the roots imported the maximum radiocarbon which is attributed to the slow growth of other vegetative organs because of high temperature during summer season. (author). 6 refs., 1 tab

  6. Effect of seed treatment with low-potency laser in peppers plants (Capsicum annuum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Álvarez Fonseca,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of seed treatment with low-potency laser radiation on some physiological parameters and yield of peppers plants, California Wonder variety, was studied. The seeds were irradiated with a laser He- Ne, 25 mW powers, at different exposure periods 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 seconds, using untreated seeds as controls. We evaluated plant height (mm, root length (mm, stem diameter (mm, polar average diameter (mm equatorial mean diameter (mm, mean fruit mass (g and yield per plant (kg.plant-1. The results showed a significant increase (p?0.001 in the indicators of plants height (50 %, root length (13 %, stem diameter (17 %, equatorial mean diameter (7 %, mean fruit mass (13 % and yield per plant (67 %, compared to control.

  7. Identification of low amount of irradiated spices (red pepper, garlic, ginger powder) with luminescence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeong-Keun; Akram, Kashif; Kim, Cheong-Tae; Kang, Na-Roo; Lee, Jin-Won; Ryang, Jun-Hwan; Kwon, Joong-Ho

    2012-08-01

    For the identification of irradiated food, current analysis methods have limitations regarding presence and stability of radiation-induced markers. In this study, different spice blends with small quantity of different irradiated (0, 1 and 10 kGy) spice powders, such as red pepper, garlic or ginger, were investigated using PSL and TL techniques. In PSL-based screening analysis, the spice blends containing 10% of irradiated materials (1 or 10 kGy) were determined as intermediate or positive. In TL results, the blends containing 1% of 1 or 10 kGy-irradiated spices showed the typical TL glow curves that could be interpreted as positive. The blends with irradiated garlic powder provided more good results where identification was possible at 0.5% mixing of irradiated sample. However, the TL ratios of all spice blends were <0.1 and only TL glow curve shape and intensity may be used to discriminate the samples having irradiated component.

  8. The genome sequence of pepper vein yellows virus (family Luteoviridae, genus Polerovirus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Ritsuko; Nakashima, Nobuhiko; Hinomoto, Norihide; Kawano, Shinji; Toyosato, Tetsuya

    2011-05-01

    The complete genome of pepper vein yellows virus (PeVYV) was sequenced using random amplification of RNA samples isolated from vector insects (Aphis gossypii) that had been given access to PeVYV-infected plants. The PeVYV genome consisted of 6244 nucleotides and had a genomic organization characteristic of members of the genus Polerovirus. PeVYV had highest amino acid sequence identities in ORF0 to ORF3 (75.9 - 91.9%) with tobacco vein distorting polerovirus, with which it was only 25.1% identical in ORF5. These sequence comparisons and previously studied biological properties indicate that PeVYV is a distinctly different virus and belongs to a new species of the genus Polerovirus.

  9. EVALUATION OF GROWTH AND YIELD PERFORMANCE ON INOCULATED CHILI PEPPER HYBRIDS BY CUCUMBER MOSAIC VIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Herison

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance cultivar is a best control measure to reduce losses due to virus attack in the field. Study on growth and yield of new cultivars compared to the commercial ones is an important step in cultivar development whether they will be accepted by farmers or not. The objective of this research was to study growth and yield of new chili pepper hybrids developed for CMV tolerance in comparison to a commercial and similar fruit size one. Twelve new hybrids and one commercial hybrid cultivar 'Prada', as a control, were evaluated in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. In the greenhouse experiment, H23 and H20 showed better vegetative growth compared to other hybrids and control. Hybrid H17 showed the highest yield followed by H5, H4 and H6.

  10. Pepper's Ghost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Without applications of physics such as counter-weighted sets and backdrops, inclined planes, stage lighting instruments, and other mechanisms for "deus ex machina," dramatic productions would revert to the words only--fine for Shakespeare and Becket, but not good for audiences who are accustomed to experiencing plays with the eye as well as the…

  11. A Three-Year Field Validation Study to Improve the Integrated Pest Management of Hot Pepper

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    Ji-Hoon Kim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To improve the integrated pest management (IPM of hot pepper, field study was conducted in Hwasung from 2010 to 2012 and an IPM system was developed to help growers decide when to apply pesticides to control anthracnose, tobacco budworm, Phytophthora blight, bacterial wilt, and bacterial leaf spot. The three field treatments consisted of IPM sprays following the forecast model advisory, a periodic spray at 7-to-10-day intervals, and no spray (control. The number of annual pesticide applications for the IPM treatment ranged from six to eight, whereas the plots subjected to the periodic treatment received pesticide 11 or 12 times annually for three years. Compared to the former strategy, our improved IPM strategy features more intense pest management, with frequent spraying for anthracnose and mixed spraying for tobacco budworm or Phytophthora blight. The incidences for no pesticide control in 2010, 2011, and 2012 were 91, 97.6, and 41.4%, respectively. Conversely, the incidences for the IPM treatment for those years were 7.6, 62.6, and 2%, and the yields from IPM-treated plots were 48.6 kg, 12.1 kg, and 48.8 kg. The incidence and yield in the IPM-treated plots were almost the same as those of the periodic treatment except in 2011, in which no unnecessary sprays were given, meaning that the IPM control was quite successful. From reviewing eight years of field work, sophisticated forecasts that optimize pesticide spray timing reveal that reliance on pesticides can be reduced without compromising yield. Eco-friendly strategies can be implemented in the pest management of hot pepper.

  12. Inhibition of ethylene response by 1-methylcyclopropene in potted ornamental pepper

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    Fernando Luiz Finger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the face of great potential of 1-MCP in blocking ethylene action, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 1-MCP on ethylene action and extend the post-production of ornamental peppers Capsicum annuum potted plants. Ornamental pepper cultivar Calypso shows complete abscission of leaves when exposed to 10µL L-1 ethylene. By exposing plants to ethylene, significant drops on a, b and total chlorophyll were found at the end of the treatment. Nevertheless, no changes on leaf total carotenoid were observed after the treatment with ethylene. When the plants were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, followed or not by treatment with ethylene, contents of a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid remained unchanged. Control plants showed no changes in chlorophylls or carotenoid contents after 48 hours from moving the pots from greenhouse to indoor conditions illuminated with white fluorescent light. The 1-MCP was able to prolong the post production shelf life, by inhibiting the abscission of leaves. Plants treated with 1-MCP, followed by ethylene had 38% accumulated leaf abscission, after 18 days of post production life, similar to control plants. After the same period, plants treated only with 1-MCP had 22% leaf abscission. The 1-MCP partially blocked ethylene and induced leaf abscission. Regardless which treatment was applied during post production life, there was a continuous decrease on leaf chlorophyll content beyond 18th day. Thus, 1-MCP was effective in preventing leaf abscission even in the presence of ethylene, avoiding deleterious effects of ethylene by blocking its receptor sites.

  13. Diallel analyses and estimation of genetic parameters of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa João Alencar de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The degree of heterosis in the genus Capsicum spp. is considered high; however, most of the studies refer to the species Capsicum annuum L. In spite of the potential use of F1 hybrids in pungent peppers of the species Capsicum chinense, few studies are available which assess the magnitude of heterosis in this species . This study was carried out to assess heterosis and its components in F1 hybrids from a diallel cross between hot pepper lines (Capsicum chinense and to obtain data on the allelic interaction between the parents involved in the crosses. Trials were made in Rio Branco-Acre, Brazil, from March through October 1997. A randomized complete block design with fifteen treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were five C. chinense accessions (from the Vegetable Germplasm Bank of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa - BGH/UFV and 10 F1 hybrids derived from single crosses between them (reciprocals excluded. Diallel analyses were performed for total yield, fruit length/diameter ratio, fruit dry matter per plant, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria incidence, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. Non-additive genetic effects were larger than additive effects for all the traits assessed. Epistasis was detected for fruit dry matter per plant, capsaicin yield per plant and number of seeds per fruit. In these cases, epistasis seemed to be largely responsible for heterosis expression. Dominant gene action, ranging from incomplete dominance to probable overdominance, was responsible for heterosis in those traits where no epistatic genetic action was detected.

  14. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-dependent production of transformed roots from foliar explants of pepper (Capsicum annuum): a new and efficient tool for functional analysis of genes

    OpenAIRE

    Aarrouf, Jawad; Mallard, Stephanie; Caromel, Bernard; Lizzi, Y.; Lefebvre, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    Pepper is known to be a recalcitrant species to genetic transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A. rhizogenes-mediated transformation offers an alternative and rapid possibility to study gene functions in roots. In our study, we developed a new and efficient system for A. rhizogenes transformation of the cultivated species Capsicum annuum. Hypocotyls and foliar organs (true leaves and cotyledons) of Yolo Wonder (YW) and Criollo de Morelos 334 (CM334) pepper cultivars were inoculated wit...

  15. Analysis Of Factors Affecting Demand Red Chili Pepper Capsicum Annum L In Solok And Effort Fulfillment

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    Zulfitriyana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on the analysis of the factors that influence the demand for red chilli Capsicum annuum L in Solok and compliance efforts implemented in March s.d April 2016. The purpose of this study consisted of 1 analyze the factors affecting the demand for red chili in Solok 2 analyze the elasticity of demand for red chili in Solok 3 know the effort that can be done to meet the demand of red chilli in Solok. To achieve the objectives of the first and second use secondary data for 15 fifteen years and to achieve the objectives the third used primary data. The method used is descriptive analytical method a method that is used to describe phenomena that exist which takes place in the present or past. The variables were observed in this study is the X1 price of red chilli X2 the price of green chili X3 onion prices X4 population X5 income and Y the number of requests red chili which is then analyzed by multiple linear regression elasticity of demand and SWOT. The results of that research addressing the factors that influence the demand for red chili in Solok is the price of red chilli itself the price of green chili as a substitute goods the number of population and income while onion prices affect the amount of red chili demand in Solok. But simultaneously variable X1 red chili prices X2 the price of green chili X3 onion prices X4 population and X5 income strongly influence demand red chili in Solok where the F test results show that F count F table 212.262 3600 with a significance level 0.000 0.010 and the most influential variable is the variable X4 population with the greatest value of beta Coefficients is 1100. Based on analysis of the elasticity of demand is known that red chili pepper is a normal good is inelastic to price elasticity coefficient value amp603p of -0.120. Green chili is substituting goods and shallots are complements of red chili with cross elasticity coefficient amp603px1 and amp603px2 respectively by 0293 and -0.635. While the

  16. Water extractable phytochemicals from Capsicum pubescens (tree pepper) inhibit lipid peroxidation induced by different pro-oxidant agents in brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oboh, G [Biochemistry Department, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State (Nigeria); [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil); [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: goboh2001@yahoo.com; Rocha, J B.T. [Campus Universitario - Camobi, Santa Maria RS (Brazil)

    2006-03-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the cause of neurodegenerative disorders such as Lou Gehrig's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease; one practical way to prevent and manage neurodegenerative diseases is through the eating of food rich in antioxidants (dietary means). In this study, the antioxidant and neuroprotective properties of aqueous extract of ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens (popularly known as tree pepper) on different pro-oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in Rat's brain (in vitro) is been investigated. Aqueous extract of freshly harvested pepper was prepared, and the total phenol content, vitamin C, ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP) and Fe (II) chelating ability was determined. In addition, the ability of the extracts to protect the Rat's brain against some pro-oxidant FeSO{sub 4}, Sodium nitroprusside and Quinolinic acid - induced oxidative stress was also determined. The results of the study revealed that ripe Capsicum pubescens had a significantly higher (P<0.05) total phenol [ripe (113.7mg/100g), unripe (70.5mg/100g)] content and ferric reducing antioxidant property than the unripe pepper. However, there was no significant difference in the vitamin C [ripe (231.5{mu}g/g), unripe (224.4{mu}g/g)] content and Fe (II) chelating ability. Furthermore, the pepper extracts caused a significant decrease (P<0.05) in 25{mu}M Fe(II), 7{mu}M Sodium Nitroprusside and 1mM Quinolinic acid induced lipid peroxidation in the Rat's brain in a dose-dependent manner. However, the ripe pepper inhibited MDA (Malondialdehyhide) production in the Rat's brain than the unripe pepper. Conversely, both extract did not significantly inhibit Fe (II)/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced decomposition of deoxyribose. Therefore, ripe and unripe Capsicum pubescens would inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. However, the ripe potent was a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, which is probably due to its higher vitamin C and phenol content, reducing power and Fe

  17. Soil Bacterial Community Was Changed after Brassicaceous Seed Meal Application for Suppression of Fusarium Wilt on Pepper

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    Gaidi Ren

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Application of Brassicaceous seed meal (BSM is a promising biologically based disease-control practice but BSM could directly and indirectly also affect the non-target bacterial communities, including the beneficial populations. Understanding the bacterial response to BSM at the community level is of great significance for directing plant disease management through the manipulation of resident bacterial communities. Fusarium wilt is a devastating disease on pepper. However, little is known about the response of bacterial communities, especially the rhizosphere bacterial community, to BSM application to soil heavily infested with Fusarium wilt pathogen and cropped with peppers. In this study, a 25-day microcosm incubation of a natural Fusarium wilt pathogen-infested soil supplemented with three BSMs, i.e., Camelina sativa ‘Crantz’ (CAME, Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’ (PG, and a mixture of PG and Sinapis alba cv. ‘IdaGold’ (IG (PG+IG, 1:1 ratio, was performed. Then, a further 35-day pot experiment was established with pepper plants growing in the BSM treated soils. The changes in the bacterial community in the soil after 25 days of incubation and changes in the rhizosphere after an additional 35 days of pepper growth were investigated by 454 pyrosequencing technique. The results show that the application of PG and PG+IG reduced the disease index by 100% and 72.8%, respectively, after 35 days of pepper growth, while the application of CAME did not have an evident suppressive effect. All BSM treatments altered the bacterial community structure and decreased the bacterial richness and diversity after 25 days of incubation, although this effect was weakened after an additional 35 days of pepper growth. At the phylum/class and the genus levels, the changes in specific bacterial populations resulting from the PG and PG+IG treatments, especially the significant increase in Actinobacteria-affiliated Streptomyces and an unclassified genus and

  18. Next-Generation Sequencing Approaches in Genome-Wide Discovery of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers Associated with Pungency and Disease Resistance in Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manivannan, Abinaya; Kim, Jin-Hee; Yang, Eun-Young; Ahn, Yul-Kyun; Lee, Eun-Su; Choi, Sena; Kim, Do-Sun

    2018-01-01

    Pepper is an economically important horticultural plant that has been widely used for its pungency and spicy taste in worldwide cuisines. Therefore, the domestication of pepper has been carried out since antiquity. Owing to meet the growing demand for pepper with high quality, organoleptic property, nutraceutical contents, and disease tolerance, genomics assisted breeding techniques can be incorporated to develop novel pepper varieties with desired traits. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) approaches has reformed the plant breeding technology especially in the area of molecular marker assisted breeding. The availability of genomic information aids in the deeper understanding of several molecular mechanisms behind the vital physiological processes. In addition, the NGS methods facilitate the genome-wide discovery of DNA based markers linked to key genes involved in important biological phenomenon. Among the molecular markers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) indulges various benefits in comparison with other existing DNA based markers. The present review concentrates on the impact of NGS approaches in the discovery of useful SNP markers associated with pungency and disease resistance in pepper. The information provided in the current endeavor can be utilized for the betterment of pepper breeding in future.

  19. Next-Generation Sequencing Approaches in Genome-Wide Discovery of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers Associated with Pungency and Disease Resistance in Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinaya Manivannan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Pepper is an economically important horticultural plant that has been widely used for its pungency and spicy taste in worldwide cuisines. Therefore, the domestication of pepper has been carried out since antiquity. Owing to meet the growing demand for pepper with high quality, organoleptic property, nutraceutical contents, and disease tolerance, genomics assisted breeding techniques can be incorporated to develop novel pepper varieties with desired traits. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS approaches has reformed the plant breeding technology especially in the area of molecular marker assisted breeding. The availability of genomic information aids in the deeper understanding of several molecular mechanisms behind the vital physiological processes. In addition, the NGS methods facilitate the genome-wide discovery of DNA based markers linked to key genes involved in important biological phenomenon. Among the molecular markers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP indulges various benefits in comparison with other existing DNA based markers. The present review concentrates on the impact of NGS approaches in the discovery of useful SNP markers associated with pungency and disease resistance in pepper. The information provided in the current endeavor can be utilized for the betterment of pepper breeding in future.

  20. CaDMR1 Cosegregates with QTL Pc5.1 for Resistance to Phytophthora capsici in Pepper (Capsicum annuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Z. Rehrig

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A major problem for the pepper ( industry is the root rot disease caused by (, to which all commercial varieties suffer yield losses despite good management practices and available landraces with high levels of resistance. A high-density map with 3887 markers was generated in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RIL derived from the highly resistant accession Criollo de Morelos-334 and Early Jalapeño. These lines have been systematically screened for resistance against a set of isolates collected from Mexico, New Mexico, New Jersey, California, Michigan and Tennessee. Quantitative trait loci (QTL associated with effective resistance across isolates have been identified and validated with SNP markers across additional segregating populations. By leveraging transcriptomic and genomic information, we describe , a homoserine kinase (HSK, as a candidate gene responsible for the major QTL on chromosome P5 for resistance to . SNP markers for the resistant allele were validated to facilitate gene pyramiding schemes for recurrent selection in pepper.

  1. FISH-mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in chili peppers (Capsicum-Solanaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Patricia M; Debat, Humberto J; Scaldaferro, Marisel A; Martí, Dardo A; Grabiele, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    We present here the physical mapping of the 5S rDNA locus in six wild and five cultivated taxa of Capsicum by means of a genus-specific FISH probe. In all taxa, a single 5S locus per haploid genome that persistently mapped onto the short arm of a unique metacentric chromosome pair at intercalar position, was found. 5S FISH signals of almost the same size and brightness intensity were observed in all the analyzed taxa. This is the first cytological characterization of the 5S in wild taxa of Capsicum by using a genus-derived probe, and the most exhaustive and comprehensive in the chili peppers up to now. The information provided here will aid the cytomolecular characterization of pepper germplasm to evaluate variability and can be instrumental to integrate physical, genetic and genomic maps already generated in the genus.

  2. Quantification of the levels of tannins and total phenols and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of fruits of pepper tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ribeiro Bernardes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fruits of pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi are widely used in the world cooking and its consumption has been encouraged since the late 80’s due to the presence of phenolic substances. Therefore, this study quantified the levels of tannins and total phenols in the fruits of pepper tree, aiming at establishing a possible correlation between these substances and their antioxidant activity. Phenolic compounds were extracted with acetone: water (7:3, and quantified by spectrophotometry. The antioxidant activity was measured by DPPH method. The results showed low levels of condensed tannins and total phenols in the peel of the fruit, not being detected hydrolysable tannins in them. Nevertheless, the methanolic extract showed high antioxidant potential, which indicates the absence of a correlation between antioxidant activity and the levels of phenolic compounds in these fruits.

  3. The effect of gamma radiation on the microflora and essential oil of Ashanti pepper (Piper guineense) berries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onyenekwe, P.C.; Ogbadu, G.H.; Hashimoto, S.

    1997-01-01

    The optimal gamma radiation dose capable of eliminating the natural microflora of Ashanti pepper without adversely affecting the flavour qualities was investigated. The prevalent micro-organisms were Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Both ground and whole forms of Ashanti pepper were subjected to 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kGy doses of gamma rays from a 60 Co source. The 2.5-kGy doses reduced the fungal and bacterial load by 2 log cycles and 7.5 kGy eliminated the fungal population. A dose of 10 kGy was required to decontaminate the samples irrespective of sample form, although grinding and not irradiation affected the essential oil composition of the spice. (author)

  4. Effect of the perforation level of recycled-LDPE bags on the modification of the atmosphere development, bioactive compounds content, and other qualities of Jalapeño peppers during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José; Castañeda-Jiménez, Andrés C; Estrada-Alvarado, María I; Ramos-Aguilar, Olivia P; Ibarra-Junquera, Vrani; Pérez-Martínez, Jaime D; Escalante-Minakata, Pilar; Guevara-Arauza, Juan C; Ruiz-Cruz, Saúl

    2015-10-01

    The impact of modified atmosphere packaging on the content of selected bioactive compounds and other quality attributes of Jalapeño peppers has not been well studied. In this study, Jalapeño peppers were packed in low-cost bags (composed of recycled-LDPE) that had been perforated at several levels (0-4 holes). Packages were stored at 7 °C for 6 weeks. Samples of unpacked peppers were stored at 23 and 7 °C and were used as control groups. The quality of the peppers and the gas composition inside of the packages were evaluated during storage. The best modified atmosphere was obtained with unperforated bags. Significant loss of weight and firmness were prevented by packaging. The loss of weight and firmness were 20.2-82.6 and 32-100 % in unpacked peppers. Low levels of fermentative metabolites accumulated in packed peppers in unperforated bags and in bags with 1 perforation. The tristimulus color and the bioactive compounds content (phenols, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and capsaicinoids) remained unchanged in packed peppers. These quality attributes changed gradually in peppers that were stored at 23 °C. The tested bags represent a cost-effective alternative to preserve the quality of intact Jalapeño peppers.

  5. Composition of oleoresins from two kinds of chili pepper (habanero and tabasco) obtained by lixiviation with organic solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Restrepo Gallego, Mauricio; Llanos Ríos, Natalia; Fonseca Echeverri, Carlos Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Introduction. In the development of new processes and ingredients for food industry, extraction techniques allow us to obtain active principles from natural products, good for human consuming and strongly related to the tendency towards a healthier and free of contaminants feeding. Oleoresins from vegetables allow us to work with dye and aromatic components (as in the case of peppers, for which, extraction with organic solvents is a common practice that must be refi...

  6. Assessment of salinity tolerance in bell pepper (capsicum annuum l.) genotypes on the basis of germination, emergence and growth attributes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tehseen, S.; Ayyub, C.M.; Amjad, M.

    2016-01-01

    Abiotic stresses are principal threat to crop growth and productivity all over the world. The most devastating one is soil salinity which adversely affects the plants, so a comprehensive study was conducted to categorize different available bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) genotypes into salt tolerant, moderately tolerant and sensitive ones on the basis of germination and emergence parameters. Genotypes were exposed to different saline treatments (2, 4, 6 and 8 dS m-1) along with control (0 dS m-1). Germination test, conducted in petri dishes in incubator, revealed that salinity stress significantly decreased final germination percentage, germination index and embryo axis length of tested genotypes. On the other hand, mean germination time and time to 50% seeds germination were increased with the increasing salinity level from 2 to 8 dS m-1. Emergence test of bell pepper genotypes conducted in pots under greenhouse conditions, shown that salinity decreased the seedlings fresh and dry biomass, number of leaves, leaf area and root and shoot length. On the basis of overall percent decrease ranking table, genotypes were grouped into comparatively salt tolerant (Zard, Tasty, Super shimla, Aristotle), moderately tolerant (Capistrano, CW-03, Kaka-01, Orable, Yolo wonder, Crusadar) and sensitive ones (PEP-311, Admiral, Lafayette, Colossol). From these results, it can be extracted that germination and emergence tests are reliable screening tools for evaluating pepper genotypes for salt stress at seedling stage. Moreover, results of this study can be useful for local farmers to utilize their marginal soils by growing relatively salt tolerant bell pepper genotypes. (author)

  7. Genome - wide identification, molecular characterization and expression analysis of the rop gtpase family in pepper (capsicum annum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, D.; Li, M.; He, S.

    2015-01-01

    ROP/RAC GTPases is a plant-specific subfamily of Rho GTPases that plays a versatile role in the regulation of plant growth, development, in hormone signal transduction and response to the environment. Prior to the present study, only one Rop gene in pepper has been described. However, with the recent release of the draft genome sequence of pepper allowes us to conduct a genome wide search to identify how many Rop family members existed in pepper genome. We carried out bioinformatics analysis to establish the conserved as well as divergent regions on the protein sequences, phylogenetically analysis and the corresponding result shows that, CaROPs could be distributed into four groups as described in the literature for their homologs in Arabidopsis. To understand the function of nine Rop genes in pepper, we accordingly studied the tissue, fruit development and ripening expression patterns of CaRop genes by obtained RNA-seq data from public database. From our analysis, we realized that the expression of CaRop genes shows no total tissue or developmental specific expression. Furthermore, gene expression profiles of CaRop in response to environment stresses and hormone treatment, such as inoculated with Ralstonia solanacearum, by heat stress as well as treated with four phytohormones respectively and evaluated with real time RT-PCR. The potential involvement of specific CaRop genes in growth, fruit development, ripening, environment stresses as well as hormone responses discussed and may lay the foundation for future functional analysis to unravel their biological roles. (author)

  8. The effects of sodium azide on seed germination and seedling growth of chili pepper (Capsicum annum L. cv. Landung)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yafizham; Herwibawa, B.

    2018-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the effects of sodium azide on the performance of chili pepper. Dry seeds from pure lines of chili pepper cv. Landung were used in this experiment. Each set containing 50 seeds was placed in nylon fishner bags, washed in flowing water and soaked in distilled water for four hours. After soaking, four sets of seeds were dabbed dry with tissue paper and were treated for two hours at 30 0C in appropriate solution of 0, 0.10, 0.20, 0.40, 0.80, 1.60 mM sodium azide with phosphate buffer at pH 3. After treatment, the seeds were germinated in plastic boxes containing sterilized sand and kept under laboratory condition by supplied with water everyday. The seeds for M1 germination percentage, seedling height, plant height and number of leaves were recorded 30 days and 60 days after treatment, respectively. Seeds which radicle emerged were considered germinated, the seedling and plant height were measured from the tip of primary root to the base of the first leaf pair, and the number of leaves were counted for only fully expanded leaves. A completely randomized block design in four replicates was used throughout the experiment. Data obtained were analysed for range, mean, standard of deviation, and percent of control using Microsoft Office Excel 2007 software. It was concluded that different doses of sodium azide influenced the performances of chili pepper cv. Landung. Very low doses of sodium azide (0-1.60 mM) might be used to study the improvement of chili pepper diversity.

  9. Studies on the effects of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis in culture medium and in black pepper (Piper nigrum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, M F P M; Rezende, A C B; Benato, E A; Valentini, S R T; Furlani, R P Z; Tfouni, S A V

    2011-04-01

    The effect of phosphine on Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis inoculated in culture medium and in black pepper grains (Piper nigrum), as well as on the reduction of the microbial load of the dried and moisturized product, was verified. The postfumigation effect was verified in inoculated samples with 0.92 and 0.97 water activity (a(w)) exposed to 6 g/m(3) phosphine for 72 h, dried to 0.67 a(w), and stored for 24, 48, and 72 h. No decreases were observed in Salmonella Enteritidis populations in culture medium when fumigant concentrations up to 6 g/m(3) were applied for 48 h at 35°C. However, the colonies showed reductions in size and atypical coloration as the phosphine concentration increased. No reduction in Salmonella counts occurred on the inoculated dried samples after fumigation. On the other hand, when phosphine at concentrations of 6 g/m(3) was applied on moisturized black pepper for 72 h, decreases in Salmonella counts of around 80% were observed. The counts of total aerobic mesophilic bacterium populations of the dried and moisturized black pepper were not affected by the fumigant treatment. The results of the postfumigation studies indicated that Salmonella Enteritidis was absent in the fumigated grains after drying and storage for 72 h, indicating a promising application for this technique. It was concluded that for Salmonella Enteritidis control, phosphine fumigation could be applied to black pepper grains before drying and the producers should rigidly follow good agricultural practices, mainly during the drying process, in order to avoid product recontamination. Additional work is needed to confirm the findings with more Salmonella serotypes and strains.

  10. Selection and a 3-Year Field Trial of Sorangium cellulosum KYC 3262 Against Anthracnose in Hot Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Sung-Chul

    2014-01-01

    KYC 3262 was selected as a biocontrol agent against anthracnose on hot pepper from 813 extracts of myxobacterial isolates. Dual culture with Colletotrichum acutatum and 813 myxobacterial extracts was conducted, and 19 extracts were selected that inhibited germination and mycelial growth of C. acutatum. All selections were Sorangium cellulosum, which are cellulolytic myxobacteria from soil. With the infection bioassay on detached fruits in airtight containers, KYC 3262, KYC 3512, KYC 3279, and...

  11. Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf?s essential oil from brazilian pepper tree (schinus terebinthifolius, raddi)

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, A.B.; Silva, T.; Franco, E.S.; Rabelo, S.A.; Lima, E.R.; Mota, R.A.; da C?mara, C.A.G.; Pontes-Filho, N.T.; Lima-Filho, J.V.

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of leaf?s essential oil (EO) from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 ?g/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals.

  12. Process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ling-Biao; Pang, Hui-Li; Lu, Ke-Ke; Liu, Hua-Min; Wang, Xue-De; Qin, Guang-Yong

    2017-04-01

    Red pepper seeds account for 450-500 g kg -1 of the total pepper weight and are often discarded as waste. In this study, process optimization and characterization of fragrant oil from roasted red pepper seed extracted by subcritical butane extraction were carried out. The optimal conditions of extraction were a temperature of 74.61 °C, a time of 68.65 min and a liquid/solid ratio of 30.24:1. The oil had a refractive index (25 °C) of 1.471, a relative density of 0.900, an acid value of 1.421 mg g -1 oil, an iodine value of 127.035 g per 100 g, a saponification value of 184.060 mg KOH g -1 , an unsaponifiable matter content of 12.400 g kg -1 , a peroxide value of 2.465 meq. O 2 kg -1 and a viscosity of 52.094 cP. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (72.95%) followed by palmitic acid (11.43%) and oleic acid (10.00%). The oil showed desirable thermal and oxidative stability. A total of 19 volatile compounds, mostly aldehydes and alkenes, were identified from the oil. The results indicated that the method is appropriate for the preparation of fragrant red pepper seed oil, and the oil is suitable for used as edible oil. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Camera traps to study the forest elephant's (Loxodonta cyclotis) response to chilli pepper repellent devices in Gamba, Gabon

    OpenAIRE

    Steeve Ngama; Lisa Korte; Mireille Johnson; Cédric Vermeulen; Jérôme Bindelle

    2018-01-01

    In Central Africa, Gabon is a forested country with a rich biodiversity where conflict between wild animals and humans is common and causes innumerable damage to crops. The worst crop raiders are elephants, which can destroy an entire crop in a single night. These raids threaten people's livelihoods as well as elephants because angry farmers often retaliate with killing campaigns against crop raiding elephants. To keep elephants out of farms the use of chilli pepper is recommended as a non-le...

  14. Growth and Yield Responses of Green Pepper (Capsicum annum L. to Manure Rates under Field and High Tunnel Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ima-obong I. DOMINIC

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine growth and yield responses of green pepper to varying manure rates under field and high tunnel conditions. Experiment 1 was a pot experiment to evaluate three rates (0.5 and 10 t/ha of poultry manure (PM on green pepper production under high tunnel and open field conditions. Experiment 2 was to determine the performance of green pepper as influenced by different manure rates (0, 5 and 10 t/ha of PM, 300 kg/ha of NPK, 5 t/ha of PM + 200 kg of NPK and 10 t/ha of PM + 100 kg of NPK on the field. High tunnel produced about 3.1 fruits/plant that weighted 102.8 g, which was significantly higher than open field experiment in which 1.7 fruits/plant, with a medium weight of 32.3 g were noted. High tunnel enhanced successful production of green pepper during rainy season, whereas the open field production during the same season was near failure. Application of 10 t/ha of PM produced significantly larger fruits in the pot experiment. Good fertilizer effects on growth and yield components were recorded for the field study. Plant height, number of leaves and branches, number and weight of harvested fruit followed similar trend in 5 and 10 t/ha of PM which gave statistically similar results, and provided the best performance during the experiment. Application of 5 t/ha of PM produced the highest total fruits yield.

  15. Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf's essential oil from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius, Raddi

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    A.B. Silva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial potential of leaf's essential oil (EO from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 fg/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals.

  16. Enhanced Antifungal Effect of Chitosan/Pepper Tree (Schinus molle) Essential Oil Bionanocomposites on the Viability of Aspergillus parasiticus Spores

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Guadalupe Luque-Alcaraz; Mario Onofre Cortez-Rocha; Carlos Arturo Velázquez-Contreras; Ana Lilian Acosta-Silva; Hisila del Carmen Santacruz-Ortega; Armando Burgos-Hernández; Waldo Manuel Argüelles-Monal; Maribel Plascencia-Jatomea

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CS) and chitosan/pepper tree (Schinus molle) essential oil (CS-EO) bionanocomposites were synthesized by nanoprecipitation method and the in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus parasiticus spores was evaluated. The shape and size were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The surface charge was determined by assessing the zeta potential and the inclusion of essential oil in bionanocomposites using Fourier transfor...

  17. Antibacterial activity, chemical composition, and cytotoxicity of leaf’s essential oil from brazilian pepper tree (schinus terebinthifolius, raddi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A.B.; Silva, T.; Franco, E.S.; Rabelo, S.A.; Lima, E.R.; Mota, R.A.; da Câmara, C.A.G.; Pontes-Filho, N.T.; Lima-Filho, J.V.

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of leaf’s essential oil (EO) from Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi) against staphylococcal isolates from dogs with otitis externa was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration of EO ranged from 78.1 to 1,250 μg/mL. The oil was analyzed by GC and GC/MS and cytotoxicity tests were carried out with laboratory animals. PMID:24031476

  18. Beneficial Effects of Selenium on Some Morphological and Physiological Trait of Hot Pepper (Capsicum anuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Shekari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aluminum (Al, cobalt (Co, sodium (Na, selenium (Se, and silicon (Si are considered as beneficial elements for plants. They are not required for all plants but they can improve the growth and development of some plant species. Selenium is an essential element for human with antioxidant and antivirus functions but is not considered essential for higher plants. Selenium is reported to be protective against cancer and more than 40 types of diseases are associated with Se deficiency. The amounts of selenium in food also depend on the amount of the element in the soil. However, its beneficial role in improving plant growth and stress tolerances is well established. Plants revealed different physiological reactions into the Se levels, some specious accumulate it unlike some which are sensitive and Se is a toxic element for them. Some studies showed that Se can reduce adverse effects of salinity, drought, high and low temperatures and also heavy metal stress by enhancing antioxidant defense and MG detoxification systems. Pepper is one of the most important vegetable crops which have strong antioxidant properties. The effect of Se on vegetable especially on hot pepper is not well documented. Materials and Methods: Present experiment was designed in order to study the effects of different concentrations of selenium on vegetative growth and physiological trait of hot pepper (Capsicum annum cv. kenya in hydroponic conditions in the greenhouse at the Department of Horticulture Science, Islamic Azad University of Shiraz (Iran under natural light with a day/night average temperature of 25/17 °C, relative humidity of 50±8.5% and photoperiod 14/10 (day/night. This experiment was carried out based on completed randomized design (CRD with 5 Se levels at (0 as control, 3, 5, 7 and 10 µM with 3 replications. 30 days old seedling with uniform size were selected and transplanted into 4 L pot containing a mixture of peat moss and perlite (1:1. The

  19. Neuroblastoma - remembering the three physicians who described it a century ago: James Homer Wright, William Pepper, and Robert Hutchison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothenberg, Alexis B.; Berdon, Walter E.; D'Angio, Giulio J.; Yamashiro, Darrell J.; Cowles, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is often widespread at the time of diagnosis. Three physicians between 1900 and 1910 played an important role in the pathologic definition of neuroblastoma and its route of spread in relation to the age of the patient. These findings eventually led to the advances in treatment and decreased morbidity of today. In 1910 James Homer Wright was the first to recognize the tumor as being of primitive neural cell origin, calling it neuroblastoma and emphasizing the bundle of cells termed rosettes. While Wright recognized the neural nature of the tumor, the authors of previous reports had described its two distinct patterns of spread. In 1901 William Pepper published a series of infants with massive hepatic infiltration associated with adrenal tumors without spread to bone, and in 1907 Robert Grieve Hutchison reported his experience with a similar pathologic process in older infants and children who had orbital and skull metastases. Wright's valuable unifying concept served to tie together the descriptions of Pepper and Hutchison. A century later the names of these physicians should be remembered - Wright, who defined the adrenal tumor as of primitive neural origin, Pepper for his clinically accurate report of massive liver involvement in the infant, and Hutchison for describing the propensity of the tumor to spread to bone in older children. (orig.)

  20. Non-Destructive Quality Evaluation of Pepper (Capsicum annuum L. Seeds Using LED-Induced Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging

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    Changyeun Mo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a viability evaluation method for pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seeds based on hyperspectral reflectance imaging. The reflectance spectra of pepper seeds in the 400–700 nm range are collected from hyperspectral reflectance images obtained using blue, green, and red LED illumination. A partial least squares–discriminant analysis (PLS-DA model is developed to classify viable and non-viable seeds. Four spectral ranges generated with four types of LEDs (blue, green, red, and RGB, which were pretreated using various methods, are investigated to develop the classification models. The optimal PLS-DA model based on the standard normal variate for RGB LED illumination (400–700 nm yields discrimination accuracies of 96.7% and 99.4% for viable seeds and nonviable seeds, respectively. The use of images based on the PLS-DA model with the first-order derivative of a 31.5-nm gap for red LED illumination (600–700 nm yields 100% discrimination accuracy for both viable and nonviable seeds. The results indicate that a hyperspectral imaging technique based on LED light can be potentially applied to high-quality pepper seed sorting.

  1. Degradation rate of vitamin B6 on red chili pepper drying by blanching-brine-calcium pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Fadzilia Arifin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is one of the alternatives to prevent spoilage in red chili pepper by removing moisture content. Red chili pepper (Capsicum frutescens has complex nutrition components such as vitamins and bioactive compound. However, vitamin B6 content in chili can degrade significantly in drying process by heat. This research studied degradation rate of vitamin B6 in chili drying process under various pretreatments and temperatures. In this study, post-harvest chili before dried was pretreated by blanching, osmotic dehydration with brine, immersing in calcium chloride solution and the combination of all them. They were dried in tray dyer at various temperatures 40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C. Degradation of vitamin B6 content was analyzed every 2 hours by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for 8 hours. Results showed that blanching-brine-calcium pretreatment was expected to reduce drying time and retain high content of vitamin B6 in red chili pepper. The degradation rate of vitamin B6 in chili followed second-order reaction. The degradation rate was influenced by temperature change referring to Arrhenius equation with activation energy was about 31.97 kJ/ mol K and constant rate (k0 was 3.769. Therefore, the vitamin B6 retention can be estimated at various pretreatments, times and temperatures. Furthermore, the favorable drying conditions can be evaluated.

  2. Interaction of red pepper (Capsicum annum, Tepin) polyphenols with Fe(II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oboh, G.; Rocha, J.B.T.

    2006-03-01

    Polyphenols exhibit a wide range of biological effects because of their antioxidant properties. Several types of polyphenols (phenolic acids, hydrolyzable tannins, and flavonoids) show anticarcinogenic and antimutagenic effects. Comparative studies were carried on the protective ability of free and bound polyphenol extracts of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) on brain and liver - In vitro. Free polyphenols of red Capsicum annuum Tepin (CAT) were extracted with 80% acetone, while the bound polyphenols were extracted with ethyl acetate from acid and alkaline hydrolysis of the pepper residue from free polyphenols extract. The phenol content, Fe (II) chelating ability, OH radical scavenging ability and protective ability of the extract against Fe (II)-induced lipid peroxidation in brain and liver was subsequently determined. The results of the study revealed that the free polyphenols (218.2mg/100g) content of the pepper were significantly higher than the bound polyphenols (42.5mg/100g). Furthermore, the free polyphenol extract had a significantly higher ( 2+ induced lipid peroxidation, and this is probably due to the higher Fe (II) chelating ability and OH radical scavenging ability of the free polyphenols from the pepper. (author)

  3. Defense-Related Responses in Fruit of the Nonhost Chili Pepper against Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Pae Chang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag is a necrotrophic bacterial pathogen of the soybean that causes bacterial pustules and is a nonhost pathogen of the chili pepper. In the current study, chili pepper fruit wound inoculated in planta with Xag 8ra formed necrotic lesions on the fruit surface and induced several structural and chemical barriers systemically in the fruit tissue. The initial defense response included programmed cell death of necrotizing and necrotized cells, which was characterized by nuclear DNA cleavage, as detected by TUNEL-confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, and phosphatidylserine exposure on cell walls distal to the infection site, as detected by Annexin V FLUOS-CLSM. These two responses may facilitate cell killing and enhance transportation of cell wall materials used for cell wall thickening, respectively. The cells beneath the necrotic tissue were enlarged and divided to form periclinal cell walls, resulting in extensive formation of several parallel boundary layers at the later stages of infection, accompanying the deposition of wall fortification materials for strengthening structural defenses. These results suggest that nonhost resistance of chili pepper fruit against the nonhost necrotrophic pathogen Xag 8ra is activated systematically from the initial infection until termination of the infection cycle, resulting in complete inhibition of bacterial pathogenesis by utilizing organ-specific in situ physiological events governed by the expression of genes in the plant fruit organ.

  4. Thermal behavior of organic free radicals in γ-ray irradiated pepper studied by electron spin resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichii, Akane; Abe, Aika; Ukai, Mitsuko

    2003-01-01

    Using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, we revealed heating effects on irradiated pepper. The representative ESR spectrum of the irradiated pepper is consisted of four components a sextet centered at g=2.0, a singlet at the same g-value, a singlet at g=4.0 and side peaks near g=2.0. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine (hf) interactions of Mn 2+ (hf constant=7.4 mT). The second one is due to an organic free radical that is induced by the γ-ray irradiation. The third one may originated from Fe 3+ in the nonhem proteins. The fourth signal was found at the symmetric positions of the organic free radical, i.e., the second signal. Upon heating, the forth signals decreased monotonicaly. The ESR signal of the pepper heated for more than 10 min was essentially the same as that before the irradiation. On the other hand, the second signal increased and then leveled off at a constant value by further heating. This is indicative the occurrence of some biochemical reactions such as Maillard reaction during heating procedures. (author)

  5. The effect of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour quality of ground pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Zeng, Fankui; Wang, Qinghuang; Ou, Shiyi; Tan, Lehe; Gu, Fenglin

    2013-12-15

    In this study, we compared the effects of cryogenic grinding and hammer milling on the flavour attributes of black, white, and green pepper. The flavour attributes were analysed using headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), sensory evaluation and electronic nose (e-nose) analysis. Cryogenic grinding resulted in minimal damage to the colour, flavour, and sensory attributes of the spices. Cryogenic grinding was also better than hammer milling at preserving the main potent aroma constituents, but the concentrations of the main aroma constituents were dramatically reduced after storing the samples at 4 °C for 6 months. Pattern matching performed by the e-nose further supported our sensory and instrumental findings. Overall, cryogenic grinding was superior to hammer milling for preserving the sensory properties and flavour attributes of pepper without significantly affecting its quality. However, we found that the flavour quality of ground pepper was reduced during storage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression of PAT and NPT II proteins during the developmental stages of a genetically modified pepper developed in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo Jin; Lee, Si Myung; Kim, Jae Kwang; Ryu, Tae Hun; Suh, Seok Cheol; Cho, Hyun Suk

    2010-10-27

    Estimation of the protein levels introduced in a biotechnology-derived product is conducted as part of an overall safety assessment. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyze phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPT II) protein expression in a genetically modified (GM) pepper plant developed in Korea. PAT and NPT II expression levels, based on both dry weight and fresh weight, were variable among different plant generations and plant sections from isolated genetically modified organism (GMO) fields at four developmental stages. PAT expression was highest in leaves at anthesis (11.44 μg/gdw and 2.17 μg/gfw) and lowest in roots (0.12 μg/gdw and 0.01 μg/gfw). NPT II expression was also highest in leaves at anthesis (17.31 μg/gdw and 3.41 μg/gfw) and lowest in red pepper (0.65 μg/gdw and 0.12 μg/gfw). In pollen, PAT expression was 0.59-0.62 μg/gdw, while NPT II was not detected. Both PAT and NPT II showed a general pattern of decreased expression with progression of the growing season. As expected, PAT and NPT II protein expression was not detectable in control pepper plants.

  7. Calcined Eggshell Waste for Mitigating Soil Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria/Antibiotic Resistance Gene Dissemination and Accumulation in Bell Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Feng, Yanfang; Li, Xu; Schwab, Arthur P; Wan, Jinzhong; Liu, Manqiang; Tian, Da; Liu, Kuan; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Xin

    2016-07-13

    The combined accumulation of antibiotics, heavy metals, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB)/antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in vegetables has become a new threat to human health. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of calcined eggshells modified by aluminum sulfate as novel agricultural wastes to impede mixed contaminants from transferring to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). In this work, calcined eggshell amendment mitigated mixed pollutant accumulation in bell pepper significantly, enhanced the dissipation of soil tetracycline, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, and chloramphenicol, decreased the water-soluble fractions of antibiotics, and declined the diversity of ARB/ARGs inside the vegetable. Moreover, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis detected that ARG levels in the bell pepper fruits significantly decreased to 10(-10) copies/16S copies, indicating limited risk of ARGs transferring along the food chain. Furthermore, the restoration of soil microbial biological function suggests that calcined eggshell is an environmentally friendly amendment to control the dissemination of soil ARB/ARGs in the soil-vegetable system.

  8. Variations in soil-to-red pepper transfer factors of radionuclides with time of their application and fruit harvest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Won Yun; Lim, Kwang Muk; Park, Soo Won; Lee, Myung Ho; Lee, Chang Woo; Lee, Hyun Duk; Lee, Jeong Ho

    1997-01-01

    A mixed solution of 54 Mn, 60 Co, 85 Sr and 137 Cs was applied to the soil of culture boxes in a greenhouse 2 days before transplanting red pepper and at 3 different times during its growth for investigating transfer factors (m 2 /kg-dry) for its green and red fruits. Transfer factors varied with radionuclide, application time and harvest time by factors of about 20-100. They decreased mostly radionuclide, application time and harvest time by factors of about 20-100. They decreased mostly in the order of 85 Sr> 54 Mn> 60 Co> 137 Cs while 54 Mn and 60 Co was higher than 85 Sr when time lapse between application and harvest was short. Transfer factors of 85 Sr and 137 Cs at the last application were lower than those at the previous one by factors of 3-20 depending on harvest time. Variations in 54 Mn and 60 Co transfer factors with application time after transplanting were comparatively low. Transfer factors of 54 Mn, 60 Co and 85 Sr mixed with topsoil before transplanting were up to 3-9 times higher than those for the application onto soil surface 2 days after transplanting root-uptake concentrations of the radionuclides in red pepper fruit and taking proper measures for its harvest and consumption at the event of an accidental release during the growing season of red pepper

  9. Effect of natural biostimulants on yield and nutritional quality: an example of sweet yellow pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parađiković, Nada; Vinković, Tomislav; Vinković Vrček, Ivana; Žuntar, Irena; Bojić, Mirza; Medić-Šarić, Marica

    2011-09-01

    Modifications in growing techniques can affect the yield and nutritional quality of various cultivated plant species. Owing to its high nutritional value, pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was used in this study as a model plant to investigate the effect of natural biostimulants on yield and fruit quality parameters under conditions of reduced fertilisation. A positive influence of biostimulant treatment on yield parameters was observed. The overall increase in the pigment content of leaves after biostimulant application agreed well with the higher total and commercial yields of treated pepper cultivars compared with their controls. The results showed that natural biostimulants had a positive effect on the vitamin C and total phenolic contents in pepper fruits during the hot summer season. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) antioxidant activities were also significantly higher (P hydroponically. Thus the application of biostimulants could be considered as a good production strategy for obtaining high yields of nutritionally valuable vegetables with lower impact on the environment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. A comprehensive characterization of simple sequence repeats in pepper genomes provides valuable resources for marker development in Capsicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jiaowen; Zhao, Zicheng; Li, Bo; Qin, Cheng; Wu, Zhiming; Trejo-Saavedra, Diana L; Luo, Xirong; Cui, Junjie; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael F; Li, Shuaicheng; Hu, Kailin

    2016-01-07

    The sequences of the full set of pepper genomes including nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast are now available for use. However, the overall of simple sequence repeats (SSR) distribution in these genomes and their practical implications for molecular marker development in Capsicum have not yet been described. Here, an average of 868,047.50, 45.50 and 30.00 SSR loci were identified in the nuclear, mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of pepper, respectively. Subsequently, systematic comparisons of various species, genome types, motif lengths, repeat numbers and classified types were executed and discussed. In addition, a local database composed of 113,500 in silico unique SSR primer pairs was built using a homemade bioinformatics workflow. As a pilot study, 65 polymorphic markers were validated among a wide collection of 21 Capsicum genotypes with allele number and polymorphic information content value per marker raging from 2 to 6 and 0.05 to 0.64, respectively. Finally, a comparison of the clustering results with those of a previous study indicated the usability of the newly developed SSR markers. In summary, this first report on the comprehensive characterization of SSR motifs in pepper genomes and the very large set of SSR primer pairs will benefit various genetic studies in Capsicum.

  11. Cloning and expression analysis of CaPIP1-1 gene in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yan-Xu; Wang, Shu-Bin; Zhang, Huai-Xia; Xiao, Huai-Juan; Jin, Jing-Hao; Ji, Jiao-Jiao; Jing, Hua; Chen, Ru-Gang; Arisha, Mohamed Hamed; Gong, Zhen-Hui

    2015-05-25

    Plant aquaporins are responsible for water transmembrane transport, which play an important role on abiotic and biotic stresses. A novel plasma membrane intrinsic protein of CaPIP1-1 was isolated from the pepper P70 according to transcriptome databases of Phytophthora capsici inoculation and chilling stress library. CaPIP1-1, which is 1155 bp in length with an open reading frame of 861 bp, encoded 286 amino acids. Three introns, exhibited CT/AC splice junctions, were observed in CaPIP1-1. The numbers and location of introns in CaPIP1-1 were the same as observed in tomato and potato. CaPIP1-1 was abundantly expressed in pepper fruit. Increased transcription levels of CaPIP1-1 were found in the different stresses, including chilling stress, salt stress, mannitol stress, salicylic acid, ABA treatment and Phytophthora capsici infection. The expression of CaPIP1-1 was downregulated by 50 μM HgCl2 and 100 μM fluridone. The pepper plants silenced CaPIP1-1 in cv. Qiemen showed growth inhibition and decreased tolerance to salt and mannitol stresses using detached leaf method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Antioxidant Systems from Pepper (Capsicum annuum L.): Involvement in the Response to Temperature Changes in Ripe Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Rosa M.; Jiménez, Ana; Román, Paloma; Romojaro, Félix; Bacarizo, Sierra; Leterrier, Marina; Gómez, Manuel; Sevilla, Francisca; del Río, Luis A.; Corpas, Francisco J.; Palma, José M.

    2013-01-01

    Sweet pepper is susceptible to changes in the environmental conditions, especially temperatures below 15 °C. In this work, two sets of pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.) which underwent distinct temperature profiles in planta were investigated. Accordingly, two harvesting times corresponding to each set were established: Harvest 1, whose fruits developed and ripened at 14.9 °C as average temperature; and Harvest 2, with average temperature of 12.4 °C. The oxidative metabolism was analyzed in all fruits. Although total ascorbate content did not vary between Harvests, a shift from the reduced to the oxidized form (dehydroascorbate), accompanied by a higher ascorbate peroxidase activity, was observed in Harvest 2 with respect to Harvest 1. Moreover, a decrease of the ascorbate-generating enzymatic system, the γ-galactono-lactone dehydrogenase, was found at Harvest 2. The activity values of the NADP-dependent dehydrogenases analyzed seem to indicate that a lower NADPH synthesis may occur in fruits which underwent lower temperature conditions. In spite of the important changes observed in the oxidative metabolism in fruits subjected to lower temperature, no oxidative stress appears to occur, as indicated by the lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation profiles. Thus, the antioxidative systems of pepper fruits seem to be involved in the response against temperature changes. PMID:23644886

  13. The effect of cadmium on phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity and lipid peroxidation in pepper (Capsicum annuum L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Koç

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect on differrent concentrations (20, 40, 80µM ve 100 µM CdCl2 of cadmium (CdCl2 on the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL and lipid peroxidation amount in leaf and stem of Kahramanmaraş- Hot (Capsicum annum L. pepper seedlings were researched. Activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, the first enzyme in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway, was increased at 2 and 4 days in KM-Hot plants exposed to CdCl2 stress. The highest PAL activity was detected in 20 μM CdCl2 application, on the four day after the application in the leaves of KM-Hot pepper. Moreover, it was observed that treatment of pepper with Cd led to an increased the rate of lipid peroxidation (which is indicated by increasing MDA content in the leaf and stem tissues. The highest MDA content was detected in 80 μM CdCl2 application, on the four day after the application in the leaf tissues. These results suggest that the activation of PAL may be associated with increased production of MDA

  14. Enhanced Antifungal Effect of Chitosan/Pepper Tree (Schinus molle Essential Oil Bionanocomposites on the Viability of Aspergillus parasiticus Spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Guadalupe Luque-Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan nanoparticles (CS and chitosan/pepper tree (Schinus molle essential oil (CS-EO bionanocomposites were synthesized by nanoprecipitation method and the in vitro antifungal activity against Aspergillus parasiticus spores was evaluated. The shape and size were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The surface charge was determined by assessing the zeta potential and the inclusion of essential oil in bionanocomposites using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR. The effect on cell viability of the fungus was evaluated using the XTT technique and morphometric analysis by image processing. SEM and DLS analysis indicated that spherical particles with larger diameters for CS-EO biocomposites were observed. Zeta potential values were higher (+11.1 ± 1.60 mV for CS nanoparticles. Results suggest a chemical interaction between chitosan and pepper tree essential oil. The highest concentration of CS-EO complex caused a larger (40–50% decrease in A. parasiticus viability. The inclusion of pepper tree oil in CS nanoparticles is a feasible alternative to obtain antifungal biocomposites, where the activity that each compound presents individually is strengthened.

  15. Assessment of pepper spray product potency in Asian and Caucasian forearm skin using transepidermal water loss, skin temperature and reflectance colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pershing, Lynn K; Reilly, Christopher A; Corlett, Judy L; Crouch, Dennis J

    2006-01-01

    Historically, pepper spray product potency has been established using a taste test evaluation. A taste test is subjective and may not be appropriate for assessing pepper potency in skin. The current study evaluated chemically diverse pepper sprays in human forearm skin using three objective, noninvasive parameters: transepidermal water loss, skin surface temperature and erythema, as a means for assessing dermal pharmacology, toxicology and product potency. Five commercial pepper spray products containing various capsaicinoid analogs at various concentrations were evaluated in duplicate on volar forearms of six Caucasians and six Asians using a 10 min exposure. Mean surface skin temperature, transepidermal water loss results were highly variable and therefore did not demonstrate dose responsive behavior to increasing capsaicinoid concentrations. Erythema, as measured by increases in a* (reflected light in the red-to-green color spectrum) of the L*a*b* uniform color scale, was superior among parameters evaluated in discriminating pepper spray potency and correlated well with the relative and total capsaicinoid concentration in the products. Products containing greater than 16 mg ml(-1) capsaicinoid concentration produced greater erythema responses in Caucasians than Asians. Asians responded greater to the synthetic analog, nonivamide, than to mixtures of capsaicinoids, while Caucasians responded equally to both capsaicinoid analogs. Thus, pepper spray product potency in human skin reflects the total capsaicinoid concentration, the specific capsaicin analog(s) present, and the race of the individual exposed. The finding that the reflectance colorimeter a* scale can differentiate these parameters in skin will have a significant impact on evaluating the use and efficacy of pepper spray products in humans. 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. De novo transcriptome sequencing of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and an analysis of genes involved in phenylpropanoid metabolism in response to Phytophthora capsici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chaoyun; Xia, Zhiqiang; Fan, Rui; Tan, Lehe; Hu, Lisong; Wu, Baoduo; Wu, Huasong

    2016-10-21

    Piper nigrum L., or "black pepper", is an economically important spice crop in tropical regions. Black pepper production is markedly affected by foot rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, and genetic improvement of black pepper is essential for combating foot rot diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism of anti- P. capsici in black pepper. The molecular mechanisms underlying foot rot susceptibility were studied by comparing transcriptome analysis between resistant (Piper flaviflorum) and susceptible (Piper nigrum cv. Reyin-1) black pepper species. 116,432 unigenes were acquired from six libraries (three replicates of resistant and susceptible black pepper samples), which were integrated by applying BLAST similarity searches and noted by adopting Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Gene Ontology (GO) genome orthology identifiers. The reference transcriptome was mapped using two sets of digital gene expression data. Using GO enrichment analysis for the differentially expressed genes, the majority of the genes associated with the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway were identified in P. flaviflorum. In addition, the expression of genes revealed that after susceptible and resistant species were inoculated with P. capsici, the majority of genes incorporated in the phenylpropanoid metabolism pathway were up-regulated in both species. Among various treatments and organs, all the genes were up-regulated to a relatively high degree in resistant species. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase and peroxidase enzyme activity increased in susceptible and resistant species after inoculation with P. capsici, and the resistant species increased faster. The resistant plants retain their vascular structure in lignin revealed by histochemical analysis. Our data provide critical information regarding target genes and a technological basis for future studies of black pepper genetic improvements, including transgenic breeding.

  17. Red peppers with moderate and severe pungency prevent the memory deficit and hepatic insulin resistance in diabetic rats with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kwon, Dae Young; Kim, Min Jung; Kang, Suna; Moon, Na Rang; Daily, James W; Park, Sunmin

    2015-01-01

    Dementia induced by β-amyloid accumulation impairs peripheral glucose homeostasis, but red pepper extract improves glucose homeostasis. We therefore evaluated whether long-term oral consumption of different red pepper extracts improves cognitive dysfunction and glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic rats with β-amyloid-induced dementia. Male diabetic rats received hippocampal CA1 infusions of β-amyloid (25-35) (AD) or β-amyloid (35-25, non-plaque forming), at a rate of 3.6 nmol/day for 14 days (Non-AD). AD rats were divided into four dietary groups receiving either 1% lyophilized 70% ethanol extracts of either low, moderate and severe pungency red peppers (AD-LP, AD-MP, and AD-SP) or 1% dextrin (AD-CON) in Western diets (43% energy as fat). The ascending order of control memory deficit measured by passive avoidance test and water maze test. Furthermore, the accumulation of β-amyloid induced glucose intolerance, although serum insulin levels were elevated during the late phase of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). All of the red pepper extracts prevented the glucose intolerance in AD rats. Consistent with OGTT results, during euglycemic hyperinulinemic clamp glucose infusion rates were lower in AD-CON than Non-AD-CON with no difference in whole body glucose uptake. Hepatic glucose output at the hyperinsulinemic state was increased in AD-CON. β-amyloid accumulation exacerbated hepatic insulin resistance, but all red pepper extract treatments reversed the insulin resistance in AD rats. The extracts of moderate and severe red peppers were found to prevent the memory deficit and exacerbation of insulin resistance by blocking tau phosphorylation and β-amyloid accumulation in diabetic rats with experimentally induced Alzheimer's-like dementia. These results suggest that red pepper consumption might be an effective intervention for preventing age-related memory deficit.

  18. Genetic diversity studies in twenty accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doku, S.K.

    2015-07-01

    Twenty (20) accessions of hot pepper (Capsicum spp L.) were collected from eight geographical regions of Ghana for genetic diversity studies. The objective was to assess genetic relationship among them using phenotypic and molecular traits and to evaluate their elemental composition. A replicated field experiment was conducted to assess their genetic diversity based on 13 quantitative traits and 22 qualitative traits using the IBPGR descriptor list for Capsicum. Confirmation of their identities was done using 10 SSR markers. The accessions were also evaluated for macro, micro and trace elements in their fresh fruits using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Five essential macro elements (Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na), two micro elements (Al and Mn) and one trace element (Br) were detected by INAA. Results from the agromorphological study revealed that accession Wes 01 had the widest stem width, matured leaf width, high fruit set but late maturing. Nor 03 was early maturing and had high fruit set, but also possessed the highest number of seeds per fruit. Fruit weight, fruit width, fruit length and plant canopy width, recorded the highest variabilities with 66.191; 53.24; 49.32; and 32.42 coefficients of variation (CVs), respectively. Few traits such as plant canopy width, plant height, fruit length, mature leaf length and number of seeds per fruit contributed substantially to total genetic variance as revealed by the principal component analysis (PCA). A dendrogram generated using morphological traits grouped accessions into cultivated and wild genotypes of pepper and all the accessions were identified as separate entities with no duplications. Strong correlation was recorded between plant canopy width and plant height, mature leaf length and mature leaf width, and also fruit weight and fruit width and fruit length. Negative correlation was however, observed between fruit length and days to 50% fruiting and flowering. All three accessions from the Northern

  19. Evaluation of diversity in Bulgarian pepper cultivars by agronomical traits and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsonev Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Information about the genetic variation among cultivars of vegetable crops is of vital importance for improvement of plant breeding programmes worldwide. The objectives of this study were to group 19 pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivars from the collection of Maritsa Vegetable Crops Research Institute, Plovdiv, Bulgariainto clusters according to their distances as estimated by agronomic traits and 9 di-and tri -nucleotide inter simple sequence repeat polymorphism (ISSR markers and to assess the relationships between them. The phenotypic characterization during 3 consecutive years revealed significant differences among Bulgarian cultivars for the studied 13 phenotypic traits. The biplot analysis of quantitative traits showed that the most strongly correlating traits with the first axis (55.6% of variance were fruit width, fruit weight and pericarp thickness (in the negative direction of the axis, and plant height (PH (in the positive direction. The most discriminative traits, considering the second axis (22.6% of variance were fruit length (FL and to a lesser extent the stem height (StH. The correspondence analysis of the qualitative traits showed that the intensity of the colour of the fruit (before and at maturity, fruit colourbefore maturity and fruit shape in longitudinal section were the most discriminative characteristics for the first two dimensions. The agronomic traits data and 7 dinucleotide ISSR primers were used to estimate the pairwise genetic distances. Higher mean phenotypic distance (0.414 in comparison to the genotypic ones (0.214 among the cultivars was observed, indicating higher phenotypic diversity among them. A highly significant, positive correlation between the agronomic data and ISSR marker-based matrices (r=0.41, p=0.001was detected. This indicates that ISSR distance tended to reflect that of the agronomics ones. However, additional molecular studies and large collection of highly diverse genotypes are needed to reveal

  20. The Value of the 123 I-MIBG Scintigraphy in Diagnosis and Follow-Up of Patients with Pepper Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidescu, L.; Anghel, A.; Jeandot, R.; Guyot, M.; Fernandez, P.; Farid, K.; Allard, Michele; Codorean, Ioan; Marinescu, G.; Rimbu, A.; Mititelu, R.; Ghita, S.; Mazilu, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Objective: The poster highlights the importance of scintigraphy with 123 I-MIBG in the complete evaluation of a patient with Pepper syndrome. Pepper syndrome is a particular form of the metastatic neuroblastoma in stage 4S (hepatic metastasis without bone involvement) with a good prognosis, which affects mainly newborns. MIBG (metaiodobenzyl-guanidine) being an analogue of norephinephrine - is captured (active mechanism) by the neuroendocrine cells and is concentrated in the medula of the adrenal glands, sympathetic paraganglia, myocardium sympathetic nervous terminations, APUD system and in the tumours originating from these structures. Materials and Methods: EN, 3 months old, feminine sex, suspected of having 4S stage neuroblastoma (Pepper syndrome) has been evaluated by a scintigraphic examination 24 hours after intravenous injection of 80 MBq 123 I-MIBG. We used a dual-head GE gamma camera, LEUHR collimator with parallels channels for low energy, with high resolution; energy window:159 keV +/- 10%. We performed static images of the cranium (anterior, posterior and lateral view), thorax, abdomen, pelvis and limbs (anterior and posterior view). Thyroid gland was blocked with Lugol. We have repeated the scintigraphic examinations at 3, 4, 6 and 7 months after the initial exam. Results and Discussions: First examination confirmed the diagnosis of Pepper syndrome putting in evidence a hyper fixation of the radio pharmaceutic in the right abdominal side corresponding with the primitive tumour of the adrenal medula; a heterogeneous hyper fixation of the liver evoking a multi nodular secondary hepatomegaly and some hyper fixations focalized to the cranial box (frontal right), to the superior epiphysis of the left tibia and to the superior extremity of the left femur (osteomedullary invasion). The next examinations have shown an amelioration of the scintigraphic imaging of the abdominal localisations but also of the osteomedullary ones. The scintigraphy has