WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-profit organization founded

  1. Taxation of Non-profit organization

    OpenAIRE

    BŘEHOVSKÝ, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays non-profit organizations are the integral parts of developed economics. They fill gap in the market, where exist market failures. Their main aim is not to reach profit but to offer services in which ``invisible hand of market{\\crqq} fail. But it doesn{\\crq}t mean, that they can{\\crq}t reach profit. Attention is on reasons why these non-profit organizations exist, potential profit or revenue are secondary aims. For these reasons there exist some differences in taxation of non-profit o...

  2. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  3. Economics, mangement and development of non-profit making organization

    OpenAIRE

    Piskoř, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Non-profit making organization. Management analysis of non-profit making organization and its development. Utilization of rational action theory in management of non-profit making organization acting in dance. Example of an autarchic, flourishing and competitive non-profit making organization.

  4. Economics, mangement and development of non-profit making organization

    OpenAIRE

    Piskoř, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Non-profit making organization. Management analysis of non-profit making organization and its development. Utilization of rational action theory in management of non-profit making organization acting in dance. Example of an autarchic, flourishing and competitive non-profit making organization.

  5. Motivation of employees in non profit organization

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kaysy, Soňa

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the issue of employees motivation in the non-profit organization. The aim is to identify the main factors that motivate its employees, identify the most important factors and how they are satisfied with these factors in this organization. The outcome of this work is to propose possible changes in the current system of motivation and evaluation so that they lead to better utilization of human potential and to the satisfaction of both employers and employees.

  6. Management trends: Internationalization of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are increasingly gaining importance in the modern economy with their development and their numbers increasing day by day. It is very important to note that non-profit organizations are often subject to various benefits that the for-profit companies are not. Thus, for example, preferential tax status of non-profit organizations is manifested primarily in the form of exemption from corporate income tax. In addition, private non-profit organizations enjoy various other state, local and federal taxes exemptions. Under certain conditions, these organizations are exempt from taxes on donations and membership fees. A feature that differentiates various non-profit organizations and profit-oriented companies is their source of income. Profit oriented companies depend on their income, obtained from sales of their goods or services to customers, who usually cover the price and cost of goods and services plus the profit. In contrast, nonprofit organizations are very dependent on membership fees, tax exemptions, members donations or depend on funds of the sponsoring agency which covers most of their costs, for example a federal government agency. Those non-profit organizations that have substantial operating costs beyond national borders and do not identify themselves as purely domestic in their mandate are International non-profit organizations. Most non-profit organizations remain in their national boundaries, on the territory of the country in which they were created, but a large number of non-profit organizations rapidly internationalize, and some larger non-profits have grown into important global actors. The paper includes the following sections: (1 introduction, (2 why is the 'non-profit' important, (3 the internationalization of non-profit organizations, (4 sources of income of non-profit organizations (4.1. causality of impact and of strategic decisions in cases pertaining to universities, (5 the limits of strategic

  7. THE CONSTITUTION, ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

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    DUMITRU FRANCA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are associations, foundations or federations which use their own assets and revenues in order to pursue activities of general, community or non-patrimonial purpose. According to these legal regulations, associations and foundations can be constituted by natural or legal persons with the purpose of undertaking such activities of general, community or non-patrimonial (non-profit purpose. The organization and operation of non-profit organizations presents a series of particularities in the case of associations as opposed to foundations, but there are also common elements.

  8. Communication Strategy of a Non-Profit Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Crhová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the diploma thesis is to analyze the communication strategy of the non-profit organization Otevřená OKNA, z. ú. including its assessment, and to suggest an optimization of the communication strategy based on this analysis. The real possibilities of non-profit organizations and the environment in which it is located and operates were taken into account. The theoretical part defines and formulates the fundamental findings related to the non-profit sector, non-profit organizatio...

  9. 7 CFR 3015.193 - Other non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other non-profit organizations. 3015.193 Section 3015.193 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL... non-profit organizations. (a) OMB Circular No. A-122, including any subsequent amendments to...

  10. Comparative Corporate Governance of Non-Profit Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Based on the impressive work of Hopt and von Hippel (2010), I review the comparative corporate governance of non-profit organizations and propose topics for future research. There is evidence of agency problems in non-profit as well as for-profit organizations, but the governance mechanisms...... employed to address them are by necessity different. In the absence of important governance mechanisms like monitoring by external owners or performance based pay, other mechanisms like regulation, reputation and transparency come to the foreground. However, we have little systematic knowledge of the costs...... and benefits of alternative governance arrangements in non-profits, which provides a range of opportunities for future research....

  11. Measurement of the effectiveness of non-profit organizations

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    Gudz Petro Vasilovych

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of implementing evaluation of effectiveness in non-profit organizations activity is grounded in this article. Shown adaptation EERL approach based on result monitoring. Analyzed one of the activity effectiveness on the example of the civil organization. Evaluation of effectiveness is important as for organizations to improve their services as to present the results for audience.

  12. Internal branding : Within a Swedish non-profit organization

    OpenAIRE

    Diep, Lisa; Stedt, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The aid sector has received a lot of attention the recent years whereas the public has recognized the societal situation in developing countries. As many people has become more generous with their donations, an increasing number of non-profit organizations (NPO) has emerged which has created a competitive environment in the non-profit sector. As a result, many NPOs has started to adapt business-like qualities such as implementing a marketing strategy and building a brand. The purpose of this ...

  13. Internal branding : Within a Swedish non-profit organization

    OpenAIRE

    Diep, Lisa; Stedt, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The aid sector has receive a lot of attention the recent years whereas the public has recognized the societal situation in developing countries. As many people has become more generous with their donations, an increasing number of non-profit organizations (NPO) has emerged which has created a competitive environment in the non-profit sector. As a result, many NPOs has started to adapt business-like qualities such as implementing a marketing strategy and building a brand. The purpose of this s...

  14. 24 CFR 5.107 - Audit requirements for non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Non-profit Organizations” (see 24 CFR 84.26). For HUD programs, a non-profit organization is the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit requirements for non-profit... Federal Requirements; Waivers § 5.107 Audit requirements for non-profit organizations....

  15. 25 CFR 276.16 - Subgrants and subcontracts to non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subgrants and subcontracts to non-profit organizations... Subgrants and subcontracts to non-profit organizations. The uniform administrative requirements in this part... subgrants or subcontracts made to non-profit organizations....

  16. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Non-Profit Organizations Not Subject to This Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-Profit Organizations Not Subject to This... GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) Pt. 230, App. C Appendix C to Part 230—Non-Profit Organizations Not Subject to This Part 1. Advance Technology...

  17. The Homogenized Imagery of Non-Profit Organizations on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenix, Linda Jean

    2007-01-01

    This research evaluates websites from 200 "non-deviant" and 200 "deviant" non-profit organizations to better understand the relationship between the type of advocacy group and the visual imagery used for self-representation. Seventeen of 21 variables measured for this study found no difference between non-deviant and deviant non-profit…

  18. Performance of non-profit organizations: Empirical contrasts between privately and publicly funded Croatian humanitarian organizations

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    Alfirević Nikša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contrast different aspects of non-profit organizations’ performance from the perspective of their funding sources. Based on previous empirical results indicating that sources of funding influence fundraising performance, we extend the existing research to the analysis of overall non-profit organizational performance. We use the social constructivist approach to non-profit performance to discuss contrasts between privately and publicly funded humanitarian organizations in Croatia. Some differences in growth- and development-oriented measures of nonprofit performance for these groups are identified and discussed in the context of future regional research.

  19. Physically active lifestyles for all Americans: a call to action for non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Colleen; Hutber, Adrian; McCarthy, William J

    2009-10-01

    Many nonprofit organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are strategically poised to encourage and facilitate healthier lifestyles. Non-profit organizations can play leadership roles in improving physical levels among all Americans.

  20. Traditions and Management Perspectives of Community and Non-Profit Organizations in Lithuania

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    Andrius Stasiukynas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To overview the traditions and management perspectives of community and non-profit organizations in Lithuania.Methodology – For the purpose of this research a literature analysis on community and non-profit organization case studies was conducted. The case studies describing stories of success were singled out and leaders of these organizations were interviewed.Findings – The research has showed the growth of the number of community and nonprofit organizations during the last twenty years and the difficulties of collecting the statistical data. This study presupposes the possibility to identify the tendencies of management in community and non-profit organizations, including the following: increasing use of the social networks for communication; proliferation of strategic planning; greater emphasis on educating and empowering new generation of leaders.Research implications – Prior studies in this area in Lithuania have not exhaustively analyzed the components of human resource management of non-profit organizations. An important follow up on this study would be to analyze the human resource management in community organizations.Practical implications – This study covered the management aspects important for the improvement of how community and non-profit organizations work.Originality/Value – This study expands the knowledge on Lithuanian community and non-profit organization development and management.Research type – literature review, research paper.

  1. A Project Portfolio Management model adapted to non-profit organizations

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    Fabrício Martins Lacerda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As they strive towards greater professionalism in carrying out their activities, non-profit organizations (NPOs have begun paying attention to project management. The non-profit sector (NPS has also begun to adopt strategic planning techniques, thus making the acceptance of project portfolio management (PPM methodology a natural consequence. This article aims to propose a project portfolio management model adapted to the context of NPOs.

  2. Person-Organization Commitment: Bonds of Internal Consumer in the Context of Non-profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Clavel San Emeterio, Mónica; González-Menorca, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    From an Organizational Behavior perspective, it is important to recognize the links generated between individuals and the organization that encourage a desire for permanence. After more than a half century of research, Organizational Commitment remains one of the open questions in the Psychology of Organizations. It is considered an essential factor for explaining individual behavior in the organization such as satisfaction, turnover intention, or loyalty. In this paper, we analyze different contributions regarding the nature of the bond between the individual and the organization. Taking into account the peculiarities of Non-profit Organizations, we present different interpretation for later validation, comparing results from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the four models obtained using exploratory factor analysis, both conducted on a sample of 235 members of Non-profit Organizations. PMID:28775699

  3. Person-Organization Commitment: Bonds of Internal Consumer in the Context of Non-profit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Clavel San Emeterio, Mónica; González-Menorca, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    From an Organizational Behavior perspective, it is important to recognize the links generated between individuals and the organization that encourage a desire for permanence. After more than a half century of research, Organizational Commitment remains one of the open questions in the Psychology of Organizations. It is considered an essential factor for explaining individual behavior in the organization such as satisfaction, turnover intention, or loyalty. In this paper, we analyze different contributions regarding the nature of the bond between the individual and the organization. Taking into account the peculiarities of Non-profit Organizations, we present different interpretation for later validation, comparing results from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the four models obtained using exploratory factor analysis, both conducted on a sample of 235 members of Non-profit Organizations.

  4. 76 FR 32377 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance... 2011 Supplement can be found at Appendix V. It updates Appendix VII that provides an audit alert and...

  5. THE INSUFFICIENCY OF FINANCIAL ANALYSIS FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Corina MIHĂLŢAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper work is based on the hypothesis that the financial analysis is insufficient when it comes to reflecting the performance of nonprofit organizations. Our main argument is the social purpose of non-profit organization, which is the reason why the analyst has to find optimal solutions for analyzing their performance while taking into account their social impact. Our research focused on the conceptualizations of the performance of non-profit organizations and the adequacy of the existing models for analyzing it. The research results refer to the limits of financial analysis regarding the performance of non-profit organizations because it can only offer relevant information regarding its effectiveness.

  6. Applying Emotional Intelligence Skills to Leadership and Decision Making in Non-Profit Organizations

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    James D. Hess

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations and leaders may benefit from the utilization of behaviors attributed to emotional intelligence. The consideration of emotional intelligence skills becomes a strategy for the development of the non-profit organizational leader’s ability to assess the impact and consequences of decisions, while simultaneously improving the quality and effectiveness of the decision-making process. The purpose of this paper is to identify how emotional intelligence skills can be applied to enhance the leadership decision-making processes within the non-profit organization. Goleman’s (2001 and Boyatzis’ et al. (2000 four essential elements of emotional intelligence and their associated 20 behavioral competencies are utilized to develop a methodology for the practical application of emotional intelligence skills to leadership decision-making within the non-profit organization. A checklist of questions and observations is provided to assist non-profit leaders in the improvement of emotional intelligence awareness, as well as the application of emotional intelligence skills to decisions and decision-making processes.

  7. Polish and Silesian Non-Profit Organizations Liquidity Strategies

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    Grzegorz Michalski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The kind of realized mission inflows the sensitivity to risk. Among other factors, the risk results from decision about liquid assets investment level and liquid assets financing. The higher the risk exposure, the higher the level of liquid assets. If the specific risk exposure is smaller, the more aggressive could be the net liquid assets strategy. The organization choosing between various solutions in liquid assets needs to decide what level of risk is acceptable for her owners (or donors and / or capital suppliers. The paper shows how, in authors opinion, decisions, about liquid assets management strategy inflow the risk of the organizations and its economicalresults during realization of main mission. Comparison of theoretical model with empirical data for over 450 Silesian nonprofit organization results suggests that nonprofit organization managing teams choose more risky aggressive liquid assets solutions than for-profit firms.

  8. Healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI) and non-profit organization (NPO): essentials for healthcare data exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Katsuhiko; Teratani, Tadamasa; Qiyan, Zhang; Kusuoka, Hideo; Matsuoka, Masami

    2004-01-01

    To share healthcare information and to promote cooperation among healthcare providers and customers (patients) under computerized network environment, a non-profit organization (NPO), named as OCHIS, was established at Osaka, Japan in 2003. Since security and confidentiality issues on the Internet have been major concerns in the OCHIS, the system has been based on healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI), and found that there remained problems to be solved technically and operationally. An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the central and the local function in terms of a registration authority and a time stamp authority by contracting with the Ministry of Economics and Trading Industries in 2003. This paper describes the experimental design with NPO and the results of the study concerning message security and HPKI. The developed system has been operated practically in Osaka urban area.

  9. Developing a Theoretical Framework of Responsiveness in Educational Institutions and Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bheda, Divya Narendra

    2013-01-01

    A number of education institutions and non-profit organizations seek to be responsive toward the stakeholders they serve. They engage in numerous organizational and evaluative processes to be perceived as responsive. They consider evaluating and improving responsiveness, important to their practice. Unfortunately, such efforts are often impeded…

  10. Evaluating Outsourcing Information Technology and Assurance Expertise by Small Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Fillmore

    2013-01-01

    Small non-profit organizations outsource at least one information technology or information assurance process. Outsourcing information technology and information assurance processes has increased every year. The study was to determine the key reasons behind the choice to outsource information technology and information assurance processes. Using…

  11. Evaluating Outsourcing Information Technology and Assurance Expertise by Small Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Fillmore

    2013-01-01

    Small non-profit organizations outsource at least one information technology or information assurance process. Outsourcing information technology and information assurance processes has increased every year. The study was to determine the key reasons behind the choice to outsource information technology and information assurance processes. Using…

  12. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATED MODEL OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION STRUCTURE ON THE PUBLIC PARTICIPATING NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tien Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main body of social stratification structure in Taiwan is transformed with social mobility. By transforming the social stratification structure, the function of non-profit organizations is operating steadily. How does people’s awareness of social strata directly or indirectly influence the operation of non-profit organizations? How do non-profit organizations and governments respond to the transformation of social stratum compositions? And how promotion and policy marketing could guide the general public to be attentive and participate in the operations of non-profit organizations? These questions require in-depth investigation. This study bases on the experiments and concepts of fairness measurement in information integration theory to comprehend the integrated model of social stratification in the public. By means of analyzing the awareness and orientation of the public to the constitution of social stratification which lead the public to identify themselves with the visions of non-profit organizations and the motion of participating non-profit matters to provide the interrelated recommendations of proceeding non-profit matters to non-profit organizations and the government. Comparing the cognitive algebraic functions of input information and outcome information of various groups in the social strata, the only difference is that if the input information is education background and the outcome information profession prestige. Empirically, non-profit organizations promoting and encouraging people to engage in occupational aid related activities could find different methods available.

  13. Multiobjective Optimization Model for Pricing and Seat Allocation Problem in Non Profit Performing Arts Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldin, Andrea; Bille, Trine; Ellero, Andrea

    The implementation of Revenue Management (RM) techniques in non profit performing arts organizations presents new challenges compared to other sectors, such as transportion or hospitality industries, in which these techniques are more consolidated. Indeed, performing arts organizations are charac......The implementation of Revenue Management (RM) techniques in non profit performing arts organizations presents new challenges compared to other sectors, such as transportion or hospitality industries, in which these techniques are more consolidated. Indeed, performing arts organizations...... is to incentive the customers to discriminate among themselves according to their reservation price, offering a schedule of different prices corresponding to different seats in the venue. In this context, price and allocation of the theatre seating area are decision variables that allow theatre managers to manage...... of heterogeneity among customer categories in both choice and demand. The proposed model is validated with booking data referring to the Royal Danish Theatre during the period 2010-2015....

  14. Strategic planning models in public and non-profit sport organizations

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    ELENA THEAKOU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning is widely used by organisations, as itis an integral part of strategy. The present study tackles thetopic of strategic planning as it is developed by public andnon-profit organizations and provides an extensive review ofliterature in the area of the development and role of strategic planning within strategic management and the way it is adopted by public and non-profit organizations. For the purposes of this paper, five models of strategic planning have been discussed with the belief that they describe better the models that can be approached and developed by public and non-profit organizations in the area of sport. This article aims at partly contributing to the theoretical discussion concerning the ability of organizations to integrate and deploy strategic planning. For this study we examined a non-profitsport organization in British Columbia, Canada. The authorspropose that public and non-profit sport organizations shoulddevelop their own model of strategic planning, which mayhelp them to think and act strategically.

  15. Managing Competency in Non-Profit Organization: Experience with a European University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostaq M. Hussain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competence Management (CM has been discussed in contemporary academic and practitioner literature as a managing tool of Core Competences. Most of the studies of CM deal with manufacturing sector and profit organizations. Very little is known about CM in services and almost nothing in not-for profit organization. No research report has yet been found in educational institutions. Although, CM is not only important in manufacturing and profit organizations but also important in non-profit, like educational institutions, in order to meet the required quality and competitiveness of 21st century's education. Thus, an attempt has been made in this research to study CM in the administration of one the top ranking University in a Nordic country. The result results reveal that competencies had been defined in individual, network and unit level, but lack of integration of a comprehensive CM framework unable the higher educational institution to achieve the benefits of core competence. Based on the empirical findings, some policy and research directions are given at the end of the research.

  16. Predicting Firm Success From the Facial Appearance of Chief Executive Officers of Non-Profit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; Rule, Nicholas O

    2016-10-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that judgments of Chief Executive Officers' (CEOs') faces predict their firms' financial performance, finding that characteristics associated with higher power (e.g., dominance) predict greater profits. Most of these studies have focused on CEOs of profit-based businesses, where the main criterion for success is financial gain. Here, we examined whether facial appearance might predict measures of success in a sample of CEOs of non-profit organizations (NPOs). Indeed, contrary to findings for the CEOs of profit-based businesses, judgments of leadership and power from the faces of CEOs of NPOs negatively correlated with multiple measures of charitable success (Study 1). Moreover, CEOs of NPOs looked less powerful than the CEOs of profit-based businesses (Study 2) and leadership ratings positively associated with warmth-based traits and NPO success when participants knew the faces belonged to CEOs of NPOs (Study 3). CEOs who look less dominant may therefore achieve greater success in leading NPOs, opposite the relationship found for the CEOs of profit-based companies. Thus, the relationship between facial appearance and leadership success varies by organizational context.

  17. The Expanded Value Added Statement as Applied at a Non-Profit Organization

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    Sady Mazzioni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available his study poses to investigate the impact of entries of social nature as overlooked by traditional accounting when compiling expanded value added figures, before value added accounting. To this effect, an exploratory qualitative survey was conducted at a non-profit organization located in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The study´s object was Indaial´s Women's Network Against Cancer (SC, an association of social and philanthropic purpose, deemed of both municipal and state public interest. Study results indicate that the value added statement -compiled as of financial information gathered at the researched institution– presents both employees and the government as being the prime beneficiaries of the wealth therein generated. Once both acknowledgement and measurement of volunteer service derived social entries are incorporated, compiled value added figures raise 82.92%. This disclosure approach extends the scope of beneficiaries of generated wealth beyond that of employees and government to include the organization itself - which receives social care program preparation and management services - and society as a whole, the ultimate addressee of services deployed by non-profit entities. One may come to the conclusion that social accounting concepts enable the understanding of both social and economic dynamics of this kind of organization.

  18. FIGHTING AGAINST CORRUPTION: POTENTIAL OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (BASED ON EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IN NIZHNEKAMSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yu. Nosanenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of non-profit organizations in Russia is inquiry of time today. Difficulties in carrying out reforms, the termination of foreign financing of "the third sector", the European sanctions, all these factors stimulate the Russian society to selforganization and force NPOs to take the responsibility for more and more wide range of problems, bringing, thus, to the forefront function of social control. In the last decade studying of "nonprofitable sector" in Russia was carried out generally at the level of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation and didn't affect the level of local government. Thus, the difficulty with collection of information was one of problems. Practically all noted that from 100% of the registered NPOs less than a half really works. This study is the first analysis of the third sector of Nizhnekamsk and its interaction with the government. The results show the strengths and weaknesses of civil society of the city, the feasibility of social control functions. Identified characteristics of non-profit organizations of Nizhnekamsk, as an institution of civil society. It has enormous potential for the fight against corruption, but is not putting itselve such purposes because of financial and organizational weakness. The study's results can be used to develop a concept of civil society and human capital formation at the municipal level.

  19. 41 CFR 102-75.575 - Who notifies non-profit organizations that surplus real property and related personal property to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who notifies non-profit... Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.575 Who notifies non-profit organizations that surplus real property... available? HUD notifies eligible non-profit organizations, following guidance in the GSA Customer Guide...

  20. Multiobjective Optimization Model for Pricing and Seat Allocation Problem in Non Profit Performing Arts Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldin, Andrea; Bille, Trine; Ellero, Andrea

    The implementation of Revenue Management (RM) techniques in non profit performing arts organizations presents new challenges compared to other sectors, such as transportion or hospitality industries, in which these techniques are more consolidated. Indeed, performing arts organizations...... are characterized by a multi-objective function that is not solely limited to revenue. On the one hand, theatres aim to increase revenue from box office as a consequence of the systematic reduction of public funds; on the other hand they pursue the objective to increase its attendance. A common practice by theatres...... is to incentive the customers to discriminate among themselves according to their reservation price, offering a schedule of different prices corresponding to different seats in the venue. In this context, price and allocation of the theatre seating area are decision variables that allow theatre managers to manage...

  1. Training in Portuguese Non-Profit Organizations: The Quest towards Professionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana; Melo, Solange; Ferreira, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    The non-profit sector is increasingly important, both in terms of the services rendered to society and level of employment provided. As part of a move towards the professionalization of the sector, training is seen as a vital tool for capacity building. Although the training practices of non-profits are fairly well documented in countries like…

  2. Impact of non-profit organizations on drug discovery: opportunities, gaps, solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Alex; Keller, Thomas H

    2008-04-01

    Non-profit organizations (NPO) play an increasingly important role in drug discovery and development for diseases that are neglected by the pharmaceutical industry because of low or absent commercial incentives. Governments and major private foundations such as the Wellcome Trust and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation increasingly step in to provide strategic direction, communication platforms and major resources, motivated by the fact that major healthcare problems remain unsolved. Drug discovery in the field of neglected diseases is fraught with complexities since, in many cases, important tools are lacking including readily available diagnostics, molecular epidemiology, appropriate model systems, representative strain collections, biomarkers, up-to-date trial methodologies and regulatory strategies. On top of this, the high hurdles addressing novel drug targets must be cleared.

  3. Community-based home support agencies: comparing the quality of care of cooperative and non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviten-Reid, Catherine; Hoyt, Ann

    2009-06-01

    In the province of Québec, services focusing on the instrumental activities of daily living are delivered to seniors by a combination of non-profit organizations and cooperatives. But do these organizations perform differently? This study asks whether home support cooperatives deliver higher-quality care than non-profit home support agencies. The specific effects of consumer and worker participation on the board of directors are also tested. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 from 831 individuals receiving home support services from nine cooperatives and nine non-profits. Two consumer-centered measures of quality were used: a summated, 39-point satisfaction score and a 4-point overall quality score. Data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. Results show that although organizational type was not a predictor of the two quality outcomes, worker involvement in governance was positively associated with the satisfaction score, while consumer involvement was positively associated with the overall quality score.

  4. Exploring Reasons for the Resistance to Sustainable Management within Non-Profit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Heinrich Daub

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The numerous empirical and conceptual studies that have been conducted over recent years concerning the social responsibility of enterprises and their contributions towards sustainable development have given very little consideration to non-profit organizations (NPOs. This is surprising, because NPOs are confronted with very similar challenges to profit-orientated enterprises regarding their evolution into sustainable organizations. This paper is a preliminary conceptual study and explores the question of why the corporate social responsibility, or corporate sustainability, of NPOs has to date been both neglected by research establishments and also extensively ignored by the NPOs during their day-to-day practical management. The example of church and pastoral institutions in Germany is used to demonstrate the extent to which they take account of ecological and social aspects in their management systems and processes and, thus, implement sustainable management within their day-to-day practice. The paper concludes with some proposals for further empirical and conceptual research projects, which are designed to analyze developments within NPOs with relation to the integration of sustainability into their management systems and processes.

  5. 78 FR 41424 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance... Facilities Formula Grants (as part of the Federal Transit Cluster) The deleted programs are: CFDA 14.258--Tax.... Appendix VII provides an audit alert concerning deletion of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  6. 75 FR 44814 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; Circular A-133 Compliance... through the Government Printing Office. DATES: The 2010 Supplement will apply to audits of fiscal years...

  7. Applying the prudence principle in non-profit organizations and financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes in detail the accounting principle of prudence in non-profit organizations and financial institutions. It defines its application in such organizations and based on comparison it evaluates the practical use of the prudence principle and its reflection in the accounting books. The main focus is on differences in applying the prudence principle that result from differences in the purpose activities and methods of asset management in these organizations. The practical application of the prudence principle in accounting consists mainly in the creation and use of provisions and impairments. These methods are defined by the Implementing Regulation to the Accounting Act No. 563/1991. The paper also provides tables where the creation and use of impairments and provisions in the above-mentioned organizations is compared with how business companies proceed in creating impairments and provisions. The key legislation standardizing accounting in the Czech Republic is the Accounting Act No. 563/1991, as amended, which stipulates the general accounting principles, the so-called accounting philosophy. The accounting is built around the general accounting principles, which are perceived as the pillars of accounting. Even though they are not stipulated in any particular law, they are legally enforceable and their ignorance can be sanctioned. The general accounting principles represent a set of rules to be observed in keeping the accounting books, preparing the accounting reports and submitting the accounting reports to users. The keystone accounting principle is the principle of true and fair refl ection of facts the essential goal of which is to report in the fi nancial statement actual assets and the fi nancial position of the accounting unit with an essential focus on reporting events that occurred during the accounting period with respect to their content.

  8. Organization and Management of Non-Profit Private Higher Education in a Multi-Ethnic and Multi-Lingual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Dennis; Abazi, Alajdin

    2009-01-01

    The South East European University (SEEU) was founded in 2001 as a non-profit university established by co-operation between OSCE, USAID, the European Commission and the Government of the Republic of Macedonia (or FYROM) as a contribution towards conflict prevention. There has been a gradual transition from a centrally managed project to a modern…

  9. "When doing good is just the start to being good": a possible tool to improve the organizational effectiveness of non-profit health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Health care is an area where many non-profit organizations do good work, relieving governments and for-profit providers of workload. They contribute often specific knowledge and competence or provide better access to patients through their cultural and ethnic affiliations. Non-profit organizations, NPOs, are often dependent on one or more significant donors, sometimes governments, sometimes for-profit health providers and mostly private/corporate donors with an interest in specific medical areas, such as Alzheimers, or in unique communities, such as the Laotian neighborhoods in Southern California. In the media, high profile scandals involving financial irresponsibility have caused shock waves around the world. Concerns among some donors over the lack of a transparent performance measurement of non-profit entities have increased with the greater call for transparency and good governance in the corporate world. Not all the scandals have been in the commercial sector; some Not for Profit Organizations (NPOs) have been identified as having less than credible governance structures (Thomson, 2003). The watchdog organization SustainAbility reported that accountability and transparency are issues on which several NPOs are found wanting (Anon., 2003) and the New York Times reports that until recently NPOs were thought to be exempt from traditional oversight; their do-good nature and the commitment of their participants were thought to be sufficient to produce positive results (Christensen, 2004).

  10. Legal environment of non-profit organizations in Iceland Réttarumhverfi félagasamtaka á Íslandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrafn Bragason

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a high number of non-profit organizations and their important social function a comprehensive legislation on their activities does not exist in Iceland, as is the case for most other operating entities. In the article existing rules on non-profit activities in Iceland are analyzed. In addition, the entity, non-profit organizations, is defined, and rules on their establishment, member participation, organization, accountability and obligations are described. The analysis will also focus on current regulation on fundraising, business activities, taxation and income from the government. A comparison of non-profit organizations and foundations is performed.Þrátt fyrir fjölda félagasamtaka og þýðingarmikið samfélagslegt hlutverk þeirra eru ekki í gildi heildarlög á Íslandi um starfsemi þeirra eins og um flest önnur félagaform. Í greininni er fjallað um þær reglur sem þó gilda um starfsemi félagasamtaka eða almennra félaga eins og þau eru nefnd í félagarétti. Auk skilgreiningar á félagaforminu er þeim reglum lýst sem gilda um stofnun þeirra, félagsaðild, skipulag, ábyrgð og skuldbindingar. Einnig er rætt um þá reglu um gjörð sem gildir um tekjuöflun félagasamtaka, atvinnustarfsemi, skattlagningu og fjárveitingar frá hinu opinbera. Gerður er samanburður á félagasamtökum og sjálfseignarstofnunum sem starfa á sambærilegum vettvangi.

  11. Win-Win-Win: Reflections from a Work-Integrated Learning Project in a Non-Profit Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale C MacKrell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the educational aspects of an information systems work-integrated learning (WIL capstone project for an organization which operates to alleviate homelessness in the Australian non-profit sector. The methodology adopted for the study is Action Design Research (ADR which draws on action research and design research as a means for framing a project's progress. Reflective insights by the project stakeholders, namely, students, academics, and the non-profit client, reveal a curriculum at work through internal features of the organization; personal features of the participants and features of the external environment. Preliminary findings suggest that students in a WIL project for a non-profit are highly engaged, especially when they become aware of the project’s social value. As well, the improvement of professional skills and emotional intelligence by students is more likely in real-life practice settings than in other less authentic WIL activities, equipping graduates for the workforce with both strong disciplinary and generic skills. Win-win-win synergies through project collaboration represent worthwhile outcomes to education, industry and research.

  12. THE MARKETING MENTALITY WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION - A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN COMPANIES AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Al.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary Marketing theory and practice, debates regarding the role and place of the homonymous activity within the company are frequent. The development of a marketing mentality, as specialists state, allows the implementation of a marketing vision in all the organization’s departments, regardless of the activities performed. The economic theory enunciates all the more the existence of a marketing doctrine urged to ensure the methodological frame of the organization regarding market and consumer orientation. Based upon two selective exploratory market research performed among the major distributors of electro-technical materials and electro-technical solutions integrators, respectively among some public faculties’ management the authors want to examine the existence and the decision makers’ responsiveness regarding the implementation of a marketing mentality in one’s organization. The conclusions concern both business environment and academic non-profit organizations’ activity. The connection between the marketing mentality as an essential premise for the development of the entrepreneurial university concept is also emphasized.

  13. Non-Profit Education Providers vis-a-vis the Private Sector: Comparative Analysis of Non-Governmental Organizations and Traditional Voluntary Organizations in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Masooda

    2008-01-01

    Under the New Policy Agenda, international development institutions have promoted non-profit organizations (NPOs) in developing countries, on a dual logic: firstly, they deliver social services more efficiently than the state; secondly, they mitigate equity concerns around privatization of basic social services by reaching out to the poor. Based…

  14. An analysis of the value of marketing to non-profit organizations: the case of child safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razis, V; Razis, N

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers a broad spectrum of literature concerning the limitations and value of applying marketing management principles from the private sector to public or non-profit organizations. The Child Accident Prevention Foundation of Southern Africa is used as a principle case-study. The authors conclude that there is much to be gained from applying a more systematic approach, providing one adapts business strategies to more complex social environments and objectives. Since both marketing and social issues share the challenge of 'sensitivity serving and satisfying human needs,' (Kotler, 1983 p 272) there are also some instances where business can learn from the experience of social organizations in attempts to influence human behavior.

  15. Applying Marketing Concepts to Non-Profit/Educational Organizations: The Youth Professional’s Responsibilities in Program Marketing & Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G. Diem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The degree of participation in community-based youth development programs is typically affected by both the recruitment and retention of participants. A review of literature over more than forty years revealed the value of marketing and promotion to the viability of a company, product, or organization and how it may contribute to company sales or an organization’s membership. This article is focused on the application of marketing concepts to a non-profit organization or educational program. Using a marketing approach to program development can result in improved program quality as well as increased enrollment. Utilizing marketing activities such as needs assessment will aide in ensuring the program remains current in meeting needs and interests of clientele, the community, and society. Promoting an accurate and relevant image is a key in making sure people realize the value of your program.

  16. The Capacity Development of Non-Profit Organizations in the Growth Stage (An Action Research Based on the SSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Nenobais

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims in analyzing the capacity development of non-profit organizations in the growth stage through six internal components and four external components at Papuan Pesat Foundation. The approach used in the research is the action research based on the soft systems methodology that consists of two activities that had been done simultaneously, which are the research interest and the problem solving interest (McKay and Marshall, 2001. It fulfills criteria that are systematically desirable and culturally feasible (Flood an Jackson, 1991. Whilst the theory used is according to Brothers and Sherman (2012 that states that there are six internal components that should be strengthened in the growth stage, which are the leadership, the organization’s culture, the role of the board, programs’ extension, the management and infrastructure, the financial sustainable.  Afterwards, according to De Vita, et. al. (2001 there are four organization’s external components that should be maintained, which are the social demographic, the economy/market, the politic and values, and the norms. The result of this research shows the research interest, that the organization needs to be equipped with the transformational leadership, the simple structure design, and the improvement of the role of the board. For the problem solving interest, it needs the working programs’ extension through the correct formulation process, the human resources management, the organization’s financial sustainability. Then the external components which need to be formed are the collaboration among the non-profit organizations, the local government, the private sectors, business activities, politic participations and the public relation.

  17. Earnings Management Also Exists in Non-profit Organizations%非盈利组织液存在盈余管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王逸远

    2015-01-01

    Domestic literatures about earnings management pay more attention to the listed company such as for-profit businesses, rarely focusing on non-profit organizations. In this article, through analyzing the characteristics of the non-profit organization, it is concluded that non-profit organizations also have a surplus management motivation, threshold effect will occur by earnings management. And its different forms comparing with enterprises are explored. It is pointed out a possible surplus information error in non-profit organizations in order to cause the attention of the interested party, to strengthen the specification and supervision of non-profit organization.%国内关于盈余管理的文献,多关注上市公司等营利组织,鲜少聚焦于非营利组织。本文通过分析非营利组织的特点,说明非营利组织同样具有盈余管理动机,也会发生盈余管理的门槛效应,并探索其与企业的不同表现方式,指出非营利组织中可能存在盈余信息偏误,以期引起各利害关系人的关注,加强对非营利组织的规范和监督。

  18. The Features of Forming and Using the Finansial and Material Resources of Socially Oriented Non-Profit Organizations of Volgograd Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of interaction of regional authorities and the institute of socially oriented non-profit organizations that carry out the activity aimed at solving social problems, the development of civil society in Russia. The forms and activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations are systematically presented. The authors reveal the directions and tools for supporting the activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations by public authorities and local self-government bodies. The authors aimed at fixing the peculiarities of organization and conduct of statistical observation over the activity of socially-oriented organizations in Volgograd region. The organizational events were arranged. They were necessary for the conduct of qualitative statistical analysis of the activity of socially oriented organizations. For the first time the official data on the activity of socially oriented non-profit organizations in Volgograd region, including the information on formation and use of money and other property, was received as a result of the statistical observation. The authors focus on the analysis of the sources of money and other property, reveal the composition of income in non-profit organizations of various organizational and legal forms. The forms of work in socially oriented non-profit organizations of Volgograd region and its results as of 2013 are thoroughly studied. The conducted statistical analysis showed that the significant public sector has been established in the region. It provides the necessary public social services, financial or social assistance to the most vulnerable members of society.

  19. Portfolio Management in Non-Profit Organizations : The Case of Groningen's Municipality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleersnijder, Bert; Berghout, Egon; Castelnovo, W; Ferrari, E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a method to support governing the information function, and in particular, the planning and prioritization of IT projects. Groningen's municipality serves as a case study organization. The core of the methodology consists of the 'Hourglass', which provides

  20. Non-Profit Ecological Organizations in the Function of the Realization of the Right to Freedom of Association and the Development of Civil Environmental Liability in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitimov, Bolat Zh.; Dussipov, Erkin Sh.; Altynbekkyzy, Alua; Ashimova, Dinara I.; Nurbek, Dana T.; Urazymbetov, Talgat E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental issues have become a central issue, which is considered not only at the state level, but also in the international arena. At the moment the main initiators of drawing attention to the environment are the environmental non-profit organizations. In developed countries, these organizations provide full support to the government and…

  1. Needs Assessment of Volunteers in a Non-Profit Organization in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yin-Che; Lin, Chen-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    The idea of helping people by the medium of telephone was inspired by Rev. Alan Walker, Superintendent of the Central Methodist Mission in Sydney since 1958. Having made several radio and TV appearances, Rev. Walker found himself being called by people facing difficulties and personal crises. He did not have the time or the energy to give them the…

  2. 中国非营利组织人力资源管理的对策%Chinese Non-profit Organization of Human Resources Management Countermeasure Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧林

    2011-01-01

    In view of our country non-profit organization of human resources management in the existing such as salary welfare difference,lack of staff personnel,lack a sense of belonging,incentive mechanism is not perfect and the brain drain is serious wait for a problem,attempts to correctly grasp the non-profit organization and the meaning of strengthening the nonprofit organization the importance of human resources management perspective,dialectical study and discussion non profit organization to our human resources management challenges,draw on the advantages and avoid disadvantages,adopt corresponding countermeasures,so that the fruits of economic development to improve people's livelihood more embodied,so as to achieve the non-profit organization of human resources management and development purposes,in order to realize the sustainable development of human resources.%文章从非营利组织的含义以及加强非营利组织人力资源管理的必要性的出发,研究非营利组织对我国人力资源管理的挑战以及对策,实现我国人力资源的可持续发展。

  3. Analysis of Funding Sources and Methods of Non-profit Organization%非营利组织筹资渠道与方式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚舟波

    2011-01-01

    Various non-profit organizations have become the important form of social organization. Expanding financing channels, flexibly using various means of financing, and improving their fund-raising capacity is the problem to be solved for non-profit organization. This paper summarizes and analyzes the status and problems of financing of non-profit organization, and proposed countermeasures to expand financing channels and methods for non-profit organizations.%各类非营利组织已成为重要的社会组织形式,拓展筹资渠道,灵活运用各种筹资方式,提高自身筹资能力,是目前大多数非营利组织急待解决的问题.本文在分析总结非营利组织筹资现状和问题的基础上,提出拓展非营利组织筹资渠道与方式的对策措施.

  4. TO THE QUESTION OF THE LEGAL CAPACITY OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS IN THE LIGHT OF THE REFORM OF CIVIL LEGISLATION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberg A. N.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During 6 years since 2008 active work on the reformation of the Russian civil legislation has been carried out. The legal capacity of non-profit organizations and improvements in its content proposed by the authors of the reform are considered in the article. The proposed changes wait for the researchers

  5. 云南社会组织绩效评价实证研究%An Empirical Study on Performance Evaluation of Yunnan Non-profit Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智慧; 李贞

    2014-01-01

    Based on the eight-dimension performance evaluation index system and taking eleven foundations and sixty-nine social associations as examples,this research analyzed the performance of non-profit organizations in Yunnan Province.By em-ploying Analytic Hierarchy Process and Clustering Analysis approach,this research found that there are some problems with these units in their development.Namely,inefficient funding,lack of professional staff and absence of competition and cooperation. To regulate and promote the non-profit organizations of Yunnan to develop in a healthy way,we make the following practical suggestions:establishing performance valuation internet-platform,enhancing fund-raising capability,improving social welfare of the staff and strengthening monitoring and cooperation.%运用八维度绩效评价指标体系,以云南11家基金会和69家社会团体为样本,本文做了一次社会组织绩效评价问卷调查。通过聚类分析,可以很清晰地归纳出目前云南社会组织发展存在资金筹集困难,专业人才缺失,缺乏竞争与合作等问题,并提出构建社会组织绩效评价网络平台,加强筹资能力,提高人员社会保障,加强监管及合作的建议,规范云南社会组织健康发展。

  6. Communicating Corporate Community Involvement: Partnership, sponsorship, or donation? A study of companies’ relationships with sports, culture and non-profit organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Clementsen, Margrethe Tombre

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies how companies communicate their corporate community involvement (CCI), and how consumers’ respond to various communication strategies in this regard. Companies’ CCI may entail relationships with different organizations in the community. It is common for companies to have relationships with different organizations within sports and culture, as well as non-profit organizations. These relationships may vary according to the scope of activities and the company’s involvement. S...

  7. 非营利组织发展模式的比较研究%A Comparative Study on the Development Model of Non-profit Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕慧

    2013-01-01

    Along with the social development, non-profit organization play a growing role for national management and optimization of social resources, the development of nonprofit organization is an important indicator of democratic society and developed degree. Dif erent organizations in dif erent areas also have dif erent characteristics, the goal of this paper is to analyses the development mode of non-profit organization , and give some suggestions on the basis of the comparison of dif erent development model of non-profit organizations .%  随着社会不断发展,非营利组织对于国家治理和社会资源优化的作用日益凸显,非营利组织的发展更是社会民主程度和发达程度地重要指标。不同地区的非营利组织也具有不同特色,本文在对比不同的发展模式的基础上对非营利组织发展提出一些建议。

  8. 非营利组织企业所得税税务筹划研究%Enterprise income tax planning of non-profit organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家乡; 刘景娟

    2012-01-01

    为了研究非营利组织所得税税务筹划的思路和方法,对企业进行所得税税务筹划的理论与实践以及非营利组织与企业的区别进行了探讨。分析认为:非营利组织应根据所得税一般计税机理和相关法律法规,从纳税主体身份、收入、税率3个方面进行所得税税务筹划。%In order to study the non-profit organization income tax planning, this thesis analyzes the theory and practice of enterprise income tax planning and the difference between non-profit organization and enterprise. The conclusion is that non-profit organization's income tax planning should attend to iden- tity of taxpayer, income and tax rate and be based on general tax calculation mechanism of income tax and related laws and regulations.

  9. The non-profit sector and the market: opportunities & challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    By carefully examining the most important challenges and opportunities facing America's private non-profit organizations, the Non-profit Sector Strategy Group is working to stimulate a new consensus about the non-profit sector's roles and responsibilities, and offer practical recommendations to enhance policy, practice, research, and public education on this crucial set of institutions.

  10. 从非盈利组织视角看民办高等教育%From the perspective of private higher education non-profit organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凤伟

    2013-01-01

    民办高等学校是一个特殊的非盈利组织,其办学活动处于公益与盈利的矛盾冲突之中,具有较强的独立性和专业性。由于多方面的原因,我国民办高校的市场化特征表现得非常明显,对我国民办高等教育的发展产生着重大影响。从非盈利组织视角看,获取公众支持和混合支持是私立(民办)高等教育发展的共同趋势。%Private colleges and universities is a special non-profit organization whose activities are in public schools and profitability among the conflicts, with strong independence and professionalism. Due to various reasons, China's market-oriented private colleges were very obvious characteristic of the development of private higher education produce significant impact. From the perspective of non-profit organizations to obtain public support and mixed support private (private) common trend of higher education development.

  11. Research on Social Non-Profit Organization Financial Performance Evaluation%社会非营利组织财务绩效评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤文利

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the existing problems of social non-profit organization financial performance evaluation. It puts forward corresponding countermeasures combining with the current development situation of our non-profit organizations from following six aspect clearly defining rights and responsibilities, focusing on the performance evaluation work, perfecting the evaluation system, improving the evaluation personnel quality, creating suitable development environment, innovating independent revenue model.%分析了其财务绩效评价的社会公益性针对存在的问题,结合我国非营利组织发展的现状,从明确权责、重视绩效评价工作、完善评价体制、提高评价人员素质、营造适宜的发展环境、创新自主创收模式6个方面提出了相应的解决对策。

  12. Problems in Development of Non-profit Organizations in China and Countermeasures%我国发展非营利组织的问题和对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶韵

    2013-01-01

      Starting from the problems in the development of non-profit organizations in China, this article gives the suggestions on how government create conditions to promote the development of non-for-profit organizations, and how nonprofit organizations continuously improve their capacity for survival and development.%  本文从我国非营利组织发展中存在的问题出发,对政府应如何创造条件推动非营利组织的发展,非营利组织应如何不断提高自身生存和发展能力提出了建议。

  13. Civil society: beyond non profit / Sociedad civil: más allá del non profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de Haro Serrano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For a numerous group of recognized and proved authority authors, the Civil Society is limited to the Non Profit organizations. Non Profit is the great limit, the rigid and static border. The limes on the Roman Empire were less overwhelming than the non profit of certain academics. Dura lex and unfair law that keeps aside from the civil society scope the entities on the social economy and the whole market around mercantile enterprises and businesses. Nevertheless, the new changes in the today’s society and the new concept of businesses oriented to the society without forsaking the quest for economic profit, poses a Civil Society beyond non profit.

  14. 非营利组织财务管理问题的对策研究%Solution to the Financial Management Problems of Non-Profit Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单鹏飞

    2013-01-01

    As the economic development and government reform proceed, non-profit organizations in China are increasing. However, their scales are comparatively small, rules and regulations for their operations are less detailed. In addition, the legal and regulatory system are not complete in financial management, the procurement procedure and materials management are chaotic, the financial information are less transparent, and the performance assessment is difficult to be quantified. In order to boost the healthy and sustainable development of non-profit organizations, professional legislation study institutions should be set up to sound relative laws and regulations, the procurement pro-cess should be normalized, advanced financial management system and specialized talents should be introduced, a professional channel for opening financial information should be built to raise information transparency, and a system for evaluating the performance of the organi-zations should be designed.%随着社会经济的发展和政府改革的推进,我国非营利组织数量在不断增加,但是规模相对较小,相关的规章制度不够具体和完善,在财务管理方面存在着法律法规制度上的不完善、组织内部采购和物资管理混乱、财务信息透明度低、绩效评估难以量化等问题。为促进非营利组织的健康可持续发展,应成立专门的立法研究机构,健全完善相关的法律法规政策;加强采购过程的规范化;引进先进的财务管理系统和专业人才;建立公开财务信息的专业渠道,提高信息的透明度;设计专门的评估系统进行非营利组织绩效的评估。

  15. International cooperation and non-profit organizations: re-reading the institutional role in combating neglected diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinício Chein Feres

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the juridical role of patent rights and the importance of international cooperation concerning the health system, especially those held between the countries of the South, as well as not-for-profit organizations for the prevention and combating neglected diseases. From the theoretical perspective of law as identity, and the methodological approach of qualitative content analysis, some cases of cooperation between states and public and private institutions were collected and analyzed in order to develop new drugs to combat neglected diseases and ensure equity of access to these drugs.

  16. Non-Profit Organization刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪建红

    2009-01-01

    非营利性组织(Non-Profit Organization)现已成为现代社会中非常重要的社会组织,它的扩展是社会经济发展的普遍规律.文章对非营利性组织的界定、特点和评价标准进行了探讨.

  17. Provider-related barriers to rapid HIV testing in U.S. urban non-profit community clinics, community-based organizations (CBOs) and hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Howerton, Devery; Lange, James; Setodji, Claude Messan; Becker, Kirsten; Klein, David J; Asch, Steven M

    2010-06-01

    We examined provider-reported barriers to rapid HIV testing in U.S. urban non-profit community clinics, community-based organizations (CBOs), and hospitals. 12 primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs; three per region) were sampled randomly, with sampling weights proportional to AIDS case reports. Across PMSAs, all 671 hospitals and a random sample of 738 clinics/CBOs were telephoned for a survey on rapid HIV test availability. Of the 671 hospitals, 172 hospitals were randomly selected for barriers questions, for which 158 laboratory and 136 department staff were eligible and interviewed in 2005. Of the 738 clinics/CBOs, 276 were randomly selected for barriers questions, 206 were reached, and 118 were eligible and interviewed in 2005-2006. In multivariate models, barriers regarding translation of administrative/quality assurance policies into practice were significantly associated with rapid HIV testing availability. For greater rapid testing diffusion, policies are needed to reduce administrative barriers and provide quality assurance training to non-laboratory staff.

  18. Review of Public Services Supply by Non-profit Organization%非营利组织供给公共服务研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐海丽

    2011-01-01

    在公共管理主体多元化和倡导管理重心下移的今天,“政府中心论”的价值理念正在悄然变化,政府不再是社会公共管理职能的惟一主体,大量的社会公共事务落到了第三部门肩上,非营利组织在公共事务治理中发挥着越来越重要的作用。%Today, diversification of public administration body and advocacy of move down the management focus is being formed, the value and ideal of "Government Center" theory is quietly changing, the government is no longer the only body of social public administration function, a large number of social and public affairs have been undertaken by the third department, non-profit organizations are playing an increasingly important role in public affairs management.

  19. [Open space of Non-Profit Organization La Casona de los Barriletes. Support program for youth in the process of being discharged from shelter facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Juan José; Mattarucco, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    On this paper we outline a work program called Outpatient Therapeutic Family Space (Open Space) of the Non-Profit Organization La Casona de los Barriletes, whose goals consist of supporting youth going through discharge processes from shelter facilities in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA) where they were admitted or residing, and contributing with the consolidation of social inclusion processes. After a brief inspection of the history of the institution from where this program is developed, we explain a group of conceptual themes that help us focus on the problems, and we develop notions such as vulnerability, mental condition/disorder/disease, and health/illness/care process. Based on these definitions, we describe areas for the development of multidimensional interventions from an interdisciplinary team, aiming at developing cross-institution and cross-sector coordination allowing for the construction of community reference networks for youth accompanied by their families or affective referents. Later on we analyze certain factors that operate as stimuli and obstacles in this task. Lastly, we present several considerations based on the revision of the work carried out.

  20. 非营利组织理事会治理与财务绩效研究%Research on Board Governance and Financial Performance of Non-profit Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜克高; 薛钱伟

    2013-01-01

    The paper carries out theoretical analysis and empirical study on the influence of board governance on finan -cial performance of non -profit organizations .The major findings include:expanding the board size can enhance its abil-ity in spanning boundary and absorbing resources , and helps to improve the financing ability and financial performance of non-profit organizations;board′s political association has a positive impact on financing ability and financial perform -ance , because it makes non -profit organizations carry out social mobilization and financing by depending on the govern -ment′s political resources;director′s high age will weaken the financing ability of non -profit organizations , and is not conducive to the improvement of financial performance of non -profit organizations .%本文就理事会治理对非营利组织财务绩效的影响进行了理论分析和实证研究,发现扩大理事会规模能增强理事会边界跨越和资源吸纳的能力,有利于改善非营利组织的筹资能力和财务绩效;理事会的政治关联使非营利组织能依赖政府的政治资源进行社会动员和筹集资金,对筹资能力和财务绩效具有积极影响;理事年龄过高将削弱非营利组织的筹资能力,不利于非营利组织财务绩效的提高。

  1. Balanced Scorecard: a New Perspective of the Performance Evaluation of the Non-profit Organization%平衡计分卡:非营利组织绩效评估的新视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭泽保

    2012-01-01

    平衡计分卡作为先进的绩效评估方法,开始应用到非营利组织绩效评估之中,为改善和加强非营利组织绩效管理提供了一个崭新的视角。针对平衡计分卡在非营利组织绩效评估应用中存在的障碍,在组织使命与战略规划、顾客满意度、财务维度、信息沟通等方面提出具体的对策与建议。%As an advanced performance evaluation methods, the balanced scorecard was applied in the performance evaluation of the non-profit organization which provided a new perspective of improving and strengthening the performance management of the non-profit organization. Aiming at the obstacles of the balanced scorecard applied in the performance evaluation of the non-profit organization, the paper put forward concrete countermeasures and suggestions from the organization's mission and strategic planning, customer satisfaction, financial dimensions and information communication.

  2. A Research on the Perfection of Preferential Tax System for ChineseNon-Profit Organizations%我国非营利组织税收优惠法律制度完善的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波

    2012-01-01

    In order to encourage the development of non-profit organizations, our country enacted a series of tariff preference measures to the donators and also the non-profit organizations themselves. But the current tax preference system that exists some deficiencies can't meet the requirements of Chinese non-profit organizations' development. Our country should perfect our nonprofit tax preferec elegal system by distinguishing the properties of nonprofit or- ganizations, making reasonable tax exemption for the profit income of nonprofit organizations and improving the do- nation incentive mechanisms ere, so as to realize the sustainable development of the non-profit organizations.%我国为鼓励非营利组织的发展,为捐赠人和非营利组织自身都制定了一系列税收优惠措施。但是现阶段的税收优惠制度存在的诸多不足不能满足我国非营利组织的发展要求。我国应从合理区分非营利组织性质,对非营利组织的营利收入予以合理免税、改进捐赠激励机制等方面完善非营利组织的税收优惠法律制度,以便实现非营利组织的可持续发展。

  3. 基于公允价值的民间非营利组织会计研究%Based on the Research on Non Profit Organizations Accounting of Fair Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育英

    2011-01-01

    随着全球经济一体化进程不断加快,以历史成本为主的会计计量模式已不能满足会计信息使用者需要,在民间非营利组织会计中扩大公允价值应用已是大势所趋。文章分析了民间非营利组织会计的现行计量属性,在此基础上,对公允价值在民间非营利组织会计中的应用进行初步探讨。%As the acceleration of the global economic integration, the accounting measurement that based on historic cost can't meet the demand of accounting information user, expand the fair value for non profit organizations accounting is an irresistible trend. The article has analyzed the current measurement attributes for the non profit organization accounting, Based on this, start the discussion on the application of fair value used in the non profit organization accounting.

  4. Financial Risk and Early-warning Index System Design for Non-profit Organization%非营利性组织财务风险及预警指标体系设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽

    2012-01-01

    Financial risk management is an important part of non - profit organization financial activities. The concept, classification and characteristics of non - profit organization financial risk were briefly discussed. An early - warning index system was constructed from four levels:earning power, spending ability, asset management ability and solvency. It is beneficial for providing reference for non - profit organization financial risk prevention and control.%财务风险管理是非营利性组织财务活动的重要组成部分.在阐述非营利性组织财务风险的内涵、分类及其特点的基础上,从收入能力、支出能力、资产管理能力和偿债能力4个层次建立了非营利性组织财务风险预警指标体系,旨在为非营利性组织财务风险防范与控制提供参考依据.

  5. Optimization of Non-Profit Projects’ Portfolio: Chosen Aspects and Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The chosen aspects and assumptions of the author’s proposal of the optimization model of the non-profit projects’ portfolio are presented. The functional model of the non-profit sector (third sector, which is the base for the further analyses, is also characterized. The article also contains the quantification of fundamental conditions of portfolio optimization. There is developed the utility model for the management system in the non-profit portfolio, in the framework of which there are specified the scope of the model and relationships between four categories of the non-profit portfolio’s participants/stakeholders: non-profit organizations, donors, co-participants and customers (recipients of the basic benefits/values associated with the realization of the non-profit projects. The main optimality conditions and optimization algorithm of the non-profit portfolio are also given. The paper is concluded with exemplary analytical matrixes used for optimization of the non-profit portfolios and based on the evaluation of both the optimization utility conditions and added parameters. Only basic and chosen aspects of the optimization of the non-profit projects’ portfolio have been described here. [b]Keywords[/b]: Management, Organization, Non-Profit, Project, Portfolio, Optimization, Utility

  6. The Walking Egg non-profit organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, N

    2011-01-01

    The Walking Egg non-profit organisation (npo) was founded in 2010 by scientists and an artist to realise the Arusha Project which strives to implement accessible infertility programmes in resource-poor countries. Right from the start The Walking Egg has opted for a multidisciplinary and global approach towards the problem of infertility and in cooperation with the Special Task Force (STF) on "Developing countries and infertility" of the European Society of Human reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the WHO, it gathers medical, social and economical scientists and experts along with artists to discuss and work together towards its goal. The project aims to raise awareness -surrounding childlessness in resource-poor countries and to make infertility care in all its aspects, including assisted reproductive technologies, available and accessible for a much larger part of the population.

  7. Elements Portfolio Analysis of the Business Model of Non-profit Standards Organization%非营利标准组织商业模式要素组合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬娟

    2014-01-01

    In the context of market economy, business model is an important support for the sustainable development of an organization. Taking three non-profit standards organization with international influence (ISO, IEC and ASTM) for examples, the paper conducts an elements portfolio analysis of business model, providing a reference for finding a balance between social and economic values for non-profit organizations.%在市场经济的大环境下,商业模式是一个组织可持续发展的重要支撑。本文以ISO、IEC和ASTM三个有国际影响力的非营利标准组织为例,进行商业模式要素组合分析,以期为非营利标准组织寻求社会价值与经济价值之间的平衡提供借鉴参考。

  8. Food products qualifying for and carrying front-of-pack symbols: a cross-sectional study examining a manufacturer led and a non-profit organization led program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Teri E; Cohen, Joanna E; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-09-13

    Concern has been raised that the coexistence of multiple front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition rating systems in a marketplace may mislead consumers into believing that a specific food with a FOP is 'healthier' than foods without the symbol. Eleven summary indicator FOP systems are in use in Canada, including one non-profit developed system, the Heart and Stroke Foundation's Health Check™, and ten manufacturer-developed systems, like Kraft's Sensible Solutions™. This study evaluated FOP's potential to mislead consumers by comparing the number of products qualifying to carry a given FOP symbol to the number of products that actually carry the symbol. The nutritional criteria for the Health Check™ and the Sensible Solutions™ systems were applied to a 2010-2011 Canadian national database of packaged food products. The proportion of foods qualifying for a given FOP system was compared to the proportion carrying the symbol using McNemar's test. Criteria were available to categorize 7503 and 3009 of the 10,487 foods in the database under Health Check™ and Sensible Solutions™, respectively. Overall 45% of the foods belonging to a Health Check™ category qualified for Health Check's™ symbol, while only 7.5% of the foods carried the symbol. Up to 79.1% of the foods belonging to a Sensible Solutions™, category qualified for Sensible Solutions's™ symbol while only 4.1% of the foods carried the symbol. The level of agreement between products qualifying for and carrying FOP systems was poor to moderate in the majority of food categories for both systems. More than 75% of the products in 24 of the 85 Health Check™ subcategories and 9 of 11 Sensible Solution™ categories/subcategories qualified for their respective symbols based on their nutritional composition. FOP systems as they are currently applied are not, in most instances, a useful guide to identifying healthier food products in the supermarket as many more products qualify for these systems than the number

  9. History of the World Federation of Societies for Laser Medicine and Surgery (WFSLMS) and its Non-Profit Organization (NPO-WFSLMS): Part 2: 2(nd) WFSLMS Meeting (2009) to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Toshio

    2015-03-31

    The first part of this historical overview, (see Laser Therapy, 2014; 23: 89-95), took the reader from the conception of the WFSLMS to its inception at the inaugural meeting in Tokyo, 2005 and events up to the 2009 2(nd) WFSLMS in Tokyo when the author was the congress president. The previous article also dealt with the necessity for founding a non-profit organization, NPO-WFSLMS, to handle the commercial and social responsibilities of the WFSLMS. For details, please refer to that previous article. Meetings: The 2(nd) WFSLMS congress was successfully held in 2009 in Japan, under the presidency of Professor Krishna Rau. The third WFSLMS meeting was planned for Paris in 2013 together with the 20(th) ISLSM congress under the Meeting Presidency of Dr Jean Abitbol, while the 19(th) ISLSM was to be held in Korea in 2011 under the Meeting Presidency of Prof. Jin-Wang Kim. Unforseen problems beyond the control of the organizers forced the cancellation of both the 19(th) and 20(th) meetings of the ISLSM, the latter also being the location of the planned third WFSLMS congress in Paris, but with the cooperation of the organizers of the 5(th) congress of the International Phototherapy Association (IPTA) the 3(rd) WFSLMS meeting was held in Lithuania, again under the presidency of Prof Rau concurrently with the 20(th) ISLSM, at which much was debated regarding the future course of NPO-WFSLMS and WFSLMS. The venue of the 2015 21(st) ISLSM Congress was set as Indore, India, and the 4(th) WFSLMS meeting was allocated to Florence, Italy, in tandem with the 22(nd) ISLSM congress. In the interim, NPO-WFSLMS effectively managed laser education programs in Japan for developing country doctors, and also handled the donation of laser systems to Vietnam and Thailand, the latter being under the auspices of the Greek Medical Laser Association, together with associated education programs. The laser-based Blood Saving Campaign (BSaC) has been actively promoted in Asian countries up to the

  10. 论非营利组织在水库移民后期扶持中的作用%Functions of Non-profit Organizations in Later-stage Support of Reservoir Immigrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇雷

    2013-01-01

      水库移民后期扶持系统的组织结构包括政府、企业、非营利组织。其中,非营利组织以其特有的组织优势,在提供社会服务、化解社会风险、保障移民权益、增进移民整合、提升社会资本存量、促进移民社会发展等方面发挥了重要作用。%Organizations which support reservoir immigrants after moving include governments, enterprises and non-profit organizations (NPO). Among these, NPO with its special advantages is vital to provide social service, eliminate social risks, protect immigrants, rights, promote integration of them, increase their social capital and hasten social development.

  11. 非营利组织财务开发策略分析:利益相关者视角%Financial Development Strategy of Non - profit Organizations (NPO) Based on the Perspective of Stakeholders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程博; 王建玲; 熊婷

    2011-01-01

    When both the "government" and "market" fail to function, non -profit organizations are created and the social structure of modern triple is built. As the third sector, the non -profit organizations, in providing the public goods and services distribution, have too much responsibility for social development in the transformation of society in China. However, the bottleneck of funds of non -profit organization in China restrain their development. Many scholars from political and administrative science, sociology, management, economics and governance studied the necessity of nonprofit organizations and the value and significance. So far as it is concerned, there is few about the system of financial development of the non - profit organizations. Therefore, this article attempts to explore the stakeholder perspective studies, by establishing the concept of public relations model and a series of financial development strategy for Chinas financial development for nonprofit organizations in order to provide guidance to try to alleviate or solve the main difficulties they face and achieve a healthy and sustainable development.%“政府”和“市场”双双失灵之时产生了非营利组织,构筑了现代三元社会结构.作为第三部门的非营利组织为社会提供公共产品和服务配送,在中国的转型社会中肩负着太多的责任,其发展状况是中国社会能否成功转型的关键,然而,资金瓶颈制约着中国非营利组织的生存和发展.众多学者已从政治学、行政学、社会学、管理学、经济学以及治理与善治等视角研究非营利组织存在的必要性和作为社会公益人不断演进的价值及意义,但迄今为止,系统研究非营利组织财务开发的文献甚少.因此,从利益相关者视角进行探索性研究,建立公共关系概念模型,提出了一系列财务开发策略,为我国为非营利组织财务开发提供指导意见,试图缓解或解决其所面临的主要困境,以实现健康可持续发展.

  12. Service & non-profit marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Čedomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Services are dominantly untouchable products which cannot be physically owned. Services promotion is difficult for its untouchables. Personal sale is very powerful in service companies because customers must interact with employees. Price is very important for service's companies. It has psychological role, economic role and it creates attitude for goal achievement. Marketing goal for nonprofit organizations is to get an answer from target market Development of marketing strategies of nonprofit organizations consists of defining and analyzing target market and creating and maintaining marketing mix. In nonprofit organizations product is usually an idea or a service. Promotion in nonprofit organizations is very important. Personal sale, promotional sale, advertising and publicity are used for communicating an idea and informing people about services.

  13. Analysis of the Reshaping Strategy of Non-profit Organizations' Image under the Background of Micro-propagation%微传播背景下非营利性组织形象重塑策略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何云春

    2015-01-01

    非营利性组织在提供公共产品,完善社会保障,增加就业岗位以及公共事业服务等方面发挥了重要的作用. 但微媒体的广泛运用使得非营利性组织的形象受到了巨大的冲击. 微传播背景下的非营利性组织公信力弱化的根源在于政府相关法律制度不健全,组织自身素质存在缺陷以及社会监督体系不完善. 只有政府尽快完善相关法律制度,组织自身在加强宣传的同时努力提升服务能力和水平;社会公众增强自身素质并积极参与和监督以及微传播媒体信息选择机制不断完善,重塑非营利性组织的良好形象才有可能实现.%Nonprofit organizations play an important role in the provision of public goods,perfecting the social security,increasing jobs and public utility services.But the widespread application of micro media has made a negative impact on the image of the non-profit organizations.Micro propagation under the background of nonprofit organization credibility weakening is rooted in that the government related legal system is not sound,the organizations have their own quality defects and the social supervision system is not perfect.Only when the government perfects the relevant legal system as soon as possible,the organization itself strengthens publicity while improving the ability and level of services,the public enhance their quality and actively participate in and supervise that,Micro-media information selection mechanism has been improved can the renewing the good image of the non-profit organizations be achieved.

  14. 制度变迁视域中政府与非营利组织的关系研究——以上海市非营利组织发展为例%Relationships between the Government and the Non-profit Organizations in the Perspective of Institutional Change Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田恒

    2012-01-01

    At a time of diversification of subjects in public governance,the non-profit organization is undoubtedly one of the important participation subjects.The premise,without any doubt,is that the non-profit organizations are full developed,and that their development is affected by current institutional and environmental forces.Therefore,the institution composes one of the significant variables in analyzing the development of the non-profit organizations and the relationships between the government and the non-profit organizations.In view of this,this paper analyses the logical evolution of the relationships between the government and the non-profit organizations.It is helpful for us to comprehend the trend of the relationships between the government and the non-profit organizations macroscopically,and then provide ideas for policy making.%在强调公共治理主体多元化的今天,非营利组织无疑是重要的参与主体之一。当然,这是以非营利组织的充分发展为前提的,而非营利组织的发展又必然受到特定环境下的制度的影响。因此,制度就构成了分析非营利组织的发展及其与政府关系的一个重要变量。鉴于此,本文从制度变迁视角分析政府与非营利组织关系的逻辑演变,有助于从宏观上理解政府与非营利组织关系的走向,进而为公共政策实践提供思考。

  15. Toward a Collaborative, Transformative Model of Non-Profit Leadership: Some Conceptual Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramwell Osula

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors propose extending the construct of non-profit leadership to accommodate collaborative and transformational themes. The suggestion is that the resultant broader definition accords with the modern context within which non-profits now operate and feeds into a more resilient model of non-profit leadership. The paper begins with a review of emergent trends in leadership theory and the changing context of the non-profit sector. The argument is made that the extraordinary challenges facing the sector signal the need for fresh new perspectives in leadership. The authors then proceed to examine the significance of a nascent non-profit culture point to a re-alignment of the sector that is informed by transformational principles and a values-orientation. The result is said to be a new model of non-profit and public sector leadership that raises important methodological questions which the authors maintain can inform future analyses of the structure, role, and responsibilities of non-profit leadership. Finally, a world of new possibilities is envisioned, one in which non-profit organizations are strategically repositioned to take advantage of a new values-based ethic that is rooted in principles of integrity, increased self-awareness, a collaborative agenda, intentionality, emphasis of followership, cultural competence, and orientation toward the future.

  16. The Role of Non-Governmental Non-Profit Organizations in the Provision of Social Services and the Palliation of Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Bronić

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available After introductory considerations, arguments are put forward for non-governmental organisations as exclusive providers of social services. The negative characteristics of the non-governmental organization are subject of the third part of the paper. In the fourth part, the meaning of the social funds is explained (they are a kind of non-governmental organisations, and in Part 5, we explain the importance of the synergy between the government and society in the provision of social services. After the explanation of the situation in Croatia, in the Part 6 of the paper we give our final considerations. In Croatia non-governmental organizations that provide social services are slowly developing. In their further strengthening it is necessary to change the general viewpoints concerning the role and importance of the non-governmental sector in the alleviation of poverty, as well as to achieve better coordination between the state and the sector.

  17. 教育类非营利组织案例分析--以可汗学院为例%A Case Study of Non-profit Educatio nal Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅; 张静

    2015-01-01

    可汗学院作为教育类的非营利组织,对全球的教育领域产生了巨大的影响,给传统教育教学带来了一场革命。试以可汗学院为案例,对可汗学院的战略管理进行战略分析、选择和执行研究,同时分析了可汗学院以柔性管理为主导的志愿者管理,通过研究分析,可以为我国的教育类非营利组织的管理与发展提供借鉴。%Khan Academy , which is a non-profit educational organization , has a huge impact on global education field , and brought a revolution to the traditional teaching .By analyzing the case of khan academy for the strategic management of khan acade -my strategic analysis , choice and implementation .The paper analyzes the flexible management of volunteer management in order to provide some assistance in the management for nonprofit organizations .

  18. Administrative Coordination in Non-Profit Human Service Delivery Networks: The Role of Competition and Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunger, Alicia C

    2013-12-01

    Non-profit human service organizations operating within the same regional network are often faced with dual pressure to compete as well as coordinate administrative operations (by sharing funding, staff or space) to enhance efficiency. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that competing organizations coordinate, despite the risks. Trust, or perceived trustworthiness between two organizations may mitigate the negative influence of competition on coordination, however there have been few explicit tests of this hypothesis among non-profit organizations. Drawing on quantitative data collected from a network of 36 non-profit children's behavioral health organizations, this paper empirically tests how competition and perceived trustworthiness interact to influence administrative coordination. Results support the hypothesis that trustworthiness moderates the influence of competition on administrative coordination. Findings suggest that as competing non-profit leaders build trust, the more their agencies coordinate their administrative functions. This study highlights the importance of leaders' perceptions for organizational strategy.

  19. On the Role of the Non-profit Organizations in Public Administration, the Problems and the Countermeasures%非营利组织在公共管理中的作用、存在问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方博野; 戴桂玉

    2011-01-01

    在我国,随着市场经济结构的转型,非营利组织在社会公共管理中发挥着越来越重要的作用。现阶段重视对非营利组织的研究,对改善我国的公共管理,具有重要的现实意义。本文试图从非营利组织的特征和发展状况出发,分析其在公共管理中的角色和作用,以及发展过程中存在的问题和不足,并提出了相应的对策,以期对我国非营利组织的发展有一定的借鉴作用。%With the establishment and transformation of the market economy, nonprofit organizations play a greater role in public administration in China. It is genuinely significant to attach a great deal of importance upon the study of nonprofit organizations and to find new approaches to improving public administration. This thesis defines the specific features of the nonprofit organization and its current developmental situation. It analyzes the roles of non- profit organizations in the area of management of public affairs, reveals its problems, and proposes an applicable so- lution for the sake of giving a new perspective for the development of nonprofit organizations in China.

  20. Ambidexterity in non-profit, voluntary organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    Artiklen forbinder organisatorisk læring med strategisk ledelse af nonprofit, frivillige organisationer. Den forklarer hvor de to forbundne strategiske udfordringer – frivilligt engagement og organisatorisk læring kan håndteres ved at anvende indsigt fra litteraturen om udforskning og udnyttelse og...... om ambidekstrale organisationer. Artiklen præsenterer tre cases om nonprofit, frivillige organisationer for at tydeliggøre forbindelserne mellem frivilligt engagement og organisatorisk læring. De strategiske implikationer er, at nonprofit frivillige organisationer bør have et ambidekstralt forhold...

  1. A Critical Appraisal of the Concept of Non-profit Services Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    NOVATOROV, Edouard V.

    2010-01-01

    The author deconstructs the prevailing conceptualization of non-profit marketing and concludes it rests on three principles: voluntary exchange, an open system organization, and self-interest motivation. A review of the genesis of these principles revealed that alternative principles were ignored in the social science literature. Based on a qualitative analysis a revised conceptualization of non-profit marketing was suggested which incorporated the principles of reciprocity, the features of a...

  2. Welfare non-profit organizations and foundations in Iceland Félagasamtök og sjálfseignarstofnanir sem starfa að velferðarmálum á Íslandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ómar H. Kristmundsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations and foundations, a part of the so-called third sector, have for a long period of time been an important part of the Icelandic welfare system. Despite this there is limited statistical and research data on their number and operations. The article includes findings from preliminary research on the subject. A theoretical models and international classification systems are used in the analysis to define their number, functions and operations and relations with the government. The data is derived from the authors’ database on the effects of recent economic crisis and historical data on individual non-profits and foundations. The findings confirm their extensive function in welfare services but a changing role through the 20th. century. Nonprofit-government relations have changed accordingly. Based on the authors’ definition 144 non-profit organizations and foundations were in operation in 2009, the former comprising 85% of the total number. A little less than 6 of every 10 were entities with the primary function of providing public service, approx. 2 of every 10 were member-oriented such as self-help societies and similar ratio campaigning organizations. Organizations providing public service have the largest operating activities and number of employees. Approx. 2/3 of the entities had one or two primary income bases. Most frequently the largest portion of the organizations’ income was provided by the central government. The importance of reliable official data and research on the third sector in Icelandic is emphasized.Félagasamtök og sjálfseignarstofnanir, sem eru hluti af hinum svokallaða þriðja geira, hafa um langa hríð gegnt mikilvægu hlutverki í íslenska velferðarkerfinu. Þrátt fyrir þetta skortir upplýsingar um viðfangsefni, starf þeirra og umfang. Í greininni koma fram niðurstöður frumgreiningar á þessum viðfangsefnum. Notast er við greiningalíkön fræðimanna og al

  3. The Definition of Profitable Activities and Improvement of Income Tax System Standard for Non-profit Organizations%营利性行为界定与完善非营利组织所得税制标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思强; 卞继红

    2011-01-01

    In addition to adherence to income purpose standard and related operating standard,the income tax system standards for non-profit organizations must also be added as follows: the upper limit of income tax preference must fit the objective of maximum organizational performance;the salaries difference exceeding the social average should be levied income tax;the returns of investment below risk-free return are exempt from income tax;if non-restrictive growth rate of net assets exceed the prescribed standards,net assets tax should be levied at progressive tax rate;the determination of pre-tax deductions for administrative expenses are based on the social service amounts.%非营利组织营利性行为所得的税制标准除了必须坚持收入用途标准和相关经营标准外,还必须做如下补充或修正:税收优惠所得上限符合组织绩效最大化目标;高于社会平均劳动报酬的薪酬差额应调增应纳税所得额;不高于无风险投资收益率的出资者回报免征所得税;非限定性净资产增长率超过规定标准的,实行超额累进税率征收净资产税;依社会服务总量确定管理费用的税前扣除额。

  4. 非营利组织的品牌战略探究以“壹基金”为例%A Research on Brand Strategy of Non-profit Organization -- Taking the "One Foundation" as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 陈雷

    2011-01-01

    NPo是一支重要的社会资源分配力量。当前,我国NPo虽然数量上大幅增长,但在质量和规模上有待提升,并且大多数不具备品牌效应。“壹基金”在运作的过程中引入品牌战略,形成了其独特的优势。基于品牌战略的视角,剖析“壹基金”的先进管理理念及成功经验,提出培育品牌文化、凸显品牌定位、拓展品牌营销、积极应对品牌危机等的发展对策,有利于整合NPo的内外部资源,进而更有效地服务公众。%Non-profit Organization (NPO) plays an important role in the allocation of social resources. At present, the number of NPO is substantially growing, but its quality and scale still need to be improved. Most of them do not have a brand. "One Foundation" introduces brand strategy in the course of the operation, forming a unique force. It is in favor of integrating internal and external resources to make NPO more effectively serve the public by analyzing the successful experience, and advanced management concepts of "One Foundation" based on the perspective of brand strategy, proposing the training of brand culture, highlighting brand positioning, brand marketing development, the re- sponse to brand crisis and so on.

  5. Los códigos de buen gobierno corporativo en las entidades sin ánimo de lucro: en especial en las fundaciones (Codes of good corporate governance in non-profit organizations: especially in foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén García Álvarez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-Profit Organizations must deal too with corporate governance problems. Therefore, it can be convenient that these types of Organizations have Codes of Good Corporate Governance in order to achieve an optimum attainment of their purposes of general interest and a higher responsibility and efficiency in the administration of the organization. This necessity makes clear especially in Organizations with partnership public-private. In a Code of Good Corporate Governance must deal several aspects, as transparency, accountability, duties and rights of donors and beneficiaries of the foundation, duties fiduciaries of the board members and directors, and enforcement (including options of private enforcement. A las entidades sin ánimo de lucro como, señaladamente las fundaciones, también se debe extender la noción de gobierno corporativo. En este sentido, resulta conveniente que las propias entidades se doten de instrumentos internos como puede ser un código de buen gobierno en aras de lograr una óptima consecución de los fines de interés general y una mayor responsabilidad y eficiencia en la administración de la entidad. Esta necesidad se acrecienta en las fundaciones por medio de las cuales se plasma la colaboración público-privada. En un código de esta naturaleza deben tratarse diversos aspectos, entre los que cabe destacar los mecanismos para lograr un mayor transparencia informativa y un mayor control de la fundación, así como la posición jurídica de los colaboradores, beneficiarios y donantes de la fundación. Igualmente, deben abordarse con rigor y profundidad los deberes de los miembros del Patronato, así como de los órganos directivos de la fundación. Asimismo, deben establecerse medidas para conseguir un adecuado cumplimiento de las disposiciones del código de buen gobierno. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2043112

  6. Whither Non Profit Child Care? Is the Non Profit Structure an Anachronism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Argues that the current structure of non-profit child care centers is outmoded, hinders creative leadership, and presents management problems for directors. Presents six illustrations of management problems: (1) shifting constituency; (2) time constraints on board members; (3) short-circuited entrepreneurism; (4) director accountability; (5)…

  7. Democracy and non-profit housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li

    2017-01-01

    Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector....... The tensions are related to representative versus participatory democracy; collectivity versus individuality; and service versus welfare. The tensions elucidate how resident democracy is squeezed between different logics, which result in an ambiguous setting for practising democracy. Based on the results...

  8. Research on the autonomy and effectiveness of non-profit organizations in the field of the strong government:A case study of T Community in Tianjin%强政府场域下公益组织的行动自主性与实效性研究--以天津市T社区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓冬

    2015-01-01

    The alignment degree between autonomy and effectiveness is the key influencing factor in the relationship between non-profit organizations and government departments. Through a case study on the running of non-profit organizations ranging from the civilian-run to the government-run, the present essay shows that the relation between the state and the society synchronizes with the interaction and conflicts between the government and social organizations in practice, that government trust is an important factor in influencing the autonomy and effectiveness of non-profit activities. Hence, the mode of government-run public welfare is sketched, which means that the local government establishes the organization, sponsors major portion of the capital for its business, and supervises and evaluates it without interfering in its practice. In the field of strong administration, government-run non-profit activities can coordinate effectively the relationship between the government and the non-profit organization, balance the conflicts between autonomy and effectiveness, and serves as a rational choice of preliminary development of non-profit organization in the community. Non-profit organizations cannot step into the civilian-run non-profit type in participating in community governance, and government-run profit may be the first step in this complicated transformation process.%自主性与实效性之间的契合程度是决定公益组织与政府部门互动形式的关键,以自主性为核心的传统分析范式容易忽视组织行动的实效性。通过对公益组织运作形式由民办到官办的个案研究发现:实践层面的“国家—社会”关系是在政府与公益组织的互动与冲突中演化发展的,政府信任是影响公益组织行动自主性与实效性的重要因素,由此勾勒出官办公益模式,即由地方政府设立并提供主要运作资金,在不干预组织具体实践的情况下对其进行监督与评估。在

  9. Organizational Structure and Behaviour in Day Care: Differences between Non-Profit and For-Profit Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Patricia M.; Lyon, Mary E.; Kienapple, Kim; Young, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Examined how Canadian day care centers are operated and managed, to identify differences in organizational structure and behavior between non-profit and for-profit centers and characteristics of structure and management linked with high quality care. Found that non-profit centers were more complex, more formalized, and less centralized than…

  10. 英国非营利艺术机构管理经验及其启示——以经常性资助机构为例%The Management of Non-profit Art Organizations in UK and its Inspiration:Taking the Regularly Funded Organization as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正兵

    2012-01-01

    英国对艺术领域的资助无论是其规模还是方式而言都享誉全球,也被称为英国模式。本文以经常性资助非营利性艺术机构为例,全面分析英国非营利艺术机构运营的政策背景、制度框架、管理机制,科学剖析其经验及其可资借鉴之处,以期为我国目前正在开展的文化体制改革,特别是文艺院团等具有非营利性质艺术机构的改革提供智力支持。%The British pattern,as a well-known model in governmental aid for arts,performs remarkably in both the scope and manner of patronage.Taking the regularly funded organization as an example,this article analyzes the background of policy,frame of system,and mechanism of management of non-profit art organizations,probes into the experience of the management,so as to bring forth inspiration and reference for the ongoing reform of Chinese cultural system,especially for the reform of non-profit performing art organizations and other art organizations.

  11. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tressie McMillan-Cottom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  12. Mitigating concerns and maximizing returns: social media strategies for injury prevention non-profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-08-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  13. Economic and social pre-conditions for marketization of domestic non-profit sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Borysova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to analyze social and economic conditions of development of non-profit organizations (NPOs. Among them are shifting responsibility for social problems from governmental bodies on not-for-profit subjects, low quality of social product, declining of volume of financing from governmental bodies, business and international organizations, reducing of skilled labour potential, radical changes in composition of clients which are served by non-profit organizations. The research objectives are: to find out economic and social conditions of activity of domestic nonprofits; to ground expedience of domestic non-profit sphere marketization. The results of the analysis. The research makes possible to state the following: - permanent shifting responsibility for social problems from governmental bodies on not-for-profit subjects is the imperative of development, that stimulates marketization of not-for-profit sector in particular; - social services are delivered by governmental bodies and NPOs and characterized by low level of quality. That why it is necessary to search the ways of solving the problem through organizational development and strengthening of financial potential of NPOs, and by control of accordance of social services delivered by the governmental bodies to the minimum standards of ones; - the main reasons of diminishing of financial possibility of the majority of NPOs are: growth of amount of non-profit organizations, ineffective use of grants caused by the failed mechanisms of verification of recipients activity, corruption and problem of estimation of effectiveness of the non-profit programs and services, a recent financial crisis which compelled to cut down expenses for such programs; - client market of non-profit organizations is constantly transformed in results of change of demographic structure, change of old and appearance of new behaviour models, appearance of new target markets and

  14. Enti non profit e diritto dell’Unione Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Perrone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. Diritto dell’Unione Europea e disciplina degli enti non profit - 2. Principio di non discriminazione, libera circolazione dei capitali e disposizioni nazionali in materia di fiscalità degli enti non profit - 2.1. Alcune implicazioni sistematiche della recente giurisprudenza della Corte di Giustizia - 2.2. Le ricadute operative e le conseguenze per le confessioni religiose - 3. Agevolazioni fiscali per gli enti non profit come aiuti di Stato? - 3.1. Le conseguenze della giurisprudenza della Corte di Giustizia su una dibattuta questione italiana - 3.2. Uno spunto finale di riflessione.

  15. A Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-Profit Project Development (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Grove, J.; Irvine, L.; Jacobs, J. F.; Johnson Phillips, S.; Sawyer, A.; Wiedman, J.

    2012-05-01

    This guide is organized around three sponsorship models: utility-sponsored projects, projects sponsored by special purpose entities - businesses formed for the purpose of producing community solar power, and non-profit sponsored projects. The guide addresses issues common to all project models, as well as issues unique to each model.

  16. The engagement and retention of non-profit employees in Belgium and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A lack of qualitative research exists that investigates work engagement and retention within Belgium and South Africa, particularly within the non-profit sector.Research purpose: The study aimed to gather in-depth qualitative data pertaining to the factors that promote work engagement and retention amongst non-profit employees working within these two countries.Motivation for the study: Because of scarce funding and resources, non-profit organisations are pressured to retain their talented employees, with high levels of turnover being a standard for low-paid, human-service positions. However, when individuals are engaged in their work, they display lower turnover intentions, suggesting the importance of work engagement in relation to retention.Research design, approach and method: Non-probability purposive and convenience sampling was used to organise in-depth interviews with 25 paid non-profit employees working on either a full-time or a part-time basis within Belgium and South Africa. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data produced.Main findings: Participants were found to be absorbed in, dedicated to and energised by their work, and revealed numerous aspects promoting their retention including working towards a purpose, finding fulfilment in their tasks and working in a caring environment.Practical/managerial implications: Non-profit organisations should develop positive work environments for their employees to sustain their levels of work engagement, as well as place significance on intrinsic rewards in order to retain employees.Contribution: This study provides insights into the means by which non-profit employees across two nations demonstrate their enthusiasm, pride and involvement in the work that they perform. It moreover sheds light on the factors contributing to such employees intending to leave or stay within the employment of their organisations.

  17. 非营利组织服务导向对组织公民行为与组织绩效的影响%The Impact of Non-profit Organization Service Orientation on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Organizational Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈鹏熠; 张雅

    2016-01-01

    The paper,based on the questionnaire survey of non-profit organization supervisors and employees,makes an empirical analysis on the influencing mechanism of non-profit organization service orientation on organizational citizenship behavior and organizational performance. The results indicate that non-profit organization service orientation consists of five dimensions:employee personality management,customer relationship management,service encounter management,human resources management and service system management. Employee personality management,customer relationship management, service encounter management and human resources management have positive impacts on employee job satisfaction ,while employee personality management,customer relationship management,human resources management and service system management have positive impacts on organizational commitment. Meanwhile,employee job satisfaction has a positive impact on organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior,organizational commitment has a positive impact on organizational citizenship behavior and organizational performance,and organizational citizenship behavior has a positive impact on organizational performance. Therefore,non-profit organization service orientation has an indirect impact on organi-zational citizenship behavior and organizational performance through employee job satisfaction and organizational commit-ment. In addition,the analysis of multi group structural equation model shows that the impacts of non-profit organization characteristic variables varies significantly in different hypothetical paths.%文章基于非营利组织主管和员工的问卷调查,实证分析了非营利组织服务导向对组织公民行为与组织绩效的影响机制.结果表明,非营利组织服务导向由员工个性管理、顾客关系管理、服务接触管理、人力资源管理和服务系统管理五维度构成;员工个性管理、顾客关系管理、服务接触管

  18. Green Energy for Your Non Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skulnik, Gary; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2010-01-01

    meet this challenge. * * Helps nonprofits green their efforts and carbon footprint * Shows CEOs, presidents, deans, marketing officers, board members proactive steps they can take to protect the environment * Teaches how to do a self-audit and plan for a more environmentally sensitive future......The definitive, practical, go-to resource guide on helping all charities become more "green" Nonprofit Guide to Going Green is your comprehensive learning tool to guide nonprofits and NGOs towards becoming greener. A desktop reference for any charitable organization to become greener......, this essential book gives your organization the support it needs to take proactive steps to protect the environment while fulfilling its mission. Timely and clearly written, with contributions from experts from around the globe, Nonprofit Guide to Going Green leads the way in helping charities in all countries...

  19. Green Energy for Your Non Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skulnik, Gary; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2010-01-01

    , this essential book gives your organization the support it needs to take proactive steps to protect the environment while fulfilling its mission. Timely and clearly written, with contributions from experts from around the globe, Nonprofit Guide to Going Green leads the way in helping charities in all countries...... meet this challenge. * * Helps nonprofits green their efforts and carbon footprint * Shows CEOs, presidents, deans, marketing officers, board members proactive steps they can take to protect the environment * Teaches how to do a self-audit and plan for a more environmentally sensitive future...... * Nonprofit Guide to Going Green delivers a timely and essential call to action for this new century. Can your organization afford not to "go green?"...

  20. Generation and distribution of wealth in Blumenau non-profit social service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loriberto Starosky Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations exist all over the world and they have an important role to the economy. These are not aimed at profits and they appeared to develop initiatives of social aspects. The main goal of this research is to check how the wealth is generated and distributed by the non-profits that are enrolled in the Welfare Assistance Council in Blumenau city. This data was gotten through a qualitative, descriptive and documentary research based on analysis of published financial statements of a sample consisting of  nineteen non-profit Welfare Assistance Organizations. The results showed that: a To maintain their activities most  institutions  rely on resources coming from social grants, partnerships and donations; b The added value distributed represents more than fifty percent of the total proceeds in a large number  of institutions; c in most organizations the biggest share of the wealth distribution was used to the workers payment; d a low percentage of  the wealth is to lenders and government. As a general rule, most organizations presented a very low rate of retentions for themselves because they do not seek profits. Their goals are related to social services activities.

  1. Organizational Mission and Revenue Diversification among Non-profit Sports Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Breuer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of diversified income portfolios are well documented in previous research on non-profit organizations. This study examines how different types of organizational missions affect the level of revenue diversification of organizations in one industry, a question that was neglected in previous research. Based on contingency theory, it is assumed that different missions are associated with different funding sources. Since missions can be complementary or conflicting, specific attention needs to be paid to the combination of missions. The sport sector is chosen as an empirical setting because non-profit sports clubs can have various missions while their overall purpose is promoting sport. Panel data from a nationwide survey of non-profit sports clubs in Germany are used for the analysis. The regression results show that revenue diversification is significantly determined by organizational mission. Historically, typical mission statements like promoting elite sport, tradition, conviviality, non-sport programs, and youth sport have a positive effect on revenue diversification, while clubs with a commercial orientation and a focus on leisure and health sport have more concentrated revenues. The findings have implications for club management in the sense that some missions are associated with higher financial risk and that the combination of missions should be chosen carefully.

  2. The Effective Use of Scientific and Technical Information in Industrial and Non-Profit Settings: A Study of Managerial Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Albert; And Others

    A study conducted in a non profit research and development organization and the technical development department of a profit corporation was designed to develop and implement interventions that would modify the information-communication behaviors of the technical professionals in these organizations, and to measure and analyze the effects of the…

  3. Differences between non-profit and for-profit hospices: patient selection and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sabina Ohri

    2012-06-01

    This research compares the behavior of non-profit organizations and private for-profit firms in the hospice industry, where there are financial incentives created by the Medicare benefit. Medicare reimburses hospices on a fixed per diem basis, regardless of patient diagnosis. Because under this system patients with lower expected costs are more profitable, hospices can selectively enroll patients with longer lengths of stay. While it is illegal for hospices to reject potential patients explicitly, they can influence their patient mix through referral networks. A fixed per diem rate also creates an incentive shirk on quality and to substitute lower skilled for higher skilled labor, which has implications for quality of care. By using within-market variation in hospice characteristics, the empirical evidence suggests that for-profit hospices differentially take advantage of these incentives. The results show that for-profit hospices engage in patient selection through significantly different referral networks than non-profits. They receive more patients from long-term care facilities and fewer patients through more traditional paths, such as physician referrals. This mechanism of patient selection is supported by the result that for-profits have fewer cancer patients and more patients with longer lengths of stay. While non-profit and for-profit hospices report similar numbers of staff visits per patient, for-profit firms make significantly less use of skilled nursing providers. We also find some weak evidence of lower levels of quality in for-profit hospices.

  4. Defining the non-profit sector: some lessons from history

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Susannah

    2000-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish whether the structural-operational definition of the sector, used by the John Hopkins Comparative Non-profit Sector Project (JHCNSP), is universal in its applicability. Historical case studies of primary health care and social housing provision in nineteenth-century England demonstrate that the definition cannot accommodate the institutional diversity of earlier periods and does not produce meaningful sectoral distinctions. The structural-operational definition r...

  5. Vectors of marketing implementation into domestic practice of non-profit entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Borysova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research results concerning problems of marketization of domestic non-profits in the context of financial paradigm are presented in the paper. The aim of our research is to analyze the dimensions of marketing implementation into non-profit organization activity. The methods of the research are written surveys of leading Ukrainian non-profit organizations, systematic and comparative analysis of scientific literature. The study of the works of native and foreign scientists, as well as our own empirical research allowed to identify the most important factors of intensification of the marketization of domestic non-profit sphere, including the growth in the number of NPOs at various levels of reduced funding on existing significant donor dependence, increased competition for labour resources, the growing importance of human capacity and marketing culture. Study allows to identify a number of areas of the marketization of domestic NPOs: delineation of consumer and producer of social services through creation of quasi-markets; a shift towards short term contracts on the basis of competition, collateral and tax credit; measurement of the effectiveness of projects and social audit that are more adaptable foundations for the evaluation of the results of NPOs; the focus on the measurability of results, on achieving a positive rate of return philanthropic investments, in attracting donors to ensure the effective management of the organization; strengthening adaptation practices and ideals of business management to the management of NPOs; social enterprise development. In general, the marketization of domestic non-profit sector has a positive impact on social capital in two directions at least. On the one hand, a non-profit organization will become less dependent on public funding or donors, diversifying sources of revenues and gaining some financial independence. The dominance of the financial paradigm in the NPOs will make effectively wasting all the

  6. Degradation of organic contaminants found in organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, great interest has arisen in recycling of the waste created by modern society. A common way of recycling the organic fraction is amendment on farmland. However, these wastes may contain possible hazardous components in small amounts, which may prevent their use in farming. The ob...

  7. Basic Structure Development mode of the Non-profit Organization in the United States Community%美国社区非营利组织基本结构与发展模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴素雄

    2012-01-01

      United States community development nonprofit organizations are government funded, political empowerment, capacity-building projects, as well as the organization of four combination of results, also reflects the United States citizens of combination of traditional and modern community public service network supplies.%  美国社区非营利组织的发展是政府资助、政治赋权、项目化运作以及自组织能力建设四者结合的结果,也同时体现了美国公民传统与现代社区公共服务网络化供给的结合。

  8. Reflection in the non-profit legal persons accounting of the grant-oriented operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nătăliţa-Mihaela Lesconi Frumuşanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will analyse the legal stipulations regarding the reflection in accounting of the grant-oriented (structural funds operations within a non-profit organization. The suitability and importance of the paper is obvious, since the grants constitute an important source of funds for this category of entities. The paper indicates, in addition to the specific accounting notes, the main problems the grant beneficiaries have to face regarding the organization and management of the project accounting, thus the paper having a profound practical nature.

  9. 对非营利组织社会责任测度的构想%My Ideas about the Measurement of Social Responsibilities of Non-profitable Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪梅

    2005-01-01

    非营利组织(Nonprofit Organization)是指那些在政府组织体制之外、既不是根据政府之问的协议建立的、也不是企业的社会组织。它具有非营利性、非政府性、志愿性、公益性等特征。在西方现代社会,非政府、非营利组织与政府、营利组织(企业)一起,被视为构成现代社会的三大板块。

  10. Toward a Collaborative, Transformative Model of Non-Profit Leadership: Some Conceptual Building Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Bramwell Osula; Eddie C. W. Ng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose extending the construct of non-profit leadership to accommodate collaborative and transformational themes. The suggestion is that the resultant broader definition accords with the modern context within which non-profits now operate and feeds into a more resilient model of non-profit leadership. The paper begins with a review of emergent trends in leadership theory and the changing context of the non-profit sector. The argument is made that the extraordinary...

  11. Energy care. The tool for structured attention for energy efficiency. For profit and non-profit organizations conform ISO 14001(2004); Energiezorg. Het middel voor structurele aandacht voor energie-efficiency. Voor profit- en non-profitorganisaties conform ISO14001:2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    An energy care ('energiezorg' in Dutch) system has been developed by means of which profit and non-profit organizations can continuously control the consumption of energy and improve the energy efficiency within their organization. [Dutch] Steeds meer organisaties en bedrijven nemen maatregelen om energie te besparen of de energie-efficiency te verbeteren. Dit levert zowel financiele als milieuwinst op. Helaas zijn de effecten van de inspanningen vaak maar tijdelijk. Zodra de aandacht voor het onderwerp wegebt, neemt het energiegebruik weer toe. Daarom heeft SenterNovem een systeem voor structurele aandacht ontwikkeld. Dit zorgt ervoor dat energiegebruik binnen de onderneming of organisatie de aandacht krijgt die het verdient en dat de aandacht nooit verslapt. Dat blijkt ook uit de ervaringen van veel bedrijven en instellingen. Zij constateren dat invoering van Energiezorg niet alleen bijdraagt aan een blijvende verlaging van het energiegebruik, maar zelfs ook extra energiebesparing oplevert van gemiddeld 3 procent. Dit geldt voor zowel profit- als non-profitorganisaties. Het instrument Energiezorg is geschikt voor kleine, middelgrote en grote organisaties en bedrijven.

  12. 13 CFR 120.820 - CDC non-profit status and good standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CDC non-profit status and good... CDC non-profit status and good standing. A CDC must be a non-profit corporation, except that for-profit CDCs certified by SBA prior to January 1, 1987 may retain their certifications. An SBIC may...

  13. A unified model of non-profit sport organizations performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manu Claessens; Erik Thibaut; Mathieu Winand; Jeroen Scheerder; Steven Vos

    2014-01-01

    Little consensus has emerged about how organizational performance should be defined and measured. Most studies have used traditional approaches to give their own perspective about organizational performance and effectiveness, but none have recently tried to encompass these different views into one

  14. Competitive spillovers across non-profit and for-profit nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C; Hirth, Richard A

    2003-01-01

    The importance of non-profit institutions in the health care sector has generated a vast empirical literature examining quality differences between non-profit and for-profit nursing homes. Recent theoretical work has emphasized that much of this empirical literature is flawed in that previous studies rely solely on dummy variables to capture the effects of ownership rather than accounting for the share of non-profit nursing homes in the market. This analysis considers whether competitive spillovers from non-profits lead to higher quality in for-profit nursing homes. Using instrumental variables to account for the potential endogeneity of non-profit market share, this study finds that an increase in non-profit market share improves for-profit and overall nursing home quality. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that non-profits serve as a quality signal for uninformed nursing home consumers.

  15. Do non-profits make a difference?: Evaluating non-profit vis-à-vis for-profit organisations in social

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P.; Noailly, J.; Visser, S.

    2006-01-01

    This CPB Document provides a framework for the evaluation of non-profit organisations. This framework addresses the question under which conditions, and, if so, in what way non-profits should be stimulated. Essentially, in order to answer these questions, three steps can be followed: (i)

  16. Do non-profits make a difference?: Evaluating non-profit vis-à-vis for-profit organisations in social

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P.; Noailly, J.; Visser, S.

    2006-01-01

    This CPB Document provides a framework for the evaluation of non-profit organisations. This framework addresses the question under which conditions, and, if so, in what way non-profits should be stimulated. Essentially, in order to answer these questions, three steps can be followed: (i) identifyin

  17. Determinants of Sustainability and Organisational Effectiveness in Non-Profit Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigates the criteria for organizational effectiveness in non-profit organizations (NPOs with the aim to determine how the elements of sustainability fit within the criteria. To achieve this, the study utilized the research questions: “what criteria do NPOs use to evaluate their effectiveness?” and “how is sustainability embedded in NPO effectiveness?” The research design was interpretivist, adopting focus group interviews to obtain data. Specifically, two focus group interviews were held with the top management of an NPO which revealed that both financial and non-financial criteria were equally essential for NPO effectiveness. This finding is consistent with the literature, although it contradicts the initial assumption of the study that NPO effectiveness was based more on non-financial criteria than financial criteria. The study also found that the effectiveness of an NPO should be viewed in two ways: firstly, “the full achievement of its mandate” and, secondly, “the ability to run business projects to cover cost.” It also emerged that both the ability to cover costs and the achievement of a mandate should be done in a sustainable manner (a sustainable manner is seen as one that is harmonious with the natural and the socio-political environment. The results of this paper present a practical case for the management of NPOs by reiterating that the full achievement of the NPO mandate and the successful running of social projects to generate funds for sustainability are key elements of effectiveness. Given the essential role that NPOs play in developing countries, this study has provided the foundation for more widespread enquiry into the sustainability and effectiveness of NPOs.

  18. Cultural challenges and essential factors in the implementation of IS in a non-profit organisation in a developing country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup Nielsen, Sebastian; Svejvig, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to describe some of the challenges in the implementation of IS in a non-profit or-ganization in a developing country. When people from developed countries assist in the process of making requirements specification, an understanding of local culture is essential for a successful...... with a requirements specification for an organization, is the basis of this action research study in the Philippines....

  19. Call for Papers – Special issue: Project Management in the Non-Profit Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Sankaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This journal special issue will explore diverse stakeholder perspectives and share examples of project management practices in the non-profit sector. Key objectives are to develop understandings of project management practice in the sector, to examine how cross-sectoral collaboration and learning can help non-profit organisations achieve their project and programme objectives, and to explore ways in which the wider project management community can learn from experiences in the non-profit sector.

  20. Strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana – Julieta Josan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector.The approach of the paper is to identify the most appropriate strategies and techniques that non-profit sector can use to accomplish its objectives, to highlight specific differences between the strategies and techniques of the profit and non-profit sectors and to identify potential communication and public relations actions in order to increase visibility among target audience, create brand awareness and to change into positive brand sentiment the target perception about the non-profit sector.

  1. Health care reform and Connecticut's non-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeffrey R; Gerrish, William; Galvin, J Robert

    2010-01-01

    The recent federal Health Care Reform Act signed into law by President Obama is expected to lead to greater patient volumes at non-profit hospitals in Connecticut (and throughout the country). The financial implications for these hospitals depend on how the costs per patient are expected to change in response to the anticipated higher patient volumes. Using a regression analysis of costs with annual data on 30 Connecticut hospitals over the period 2006 to 2008, we find that there are considerable differences between outpatient and inpatient unit cost structures at these hospitals. Based on the results of our analysis, and assuming health care reform leads to an overall increase in the number of outpatients, we would expect Connecticut hospitals to experience lower costs per outpatient treated (economies of scale). On the other hand, an influx of additional inpatients would be expected to raise unit costs (diseconomies of scale). After controlling for other cost determinants, we find that the marginal cost of an inpatient is about $8,000 while the marginal cost of an outpatient is about $44. This disparity may provide an explanation for our finding that the effect of additional patient volumes overall (combining inpatient and outpatient) is an increase in hospitals' unit costs.

  2. Mental health promotion and non-profit health organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Frances M; Donald, Maria; Dean, Julie H; Conrad, Sue; Mutch, Allyson J

    2007-11-01

    Health related non-profit organisations (NPOs) provide a potentially important but largely untapped role in mental health promotion in communities. This paper reports on a study investigating the activities and contributions made by NPOs to mental health and well-being. One hundred and eight NPOs based in the metropolitan area of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, participated in a survey exploring agency activities that contribute to promoting mental well-being; factors that helped or hindered the organisation in engaging in mental health promotion activities and evaluation methods and processes. An index of key themes was developed and frequencies derived from categorical data. NPOs undertook five key types of activities to promote mental health and well-being: support provision (81%); service provision (59%); information sharing (52%); activities to promote well-being (24%); and advocacy (6%). Systematic evaluation of longer-term outcomes was rare, with most NPOs (72%) relying on informal feedback from clients. Human resources in the form of paid or volunteer workers were most frequently (58%) identified as contributing to the capacity of agencies to carry out mental health promotion activities. Training and education emerged as a substantive need (34%). NPOs are well placed to enhance resiliency in the context of ongoing health problems, disability or other adverse psychosocial circumstances that place people at risk of mental health problems. As such they constitute a significant resource for advancing mental health promotion goals. What is needed to extend the practice and evidence base in this area is training and skill development for NPO workers, along with larger-scale research conducted in collaboration with NPOs to assess the contributions and cost-effectiveness of the sector.

  3. Between state and market: Non-profit housing organisations in three national contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullins, D.W.; Milligan, V.; Nieboer, N.E.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an international collaborative study5 of non-profit housing involving researchers6 in three countries using a common methodology to engage the leaders of non-profit organisations themselves in the research process. The paper draws on earlier work on the

  4. Wolves in sheep's clothing: Is non-profit status used to signal quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel B; Propper, Carol; Smith, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Why do many firms in the healthcare sector adopt non-profit status? One argument is that non-profit status serves as a signal of quality when consumers are not well informed. A testable implication is that an increase in consumer information may lead to a reduction in the number of non-profits in a market. We test this idea empirically by exploiting an exogenous increase in consumer information in the US nursing home industry. We find that the information shock led to a reduction in the share of non-profit homes, driven by a combination of home closure and sector switching. The lowest quality non-profits were the most likely to exit. Our results have important implications for the effects of reforms to increase consumer provision in a number of public services. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research in France between 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandré, Coralie; Prigent, Amélie; Kemel, Marie-Louise; Leboyer, Marion; Chevreul, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, actions have been undertaken in France to foster mental health research. Our objective was to assess their utility by estimating the evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research between 2007 and 2011, both in terms of total funding and the share of health research budgets. Public and non-profit funding was considered. Core funding from public research institutions was determined through a top-down approach by multiplying their total budget by the ratio of the number of psychiatry-related publications to the total number of publications focusing on health issues. A bottom-up method was used to estimate the amount of project-based grants and funding by non-profit organizations, which were directly contacted to obtain this information. Public and non-profit funding for mental health research increased by a factor of 3.4 between 2007 and 2011 reaching €84.8 million, while the share of health research funding allocated to mental health research nearly doubled from 2.2% to 4.1%. Public sources were the main contributors representing 94% of the total funding. Our results have important implications for policy makers, as they suggest that actions specifically aimed at prioritizing mental health research are effective in increasing research funding. There is therefore an urgent need to further undertake such actions as funding in France remains particularly low compared to the United Kingdom and the United States, despite the fact that the epidemiological and economic burden represented by mental disorders is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years.

  6. Cause Related Marketing: Consumers Perceptions and Benefits for Profit and Non-Profits Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Farache

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to understand consumers’ perceptions regarding Cause Related Marketing [CRM]. The research findings were based on a survey of 200 consumers in the Brighton area and published data. The research aim was focused on the consumers’ perception of the alliance between corporations and non-profit organisations. The research found that consumers have a better perception of firms that work with charities and good causes than those that do not. They believe that the partnership between corporations and charities has an impact on the good of society. However, they are aware that corporations themselves benefit from this partnership. Concerning good causes, consumers prefer to support those related to Children. The researchers noticed that an individual connection with a cause might have considerable influence on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to a specific cause.

  7. Assessment of a tool for measuring non-profit advocacy efforts in India, Uganda and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Tanya; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; McOwen, Jordan; Gordis, Deborah J; Bowen, Lisa A; Bernson, Jeff

    2016-03-01

    To improve maternal and child health, the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA) implemented an innovative policy advocacy project in India, Uganda and Yemen from 2009 to 2011. PATH assisted WRA in designing an approach to measure the short- and long-term results of WRA's advocacy efforts.Expert rating instruments have been widely used since 1970s to track country-level program efforts focusing on family planning, maternal and neonatal health, and HIV/AIDS. This article assesses and establishes the strength and applicability of an expert rating tool, the Maternal Health Policy Score (MHPS), in measuring and guiding a non-profit's advocacy efforts.The tool was assessed using five criteria: validity of results, reproducibility of results, acceptability to respondents, internal consistency and cost. The tool proved effective for measuring improvements in the policy environment at both the national and subnational levels that the non-profit intended to effect and useful for identifying strong and weak policy domains. The results are reproducible, though ensuring fidelity in implementation during different rounds of data collection may be difficult. The acceptability of the tool was high among respondents, and also among users of the information.MHPS provides a quick, low-cost method to measure overall changes in the policy environment, giving advocacy organizations and grant makers timely information to gauge the influence of their work and take corrective action. WRA demonstrated the use of MHPS at multiple points in the project: at the onset of a project to identify and strategize around policy domains that need attention, during and at the end of the project to monitor progress made and redirect efforts.

  8. Academic and Non-Profit Accessibility to Commercial Remote Sensing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A. S.; Farr, B.

    2013-12-01

    Remote Sensing as a topic of teaching and research at the university and college level continues to increase. As more data is made freely available and software becomes easier to use, more and more academic and non-profits institutions are turning to remote sensing to solve their tough and large spatial scale problems. Exelis Visual Information Solutions (VIS) has been supporting teaching and research endeavors for over 30 years with a special emphasis over the last 5 years with scientifically proven software and accessible training materials. The Exelis VIS academic program extends to US and Canadian 2 year and 4 year colleges and universities with tools for analyzing aerial and satellite multispectral and hyperspectral imagery, airborne LiDAR and Synthetic Aperture Radar. The Exelis VIS academic programs, using the ENVI Platform, enables labs and classrooms to be outfitted with software and makes software accessible to students. The ENVI software provides students hands on experience with remote sensing software, an easy teaching platform for professors and allows researchers scientifically vetted software they can trust. Training materials are provided at no additional cost and can either serve as a basis for course curriculum development or self paced learning. Non-profit organizations like The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and CGIAR have deployed ENVI and IDL enterprise wide licensing allowing researchers all over the world to have cost effective access COTS software for their research. Exelis VIS has also contributed licenses to the NASA DEVELOP program. Exelis VIS is committed to supporting the academic and NGO community with affordable enterprise licensing, access to training materials, and technical expertise to help researchers tackle today's Earth and Planetary science big data challenges.

  9. [Comparative analysis of the non-profit, for-profit and public hospital providers: American experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogyorósy, Zsolt

    2004-07-04

    The new legislation allowed hospitals and other health care facilities to be converted into for-profit status. The detailed regulatory framework is under development in Hungary. This article reviews the literature of studies comparing hospital financial performance and the quality of care before and after conversion from public or non-profit status to for-profit. Studies were identified through electronic search of Medline (Pubmed), EconLit, Cochrane Library, Economic Evaluation Database (EED), az Health Technology Assessment (HTA) databases, library files and reference lists. The literature search was extended to the Internet, World Bank, International Labor Office (ILO), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and WHO websites as well as government, academic institutions and large insurance companies web pages for unpublished online information. Time series and before-after studies and systematic literature reviews were included. The conversion from non-profit to for-profit status improved the profitability of the hospitals. However the quality of care (measures in mortality, frequency of side effects, complications) might suffer in the first couple years of the conversion. The conversion may increase the total health care expenditures per capita. Trustful relationship between patients and physicians may also be threatened. The generalisability of the American experiences into the Hungarian single payer system may be limited. From societal point of view, for-profit providers could provide socially beneficial care in areas where it is possible to define, monitor and evaluate the nature and quality characteristics of the services, as well as market competition can be ensured. However most of the healthcare services are too complex to fall into this category.

  10. Phthalic acid esters found in municipal organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with xenobiotic compounds and their fate during anaerobic digestion was investigated. The phthalic acid ester di-(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was identified as the main contaminant in OFMSW in concentrations more than half...... matter with high biogas yields and efficient reduction of the phthalic acid ester contamination....

  11. Marketing strategy of non-profit organisation Chance for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Holá, Kristýna

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis addresses the application of marketing in nonprofit organizations using "Chance for children" a civic association as an example. The main aim of this work is to define marketing strategies in nonprofit organizations, the greatest emphasis are placed on communication strategy and partly on product strategy. In the practical part I introduce the chosen nonprofit organization as such, outline the range of their products and their current marketing situation. Based on the re...

  12. Legitimacy, trustee incentives, and board processes: the case of public and private non-profit nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaelheyns, Nico; Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Hulle, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique data set, this study explores how type of ownership (government/private) is related to processes of governance. The findings suggest that the neo-institutional perspective and the self-interest rationale of the agency perspective are helpful in explaining processes of governance in both government- and privately owned non-profit organizations. Due to adverse incentives and the quest for legitimacy, supervising governance bodies within local government-owned non-profit institutions pay relatively less attention to the development of high quality supervising bodies and delegate little to management. Our findings also indicate that governance processes in private institutions are more aligned with the business model and that this alignment is likely driven by a concern to improve decision making. By contrast, our data also suggest that in local government-owned institutions re-election concerns of politicians-trustees are an important force in the governance processes of these institutions. In view of these adverse incentives - in contrast to the case of private organizations - a governance code is unlikely to entail much improvement in government-owned organizations.

  13. Structural Considerations in Defining the Non-profit Sector Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya Kraleva

    2013-01-01

    After the beginning of the democratic changes the number of civil organizations in this country has increased considerably, causing a heightened scientific interest in the forming non-commercial sector. The variegated character of the organizations constituting it, however, renders the unequivocal determination of its scope difficult and creates conditions for conducting studies with low rate of validity. In this context the differentiation of the various concepts, which have entered the lite...

  14. Vocational Home Economics Education Classes as Non-Profit Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Vesta C.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests organizing one or more vocational home economics classes by the entrepreneur system to operate the class as a nonprofit business. Lists activities for planning and implementing the operation, benefits for the students, and ideas to develop skills in professional sewing, food service production, and occupational homemaking. (MF)

  15. For profit versus non-profit: does economic sector make a difference in child-care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, E

    1999-01-01

    The child-care industry in a large, southeastern community serves as this study's vehicle for comparing non-profit with for profit dependent care in areas not easily observable to clients. The cross-sectional analysis compares child-care centers on marketed and actual staff-to-child ratio; staff salary; consistency in the child's group environment; staff stability; and extent of parental involvement. Findings are based on self-reports of directors and support hypotheses derived from the theory that for profit day care centers will use their discretionary authority to vary the care environment to achieve profit goals despite the potential effect on the quality of the child's environment. Further, despite potential cost economies and enhanced quality of care achievable as a non-profit entity, few for profit center directors consider becoming non-profit centers.

  16. Guest Editorial: Reinvigorating Project Management Research and Practice: Perspectives from the Non-Profit Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lannon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The genesis of this Special Issue was a conference on “Delivering Social Good: Managing Projects in the Non-Profit Sector” held at the University of Limerick in October 2014.  The diversity that exists within the broad non-profit sector became apparent at this event, as did its increasing projectification and the variety of organizational forms and models resulting from this trend. Tools, techniques, processes and practices inherited from the business world were described, as were methodologies adopted, adapted and specifically designed for work in areas like international development, humanitarian work and community settings. Insights into the lived experiences of project managers in the non-profit sector were also shared, as were a number of diverse conceptualisations of temporary organisations.

  17. Marketing the charitable image of the non-profit hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolu, S; Parsons, R J

    1992-01-01

    Because of nonprofit hospitals' charitable contribution to communities, the great majority of these nonprofit hospitals deserve their tax-exempt status. In order for them to maintain this status, hospitals must promote their charitable image in the community. The hospital that is successful in promoting this image will benefit in several ways: 1. The citizens of the community will look on the hospital in a favorable light. 2. The local and state government officials will not feel compelled to vigorously pursue hospital tax dollars. 3. Those people in the community who need charity care will know of its availability. 4. New taxing legislation is less likely to be passed if the legislators know that their public is well educated on the benefits the hospitals provide. Over the years, the image of the hospital has become that of a business rather than that of a charitable service organization. The public has been inundated with information by the media on the business of healthcare rather than the social service role of the hospital. In order for nonprofit institutions to survive, they will need to communicate otherwise the public will remain ignorant, and the repercussions could be disastrous.

  18. License Compliance Issues For Biopharmaceuticals: Special Challenges For Negotiations Between Companies And Non-Profit Research Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzio, Todd A; Feindt, Hans; Ferguson, Steven

    2011-09-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are therapeutic products based on biotechnology. They are manufactured by or from living organisms and are the most complex of all commercial medicines to develop, manufacture and qualify for regulatory approval. In recent years biopharmaceuticals have rapidly increased in number and importance with over 400() already marketed in the U.S. and European markets alone. Many companies throughout the world are now ramping up investments in biopharmaceutical R&D and expanding their portfolios through licensing of early-stage biotechnologies from universities and other non-profit research institutions, and there is an increasing number of license agreements for biopharmaceutical product development relative to traditional small molecule drug compounds. This trend will only continue as large numbers of biosimilars and biogenerics enter the market.A primary goal of technology transfer offices associated with publicly-funded, non-profit research institutions is to establish patent protection for inventions deemed to have commercial potential and license them for product development. Such licenses help stimulate economic development and job creation, bring a stream of royalty revenue to the institution and, hopefully, advance the public good or public health by bringing new and useful products to market. In the course of applying for such licenses, a commercial development plan is usually put forth by the license applicant. This plan indicates the path the applicant expects to follow to bring the licensed invention to market. In the case of small molecule drug compounds, there exists a widely-recognized series of clinical development steps, dictated by regulatory requirements, that must be met to bring a new drug to market, such as completion of preclinical toxicology, Phase 1, 2 and 3 testing and product approvals. These steps often become the milestone/benchmark schedule incorporated into license agreements which technology transfer offices use to monitor

  19. FROM FRAYED ROPE TO TIGHT STRINGS: NEGOTIATING NON-PROFIT GOVERNANCE IN A NEOLIBERAL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ready, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberal policies have created economic disparities and increased the gap between the rich and the poor in Canada. The Mulroney government initiated neoliberal revisions to the Canadian social welfare state as it quietly changed complex regulations that impacted the welfare and well-being of Canadians. This government worked “by stealth” and with little consultation to dismantle key components of the social welfare state, while publicly pronouncing its sacred value. In Ontario, neoliberal policies are identified with the Harris government’s visible and public attack on the poor, on women and on those marginalized by race. The Harris government made significant cuts to services offered by non-governmental organizations (NGOs and, in particular, to women’s organizations and advocacy groups. This paper examines the impact of neoliberalism by exploring changes through such policies in the relationship between the state and non-profit organizations in Ontario. It is based on initial findings from qualitative research conducted in 2010 and 2011 with three YWCA organizations. It characterizes a shift from the way NGO-state relationships were depicted by Katherine Scott in 2003 as a “frayed rope” about to break, to being represented by an image of multiple “tight strings.” This research forms part of a dissertation examining how the neoliberal policies that have reduced government support for, and downloaded responsibilities to, the non-profit sector have affected the capacity of community-based women’s organizations to implement a feminist agenda in their work with women. The timeframe studied, from 2003 to 2008, builds on the now extensive scholarly research on the impact of neoliberal policies that occurred from 1995 to 2003, the years led by Progressive Conservative Premiers Mike Harris and Ernie Eves. It closely examines continuities and discontinuities between the two governments, revealing many dangers for women buried in

  20. China-Central Asia Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The China-Central Asia Friendship Association(CCAFA) held its inaugural meeting in Beijing on December 18,2007. The CCAFA,founded at the initiation of the CPAFFC,is a national non-profit social organization with legal person status.It aims to further expand people-to-people contact between China and the five Central Asian countries,namely Kazakhstan,Kirghizstan,Tajikistan,Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan,enhance regional cooperation and deepen good-neighbourly relations so as to consolidate the social foundation for lasting friendship between China and these countries and promote common development.

  1. 34 CFR Appendix B to Subpart L of... - Ratio Methodology for Private Non-Profit Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ratio Methodology for Private Non-Profit Institutions B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 668 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL...

  2. Primary care teams: New Zealand's experience with community-governed non-profit primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Peter; Davis, Peter; Lay-Yee, Roy

    2005-05-01

    Community-governed non-profit primary care organisations started developing in New Zealand in the late 1980s with the aim to reduce financial, cultural and geographical barriers to access. New Zealand's new primary health care strategy aims to co-ordinate primary care and public health strategies with the overall objective of improving population health and reducing health inequalities. The purpose of this study is to carry out a detailed examination of the composition and characteristics of primary care teams in community-governed non-profit practices and compare them with more traditional primary care organisations, with the aim of drawing conclusions about the capacity of the different structures to carry out population-based primary care. The study used data from a representative national cross-sectional survey of general practitioners in New Zealand (2001/2002). Primary care teams were largest and most heterogeneous in community-governed non-profit practices, which employed about 3% of the county's general practitioners. Next most heterogeneous in terms of their primary care teams were practices that belonged to an Independent Practitioner Association, which employed the majority of the country's general practitioners (71.7%). Even though in absolute and relative terms the community-governed non-profit primary care sector is small, by providing a much needed element of professional and organisational pluralism and by experimenting with more diverse staffing arrangements, it is likely to continue to have an influence on primary care policy development in New Zealand.

  3. Resistance towards persuasion: differences between non-profit and commercial advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, C.R.; Fransen, M.L.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present research we examined a variety of strategies that consumers may use to resist persuasion towards non-profit and commercial advertising. Based on research by Jacks and Cameron (2003), we investigated seven strategies (i.e., attitude bolstering, counter arguing, negative affect, selecti

  4. An Examination of Adjunct Faculty Characteristics: Comparison between Non-Profit and For-Profit Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcher, Keith; Mandernach, B. Jean

    2016-01-01

    Institutions must understand the unique characteristics and motivations of adjunct faculty teaching online to more effectively support a diverse faculty population. The current study examines faculty characteristics and motivations to explore differences in the types of adjunct faculty teaching at non-profit or for-profit institutions. A survey of…

  5. An Examination of Childcare Teachers in For-Profit and Non-Profit Childcare Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.; Shriner, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of childcare teachers in for-profit and non-profit centers were examined. Previous research indicates that childcare teachers earn consistently low wages, have little employee benefits and are dissatisfied with their work environments. This study further explores the employment issues and work environments that childcare teachers…

  6. Embedding energy saving policies in the Dutch non-profit housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, N.; Kroese, R.; Straub, A.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies on policy implementation have emphasized the difficulties of putting policies into practice. The paper presents several ways in which Dutch non-profit housing providers incorporate their energy saving policies in their ‘regular’ housing management regarding the existing stock, such as

  7. Managing corporate identities of non-profit organisations in the social welfare sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Holtzhausen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Present-day South Africa is characterised by many societal and developmental issues, such as HIV awareness and prevention, child-headed households, environmental protection, poverty alleviation, violence and victim aid. However, it is widely acknowledged that government alone cannot address these issues effectively. The role of non-profit organisations (NPOs in addressing social and development issues is increasingly emphasised. NPOs work at grass-roots level and they can therefore, on the whole, identify societal vulnerabilities and risks earlier than the government sector. However, due to the economic recession, NPOs operate in a competitive environment where an increasing number of NPOs rely on a small number of donors and other resources. NPOs should therefore differentiate themselves from the competition in order to obtain public legitimacy and funding. Corporate identity management is important for NPOs to fulfil their role in social welfare and thus contribute to disaster risk reduction. The exploratory nature of this study dictates a qualitative research approach. Semi-structured interviews with management of five NPOs in the social welfare sector were conducted in order to provide an answer to the study’s research question: ‘To what extent do NPOs in the social welfare sector practise corporate identity management, in order to prevent and address social welfare risks?’ The research found that NPOs do not realise the full potential of managing their corporate identities. NPOs therefore do not take advantage of a strong and distinct corporate identity which would allow them to ensure their ability to assess, address, reduce and/or alleviate vulnerabilities and disaster risks.

  8. [Mental health, vulnerability and general practice: a study of non-profit health centers in Grenoble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Fabing, Delphine; Pichon, Philippe; Arnevielhe, Alizée; Suscillon, Marie-Paule; Caron, Bruno; Saillard, Fabienne; François, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Very little research has been conducted on the role of general practitioners (GPs) in mental health care among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in France. The non-profit community health care centers in Grenoble provide populations living in sensitive urban zones with high quality primary health care that includes a medico-social and prevention dimension. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of mental health issues diagnosed by GPs in health care centers, to identify the factors associated with these issues and to describe treatment characteristics. This cross-sectional study focused on general practice consultations in the AGECSA Grenoble health care centers over the course of one week. At the end of each consultation, the GP collected information about the patient, including personal data, psychological disorders, vulnerability, and patient health management. Among the 451 patients included in the study, GPs found that 45.2% of patients were in vulnerable situations and 43% of patients suffered from a mental disorder, including 29% of cases of anxiety and 20% of cases of depression. 44% of patients suffered from a psychological disorder (mental disorder and/or psychological suffering). For these patients, 52.8% of the consultations lasted more than 20 minutes. Their treatment generally included a mental health care follow-up (in 76% of cases), including psychological support (59%) and treatment of functional somatic disorders (46%). The study shows the high prevalence of psychological disorders diagnosed in the patients treated by GPs working in health care centers in disadvantaged urban areas. Research shows that GPs play an important and specific role in mental health care and prevention. An analysis of the organizational methods used in health care centers is highly relevant.

  9. Creating and developing a non-profit community-outreach healthcare clinic in the developing world: lessons learnt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favara, D M

    2014-05-01

    Chesed Children's Clinic is a non-profit, non-governmental, volunteer-run primary care paediatric-outreach clinic servicing the severely under-resourced informal settlement of Mzamomhle within South Africa's impoverished Eastern Cape Province. Founded in May 2011 by a group of junior medical professionals and volunteers, the clinic has been successfully operating a weekend clinic on alternate Sundays since September 2011. This paper discusses 10 points of essential consideration for individuals and organisations intent on pursuing similar projects.

  10. A Non-Profit University and a For-Profit Consulting Company Partner to a Offer a New Master's Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Gary; Dalton, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    The University of San Diego, School of Business Administration (non-profit university) and the Ken Blanchard Companies (for profit management consulting company) teamed to create the Master of Science in Executive Leadership at USD. Fusing a traditional non-profit university faculty and staff with a for-profit consulting company created a plethora…

  11. Between state and market: The relationship between non-profit housing organisations and the state in three national contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullins, D.W.; Milligan, V.; Nieboer, N.E.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an international collaborative study5 of non-profit housing; one of the main alternatives to public housing developed in many countries. The study involved researchers6 in three countries using a common methodology to engage the leaders of non-profit organisations

  12. Links Between Workplace Spirituality, Job-Related Attitudes, and Value Fit in a Non-Profit Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kimberly T; DeSouza, Eros R; Durst, Renee N

    2015-01-01

    We examined perceptions of spirituality and meaning among 192 employees (77% female) from a non-profit organization in a mid-sized Midwestern city in the United States. We hypothesized that employees' values related to workplace spirituality would be positively related to various measures of job satisfaction and general meaning in life. We also examined employees' perceptions of the fit of their co-workers' values with the agency mission and predicted that these perceptions would act as a moderator of the relationship between employees' workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. Our hypotheses were generally supported. Spirituality predicted work contributing to the meaning of life and various facets of job satisfaction. Implications of the importance of employees' perceptions of organizational fit related to spirituality and the perceived fit of co-workers' values with the organizational mission are discussed.

  13. ‘Value for Whom, by Whom’: Investigating Value Constructs in Non-Profit Project Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyne Cheng Siew Ang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In most non-profit organisations (NPOs, there are multiple programs, projects or initiatives running simultaneously. The management of multiple projects in organisations can be coined as project portfolio management (PPM (Archer & Ghasemzadeh 1999; Pennypacker & Dye 2002.  In any project-based organisation, it is critical that selected projects align with and deliver the organisation’s strategy or mission. Decisions about project funding are strategic decisions, particularly when there are resource limitations. In PPM decision making, the allocation of resources to projects requires a clear judgement of value across multiple perspectives. Value has often been expressed in financial terms, however increasingly research indicates that non-financial considerations are equally important in evaluating value. A key task in project portfolio management is to maximise value across the portfolio.  However, value can be a subjective notion, as each person may have different expectations of what is valuable. The involvement of diverse stakeholder interests could create complexities in decision making in non-profit organisations due to value being interpreted in different ways by the stakeholders. Furthermore in order to achieve its purpose, non-profits depend heavily on donors, patrons and sponsors - stakeholders who contribute to the portfolio but are often not the direct recipients of the services provided by the non-profit organisation (Kaplan 2012. Non-profit portfolios often compete with other initiatives for resources and attention from the same donors and sponsors, and may need to constantly justify the value they provide to these stakeholders. Most research about value in PPM has been conducted in the ‘for-profit’ sector. Recent value-based studies in the project portfolio field stress the importance of considering both commercial and non-commercial value in portfolio decision making (Killen, du Plessis & Young 2012; Kopman 2013; Martinsuo

  14. State power and elite autonomy: The board interlock network of Chinese non-profits

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ji

    2016-01-01

    In response to failures of central planning, the Chinese government has experimented not only with free-market trade zones, but with allowing non-profit foundations to operate in a decentralized fashion. A network study shows how these foundations have connected together by sharing board members, in a structural parallel to what is seen in corporations in the United States. This board interlock leads to the emergence of an elite group with privileged network positions. While the presence of government officials on non-profit boards is widespread, state officials are much less common in a subgroup of foundations that control just over half of all revenue in the network. This subgroup, associated with business elites, not only enjoys higher levels of within-elite links, but even preferentially excludes government officials from the nodes with higher degree. The emergence of this structurally autonomous sphere is associated with major political and social events in the state-society relationship.

  15. Does non-profit health insurance reduce financial burden? Evidence from the Vietnam Living Standards Survey Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Ardeshir; Sarma, Sisira; Simpson, Wayne

    2006-06-01

    Many low-income countries are implementing non-profit medical insurance to increase access to health services, especially among low-income households, and to raise additional revenue for financing public health services. This paper estimates the effect of insurance on out-of-pocket health expenditures using the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys for 1993 and 1998 and appropriate models for panel data. Our findings suggest that health insurance reduces health expenditure when unobserved heterogeneity is accounted for. Failure to capture unobserved heterogeneity produces contrary results that are consistent with previous cross-sectional studies in the literature. Health insurance is found to reduce out-of-pocket expenditure between 16 and 18% and the reduction in expenditure is more pronounced for individuals with lower incomes. At mean income, the effect of health insurance is to reduce health expenditures between 28 and 35%.

  16. Strategic communication management in the non-profit sector:  a simplified model

    OpenAIRE

    11714166 - Wiggill, Magrita Nicolene

    2011-01-01

    A model for strategic communication management was developed in South Africa on the basis of the excellence study and relationship management theories. This normative, theoretical model has been applied as part of a project in non-profit organisations (NPOs), government institutions and small-to-medium sized companies. However, the operational reality of organisations' communication practices has not been measured against the model. It was therefore the objective of this article to comprehend...

  17. Organizational resilience: Sustained institutional effectiveness among smaller, private, non-profit US higher education institutions experiencing organizational decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kenneth A

    2016-06-04

    Recent changes in the United States (US) economy have radically disrupted revenue generation among many institutions within higher education within the US. Chief among these disruptions has been fallout associated with the financial crisis of 2008-2009, which triggered a change in the US higher education environment from a period of relative munificence to a prolonged period of scarcity. The hardest hit by this disruption have been smaller, less wealthy institutions which tend to lack the necessary reserves to financially weather the economic storm. Interestingly, a review of institutional effectiveness among these institutions revealed that while many are struggling, some institutions have found ways to not only successfully cope with the impact of declining revenue, but have been able to capitalize on the disruption and thrive. Organizational response is an important factor in successfully coping with conditions of organizational decline. The study examined the impacts of organizational response on institutional effectiveness among higher education institutions experiencing organizational decline. The study's research question asked why some US higher educational institutions are more resilient at coping with organizational decline than other institutions operating within the same segment of the higher education sector. More specifically, what role does organizational resilience have in helping smaller, private non-profit institutions cope and remain effective during organizational decline? A total of 141 US smaller, private non-profit higher educational institutions participated in the study; specifically, the study included responses from participant institutions' key administrators. 60-item survey evaluated administrator responses corresponding to organizational response and institutional effectiveness. Factor analysis was used to specify the underlying structures of rigidity response, resilience response, and institutional effectiveness. Multiple regression

  18. Factors That Influence Organization Learning Sustainability in Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prugsamatz, Raphaella

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to broaden previous work on organizational learning and the factors that influence learning in organizational settings. Design/methodology/approach: Qualitative and quantitative research methods that included in-depth interviews and questionnaire distribution were used. Data gathered were analyzed using…

  19. ANALYSIS OF ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF NON-PROFIT INSTITUTIONS: THE CASE OF LIFELONG LEARNING INSTITUTIONS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mihanović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the organisational performance of non-profit institutions of lifelong learning and analyses factors constituting performance of non-profit institutions and educational institutions in particular, as well as the level and structure of performance of these institutions. The verification of the research goals is based on the review of literature, which identifies the specific factors of non-profit educational institutions. On the basis of previous research, a valid research instrument, used to measure performance of institutions of lifelong learning, was created. The level and structure of organisational performance of non-profit educational institutions and the verification of research goals are empirically analysed on a random sample of Croatian institutions. It is believed that the research results can assist managers of educational institutions in creating a strategy, leading to the better organisational performance

  20. Recovery, non-profit organisations and mental health services: 'Hit and miss' or 'dump and run'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Catherine; Hungerford, Alice; Fox, Cathy; Cleary, Michelle

    2016-03-08

    The evolution of Recovery-oriented mental health services in Western nations across the globe has given rise to a growth in community-based psychosocial support services, to assist in meeting the diverse needs of consumers. This article reports findings of research that explored the perceptions of community workers who are employed by non-profit organisations and deliver psychosocial support services to support delivery of Recovery-oriented clinical mental health services. The focus of the research reported in this article includes the benefits and challenges encountered by the community workers when working with clinicians. The research was undertaken as part of a single-case embedded study, which evaluated the implementation of Recovery-oriented approaches to the delivery of clinical mental health services in a major urban centre located in south-eastern Australia. Generally, community workers employed by the non-profit organisations perceived the implementation of Recovery-oriented clinical mental health services to be a positive step forward for consumers. Challenges to the delivery of Recovery-oriented services included issues arising from the many different understandings of what it means to experience mental health Recovery, the quality of communication between the community workers and clinicians and the clinicians' lack of understanding of the role of non-profit organisations and community workers. The article concludes with recommendations to address the challenges involved, with a view to improving the partnerships between community workers and clinicians, and the Recovery journey of people with serious mental illness. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. FACILITATORS OF INTERNET PROMOTION (E-BROCHURE ADOPTION BY NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Oly Ndubisi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet promotion, otherwise e-brochure (EB or partial e-commerce adoption by non-profit organisations denotes the use of the Internet to provide business and service related information by academic institutions (as in the present study, non-profit organisations, religious organisations, and government agencies to reduce their expenses or to improve their operations and customer service. A field survey of Malaysian universities was conducted to determine the key factors that facilitate the adoption of non-business EB. Since EB adoption decision is a strategic one, a comprehensive list of potential facilitators for the strategic use of information technology (IT was derived from extant literature and used in collecting data from 65 schools and centres in five public universities in Kota Kinabalu and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were factor-analysed to determine the key underlying dimensions of facilitators. On the basis of the resulting five dimensions namely, relative advantage orientation, network orientation, information efficiency orientation, innovativeness orientation, and competitiveness orientation, regression analysis was done to determine the impact of the five dimensions on non-business EB adoption.

  2. Founding Mothers: The Contribution of Women's Organizations to Public Library Development in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Paula D.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the work of women's voluntary associations in support of public libraries in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Activities studied include support of traveling libraries, library legislation, and the founding of local libraries. Cooperation of organized women's groups with the American Library Association and other organizations is…

  3. Managing Boundaries: The Role of Non-Profit Organisations in Russia’s Managed Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubownikow, Sergej; Crotty, Jo

    2017-01-01

    This article examines Russian human service non-profit organisations (NPOs) to investigate the nature of civil society in a managed democracy. Specifically the focus is on emerging vertical ties between NPOs and ruling and governing elites. Drawing on qualitative data collected from health and education NPOs in three industrial regions, we find that in establishing such vertical ties the role of organisations and individuals within is changing – they have moved away from ignored outsiders towards accessing the circles of power and being tasked with managing the boundary between the state and civil society. In exploring these arrangements this article highlights that in the post-Soviet space, NPOs and the state are closely intertwined resembling co-optation. As a result the democratisation potential of human service NPOs is constrained. In discussing these insights we also draw parallels to contexts in which the state has outsourced welfare service to human service NPOs.

  4. Evolution and Enlightenment of Japanese women's groups since the Sino-Japanese War---From the official non-profit organization to women's groups%甲午战争以来日本妇女团体的演变与启示--从官方妇女团体到妇女非营利组织

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡澎

    2015-01-01

    甲午战争之后,日本成立了一家以军事后援为目的国家主义妇女团体———爱国妇人会,该团体带领日本妇女从事了一系列慰问战死者家属、救济伤病士兵等活动。侵华战争爆发后,以爱国妇人会为代表的官方妇女团体迅速发展壮大,对战时体制进行了不遗余力的支持。二战结束后,日本妇女逐渐成为政治、经济、文化生活中一支越来越重要的力量,民间妇女组织不断涌现,在社会福利、文化教育、社区营造、国际援助、灾害救助、维护人权、男女平等、保护环境、反战和平等领域发挥着积极作用。本文聚焦于甲午战争以来不同历史发展时期妇女团体的演变,旨在阐述日本妇女团体与国家发展道路、与政府的关系,并探讨不同历史时期妇女团体所起的作用。%After the Sino-Japanese War, Japan established a military back-up for the purpose of nationalism women's groups:patriotic woman Group, which led by Japanese women engaged in a series of condolences to the families of the dead in the war, injured soldiers and other relief activities.After the outbreak of the war of aggres-sion against China, patriotic woman will be represented by the official women's groups to grow, to wartime regime had spared no effort to support.After World War II, the Japanese women gradually become an increasingly impor-tant force in political, economic and cultural life, women's non-governmental organizations are emerging in the so-cial welfare, education, community building, international assistance, disaster relief, safeguarding human rights, gender protection of the environment, war and fields of equality, equality plays an active role.This article focuses on the evolution of women's groups in different historical period of development since the Sino-designed elaborate road to national development group of Japanese women, the relationship with the government, to explore role of

  5. Selecting a Web Conferencing Solution. A Case Study for a Non-Profit Organization.

    OpenAIRE

    Botchkarev, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Web conferencing has been acknowledged as a valuable organizational resource. Diverse geographically dispersed project teams gain benefits from real time online collaboration, e-learning and document sharing. Web conferencing tools have entered the mainstream of business applications and multiple vendors offer over 100 different types and systems. This presentation is showcasing an approach to defining business requirements and selecting a web conferencing tool for a local chapter of a non-pr...

  6. The Neglected Role of Non-Profit Organizations in the Intellectual-Commons Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jyh-An

    2009-01-01

    Intellectual commons are intellectual resources, which anyone can use either without permission, or with permission granted in advance. Since intellectual commons are crucially important to creativity, innovation, and human development, the shrinkage of the intellectual-commons environment will be a profound loss for our cultural freedom.…

  7. A unified model of non-profit sport organizations performance : perspectives from the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winand, Mathieu; Vos, Steven; Claessens, Manu; Thibaut, Erik; Scheerder, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Little consensus has emerged about how organizational performance should be defined and measured. Most studies have used traditional approaches to give their own perspective about organizational performance and effectiveness, but none have recently tried to encompass these different views into one u

  8. [Protection of health and safety of rescue workers to non-profit organizations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Porta, D

    2010-01-01

    74% of accidents to staff assistance is linked to transport activities in both normal and emergency. The accident rate is much higher ambulances during his way to siren (22.2 incidents per 100,000 journeys) than normal distances (1.46 per 100,000). Also 60% of accidents and 58% of accidents with serious outcomes for rescuers is on the move for emergency response. The unknown danger, requiring operator safety of relief, that the normal work clothing becomes a D.P.I. standing and adaptable, modular almost without causing discomfort or inconvenience.

  9. Educators' working conditions in a day care centre on ownership of a non-profit organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusma Bianca

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Working conditions of nursery school teachers have not been scrutinized thoroughly in scientific research. Only a few studies have so far examined work-load and strain in this profession. Preferably, subjective perceptions should be corroborated by data that can be quantified more objectively and accurately. The aim of the present observational field study was to evaluate pedagogical staffs' workflow. Methods In 2009 eleven educators in a day care centre were observed throughout three complete workdays. A total of 250 working hours were recorded. Results An educators' workday lasted on average 07:46:59 h (SD = 01:01:10 h. Within this time span, an average of 02:20:46 h (30.14%, SD = 00:28:07 h were spent on caring, 01:44:18 h on playing (22.33%, SD = 00:54:12 h, 00:49:37 h on educational work (10.62%, SD = 00:40:09, and only 00:05:38 h on individual child contact (1.21%, SD = 00:04:58 h. Conclusion For the first time, educators' workflow in day care centres was studied in real time. Some of the educators' self-reported problems were corroborated. The results of this study form a basis upon which further investigations can be built and measures can be developed for an overall improvement of child care.

  10. 77 FR 37638 - Noncommercial Educational Station Fundraising for Third-Party Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ..., pursuant to the Small Business Paperwork Relief Act of 2002, Public Law 107-198, see 44 U.S.C. 3506(c)(4... principles of particular political or religious philosophies, or that are designed primarily for in-school or... taxation. See 26 U.S.C. 501(c)(3). 11. In the event that we decide to modify the proscription on NCE...

  11. 78 FR 65151 - Modification of Financial Reporting Requirements for Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... development through investment in and assistance to Community Development Financial Institutions (CDFIs... financial assistance to CDFIs to enhance their ability to make loans and investments, and to provide related... financial services industry. Access to credit, investment capital, and financial services are essential...

  12. The supporting behaviour of generations towards non-profit organisations in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureane du Plessis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and objective: The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of different generations' supporting behaviour towards non-profit organisations (NPOs. It more specifically focuses on uncovering the different methods with which the generations support NPOs; how frequently they support NPOs; the type of NPOs that they prefer supporting; and the reasons why they support NPOs. Problem Investigated: Non-profit organisations (NPOs are facing greater challenges than ever before. They have to compete with a growing number of other NPOs for donations and volunteers. Their traditional support from Baby Boomers is declining as this generation grows older and supports NPOs to a lesser extent than before. NPOs are therefore compelled to pay more attention to younger generations as a possible donor base and source for volunteers. It is therefore critical for an NPO that wishes to survive and prosper to understand the supporting behaviour of the different generations in order to successfully target them to grow the donor and volunteer base. Methodology: A descriptive research design was followed. A self-administered questionnaire was fielded amongst a target population that included Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y consumers residing in Gauteng who have supported an NPO in the previous year. Quota sampling was used to ensure that equal numbers of respondents from the different generations were included, while each quota was filled on the basis of convenience to collect 602 responses for analysis. Findings: The results reveal significant associations between the different generations and different supporting behaviours. Significant differences were also uncovered between the different generations and the reasons for supporting NPOs. The paper reveals a number of marketing strategies NPOs could follow to encourage supporting behaviour from the different generations. Value of the research: This research provides insights into the

  13. The Spread of Neoliberalism in US Community Colleges: TQM Accreditation, "Consumers," and Corporate Sponsored Non-Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the extent of neoliberalism's influence within US community colleges during the last decade. It argues that such influence is changing non-profit, publicly funded community colleges into consumer colleges, serving the needs of corporations and "customers" at the expense of civic responsibility. Educating 46% of all…

  14. The Spread of Neoliberalism in US Community Colleges: TQM Accreditation, "Consumers," and Corporate Sponsored Non-Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the extent of neoliberalism's influence within US community colleges during the last decade. It argues that such influence is changing non-profit, publicly funded community colleges into consumer colleges, serving the needs of corporations and "customers" at the expense of civic responsibility. Educating 46% of all…

  15. Rael Artel Gallery: Non-Profit Project Space : short tale of an experimental project's space tactics / Kiwa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiwa, pseud., 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Aastatel 2004-2008 Pärnus ja aastatel 2006-2008 Tartus tegutsenud Rael Artel Galeriist, mille looja ja moderaator oli Rael Artel. Galerii tegevus lõppes kunstialbumi "Hotell Pärnu : Rael Arel Gallery : Non Profit Project Space 2004-2008 / kontseptsioon ja toimetamine: Rael Artel" ilmumisega 2009. aastal

  16. The emergence of the non-profit foundation as a significant organizational format for group practice in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R

    1988-01-01

    The non-profit foundation is fast becoming a factor in the organizational structure of group practices. A growing number of group practices have adopted this format as a means of positioning themselves for survival and success in the turbulent, changing environment of the health care delivery system.

  17. Teaching How to Fish? New Non-Profit Organisation Professors Beyond Borders Seeks to Humanise Higher Education Internationalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Last week saw the launch of Professors Beyond Borders (PBB), a new non-profit organisation aiming to engage international scholars as volunteers in international disaster recovery and sustainable development. The primary goal of the organisation is to enhance the capacity of communities to organise themselves to solve specific problems via the…

  18. Rael Artel Gallery: Non-Profit Project Space : short tale of an experimental project's space tactics / Kiwa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiwa, pseud., 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Aastatel 2004-2008 Pärnus ja aastatel 2006-2008 Tartus tegutsenud Rael Artel Galeriist, mille looja ja moderaator oli Rael Artel. Galerii tegevus lõppes kunstialbumi "Hotell Pärnu : Rael Arel Gallery : Non Profit Project Space 2004-2008 / kontseptsioon ja toimetamine: Rael Artel" ilmumisega 2009. aastal

  19. Precise image-guided irradiation of small animals: a flexible non-profit platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Löck, Steffen; Dietrich, Antje; Fursov, Andriy; Haase, Robert; Lukas, Mathias; Rimarzig, Bernd; Sobiella, Manfred; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Bütof, Rebecca; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are essential to develop new therapeutic options in radiation oncology. Of particular interest are orthotopic tumour models, which better reflect the clinical situation in terms of growth patterns and microenvironmental parameters of the tumour as well as the interplay of tumours with the surrounding normal tissues. Such orthotopic models increase the technical demands and the complexity of preclinical studies as local irradiation with therapeutically relevant doses requires image-guided target localisation and accurate beam application. Moreover, advanced imaging techniques are needed for monitoring treatment outcome. We present a novel small animal image-guided radiation therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and x-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and x-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks.

  20. Building sustainable neuroscience capacity in Africa: the role of non-profit organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, Thomas K; Cobham, Ansa E; Ndams, Iliya S

    2016-02-01

    While advances in neuroscience are helping to improve many aspects of human life, inequalities exist in this field between Africa and more scientifically-advanced continents. Many African countries lack the infrastructure and appropriately-trained scientists for neuroscience education and research. Addressing these challenges would require the development of innovative approaches to help improve scientific competence for neuroscience across the continent. In recent years, science-based non-profit organisations (NPOs) have been supporting the African neuroscience community to build state-of-the-art scientific capacity for sustainable education and research. Some of these contributions have included: the establishment of training courses and workshops to introduce African scientists to powerful-yet-cost-effective experimental model systems; research infrastructural support and assistance to establish research institutes. Other contributions have come in the form of the promotion of scientific networking, public engagement and advocacy for improved neuroscience funding. Here, we discuss the contributions of NPOs to the development of neuroscience in Africa.

  1. Community benefit in exchange for non-profit hospital tax exemption: current trends and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simone Rauscher

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the adequacy of the community benefits that not-for-profit hospitals provide in exchange for tax exemption remains a challenge. While recent changes to Internal Revenue Service (IRS) reporting requirements have improved transparency, the lack of clearly defined charitable expectations has resulted in critical scrutiny of not-for-profit hospitals' community benefits and numerous challenges to their tax exempt status. Using data from the revised IRS Form 990 Schedule H for 2009, this article documents the wide range of community benefit activities that not-for-profit hospitals in California engage in and compares them to a set of minimum spending thresholds. The findings show that when community benefit was defined narrowly in terms of charity care, very few hospitals would have met any of the minimum spending thresholds. When community benefit was defined as in the revised IRS Form 990 Schedule H, however, a majority of hospitals in California would have been considered charitable. Whether focusing on expenditures is the most appropriate way to assess the adequacy of a hospital's community benefits remains an open question. To that end, this article concludes by outlining a more comprehensive evaluation approach that builds on recent changes to non-profit hospital tax exemption implemented by the Affordable Care Act.

  2. Need of fostering academic research for bridging the gap of and ldquo;science- commerce disconnect and rdquo; in and lsquo;non-profitable' therapy areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant D. Patil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies share the goal of patient benefit with healthcare professionals. However, they are commercial organizations and hence, sometimes, commercial interest may take over science, resulting in and ldquo;science-commercial disconnect and rdquo;. This can result in innovation-deficit and financial burden on the patients. Finding new indications for existing drugs and promoting academic research in and lsquo;non-profitable areas' are some measures to curtail pharmaceutical innovation-deficit. Greater involvement of academicians and non-government organizations in clinical research with government support/funding will help in providing best treatment options to the patients for better outcomes. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(6.000: 2295-2297

  3. How can work be designed to be intrinsically rewarding? Qualitative insights from South African non-profit employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Intrinsic rewards are personal, psychological responses to the work thatemployees perform, which stem from the manner in which their work is designed.Research purpose: This study sought to discover in what ways non-profit employees arepsychologically rewarded by the nature of their work tasks. The use of a qualitative approachto data collection and analysis ensured that in-depth responses from participants were gained.Motivation for the study: Intrinsic rewards are of particular importance to non-profitemployees, who tend to earn below-market salaries. This implies that their motivationoriginates predominantly from intrinsic as opposed to extrinsic rewards; yet, research into thisarea of rewards is lacking.Research approach, design and method: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conductedusing a sample of 15 extrinsically rewarded non-profit employees working within South Africa.Thematic analysis was utilised in order to generate codes which led to the formation of fiveintrinsic rewards categories.Main findings: Intrinsic rewards were classified into five categories, namely (1 MeaningfulWork, (2 Flexible Work, (3 Challenging Work, (4 Varied Work and (5 Enjoyable Work.These rewards each comprise of various subcategories, which provide insight into why suchwork is rewarding to non-profit employees.Practical/managerial implications: Traditional performance management systems shouldbe re-evaluated in the non-profit sector to shift focus towards intrinsic rewards, asopposed to focusing only on the use of extrinsic rewards such as incentives to motivateemployees.Contribution/value-add: The study provides a qualitative understanding of how extrinsicallyrewarded non-profit employees perceive their work to be intrinsically rewarding, whichbridges the empirical gap pertaining to intrinsic rewards within this sector.

  4. A critique of social marketing in the non-profit development sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Fourie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In its struggle to find funding, non-profit organisations world-wide are increasingly using social marketing strategies. This approach potentially influences non governmental organisations (NGOs and community based organisations (CBOs in their communication with their “clients”, i.e. those persons and com-munities in need of development. Marketing strategies con-sequently become instruments in achieving social development, with as main premise that behaviour could be changed by means of persuasive, top-down communication. Social marketing, with its roots in marketing, has a strong focus on persuasion and favours top-down communication rather than dialogical communication strategies suggested by the par-ticipatory development communication approach. It is also questionable whether social marketing can be equated with the principles of a Biblically informed approach to communication. With these questions in mind, this article discusses Biblical views on communication and the participatory development communication approach. A critique of the social marketing approach is then offered. It is argued here that there is no clear-cut answer as to whether social marketing could be described as participatory. What is clear is that there are many different views on social marketing, as is the case with participatory approaches. It would thus seem more correct to place social marketing on a participation continuum, rather than to define it as being participatory and thus per definition ethical or not. Finally, a number of suggestions are made which could bring it more in line with the participatory communication approach as well as Biblical principles on com-munication.

  5. Toward a balanced framework to evaluate and improve the internal functioning of non-profit economic development business incubators : A study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstraeten, J.; Matthyssens, P.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit organisations, such as economic development incubators, may adapt the balanced scorecard and strategy map in their efforts to improve their internal functioning. In this paper, we employ qualitative research among non-profit economic development incubators in Antwerp, Belgium, to modify t

  6. Complex Formation of Selected Radionuclides with Ligands Commonly Found in Ground Water: Low Molecular Organic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bror Skytte; Jensen, H.

    1985-01-01

    A general approach to the analysis of potentiometric data on complex formation between cations and polybasic amphoteric acids is described. The method is used for the characterisation of complex formation between Cs+, Sr2+, Co2+, La 3+, and Eu3+ with a α-hydroxy acids, tartaric acid and citric ac......, and with the α-amino acids, aspartic acid and L-cysteine. The cations have been chosen as typical components of reactor waste, and the acids because they are often found as products of microbial activity in pits or wherever organic material decays...

  7. The prevalence of actinomycetes-like organisms found in cervicovaginal smears of 300 IUD wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M C; Buschmann, B O; Dowling, E A; Pollock, H M

    1979-01-01

    The association of Actinomyces with IUD wearers has been widely documented and the possibility of the recognition of actinomycetes-like organisms in routine Papanicolaou-stained cervicovaginal smears has been reported. We conducted a retrospective study of IUD wearers to determine the prevalence and significance of actinomycetes-like organisms found in such smears. Three hundred smears from current IUD wearers were rescreened for actinomycetes-like organisms. Of this group, 200 patients were from a public health family planning clinic, and 100 were private patients. The incidence for the public health group was 25.5% and for the private patient group, 8%. A case history of actinomycosis is included. Findings such as other infectious agents, abnormal cytology and symptoms are also discussed. Although the presence of Actinomyces probably represents an opportunistic infection, the threat of pelvic actinomycosis with serious complications poses a management problem to the clinician when Actinomyces is reported in a routine Papanicolaou smear. Our findings lead us to question the practicality of the earlier recommendations of IUD removal and antibiotic therapy.

  8. Challenges Found When Patterning Semiconducting Polymers with Electric Fields for Organic Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando A. de Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A material-independent, contactless structuring method of semiconducting organic materials for the fabrication of interface-enhanced bilayer solar cells is not available so far. Patterning of thin films using electrohydrodynamic instabilities possesses many desired characteristics and has convincingly been used as a simple method to structure and replicate patterns of nonconducting polymers on submicrometer length scales. However, the applicability of this technique to a wider range of materials has not been demonstrated yet. Here, we report attempts to structure poly(p-phenylene vinylene in a similar way. We found that thin films of poly(2-methoxy-5-(2′-ethylhexyl-oxy-1,4-phenylene-vinylene (MEH-PPV and poly(2-methoxy-5-(3′,7′-dimethyloctyloxy-1,4-phenylene-vinylene (MDMO-PPV could not be destabilized at all in the limited accessible range of the experimental parameters set by the delicate chemical nature of these materials. We discuss failure origins and present possible loopholes for the patterning of semiconducting polymers using electric fields.

  9. OrgTrace – No difference found in bioactive compounds of organic and conventional crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knuthsen, Pia; Søltoft, Malene; Laursen, Kristian Holst;

    The objective of the present study was to compare the content of selected bioactive compounds in organically and conventionally grown crops, and to evaluate if the ability of the crops to synthesize selected secondary metabolites was systematically affected by growth systems across different growth...... contents of bioactive compounds than the conventionally grown. This indicates that giving preference to organic products because they contain more bioactive components is doubtfull. However, there are many other reasons for the consumer to choose organic food products, including: no pesticide residues...

  10. Bank foundation – a symbiotic legal institution at the crossroad of banking system and non-profit sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena CATARGIU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the development and omnipresence, in Europe, of the non-profit sector and due to the diversification of the legal entities that are involved in the configuration of the third sector, an legal analysis of the foundation of banking origins, is very appealing. Throughout this study we aim to point out key moments in the evolution of this particular figure, mainly in the Italian legislation. Nevertheless, we intend to identify the legal nature of the foundation of banking origins in order to draw a line between banking and philanthropic activities.

  11. 公共图书馆公益培训研究%Study on Public Library's Non-profit Training Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧慧

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounds the background and necessity of carrying out the non-profit training service in the public library, and puts forward some working focuses of public library's non-profit training service.%阐述了图书馆开展公益培训的背景及必要性,提出了公共图书馆开展公益培训的工作要点.

  12. A database of biominerals with optical properties founded in living organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamirsky, Igor E.; Gutnikov, Sergei A.; Golokhvast, Kirill S.

    2016-11-01

    The living organisms - animals, plants, algae, fungi - contain microscopic inorganic inclusions (biominerals). A rather large body of information about their chemical composition, morphological types and presence in various parts of the organisms has been accumulated. Research in biominerals has a fundamental scientific value and can also be useful for development of materials with specific properties. We propose a database intended to comprise data about all known biominerals as an efficient practical tool for both fundamental biological research and development of biotechnology.

  13. Performance evaluation of public non-profit hospitals using a BP artificial neural network: the case of Hubei Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhui; Yu, Chuanhua

    2013-08-15

    To provide a reference for evaluating public non-profit hospitals in the new environment of medical reform, we established a performance evaluation system for public non-profit hospitals. The new "input-output" performance model for public non-profit hospitals is based on four primary indexes (input, process, output and effect) that include 11 sub-indexes and 41 items. The indicator weights were determined using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and entropy weight method. The BP neural network was applied to evaluate the performance of 14 level-3 public non-profit hospitals located in Hubei Province. The most stable BP neural network was produced by comparing different numbers of neurons in the hidden layer and using the "Leave-one-out" Cross Validation method. The performance evaluation system we established for public non-profit hospitals could reflect the basic goal of the new medical health system reform in China. Compared with PLSR, the result indicated that the BP neural network could be used effectively for evaluating the performance public non-profit hospitals.

  14. The History and Founding Organizations of the American Board of Ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Bruce E

    2016-09-01

    In the early 1900s, ophthalmologists became the first group of American physicians to lead the call for the establishment of higher standards in the practice of medicine. This movement for excellence in practice evolved into a program of board certification through the creation of what is today the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO). Three organizations-the American Ophthalmological Society, the Section on Ophthalmology of the American Medical Association, and the American Academy of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology-are credited as the founders of the ABO. Representatives from these organizations were charged with overseeing the development of board certification programs from the ABO's inception in 1916 through 1982, when it became a fully autonomous organization.

  15. Organic Residues Analysis: The Case of a Beaker Found in Theban Necropolis, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Perla COLOMBINI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous organic residues collected from a ceramic vessel from a tomb excavated in the Theban Necropolis (Egypt were chemically investigated by an analytical procedure based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Little is known about Egyptian ceramic vessels, thus retrieving valuable information on the use of ceramics from the chemical analyses of organic residues was a key aspect of this work. The results showed that the vessel was used in connection with a number of substances such as beeswax, fat/oil and Pinaceae resin. This enabled us to draw hypotheses on the possible function of artefact in connection with mummification practices.

  16. Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov., a new yeast species found on the rhizoplane of organically cultivated sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José R de A; Carvalho, Patrícia M B de; Cabral, Anderson de S; Macrae, Andrew; Mendonça-Hagler, Leda C S; Berbara, Ricardo L L; Hagler, Allen N

    2011-10-01

    A novel yeast species within the Metschnikowiaceae is described based on a strain from the sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) rhizoplane of an organically managed farm in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The D1/D2 domain of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis showed that the closest related species were Candida tsuchiyae with 86.2% and Candida thailandica with 86.7% of sequence identity. All three are anamorphs in the Clavispora opuntiae clade. The name Candida middelhoveniana sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate this highly divergent organism with the type strain Instituto de Microbiologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMUFRJ) 51965(T) (=Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures (CBS) 12306(T), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG)-70(T), DBVPG 8031(T)) and the GenBank/EMBL/DDBJ accession number for the D1/D2 domain LSU rDNA sequence is FN428871. The Mycobank deposit number is MB 519801.

  17. Comparing Organizational Learning Rates in Public and Non-Profit Schools in Qom Province of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei Matin, Hassan; Jandaghi, Gholamreza; Moini, Boshra

    2007-01-01

    Regarding the increased complexity and dynamics of environmental factors and rapid changes, traditional organizations are not longer able to match with such changes and are destroying. Hence, as a tool for survival and matching with these changes, learning organizations are highly considered by many firms and corporations. What you are reading, is…

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in plastic marine debris found on beaches in San Diego, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van, Almira; Rochman, Chelsea M; Flores, Elisa M; Hill, Kish L; Vargas, Erica; Vargas, Serena A; Hoh, Euhna

    2012-01-01

    Plastic debris were collected from eight beaches around San Diego County, California. Debris collected include: pre-production pellets and post-consumer plastics including fragments, polystyrene (PS) foam, and rubber. A total of n = 2453 pieces were collected ranging from products, and chlordanes. PAH concentrations ranged from 30 ng g(-1) to 1900 ng g(-1), PCBs from non-detect to 47 ng g(-1), chlordanes from 1.8 ng g(-1) to 60 ng g(-1), and DDTs from non-detect to 76 ng g(-1). Consistently higher PAH concentrations found in PS foam samples (300-1900 ng g(-1)) led us to examine unexposed PS foam packaging materials and PS virgin pellets. Unexposed PS foam contained higher concentrations of PAHs (240-1700 ng g(-1)) than PS virgin pellets (12-15 ng g(-1)), suggesting that PAHs may be produced during manufacturing. Temporal trends of debris were investigated at one site, Ocean Beach, where storm events and beach maintenance were found to be important variables influencing debris present at a given time.

  19. Leaving the Space Better than You Found It through Song: Music, Diversity, and Mission in One Black Student Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckman, Sherry L.

    2013-01-01

    In recounting the history and present dynamics in the Kuumba Singers of Harvard College, Sherry Deckman presents a portrait of what it means to leave a space better than you found it through song. The story of Kuumba--Harvard's oldest black student organization and now its largest multicultural organization--is told through the experiences of…

  20. The Principle of Subsidiarity and the Development of German Non-profit Sectors%辅助原则与德国非营利部门发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张网成

    2012-01-01

    The principle of subsidiarity is used to allocate the responsibilities between social and political actors in the upper and lower administrative and organizational levels.As an important principle,it has made significant contributions to the development of the non-profit sectors,to the construction of the dual welfare system with German specialties as well as to the transformation of German welfare system in post-war time.German experience could be learned by China in handling with the relationship between the government and the civil organizations as well as in developing Chinese welfare system.%辅助原则是调节不同层级的社会主体之间责任关系的重要原则,在战后德国推动非营利部门发展、构建德国特色的二元福利体系及改革德国福利体制的过程中起过重要的作用。对于我国政府与民间组织的关系定位和福利制度的路径选择,德国的经验有一定的借鉴意义。

  1. Efficiency from Pharmacy Inventory Technology: A Means to Improving Quality in Non-Profit Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Florence Ann

    2013-01-01

    Hospitals, like all organizations, have both a mission and a finite supply of resources with which to accomplish that mission. Because the inventory of therapeutic drugs is among the more expensive resources needed by a hospital to achieve its mission, a conceptual model of structure plus process equals outcome posits that adequate emphasis should…

  2. Diversity Management: A Preliminary Review Of Selected Non-Profit North Carolina Independent Colleges & Universities (NCICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tony Bledsoe

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available While there may be wide-spread claims that diversity management exists in many organizations, there should be some means for verifying its existence.  The purpose of this preliminary research is to review campus–wide documents and structure of schools in the NCICU to determine its transparency.

  3. Efficiency from Pharmacy Inventory Technology: A Means to Improving Quality in Non-Profit Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvey, Florence Ann

    2013-01-01

    Hospitals, like all organizations, have both a mission and a finite supply of resources with which to accomplish that mission. Because the inventory of therapeutic drugs is among the more expensive resources needed by a hospital to achieve its mission, a conceptual model of structure plus process equals outcome posits that adequate emphasis should…

  4. Use of direct marketing in nonprofit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Ana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Non profit organizations represent very heterogenus group of organizations which can be determined by the fact that they are being used as forums for creation and distribution of new ideas. Their aim is to raise public awareness on the purpose they promote and get the reply for their initiatives for gaining support in form of monetary sources for charities, vote for political candidate or achieving a communicational goal. Non governmental organizations, as the dominant form of non profit organizations, are being founded with mission to raise public awareness on some issue or provide help to certain marginalized group. The direct marketing instruments and techniques are considered to be very useful for achieving mission formulated that way. They are, by their nature, precisely targeted and objective-oriented and require direct reply. Apart from that, direct marketing activities are cost-efficient, costs that they generate can be shown in financial reports, and results of undertaken initiatives are directly measurable. All the mentioned lead to conclusion that direct marketing is, for additional reasons, even more appropriate for NPOs having in mind that they usually have limited available resources. In the relevant literature two main roles of direct marketing in non profit organizations are mentioned - managing relations with representatives of stakeholder groups and fundraising. In this paper, therefore, after the facts referring functioning of NPOs, direct marketing strategies used for mentioned purposes will be presented consequently.

  5. Different non-profit regimes within voluntary organised recreational football - a Danish case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Søren; Ottesen, Laila

    2017-01-01

    positions have been building up for the last hundred years and are regulated by different laws and different societal discourses, creating institutional inertia due to path dependence. This system has shown to be sustainable, yet the context surrounding sport is changing creating a need for the involved...... actors to become innovative to embrace new challenges, rooted in sports participation patterns and sport policy. Against that backdrop, the research question is: What do different civil society positions mean to their relationship as “member clubs” and “interest organisation” and how does it affect...... of respectively the DFA, the regional country units and the clubs. Moreover a recently completed survey on voluntary football clubs in Denmark will contribute to the understanding. Keywords: Sports Organizations; Sports Clubs; Sport Policy; Civil Society...

  6. Managing competition in the countryside: Non-profit and for-profit perceptions of long-term care in rural Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark W; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    This paper contributes to the current debates surrounding private delivery of health care services by addressing the distinctive challenges, constraints and opportunities facing for-profit and non-profit providers of long-term care in rural and small town settings. It focuses on the empirical case of Ontario, Canada where extensive restructuring of long-term care, under the rubric of managed competition, has been underway since the mid-1990s. In-depth interviews with 72 representatives from local governments, public health institutions and authorities, for-profit and non-profit organisations, and community groups during July 2003 to December 2003 form the platform for a qualitative analysis of the implications of managed competition as it relates to the provision of long-term care in the countryside. The results suggest that the introduction and implementation of managed competition has accentuated the problems of service provision in rural communities, and that the long-standing issues of caregiving in rural situations transcend the differences, perceived or otherwise, between for-profit and non-profit provision. Understanding the implications of market-oriented long-term care restructuring initiatives for providers, and their clients, in rural situations requires a re-focussing of research beyond the for- versus non-profit dichotomy.

  7. Kindergarten Teachers' Perceived School Culture and Well-Being: A Comparison of Non-Profit-Making and Profit-Making Kindergartens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yau Ho P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has rarely examined teachers' perceptions of school culture (perceived school culture) and well-being in Hong Kong's non-profit-making (NPM) and profit-making (PM) kindergartens. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: first, it examined the relationships between Hong Kong kindergarten teachers' perceived school culture and…

  8. Age differences in career activities among higher-level employees in the Netherlands: a comparison between profit sector and non-profit sector staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Beatrice Isabella Johanna Maria

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes age differences in the occurrence of career activities among profit sector and non-profit sector employees in the Netherlands. Three different types of variables have been studied, i.e. individual, job-related and organizational variables. Hypotheses have been tested with

  9. Vertically integrated educational collaboration between a college of veterinary medicine and a non-profit animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Karen; Bice, Kathryn; Craig, Tom; Howe, Lisa; Jarrett, Melissa; Jeter, Elizabeth; Kochevar, Deborah; Simpson, R Bruce; Stickney, Mark; Wesp, Ashley; Wolf, Alice M; Zoran, Debra

    2008-01-01

    The College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (CVMBS) at Texas A&M University (TAMU) has developed a multifaceted program in partnership with the Brazos Animal Shelter to provide teaching opportunities with shelter animals during all four years of the professional curriculum. In the first three semesters of the professional program, students working in small groups spend two hours per semester at the shelter performing physical examinations, administering vaccinations and anthelmintics, completing heartworm or FeLV/FIV testing, and performing simple medical treatments. In an expanded fourth-year program, groups of six students spend 16 contact hours at the shelter during two-week rotations, completing similar tasks. Through this program, each student practices animal-handling skills and routine procedures on an average of 150 to 200 dogs and cats. In addition, during third- and fourth-year surgery courses, student teams spay or neuter an average of 12 to 18 dogs or cats each week. More than 800 animals are spayed/neutered annually through this program, and each student directly participates in 12 to 15 spay/neuter survival surgeries. The program represents a creative approach to veterinary training that conscientiously uses animal resources in a positive fashion. We believe that this is a successful partnership between a state-supported veterinary college and a non-profit shelter that benefits both agencies. We encourage other veterinary colleges to explore similar partnership opportunities to provide optimal training for professional students while using animal resources efficiently.

  10. Promotion strategy for non-profit organization on the example of the Eastern European Arts Therapy Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Sowier-Kasprzyk

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Eastern European Art Therapy Association (EEATA engaged in teaching art therapy techniques which are used by doctors for the treatment of patients. Promotion plays a crucial role in the dissemination of this useful activity. The paper presents a project which includes such issues as the concept of promoting, encouraging and promoting the role of tools and their use in promoting of EEATA.

  11. 77 FR 45695 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-18808] OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non... provides an audit alert and lists compliance requirements regarding the grant programs funded under... Government Printing Office. DATES: The 2012 Supplement supersedes the 2011 Supplement and will apply to...

  12. Technology Licensing to Non-Traditional Partners: Non-Profit Health Product Development Organizations for Better Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Charles; Garner, Cathy

    2005-01-01

    The commercialization of technologies arising from university research depends on the ability of technology managers to find and contract with appropriate development partners. Substantial investment is required to bring new health-science technologies to market, and when such technologies appear to have limited commercial markets it can be…

  13. [Support from a non-profit organization to improve the quality of life of multiple sclerosis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdié, William

    2015-05-01

    For more than 50 years, the French Multiple Sclerosis Association has been bringing together people affected by this condition. A registered charity, it offers extensive social support to improve the daily lives of patients and their families at home or in a healthcare institution.

  14. Identification and antifungal activity of novel organic compounds found in cuticular and internal lipids of medically important flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołębiowski, Marek; Cerkowniak, Magdalena; Urbanek, Aleksandra; Dawgul, Małgorzata; Kamysz, Wojciech; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Novel organic compounds found in the cuticular and internal lipids of medically important flies were identified. Uracil, 9-tricosene, 1-oleoyl glycerol, dimethyl suberate and butyl stearate were tested for their potential antifungal activity. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of the compounds against reference strains of fungi were determined. Uracil and dimethyl suberate slightly inhibited the growth of entomopathogenic fungi. The cuticular and internal lipids of Calliphora vicina, Calliphora vomitoria, Sarcophaga carnaria and Musca domestica were studied by gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). A comparison of the lipid extracts between the preimaginal and mature stages showed adults flies contained a higher total content of the identified components. Furthermore, their amounts distinctly predominated in the internal lipids of all the species. The amount of 9-tricosene was the highest in adults of C. vicina, while the larvae and pupae had a definitively lower amount of this compound. Uracil was found to be the most abundant component in extracts obtained from C. vomitoria especially in the internal lipids of adults. 1-oleoyl glycerol was detected in all of the examined species of flies. It was most abundant in the internal extracts isolated from the larvae of C. vicina and the pupae of C. vomitoria. Suberic acid dimethyl ester was found in the larval and pupal internal lipids of C. vicina and S. carnaria in low amounts. Butyl stearate was identified only in the internal lipids of the larvae and adults of houseflies.

  15. Analysis of administrative mechanism of non-profit geological survey industry%公益性地质调查行业管理机制探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽佳; 方伟

    2014-01-01

    为了探索和完善公益性地质调查行业管理机制,本文在分析公益性地质调查行业运行现状的基础上,分析了公益性地质调查在管理中的问题,如整个行业运行过程中管理方式单一、中央和地方的协调性不高、权利分配不够清晰、公益性特点不够突出等。通过借鉴和对比气象、测绘、地震三个行业的管理机制,从四个方面提出了公益性地质调查行业完善自身管理机制的建议:完善行业法律体系;在机构设置上更强调对服务项目的管理;在管理机制上丰富上下级沟通形式,强化管理层次和职权分配;项目设立上充分发挥行业特点,挖掘本身的服务潜力,紧跟社会需求。%This research investigates the current operation of non-profit geological survey industry , aiming to explore and perfect the administration of public geological survey .The authors find that the main problem facing public geological survey administration is that the administrative approach in the w hole management process is simplex .Consequently ,the boundary between central power and local power is not delimited ,which leads to redundant coordinated actions .To cope with these problems ,this paper puts forward four solutions on the administration institution perfection immediately after comparative institution analysis on meteorology administration ,survey administration and seismological administration .The solutions are as follows :first ,efforts should be made to perfect industry laws ;second ,priority of organization set-up should be given to services projects administration;third ,do improvement on hierarchy or vertical communications and delimit authority boundaries more clearly ;last but not least ,establishment of projects should be social demand oriented to make full use of industry own services potential .

  16. Use of the EPR technique to determine thermal stability of some humified organic substances found in soil organic-mineral fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio da Costa Saab

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, using the EPR spectroscopy, we analysed the thermal stability of some organic-mineral compounds found in a Gleysoil from Rio Janeiro. It was observed a complete disappearance of the EPR signal around 600 °C for the < 2 µm fraction and a residual EPR signal of semiquinone free radical for the 2-20 µm and 20-53 µm fractions at the same temperature. Also, the experiments showed that the 2-20 µm fraction had a larger concentration of semiquinone free radical per g of carbon and a smaller line width indicated a larger humification of this fraction. This is an evidence that the soil organic matter of this fraction (2-20 µm is more stable than the other ones.

  17. 德国职业教育公益性实践及其对中国的启示%The Practice on the Non-profit Vocational Education in Germany and Its Inspiration to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艾芳

    2012-01-01

    The non-profit vocational education is that the vocational education has the non-profit attribute in the abstract. The practice of the non-profit vocational education in Germany has laid a sol- id foundation for the national competitiveness. The current Chinese vocational education has the non- profit attribute, but it's not completely non-profit, which objectively not only has the necessity to fur- ther promote the non-profit attribute, but has great space to make efforts in the non-profit attribute as well. Nowadays and in the future stage, we should draw lessons from German experience and promote the transformation of non-profit vocational education.%职业教育的公益属性,就是职业教育在其抽象意义上所具有的公益教育之性质特点。德国职业教育公益性实践为德国国家竞争力奠定了坚实基础。当前,中国职业教育是一种具有公益属性因素的不完全公益教育,客观上不仅具有进一步推进公益属性化发展的现实必要性,而且依然具有很大的公益属性努力空间。当前和今后一个时期,中国的职业教育应当借鉴德国经验,有针对性地推进职业教育公益属性的转型。

  18. Building trust through promises and performance. Can your organization achieve the stellar results and employee loyalty found at Southwest Airlines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Edward J; Annison, Michael H

    2002-01-01

    Establishing a trusting relationship with your employees can help you transform your organization into a top performer. Examine how well-defined visions and goals are some of the keys to building that trust.

  19. Professional identifications of Social Work in the public and non-profit private sector in time of crisis in Malaga (Andalusia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sánchez-Luque

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on Social Work (SW show that a lack of social recognition of the discipline and of the profession as a group continues to persist. This work comparatively analyses how the professional identifications of SW are constructed in various sectors of intervention in times of Crisis in Malaga (Andalusia, Spain. Qualitative research is carried out through interviews with 20 professionals (10 from the public sector and 10 from the non-profit private sector between July and November 2015. The results indicate that the personnel interviewed allude to the performance of the function of aid to populations to identify their role, regardless of the sector. However, the aid is determined by social and economic changes. The impact of the Crisis on professional practice stands out amongst these through social cuts, the suppression of budgets, services and jobs. From the point of view of the public sector, these aspects generate a greater bureaucratization, an increase in clients and the complexity of their needs. From the point of view of the non-profit private sector, these limitations are compensated through the prominence of the aid relationship.  This highlights that the identifications of SW are shaped by the social, economic and political circumstances that historically and contextually condition the hegemony of the social aid from the standpoint of different sectors. 

  20. A Series of Studies on Benefit Analysis of Chinese Medical and Health Undertakings:Social Benefit Analysis of China's Non-profit and For-profit Medical and Health during 2005-2009%中国医疗卫生事业效益分析之系列研究——2005-2009年中国非营利与营利医疗卫生效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 顾俊

    2012-01-01

    研究2005-2009年全国非营利与营利医疗卫生的发展,中国医疗卫生事业以非营利性为主.医院占据主要床位数.营利医疗机构运用外部资产能力强,非营利机构长期偿债能力强.营利医疗机构有效控制成本费用,就诊方便,住院便捷,以优质医疗服务不断取得社会效益.两类机构还有很大利用资源的空间和提高管理水平.%The development of the national non-profit and for-profit medical health during 2005-2009 was studied, and Chinese medical and health undertaking is given priority to non-profit: Hospitals dominate the number of beds. It is strong to use the ability of external assets for for-profit medical institutions, and it is strong to the long-term solvency of non-profit organization, For-profit medical institutions effectively control costs, convenience for treatment and hospitalization, and gets social benefits constantly with high-quality medical services. These two institutions have great space of use of resources, and can improve the management level.

  1. Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhi Manajemen Strategik pada Organisasi Non Profit (Studi Manajemen Strategik pada Dinas Propinsi Jawa Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewie Tri Wijayati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic Management has significant role for East Java Province governmental organization in order to improve public service quality. In the local autonomy era all the organizations are suited to be able to make appropriate policies to anticipate environment change and to fulfill public demand of qualified service. This research studies focus on factor that affect process of that strategic management. This research proposed three variables, power, leadership and commitment. As “explanatory reseach” this research aimed to explain some problems which formulated as follow: (a Does power influences to strategic management at East Java Province governmental organization? (b Does leadership influences to strategic management at East Java Province governmental organization? (c Does commitment influences to strategic management at East Java Province governmental organization? By differing strategic management into three dimension: formulation, implementation, and evaluation, then analyse that used “Structural Equation Modelling” (SEM was very suitable because there were two analysis stages (Second Order Confirmatory. Despite, it was wished contribution of the three dimensions of management would be studied. The respondents are 220 persons representing all the kind of East Java Province governmental organization: departement (dinas, committee (badan, and office. According to result of study, it results several conclusions: a the power and leadership negatively affected strategic management. There were because of bureaucratic-centralistic power and directive leadership, (b the commitment affected strategic management, specifically on implementation stage, (c the leader can’t maximaized transforming existing power for success of strategic management, (d the strategic management can’t maximize improving public service because of there are the bureaucartic-centralistic power and directive leadership.

  2. ①浅谈公益性农业科研单位绩效管理%Performance Management in Non-profit Agricultural Research Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔伟丽; 孙慧武; 莽琦; 崔鹤; 郑志灵

    2016-01-01

    With its in-depth development in non-profit agricultural research institutions, with its in-depth development of the national science and technology system reform, performance management as the most effective modern government management, has become increasingly important to promote the comprehensive development of research institutions. In this paper, the current performance management practice of non-profit agricultural research institutions was analyzed and the pending key issues were discussed. Countermeasures for further development were put forward in order to boost the scientific management.%随着公益性农业科研单位绩效管理的深入推进,随着国家科技体制改革的深入开展,绩效管理作为当代政府管理最有效的工具,其对公益性农业科研单位的综合管理和发展日益重要,因此探讨如何有效开展已刻不容缓。本文通过分析公益性农业科研单位绩效管理的有效做法、需要着力研究解决的重点问题,有针对性提出了深入开展绩效管理的对策建议,以期更好的助推农业科技管理工作,促进农业发展。

  3. The Strategic Involvement of Stakeholders in the Efficiency of Non-Profit Sport Organisations: From a Perspective of Survival to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Alexandra Marques Miragaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse the efficiency of non-profit sports clubs and identify the perceptions of their directors with regards to the stakeholders that exert the greatest influence over club efficiency levels. In order to analyse the efficiency of these clubs, we made recourse to the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method. We also applied the Mann-Whitney test, to identify whether there are significant differences between efficient and non-efficient clubs with regards to the influence held by their stakeholders. We thus report that the majority of clubs operate efficiently. Both the efficient and the non-efficient clubs classify the club managers, members, sponsors, fans and athletes as the most important stakeholders to their efficiency levels. The results convey how there are no significant differences among the management team perceptions on the role of stakeholders in attaining club efficiency. The study also details the respective procedures that inefficient clubs should adopt in order to approximate the efficiency frontier.

  4. Transforming the tobacco market: why the supply of cigarettes should be transferred from for-profit corporations to non-profit enterprises with a public health mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, C; Thompson, D; Collishaw, N

    2005-08-01

    Current tobacco control strategies seek primarily to decrease the demand for cigarettes through measures that encourage individuals to adopt healthier behaviours. These measures are impeded and undermined by tobacco corporations, whose profit drive compels them to seek to maintain and expand cigarette sales. Tobacco corporations seek to expand cigarette sales because they are for-profit business corporations and are obliged under law to maximise profits, even when this results in harm to others. It is not legally possible for a for-profit corporation to relinquish its responsibility to make profits or for it to temper this obligation with responsibilities to support health. Tobacco could be supplied through other non-profit enterprises. The elimination of profit driven behaviour from the supply of tobacco would enhance the ability of public health authorities to reduce tobacco use. Future tobacco control strategies can seek to transform the tobacco market from one occupied by for-profit corporations to one where tobacco is supplied by institutions that share a health mandate and will help to reduce smoking and smoking related disease and death.

  5. A Study of the Structures and Development of Non-profit Sport in Universities%高校非营利体育组织构成及发展对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯梦儒; 肖青

    2012-01-01

    With the use of literature review, savant visitation, and questionnaire, we can sum up non-profit sport structures in a university as follows: mass sport structure, high-level athletic team structure, sport association struc- ture, gymnasium manage and training institution structure. In order for the school to be realized as an important channel to cultivate excellent athlete, every sport structure of school will mutate its function, as to carry out scien- tific management, mutual cooperation, and systemic training. Through organizing first-class games to advance ath- lete level, we can build up relationship and intercommunion with other schools and make the best uses of social re- sources for the development of sport.%运用文献资料法、专家访谈法和问卷调查法,简要介绍了我国高校非营利体育组织,包括群众体育组织、协会体育组织、高水平运动队组织和体育场馆及培训机构组织。为了实现学校是国家优秀运动员培养和普及群众体育运动的重要基地的目的,学校各体育组织要转变职能,科学管理,明确分工,相互配合,系统训练。通过打造品牌赛事提高赛事水平,增进校际间、校友间、学校和社会问交流,充分调动社会资源支持学校体育的发展。

  6. 非营利性项目社会评价的定量研究%The Quantitative Research on the Social Evaluation for the Non-profit Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝龙

    2013-01-01

    With rapid development of Chinese economy, the supply of public goods and service increases constantly, one of which is non-profit projects. Due to the characteristics of non-profit projects, the social evaluation should be the main content of the evaluation of non-profit projects. This paper is to aim at the "public" nature of non-profit projects and to perform quantitative research on the social evaluation for the non-profit projects. First of all, this paper demonstrated the practice and theory of the so-cial evaluation for the non-profit projects. Based on the demonstration, this paper described the basic framework of the social eval-uation for the non-profit projects, adopted the system dynamics method to perform the quantitative study on the social evaluation for non-profit projects, and analyzed the social revenue of non-profit projects through the macro-data obtained. In the end, this paper used road project in northern China to perform case study to verify the viewpoint of this paper.%  随着我国社会经济的快速发展,公共产品和服务的供给也在不断地增长,其中之一就是非营利性项目。由于非营利性项目所具有的“公共”属性以及不以盈利为主要目的,因此对其进行评价应以社会评价为主。本文的研究主要是针对非营利性项目的“公共”属性,开展非营利性项目社会评价的定量研究。首先,本文对非营利性项目社会评价的实践和理论进行了回溯。其次,在此基础之上,本文给出了非营利性项目社会效益评价的基本框架,采用了系统动力学方法开展非营利性项目社会评价的定量研究,通过获取的宏观数据,对非营利性项目的社会效益进行分析。最后,本文以北方地区某跨省公路为例来进行案例分析,对本文的观点进行了验证。

  7. The influence of episodic mood disorders on length of stay among patients admitted to private and non-profit hospitals with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B. Dickerson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Episodic mood disorders are often associated with alcohol dependence. Few studies have explored the contribution of episodic mood disorders to length of stay among those hospitalized with alcohol dependence syndrome. Filling this research gap could improve care for patients while minimizing hospital utilization costs. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Hospital Discharge Survey. ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify those admitted to a private or non-profit hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome, and a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (n=358. Descriptive statistics were used to highlight differences in key demographic and hospital variables between those with and without episodic mood disorders. Negative binomial regression was used to associate episodic mood disorders with hospital length of stay. Incidence rate ratios were calculated. Co-morbid episodic mood disorders (b=0.31, P=0.001, referral to a hospital by a physician (b=0.35, P=0.014, and increasing age (b= 0.01, P=0.001 were associated with longer hospital stays. Hospital patients with an admitting diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome were 36% more likely to have a longer hospital stay if they also had a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (IRR=1.36, CI=1.14-1.62. Patients admitted to a hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome should be routinely screened for episodic mood disorders. Opportunities exist for enhanced transitional care between acute, ambulatory, and community-based care settings to lower hospital utilization.

  8. The influence of episodic mood disorders on length of stay among patients admitted to private and non-profit hospitals with alcohol dependence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Justin B

    2011-02-22

    Episodic mood disorders are often associated with alcohol dependence. Few studies have explored the contribution of episodic mood disorders to length of stay among those hospitalized with alcohol dependence syndrome. Filling this research gap could improve care for patients while minimizing hospital utilization costs. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Hospital Discharge Survey. ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify those admitted to a private or non-profit hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome, and a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (n=358). Descriptive statistics were used to highlight differences in key demographic and hospital variables between those with and without episodic mood disorders. Negative binomial regression was used to associate episodic mood disorders with hospital length of stay. Incidence rate ratios were calculated. Co-morbid episodic mood disorders (β=0.31, P=0.001), referral to a hospital by a physician (β=0.35, P=0.014), and increasing age (β= 0.01, P=0.001) were associated with longer hospital stays. Hospital patients with an admitting diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome were 36% more likely to have a longer hospital stay if they also had a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (IRR=1.36, CI=1.14-1.62). Patients admitted to a hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome should be routinely screened for episodic mood disorders. Opportunities exist for enhanced transitional care between acute, ambulatory, and community-based care settings to lower hospital utilization.

  9. Strategic management of non-profit organizations Stefnumiðuð áætlanagerð félagasamtaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ómar H. Kristmundsson

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract in English is unavailable.Hér er um að ræða yfirlitsgrein um stefnumiðaða áætlanagerð (strategic planning sem aðferð við stefnumótun félagasamtaka. Aðferðinni er ætlað að auðvelda skipulagsheildum að skapa sér framtíðarsýn og skilgreina þær aðgerðir sem taldar eru nauðsynlegar til að láta þá sýn verða að veruleika. Í upphafi er hugtök sem notuð eru við stefnumótun skilgreind. Lýst er meginatriðum í stefnumótunarferlinu, stöðumati, afmörkun úrlausnarefna og val leiða og mótun árangursmælikvarða. Fjallað er um uppbyggingu og frágang stefnumiðaðrar áætlunar en takmörkuð umfjöllun er um þetta viðfangsefni í kennslubókum. Rætt er um kosti og galla aðferðarinnar við stefnumótun félaga.

  10. The policies of stray pet population control in Lithuania : a study of government contractors as opposed to non-profit volunteer based organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Taruskaite-Vanebo, Saulene

    2014-01-01

    Within the thesis, the trending methods of stray pet population care and control are considered, the emphasis put on the differences between governmentally funded institutions of sanitation and the non-governmental animal shelters; significant attention paid to the implementation and overall effectiveness of both systems, with the differentiation of financial success and their effectiveness in saving animals and finding new homes. Within the framework of the thesis, the relationship between t...

  11. Impact of the increased adoption of prenatal cfDNA screening on non-profit patient advocacy organizations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, Stephanie; Kaposy, Christopher; Miller, Victoria J; Allyse, Megan; Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Michie, Marsha

    2016-08-01

    The 'Stakeholder Perspectives on Noninvasive Prenatal Genetic Screening' Symposium was held in conjunction with the 2015 annual meeting of the International Society for Prenatal Diagnosis. During the day-long meeting, a panel of patient advocacy group (PAG) representatives discussed concerns and challenges raised by prenatal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening, which has resulted in larger demands upon PAGs from concerned patients receiving prenatal cfDNA screening results. Prominent concerns included confusion about the accuracy of cfDNA screening and a lack of patient education resources about genetic conditions included in cfDNA screens. Some of the challenges faced by PAGs included funding limitations, lack of consistently implemented standards of care and oversight, diverse perspectives among PAGs and questions about neutrality, and lack of access to training and genetic counselors. PAG representatives also put forward suggestions for addressing these challenges, including improving educational and PAG funding and increasing collaboration between PAGs and the medical community. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. On the Performance Evaluation of the Non-profits Organization%非营利组织绩效评估初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春; 王铭

    2005-01-01

    对非营利组织进行绩效评估有助于激励非营利组织更广泛地承担公共责任,提高自身服务质量和效率.非营利组织绩效评估的主要困难在于目前的评估标准易倾向于公益的特殊性,社会公众普遍混淆了效率和公平的关系等.为此,非营利组织绩效评估需要在评估机构、评估体系、社会认同和沟通平台等方面加以改善.

  13. 非营利组织的绩效评价体系研究%Research on Performance Measurement System of Non-profit Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾韶华; 林琳

    2008-01-01

    本文运用利益相关者理论对非营利组织平衡计分卡进行了改造,构建了服务价值、财务、内部过程、人力发展和资金提供者五个维度及其关键绩效评价指标体系,并尝试引入模糊层次分析法(FAHP)计算各维度及其指标的权重,以期为非营利组织系统地构建一套科学的绩效评价指标体系提供有益的指引.

  14. Food products qualifying for and carrying front-of-pack symbols: a cross-sectional study examining a manufacturer led and a non-profit organization led program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emrich, Teri E; Cohen, Joanna E; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-01-01

    Concern has been raised that the coexistence of multiple front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition rating systems in a marketplace may mislead consumers into believing that a specific food with a FOP is 'healthier' than foods without the symbol...

  15. Development of non-profit organisations providing health and social services in rural South Africa: a three-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosa Moshabela

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In an effort to increase understanding of formation of the community and home-based care economy in South Africa, we investigated the origin and development of non-profit organisations (NPOs providing home- and community-based care for health and social services in a remote rural area of South Africa. METHODS: Over a three-year period (2010-12, we identified and tracked all NPOs providing health care and social services in Bushbuckridge sub-district through the use of local government records, snowballing techniques, and attendance at NPO networking meetings--recording both existing and new NPOs. NPO founders and managers were interviewed in face-to-face in-depth interviews, and their organisational records were reviewed. RESULTS: Forty-seven NPOs were formed prior to the study period, and 14 during the study period--six in 2010, six in 2011 and two in 2012, while four ceased operation, representing a 22% growth in the number of NPOs during the study period. Histories of NPOs showed a steady rise in the NPO formation over a 20-year period, from one (1991-1995 to 12 (1996-2000, 16 (2001-2005 and 24 (2006-2010 new organisations formed in each period. Furthermore, the histories of formation revealed three predominant milestones--loose association, formal formation and finally registration. Just over one quarter (28% of NPOs emerged from a long-standing community based programme of 'care groups' of women. Founders of NPOs were mostly women (62%, with either a religious motivation or a nursing background, but occasionally had an entrepreneurial profile. CONCLUSION: We observed rapid growth of the NPO sector providing community based health and social services. Women dominated the rural NPO sector, which is being seen as creating occupation and employment opportunities. The implications of this growth in the NPO sector providing community based health and social services needs to be further explored and suggests the need for greater

  16. The Sample Analysis of For-profit and Non-profit Distinguishing Management for Non-governmental Schools%民办学校营利性和非营利性分类管理的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方建锋

    2011-01-01

    本文基于调研分析了民办学校实施营利性、非营利性分类管理的时机、理由、适用的教育领域以及推行分类管理后学校的选择、学校资产归属等问题,提出应结合我国民办教育实际,将民办学校划分为营利性民办学校、非营利性不要求合理回报的民办学校、非营利性要求合理回报的民办学校三种,并实施相应的配套政策。%This study focuses on the research of the for-profit and non-profit distinguishing management for non-governmental schools,including time,reason,educational field,school's choices,and school capital ownership after the implementation of distinguishing management policy and analyses the spot check result.According to the factual situation in China,the non-governmental schools can be categorized into three classes with the implementation of relevant educational policy,which are for-profit non-governmental schools,non-profit non-governmental schools with no reasonable return and non-profit non-governmental schools with reasonable return.

  17. Organizações inovadoras: existe uma cultura específica que faz parte deste ambiente? Innovative organizations: is a specific culture found in such an environment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Del Prá Netto Machado

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Inovação tornou-se um tema estratégico na Administração, mas no Brasil ainda é restrita como fator de estudo. Isso se dá pelas características do meio, que visualiza a inovação como uma vantagem competitiva, um segredo da organização. Essa situação levou ao desenvolvimento desta pesquisa, que propôs verificar a constituição de um ambiente inovador e a maneira pela qual elementos de cultura se relacionam. A partir da metodologia utilizada, observou-se, pela análise dos fatores do ambiente, que o ambiente inovador foi encontrado nas 7 organizações analisadas. Os elementos de cultura observados são: valores, crenças e pressupostos, ritos, rituais e cerimônias, estórias e mitos, tabus, heróis, comunicação e artefatos e símbolos. Na etapa de validação, os mesmos elementos foram encontrados, com menor incidência dos artefatos e símbolos. Dessa forma, o pressuposto levantado na pesquisa pôde ser confirmado: organizações inovadoras possuem elementos de cultura que podem estar propiciando e incentivando o desenvolvimento de inovações.Innovation has become strategic in business administration, however in Brazil it is still viewed as a competitive advantage, an organizational secret. Therefore study verified how an innovative atmosphere is formed within a business as well as how the elements of culture are related. Based upon the methodology used, an innovative ambient was found in the 7 organizations by means of an analysis of aspects of the environment. Elements that form the company culture and that were found related to innovation were: values, faiths and presuppositions, rites, rituals, ceremonies, histories, myths, taboos, heroes, communications, artifacts and symbols. During validation these same elements were found, although with a smaller incidence of artifacts and symbols. Results confirm the research hypothesis that innovative organizations also possess cultural elements that may be propitiating and

  18. Distribuição ambiental de poluentes orgânicos encontrados em lodos de esgoto Environmental distribution of the organic contaminants found in sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourival Costa Paraíba

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi apresentar uma modelagem da distribuição ambiental de vinte e nove poluentes orgânicos encontrados em amostras de lodos de esgoto das estações de tratamento de esgoto de Barueri e Suzano, SP. Lodos de esgoto são misturas de produtos orgânicos e inorgânicos gerados nos processos primários e secundários de tratamento que, mediante adequado controle de qualidade, podem ser reutilizados como fertilizantes agrícolas. O modelo de fugacidade nível I foi aplicado a um sistema compartimental hipotético constituído de ar, água, solo, sedimento, biota aquática e plantas. Foi utilizada a massa molecular, a pressão de vapor, a solubilidade em água, a constante de Henry, o coeficiente de partição octanol-água e a meia-vida no solo de cada um dos poluentes. O coeficiente de sorção no solo, os fatores de bioconcentração em organismos aquáticos, raízes e na seiva do xilema de plantas foram calculados por meio de expressões que correlacionam cada um desses parâmetros com o coeficiente de partição octanol-água do poluente. Foram estimados e usados os coeficientes de partição folha-ar e ar-água e o índice GUS de cada poluente. A modelagem e os cálculos dos fatores de bioconcentração e dos coeficientes de partição revelam os compartimentos preferenciais dos poluentes.The objective of this work was to present a model of environmental distribution of twenty-nine organic contaminants found in samples of sewage sludge of the sewage treatment plant of Barueri and Suzano SP, Brazil. Sewage sludge is a mixture of organic and inorganic products generated in primary and secondary processes of treatment that can be reused as fertilizer by the agriculture. The modeling of the contaminants distribution was accomplished by means of the level I fugacity model applied to a hypothetical compartmental system constituted by air, water, soil, sediment, aquatic biota and plants. The molecular weight, vapor pressure

  19. Do great local minds think alike? Comparing perceptions of the social determinants of health between non-profit and governmental actors in two Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Patricia A

    2012-06-01

    Cities are important sites for intervention on social determinants of health (SDOH); yet, little is known about how influential local actors, namely workers in municipal governments (GOVs) and community-based organizations (CBOs), perceive the SDOH. Capturing and comparing perceptions between these groups are important for assessing how SDOH discourse has permeated local actors' thinking--a meaningful endeavour as local-level health equity action often invokes inter-institutional partnerships. This paper compares SDOH perceptions between CBO workers in Hamilton, Ontario, with politicians and senior-level staff in GOVs in Vancouver, British Columbia, based on two studies with surveys containing identical questions on SDOH perceptions. Overall, there was high comparability between the groups in their relative ratings of the SDOH. Both groups assigned high levels of 'influence' and 'priority' to 'healthy lifestyles' and 'clean air and water' and lower levels to 'strong community' and 'income'. Given the importance of a shared vision in collaborative enterprises, the comparability of perceptions between the groups found here holds promise for the prospect of inter-institutional partnerships. However, the low rating assigned to more structural health determinants suggests that more work is needed from researchers and advocates to effectively advance a health equity agenda at the local level in Canada.

  20. Application of an organizational evaluation capacity self-assessment instrument to different organizations: similarities and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Isabelle; Whynot, Jane; Thériault, Étienne

    2015-06-01

    Organizational evaluation capacity (EC) has received significant attention in the evaluation research literature in the past decade. Much of the focus has been on defining organizational evaluation capacity, which can be thought of as the competencies and structures required to conduct high-quality evaluation studies (capacity to do), as well as the organization's ability to integrate evaluation findings into its decision-making processes (capacity to use). This paper seeks to contribute to this growing body of knowledge through a multiple case study of EC across three different organizations (e.g., non-profit, provincial government and federal government, herein named sectors); the novelty of this particular study is that each case study is based on the use of a common measurement tool developed by Bourgeois, Toews, Whynot and Lamarche (2013). The cross-case analysis presented in the paper reveals that evaluation capacity tends to be higher, both in terms of capacity to do and capacity to use, in organizations that have developed systematic mechanisms to institute an evaluation culture within their walls. Interestingly, however, we also found that capacity to use does not first require capacity to do, as evidenced in the non-profit organization under study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Only small changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations found one year after experimental slash-and-burn in a temperate deciduous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmeier, E.; Gerlach, R.; Skjemstad, J. O.; Ehrmann, O.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2007-02-01

    Anthropogenic fires affected the temperate deciduous forests of Central Europe over millennia. Biomass burning releases carbon to the atmosphere and produces charcoal, which potentially contributes to the stable soil carbon pools and is an important archive of environmental history. The fate of charcoal in soils of temperate deciduous forests, i.e. the processes of charcoal incorporation and transportation, and the effects on soil organic matter are still not clear. In a long-term experimental burning site, we investigated the effects of slash-and-burn and determined soil organic carbon, charcoal carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the soil lightness of colour (L*) in the topmost soil material (0-1, 1-2.5 and 2.5-5 cm depths) before, immediately after the fire and one year after burning. The main results are that (i) only few charcoal particles from the forest floor were incorporated into the soil matrix by soil mixing animals. In 0-1 cm and during one year, the charcoal C concentrations increased only by 0.4 g kg-1 and the proportion of charcoal C to SOC concentrations increased from 2.8 to 3.4%; (ii) the SOC concentrations did not show any significant differences; (iii) soil lightness significantly decreased in the topmost soil layer and correlated with the concentrations of charcoal C (r=-0.87**) and SOC (r=-0.94**) in samples 0-5 cm. We concluded that the soil colour depends on the proportion of aromatic charcoal carbon in total organic matter and that Holocene burning could have influenced soil charcoal concentrations and soil colour.

  2. Only small changes in soil organic carbon and charcoal concentrations found one year after experimental slash-and-burn in a temperate deciduous forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Eckmeier

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic fires affected the temperate deciduous forests of Central Europe over millennia. Biomass burning releases carbon to the atmosphere and produces charcoal, which potentially contributes to the stable soil carbon pools and is an important archive of environmental history. The fate of charcoal in soils of temperate deciduous forests, i.e. the processes of charcoal incorporation and transportation, and the effects on soil organic matter are still not clear. In a long-term experimental burning site, we investigated the effects of slash-and-burn and determined soil organic carbon, charcoal carbon and nitrogen concentrations and the soil lightness of colour (L* in the topmost soil material (0–1, 1–2.5 and 2.5–5 cm depths before, immediately after the fire and one year after burning. The main results are that (i only few charcoal particles from the forest floor were incorporated into the soil matrix by soil mixing animals. In 0–1 cm and during one year, the charcoal C concentrations increased only by 0.4 g kg−1 and the proportion of charcoal C to SOC concentrations increased from 2.8 to 3.4%; (ii the SOC concentrations did not show any significant differences; (iii soil lightness significantly decreased in the topmost soil layer and correlated with the concentrations of charcoal C (r=-0.87** and SOC (r=−0.94** in samples 0–5 cm. We concluded that the soil colour depends on the proportion of aromatic charcoal carbon in total organic matter and that Holocene burning could have influenced soil charcoal concentrations and soil colour.

  3. High levels of dioxin-like PCBs found in organic-farmed eggs caused by coating materials of asbestos-cement fiber plates: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Jörg

    2015-07-01

    During a regional monitoring project of organic-farmed, free-range and cage-free eggs, high levels of dioxin-like compounds were detected in organic-farmed eggs, using the dioxin responsive chemical-activated luciferase gene expression (DR-CALUX®) bioassay. Further evaluations performed with GC-HRMS (gas chromatography in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry) revealed elevated amounts of non-dioxin-like (non-dl) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dominated by most lipophilic congeners like PCB 138, 153 and 180 and of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, with a congener pattern in the descending order of PCB 118, 156, 167, 105, 189, 157, 105, 126 and PCB 77. Contaminations with polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) appeared of minor priority, with only hepta- and octa-substituted dioxins above their limits of quantification (LOQs). The pattern of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) was dominated by low amounts of tetra- and penta-chlorinated congeners. To identify the source of contamination, several samples of organic-farmed eggs, soil, laying hens, feedstuff, corrugated asbestos-cement cover plates (ACPs), stable dust and debris collected in the gutter of the stable, were analyzed. Comparing PCB congener-pattern of individual samples, the source was traced back to the coating of ACPs, which covered roof and sidewalls of the stable. Because coating materials probably have been used for roofing and cladding in many countries worldwide, there is a high probability that the presented case report is not a local incident but rather describes a new source of PCB contamination, yet widely unknown or underestimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Leading the Way: Partners in Volunteerism. Schools--Non-Profits--Youth. Conference Report on Youth and Volunteerism (New York, New York, 1991).

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of High Schools.

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a conference, "Leading the Way: Partners in Volunteerism," that brought together 170 educators, nonprofit organizations, and students to promote youth volunteerism. In a series of plenary sessions and workshops, attendees discussed the issues that have an impact on the creation and operation of…

  5. Learning to Perform? A Comparison of Learning Practices and Organizational Performance in Profit- and Non-Profit-Making Sectors in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdi, Kamal S.; Patterson, Malcolm G.; Wood, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    To date, much of the research on employee development activities and organizational performance has been conducted in private sector organizations, with the largely untested assumption that the same findings will apply to other sectors. This paper addresses the deficit by describing a study comparing differences in the use of employee learning…

  6. Bromofenóis simples relacionados ao "flavor" de organismos marinhos Brominated phenols as key flavor compounds found in marine organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilma Mota da Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of the flavor is an important attribute of quality in marine fish and other seafoods, being the first and main factor of discrimination for the evaluation, later acceptance and preference of the product by the consumer. Recently, the simple bromophenols have been considered an important group of key flavor compounds occurring in a wide variety of seafood species like fishes, mollusks, crustaceans and algae. When present in high concentration, in seafood, the bromophenols produce an undesirable flavor and are associated with inferior quality. Meanwhile, when present in low concentration levels (for example ng g-1 these compounds produce a desirable marine - or ocean-like - flavor and enhance the existing flavor in seafood. Indeed, simple bromophenols are widespread in seafood but virtually absent in freshwater fish. Herein we present a review on these flavor components found in the marine environment.

  7. 社会资本举办的非营利性医疗机构营利行为分析与对策研究%Study on Seeking Profit Behavior and Countermeasures of Non-profit Medical Institution s Launched by Social Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段光锋; 田文华; 金春林; 吴扬; 夏文明

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, the article summarized the possible seeking profit behavior based upon the characteristics of non-profit hospital launched by social capital. Secondly, the reasons of seeking profit behavior were analyzed. Finally, the preventive countermeasures were put forward, which would make sure that non-profit hospitals launched by social capital were non-profit and public interest.%根据非营利性医疗机构的性质,文章归纳总结了社会资本举办的非营利性医疗机构可能存在的营利行为,并对其愿因进行了分析,最后提出了防范社会办非营利性医疗机构营利行为的对策,以确保其非营利性和公益性.

  8. 13 CFR 304.2 - District Organizations: Formation, organizational requirements and operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... legislation for the creation of multi-jurisdictional area-wide planning organizations; or (3) A non-profit... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false District Organizations: Formation... Organizations: Formation, organizational requirements and operations. (a) General. A “District Organization”...

  9. The role of global public health strategy in non-profit organisational change at country level: lessons from the joining of Save the Children and Merlin in Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Fiona M; Balabanova, Dina; Howard, Natasha

    2016-09-28

    The paper presents a case study that critically assesses the role of global strategy 'Public Health on the Frontline 2014-2015' ('the Strategy') in supporting Merlin and Save the Children's organisational change and future programme of the combined organisation in Myanmar. Research was undertaken in 2014 in Myanmar. Twenty-six individual and three group interviews were conducted with stakeholders, and 10 meetings relevant to the country organisational transition process were observed. A conceptual framework was developed to assess the role of the global strategy in supporting the country change process. Several positive aspects of the global strategy were found, as well as critical shortcomings in its support to the organisational change process at country level. The strategy was useful in signalling Save the Children's intention to scale up humanitarian health provision. However, it had only limited influence on the early change process and outcomes in Myanmar. Results highlight several aspects that would enhance the role of a global strategy at country level. Lessons can be applied by organisations undertaking a similar process. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Introduction to the corporate governance model of a Portuguese organization of the Ancient Regime, with particular reference to its accounting: the Royal College of Nobles (1766

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ângelo Caçoilo Gonçalves

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores, in an introductory approach, a former Portuguese educational institution: the Royal College of Nobles. This institution, founded in Lisbon in 1761 and opened in 1766, was an entity that made part of the public education reform undertaken by the Marquis of Pombal in the reign of D. José. The work expands the traditional boundaries of the definition of non-profits organizations in order to extend it to an old Portuguese educational entity. Our main objective is to present the main features of the organization, management and school administration of the Royal College of Nobles, in the light of the modern discourse applied to the understanding of phenomena assigned to the areas of education and management of non-profit entities. We also seek to present insights on the interrelation between accounting and this institution. We used a qualitative methodology and, to collect information, the method of analysis of texts and documents, especially primary sources. The main conclusion is that this entity, the Royal College of Nobles, used double entry bookkeeping in its system of accounting and, despite having corporate governance models, both executive and financial, absolutely innovative for the time, has failed in aspects of pedagogy, such as the inadequacy of curricula and the ineffective control of students’ disruptive behavior.

  11. Wirkungsorientiertes Non Profit Organisation-Controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Halfar, Bernd; Hegenauer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    "Benötigen 'Non-for-Profit-Organisationen' ein eigenes Controllinginstrumentarium, das sich von den Aufgaben, Verfahren und Methoden der 'normalen' Controllerarbeit unterscheidet? Müssen sich NPO-Controller nicht auch, so wie es im Controllerleitbild der International Group of Controlling formuliert ist, um Planung, Steuerung, Ergebnistransparenz, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Berichtswesen, Zielorientierung und betriebswirtschaftliche Informationsversorgung kümmern?" (Autorenreferat)

  12. CEIBS' Tenet: Be Non-Profit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    When people are focusing on those "future economic leaders" in China, or searching new faces from China's 1 O0 richest people, what they are doing is a proof of intuition—expecting the birth of new power which symbols the competitiveness of China. Nowadays, the global competition is changing the business environment.No matter standing on a higher point or striving to catch up with, Chinese enterprises need more

  13. A comparative study of a private non-profit hospital and a public hospital on financial operation and sustainable developmen t%不同举办主体的两家非营利性医疗机构财务经营和持续发展比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嫣; 齐璐璐; 朱骞; 朱同玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To indicate the difficulties of operating private non-profit hospitals by a comparative study of a private non-profit hospital and a public hospital in the economic performance and the social benefits. Methods:In-depth interviews and a questionnaire survey were conducted to analyze the economic performance and the social benefits of a private non-profit hospital and a public hospital. Results:Between the private non-profit hospital and the public hospital,there were differences in the economic performance and the sustainable development ability. Conclusion:Public hospitals surpass private non-profit hospitals in the economic performance and sustainable development ability.%目的:比较两家不同举办主体的医疗机构在经济运行情况和社会效益方面的差异,揭示社会资本办医之困境。方法:通过深度访谈和问卷调查,对两家医院经济运行和社会效益等指标和数据进行描述性分析。结果:两家不同举办主体的医疗机构,在经济运行状况和持续发展能力方面存在差异。结论:公立医院的经济运行状况和持续发展能力好于民营医院。

  14. 32 New Exoplanets Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    , which detects small changes in the radial velocity of a star as it wobbles slightly under the gentle gravitational pull from an (unseen) exoplanet, has been most prolific method in the search for exoplanets. In return for building the instrument, the HARPS consortium was granted 100 observing nights per year during a five-year period to carry out one of the most ambitious systematic searches for exoplanets so far implemented worldwide by repeatedly measuring the radial velocities of hundreds of stars that may harbour planetary systems. The programme soon proved very successful. Using HARPS, Mayor's team discovered - among others - in 2004, the first super-Earth (around µ Ara; in 2006, the trio of Neptunes around HD 69830; in 2007, Gliese 581d, the first super Earth in the habitable zone of a small star (eso0722); and in 2009, the lightest exoplanet so far detected around a normal star, Gliese 581e (eso0915). More recently, they found a potentially lava-covered world, with density similar to that of the Earth's (eso0933). "These observations have given astronomers a great insight into the diversity of planetary systems and help us understand how they can form," says team member Nuno Santos. The HARPS consortium was very careful in their selection of targets, with several sub-programmes aimed at looking for planets around solar-like stars, low-mass dwarf stars, or stars with a lower metal content than the Sun. The number of exoplanets known around low-mass stars - so-called M dwarfs - has also dramatically increased, including a handful of super Earths and a few giant planets challenging planetary formation theory. "By targeting M dwarfs and harnessing the precision of HARPS we have been able to search for exoplanets in the mass and temperature regime of super-Earths, some even close to or inside the habitable zone around the star," says co-author Xavier Bonfils. The team found three candidate exoplanets around stars that are metal-deficient. Such stars are thought to be

  15. On the handling of injury risks of non-profit fitness places%论非营利性健身场所伤害风险的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井厚亮

    2013-01-01

    For handling injury accidents occurring at non-profit fitness places, systems should be established and laws should be interpreted by basing the core on social benefits and the orientation on perfecting sports environ-ments. An ordinary injury accident occurring at such a place as a natural risk in individual life should be borne mainly by the individual;if the individual is impotent to bear or does not have medical insurance, the state should undertake emergency rescue obligation;it is not appropriate to let the administrator and owner etc undertake secu-rity obligation or fair responsibly;if they do not have major negligence, they should not undertake the responsibility for compensation. In order to effectively prevent injury risks, a safety supervision system led by the sports admini-stration should be established, meanwhile, manufacturers’ responsibilities should be probed into, their responsibility fulfilling ability should be enhanced, their duty of care should be intensified.%  处理非营利性健身场所的伤害事故纠纷时,应当以社会利益为核心、以完善体育环境为取向,制定制度、解释法律。其间发生的一般伤害事故,作为个体生活中的自然风险,应主要由个人承担;个人无力承担或未参加医疗保险的,由国家承担紧急救助义务。不宜让管理者和所有人等承担安保义务或公平责任,如果他们没有重大过失,就不应承担赔偿责任。为了有效防范伤害风险,应当建立以体育行政部门为主导的安全监管制度;同时,应当注意落实对生产商的责任追究,提高其责任能力,强化其注意义务。

  16. The role and importance of public relations at non-governmental organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Duhalm

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenomenon of globalization during the twentieth century, has increased the importance of nongovernmental organizations. Their development has gained to the whole world providing an important part of social, educational, cultural and welfare services that the community felt. Voluntary and non-profit activity which it carries led, implicitly, to increasing importance in public relations sector, compared with profit business.

  17. Monitoring Organic Contaminant Fluxes Following Dam Removal Utilizing Passive Sampler Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restoration of riverine habitats and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., USEPA, NOAA, USDA), as well as non-profit conservation organizations (e.g., American Rivers). Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credi...

  18. Persistent organic pollutants in juvenile Magellan penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) found on the northern shore of the state of São Paulo and southern shore of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassin, Paula; Taniguchi, Satie; Gallo, Hugo; Silva, Reinaldo José; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2012-11-01

    In the present study, persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in 25 livers from Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus, found on the state of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). The following concentrations of POPs (wet weight) were found: ∑ PCBs: 18.9-775.8 ng g(-1); ∑ DDTs: 2.3-275 ng g(-1); and ∑ HCHs: 1.0-11.8 ng g(-1). Among the PCBs, there was a predominance of hexachlorobiphenyls (138 and 153) and heptachlorobiphenyls (180 and 187). Among the organochlorines, DDT predominated. Through histopathologic exams a positive correlation was found between HCB and cardiovascular failure (p=0.012), as HCB values (wet weight) were 6.33-96.49 ng g(-1) for positive animals and 2.45-19.63 ng g(-1) for negative animals. Studies on POPs in Magellan penguins contribute to a better understanding of the distribution and trends of these pollutants in the western South Atlantic Ocean.

  19. 基于SERVQUAL的非营利性组织服务质量评价模型研究%The Study of the Non-profit Organization Service Quality Evaluation Model based on SERVQUAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施国洪; 王晓燕; 岳江君

    2011-01-01

    文章首先对营利性和非营利性组织的区别进行阐述,结合SERVQUAL模型本身存在的缺陷,得出起源于营利性组织的SERVQUAL模型用于非营利性组织服务质量评价存在的缺陷,并在此基础上对SERVQUAL的维度和问项进行修正和完善,构建了非营利性组织服务质量评价的指标体系.用重要性-表现映射代替期望和感知差距模型,最终形成一个非营利性组织服务质量评价模型,期为非营利性组织服务质量评价提供借鉴和参考.

  20. Study on the Introduction 360 Degree Assessment Mode to Non--profit Organization Performance Appraisal%非营利组织导入360度绩效考核模式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴宏森

    2009-01-01

    360度绩效考核是一种现代考评方式,它全面体现了绩效考核所要求的客观性和公正性理念,能够系统地降低绩效考核的主观性.非营利组织的特性和绩效考核的发展现实对考核过程的客观性和公正性提出了新的要求.本文探讨了非营利组织进行360度绩效考核的适应性,并就非营利组织360度考核的主体设计以及所需的考评支持系统进行了分析.

  1. Strategies for Non-profit Organizations' Financial Management:Case Study of Security Association%非营利组织财务管理对策研究--以保安协会为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡服

    2014-01-01

    To strengthen the financial management is the core to give full play to the industry self-discipline and guidance of the association. From the current situation of financial management of security association, this paper analyzes the existing problems and reasons, and puts forward concrete countermeasures, so as to extend the association business and improve the management level.%加强协会财务管理是充分发挥协会行业自律和指导、规范作用的核心。本文从保安协会财务管理的现状入手,分析其存在的问题及原因,提出了具体可行的解决措施,以期扩展协会业务,提升管理水平。

  2. STRUCTURE, ORGANIZATION AND ACTIVITIES OF THE LEIDSCHE ONDERWIJSINSTELLINGEN (L.O.I.), THE GENERAL SITUATION OF EDUCATION BY CORRESPONDENCE IN THE NETHERLANDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLOOS, ISAAEC J.

    ADULT EDUCATION BY CORRESPONDENCE IN THE NETHERLANDS IS DOMINATED BY THE LEIDSCHE ONDERWIJSINSTELLINGEN (L.O.I.), A NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION, PARTIALLY STATE-SUPPORTED, WHICH TRAINS 75,000 STUDENTS IN 400 COURSES AT ANY ONE TIME. ONLY GOVERNMENT EXAMINATIONS ARE GIVEN. THE L.O.I. HAS ADDED TO ITS ORGANIZATION SEVERAL SCHOOLS FOR PURELY ORAL…

  3. Third Sector Organizations: A Bibliometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Vasconcellos Godoy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the characteristics of third sector research, based on peer reviewed scientific publications for the period starting 1971 up to 2014. Three main variables are analyzed: authorship, journal and keywords. Tools used included Elton Bryson Stephens Co (EBSCO thesaurus, for search keys definition, spreadhsheets, for data processing, and SCOPUS database for data collection. In terms of contribution, the results show an increase in scientific publication, contrary to results found ten years ago by Helmig, Jegers and Lapsley (2004, could guide research in this field. Besides that, the terms ‘NGO’, ‘non-profit organization’ and ‘Civil society’ are used extensively, in general and specifically by core journals, revealing that there is still room for taxonomy discussions about these organizations, since there are articles naming similar organizations after different terms. Future research in different databases or with broader scope is strongly encouraged, as well as a deeper analysis of this content, which will lead to a better understanding of this field’s state of the art.

  4. 中亚恐怖主义与上海合作组织的创立%On the Historical Basckground, Founding and Impact of Shanghai Cooperation Organization in Its Counter-Terrorism Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王献志

    2012-01-01

    冷战结束后,中亚地区的恐怖主义、分裂主义和极端主义这“三股势力”乘势兴风作浪,对本地区和平、安全与稳定构成严重威胁。上海合作组织组织的创立,顺应国际和地区反恐潮流,创立区域反恐机构和机制,全方位展开多边反恐合作,有效地遏制和打击了中亚地区恐怖主义的蔓延,为中亚乃至世界的和平发展与稳定做出了巨大的贡献。%Since the end of the Cold War,the forces of terrorism,separatism and extremism have stirred up trouble and unrest in Central Asia,posing a grave threat to the peace,security and stability of this region. Following the trend of international and regional anti-terrorism, Shanghai Cooperation Organization is founded. It has established regional anti-terrorism institution and mechanism, launched all-round anti-terrorism cooperation, and effectively suppressed and combated the spread of terrorism in Central Asia, resulting in great contributions to the peaceful development and stability of this region and even the world.

  5. 辽宁省“非营利”普惠性幼儿园发展存在的问题及对策%Problems andSuggestions on Policy to the Development of Non-profit Inclusive Kindergarten in Laioning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 张鲜丽; 赵丽

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit inclusive kindergarten is the main part of public preschool education .The government should spare no pains to promote the development of non-profit inclusive kindergarten with reasonable policies . From our foregoing research ,some fundamental problems exiting in the system of non-profit inclusive kindergar-ten in Liaoning province ,such as the low level of inputting of the public property ,less quantity of public kin-dergartens,general lack of standardization in private kindergartens and the lower comprehensive quality of teachers .In view of this ,the author gives some key measures to solve these problems ,such as transforming the exiting public kindergartens ,public finance taking priority to villages , implementing award and subsidy policy to private kindergartens ,and perfecting the system of teacher-employment .%“非营利”普惠性幼儿园是公益性学前教育的主体。政府必须以合理的政策全力推进“非营利”普惠性幼儿园的发展。基于我们的研究,辽宁省“非营利”普惠性幼儿园体系存在着公共财政投入水平偏低、公办园数量少、民办园普遍不规范、教师队伍综合素质较低等基础性问题。在此基础上,笔者提出改造现有公办性质幼儿园、公共财政优先进入乡村、民办幼儿园实施奖补、建立完善教师聘用制度是解决问题的关键。

  6. 公益性城市动物园再现活力的探讨--以广州动物园为例%Study on Reappearing the Non-profit City Zoo Dynamic:A Case Study of Guangzhou Zoo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁毅飚

    2013-01-01

      公益性城市动物园多建于上世纪50~70年代,由政府投资建设,是我国主要的动物迁地保护基地和科普教育基地,体现着一个城市的文明程度和发展水平。随着社会经济发展,公益性城市动物园由于建设资金缺乏、观念落后、产品老化等原因,逐渐缺乏动物主题公园的活力和魅力。文章以广州动物园为例,深入分析公益性城市动物园存在的问题,提出通过淘汰消极印象、展示动物精品、丰富体验项目、提升品牌价值等方法,改善公益性城市动物园的品牌形象、产品质量和经营状况,从而再现动物园活力,吸引更多市民关注并从中受益。%  Most of the non-profit city zoos were built in 1950s to 1970s, invested by the government. They are China’s major ex-situ conservation and science education base, which embody the civilization and development of a city. With social and economic development, non-profit city zoos are gradually lack of animal theme park vitality and charm because of the lack of funds, backward ideas, aging products and other reasons. This paper takes Guangzhou Zoo as a case study and deeply analyzes the existing problems of the non-profit city zoo, according to which give the idea of improving the brand image, product quality and operating conditions of the non-profit city zoo by the ways of eliminating the negative impression, showing the animal boutique, enriching the experience programs and enhancing brand value, thereby reappearing the zoo vitality so that more citizens can give their concerns and benefit from the zoos.

  7. A comment on the paper ‘A comparison between lesions found during meat inspection of finishing pigs raised under organic/free-range conditions and conventional indoor conditions’ by Alban et al. 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2016-01-01

    This is a critical comment on a paper published in Porcine Health Management in 2015, presenting a comparison between lesions from meat inspection at one abattoir on slaughter pigs classified in to two different production forms: organic/free-range conditions and conventional indoor conditions....... The conclusion made by the paper that 13 lesion types has a higher prevalence in organic/free-range pigs and 4 lesion types occurred less frequently in organic/free-range finishers compared to conventional finishers is correct except that 5 (instead of 4) lesion types occurred less frequently in organic...

  8. A comment on the paper 'A comparison between lesions found during meat inspection of finishing pigs raised under organic/free-range conditions and conventional indoor conditions' by Alban et al. 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2016-01-01

    This is a critical comment on a paper published in Porcine Health Management in 2015, presenting a comparison between lesions from meat inspection at one abattoir on slaughter pigs classified in to two different production forms: organic/free-range conditions and conventional indoor conditions. The conclusion made by the paper that 13 lesion types has a higher prevalence in organic/free-range pigs and 4 lesion types occurred less frequently in organic/free-range finishers compared to conventional finishers is correct except that 5 (instead of 4) lesion types occurred less frequently in organic/free-range finishers. However, these five types of lesions represent 74 % of all lesions recorded among conventional indoor, conventional free-range and organic pigs in one slaughter house from October 1 2012 to September 26 2013.

  9. Organizing and Managing Transition to Sustainable Urban Districts and Housing Structures. A Comparative Study of Swedish and Danish Cases of Current Urban Planning Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    by independent, democratically organized and governed non-profit housing associations. Efficacy of the two different organizational approaches varies correspondingly; there is obviously a trade-off between organizational modes favoring a democratic approach and efficiency when it comes to decision...

  10. Contribution to the collaborative work in virtual organization - a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespo Fernando A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A virtual organization is a community of people who interact together socially on a technical platform. These kinds of communities are built on a common interest, a common problem or a common task of its members that is pursued on the basis of implicit and explicit codes of behavior. The six dimensions that are normally used to analyze virtual organizations are the use of technologies, sense of belonging, success factors, level of trust from members, virtual community management, and contents of the virtual community. The virtual organizations defined in the literature are not defined separately for non-profit research virtual organization. Here we present analysis of non-profit research virtual organization, European Working Group on Operational Research for Development (EGW ORD. This paper provides a summary of achievements and challenges faced in building a virtual organization. This kind of analysis plays a vital role in establishing new non-profit virtual organizations to serve the research community in their field of interest. It is also helpful to the group in broadening its presence and involving more researchers, practitioners and students in the field of operational research.

  11. ‘Living Fossil’ Found

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fishermen in east China’s Anhui Province have found a wild Chinese alligator, often re- ferred to as a "living fossil," local authorities said. The 20-kg reptile was captured in a pond in Wanshou Village, Wuhu County, on June 23, while villagers were fishing. It was believed to

  12. Founding Intentions: A Gender Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheiner, Ch.; Laspita, S.; Brem, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    cognitions (fostering and hindering perceptions) towards self-employment, that in fluence the professional choice, are examined in this study. Attention is also given to gender similarities or differencesand to catching a glimpse of entrepreneurial related variables as they occur over time. To examine those...... and womenequally.We could also show that the self-employment of the parents does have an influence on the founding intention of the children....

  13. Founding Intentions: A Gender Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheiner, Ch.; Laspita, S.; Brem, Alexander;

    2008-01-01

    In contradiction to previous research, which concentrates almost exclusively onentrepreneurs during their professional activity, this study concentrates on an earlier point in time and that is before the working life begins. Therefore, the micro-social environment (family background) and specific ...... and womenequally.We could also show that the self-employment of the parents does have an influence on the founding intention of the children....... cognitions (fostering and hindering perceptions) towards self-employment, that in fluence the professional choice, are examined in this study. Attention is also given to gender similarities or differencesand to catching a glimpse of entrepreneurial related variables as they occur over time. To examine those...

  14. A Planet Found by Pulsations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-10-01

    Searching for planets around very hot stars is much more challenging than looking around cool stars. For this reason, the recent discovery of a planet around a main-sequence A star is an important find both because of its unique position near the stars habitable zone, and because of the way in which the planet was discovered.Challenges in VariabilityIn the past three decades, weve discovered thousands of exoplanets yet most of them have been found around cool stars (like M dwarfs) or moderate stars (like G stars like our Sun). Very few of the planets that weve found orbit hot stars; in fact, weve only discovered ~20 planets orbiting the very hot, main-sequence A stars.The instability strip, indicated on an H-R diagram. Stellar classification types are listed across the bottom of the diagram. Many main-sequence A stars reside in the instability strip. [Rursus]Why is this? We dont expect that main-sequence A stars host fewer planets than cooler stars. Instead, its primarily because the two main techniques that we use to find planets namely, transits and radial velocity cant be used as effectively on the main-sequence A stars that are most likely to host planets, because the luminosities of these stars are often variable.These stars can lie on whats known as the classical instability strip in the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. Such variable stars pulsate due to changes in the ionization state of atoms deep in their interiors, which causes the stars to puff up and then collapse back inward. For variable main-sequence A stars, the periods for these pulsations can be several to several tens of times per day.These very pulsations that make transits and radial-velocity measurements so difficult, however, can potentially be used to detect planets in a different way. Led by Simon Murphy (University of Sydney, Australia and Aarhus University, Denmark), a team of scientists has recently detected the first planet ever to be discovered around a main-sequence A star from the timing

  15. Rule of Law Fully Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN CHUNYING

    2011-01-01

    Governing the country according to the law and building a socialist state with rule of law are fundamental strategies for running the country under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.Since the founding of the People's Republic of China,especially over the past three decades of reform and opening-up,through the unremitting efforts of the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee,the State Council,the local people's congresses and their standing committees,as well as all sectors of society,by the end of August,2011,China had enacted the Constitution and the 240 laws,706 administrative regulations and more than 8,600 local regulations that are now in force.

  16. Focal liver lesions found incidentally

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdullah; A; Algarni; Abdullah; H; Alshuhri; Majed; M; Alonazi; Moustafa; Mabrouk; Mourad; Simon; R; Bramhal

    2016-01-01

    Incidentally found focal liver lesions are a commonfinding and a reason for referral to hepatobiliary service.They are often discovered in patients with history of liver cirrhosis,colorectal cancer,incidentally during work up for abdominal pain or in a trauma setting.Specific points should considered during history taking such as risk factors of liver cirrhosis;hepatitis,alcohol consumption,substance exposure or use of oral con-traceptive pills and metabolic syndromes.Full blood count,liver function test and tumor markers can act as a guide to minimize the differential diagnosis and to categorize the degree of liver disease.Imaging should start with B-mode ultrasound.If available,contrast enhanced ultrasound is a feasible,safe,cost effective option and increases the ability to reach a diagnosis.Contrast enhanced computed tomography should be considered next.It is more accurate in diagnosis and better to study anatomy for possible operation.Contrast enhanced magnetic resonance is the gold standard with the highest sensitivity.If doubt still remains,the options are biopsy or surgical excision.

  17. First supernova companion star found

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    ). These two mighty galaxies in the Plough (Ursa Major) belong to some of the most famous and beloved galaxies known to amateur astronomers. This may be one of the reasons that Supernova 1993J was discovered by the Spanish amateur astronomer Francisco Garcia Diaz and not a professional astronomer. The violent star-forming activity in the neighbouring Messier 82 gives rise to a strong galactic wind that is spewing knotty filaments of hydrogen and nitrogen gas (seen in red) out of its centre. Supernovae are some of the most significant sources of chemical elements in the Universe, and they are at the heart of our understanding of the evolution of galaxies. Supernovae are some of the most violent events in the Universe. For many years astronomers have thought that they occur in either solitary massive stars (Type II supernovae) or in a binary system where the companion star plays an important role (Type I supernovae). However no one has been able to observe any such companion star. It has even been speculated that the companion stars might not survive the actual explosion... The second brightest supernova discovered in modern times, SN 1993J, was found in the beautiful spiral galaxy M81 on 28 March 1993. From archival images of this galaxy taken before the explosion, a red supergiant was identified as the mother star in 1993 - only the second time astronomers have actually seen the progenitor of a supernova explosion (the first was SN 1987A, the supernova that exploded in 1987 in our neighbouring galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud). Initially rather ordinary, SN 1993J began to puzzle astronomers as its ejecta seemed too rich in the chemical element helium and instead of fading normally it showed a bizarre sharp increase in brightness. The astronomers realised that a normal red supergiant alone could not have given rise to such a weird supernova. It was suggested that the red supergiant orbited a companion star that had shredded its outer layers just before the explosion. Ten

  18. Health needs assessment in patients assisted by a pharmaceutical non-profit charitable organisation: a preliminary pharmacoepidemiological survey based on the analysis of drug dispensation within Italy’s Banco Farmaceutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Bini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed a health needs assessment of the vulnerable population cared for by the Banco Farmaceutico, an Italian nonprofit charitable organization that supplies medicines for many centers belonging to different charities. Drugs dispensed in the first half of 2014 by a representative sample of these centers were examined. An independently conducted telephone interview on our centers complemented this data. Adult males and migrants constituted the majority of the user population, and the most dispensed drugs were those for the respiratory system. Of all patients, 40% presented with a chronic problem and more than half needed polypharmacy. Users seek help spontaneously in 70% of the cases, with the centers being able to meet 80% of the existing demand. Patients that could not be managed were referred to local hospitals or collaborating doctors and reasons were explored. We believe our study to be a first attempt to characterise a growing population that is also increasingly represented in emergency departments and internal medicine wards. It is also an evaluation of the quality of data collected by charitable institutions, highlighting a significant need for improvement as they could be the only basis to monitor the health needs of this type of population.

  19. Dermal Uptake of Organic Vapors Commonly Found in Indoor Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2014-01-01

    . In this group are common parabens, lower molecular weight phthalates, o-phenylphenol, Texanol, ethylene glycol, and α-terpineol. For other compounds, estimated dermal uptakes are small compared to inhalation. Examples include aliphatic hydrocarbons, single ring aromatics, terpenes, chlorinated solvents...

  20. Discussion on the Promotion of Soft Power of Nonprofit Organization%论非营利组织软实力的提升

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静

    2011-01-01

    非营利组织在当前人类社会活动的不同领域正在发挥着其不可或缺的日益重要的作用,非营利组织软实力理论也被学者提出,并逐步被普遍接受,非营利组织软实力建设是非营利组织本身发展的内在要求.非营利组织应通过深化建立共同愿景、突出特色、创新文化载体、树立品牌形象等举措,加强非营利组织软实力的建设.%The nonprofit organizations play an indispensable important role in different fields of the current human social activities, and soft power theory of non-profit organization is put forward by scholars, and it is gradually accepted. The soft power construction of non-profit organization is intrinsic requirement for itself development. The nonprofit organization should strengthen soft power construction of non-profit organization by measures, such as establishing common vision, highlighting characteristics, building brand image and so on.

  1. Sichtbarkeit von Bibliotheken durch Non-Profit-Marketing / High-profile for libraries through non-profit-marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzinkay, Mark

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Tight budgets and an increasing competition in the information market force libraries to rethink their „awareness“ strategies. Therefore, Marketing iis an essential tool to address this topic. Tools from the Web 2.0 (blogs and others universe offer an efficient and effective way to approach such strategy.

  2. "Coaching the Camp Coach: Leadership Development for Small Organizations" Resource Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hedrick

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Coaching is an important component of successful professional growth for leaders within any organization. However, organizations with limited resources may have challenges providing such coaching opportunities. This can be especially true for small business, non profit organizations and summer camps. “Coaching the Camp Coach; Leadership Development for Small Organizations” by Shelton, M. (2003 provides a framework, both in theory and practice, for camp leaders to improve interpersonal and intrapersonal skills through self evaluation. Accompanying the book is a CD-ROM that has multiple worksheets to be used in conjunction with the text.

  3. “GERMAN-TURKISH ASSOCIATION” AS A NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati DEMİR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Civil society organizations which are non-govermental, operate political, cultural, social, legal etc. Areas, consisting of the employees and members on a voluntary basis, non- profit organizations. German-Turkish Association (German name: Deutschtürken Verband e.V. is a non-governmental organization established by Turks in Munich of Germany. In this study, German-Turkish Association has been introduced, information about the activities of the Union has been given, these activities has been evaluated in terms of their contribution to the Turkish and Turkish culture.

  4. A Study on the Performance Evaluation Indicator System of Non-profit Investment Project in Post-disaster Reconstruction ——Based on Delphi Method%灾后重建公益性投资项目绩效评估指标体系研究——基于德尔菲法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖靖; 宋伟

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the methods of the performance evaluation of non-profit project in post-disaster reconstruction,this paper puts forward nine dimensions of performance evaluation based on the mainstream thought of"4E" in the performance evaluation of public sector.And then a full and systematic description of the use of these dimensions is carried out by using Delphi method and SPSS,and the possible scope of the dimensions selection for performance evaluation is obtained by descriptive and correlation analysis.Finally,the above nine dimensions are classified into 4 dimensions: economy,efficiency,effectiveness and equality,and specific performance evaluation indicators are proposed for each demension.%为了探索灾后重建公益性项目绩效评价方法,在公共部门绩效评估的4E主流思想上,提出了灾后重建公益性项目绩效评估的九大维度。运用Delphi法和SPSS软件对这些维度的使用情况进行了全面系统的描述,通过数据整理进行描述性、相关性分析,得出了灾后重建公益性投资项目绩效评估维度选择的可能范围。最后,把上述的九大维度具体的划分到经济性、效率性、效益性、公平性等4个维度,并提出了每个维度下具体的绩效评估指标。

  5. Pragmatic sociology and competing orders of worth in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2011-01-01

    sociologists Luc Boltanski and Laurent Thévenot have contributed to this line of research with a sophisticated theoretical framework of orders of worth, which has been applied in an increasing number of empirical studies. This article explores how the order of worth framework has been applied to empirical...... primarily has been related to three main themes in organizational research: non-profit and co-operative organizations, inter-organizational co-operation, and organizational change. Third, I discuss how the pragmatic, process-oriented aspect of the research program, focusing on the intertwining of values...

  6. Mitigating Settlement of Structures founded on Peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeyesekera, D. C.; Numbikannu, L.; Ismail, T. N. H. T.; Bakar, I.

    2016-07-01

    Observations made of two common failures of structures founded on peat/organic soil in Johor, Malaysia is presented. Critical evaluation of current lightweight fill technology to mitigate such settlement is also discussed. Lightweight technology, such as Expanded Polystyrene (EPS), has been used in construction on soft yielding ground for decades. Regrettably, some published information of EPS failures to perform on construction sites are also cited in this paper. This paper outlines some concepts leading to the development of an alternative innovative lightweight fill is that the idealised cellular structure of the GCM permit free flow of water and complemented by the mat structure which evens out any differential settlement A further highlight of this paper is the monitoring of the field performance of this lightweight fill (GCM) as a feasible alternative to fill weight reduction on yielding ground.. Hence, a prime research objective was to compare the fill settlements observed with 1m high fill of surcharge loading on peat ground (comparison of the case of using a partial 0.6m high GCM and that of a total of 1m of conventional sand backfill).

  7. Marketing neziskových organizací

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Veronika

    2008-01-01

    In diploma thesis I'm dealing with marketing activity usage in non-profit organizations. There are description of non-profit segment and definition of non-profit organizations in theoretic part, followed by specific classification, typology and kinds of non-profit organizations. Then I attend to financing non-profit organizations and marketing, with focusing on marketing conception, leading and marketing mix. Practice part describes marketing activity in two chosen non-profit organisations en...

  8. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... in the future? How and why do they have so much influence over us, and what influences them? How do they contribute to and detract from the meaningfulness of lives, and how might we improve them so they better serve our needs and desires? This Very Short Introductions addresses all of these questions...

  9. 浅议非营利组织参与社会保障的问题及原因%To Discuss the Issue and Reason of Nonprofit Organization Participating Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    从容; 袁康; 吕天晗

    2011-01-01

    随着我国社会进入转型期,改革步入深水区,社会保障问题受到了人们的广泛关注.我国非营利组织近年来迅猛发展,它在社会保障领域内发挥的作用日益显现.本文从非营利组织在社会保障领域内发挥的重要作用出发,阐述了非营利组织在参与社会保障过程中面临的问题并分析了原因,最后简要提出了完善非营利组织参与社会保障的相关对策.%As our society coining into the age of social transformation, reformation coming into the deeper level, social security has caught people's attention. Chinese Non-profit organization has developed rapidly in recent years, and it plays an important role in social security increasingly. Firstly, this article introduced that the Non-profit organization played the important role in society security. Secondly, it described the problems that the Non-profit organization participated in the area of social security and analyzed the reasons. Lastly, the article briefly put forward the related measures of the Nonprofit organizations participating in social security.

  10. Instruments of the Marketing Mix in Non-Governmental Organizations – the Results of Empirical Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kwak, Wioletta

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present the instruments of the marketing mix of NGOs in light of empirical research. Marketing mix is the set of instruments for the implementation of marketing strategies of the organization. The paper presents selected results of research on the role of marketing strategies of non-profit organizations in creating value for stakeholders. In the literature one can find different concepts of “marketing mix”, for example, “4P”, “5P”, “7P”, “4C”. The survey results a...

  11. Founding a Foundation: A Mini Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Dale B.

    1981-01-01

    Lists factors contributing to the need for increased fund raising in community colleges. Discusses advantages of a foundation as a means of obtaining private funds. Delineates specifics of establishing, organizing, and implementing the Kalamazoo Valley Community College Foundation. (DMM)

  12. OPERATIONS NECESSARY FOR THE DIAGNOSIS ANALYSIS OF THE ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAIUS LĂZĂRESCU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis analysis is as important as is necessary for any profit or non-profit organization, it shows the situation of the organization, helps to prevent the risks, threats and future forecast. The diagnosis analysis must present: the general situation, financial situation, human and managerial potential, technical and technological potential of the organization. Once known these aspects important for the organization, the decision or decisions can be made being aware of it and in real time. The diagnosis analysis is a procedure which is achieved in a relatively short period of time and offers solutions with global character, formulates an action program which will include detailed analysis. The high degree of complexity of the analysis needs a multidisciplinary training which can establish the method, to collect and process the data and to offer the solutions, for which this can be made by specialized companies or by specialized staff from organization self-analysis.

  13. Light at the end of the poverty tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    Light Up The World, a non-profit organization founded by optical engineer Dave Irvine-Halliday, is on a mission to bring safe, clean and affordable lighting to impoverished people. Nature Photonics finds out more.

  14. Antiproton radiation found effective in cancer research

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "An international collaboration of scientists has completed the first ever antiproton beam experiments designed to reveal the biological effectiveness of antiproton radiation in terminating cells used for cancer research...PBar Labs assembled the collaboration at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research in Geneva) to perform the measurements" (1 page).

  15. Life Found Lurking under Arctic Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah Graham; 刘晓

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Arctic tundra② would not appear a welcoming environment for life. But a paper published today in the journal Nature suggests that polar deserts may house photosynthetic③ organisms in a very unlikely place--under rocks. The discovery of the photosynthetic cyanobacteria④ could potentially double estimates of the carbon sequestration⑤ potential in these extreme environments.

  16. Can Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumors Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also be found when parts of the gastrointestinal system are removed to treat other diseases. For example, a person with stomach pain or bleeding may have a test called an upper endoscopy to look for an ulcer. In this ...

  17. Zika Found in Eye Fluid in Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160986.html Zika Found in Eye Fluid in Study Virus may ... 15, 2016 THURSDAY, Sept. 15, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Zika can be detected in fluid inside the eyelid ...

  18. Can Thymus Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thymus Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Thymus Cancer Be Found Early? Screening is testing for ... Ask Your Doctor About Thymus Cancer? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  19. Medical Mysteries: "Thankful They Found a Cause"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Medical Mysteries “Thankful They Found a Cause” Past Issues / ... conditions that have long eluded diagnosis, and advance medical knowledge about rare and common diseases. Accepted into ...

  20. China-South Africa Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 24, the founding ceremony of the China-South Africa Friendship Association (CSAFA) was held in Beijing on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Africa.

  1. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Thyroid Cancer Be Found Early? Many cases of thyroid cancer ... Health Care Team About Thyroid Cancer? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  2. Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ovarian Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Ovarian Cancer Be Found Early? About 20% of ovarian cancers ... cancer in its earliest stage. Ways to find ovarian cancer early Regular women's health exams During a pelvic ...

  3. Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testicular Cancer Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Testicular Cancer Be Found Early? Most testicular cancers can be ... Ask Your Doctor About Testicular Cancer? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  4. Live Worms Found Amid STS-107 Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Project Manager Fred Ahmay holds a Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) container in which C. elegans nemotodes (round worms) were found. The container was part of a middeck experiment that was among Columbia's debris recovered in East Texas. The worms were found alive after flying on Columbia's last mission, STS-107. The experiment was designed to verify a new synthetic nutrient solution for an International Space Station 'model' specimen planned to be used extensively for ISS gene expression studies and was sponsored by the NASA Ames Research Center. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  5. China-Nepal Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The China-Nepal Friendship Association (CNFA) initiated by the CPAFFC and cared and supported by people of various circles was formally founded on August 16,2004. Sun Fuling, former vice chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative

  6. Large Nonferrous Metals Deposits Found in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    <正>According to the Department of Land and Resources of Yunnan, Yunnan has made great achievements since implementation of the geological prospecting action plan. 5 ultra-large deposits and several large deposits have been found, and a group of key areas with favorable ore-forming prospect have been pinpointed.

  7. Well-Founded Belief and Perceptual Justification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broncano-Berrocal, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    According to Alan Millar, justified beliefs are well-founded beliefs. Millar cashes out the notion of well-foundedness in terms of having an adequate reason to believe something and believing it for that reason. To make his account of justified belief compatible with perceptual justification he a...

  8. Establishment probability in newly founded populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusset Markus

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishment success in newly founded populations relies on reaching the established phase, which is defined by characteristic fluctuations of the population’s state variables. Stochastic population models can be used to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations; however, so far no simple but robust method for doing so existed. To determine a critical initial number of individuals that need to be released to reach the established phase, we used a novel application of the “Wissel plot”, where –ln(1 – P0(t is plotted against time t. This plot is based on the equation P0t=1–c1e–ω1t, which relates the probability of extinction by time t, P0(t, to two constants: c1 describes the probability of a newly founded population to reach the established phase, whereas ω1 describes the population’s probability of extinction per short time interval once established. Results For illustration, we applied the method to a previously developed stochastic population model of the endangered African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. A newly founded population reaches the established phase if the intercept of the (extrapolated linear parts of the “Wissel plot” with the y-axis, which is –ln(c1, is negative. For wild dogs in our model, this is the case if a critical initial number of four packs, consisting of eight individuals each, are released. Conclusions The method we present to quantify the establishment probability of newly founded populations is generic and inferences thus are transferable to other systems across the field of conservation biology. In contrast to other methods, our approach disaggregates the components of a population’s viability by distinguishing establishment from persistence.

  9. H&M – a role model for organic cotton use in textile processing?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sweden’s Hennes & Mauritz (operating as H&M) is one of the biggest multinational retail-clothing companies in the world. As a result of massive criticism from campaigning non-profit organizations and news media reports that blamed H&M for unfair and substandard working conditions in their ancillary industries, in 1997 the company began to develop a corporate social responsibility (CSR) program and a code of conduct. Today H&M has a wide-ranging, broadly integrated CSR pro-gram. As a part of i...

  10. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso Bailão

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi, Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru, Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita, Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga, Genipa americana L. (jenipapo, Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba, Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti, Myrciaria cauliflora (DC Berg (jabuticaba, Psidium guajava L. (goiaba, Psidium spp. (araçá, Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira, Spondias mombin L. (cajá, Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum, among others are reported here.

  11. Bioactive Compounds Found in Brazilian Cerrado Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailão, Elisa Flávia Luiz Cardoso; Devilla, Ivano Alessandro; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Borges, Leonardo Luiz

    2015-10-09

    Functional foods include any natural product that presents health-promoting effects, thereby reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Cerrado fruits are considered a source of bioactive substances, mainly phenolic compounds, making them important functional foods. Despite this, the losses of natural vegetation in the Cerrado are progressive. Hence, the knowledge propagation about the importance of the species found in Cerrado could contribute to the preservation of this biome. This review provides information about Cerrado fruits and highlights the structures and pharmacologic potential of functional compounds found in these fruits. Compounds detected in Caryocar brasiliense Camb. (pequi), Dipteryx alata Vog. (baru), Eugenia dysenterica DC. (cagaita), Eugenia uniflora L. (pitanga), Genipa americana L. (jenipapo), Hancornia speciosa Gomes (mangaba), Mauritia flexuosa L.f. (buriti), Myrciaria cauliflora (DC) Berg (jabuticaba), Psidium guajava L. (goiaba), Psidium spp. (araçá), Solanum lycocarpum St. Hill (lobeira), Spondias mombin L. (cajá), Annona crassiflora Mart. (araticum), among others are reported here.

  12. Study on Logistics Management Model of Mutual-Beneficial Non-profit Organizations Based on Creating Shared Value%基于创造共享价值的互益性非营利组织物流管理模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申光龙; 葛法权; 秦鹏飞; 彭晓东

    2015-01-01

    为满足顾客的需求,互益性非营利组织的物流系统需要实现前端向顾客延伸、中端服务精细化、后期延长支持性活动,并需要在物流系统中增加新的功能.在创造共享价值理念指引下建立的物流管理模式在满足以上需求的同时还实现了在物流管理理念、物流功能、物流服务以及物流流程上的创新.该模式能有效提高互益性非营利组织员工、志愿者、物流联盟等利益相关者的社会责任感、积极性和主动性,进而提高物流系统的运营效果.

  13. The motivations of the executives of the social organizations in the processes of qualification in management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcos Vargas de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A phenomenon that has been observed regarding the calls organizations of the Third Sector, beyond the interest of the researches regarding these organizations, is the increasing number of courses directed to the qualification of its professionals in developed techniques of the management originally toward the organizations of market. The first ones to study this phenomenon had related to a new logic introduced for the financial agents of the activities of these organizations, that they had started to have a significant participation from the decade of 60 (international Non-Profit Organizations, and the new financiers that from years 90 they have, gradual, if become its more influential agents (companies. This work was developed in the attempt to identify the preponderant reasons for the organizations of Third Sector to search such type of qualification, through the analysis of the motivations of the executives of 74 participant organizations of a course of qualification in management.

  14. Commentary on Malone: Who Founded Behaviorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Hayne W

    2015-05-01

    Malone (The Behavior Analyst, 37, 1-12 2014) argued that the emergence of behaviorism was inevitable with or without Watson's participation, mainly because protobehavioral ideas and dissatisfaction with classical structuralism were already widespread. However, the first premise is questionable because many of the ideas Malone cited were consistent with structuralism rather than behaviorism, and even if both premises were true they would not make the emergence of behaviorism-or anything else-inevitable. Historical evidence for inevitability is always retrospective and therefore always allows the logical fallacy of "after this, therefore because of this." In the relevant real world Watson existed, he was a psychologist, he was the first to publish an article that described a "behaviorism," and he promoted his behaviorism in later works. Stories about what would have happened without Watson's participation are therefore counterfactual and this lack of historicity makes the stories fictional rather than scientific. In the real world, Watson founded behaviorism.

  15. 34 CFR 74.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.2 Definitions. The following... research by a non-profit institution of higher education or non-profit organization whose principal purpose... education, public and private hospitals, and other quasi-public and private non-profit organizations such...

  16. Yeasts found in vineyards and wineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Cristian; Borneman, Anthony R

    2017-03-01

    Wine is a complex beverage, comprising thousands of metabolites that are produced through the action of a plethora of yeasts and bacteria during fermentation of grape must. These microbial communities originate in the vineyard and the winery and reflect the influence of several factors including grape variety, geographical location, climate, vineyard spraying, technological practices, processing stage and season (pre-harvest, harvest, post-harvest). Vineyard and winery microbial communities have the potential to participate during fermentation and influence wine flavour and aroma. Therefore, there is an enormous interest in isolating and characterising these communities, particularly non-Saccharomyces yeast species to increase wine flavour diversity, while also exploting regional signature microbial populations to enhance regionality. In this review we describe the role and relevance of the main non-Saccharomyces yeast species found in vineyards and wineries. This includes the latest reports covering the application of these species for winemaking; and the biotechnological characteristics and potential applications of non-Saccharomyces species in other areas. In particular, we focus attention on the species for which molecular and genomic tools and resources are available for study. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Did John B. Watson Really "Found" Behaviorism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, John C

    2014-05-01

    Developments culminating in the nineteenth century, along with the predictable collapse of introspective psychology, meant that the rise of behavioral psychology was inevitable. In 1913, John B. Watson was an established scientist with impeccable credentials who acted as a strong and combative promoter of a natural science approach to psychology when just such an advocate was needed. He never claimed to have founded "behavior psychology" and, despite the acclaim and criticism attending his portrayal as the original behaviorist, he was more an exemplar of a movement than a founder. Many influential writers had already characterized psychology, including so-called mental activity, as behavior, offered many applications, and rejected metaphysical dualism. Among others, William Carpenter, Alexander Bain, and (early) Sigmund Freud held views compatible with twentieth-century behaviorism. Thus, though Watson was the first to argue specifically for psychology as a natural science, behaviorism in both theory and practice had clear roots long before 1913. If behaviorism really needs a "founder," Edward Thorndike might seem more deserving, because of his great influence and promotion of an objective psychology, but he was not a true behaviorist for several important reasons. Watson deserves the fame he has received, since he first made a strong case for a natural science (behaviorist) approach and, importantly, he made people pay attention to it.

  18. Decalcified choroidal osteoma found in the retina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikawa T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tadanobu Yoshikawa, Kanji TakahashiDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kansai Medical University, Hirakata Hospital, Osaka, JapanAbstract: Choroidal osteoma is a benign tumor of the choroid. Herein, we report a rare case of decalcified choroidal osteoma found in the retina. A 27-year-old woman presented with visual loss. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/50 OS. Ophthalmoscopy of the left eye revealed a yellow-white calcified region accompanied by a decalcified region of four disc diameters in size. After 6 years, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed a tumor projected strongly upwards from the choroid and partially through the retina with serous retinal detachment, with both a lamellar appearance and mound-like area. The calcified region became more contractive than was observed on the first visit. Conversely, the decalcified region was wider than was observed on the first visit. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/400 OS. Choroidal osteoma was worsened by progression of decalcification. The decalcified choroidal osteoma resulted in poor visual acuity, and projected strongly upward from the choroid and into the retina.Keywords: osteoma, decalcification, choroidal osteoma

  19. Dick Jewell’s Found Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Walker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract (E:

    In 1977, the young British artist Dick Jewell self-published a small book Found Photos, a collection of photobooth images that had been thrown away or torn up by the people in the photos. This essay places that book in the context of the development of interest in vernacular photography during the 1970s, and relates it to other projects using pictures made in photobooths, both before and since.

     

    Abstract (F:

    Dilemmas and Challenges in the Marketing of Hybrid Organizations: A Theoretical Exploration of Dutch Sheltered Work Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieske van der Torre

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the dilemmas and challenges that hybrid organizations face when developing marketing strategies. Hybrid organizations are organizations that combine tasks and characteristics of governmental organizations, private (for profit organizations, and non-profit organizations. In this article, we show that these organizations are confronted with different target groups, organizational identities and key images. In some instances, the key messages that need to be transmitted through marketing strategies may even be incompatible. Dutch sheltered work companies are illustrative examples of hybrid organizations. They compete with temp work agencies in providing employees to employers, they provide care for people with severe disabilities and they implement the Dutch Sheltered Work Act in their role of governmental agencies. This article theoretically identifies the challenges and dilemmas that may be involved in the marketing of these diverse activities and explores strategies that may be used to overcome these challenges and dilemmas.

  1. Superluminal Motion Found In Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    subatomic particles from its poles, and it is in these jets that the rapidly-moving material was tracked. The object, known as GRS 1915+105, also is a strong emitter of X-Rays, sometimes becoming the strongest source of X-Rays in the Milky Way. The X-rays, they think, are emitted from the system's accretion disk. The VLA observations, along with other evidence the researchers have uncovered, leads them to believe that, despite being much less massive than galactic cores, other double-star systems may be capable of ejecting material at speeds near that of light. The researchers reported their discovery in the September 1 issue of the journal Nature. "This discovery is one of the most valuable results of more than a decade and a half of observations at the VLA," said Dr. Miller Goss, assistant director of NRAO for VLA/VLBA operations. "We see these fast-moving jets of material throughout the universe, and they represent an important physical process. However, they're usually so far away that it's difficult to study them. This object, relatively nearby, offers the best opportunity yet to build a good understanding of how such jets actually work," Goss added. GRS 1915+105 was discovered in 1992 by an orbiting French- Russian X-ray observatory called SIGMA-GRANAT. It had not been found before because its X-rays are highly-energetic "hard" X-rays not regularly observed by satellites before then. Since its discovery, it has repeatedly been seen as a source of "hard" X- rays. Despite searching, the scientists have been unable to observe the object in visible light. Observations with the VLA in 1992 and 1993 showed that the object changed both its radio "brightness" and its apparent position in the sky, but it was then too faint at radio wavelengths for precise measurements. In March of 1994, the object began an outburst of strong radio emission just as the VLA had entered a configuration capable of its most precise positional measurements. Through March and April of 1994, Mirabel

  2. GOODS Missing Black Hole Report: Hundreds Found!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-01

    time when the universe was in its infancy, between 2.5 and 4.5 billion years old. When the astronomers peered more closely at the galaxies with Spitzer's infrared eyes, they noticed that about 200 of the galaxies gave off an unusual amount of infrared light. X-ray data from Chandra, and a technique called "stacking," revealed the galaxies were in fact hiding plump quasars inside. The scientists now think that the quasars heat the dust in their surrounding doughnut clouds, releasing the excess infrared light. "We found most of the population of hidden quasars in the early universe," said Daddi. Previously, only the rarest and most energetic of these hidden black holes had been seen at this early epoch. For decades, large populations of active black holes have been considered missing. These highly energetic structures, also called quasars, consist of a dusty, doughnut-shaped cloud that surrounds and feeds a growing supermassive black hole. They give off a lot of X-rays that can be detected as a general glow in space, but sometimes the quasars themselves can't be seen because dust and gas blocks their X-rays from our point of view. The newfound quasars are helping answer fundamental questions about how massive galaxies evolve. For instance, astronomers have learned that most massive galaxies steadily build up their stars and black holes simultaneously until they get too big and their black holes suppress star formation. The observations also suggest that collisions between galaxies might not play as large a role in galaxy evolution as previously believed. "Theorists thought that mergers between galaxies were required to initiate this quasar activity, but we now see that quasars can be active in unharrassed galaxies," said co-author David Alexander of Durham University, United Kingdom. "It's as if we were blind-folded studying the elephant before, and we weren't sure what kind of animal we had," added co-author David Elbaz of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. "Now, we

  3. NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS: PROBLEMS & REMEDIES IN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotte Prabhakar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available NGO are non-profit making agencies that are constituted with a vision by a group of like mindedpeople, committed for the uplift of the poor, marginalized, unprivileged, underprivileged,impoverished, downtrodden and the needy and they are closer and accessible to the target groups.Фlexible in administration, quicker in decision making, timely in action and facilitating the peopletowards self-reliance ensuring their fullest participation in the whole process of development. Theachievements and success of NGOs in various fields and the excellent work done by them in specificareas is no doubt a tremendous task that has helped to meet the changing needs of the social system.However, insprite of its achievements in various fields, NGOs are facing different problems whichdiffer from organization to organization, region to region. In this context, an attempt is made in thispaper to discuss some of the common problems faced by the NGOs and to give some remedies toovercome these problems.

  4. How the American Society for Virology was founded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joklik, Wolfang K; Grossberg, Sidney E

    2006-01-05

    The American Society for Virology, the very first such Society to be formed anywhere, was founded at a meeting of some 40 virologists at Chicago O'Hare International airport on June 9, 1981. They met after a decade and a half of intense discussion that originated at the 9th International Congress of Microbiology in Moscow in 1966 when a small group of virologists requested the International Association of Microbiological Societies to form a Virology Section within IAMS, and this request was rejected. Virologists therefore held their own First International Congress of Virology in Helsinki in 1968 which was very successful and generated intense informal discussion among leading virologists in this country as to the desirability of founding an American society for virologists. Proposals were circulated and discussed which resulted in the informal Chicago meeting that created the mechanism for founding the ASV and organizing its 1st Annual Meeting at Cornell in Ithaca in August 1982.

  5. 凝聚非营利组织力量的多视角思考%Multi-perspective thinking on concentrating nonprofit organization power

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄彰国

    2015-01-01

    China’s reform and opening is now in the time of social transition. In this period, we should learn from developed countries to gather non-profit organizations in order to build a moderately prosperous society, and strengthen the role of non-profit organizations in different ways to promote the economy in the global community. From the perspective of macro and micro analysis, nonprofit organizations can quickly and efficiently assist the government to achieve the dream of the people, gather Chinese forces, and fully realize the Chinese dream.%中国的改革开放迄今仍处于社会转型时期,正学习如何走向发达国家。凝聚当代非营利组织(Non-Profit Organizations, NPOs)第三部门力量,对全面建成小康社会有着不可忽视的作用。加强全球社会中以非营利组织不同的方式或角色担负的促进经济及扶助弱势的角色,从宏观及微观视角分析可见:在各种现象发生时,该组织能快速而有效地协助政府工作,进而凝聚中国力量,走中国道路,全面实现中国梦。

  6. Problems of Newly-Founded Universities and Solution Offers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem DOĞAN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many new universities have recently been founded due to economic, social and cultural reasons in our country. These universities face various problems stemming from whether their locations or their organizational structures. Revealing problems experienced within these newly-founded universities and developing possible solutions for these problems are important in in order to increase the service quality provided by higher education which is one of the most important institutions that generate qualified human power. In this study, the problems of the universities founded after 2006 have been put forth with both administrative and academic staffs' view points and solution offers have been developed towards these problems with a common point of view. In this study in which quantitative and qualitative research methods used, is used Scale of Academicians' Problems was applied to 150 academics as the data gathering device. In order to profoundly examine the data acquired by the scale, two administrative personnel were interviewed and a focus-group interview was performed with eight academics. According to the study data, the most important problem of newly-founded universities is the lack of institutionalization. Physical inadequacy and lack of qualified personnel follow this problem. Efficient management and forming an efficient organization structure are among suggested solution offers.

  7. Mental health consumer-operated services organizations in the US: citizenship as a core function and strategy for growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2011-06-01

    Consumer-operated services organizations (COSOs) are independent, non-profit organizations that provide peer support and other non-clinical services to seriously mentally ill people. Mental health consumers provide many of these services and make up at least a majority of the organization's leadership. Although the dominant conception of the COSO is as an adjunct to clinical care in the public mental health system, this paper reconcieves the organization as a civic association and thereby a locus of citizenship. Drawing on empirical research on COSOs in one state and the citizenship and civic democracy literatures, COSOs are analyzed here as membership organizations with democratic norms and strong ties to local communities. The suggestion is made that by embracing and enhancing their status as civic associations, COSOs may advance the goals of the social movement that spawned them and avoid predictable obstacles to further growth and development.

  8. THE PERFORMANCE OF NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Ciucescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Operation of NGOs is dependent on the correct identification of the needs in the community and their ability to attract the necessary funds to cover them. Non-profit organizations interest to performance measuring and fulfilling the objectives has increased lately, this it become an essential element for the survival of the organization. The main reasons that underlie the increasing interest are: increasing the number of new organizations; increasing the budgetary reductions; the decrease in the number of donors; increasing the challenges arising from the multiplicity of social cases. In addition, the majority of the stakeholders associated with the NGOs want to know if the programs or services they claim have a prominent and positive impact on the community. Such organizations felt the need to demonstrate the effectiveness of the programs they provide and the correctness of using the funds are made available. The article intends to present the issues related to the concept of performance for NGOs, to clarify the content of each performance categories, namely economic performance, managerial performance and social performance.

  9. APECTS REGARDING INTERNAL AUDIT PLANNING IN THE NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELA VITAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Our study refers to the planning of internal audit within the nonprofit organizations. The starting point is the hypothesis that planning of internal audit in nonprofit organizations is printed by their specific features and we want to highlight the way this influence occurs, which are the specific objectives that have to be pursued within the internal audit. During our research, in order to test the hypothesis we studied the national legal regulations, the specific literature of the field and we realized a practical documentation by consulting the internal audit guides of a foreign nonprofit organization. Our study reveals that in this area the legislation in force refers only to the compulsiveness of developing the internal audit activity in some specific categories of nonprofit organizations, without referring to the specific rules of organizing this activity within the nonprofit organizations. The national literature of the field is poor, but at the international level, the authors have concerns regarding the internal audit within the nonprofits. From a practical point of view, we emphasized the specific aspects of nonprofit organizations followed while planning internal audit regarding the financial system, budgetary system, internal control system, financing sources and human resources. We concluded that each audited field is influenced by the specific features of non-profit organizations within them. These features must be taken into account when planning the audit and drawing up the specific procedures within the nonprofits in order to add value to the audited information within internal audit engagement.

  10. U.S. system for organ procurement and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, M J; Alexander, D C

    1992-07-01

    The establishment and responsibilities of the organ procurement and transplantation network in the United States are discussed, and the process of receiving an organ transplant through the system is described. The National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 provided for a federally funded network for organ procurement and transplantation, which would function as a private, non-profit organization. This organization is the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS). UNOS monitors the activities of and provides service to transplant centers and organ procurement organizations (OPOs). The names of all candidates awaiting cadaveric organ transplants are placed on a central waiting list maintained by UNOS; UNOS also is responsible for maintaining a scientific registry to collect relevant data from transplant centers on the recipients of organ transplants. Although there is a national list of more than 25,000 persons waiting at any given time for a cadaveric organ, there are far fewer actual organ donors (less than 5000 in 1991). The hospital's best resource with respect to the donation process is the local OPO, which provides services related to organ donor referral, evaluation, and surgical recovery. The organ donation process consists of eight components: donor identification, referral, evaluation, consent, management, recovery of organs, allocation, and follow-up. An organ recovery coordinator from the local OPO helps the hospital staff in determining donation potential, seeking consent from the next of kin, and managing the donor after consent has been obtained. The OPO--never the donor's family or their insurer--is billed for charges relating to the donation. The OPO then bills the costs associated with the donation to the transplant centers receiving each organ for implantation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Autonomy and structure can enhance motivation of volunteers in sport organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei Ting; Wu, Kou Hsien; Wang, Yi Ching; Hsiao, Chia Huei; Wu, Hui Chin

    2013-12-01

    The goal was better understanding of the motivational factors of volunteers in non-profit sport organizations. The roles of two factors provided by supervisors to their subordinates were examined: autonomy support, i.e., the encouragement of self-initiation and emphasis on choice rather than control, and structure, i.e., the introduction of order, definite procedures, and rules. 489 sport volunteers (289 men, 200 women; M age = 31.2 yr., SD = 7.4) were administered questionnaires assessing their perceived autonomy support, structure, and motivation. Regression analysis indicated that perceived autonomy support predicted motivation. Structure also mediated the effect of perceived autonomy support on motivation. Supervisors of sport organizations should provide adequate structure for their volunteers.

  12. STUDY REGARDING THE FINANCING AND TAXATION OF THE ROMANIAN NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Although at first sight the concept of non-profit organization seems relatively new, it has developed centuries ago and today it demonstrate its importance more than ever. If in the Western Europe states, the civil society has been constantly present in people's lives, the Romanian citizens bring back to life this concept in order to make further economic and social progress. The transition to the democracy, after 1989, has offered a favorable political context in order to develop the cooperatively sector. This transformation took place in the context of dramatically political, economic and social changes. Thus, the financing of nonprofit sector know various forms, from public sources, charity, economic activities up to make donations and forwarding a share of the income tax. Furthermore, in non-governmental sector organizations currently get the benefit of a series of benefits of fiscal nature.

  13. The Impact of Demographic Changes on the Organization of Emergency Medical Services: the Case of Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaklič Tatjana Kitić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The modern environment requires that organizations (profit and non-profit continually harmonize their organizational models with changes in their respective environments and with their own visions and strategies for further development. The organizational structure of Emergency Medical Services (hereinafter EMS is currently a very topical issue in Slovenia, given that a project to establish a new organization of EMS is currently underway at the national level. By examining the case of one region in Slovenia, this article presents an analysis of factors that impact on the number and types of EMS activities and depicts a forecast of future trends for the requirement of EMS. The analysis presents the initial phase of a strategic planning process for the mentioned activity and consequently, a starting point for the formation of an organizational EMS model.

  14. The History of Turkish Pediatric Nephrology: Founding and Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayfer Gür GÜVEN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the foundation of ‘Pediatric Nephrology’ in Turkey including the first steps in the international arena, the achievements in institutionalisation of services and training of pediatricians, and the renal care offered to pediatric patients suffering from kidney diseases. The world history of pediatric nephrology dates back to the 1960ies and 1970ies when the pioneers of pediatric nephrology including Ihsan Dogramaci, the great mentor with a cosmopolitain vision, paid much attention to pediatric nephrology, thus initiating the process of implementing pediatric nephrology in Turkey and in Europe. In the year 1983, Pediatric Nephrology achieved the status of a subspecialty in Pediatrics in Turkey. The founding of the Turkish Society of Pediatric Nephrology in 1990 provided the basis for standardization and institutionalisation of training in pediatric nephrology; and it also accelerated the development of clinical studies and experimental research. The construction of well-equipped modern hospitals as well as the financial support by both universities and pharmaceutical industry played important roles in the rapid increase in scientific activities. In 2012, nearly 150 well-trained specialists are the basis for a high standard of clinical care and for publishing activities, thus putting Turkey into the front line of publications and of congress presentations in the world. Today, Turkey has 50 pediatric nephrology centers including 19 pediatric hemodialysis units, 39 pediatric peritoneal dialysis units and 16 pediatric transplantation centers. The achievements of the founding generation include the participation at international congresses, the organization of a European congress of Pediatric Nephrology in Istanbul and the active cooperation with well-known experts in ESPN and IPNA councils. The new generation of Turkish pediatric nephrologists is well prepared to take over the mission they have learned from the pioneers, and

  15. Comparison of Development of Non-governmental Organizations and the Current State of Their Funding in Slovakia and Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svidroňová Mária

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Non-governmental organizations play a vital role in the economy of every country. They are not only providers of special type of services that public sector is not capable of providing in full quality and quantity, and private sector is not interested in, but they are also watch dogs of the society and builders of active citizenship. Thus they have become an object of many research studies. The divergence in their goals, sizes, roles, types of services provided, and ways of funding make NGOs an interesting subject. As a goal for our research we therefore chose a comparison of the development and state of the Slovak and Austrian non-profit sector in the view of historical development of both countries. Consequently, we want to evaluate the funding of NGOs in Slovakia and Austria. In the paper we map the development of non-profit sector in Slovakia and Austria and in the context of a common historical development we assess a current state and a potential of economic strength of NGOs in both countries. The output is comparison of funding of NGOs in Slovakia and Austria based on statistical data evaluation. Subsequently, we propose recommendation for suitable diversification of the funding sources.

  16. Bioremediation of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) Polluted Soil Using Microorganisms Found in Organic Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Okwute, Ojonoma L.; Ijah, Udeme J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of chicken droppings and cow dung in the amendment of soil polluted with palm oil mill effluent (POME) in bioremediation. Soil polluted with 20 % raw (POME) in the laboratory was amended with different concentrations of chicken droppings, cow dung and a combination of the wastes (10 %, 20 % and 30 %). Isolation, characterization and identification of microorganisms were carried out and compared over time with respect to the different concentrat...

  17. Removal of PCB and other halogenated organic contaminants found in ex situ structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Coon, Christina (Inventor); Filipek, Laura B. (Inventor); Berger, Cristina M. (Inventor); Milum, Kristen M. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Emulsified systems of a surfactant-stabilized, biodegradable water-in-solvent emulsion with bimetallic particles contained with the emulsion droplets are useful at removing PCBs from ex situ structures. The hydrophobic emulsion system draws PCBs through the solvent/surfactant membrane. Once inside the membrane, the PCBs diffuse into the bimetallic particles and undergo degradation. The PCBs continue to enter, diffuse, degrade, and biphenyl will exit the particle maintaining a concentration gradient across the membrane and maintaining a driving force of the reaction.

  18. Lower Consent Rates for Organ Donation Found among Racial and Ethnic Minorities and Older Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevención y bienestar Condiciones y enfermedades Atención médica Medicamentos La seguridad del paciente Calidad de atención médica ... changes Pediatric leukemia patients are among the childhood cancer ... combined oral contraceptives have greater risk of blood clots Clinical ...

  19. The Establishment of a Formal Midwest Renewable Energy Tracking System (M-RETS) Organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maria Redmond; Chela Bordas O' Connor

    2010-06-30

    The objectives identified in requesting and utilizing this funding has been met. The goal was to establish a formal, multi-jurisdictional organization to: (1) ensure the policy objectives of the participating jurisdictions are addressed through increased tradability of the Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) from M-RETS and to eliminate the possibility that a single jurisdiction will be the sole arbiter of the operation of the system; (2) facilitate the establishment of REC standards including the attributes related to, the creation, trading, and interaction with other trading and tracking systems; and (3) have a centralized and established organization that will be responsible for the contracting and governance responsibilities of a multi-jurisdictional tracking system. The M-RETS Inc. Board ensures that the system remains policy neutral; that the attributes of generation are tracked in a way that allows the system users to easily identify and trade relevant RECs; that the system can add jurisdictions as needed or desired; and that the tracking system operate in such a way to allow for the greatest access possible for those participating in other tracking or trading systems by allowing those systems to negotiate with a single M-RETS entity for the import and export of RECs. M-RETS as an organizational body participates and often leads the discussions related to the standardization of RECs and increasing the tradability of M-RETS RECs. M-RETS is a founding member of the Environmental Trading Network of North America (ETNNA) and continues to take a leadership role in the development of processes to facilitate trading among tracking systems and to standardize REC definitions. The Board of Directors of M-RETS, Inc., the non-profit corporation, continues to hold telephone/internet Board meetings. Legal counsel continues working with the board and APX management on a new agreement with APX. The board expects to have an agreement and corresponding fee structure in place by

  20. MSUD Family Support Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group The MSUD Family Support Group is a non-profit 501 (c)(3) organization for those with MSUD ... Family Support Group is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with no paid staff. Funds are needed ...

  1. The Founding of the Brookhaven National Laboratory - Associated Universities, Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    1948-01-15

    report, the final report of the Columbia University contracts which financed the first year of development of the Brookhaven National Laboratory, summarizes the successive stages of organization, the considerations underlying some of its basic policies, and the methods of attack on the general problems encountered in founding the Laboratory. During the preliminary period of planning covered by this report, from early January 1946 until January 31, 1947, Columbia paid for salaries, office space, travel and consultant fees, and other expenses incurred by the new organization. These funds were provided through contracts held by the university with the War Department and later with the AEC. A supplement, dated April 3, to a contract with the War Department, W-7405-eng-50, covered the work to June 30, 1946. Contract W-3l-l09-eng-15, with the War Department, covered the work to December 31, 1946. On January 1, 1947, this contract was converted to a contract with the AEC, AT-30-1-GEN-71, which lasted until January 31, 1947. After this date a Letter Contract, AT-30-2-GEN-16, dated January 7, 1947, between AUI and the AEC, permitted AUI to assume all expenses.

  2. Fundraising neziskové organizace

    OpenAIRE

    WILDOVÁ, Lucie

    2015-01-01

    The theoretical part of this thesis characterizes non-profit organization and its various types. In this part various possibilities of financing of these organizations are listed. This part defines the concept of fundraising and explains its connection with non-profit organizations. At the end of the theoretical part particular methods and forms of fundraising are listed. The practical part describes a selected non-profit organization, its history and its activity. In this non-profit organiza...

  3. Leadership in nonprofit organizations of Nicaragua and El Salvador: a study from the social identity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriano León, Juan Antonio; Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Lévy Mangin, Jean-Pierre

    2009-11-01

    This study follows the social identity model of leadership proposed by van Knippenberg and Hogg (2003), in order to examine empirically the mediator effect of leadership prototypicality between social identity, extra effort, and perceived effectiveness of group members. The sample consisted of 109 participants who worked in 22 different work-teams of non-profit organizations (NPO) from Nicaragua and El Salvador. The data analysis was performed through structural equation modeling (SEM). The results show that NPO membership is related to a high level of social identity. In addition, the results confirmed that leadership prototypicality has a significant and positive mediator effect in the relationship between the group identification and the group members' extra effort and the perceived effectiveness of leadership.

  4. 36 CFR 327.16 - Lost and found articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lost and found articles. 327... CHIEF OF ENGINEERS § 327.16 Lost and found articles. All articles found shall be deposited by the finder at the Manager's office or with a ranger. All such articles shall be disposed of in accordance...

  5. 50 CFR 25.22 - Lost and found articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lost and found articles. 25.22 Section 25.22 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Lost and found articles. Lost articles or money found on a national wildlife refuge are to...

  6. Innovation Design Creating Value for People, Organizations and Society

    CERN Document Server

    den Ouden, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Innovation Design presents an approach to designing shared value for businesses, non-profit organizations, end-users and society. The societal and economic challenges we are currently facing – such as the aging population, energy scarcity and environmental issues – are not just threats but are also great opportunities for organizations. Innovation Design shows how organizations can contribute to the process of generating value for society by finding true solutions to these challenges. And at the same time it describes how they can capture value for themselves in business ecosystems that care for both people and planet. This book covers: ·         Creating meaningful innovations that improve quality of life, engage users and provide value for organizations and other stakeholders; ·         Guiding the creation of shared value throughout the innovation process, with a practical and integrative approach towards value that connects ideas from economics, psychology, sociology and ecology; ·�...

  7. Employee Relations Bibliography: Public, Non-Profit and Professional Employment. Essay, Annotated Listing, Indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Terrence N.

    This comprehensive listing of 2,724 bibliographic items from 1967 through early 1977 includes significant English-language material on the contractual relationship between public employers and employees in the United States and Canada. (There are a few items in French.) Although access is given to the broader areas of public management and…

  8. Non-Profit/Higher Education Project Management Series: The Project Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgher, Karl E.; Snyder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This is the second installment of the AACRAO management series focusing on project management in the academy. In this article, the authors focus on white papers (often called charters, briefs, or fact sheets) and their partner, the work plan. The work plan is a detailed document that defines each aspect of a project. It is often preceded by a…

  9. Non-Profit/Higher Education Project Management Series: Project Management (PM) Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgher, Karl E.; Snyder, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first in a series of forum articles on applying project management (PM) techniques and tools to the nonprofit sector with a focus on higher education. The authors will begin with a traditional look at project management because they believe that the integration of the tools and the processes associated with PM into many campus offices…

  10. Performance measurement in a radiology department at a Danish non-profit hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Andreas; Jacobsen, Peter

    was to develop a set of Key Performance Indicators (KPI), which could portray the X-ray department of Hospital of Southern Jutland in Denmark, performance relation to patients, employees and the government The upper management has created a vision for the year 2010 and a strategic plan for the hospital...... strategic goals. The way the performance is presented is through a web based interactive version, where employees will have access to through the hospitals internal IT system. By displaying all KPI´s in an interactive environment, the individuals have the option of choosing exactly those indicators witch...... catches the interest. Each one is not bound to look through all indicators, but should only click his or hers way right to the nerve. The same is the case for the department management could use this interactive tool, as a way of increasing efficiency of meetings, because they could just click onto those...

  11. JSTOR: A Non-Profit Working To Redefine Access to the Scholarly Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1997-01-01

    As costs of subscriptions to scholarly journals rise, libraries struggle to house their collections. Journal Storage (JSTOR) is building a reliable and comprehensive archive of important literature, filling the gaps in existing collections of backfiles, fostering preservation, increasing access, finding ways to reduce storage and care costs, and…

  12. Study of China's Non-profit Sectors Participating in Emergency Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-jun Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to confront public crisis actively and implement emergency management effectively?, this is a very question for governments in charge of supplying public service and public goods. However, government strength has been proved to be not able to match their own ambitions in emergency management any more. In contrast, the nonprofit sector has an advantage of rapid combined action, extensive social participation, and strong social mobilization over the public and the private sector. Therefore, it is necessary to bring into full play its role in this respect. This paper devotes to give some suggestion for China’s nonprofit sector so as to actively participate in emergency management through analyzing the theoretical basis and present predicament of China’s nonprofit sector participating in emergency management.

  13. Technology, Innovation and Skills in Danish Non-profit Housing towards Yk2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    1999-01-01

    The report summarises a comprehensive selection of interviews with macro-level actors in the Danish constuction sector. The different actors' field of operation is identified, and their strategies in relation to the market situation, technology, employment and qualification issues in construction...

  14. JSTOR: A Non-Profit Working To Redefine Access to the Scholarly Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1997-01-01

    As costs of subscriptions to scholarly journals rise, libraries struggle to house their collections. Journal Storage (JSTOR) is building a reliable and comprehensive archive of important literature, filling the gaps in existing collections of backfiles, fostering preservation, increasing access, finding ways to reduce storage and care costs, and…

  15. Key performance indicators for government and non profit agencies: implementing winning KPIs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parmenter, David

    2012-01-01

    "Winning techniques and strategies for nonprofits and government agencies in creating successful and critical key performance indicatorsBy exploring measures that have transformed businesses, David...

  16. Improving nursing students' breast cancer knowledge through a novel academic and non-profit foundation partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocky, Nina M; McLeskey, Sandra W; McGuire, Deborah; Griffith, Kathleen; Plusen, Abby

    2011-06-01

    The unique partnership between an affiliate of the Susan G. Komen for the Cure(©) foundation and a school of nursing offered faculty the ability to creatively inject breast cancer content into the baccalaureate curriculum. In-house breast cancer experts and external consultants developed seven breast cancer-specific educational Web-based modules to supplement a packed curriculum taught by generalists in a cost-efficient manner. Easily integrated into the baccalaureate program, these modules provided evidence-based breast cancer content to nursing students. Following completion of the modules, baccalaureate students' knowledge of breast cancer improved.

  17. A Financial Ratio Analysis of For-Profit and Non-Profit Rural Referral Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J.; Nayar, Preethy

    2009-01-01

    Context: National financial data show that rural referral center (RRC) hospitals have performed well financially. RRC hospitals' median cash flow margin ratio was 10.04% in 2002 and grew to 11.04% in 2004. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the ratio analysis of key operational and financial performance measures of for-profit RRCs to…

  18. Technology, Innovation and Skills in Danish Non-profit Housing towards Yk2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal

    1999-01-01

    The report summarises a comprehensive selection of interviews with macro-level actors in the Danish constuction sector. The different actors' field of operation is identified, and their strategies in relation to the market situation, technology, employment and qualification issues in construction...

  19. Cooperation between Non-Profit Fee-Based Information Services and For-Profit Brokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of U.S. nonprofit fee-based information services with emphasis on Purdue University's Technical Information Service. Discusses how these services can benefit profit-making brokers by supplying them documents on a nonprofit basis and by referring clients to brokers for specialized information projects. (Author/AEF)

  20. Non-Profit/Higher Education Project Management Series: The Project Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgher, Karl E.; Snyder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This is the second installment of the AACRAO management series focusing on project management in the academy. In this article, the authors focus on white papers (often called charters, briefs, or fact sheets) and their partner, the work plan. The work plan is a detailed document that defines each aspect of a project. It is often preceded by a…

  1. Non-Profit/Higher Education Project Management Series: Project Management (PM) Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgher, Karl E.; Snyder, Michael B.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first in a series of forum articles on applying project management (PM) techniques and tools to the nonprofit sector with a focus on higher education. The authors will begin with a traditional look at project management because they believe that the integration of the tools and the processes associated with PM into many campus offices…

  2. 2 CFR 230.45 - Relationship to previous issuance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) § 230.45 Relationship to previous issuance. (a... contains the information that was in Attachment C (non-profit organizations not subject to the Circular) to... agencies for non-profit organizations....

  3. 34 CFR 74.1 - Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General § 74.1 Purpose. (a) This part establishes... education, hospitals, and other non-profit organizations. (b) The Secretary does not impose additional or... State and Local Governments. (d) Non-profit organizations that implement Federal programs for the...

  4. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    . This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium......The year 2016 is groundbreaking for organic aquaculture producers in EU, as it represents the deadline for implementing a full organic life cycle in the aquaculture production. Such a shift induces production costs for farmers and if it should be profitable, they must receive higher prices...

  5. Management Principles for Nonproliferation Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Hund, Gretchen

    2012-03-06

    This paper identifies business models and six management principles that can be applied by a nonproliferation organization to maximize the value and effectiveness of its products. The organizations responsible for reducing the nuclear proliferation threat have experienced a substantial growth in responsibility and visibility since the September 11 attacks. Since then, the international community has witnessed revelations of clandestine nuclear facilities, nuclear black markets, periodic nuclear tests, and a resurgence of interest by countries worldwide in developing nuclear capabilities. The security environment will likely continue to evolve in unexpected ways since most of the proliferation threats with which the world will be forced to contend remain unforeseen. To better prepare for and respond to this evolving security environment, many nonproliferation organizations are interested in finding new or better ways to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of their operations. Of course, all organizations, whether they are market driven or non-profit, must operate effectively and efficiently if they are to succeed. Indeed, as this study demonstrates, many of the management principles that this study recommends can help all organizations succeed. However, this study pays particular attention to nonproliferation organizations because of the mission they are responsible for fulfilling. Nonproliferation organizations, including nonproliferation programs that operate within a larger national security organization, are responsible for reducing the threat of nuclear, chemical and biological weapons. These organizations have an enduring mandate from the public and the international community not to fail in the completion of their mission for failure could have detrimental impacts on international security, public health and the environment. Moreover, the public expects nonproliferation organizations and programs to fulfill their mission, even when resources are limited

  6. Procesna organiziranost in zadovoljstvo zaposlenih = Process Organization and Employee Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Verle

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to show the influence of process organizationon employee satisfaction and to indicate the directions for improvingthe operations success in the chosen company. A quantitativeresearch has been carried out for this purpose with the help of astandardized questionnaire for measuring the organizational climateon the census of 556 employed co-workers. The key finding leads tothe recognition that the analyzed company supposedly places greatemphasis also on the modern - process organization. With the latter,employee motivation and innovation are increased, which is consequentlyshown in greater operations success of the discussed company.With the correlation coefficient we establish that the dimension of theorganization statistically positively influences employee satisfaction(0.461, which means that the form and method of the organization caninfluence employee satisfaction. The results of the research have theoreticaland practical benefits for the management in planning, carryingout and controlling of business processes and it will be possible to implementthem in profitable and non-profitable organizations.

  7. Protective mechanism against cancer found in progeria patient cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have studied cells of patients with an extremely rare genetic disease that is characterized by drastic premature aging and discovered a new protective cellular mechanism against cancer. They found that cells from patients with Hutchinson Gi

  8. Nutritive value of Lepidoptara litoralia (edible caterpillar) found in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutritive value of Lepidoptara litoralia (edible caterpillar) found in Jos Nigeria: ... The nutritional and economic potentials of the abundant edible caterpillars in the ... It is concluded that consumption of the caterpillars could add variety and ...

  9. Toxic Metals Found in E-Cigarette Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163492.html Toxic Metals Found in E-Cigarette Liquid Their presence in 5 brands studied is ... the metals end up in the aerosol that e-cigarette users inhale," said study leader Ana Maria Rule, ...

  10. Geometrical analysis of the microcraters found on LDEF samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Kazuo; Ohashi, Hideo; Noma, Motosaku; Sakurai, Hirohisa; Nakashima, Kazuo; Nogami, Kenichi; Omori, Rie

    1993-01-01

    Diameters (D) and depths (T) of microcraters found on LDEF samples were measured and their origins were deduced by the (D/T) ratios, which distinguish projectile materials. From the results, one iron and several stony projectiles could be recognized.

  11. Paradise Found: Nature in America at the Time of Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Pierotti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Review of Paradise Found: Nature in America at the Time of Discovery. Steve Nicholls. 2009. University of Chicago Press, New York and London. Pp. 536. ISBN10: 0226583406 ISBN13: 978-0226583402.

  12. [Histopathology of strobilocercosis found in the livers of white mouse.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Nasuhi Engin; Miman, Ozlem; Gül, Mehmet; Daldal, Nilgün

    2010-01-01

    The adult form of Taenia taeniaeformis is found in the intestine of the cat and cheetah. The larva form is called Strobilocercus fasciolaris and is found in rodents such as mice and rats. Our objective was to draw attention to that rare zoonosis, since it has already been reported in the literature as strobilocercosis in humans. During an experimental animal study conducted at Inonu University, some unexpected cystic formations were found in the livers of nine 6-8-month-old healthy white mice, which affected the conducted study negatively. These cystic formations were examined histopathologically. Prepared sections were stained with haemotoxylin eosin, periodic acid-Schiff and Masson trichrome stains, and examined by light microscopy. Strobilocercus fasciolaris larvae that curled towards cyst cavity and their hooks were seen. Plasma cells, macrophage, focus of eosinophilic infiltration and fibroblastic connective tissue were simultaneous found. In this paper, histopathological changes in intermediate hosts caused by Strobilocercus fasciolaris and other cestod larvae have been discussed.

  13. Page Smith: Founding Cowell College and UCSC, 1964-1973

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Page; Jarrell, Randall; Regional History Project, UCSC Library

    1996-01-01

    This oral history chronicles the late Page Smith's experiences as founding provost of the campus's first college and his major contributions in shaping the college system here. His narration includes chapters on student culture in the 1960s and 1970s, the pass/fail grading system, his educational philosophy, town/gown relations, campus architecture, the History of Consciousness Program, his relationship with founding Chancellor Dean E. McHenry, arts on the campus and the role of his wife, Elo...

  14. Study of the Non-governmental Organization Involved in the Modern Community Management: Based on the Perspective of the Social Conflict Theory%非营利组织介入现代社区管理研究——基于社会冲突理论的视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞小宁; 杨春雪

    2013-01-01

    文章从社会冲突理论的视角出发,分析了社区中存在的问题,并对这些冲突引起的问题做了反思,提出在社区管理中引入一个新的个体——非营利组织来协助业主委员会对物业公司的有效监督,有利于提高社区服务的质量和效益.针对问题寻求解决途径,对非营利组织功能发挥建立充满活力的现代社区有指导意义.%The essay, from the perspective of social conflict theory, analyzed the problems existing in the community, and also, it proposed the introduction of a new individual--non-profit organization to help the community management effectivel.This organization will help to enhance the quality and efficiency of community service, to find ways to solve problems and will play a gunding significance in functioning non-profit organization and establishing a vibrant modern community.

  15. Reef builders found along southern coastline of Zhejiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Together with a local co-worker, TANG Zhican, a specialist in benthonic bioecology and taxonomy of coral,hydra and other cnidarian organisms from the Qingdao-based CAS Institute of Oceanology, has proved the existence of hermatype (reefbuilding) corals on the seabed in Nanji Islands along the southern coastline of East China's Zhejiang Province, pushing the distribution line of the coastal reef corals in this country further northward.

  16. 40 CFR 262.200 - Definitions for this subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Formal written affiliation agreement for a non-profit research institute means a written document that... an organization that conducts research as its primary function and files as a non-profit organization... Education. Eligible academic entity means a college or university, or a non-profit research institute...

  17. 45 CFR 2543.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) CORPORATION FOR NATIONAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICE GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS General... basic or applied research by a non-profit institution of higher education or non-profit organization...

  18. 2 CFR 230.20 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... federally-recognized Indian tribal government, 2 CFR part 225 shall apply. (c) Exclusion of some non-profit... all Federal agencies in determining the costs of work performed by non-profit organizations under... concerned. Thus, if a subaward is to a non-profit organization, this part shall apply; if a subaward is to...

  19. Body louse remains found in textiles excavated at Masada, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumcuoglu, K Y; Zias, J; Tarshis, M; Lavi, M; Stiebel, G D

    2003-07-01

    A leg of the body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), was found in a storeroom at Masada build during the reign of King Herod the Great. The unearthed culture material clearly indicates that the room was occupied by the rebels during the first Jewish revolt against the Romans (AD 66-73/4). The context of the textiles associated with the louse and their nature suggest a rebel origin. An exuvium of a leg of the third nymphal stage of body louse was found. The first three parts of the leg (tarsus, including the tarsal claw, tibia and femur) were preserved entirely, while the fourth segment of the leg, the trochanter, was only partially conserved. The comparison of the tarsus of this specimen with the legs of present day third instar nymphs of body and head lice revealed that the leg found within the archaeological debris belongs to a body louse.

  20. New-found link between microbiota and obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chandra; Kanti; Chakraborti

    2015-01-01

    Due to the grave pathological role of obesity, worldwide research is being continued to find out the causative factors involved in it. Recent advances in this field reveal a possible relationship between the compositional pattern of gut microbiota and genesis of obesity. Several study results have shown that short-chain fatty acids(SCFAs, microbiota-induced fermentation products) and lipopolysaccharides(LPS, an integral component of Gram negative microorganisms) play the key role in linking the two. Though several SCFAs are produced as microbiota-fermentation products, three of them, i.e., butyrate, propionate and acetate have been found to be definitely involved in obesity; though individually they are neither purely obesogenic nor antiobesogenic. Out of these, butyrate and propionate are predominantly antiobesogenic. Butyrate, though a major energy source for colonocytes, has been found to increase mitochondrial activity, prevent metabolic endotoxemia, improve insulin sensitivity, possess antiinflammatory potential, increase intestinal barrier function and protect against diet-induced obesity without causing hypophagia. Propionate has been found to inhibit cholesterol synthesis, thereby antagonizing the cholesterol increasing action of acetate, and to inhibit the expression of resistin in adipocytes. Moreover, both these SCFAs have been found to cause weight regulation through their stimulatory effect on anorexigenic gut hormones and to increase the synthesis of leptin. Unlike butyrate and propionate, acetate, which is substantially absorbed, shows more obesogenic potential, as it acts as a substrate for hepatic and adipocyte lipogenesis. High fat diet increases the absorption of LPS, which, in turn, has been found to be associated with metabolic endotoxemia and to induce inflammation resulting in obesity. Multiple independent and interrelated mechanisms have been found to be involved in such linking processes which are discussed in this review work along with

  1. Reindeer warble fly larvae found in red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Nilssen

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven third instar larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypoderma (=Oedemagena tarandi were found in a 2-3 year old male red deer {Cervus elaphus shot on 14 November 1985 at Todalen, western Norway. This it, the first report of H. tarandi from red deer. In reindeer third instar larvae are found from February to June, and the unusual date of this record indicates a delayed development of the larvae due to abnormal host reactions. Warble fly larvae, probably H. tarandi, are also reported from moose {Alces alces in northern Norway.

  2. On the approximation of crack shapes found during inservice inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhate, S.R.; Chawla, D.S.; Kushwaha, H.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper addresses the characterization of axial internal flaw found during inservice inspection of a pipe. J-integral distribution for various flaw shapes is obtained using line spring finite, element method. The peak J-value and its distribution across the crack is found to be characteristic feature of each shape. The triangular shape yields peak J-value away from the center, the point of depth. The elliptic approximation results in large overestimate of J-value for unsymmetric flaws. Triangular approximation is recommended for such flaws so that further service can be obtained from the component.

  3. STATE REGULATION OF ORGANIC FARMING: CONDITION AND TENDENCIES OF ITS DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mironchuk V. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the important problems in the field of agriculture is soil contamination by pesticides due to excessive and unbalanced use of pesticides. The harmful effects of pesticides on the environment and human health is manifested in the contamination of water, soil, food, the development of chronic diseases and acute poisoning, malignant diseases, congenital malformations, infant mortality. An alternative to the use of chemical remedies are organic methods and techniques of cultivation of agricultural land. One of such technologies is the laser technology of cultivation of agricultural crops, the application of which makes it possible to not only produce organically clean, useful agricultural products, but also reduce the cost of crop production and increase their productivity. In the article, the Russian experience in the production of organic products, to analyze the market of organic agriculture and related infrastructure: the regulatory framework, the existing non-profit education, the legal framework, the system of environmental certification and standardization of organic agricultural products, support organic agricultural markets, as well as programs to promote organic producers products

  4. Lost and Found:For Free or For a Fee?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Recently,a company dealing in lost-and-found property started up in Nanjing. Company employees say lost property is sent to the company by finders such as dustmen, who can receive 30 percent of a finder’s fee.

  5. POLAR DISK GALAXY FOUND IN WALL BETWEEN VOIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanonik, K.; Platen, E.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; van de Weygaert, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2009-01-01

    We have found an isolated polar disk galaxy in what appears to be a cosmological wall situated between two voids. This void galaxy is unique as its polar disk was discovered serendipitously in an Hi survey of SDSS void galaxies, with no optical counterpart to the Hi polar disk. Yet the Hi mass in th

  6. A Novel Protein Found in Selenium-rich Silkworm Pupas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A novel protein was isolated and characterized in selenium-rich silkworm pupas. The peptide mass fingerprint of the protein was found to be new. Partial amino acid sequencing also confirmed to be a new protein. The novel protein had a molecular mass of about 80 kDa in the SDS-PAGE.

  7. Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella (lichenized Ascomycota found in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Czarnota

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Two hepaticolous fungi, Mniaecia jungermanniae and Puttea margaritella rarely recorded in Europe have recently been found in Polish Western Carpathians. Both species are also reported here for the first time from Poland. Notes on their taxonomy, ecology and distribution are provided.

  8. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Found Early? Early detection improves the chances that male breast cancer can be treated successfully. Differences affecting early detection ... Breast size The most obvious difference between the male and female ... men have so little breast tissue, cancers do not need to grow very far to ...

  9. The Largest Gold Mine in Asia was Found in Gansu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Recently,at Yangshan,a place bordering with Shaanxi and Sichuan provinces,of Wen County in Gansu Province,the largest gold mine in Asia was found with proved gold reserve of 308 tons,changing the history of having no super large independent gold deposits over 200 tons in China.

  10. Astrophysics: Monster star found hiding in plain sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figer, Donald F.

    2014-11-01

    Massive stars are rare, but they are sources of some of the most energetic phenomena seen in the Universe today. A high-mass candidate has now been found in a star-forming region that has been observed for more than 50 years.

  11. THE IDENTIFICATION OF POTAMOGETONACEAE FRUITS FOUND IN THE NETHERLANDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CAPPERS, RTJ

    1993-01-01

    From recent litter, deposited by both the River Rhine and the North Sea, and from a Weichselian Pleniglacial deposit, many pondweed endocarps were isolated and identified. Seventeen species could be identified, among which were two subfossil species that were also regularly found in recently deposit

  12. An Odontoma Found in the Wake of Maxillary Sinusitis Onset

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sinusitis of dental origin is a relatively frequent entity, and odontomas are considered to be the most common odontogenic tumors of the oral cavity. Eruption and infection of odontomas are extremely rare. Here, we report an interesting case where odontoma was found in the wake of the maxillary sinusitis onset.

  13. POLAR DISK GALAXY FOUND IN WALL BETWEEN VOIDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanonik, K.; Platen, E.; Aragon-Calvo, M. A.; van Gorkom, J. H.; van de Weygaert, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2009-01-01

    We have found an isolated polar disk galaxy in what appears to be a cosmological wall situated between two voids. This void galaxy is unique as its polar disk was discovered serendipitously in an Hi survey of SDSS void galaxies, with no optical counterpart to the Hi polar disk. Yet the Hi mass in th

  14. On an aberrant Form of Truncatellina found in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayer, Ch.

    1938-01-01

    From Mr. Ph. van Hooven I received a Truncatellina, found by himself on October 22nd, 1934, near Katwijk aan Zee (South Holland), at the foot of the downs. Judging by the soft parts, still present in the shell, this little snail must either have been collected in the living state or shortly after it

  15. Interrogating the Founding Gestures of the New Materialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Bruining

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I aim to further thinking in the broadly ‘new materialist’ field by insisting it attends to some ubiquitous assumptions. More specifically, I critically interrogate what Sara Ahmed has termed ‘the founding gestures of the “new materialism”’. These founding rhetorical gestures revolve around a perceived neglect of the matter of materiality in ‘postmodernism’ and ‘poststructuralism’ and are meant to pave the way for new materialism’s own conception of matter-in/of-the-world. I argue in this article that an engagement with the postmodern critique of language as constitutive, as well as the poststructuralist critique of pure self-presence, does not warrant these founding gestures to be so uncritically rehearsed. Moreover, I demonstrate that texts which rely on these gestures, or at least the ones I discuss in this article, are not only founded on a misrepresentation of postmodern and poststructuralist thought, but are also guilty of repeating the perceived mistakes of which they are critical, such as upholding the language/matter dichotomy. I discuss a small selection of texts that make use of those popular rhetorical gestures to juxtapose the past that is invoked with a more nuanced reading of that past. My contention is that if ‘the founding gestures of the “new materialism”’ are not addressed, the complexity of the postmodern and poststructuralist positions continues to be obscured, with damaging consequences for the further development of the emerging field of new materialism, as well as our understanding of cultural theory’s past.

  16. Institutional History of an Interactive Science Center: The Founding and Development of the Exploratorium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Rodney T.; Loomis, Molly; Crain, Rhiannon

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the historical conditions that fostered significant reform in science education. To understand these conditions, we employ a framework drawn from the new institutionalism in organization theory to study the founding and early development of the Exploratorium--a prominent science center that greatly impacted the field of science…

  17. Two different molecular conformations found in chitosan type II salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertworasirikul, Amornrat; Tsue, Shin-ichiro; Noguchi, Keiichi; Okuyama, Kenji; Ogawa, Kozo

    2003-05-23

    The type II structure of chitosan acidic salts prepared from crab tendon in solid state was studied using an X-ray fiber diffraction technique together with the linked-atom least-squares (LALS) technique. The cylindrical Patterson method was applied to confirm the molecular conformation of the chitosan. It was shown that there are two different helical conformations for type II salts. One is the relaxed twofold helix having a tetrasaccharide as an asymmetric unit as found in chitosan.HCl salt, which was previously reported as a conformation of chitosan.HCOOH salt. The other is the fourfold helix having a disaccharide as an asymmetric unit newly found in chitosan.HI salt.

  18. Positive and Negative Themes Found in Superhero Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Matthew; Georgeson, Andrew; McNamara, Caitlin; Wakefield, Bryan; King, Tonya S; Olympia, Robert P

    2016-12-01

    Superhero films have become incredibly popular. The objective of this study was to determine the positive and negative themes found in a select number of superhero films. A total of 30 superhero films were analyzed. The average numbers of positive and negative themes were 19.4 and 29.5 mean events per hour for all included films, respectively. The most common positive themes were "assisting others/protecting the public," "positive relationships with family/friends," and "teamwork/collaboration." The most common negative themes were "acts of violence/fighting," "use of guns/knives/lethal weapons," and "bullying/intimidation/torture." Based on the superhero films included in our study, the number of negative themes, especially acts of violence, outweighs positive themes. Although an exposure to positive themes found in superhero films may be beneficial to the development of children, pediatric health care providers should counsel children and their families in an attempt to limit their exposure to violence.

  19. Non-excitable fluorescent protein orthologs found in ctenophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Warren R; Christianson, Lynne M; Powers, Meghan L; Schnitzler, Christine E; D Haddock, Steven H

    2016-08-24

    Fluorescent proteins are optically active proteins found across many clades in metazoans. A fluorescent protein was recently identified in a ctenophore, but this has been suggested to derive from a cnidarian, raising again the question of origins of this group of proteins. Through analysis of transcriptome data from 30 ctenophores, we identified a member of an orthologous group of proteins similar to fluorescent proteins in each of them, as well as in the genome of Mnemiopsis leidyi. These orthologs lack canonical residues involved in chromophore formation, suggesting another function. The phylogenetic position of the ctenophore protein family among fluorescent proteins suggests that this gene was present in the common ancestor of all ctenophores and that the fluorescent protein previously found in a ctenophore actually derives from a siphonophore.

  20. [Morphological manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis found in fundus (experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinskaia, M V; Fedorov, A A; Pliukhova, A A; Voevodina, T M; Balatskaia, N V

    2013-01-01

    Results of angiography and morphology of 32 eyes (16 chinchilla rabbits) with experimental atherosclerosis are presented. N.N. Anichkov and S.S. Khalatova experimental hypercholesterolemia model (1912) was used. The animals were divided into the following groups: initial and advanced atherosclerosis, control group, follow-up 3 and 6 months. After 3 months progressive reduction of perfused retinal vessels and early degenerative changes of neurons and photoreceptors were found. In 6 months these changes became more significant and generalized. Due to ongoing small vessel reduction blood flow went to the major vessels and changed its distribution followed by ischemia of adjacent retina. No changes in choriocapillary layer and retinal pigment epithelium were found in any of groups studied.

  1. Analysis of pigments from Roman wall paintings found in Vicenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchin, G A; Agnoli, F; Mazzocchin, S; Colpo, I

    2003-11-12

    The analysis of about 60 samples of wall paintings was carried out using different chemicophysical techniques: optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an EDS microanalysis detector, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The identified pigments were cinnabar, hematite, red ochre, celadonite, cuprorivaite (Egyptian blue), yellow ochre, goethite and carbon. Only in one case some lead white was found instead. In general, the mortar preparation did not correspond to the complex structure suggested by Vitruvius (De Architectura), but it generally showed a porous layer, with crushed grains under the pigment layer. In certain cases two superposed pigment layers were found: yellow superimposed on both red and pink, black on pink, green on black.

  2. The Subversion of Factual Discourse in Found Footage Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Vescia Zanini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa como o design textual de filmes do formato found footage subverte o discurso factual a fim de potencializar a pretendida sensação de horror na tela. Filmes como Canibal Holocausto (1980, A Bruxa de Blair (1999, Atividade Paranormal (2007 e A Forca (2015 exploram a confusão entre realidade e ficção, interferindo na maneira como parte da audiência reage aos filmes. O artigo também parte do princípio que o found footage é um produto natural da pós-modernidade, que tem a cultura da convergência (JENKINS, 2008 e o desaparecimento do real como duas de suas maiores características.

  3. Chemical analysis of counterfeit hepatitis C drug found in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Nahoko; Kamakura, Hiroyuki; Masada, Sayaka; Tsujimoto, Takashi; Hosoe, Junko; Tokumoto, Hiroko; Maruyama, Takuro; Goda, Yukihiro; Hakamatsuka, Takashi

    2017-07-19

      In January 2017, counterfeits of the hepatitis C drug 'HARVONI(®) Combination Tablets' (HARVONI(®)) were found at a pharmacy chain through unlicensed suppliers in Japan. A total of five lots of counterfeit HARVONI(®) (samples 1-5) bottles were found, and the ingredients of the bottles were all in tablet form. Among them, two differently shaped tablets were present in two of the bottles (categorized as samples 2A, 2B, 4A, and 4B). We analyzed the total of seven samples by high-resolution LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR. In samples 2A, 3 and 4B, sofosbuvir, the active component of another hepatitis C drug, SOVARDI(®) Tablets 400 mg (SOVARDI(®)), was detected. In sample 4A, sofosbuvir and ledipasvir, the active components of HARVONI(®), were found. A direct comparison of the four samples and genuine products showed that three samples (2A, 3, 4B) are apparently SOVARDI(®) and that sample 2A is HARVONI(®). In samples 1 and 5, several vitamins but none of the active compounds usually found in HARVONI(®) (i.e., sofosbuvir and ledipasvir) were detected. Our additional investigation indicates that these two samples are likely to be a commercial vitamin supplement distributed in Japan. Sample 2B, looked entirely different from HARVONI(®) and contained several herbal constitutents (such as ephedrine and glycyrrhizin) that are used in Japanese Kampo formulations. A further analysis indicated that sample 2B is likely to be a Kampo extract tablet of Shoseiryuto which is distributed in Japan. Considering this case, it is important to be vigilant to prevent a recurrence of distribution of counterfeit drugs..

  4. Novel pyrazine metabolites found in polymyxin biosynthesis by Paenibacillus polymyxa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Hansen, Anne M; Lauritsen, Frants R

    2003-01-01

    A complex mixture of methyl-branched alkyl-substituted pyrazines was found in the growth medium of the polymyxin-producing bacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa, and of these, seven are new natural compounds. A total of 19 pyrazine metabolites were identified. The dominant metabolite was 2...... supplementation. The other pyrazine metabolites, all related pyrazines with either one, two or three alkyl substituents, were identified by means of their mass spectral data and/or co-elution with authentic standards....

  5. Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Vieira Sobral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is a major public health problem worldwide, accounting for about 7 million deaths each year. Many anticancer drugs currently used clinically have been isolated from plant species or are based on such substances. Accumulating data has revealed anticancer activity in plant-derived monoterpenes. In this review the antitumor activity of 37 monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental models, and mechanisms of action for bioactive substances are presented.

  6. New bird records for Cozumel Island found in scientific collections

    OpenAIRE

    Tania Macouzet; Patricia Escalante-Pliego

    2013-01-01

    We report here 4 new bird records found among a large-scale compilation of specimen records in museums worldwide, Atlas de las Aves de Mexico. The new records are for 4 migratory species, Empidonax alnorum (Alder Flycatcher), Vireo solitarius (Solitary Vireo), Catharus fuscescens (Veery), and Zonotrichia leucophrys (Whitecrowned Sparrow). These species are not to-date known from Cozumel, although they are considered transients in the Yucatán Peninsula.

  7. INVESTMENT ACTIVITY OF NON-STATE FOUNDS OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobylinsky S. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, pension by virtue of their social significance in favor of one of the main socially important guarantee of stable development of society, to ensure the financial and budgetary sphere of the state. Private pension founds are viewed as an instrument to raise the material well-being of pensioners. The social significance of non-state pension funds is to involve the population in the sphere of voluntary pension insurance. The author analyzed the role of non-state pension funds in acting to pension system. The article subjected to a detailed analysis of the norms of a number of Federal laws, fixing the investment activity of non-state pension found. The author concludes that there is a need to improve existing legislation on investment activity of non-state pension found. As well, the authors indicated some legal problems that occur in practice arising from owners of the investment portfolio. The authors have analyzed the performance of pension funds and formed an opinion about the state of the whole system. Following consideration of the practical problems has been offered for both theoretical and practical ways to address them in order to prevent violation

  8. Allergenicity and allergens of amphipods found in nori (dried laver).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motoyama, Kanna; Hamada, Yuki; Nagashima, Yuji; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2007-09-01

    Gammaridean and caprellid amphipods, crustaceans of the order Amphipoda, inhabit laver culture platforms and, hence, are occasionally found in nori (dried laver) sheets. Amphipods mixed in nori may cause allergic reactions in sensitized patients, as is the case with other crustaceans, such as shrimp and crab, members of the order Decapoda. In this study, dried samples of amphipods (unidentified) found in nori and fresh samples of gammaridean amphipod (Gammarus sp., not accurately identified) and caprellid amphipod (Caprella equilibra) were examined for allergenicity and allergens using two species of decapods (black tiger prawn and spiny lobster) as references. When analyzed by ELISA, sera from crustacean-allergic patients reacted to extracts from amphipod samples, although less potently than to the extracts from decapods. In IgE-immunoblotting, a 37-kDa protein was found to be the major allergen in amphipods. Based on the molecular mass and the cross-reactivity with decapod tropomyosin evidenced by inhibition ELISA and inhibition immunoblotting, the 37-kDa protein was identified as amphipod tropomyosin.

  9. Human remains found in two wells: a forensic entomology perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Paola A; Borrini, Matteo; Dadour, Ian R

    2013-09-01

    When estimating the time since death or manner of death, the identification and the pathological evaluations of a body are generally impeded by post mortem changes. Research and case studies help experts to achieve a more accurate diagnosis, but at present there is scant literature covering topics concerning forensic science and decompositional processes in aquatic environments. The two case studies presented each involve a decomposed body found in a unique aquatic environment; namely wells containing ground water. In Case 1 an entomologist attended the scene and in Case 2 an entomologist was only involved after 20 months when it was decided that the insect evidence collected at the second autopsy may be useful in determining a time frame. The first case highlights the problems associated with body retrieval from aquatic environments as the body was removed it dismembered. Fortunately, the well was able to be drained, so much of the insect evidence was retrieved. In the second case the body was found dismembered but the entomological evidence was overlooked and lost. During the second autopsy insects were found, collected, and sent to an entomologist to help clarify the post mortem interval.

  10. Time of death of victims found in cold water environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karhunen, Pekka J; Goebeler, Sirkka; Winberg, Olli; Tuominen, Markku

    2008-04-01

    Limited data is available on the application of post-mortem temperature methods to non-standard conditions, especially in problematic real life cases in which the body of the victim is found in cold water environment. Here we present our experience on two cases with known post-mortem times. A 14-year-old girl (rectal temperature 15.5 degrees C) was found assaulted and drowned after a rainy cold night (+5 degrees C) in wet clothing (four layers) at the bottom of a shallow ditch, lying in non-flowing water. The post-mortem time turned out to be 15-16 h. Four days later, at the same time in the morning, after a cold (+/- 0 degrees C) night, a young man (rectal temperature 10.8 degrees C) was found drowned in a shallow cold drain (+4 degrees C) wearing similar clothing (four layers) and being exposed to almost similar environmental and weather conditions, except of flow (7.7 l/s or 0.3 m/s) in the drain. The post-mortem time was deduced to be 10-12 h. We tested the applicability of five practical methods to estimate time of death. Henssge's temperature-time of death nomogram method with correction factors was the most versatile and gave also most accurate results, although there is limited data on choosing of correction factors. In the first case, the right correction factor was close to 1.0 (recommended 1.1-1.2), suggesting that wet clothing acted like dry clothing in slowing down body cooling. In the second case, the right correction factor was between 0.3 and 0.5, similar to the recommended 0.35 for naked bodies in flowing water.

  11. Mermithid nematodes found in adult Anopheles from southeastern Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobylinski Kevin C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over two dozen mermithid nematodes have been described parasitizing mosquitoes worldwide, however, only two species were found in Africa. Mermithid nematodes kill their mosquito host upon emergence, which suggests that they could be developed as biological control agents of mosquitoes. Both Romanomermis culicivorax and Romanomermis iyengari have been reared for mass release to control numerous Anopheles species vector populations, and in one instance this may have led to reduced malaria prevalence in a human population. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected during a malaria study in southeastern Senegal. Two different adult blood fed mosquitoes had a single mermithid nematode emerge from their anus while they were being held post-capture. Primers from the 18 S rDNA were developed to sequence nematode DNA and screen mosquitoes for mermithid DNA. 18 S rDNA from the Senegalese mermithid and other mermithid entries in GenBank were used to create a Maximum Parsimony tree of the Mermithidae family. Results The mermithid was present in 1.8% (10/551 of the sampled adult Anopheles species in our study area. The mermithid was found in An. gambiae s.s., An. funestus, and An. rufipes from the villages of Ndebou, Boundoucondi, and Damboucoye. Maximum parsimony analysis confirmed that the nematode parasites found in Anopheles were indeed mermithid parasites, and of the mermithid sequences available in GenBank, they are most closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first report of mermithids from adult Anopheles mosquitoes in Senegal. The mermithid appears to infect Anopheles mosquitoes that develop in diverse larval habitats. Although maximum parsimony analysis determined the mermithid was closely related to Strelkovimermis spiculatus, several characteristics of the mermithid were more similar to the Empidomermis genus. Future mermithid isolations will hopefully allow: formal

  12. The Earliest Acupuncture and Moxibustion Manuscript Was Found in Dunhuang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Qi; Silke Assmus-Helfen

    2011-01-01

    @@ In 1900, around 50 000 books and manuscripts were discovered in the Mogao Grottoes of Dunhuang in Gansu Province, China.Known today as the "Dunhuang Heritage",this trove had been sealed in a cave for close on 900 years.Among the books, there was a volume entitled "New Compendium of Works on Moxibustion for Emergencies (新集备急灸经)".It is the earliest original manuscript for the collection of acupuncture papers at present and is particularly precious as not having been found recorded in any ancient books.

  13. A New "Missing Link" in Dinosaur's Evolution Found

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song J.; Zhao B.

    2002-01-01

    @@ A group of paleontologists from China, the United States and Canada have made new progress in tracking down the process of the evolution of smallsized dinosaurs and the origin of birds through intensive analysis of the fossils of a newly found dinosaur,Sinovenator, a close relative of birds. In a letter published in the Feb.14 issue of Nature, dinosaur expert Dr. Xu Xing at CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) and his coworkers reveal some interesting phenomena in the process of the evolution of dinosaurs towards birds.

  14. Analysis of Roman wall paintings found in Verona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocchin, Gian Antonio; Rudello, Danilo; Murgia, Emanuela

    2007-09-01

    The present paper deals with the analysis of roman wall paintings fragments recovered from twelve buildings of Verona, Italy. The analytical techniques used were Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) equipped with an EDS microanalysis detector, Xray powder diffraction (XRD) Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman Spectroscopy. The wall preparation generally consisted of three layer: the pictorial layer, an intonachino layer of hydrated lime and a plaster one made of slaked lime and sand. The pigments found in the studied domus are different reflecting the taste and culture of Xa Regio of Italy but also the economical possibilities of the dominus and the building period.

  15. Engineered biomimicry: polymeric replication of surface features found on insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, Drew P.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh; Martín-Palma, Raúl J.; Pantano, Carlo G.

    2011-04-01

    By combining the modified conformal-evaporated-film-by-rotation (M-CEFR) technique with nickel electroforming, we have produced master negatives of nonplanar biotemplates. An approximately 250-nm-thick conformal coating of nanocrystaline nickel is deposited on a surface structure of interest found in class Insecta, and the coating is then reinforced with a roughly 60-μm-thick structural layer of nickel by electroforming. This structural layer endows the M-CEFR coating with the mechanical robustness necessary for casting or stamping multiple polymer replicas of the biotemplate. We have made master negatives of blowfly corneas, beetle elytrons, and butterfly wings.

  16. The Founding Years of the International New Venture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager; Servais, Per; Madsen, Tage Koed

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have focused on International New Ventures; smaller, entrepreneurial firms which adopt a global focus from the beginning and operate in international markets from the earliest day of their establishment. In this paper we intend to focus on the founding years of the International New...... differences can be seen in their internationalization and in the development in the first three years. The complexity of the internationalization of the International New Ventures is e.g. high compared with other types of international firms....

  17. Mildew fungi found in termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus and their nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wójcik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of observation of mould growth in laboratory colonies of termites. It also attempts to determine the species of mould fungi present in the research laboratory and the main colonies and their entomopathogenic for the termites. The following four species were found in test termite colonies: Trichoderme viride, Mucor himeralis, Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria sp., Penicylium verucosum and Fusarium sp. were recognisable in test colonies with domestic and exotic wood. Morphological observations of the fungi were carried out using a microscope with a 40x magnification. The growth of mould fungi in test containers caused death of whole termite colonies.

  18. Genetic evidence for two founding populations of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, Pontus; Mallick, Swapan; Bortolini, Maria Cátira; Chennagiri, Niru; Hünemeier, Tábita; Petzl-Erler, Maria Luiza; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Patterson, Nick; Reich, David

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies have been consistent with a single common origin of Native American groups from Central and South America1-4. However, some morphological studies have suggested a more complex picture, whereby the northeast Asian affinities of present-day Native Americans contrast with a distinctive morphology seen in some of the earliest American skeletons, which share traits with present-day Australasians (indigenous groups in Australia, Melanesia, and island southeast Asia)5-8. Here we analyze genome-wide data to show that some Amazonian Native Americans descend partly from a Native American founding population that carried ancestry more closely related to indigenous Australians, New Guineans and Andaman Islanders than to any present-day Eurasians or Native Americans. This signature is not present to the same extent or at all in present-day Northern and Central Americans or a ~12,600 year old Clovis genome, suggesting a more diverse set of founding populations of the Americas than previously accepted. PMID:26196601

  19. Checklist of helminths found in Patagonian wild mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugassa, Martin H

    2015-09-03

    Using available reports, a checklist of the recorded helminth parasites of wild mammals from Patagonia was generated. Records of parasites found in Patagonia were included, together with records from mammals in áreas outside of Patagonia but whose range extends into Patagonia. Information about the host, localities, and references were also included. A total of 1323 records (224 Cestoda, 167 Trematoda, 894 Nematoda, 34 Acanthocephala, and 4 Pentastomida) belonging to 452 helminth species (77 Cestoda, 76 Trematoda, 277 Nematoda, 21 Acanthocephala, and 1 Pentastomida) found in 57 native mammals (22 Rodentia, 4 Didelphimorphia 1 Microbiotheria, 7 Chiroptera, 5 Cingulata, and 13 Carnivora) were listed. However, only 10.6 % of the reports were conducted on samples from Patagonia and corresponded to 25% of mammals in the region. In addition, many studies were made on a few species and, for example, 52% corresponded to studies made on Lama guanicoe. This suggests the need to increase efforts to know the parasitic fauna in a peculiar region as is the Patagonia. This is the first compilation of the helminth parasites of mammals in Argentine Patagonia and is important for parasitological and paleoparasitological studies.

  20. Some principles of Islamic ethics as found in Harrisian philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Sahin

    2010-04-01

    John Harris is one of the prominent philosophers and bioethicists of our time. He has published tens of books and hundreds of papers throughout his professional life. This paper aims to take a 'deep-look' at Harris' works to argue that it is possible to find some principles of Islamic ethics in Harrisian philosophy, namely in his major works, as well as in his personal life. This may be surprising, or thought of as a 'big' and 'groundless' claim, since John Harris has nothing to do with any religion in his intellectual works. The major features of Harrisian philosophy could be defined as consequentialism or utilitarianism with liberal overtones. Despite some significant and fundamental differences in the application of principles (ie, abortion, euthanasia), the similarities between the major principles in Harrisian philosophy and Islamic ethics are greater at some points than the similarities between Islamic ethics and some other religious ethics (ie, Christian, Judaism). In this study I compare Harrisian teachings with major Islamic principles on 'Responsibility', 'Side-effects and Double-effects', 'Equality', 'Vicious choice, guilt and innocence', 'Organ transplantation and property rights' and 'Advance directives'.

  1. GRAMMATICAL ERRORS FOUND IN ARTICLES’ ABSTRACTS OF INDONESIAN SCHOLARLY JOURNALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indra Wulandari

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to know the grammatical errors found in the articles’ abstracts of scholarly journals published by one of Indonesian Islamic State Colleges in 2008-2010. The theory used to analyze the data in this case study is Burt and Kiparsky’s theory, namely Surface Strategy Taxonomy. This theory devides errors into errors of omission, errors of addition, errors of misformation and errors of misordering. This results of the study show that there are 172 items of grammatical errors. The most frequent type of grammatical error is omission with the total number is 72 items or 41.9%. The second is errors of misformation which consist of 57 items or 33.1%. The next is errors of addition (27 items or 15.7% and finally is errors of misordering as the least number of errors with 16 items or 9.3%

  2. 100 New Impact Crater Sites Found on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, M. R.; Malin, M. C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent observations constrain the formation of 100 new impact sites on Mars over the past decade; 19 of these were found using the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), and the other 81 have been identified since 2006 using the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Context Camera (CTX). Every 6 meter/pixel CTX image is examined upon receipt and, where they overlap images of 0.3-240 m/pixel scale acquired by the same or other Mars-orbiting spacecraft, we look for features that may have changed. New impact sites are initially identified by the presence of a new dark spot or cluster of dark spots in a CTX image. Such spots may be new impact craters, or result from the effect of impact blasts on the dusty surface. In some (generally rare) cases, the crater is sufficiently large to be resolved in the CTX image. In most cases, however, the crater(s) cannot be seen. These are tentatively designated as “candidate” new impact sites, and the CTX team then creates an opportunity for the MRO spacecraft to point its cameras off-nadir and requests that the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) team obtain an image of ~0.3 m/pixel to confirm whether a crater or crater cluster is present. It is clear even from cursory examination that the CTX observations are areographically biased to dusty, higher albedo areas on Mars. All but 3 of the 100 new impact sites occur on surfaces with Lambert albedo values in excess of 23.5%. Our initial study of MOC images greatly benefited from the initial global observations made in one month in 1999, creating a baseline date from which we could start counting new craters. The global coverage by MRO Mars Color Imager is more than a factor of 4 poorer in resolution than the MOC Wide Angle camera and does not offer the opportunity for global analysis. Instead, we must rely on partial global coverage and global coverage that has taken years to accumulate; thus we can only treat impact rates statistically. We subdivide the total data

  3. Ancient sea reptile found at Syncrude formally described

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-05-15

    This article provided details of an ancient reptile that once swam in ancient seas near the present location of Alberta's oil sands region. The plesiosaur has now been named after a curator at the Royal Tyrrell Museum who was also a renowned paleontologist. The nearly complete remains of one of the oldest plesiosaur fossils were recovered at a Syncrude Canada mine near Fort McMurray in 1994. Paleontologists from the University of Calgary have recently published a paper on the prehistoric aquatic predator in a German research journal. A plaster cast of the plesiosaur found at the Syncrude site is now on display at the Oil Sands Discovery Centre in Fort McMurray. 1 fig.

  4. No alignment of cattle along geomagnetic field lines found

    CERN Document Server

    Hert, J; Pekarek, L; Pavlicek, A; 10.1007/s00359-011-0628-7

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the body orientation of domestic cattle on free pastures in several European states, based on Google satellite photographs. In sum, 232 herds with 3412 individuals were evaluated. Two independent groups participated in our study and came to the same conclusion that, in contradiction to the recent findings of other researchers, no alignment of the animals and of their herds along geomagnetic field lines could be found. Several possible reasons for this discrepancy should be taken into account: poor quality of Google satellite photographs, difficulties in determining the body axis, selection of herds or animals within herds, lack of blinding in the evaluation, possible subconscious bias, and, most importantly, high sensitivity of the calculated main directions of the Rayleigh vectors to some kind of bias or to some overlooked or ignored confounder. This factor could easily have led to an unsubstantiated positive conclusion about the existence of magnetoreception.

  5. Nontraumatic Fat Embolism Found Following Maternal Death after Cesarean Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabitha Schrufer-Poland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Fat embolism is a rare form of nonthrombotic embolization. Limited literature exists regarding the diagnosis of fat embolism during the perinatal period. We present the first case of maternal death that resulted from nontraumatic fat embolization following Cesarean delivery. Case Description - A 29-year-old gravida 1 with a complex medical and surgical history underwent a primary Cesarean delivery at term. On postoperative day 2 the patient was found to be unresponsive. Despite resuscitative efforts, the patient succumbed. Autopsy findings were remarkable for diffuse pulmonary fat emboli. Furthermore, there was no histological evidence of either amniotic fluid embolism or thromboembolism. The primary cause of death was attributed to nontraumatic fat embolization. Discussion - Multiple risk factors may have contributed to the development of nontraumatic fat embolization in our patient. Obstetricians should maintain a high level of suspicion for nontraumatic fat embolization in cases of maternal respiratory decompression and sudden maternal mortality.

  6. Lost and Found: For Free or For a Fee?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Recently, a company dealing in lost-and-found property started up in Nanjing.Company employees say lost property is .sent to the company by finders such as dustmen,who can receive 30 percent of a finder's fee.The charges are not set randomly but according to market value. For instance, normally, people have to pay 40 yuan ($6) for a new 1D card but it also costs them time and en-ergy, so the company .sets 50 yuan ($7.5) as the standard for claim-ing an ID card. Similarly, 20 yuan ($3) should be paid for a lost pre-paid commuter pass or bank card;100 yuan ($15) for a business or a driving license; or 40 percent of the balance on a gift card or phone card.

  7. In Brief: Volcanic vents found in deep Caribbean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-04-01

    Scientists surveying the Cayman Trough in the Caribbean Sea have discovered the world's deepest undersea volcanic vents, or “black smokers,” the National Oceanography Center (NOC) in Southampton, UK, announced on 11 April. The vents were found at a depth of 5000 meters, about 800 meters deeper than any previously discovered. Jon Copley, a marine biologist at the University of Southampton's School of Ocean and Earth Science, said, “Seeing the world's deepest black-smoker vents looming out of the darkness was awe-inspiring.” Geochemist Doug Connelly of NOC, principal scientist of the expedition, noted, “We hope our discovery will yield new insights into biogeochemically important elements in one of the most extreme naturally occurring environments on our planet.” Researchers used an NOC-developed Autosub6000 robot submarine, which was remotely controlled from the Royal Research Ship James Cook. For more information, visit http://www.thesearethevoyages.net/.

  8. In vitro biological properties of flavonoid conjugates found in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, G; Barron, D; Shimoi, K; Terao, J

    2005-05-01

    For some flavonoids such as quercetin, isoflavones and catechins, the pathways of absorption and metabolism are now reasonably well characterised and understood. By definition, for biological activity of flavonoids to be manifest, the target tissue, which includes the blood and vascular system, must respond to the form(s) of flavonoid that it encounters. Bioavailability studies have shown that the circulating form of most flavonoids is as conjugates, with a few notable exceptions. There have been several recent papers on the in vitro biological properties of conjugates that have been found in vivo. This paper reviews the properties of these conjugates. Most of the information currently available is on quercetin glucuronides, but also on isoflavone and catechin conjugates. In addition to the biological properties of the conjugates, the partition coefficients and methods of synthesis are also presented.

  9. Selections from 2016: Faintest Early-Universe Galaxy Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    Editors note:In these last two weeks of 2016, well be looking at a few selections that we havent yet discussed on AAS Nova from among the most-downloaded paperspublished in AAS journals this year. The usual posting schedule will resume after the AAS winter meeting.Detection of Lyman-Alpha Emission from a Triply Imaged z = 6.85 Galaxy Behind MACS J2129.40741Published May2016Main takeaway:A team led by Kuang-Han Huang (University of Caliornia, Davis) discovered a faint galaxy at z = 6.846 located behind the galaxy cluster MACS J2129.40741. This galaxy contains only one ten-thousandth the stellar mass of the Milky Way, and its the faintest galaxy weve found at this great distance.Why its interesting:This galaxy is roughly 13 billion years old, placing it near the end of the reionization epoch (in which the first stars formed and caused our universe to transition from neutral gas to ionized gas). Examining such a small galaxy at this distance provides valuable information about how the process of reionization may have occurred.About the discovery:The newly discovered galaxy was found due to a fortunate alignment with a foreground galaxy cluster. Gravitational lensing by the foreground cluster produced three images of the distant galaxy, which were identified as being the same galaxy due to their similar spectra.CitationKuang-Han Huang et al 2016 ApJL 823 L14. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/823/1/L14

  10. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Caparros Megido

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g. Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  11. Microbiological Load of Edible Insects Found in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caparros Megido, Rudy; Desmedt, Sandrine; Blecker, Christophe; Béra, François; Haubruge, Éric; Alabi, Taofic; Francis, Frédéric

    2017-01-13

    Edible insects are gaining more and more attention as a sustainable source of animal protein for food and feed in the future. In Belgium, some insect products can be found on the market, and consumers are sourcing fresh insects from fishing stores or towards traditional markets to find exotic insects that are illegal and not sanitarily controlled. From this perspective, this study aims to characterize the microbial load of edible insects found in Belgium (i.e., fresh mealworms and house crickets from European farms and smoked termites and caterpillars from a traditional Congolese market) and to evaluate the efficiency of different processing methods (blanching for all species and freeze-drying and sterilization for European species) in reducing microorganism counts. All untreated insect samples had a total aerobic count higher than the limit for fresh minced meat (6.7 log cfu/g). Nevertheless, a species-dependent blanching step has led to a reduction of the total aerobic count under this limit, except for one caterpillar species. Freeze-drying and sterilization treatments on European species were also effective in reducing the total aerobic count. Yeast and mold counts for untreated insects were above the Good Manufacturing Practice limits for raw meat, but all treatments attained a reduction of these microorganisms under this limit. These results confirmed that fresh insects, but also smoked insects from non-European trades, need a cooking step (at least composed of a first blanching step) before consumption. Therefore, blanching timing for each studied insect species is proposed and discussed.

  12. Management of radial scars found at percutaneous breast biopsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L. [Ottawa Hospital, Civic Campus, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: lbecker@ottawahospital.on.ca; Trop, I.; David, J.; Latour, M.; Ouimet-Oliva, D.; Gaboury, L.; Lalonde, L. [Centre Hospitalier de L' Univ. de Montreal, Hotel-Dieu, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    To determine whether percutaneous biopsy can safely differentiate radial scars (RS) that can be followed from those that require excision. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data regarding 15 986 biopsies was performed at the Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite de Montreal between October 1995 and December 2003 and yielded 227 RS. The type of biopsy, number of cores, and mammographic characteristics were recorded. Only lesions with surgical pathology or 24 months of mammographic stability were considered for analysis. Subgroup analyses were performed for patients who underwent 14-gauge core biopsy (CB), 11-gauge vacuum-assisted biopsy (VAB), or both. Among the 14-gauge CBs (n = 176), data were available for 144 (81.8%); among the 11-gauge VABs (n = 51), data were available for 40 (78.4%). Thirty lesions had 14-gauge CB followed by 11-gauge VAB. RS were associated with cancer in 19.6%, with a high-risk lesion in 20.1% and a benign lesion in 60.3%. Overall, 4% of cancers were missed (5% for 14-gauge CB and 0% for 11-gauge VAB), and cancer was underestimated in 22.2% (25% for 14-gauge CB and 16.7% for 11-gauge VAB). One (3.7%) additional cancer was found when benign radial scar on 14-gauge CB underwent subsequent 11-gauge VAB. Cancer was associated with 37% of RS presenting as masses but with only 17.1% of distortions and 12.3% of microcalcifications. If benign radial scar is found on 14-gauge CB, further evaluation is needed with 11-gauge VAB or surgery. Our data support mammographic follow-up for RS that are benign on 11-gauge VAB. (author)

  13. Service supply in Minhang District by occupational health service organizations of Shanghai City from 2008-2011%2008-2011年上海市职业卫生技术服务机构在闵行区提供服务的情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项丹红

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the service supply in Minhang District by occupational health service organizations of Shanghai City, so as to improve their supervision and regulatory level. [Methods]The outcomes of occupational hazard monitoring in Minhang District detected by certificated occupational health service organizations in Shanghai from 2008-2011 were collected and formed a database with Excel, then analyzing statistically by SPSS. [Results]The certificated occupational health service organization with profitability in Shanghai provided occupational hazard monitoring and evaluation services in Minhang District, however there was 25% non-profitability organizations supplied service in this district. The quantity of service provided by the profitability a-gencies was stable at above 32% , while that provided by non-profitability organizations showed downward tendency, the ratio of the above 2 was 1.82:1. The rate of leak detection of profitability organization was 21.36% which was higher than that of non-profitability organizations. As to the total qualified rate, there was little difference between the profitability organization and the non-profitability organization. But for the different type occupational hazards, there was significant difference on the rate of detection and qualified between the profitability organization and the non-profitability organization. The average annual detection rate of profitability organizations and non-profitability organizations was 78.64% and 100% , respectively. [ Conclusion] More attention should be paid to raise the enthusiasm of the non-profitability organizations. It is necessary to reinforce supervision on occupational health service organization, to perfect the methods of quality control, to increase the reliability of detection data, to strengthen the data comparability of different organizations and protect the interests of the clients.%目的 为了解上海市现有的职业卫生技术服务机构在闵行区提

  14. The Largest Holocene Eruption of the Central Andes Found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Turiel, J.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Saavedra, J.; Perez-Torrado, F.; Carracedo, J.; Osterrieth, M.; Carrizo, J.; Esteban, G.

    2013-12-01

    We present new data and interpretation about a major eruption -spreading ˜110 km3 ashes over 440.000 km2- long thought to have occurred around 4200 years ago in the Cerro Blanco Volcanic Complex (CBVC) in NW Argentina. This eruption may be the biggest during the past five millennia in the Central Volcanic Zone of the Andes, and possibly one of the largest Holocene eruptions in the world. The environmental effects of this voluminous eruption are still noticeable, as evidenced by the high content of arsenic and other trace elements in the groundwaters of the Chacopampean Plain. The recognition of this significant volcanic event may shed new light on interpretations of critical changes observed in the mid-Holocene paleontological and archaeological records, and offers researchers an excellent, extensive regional chronostratigraphic marker for reconstructing mid-Holocene geological history over a wide geographical area of South America. More than 100 ashes were sampled in Argentina, Chile and Uruguay during different field campaigns. Ash samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), grain size distributions laser diffraction, and geochemically by electron microprobe (EMPA) and laser ablation-HR-ICP-MS. New and published 14C ages were calibrated to calendar years BP. The age of the most recent CBVC eruption is 4407-4093 cal y BP, indirectly dated by 14C of associated organic sediment within the lower part of a proximal fall deposit of this event (26°53'16.05"S-67°44'48.68"W). This is the youngest record of a major volcanic event in the Southern Puna. This age is consistent with other radiocarbon dates of organic matter in palaeosols underlying or overlying distal ash fall deposits. Based on their products, all of rhyolitic composition, we have distinguished 8 main episodes during the evolution of the most recent CBVC eruption: 1) the eruption began with a white rhyolite lava dome extrusion; 2) followed by a Plinian

  15. Nonprofit Organizations in Danish Welfare Provision – Explaining Differences Across Welfare Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Malene

    This paper describes and analyzes the large variation in the proportion of non-profit providers across different welfare areas in Denmark with specific focus on two selected areas: Primary schools and care homes for elderly. With inspiration from niche theory, the aim is to get a deeper insight...... knowledge on the varying conditions for non-profit welfare provision which in the end can help to understand and explan the large variations in the proportion of non-profit welfare provision and the recent development trends....

  16. Immunogenic properties of archaeal species found in bioaerosols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Blais Lecours

    Full Text Available The etiology of bioaerosol-related pulmonary diseases remains poorly understood. Recently, archaea emerged as prominent airborne components of agricultural environments, but the consequences of airway exposure to archaea remain unknown. Since subcomponents of archaea can be immunogenic, we used a murine model to study the pulmonary immune responses to two archaeal species found in agricultural facilities: Methanobrevibacter smithii (MBS and Methanosphaera stadtmanae (MSS. Mice were administered intranasally with 6.25, 25 or 100 µg of MBS or MSS, once daily, 3 days a week, for 3 weeks. MSS induced more severe histopathological alterations than MBS with perivascular accumulation of granulocytes, pronounced thickening of the alveolar septa, alveolar macrophages accumulation and increased perivascular mononucleated cell accumulation. Analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage fluids revealed up to 3 times greater leukocyte accumulation with MSS compared to MBS. Instillation of 100 µg of MBS or MSS caused predominant accumulation of monocyte/macrophages (4.5×10(5 and 4.8×10(5 cells/ml respectively followed by CD4(+ T cells (1.38×10(5 and 1.94×10(5 cells/ml respectively, B cells (0.73×10(5 and 1.28×10(5 cells/ml respectively, and CD8(+ T cells (0.20×10(5 and 0.31×10(5 cells/ml respectively in the airways. Both archaeal species induced similar titers of antigen-specific IgGs in plasma. MSS but not MBS caused an accumulation of eosinophils and neutrophils in the lungs, which surprisingly, correlated inversely with the size of the inoculum. Stronger immunogenicity of MSS was confirmed by a 3 fold higher accumulation of myeloid dendritic cells in the airways, compared to MBS. Thus, the dose and species of archaea determine the magnitude and nature of the pulmonary immune response. This is the first report of an immunomodulatory role of archaeal species found in bioaerosols.

  17. The first Neanderthal tooth found North of the Carpathian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowski, Mikołaj; Socha, Paweł; Dąbrowski, Paweł; Nowaczewska, Wioletta; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Dobosz, Tadeusz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Nadachowski, Adam

    2010-04-01

    An upper second permanent molar from a human was found alongside numerous tools of the Micoquian tradition and was excavated in Stajnia Cave, which is located over 100 km North of the Carpathian Mountains in southern Poland. The age of these finds has been established within a time-span of late Saalian to early Weichselian, most likely to OIS 5c or 5a, according to the palaeontological, geological, archaeological and absolute dating of the layer from which they were obtained. An examination of the morphology of the human molar indicates that this tooth exhibits many traits frequently occurring in Neanderthal upper molars. Although the occurrence of derived Neanderthal traits in the Stajnia molar cannot be firmly established because of degradation of its cusps, the presence of the above-mentioned features allows the assertion that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal. The age of the Stajnia tooth and the archaeological context of this find also indicate that this molar is of Neanderthal origin.

  18. Analyzing the Number of Varieties in Frequently Found Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomura, Yusuke; Watanabe, Yoshinori; Yoshida, Kenichi

    Abnormal traffic that causes various problems on the Internet, such as P2P flows, DDoS attacks, and Internet worms, is increasing; therefore, the importance of methods that identify and control abnormal traffic is also increasing. Though the application of frequent-itemset-mining techniques is a promising way to analyze Internet traffic, the huge amount of data on the Internet prevents such techniques from being effective. To overcome this problem, we have developed a simple frequent-itemset-mining method that uses only a small amount of memory but is effective even with the large volumes of data associated with broadband Internet traffic. Using our method also involves analyzing the number of distinct elements in the itemsets found, which helps identify abnormal traffic. We used a cache-based implementation of our method to analyze actual data on the Internet and demonstrated that such an implementation can be used to provide on-line analysis of data while using only a small amount of memory.

  19. Cognitive Collaboration Found in Cardiac Physiology: Study in Classroom Environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Ahonen

    Full Text Available It is known that periods of intense social interaction result in shared patterns in collaborators' physiological signals. However, applied quantitative research on collaboration is hindered due to scarcity of objective metrics of teamwork effectiveness. Indeed, especially in the domain of productive, ecologically-valid activity such as programming, there is a lack of evidence for the most effective, affordable and reliable measures of collaboration quality. In this study we investigate synchrony in physiological signals between collaborating computer science students performing pair-programming exercises in a class room environment. We recorded electrocardiography over the course of a 60 minute programming session, using lightweight physiological sensors. We employ correlation of heart-rate variability features to study social psychophysiological compliance of the collaborating students. We found evident physiological compliance in collaborating dyads' heart-rate variability signals. Furthermore, dyads' self-reported workload was associated with the physiological compliance. Our results show viability of a novel approach to field measurement using lightweight devices in an uncontrolled environment, and suggest that self-reported collaboration quality can be assessed via physiological signals.

  20. Positive and Negative Themes Found in Sport-Related Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Hannah M; Olympia, Robert P; King, Tonya S; Wakefield, Bryan H; Weber, Chris J

    2016-10-23

    Sport participation is an important part of the development of children and adolescents in the United States. The objective of this study was to determine positive and negative themes found in a selected number of sport-related films. A total of 44 sport-related films were independently viewed and analyzed by four reviewers. The most common sports depicted were baseball (27%) and football (25%). The most common positive themes were positive interactions with the coach, positive interactions with family and friends, and positive interactions with teammates (2.04, 1.42, 1.2 mean events per hour). The most common negative themes were taunting/fighting/poor sportsmanship, negative interactions with the coach, and drinking/smoking/drug use (2.13, 1.10, 0.94 mean events per hour). In conclusion, the coviewing of sport films among pediatric athletes and their coaches, athletic trainers, and/or parents in order to focus on "teachable moments" may encourage the acquisition and development of positive themes and the avoidance and de-emphasis of negative themes.

  1. Quartz-like Crystals Found in Planetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has, for the first time, detected tiny quartz-like crystals sprinkled in young planetary systems. The crystals, which are types of silica minerals called cristobalite and tridymite, can be seen close-up in the black-and-white insets (cristobalite is on the left, and tridymite on the right). The main picture is an artist's concept of a young star and its swirling disk of planet-forming materials. Cristobalite and tridymite are thought to be two of many planet ingredients. On Earth, they are normally found as tiny crystals in volcanic lava flows and meteorites from space. These minerals are both related to quartz. For example, if you were to heat the familiar quartz crystals often sold as mystical tokens, the quartz would transform into cristobalite and tridymite. Because cristobalite and tridymite require rapid heating and cooling to form, astronomers say they were most likely generated by shock waves traveling through the planetary disks. The insets are Scanning Electron Microscope pictures courtesy of George Rossman of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif.

  2. Helminth parasites found in hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirak, Veli Y; Senlik, Bayram; Aydogdu, Ali; Selver, Melih; Akyol, Volkan

    2010-10-01

    Hedgehog diseases are becoming important issues for veterinary surgeons due to growing interest in this animal species among pet owners and an increase in cases of rescued hedgehogs requiring veterinary care. A parasitological study was carried out on hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in the Bursa province of Turkey, found dead mainly due to road casualties, to determine their helminth parasite burden. The detected helminths and their prevalences were as follows: Physaloptera clausa (72.2%), Crenosoma striatum (55.5%), Aonchotheca erinacei (55.5%), Hymenolepis erinacei (55.5%), Nephridiorhynchus major (50%) and Eucoleus aerophilus (22.2%). The number of parasites in infected animals varied from 1 to 203. The highest mean intensity of infection was observed with C. striatum, and the lowest was observed with N. major. The mean abundance of different species varied from 0.7 to 41.8, where E. aerophilus and C. striatum had the lowest and highest abundance, respectively. This study represents the first time N. major and E. aerophilus have been reported in hedgehogs in Turkey. The presence of E. aerophilus and its potential role as a zoonotic agent are discussed.

  3. Characteristics of medication advertisements found in US women's fashion magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongiovi, Jennifer; Clarke Hillyer, Grace; Basch, Corey H; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although prescriptions are dispensed at discretion of medical professionals, many pharmaceutical companies use direct-to-consumer (DTC) advertising to increase sales. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications are similarly marketed. Methods: We examined the content of advertisements in 38 issues of 9 popular US women's fashion magazines. We evaluated target audience, health condition, product availability, message appeal, target to females, and mention of potential side effects and benefits. Results: Sixty total medication advertisements were identified, 58.3% (95% CI: 45.8, 70.8) for prescription products. In magazines targeted to non-Hispanic Whites, >65% of advertisements were for OTC medications whereas 80% (95% CI: 66.7, 94.5) of advertisements found in Black/Latina magazines were for prescription medications. The rational appeal was used most commonly in non-Hispanic White magazines (75.9%; 95% CI: 60.3, 91.5). Emotional appeal was featured more often in prescription advertisements magazines (60.0; 95% CI:43.8, 76.2) compared to OTC (8.0; 95% CI: -2.6, 18.6). Conclusion: Although emotional appeal may be effective for selling medication to women, it often does not completely inform consumers of potential risks.

  4. Reinforcing effects of caffeine and theobromine as found in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hendrik J; Blackburn, Rachel J

    2005-08-01

    Although in a previous study we showed that caffeine and theobromine were the main psychopharmacologically active constituents in a 50-g bar of chocolate, mere activity does not guarantee a role in our liking for the food. Our aim was to see if liking for a drink repeatedly paired with these amounts of caffeine and theobromine would increase compared to a placebo-paired drink. Participants (n=64) consumed a 'novel' drink + treatment capsule on six non-consecutive mornings using a double-blind, placebo-controlled independent-sample design. Aspects of liking and intensity of various sensory descriptors for these drinks were measured at every drink collection. Treatment capsules contained either an ecologically relevant dose combination of 19-mg caffeine and 250-mg theobromine or a placebo. Liking for the drink paired with the methylxanthine-containing capsules increased over time compared to the placebo-paired drink. This highly significant effect was confirmed by subjective, retrospective changes in liking for the drink. Methylxanthines in amounts found in 50-g chocolate may well contribute to our liking for chocolate, especially to the more acquired taste for dark chocolate.

  5. Molecular characterization of Ephedra species found in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, S; Shah, M M; Ahmad, H; Swati, Z A; Shah, S H; Pervez, A; Farooq, U

    2007-12-11

    Ephedra, also known as "ma huang", is a dioecious, drought- and frost-resistant, perennial, evergreen shrub with compelling medicinal value. The genus is represented by 42 species around the world, 9 of which were provisionally reported from Pakistan. Species of the genus have a controversial taxonomy due to their overlapping morphological features. Conventional tools alone are not sufficient for characterizing the species. The objective of present study was to assess the genetic variability present in different biotypes of Ephedra growing in Pakistan using molecular markers. A total of six genotypes collected from diverse geographic zones of Pakistan were used. The DNA of all genotypes was amplified using nine randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers to study genetic variability at the molecular level. The dissimilarity coefficient matrix based on the data of 9 RAPD primers was used to construct a dendrogram which was then used to group the genotypes in clusters. Based on the dendrogram and dissimilarity coefficient matrix, the RAPD markers used here revealed a moderate to high level of genetic polymorphism (6 to 49%) among the genotypes. It was found that the collection of genotype accessions from Swat Valley in northwestern Pakistan was most distantly related to the other five collections. More molecular markers including functional genes and ribosomal spacer regions are suggested to find a better estimate of the genetic diversity present in Ephedra growing in Pakistan. The information provided here is useful for identifying valuable Ephedra variants which will be used for medicinal purposes and earning foreign currency.

  6. The first Neanderthal tooth found North of the Carpathian Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowski, Mikołaj; Socha, Paweł; Dabrowski, Paweł; Nowaczewska, Wioletta; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Dobosz, Tadeusz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Nadachowski, Adam

    2010-04-01

    An upper second permanent molar from a human was found alongside numerous tools of the Micoquian tradition and was excavated in Stajnia Cave, which is located over 100 km North of the Carpathian Mountains in southern Poland. The age of these finds has been established within a time-span of late Saalian to early Weichselian, most likely to OIS 5c or 5a, according to the palaeontological, geological, archaeological and absolute dating of the layer from which they were obtained. An examination of the morphology of the human molar indicates that this tooth exhibits many traits frequently occurring in Neanderthal upper molars. Although the occurrence of derived Neanderthal traits in the Stajnia molar cannot be firmly established because of degradation of its cusps, the presence of the above-mentioned features allows the assertion that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal. The age of the Stajnia tooth and the archaeological context of this find also indicate that this molar is of Neanderthal origin.

  7. Theoretically Founded Optimization of Auctioneer's Revenues in Expanding Auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Jonathan; Shehory, Onn

    The expanding auction is a multi-unit auction which provides the auctioneer with control over the outcome of the auction by means of dynamically adding items for sale. Previous research on the expanding auction has provided a numeric method to calculate a strategy that optimizes the auctioneer's revenue. In this paper, we analyze various theoretical properties of the expanding auction, and compare it to VCG, a multi-unit auction protocol known in the art. We examine the effects of errors in the auctioneer's estimation of the buyers' maximal bidding values and prove a theoretical bound on the ratio between the revenue yielded by the Informed Decision Strategy (IDS) and the post-optimal strategy. We also analyze the relationship between the auction step and the optimal revenue and introduce a method of computing this optimizing step. We further compare the revenues yielded by the use of IDS with an expanding auction to those of the VCG mechanism and determine the conditions under which the former outperforms the latter. Our work provides new insight into the properties of the expanding auction. It further provides theoretically founded means for optimizing the revenue of auctioneer.

  8. Found a USB stick? Go and infect your PC!

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2012-01-01

    Err. Wait. Please no! USB sticks are not innocent little things. They can quickly mutate into malicious nasty beasts! Just in the recent past, at least two physics experiments were suffering as their control and data acquisition PCs, respectively, were infected by USB sticks holding malicious code. A bit longer ago, a series of laptops were infected at a 2008 computing conference as an infected USB stick made its tour around. Bad luck for those who ran a Windows operating system and inserted that stick…   So, you found a USB stick in the cafeteria? Take care. If this were a lollipop, you wouldn’t just pick it up and lick it, would you? So beware of USB sticks whose origin or previous usage you don’t know. They might infect your PC once plugged in. In order to be on the safe side, accept and share only USB sticks whose owner you trust. Run up-to-date anti-virus software on your PC, make sure that its operating system is patched...

  9. Optimal treatment sequence in COPD: Can a consensus be found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J; Drummond, M; Pires, N; Reis, G; Alves, C; Robalo-Cordeiro, C

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no consensus on the treatment sequence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although it is recognized that early diagnosis is of paramount importance to start treatment in the early stages of the disease. Although it is fairly consensual that initial treatment should be with an inhaled short-acting beta agonist, a short-acting muscarinic antagonist, a long-acting beta-agonist or a long-acting muscarinic antagonist. As the disease progresses, several therapeutic options are available, and which to choose at each disease stage remains controversial. When and in which patients to use dual bronchodilation? When to use inhaled corticosteroids? And triple therapy? Are the existing non-inhaled therapies, such as mucolytic agents, antibiotics, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, methylxanthines and immunostimulating agents, useful? If so, which patients would benefit? Should co-morbidities be taken into account when choosing COPD therapy for a patient? This paper reviews current guidelines and available evidence and proposes a therapeutic scheme for COPD patients. We also propose a treatment algorithm in the hope that it will help physicians to decide the best approach for their patients. The authors conclude that, at present, a full consensus on optimal treatment sequence in COPD cannot be found, mainly due to disease heterogeneity and lack of biomarkers to guide treatment. For the time being, and although some therapeutic approaches are consensual, treatment of COPD should be patient-oriented.

  10. Knots in the Helix Nebula found in H2

    CERN Document Server

    Matsuura, M; McHunu, B M; Tanaka, I; Wright, N J; Smith, M D; Zijlstra, A A; Viti, S; Wesson, R

    2009-01-01

    We present a deep and wide field-of-view (4'x 7') image of the planetary nebula (PN) NGC 7293 (the Helix Nebula) in the 2.12 micron H2 v=1-0 S(1) line. The excellent seeing (0.4'') at the Subaru Telescope, allows the details of cometary knots to be examined. The knots are found at distances of 2.2'-6.4' from the central star (CS). At the inner edge and in the inner ring (up to 4.5' fromthe CS), the knot often show a `tadpole' shape, an elliptical head with a bright crescent inside and a long tail opposite to the CS. In detail, there are variations in the tadpole shapes, such as narrowing tails, widening tails, meandering tails, or multi-peaks within a tail. In the outer ring (4.5'-6.4' from the CS), the shapes are more fractured, and the tails do not collimate into a single direction. The transition in knot morphology from the inner edge to the outer ring is clearly seen. The number density of knots governs the H2 surface brightness in the inner ring: H2 exists only within the knots. Possible mechanisms which...

  11. Have Two Lonely Trans-Neptunian Objects Found Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-08-01

    Who says theres no romance in the outer solar system? A new study has identified 2004 TT357 as a body that may be made up of two separate objects in contact with each other.Identification ChallengesA large fraction of both the near and distant small bodies in our solar system are predicted to be in binary systems. When these systems are nearby and have large separations, we can use telescopes like Hubble to observe them and identify the two separate components. But when binaries are far away and have small separations, Hubble doesnt have the resolution to tell that theyre not a single object.Comet 67P/ChuryumovGerasimenko is an example of a suspected contact binary in the inner solar system. [ESA]Contact binaries are objects consisting of two lobes in contact with each other, like the bi-lobed, peanut-shaped comet 67P/ChuryumovGerasimenko. These systems occur when two objects gravitate toward each other until the point where they touch.Though Hubble cant recognize distant contact binaries because the components are too close together, we can potentially identify them from their characteristic light curves. But this is a challenging process, and so far weve only found one confirmed trans-Neptunian-object (TNO) contact binary and one candidate despite predictions that 1030% of TNOs could be contact binaries.Now, new observations from the 4.3-m Lowell Observatory Discovery Channel Telescope, presented in a study led by Audrey Thirouin (Lowell Observatory), have resulted in the identification of a potential new TNO contact binary.Light curve for 2004 TT357. The double-peaked light curve (with a rotational period of 7.79 hr) is plotted over two cycles. [Adapted from Thirouin et al. 2017]Changing Brightness2004 TT357 is a TNO in our distant solar system orbiting with a semimajor axis of 55 AU. Thirouin and collaborators observations of this object allowed them to construct a lightcurve for 2004 TT357 that revealed a 7.8-hour period and a significant amplitude variation

  12. Novel hepatitis E like virus found in Swedish moose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jay; Norder, Heléne; Uhlhorn, Henrik; Belák, Sándor; Widén, Frederik

    2014-03-01

    A novel virus was detected in a sample collected from a Swedish moose (Alces alces). The virus was suggested as a member of the Hepeviridae family, although it was found to be highly divergent from the known four genotypes (gt1-4) of hepatitis E virus (HEV). Moose are regularly hunted for consumption in the whole of Scandinavia. Thus, the finding of this virus may be important from several aspects: (a) as a new diverged HEV in a new animal species, and (b) potential unexplored HEV transmission pathways for human infections. Considering these aspects, we have started the molecular characterization of this virus. A 5.1 kb amplicon was sequenced, and corresponded to the partial ORF1, followed by complete ORF2, ORF3 and poly(A) sequence. In comparison with existing HEVs, the moose HEV genome showed a general nucleotide sequence similarity of 37-63% and an extensively divergent putative ORF3 sequence. The junction region between the ORFs was also highly divergent; however, two putative secondary stem-loop structures were retained when compared to gt1-4, but with altered structural appearance. In the phylogenetic analysis, the moose HEV deviated and formed its own branch between the gt1-4 and other divergent animal HEVs. The characterization of this highly divergent genome provides important information regarding the diversity of HEV infecting various mammalian species. However, further studies are needed to investigate its prevalence in the moose populations and possibly in other host species, including the risk for human infection.

  13. Exotic new oxides of plutonium found by using gas thermochromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanov, V.P.; Buklanov, G.V.; Lobanov, Yu.V [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Dubna, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2002-11-01

    The volatility of compounds formed during heating of trace quantities of {sup 238}Pu or {sup 239}Pu in a stream of helium and oxygen mixture was studied by gas thermochromatography. Under certain conditions plutonium forms four adsorption zones with the centers at 450{+-}25degC, 250{+-}25degC, 130{+-}50degC and -105{+-}25degC in quartz thermochromatographic(TC) columns. For the interpretation of the results, model experiments with carrier-free radioisotopes of Os, Re, Ru and Tc were performed. It was found that in the stream of He with a small amounts of O{sub 2}, products were adsorbed at 450-500degC and at 250-300degC in the form of dioxides and trioxides. The results of the TC isolation of volatile oxygen-containing compounds of U and {sup 249}Cf are also presented. Based on the data obtained with Pu, we assume that the first adsorption zone (450{+-}25degC) is due to PuO{sub 2} formation, the second one is due to PuO{sub 3} formation and the third may be due to formation of a plutonium acid H{sub 2}PuO{sub 4} (proposed formula). Comparison of the adsorption zone of OsO{sub 4} with the fourth deposition zone for Pu indicates their similarity. We conclude that at -105{+-}25degC, octovalent plutonium deposits in the form of tetraoxide. (author)

  14. Statistical analyses support power law distributions found in neuronal avalanches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Klaus

    Full Text Available The size distribution of neuronal avalanches in cortical networks has been reported to follow a power law distribution with exponent close to -1.5, which is a reflection of long-range spatial correlations in spontaneous neuronal activity. However, identifying power law scaling in empirical data can be difficult and sometimes controversial. In the present study, we tested the power law hypothesis for neuronal avalanches by using more stringent statistical analyses. In particular, we performed the following steps: (i analysis of finite-size scaling to identify scale-free dynamics in neuronal avalanches, (ii model parameter estimation to determine the specific exponent of the power law, and (iii comparison of the power law to alternative model distributions. Consistent with critical state dynamics, avalanche size distributions exhibited robust scaling behavior in which the maximum avalanche size was limited only by the spatial extent of sampling ("finite size" effect. This scale-free dynamics suggests the power law as a model for the distribution of avalanche sizes. Using both the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and a maximum likelihood approach, we found the slope to be close to -1.5, which is in line with previous reports. Finally, the power law model for neuronal avalanches was compared to the exponential and to various heavy-tail distributions based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance and by using a log-likelihood ratio test. Both the power law distribution without and with exponential cut-off provided significantly better fits to the cluster size distributions in neuronal avalanches than the exponential, the lognormal and the gamma distribution. In summary, our findings strongly support the power law scaling in neuronal avalanches, providing further evidence for critical state dynamics in superficial layers of cortex.

  15. Genetic characterization of Porcine Circovirus 2 found in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yew Tan D

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Porcine circovirus type 2 is the primary etiological agent associated with a group of complex multi-factorial diseases classified as Porcine Circovirus Associated Diseases (PCVAD. Sporadic cases reported in Malaysia in 2007 caused major economic losses to the 2.2 billion Malaysian ringgit (MYR (approximately 0.7 billion US dollar swine industry. The objective of the present study was to determine the association between the presence of PCV2 and occurrences of PCVAD. Results This study showed that 37 out of 42 farms sampled were positive for PCV2 using PCR screening. Thirteen whole genome of PCV2 isolates from pigs with typical PCVAD symptoms were successfully sequenced. These isolates shared 98.3-99.2% similarities with sequences of isolates from the Netherlands. All thirteen isolates fell into the same clade as PCV2b isolates from other countries. Amino acid sequence analysis of the putative capsid protein (ORF2 of the PCV2 revealed that there are three clusters found in Malaysia, namely cluster 1C and 1A/1B. Of interest, three of the isolates (isolates Mal 005, Mal 006 and Mal 010 had a proline substitution for arginine or isoleucine encoded at nt. position 88-89. Eight of the isolates had mutations at the C terminus of the putative capsid protein suggestive of higher pathogenicity which may account for the high reports of PCVAD clinical symptoms in 2007. Conclusion Phylogenetic study suggests that there may be a link between movements of animals by import of breeders into the country being the route of entry of the virus. While it is not possible to eradicate the virus from commercial pigs, the swine industry in Malaysia can be safeguarded by control measures implemented throughout the country. These measures should include improved biosecurity, disease surveillance; vaccination as well as enforcement of regulations formulated to control and prevent the spread of this disease on a national scale.

  16. Statistical analyses support power law distributions found in neuronal avalanches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Andreas; Yu, Shan; Plenz, Dietmar

    2011-01-01

    The size distribution of neuronal avalanches in cortical networks has been reported to follow a power law distribution with exponent close to -1.5, which is a reflection of long-range spatial correlations in spontaneous neuronal activity. However, identifying power law scaling in empirical data can be difficult and sometimes controversial. In the present study, we tested the power law hypothesis for neuronal avalanches by using more stringent statistical analyses. In particular, we performed the following steps: (i) analysis of finite-size scaling to identify scale-free dynamics in neuronal avalanches, (ii) model parameter estimation to determine the specific exponent of the power law, and (iii) comparison of the power law to alternative model distributions. Consistent with critical state dynamics, avalanche size distributions exhibited robust scaling behavior in which the maximum avalanche size was limited only by the spatial extent of sampling ("finite size" effect). This scale-free dynamics suggests the power law as a model for the distribution of avalanche sizes. Using both the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistic and a maximum likelihood approach, we found the slope to be close to -1.5, which is in line with previous reports. Finally, the power law model for neuronal avalanches was compared to the exponential and to various heavy-tail distributions based on the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance and by using a log-likelihood ratio test. Both the power law distribution without and with exponential cut-off provided significantly better fits to the cluster size distributions in neuronal avalanches than the exponential, the lognormal and the gamma distribution. In summary, our findings strongly support the power law scaling in neuronal avalanches, providing further evidence for critical state dynamics in superficial layers of cortex.

  17. Characteristics of predictor sets found using differential prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetty Madhu

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feature selection plays an undeniably important role in classification problems involving high dimensional datasets such as microarray datasets. For filter-based feature selection, two well-known criteria used in forming predictor sets are relevance and redundancy. However, there is a third criterion which is at least as important as the other two in affecting the efficacy of the resulting predictor sets. This criterion is the degree of differential prioritization (DDP, which varies the emphases on relevance and redundancy depending on the value of the DDP. Previous empirical works on publicly available microarray datasets have confirmed the effectiveness of the DDP in molecular classification. We now propose to establish the fundamental strengths and merits of the DDP-based feature selection technique. This is to be done through a simulation study which involves vigorous analyses of the characteristics of predictor sets found using different values of the DDP from toy datasets designed to mimic real-life microarray datasets. Results A simulation study employing analytical measures such as the distance between classes before and after transformation using principal component analysis is implemented on toy datasets. From these analyses, the necessity of adjusting the differential prioritization based on the dataset of interest is established. This conclusion is supported by comparisons against both simplistic rank-based selection and state-of-the-art equal-priorities scoring methods, which demonstrates the superiority of the DDP-based feature selection technique. Reapplying similar analyses to real-life multiclass microarray datasets provides further confirmation of our findings and of the significance of the DDP for practical applications. Conclusion The findings have been achieved based on analytical evaluations, not empirical evaluation involving classifiers, thus providing further basis for the usefulness of the DDP and

  18. A Cocoon Found Inside the Black Widow's Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory image of the mysterious "Black Widow" pulsar reveals the first direct evidence of an elongated cocoon of high-energy particles. This discovery shows that this billion-year-old rejuvenated pulsar is an extremely efficient generator of a high-speed flow of matter and antimatter particles. Known officially as pulsar B1957+20, the Black Widow received its nickname because it is emitting intense high-energy radiation that is destroying its companion through evaporation. B1957+20, which completes one rotation every 1.6-thousandths of a second, belongs to a class of extremely rapidly rotating neutron stars called millisecond pulsars. The motion of B1957+20 through the galaxy -- at a high speed of almost a million kilometers per hour -- creates a bow shock wave visible to optical telescopes. The Chandra observation shows what cannot be seen in visible light: a second shock wave. This secondary shock wave is created from pressure that sweeps the wind back from the pulsar to form the cocoon of high-energy particles, visible for the first time in the Chandra data. "This is the first detection of a double-shock structure around a pulsar," said Benjamin Stappers, of the Dutch Organization for Research in Astronomy (ASTRON), lead author on a paper describing the research that will appear in the Feb. 28, 2003, issue of Science magazine. "It should enable astronomers to test theories of the dynamics of pulsar winds and their interaction with their environment." B1957+20 X-ray-only image of B1957+20 Scientists believe millisecond pulsars are very old neutron stars that have been spun up by accreting material from their companions. The steady push of the infalling matter on the neutron star spins it up in much the same way as pushing on a merry-go-round makes it rotate faster. The result is an object about 1.5 times as massive as the Sun and ten miles in diameter that rotates hundreds of times per second. The advanced age, very rapid rotation rate

  19. Life sketch of martyred Meena, founding leader of RAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friba of RAWA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In questo contributo di Friba, una donna afghana membro di RAWA (The Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan, si ricostruiscono la vita e le lotte di Meena, la fondatrice dell’associazione. Fin dal 1973 Meena aveva maturato la decisione di battersi per i diritti delle donne e contro ogni forma di tirannia. Influenzata da autori come Ashraf Dihquany e da personaggi di donne resistenti come Jamila Bopasha e Giovanna d’Arco, ma soprattutto dalle resistenti afghane Malalai Maiwand e Rabia Balkhi, dal 1976 studia alla Facoltà di Legge Islamica della Università di Kabul. Nello stesso 1976 sposa un leader di un’ala clandestina di sinistra della Afghanistan Liberation Organization, che verrà imprigionato nel 1979. Nel 1977 pone le basi di RAWA, con lo scopo di dare finalmente voce alle donne afghane, di lottare per i loro diritti all’educazione, alla tutela legale, alla salute e alla libertà, liberandole dalla violenza e dalla povertà, e al tempo stesso per la democrazia, l’eguaglianza, la giustizia sociale e la laicità. Attraverso le varie fasi del calvario afghano, Meena si batte per diffondere RAWA fra le donne. La sua personalità forte e determinata le conquista molte simpatie e adesioni, ma la repressione del regime è durissima. Meena porta avanti la sua attività politica, affrontando duri sacrifici, soprattutto per le ripetute e prolungate separazioni dalla figlia. Nel 1981 fonda un giornale in Persiano e Pashtu «Payman e zan» (Messaggio della donna. Intanto Meena riceve riconoscimenti a livello internazionale e partecipa a incontri in varie città europee. Nonostante le gravi minacce rivoltele dai fondamentalisti islamici, rientra in patria, ma sarà poi costretta a rifugiarsi in Pakistan (prima a Peshawar poi a Quetta per l’intensificarsi del pericolo di essere arrestata dal regime. Anche dall’esilio Meena continua il suo lavoro per RAWA, raggiungendo importanti risultati sia nelle relazioni con altri

  20. Life sketch of martyred Meena, founding leader of RAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friba of RAWA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In questo contributo di Friba, una donna afghana membro di RAWA (The Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan, si ricostruiscono la vita e le lotte di Meena, la fondatrice dell’associazione. Fin dal 1973 Meena aveva maturato la decisione di battersi per i diritti delle donne e contro ogni forma di tirannia. Influenzata da autori come Ashraf Dihquany e da personaggi di donne resistenti come Jamila Bopasha e Giovanna d’Arco, ma soprattutto dalle resistenti afghane Malalai Maiwand e Rabia Balkhi, dal 1976 studia alla Facoltà di Legge Islamica della Università di Kabul. Nello stesso 1976 sposa un leader di un’ala clandestina di sinistra della Afghanistan Liberation Organization, che verrà imprigionato nel 1979. Nel 1977 pone le basi di RAWA, con lo scopo di dare finalmente voce alle donne afghane, di lottare per i loro diritti all’educazione, alla tutela legale, alla salute e alla libertà, liberandole dalla violenza e dalla povertà, e al tempo stesso per la democrazia, l’eguaglianza, la giustizia sociale e la laicità. Attraverso le varie fasi del calvario afghano, Meena si batte per diffondere RAWA fra le donne. La sua personalità forte e determinata le conquista molte simpatie e adesioni, ma la repressione del regime è durissima. Meena porta avanti la sua attività politica, affrontando duri sacrifici, soprattutto per le ripetute e prolungate separazioni dalla figlia. Nel 1981 fonda un giornale in Persiano e Pashtu «Payman e zan» (Messaggio della donna. Intanto Meena riceve riconoscimenti a livello internazionale e partecipa a incontri in varie città europee. Nonostante le gravi minacce rivoltele dai fondamentalisti islamici, rientra in patria, ma sarà poi costretta a rifugiarsi in Pakistan (prima a Peshawar poi a Quetta per l’intensificarsi del pericolo di essere arrestata dal regime. Anche dall’esilio Meena continua il suo lavoro per RAWA, raggiungendo importanti risultati sia nelle relazioni con

  1. Yoga is found hazardous to the meniscus for Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHU Jun-kun

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Yoga is becoming more and more popular in the female society while the concomitant sports injury is seldom mentioned. Many clinicians have noted that yoga may result in knee problems, which though requires more researches to corroborate. This investigation was conducted to ascertain the relationship between yoga and meniscus injury as well as the extent of impairment ac-cording to variant yoga practice periods. Methods: Totally 819 women aged 20-49 years who practiced yoga or other popular sports including badminton, jogging, climbing hills, etc for at least one hour per day were selected to participate in this research. These subjects were required to complete a questionnaire and receive relevant physical examination. Magnetic resonance (MR scan of the knee was recommended for the suspicious subjects for ultimate diagnosis. The subject with abnormal meniscus MR signals was defined as a case and matched with two con-trols in terms of age and body mass index (BMI. Altogether there were 273 cases and 546 controls. The nested case-control model was adopted to assess the risk of meniscus injury between variant exposures in practicing yoga and several other popular sports. Moreover, the 181 yoga sub-jects were subdivided into three groups according to differ-ent exercise durations, followed by further analysis with the variables of age, BMI and Lysholm score. Results: Yoga was found associated with a higher risk (P=0.008, OR=1.621 of meniscus injury compared with badminton, jogging and climbing hills. The three yoga sub-groups showed statistical difference between each other in terms of Lysholm score (P=0.027 and BMI (P=0.003. The subjects with longer-term yoga practice had lighter weight but lower Lysholm scores. Conclusions: Yoga perhaps exerts destructive impact on the meniscus for Chinese women, yet it needs further verifications. Furthermore, the female yoga players with longer exercise duration are more susceptible to

  2. Yoga is found hazardous to the meniscus for Chinese women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jun-kun; WU Li-dong; ZHENG Rong-zong; LAN Shu-hua

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Yoga is becoming more and more popular in the female society while the concomitant sports injury is seldom mentioned.Many clinicians have noted that yoga may result in knee problems,which though requires more researches to corroborate.This investigation was conducted to ascertain the relationship between yoga and meniscus injury as well as the extent of impairment according to variant yoga practice periods.Methods: Totally 819 women aged 20-49 years who practiced yoga or other popular sports including badminton,jogging,climbing hills,etc for at least one hour per day were selected to participate in this research.These subjects were required to complete a questionnaire and receive relevant physical examination.Magnetic resonance (MR) scan of the knee was recommended for the suspicious subjects for ultimate diagnosis.The subject with abnormal meniscus MR signals was defined as a case and matched with two controis in terms of age and body mass index (BMI).Altogether there were 273 cases and 546 controls.The nested casecontrol model was adopted to assess the risk of meniscus injury between variant exposures in practicing yoga and several other popular sports.Moreover,the 181 yoga subjects were subdivided into three groups according to different exercise durations,followed by further analysis with the variables of age,BMI and Lysholm score.Results:Yoga was found associated with a higher risk (P=0.008,OR=1.621) of meniscus injury compared with badminton,jogging and climbing hills.The three yoga subgroups showed statistical difference between each other in terms of Lysholm score (P=0.027) and BMI (P=0.003).The subjects with longer-term yoga practice had lighter weight but lower Lysholm scores.Conclusions:Yoga perhaps exerts destructive impact on the meniscus for Chinese women,yet it needs further verifications.Furthermore,the female yoga players with longer exercise duration are more susceptible to meniscus injury though they can become leaner.

  3. Youth Voice and the Llano Grande Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Francisco; Perez, Delia; Guajardo, Miguel A.; Davila, Eric; Ozuna, Juan; Saenz, Maribel; Casaperalta, Nadia

    2006-01-01

    The Llano Grande Center is a non-profit education and community development organization founded in the mid-1990s by youth and teachers out of a public high school classroom in a rural South Texas (USA) community. The Center was created, in large part, to cultivate youth voices as important elements of curriculum development and teacher training…

  4. Camcore: Thirty-five years of Mesoamerican pine gene conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.L. Lopez; W.S. Dvorak; G.R. Hodge

    2017-01-01

    Camcore is an international tree breeding and conservation program with headquarters at North Carolina State University. Camcore was founded in 1980 as a cooperative, non-profit organization to identify and save the dwindling natural populations of pines in the highland regions of Guatemala in Central America. Funded by the private sector, the program has played an...

  5. Evolution of the Organization for Tropical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J Burlingame

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS/Organización para Estudios Tropicales (OET has evolved in many ways since its founding in 1963 as a non-profit consortium offering graduate courses and facilitating research in tropical ecology in Costa Rica. By 2002, its international membership included about 65 institutions, including four from Costa Rica. It had developed three Costa Rican field stations (La Selva, Las Cruces, and Palo Verde with excellent facilities for teaching and research, and it was constructing a new Costa Rican office at the University of Costa Rica. Combinations of internal and external pressures influenced OTS to develop in new directions in the 1980s and 1990s. It became more diversified and more concerned with applied science in its traditional areas of graduate education and research facilitation. The Organization also evolved into new niches: more applied biology, professional education, environmental education and policy, conservation efforts, and an expanded geographic distribution to other Latin American countries. OTS was composed of changing combinations of people (Boards, members, staff with evolving and competing priorities for limited financial resources. External environmental changes also shaped OTS’s evolution. New problems of increased tropical deforestation, the emergence of the biodiversity "crisis" and conservation biology, global climate change, and calls for sustainable development affected OTS constituents and funding priorities of governments and foundations. Both internal and external pressures have in some cases demanded for OTS to improve its relationship with: Costa Rican biologists and their institutions, the Costa Rican government, and Costa Ricans living around the three OTS field stationsLa Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS/Organización para Estudios Tropicales (OET ha evolucionado en diversos campos desde su fundación en 1963 como un consorcio sin fines de lucro que ofrece cursos de

  6. Financial contributions to global surgery: an analysis of 160 international charitable organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutnik, Lily; Yamey, Gavin; Riviello, Robert; Meara, John G; Dare, Anna J; Shrime, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The non-profit and volunteer sector has made notable contributions to delivering surgical services in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs). As an estimated 55 % of surgical care delivered in some LMICs is via charitable organizations; the financial contributions of this sector provides valuable insight into understanding financing priorities in global surgery. Databases of registered charitable organizations in five high-income nations (United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand) were searched to identify organizations committed exclusively to surgery in LMICs and their financial data. For each organization, we categorized the surgical specialty and calculated revenues and expenditures. All foreign currency was converted to U.S. dollars based on historical yearly average conversion rates. All dollars were adjusted for inflation by converting to 2014 U.S. dollars. One hundred sixty organizations representing 15 specialties were identified. Adjusting for inflation, in 2014 U.S. dollars (US$), total aggregated revenue over the years 2008-2013 was $3·4 billion and total aggregated expenses were $3·1 billion. Twenty-eight ophthalmology organizations accounted for 45 % of revenue and 49 % of expenses. Fifteen cleft lip/palate organizations totaled 26 % of both revenue and expenses. The remaining 117 organizations, representing a variety of specialties, accounted for 29 % of revenue and 25 % of expenses. In comparison, from 2008 to 2013, charitable organizations provided nearly $27 billion for global health, meaning an estimated 11.5 % went towards surgery. Charitable organizations that exclusively provide surgery in LMICs primarily focus on elective surgeries, which cover many subspecialties, and often fill deep gaps in care. The largest funding flows are directed at ophthalmology, followed by cleft lip and palate surgery. Despite the number of contributing organizations, there is a clear need for improvement and increased transparency

  7. Lobbying and advocacy for the public's health: what are the limits for nonprofit organizations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernick, J S

    1999-09-01

    Nonprofit organizations play an important role in advocating for the public's health in the United States. This article describes the rules under US law for lobbying by nonprofit organizations. The 2 most common kinds of non-profits working to improve the public's health are "public charities" and "social welfare organizations." Although social welfare organizations may engage in relatively unlimited lobbying, public charities may not engage in "substantial" lobbying. Lobbying is divided into 2 main categories. Direct lobbying refers to communications with law-makers that take a position on specific legislation, and grassroots lobbying includes attempts to persuade members of the general public to take action regarding legislation. Even public charities may engage in some direct lobbying and a smaller amount of grassroots lobbying. Much public health advocacy, however, is not lobbying, since there are several important exceptions to the lobbying rules. These exceptions include "non-partisan analysis, study, or research" and discussions of broad social problems. Lobbying with federal or earmarked foundation funds is generally prohibited.

  8. Organization within Organization Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    This paper explores how prevalent contemporary problematizations of organizations coincide with a widespread assessment that Organization Studies (OS) has run out of steam. This impasse, the paper argues, is largely due to the emergence of an organization-phobia that has come to seize several...... strands of theorizing. By attending to the wide-ranging and far-reaching history of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OS has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming...

  9. The Balanced Scorecard as a Performance Management Tool for Third Sector Organizations: the Case of the Arthur Bernardes Foundation, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Corrêa Gomes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to the theory of public management by presenting empirical evidence ofusing the Balanced Scorecard for third sector organizations. The research was conducted within an interpretive paradigm using an action research strategy. Data was collected through focus group and individual interviews and analyzed using interpretation and content analysis. The main limitation of this study lies in its application to a very singular type of organization that operates as a driver to improve the efficiency and nimbleness of other public organizations, although the methods employed here are very likely to be applicable to other kinds of organizations without adversely affecting the results. The findings corroborate Kaplan and Norton’s (2001 suggestion that non-profit organizations should put customers at the top of their strategic maps. They also indicate that sponsors should be considered a strong stakeholder in the strategic plan, and need to be satisfied in order to ensure legitimacy and sustainability. Although some authors have suggested that an overall framework should be devised for an entire organization, the evidence indicates that developing a single Balanced Scorecard for each department promotes cooperation rather than competition and leads to synergy rather than fragmentation.

  10. Was bioethics founded on historical and conceptual mistakes about medical paternalism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Laurence B

    2011-02-01

    Bioethics has a founding story in which medical paternalism, the interference with the autonomy of patients for their own clinical benefit, was an accepted ethical norm in the history of Western medical ethics and was widespread in clinical practice until bioethics changed the ethical norms and practice of medicine. In this paper I show that the founding story of bioethics misreads major texts in the history of Western medical ethics. I also show that a major source for empirical claims about the widespread practice of medical paternalism has been misread. I then show that that bioethics based on its founding story deprofessionalizes medical ethics. The result leaves the sick exposed to the predatory power of medical practitioners and healthcare organizations with only their autonomy-based rights to non-interference, expressed in contracts, to protect them. The sick are stripped of the protection afforded by a professional, fiduciary relationship of physicians to their patients. Bioethics based on its founding story reverts to the older model of a contractual relationship between the sick and medical practitioners not worthy of intellectual or moral trust (because such trust cannot be generated by what I call 'deprofessionalizing bioethics'). On closer examination, bioethics based on its founding story, ironically, eliminates paternalism as a moral category in bioethics, thus causing bioethics to collapse on itself because it denies one of the necessary conditions for medical paternalism. Bioethics based on its founding story should be abandoned.

  11. Ill-founded models of consumer choice in communication about food biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Bredahl, Lone; Frewer, Lynn

    2000-01-01

    Results from the CADE-GENTECH project are used to demonstrate that current practices of communication about food biotechnology are ill founded. In Study 1, leading European biotechnology experts were questioned about the communication strategies planned by their organizations. The respective...... change. In Study 2, 2000 consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy, and the UK participated in an attitude survey. Results indicate that consumers' beliefs about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods are not organized according to the characteristics of the actual attitude object. Rather......, they are embedded into a system of general attitudes from which they derive as instances. In Study 3, 1650 consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy, and the UK participated in attitude change experiments. Three strategies from Study 1 were tested against a control group for their ability to change consumer attitudes...

  12. Ill-founded models of consumer choice in communication about food biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Bredahl, Lone; Frewer, Lynn

    2000-01-01

    Results from the CADE-GENTECH project are used to demonstrate that current practices of communication about food biotechnology are ill founded. In Study 1, leading European biotechnology experts were questioned about the communication strategies planned by their organizations. The respective...... change. In Study 2, 2000 consumers from Denmark, Germany, Italy, and the UK participated in an attitude survey. Results indicate that consumers' beliefs about the risks and benefits of genetically modified foods are not organized according to the characteristics of the actual attitude object. Rather....... No attitude change occurred. Rather, results indicate that all strategies had a uniform attitude activation effect that significantly decreased consumers' preferences for genetically modified foods as compared to the control group. It is concluded that direct product experience may be the only possibility...

  13. The role of the founding entrepreneur in the transformation from micro enterprises to small firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna

    the role of the founding entrepreneurs in the transformation from micro enterprises to small firms. The transformation is conceptualized as a first step towards future growth and empirically investigated by analyzing qualitative data from case studies of agribusiness and food entrepreneurs in Tanzania...... that provide even successful microentrepreneurs with little guidance on how to manage and organize a small firm. Data analysis focus of their behaviors, emotions, and cognitions in response to experiencing internal and external growth challenges. The findings indicate that what entrepreneurs think, feel...

  14. [The main tasks concerning the organization of surveillance and prophylaxis of HIV-infection in Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    The main task concerning striving against HIV/AIDS epidemic is effective use of present political, financial, organizational, and informative possibilities. However, despite efforts, the epidemic situation with HIV/AIDS is constantly worsening. Approaches to and stereotypes of the organization of this work and its fulfillment cannot provide a complete solution to this problem. Among strategic tasks that should be fulfilled at the federal level are the following: strengthening of coordination of actions from the departmental level to interaction with Russian and international organizations and the community of people living with HIV/AIDS; determination of requirements and purchase of necessary diagnostic test systems for HIV-infection detection as well as pharmaceuticals, and providing subjects of Russian Federation with them. Tactical tasks that should be fulfilled at the level of subjects of Russian Federation are the following: medical aid to patients with HIV/AIDS should become more approachable; complete dispensary observation and treatment of these patients should be organized. Civil society and interaction between non-profit organizations and governmental structures play an important role in organization and fulfillment of striving against HIV epidemic.

  15. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  16. Knowledge Organization = Information Organization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    Are the terms ―information organization‖ (IO), ―organization of information‖ (OI) and ―information architecture‖ (IA) synonyms for knowledge organization (KO)? This study uses bibliometric methods, among others, to determine some relations between these terms and their meanings. Apparently the data...

  17. Matrix-bound phosphine:A new form of phosphorus found in sediment of Jiaozhou Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Matrix-bound phosphine (PH3), a new form of phosphorus, was found in sediment of Jiaozhou Bay in December 2001. Concentration and distribution of PH3 in different layers of sediment with different stations were analyzed. The results show that PH3 concentrations are various with different layers and different stations. PH3 concentrations in the bottom layer of sediment (20-30 cm) are usually higher than those in the surface layer (0-4 cm). The highest PH3 concentration in our investigation reaches 685 ng/kg (dry), which is much higher than those in terrestrial paddy soil, marsh and landfill that have been reported up to now. The correlation analysis indicates that there is no apparent correlation between the concentrations of PH3 and inorganic phosphorus in sediment. However, the correlation between the concentrations of phosphine and organic phosphorus in the bottom layer of sediment is remarkable (R2=0.83). It is considered that PH3 in sediment of Jiaozhou Bay is mainly produced from the decomposition of organic phosphorus in the anaerobic condition, and so PH3 concentrations are related to organic phosphorus concentration and anaerobic environment in sediment. The discovery of PH3 in sediment will give people some new ideas on the mechanisms of phosphorus supplement and biogeochemical cycle in Jiaozhou Bay.

  18. Toxicological assessment of concentrations of volatile organic compounds found in the ambient air of Seabrook, Texas and surrounding areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Latrice Bundage

    Seabrook, Texas, a residential community located in the southeast fringes of Houston, Texas, the fourth largest metropolis in the United States, is adjacent to a major industrial complex of petrochemical plants, chemical plants, refineries, hazardous materials storage facilities, and the intertwining of pipelines. The close proximity of residential communities to industrial complexes and their emission sources creates concern of the potential adverse health effects that could be a result of long-term exposure to Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) even at low concentration. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential adverse health affects of low-level exposure of benzene, styrene, and 1, 1-dichloroethene that residents may experience. The case study utilized the screening data performed in a previous study conducted by the TSU NASA URC Laboratory. The sample results were compared to Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) guideline standards known as Effects Screening Levels (ESLs) to determine whether the ambient concentration levels were aligned with the TCEQ's pre-determined health cut off values. Special interest in the probable affects on lung epithelial cells and hepatic cells by the inhalation of benzene, styrene and 1,1-dichloroethene was examined by low level exposure (0.100ppm to 4ppm) of these chemicals for 4- and 6-hour exposure periods to determine whether the cells metabolic activity is adversely affected. Cytotoxicity of test chemicals was investigated utilizing MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay protocol. Validation of the presence of benzene, styrene and 1,1-dichloroethene was performed by incubating a known dilution of the respective chemical for 4- and 6-hours to determine the approximate remaining concentration that should remain in the test media after the given exposure in the 37° incubator. Results of the study show little difference in the viability of the cells at the concentrations tested; however, there is evidence to indicate the benzene and styrene remained in the aqueous media and therefore provided a more toxic environment for both the lung and liver cells tested. The 1,1-dichloroethene was the most volatile of the chemicals tested and did not stabilize in the aqueous media well. Therefore, any exposure to the cells was made in the initial application of the chemical to the attached cell monolayer. The result of the case study revealed that although the concentration level exceeded the TCEQ ESL level for both short and long term exposure, a 4- and 6-hour exposures respectively, no significant adverse effect was observed in the cell lines used.

  19. Imitation, learning and the founding of a new organization: the creation of the Mexican board of tourist promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Culebro-Moreno

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En 1999 se formó el Consejo Mexicano de Promoción Turística (cmpt como un organismo representativo del gobierno mexicano, con el objetivo de apoyar la promoción de la industria nacional del turismo, y su creación se puede ver como resultado de una serie de mecanismos de aprendizaje de la administración pública. En este sentido, este artículo intenta investigar cómo la creación del cmpt se puede interpretar como un ejemplo de dichos procesos críticos de aprendizaje asociados al establecimiento de una nueva organización pública. El enfoque se centra en el proceso de crear una nueva agencia pública en una sociedad en transformación, de acuerdo con una perspectiva institucional con base en los ambientes institucionales normativo, cognitivo y regulatorio.

  20. Factors influencing the composition of bacterial communities found at abandoned copper-tailings dumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Iglesia, R; Castro, D; Ginocchio, R; van der Lelie, D; González, B

    2006-03-01

    To study the effect that copper residues exert on bacterial communities and the ability of bacteria to colonize different microhabitats in abandoned tailing dumps. We used the terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique, a culture-independent molecular approach based on PCR amplification of ribosomal genes, to compare the structure of the bacterial communities from samples taken at two nearby located abandoned tailing dumps found in the Mediterranean-climate area of central Chile. Our results show that elevated available copper content in tailings has a strong effect on the bacterial community composition, but that other factors like pH and organic matter content also play an important role in the structure of these communities. We also found that the number of abundant bacteria in these samples was significantly lower than in soils not exposed to metal pollution. In addition to bioavailable copper, bacterial communities found in copper-tailings dumps are also affected by several other environmental factors. This first report on environmental factors influencing microbial communities in copper-tailings dumps will help to devise appropriate restoration procedures in this type of polluted habitat.