WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-profit coastal watershed

  1. Summit to Sea Characterization of Coastal Watersheds - Puerto Rico 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Characterization of Coastal Watershed for Puerto Rico, Culebra Island and Vieques Island, is a GIS products suite consisting of layers derived from diverse...

  2. Taxation of Non-profit organization

    OpenAIRE

    BŘEHOVSKÝ, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays non-profit organizations are the integral parts of developed economics. They fill gap in the market, where exist market failures. Their main aim is not to reach profit but to offer services in which ``invisible hand of market{\\crqq} fail. But it doesn{\\crq}t mean, that they can{\\crq}t reach profit. Attention is on reasons why these non-profit organizations exist, potential profit or revenue are secondary aims. For these reasons there exist some differences in taxation of non-profit o...

  3. TRANSPARENCY IN ITALIAN NON PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Gazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to evaluate the accountability and transparency of Italian non profits organizations. The main goal is to understand if a general accountability or transparency problem, or a systematic publicity deficit, exist in the third sector in Italy. Non profit organizations have an ethical obligation to their stakeholder and to the public to conduct their activities with accountability and transparency. Non profit organizations should regularly and openly convey information to the stakeholder about their vision, mission, objectives, activities, accomplishments, decision-making processes and organizational structure. Information from a non profit organization should be easily accessible to the stakeholder and should create external visibility, public understanding and trust in the organization, conditions necessary to find donors. Non profit organizations work with communities and community donors need to know how their money is used. In the first part the analysis of the definition of transparency and accountability is made and the sustainability report like an important instrument of communication is considered. In the second part an empirical research is presented. The Italian law allows taxpayers to devote 5 per thousand of their income tax to non profit organizations, choosing between charities, social promotion associations, recognized associations, entities dedicated to scientific research and health care, universities, municipal social services and other non profit organizations. The present study present a quantitative research and it’s based on an empirical analysis of non-profit organizations that receive this donation in Italy in the year 2010 and 2011. In the paper we analyze the transparency and the accountability of the top 100 non profit organizations that have received the contribution of 5 per thousand, checking whether they prepare their Sustainability Report or any other kind of report for communicate the use

  4. Interacting Watershed Size and Landcover Influences on Habitat and Biota of Lake Superior Coastal Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coastal wetlands are important contributors to the productivity and biodiversity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake - watershed connection. This study explores how strength of connection to the watershed (represented by watershed size and wetland morphological ty...

  5. Economics, mangement and development of non-profit making organization

    OpenAIRE

    Piskoř, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Non-profit making organization. Management analysis of non-profit making organization and its development. Utilization of rational action theory in management of non-profit making organization acting in dance. Example of an autarchic, flourishing and competitive non-profit making organization.

  6. Economics, mangement and development of non-profit making organization

    OpenAIRE

    Piskoř, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Non-profit making organization. Management analysis of non-profit making organization and its development. Utilization of rational action theory in management of non-profit making organization acting in dance. Example of an autarchic, flourishing and competitive non-profit making organization.

  7. Modeling the Dynamic Water Resource Needs of California's Coastal Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, C.

    2009-12-01

    Many watersheds face formidable water supply challenges when it comes to managing water availability to meet diverse water supply and ecosystem management objectives. California’s central coast watersheds are no exception, and both the scarcity of water resources during drier water years and mandates to establish minimum instream flows for salmon habitat have prompted interests in reassessing water management strategies for several of these watersheds. Conventional supply-oriented hydrologic models, however, are not adequate to fully investigate and describe the reciprocal implications of surface water demands for human use and the maintenance of instream flows for salmon habitat that vary both temporally and spatially within a watershed. In an effort to address this issue I developed a coastal watershed management model based on the San Gregorio watershed utilizing the Water Evaluation and Planning (WEAP) system, which permits demand-side prioritization at a time step interval and spatial resolution that captures functional supply and demand relationships. Physiographic input data such as soil type, land cover, elevation, habitat, and water demand sites were extrapolated at a sub-basin level in a GIS. Time-series climate data were collected and processed utilizing the Berkeley Water Center Data Cube at daily time steps for the period 1952 through September 2009. Recent synoptic flow measurements taken at seven tributary sites during the 2009 water year, water depth measured by pressure transducers at six sites within the watershed from September 2005 through September 2009, and daily gauge records from temporary gauges installed in 1981 were used to assess the hydrologic patterns of sub-basins and supplement historic USGS gauge flow records. Empirical functions were used to describe evapotranspiration, surface runoff, sub-surface runoff, and deep percolation. Initial model simulations carried out under both dry and wet water year scenarios were able to capture

  8. Motivation of employees in non profit organization

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Kaysy, Soňa

    2014-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with the issue of employees motivation in the non-profit organization. The aim is to identify the main factors that motivate its employees, identify the most important factors and how they are satisfied with these factors in this organization. The outcome of this work is to propose possible changes in the current system of motivation and evaluation so that they lead to better utilization of human potential and to the satisfaction of both employers and employees.

  9. Non-Profit Organization刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪建红

    2009-01-01

    非营利性组织(Non-Profit Organization)现已成为现代社会中非常重要的社会组织,它的扩展是社会经济发展的普遍规律.文章对非营利性组织的界定、特点和评价标准进行了探讨.

  10. Integrating operational watershed and coastal models for the Iberian Coast: Watershed model implementation - A first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, David; Campuzano, F. J.; Sobrinho, J.; Fernandes, R.; Neves, R.

    2015-12-01

    River discharges and loads are essential inputs to coastal seas, and thus for coastal seas modelling, and their properties are the result of all activities and policies carried inland. For these reasons main rivers were object of intense monitoring programs having been generated some important amount of historical data. Due to the decline in the Portuguese hydrometric network and in order to quantify and forecast surface water streamflow and nutrients to coastal areas, the MOHID Land model was applied to the Western Iberia Region with a 2 km horizontal resolution and to the Iberian Peninsula with 10 km horizontal resolution. The domains were populated with land use and soil properties and forced with existing meteorological models. This approach also permits to understand how the flows and loads are generated and to forecast their values which are of utmost importance to perform coastal ocean and estuarine forecasts. The final purpose of the implementation is to obtain fresh water quantity and quality that could be used to support management decisions in the watershed, reservoirs and also to estuaries and coastal areas. A process oriented model as MOHID Land is essential to perform this type of simulations, as the model is independent of the number of river catchments. In this work, the Mohid Land model equations and parameterisations were described and an innovative methodology for watershed modelling is presented and validated for a large international river, the Tagus River, and the largest national river of Portugal, the Mondego River. Precipitation, streamflow and nutrients modelling results for these two rivers were compared with observations near their coastal outlet in order to evaluate the model capacity to represent the main watershed trends. Finally, an annual budget of fresh water and nutrient transported by the main twenty five rivers discharging in the Portuguese coast is presented.

  11. The non-profit sector and the market: opportunities & challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    By carefully examining the most important challenges and opportunities facing America's private non-profit organizations, the Non-profit Sector Strategy Group is working to stimulate a new consensus about the non-profit sector's roles and responsibilities, and offer practical recommendations to enhance policy, practice, research, and public education on this crucial set of institutions.

  12. Management trends: Internationalization of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inić Branimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are increasingly gaining importance in the modern economy with their development and their numbers increasing day by day. It is very important to note that non-profit organizations are often subject to various benefits that the for-profit companies are not. Thus, for example, preferential tax status of non-profit organizations is manifested primarily in the form of exemption from corporate income tax. In addition, private non-profit organizations enjoy various other state, local and federal taxes exemptions. Under certain conditions, these organizations are exempt from taxes on donations and membership fees. A feature that differentiates various non-profit organizations and profit-oriented companies is their source of income. Profit oriented companies depend on their income, obtained from sales of their goods or services to customers, who usually cover the price and cost of goods and services plus the profit. In contrast, nonprofit organizations are very dependent on membership fees, tax exemptions, members donations or depend on funds of the sponsoring agency which covers most of their costs, for example a federal government agency. Those non-profit organizations that have substantial operating costs beyond national borders and do not identify themselves as purely domestic in their mandate are International non-profit organizations. Most non-profit organizations remain in their national boundaries, on the territory of the country in which they were created, but a large number of non-profit organizations rapidly internationalize, and some larger non-profits have grown into important global actors. The paper includes the following sections: (1 introduction, (2 why is the 'non-profit' important, (3 the internationalization of non-profit organizations, (4 sources of income of non-profit organizations (4.1. causality of impact and of strategic decisions in cases pertaining to universities, (5 the limits of strategic

  13. Tracking Carbon along the Urban Watershed Continuum to Coastal Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.

    2015-12-01

    Watersheds experiencing urbanization are constantly evolving in their structure and function, and their carbon cycle subsequently evolves across both space and time. We investigate how urbanization influences spatial and temporal evolution of the carbon cycle from small streams to major rivers in the Chesapeake Bay watershed using a variety of approaches such as stable isotopes, in situ water quality sensors, and remote sensing. Along the urban watershed continuum, we show that there is spatial evolution in: (1) the amount, chemical form, and reactivity of carbon, and (2) ecosystem metabolism and transformation of carbon sources from headwaters to coastal waters. Over shorter time scales, the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and sources of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as revealed by stable isotopes and in situ sensors. Over longer time scales, land use change has altered particulate carbon transport in coastal waters and the evolution of river sediment plumes as suggested by remote sensing data. Furthermore, there are increased long-term bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations in streams and rivers, and we present new analytical approaches for studying river alkalinization due to human inputs and accelerated chemical weathering. In summary, urbanization alters carbon over space and time with major implications for downstream ecosystem metabolism, biological oxygen demand, carbon dioxide production, and river alkalinization.

  14. Whither Non Profit Child Care? Is the Non Profit Structure an Anachronism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1997-01-01

    Argues that the current structure of non-profit child care centers is outmoded, hinders creative leadership, and presents management problems for directors. Presents six illustrations of management problems: (1) shifting constituency; (2) time constraints on board members; (3) short-circuited entrepreneurism; (4) director accountability; (5)…

  15. The Walking Egg non-profit organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, N

    2011-01-01

    The Walking Egg non-profit organisation (npo) was founded in 2010 by scientists and an artist to realise the Arusha Project which strives to implement accessible infertility programmes in resource-poor countries. Right from the start The Walking Egg has opted for a multidisciplinary and global approach towards the problem of infertility and in cooperation with the Special Task Force (STF) on "Developing countries and infertility" of the European Society of Human reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the WHO, it gathers medical, social and economical scientists and experts along with artists to discuss and work together towards its goal. The project aims to raise awareness -surrounding childlessness in resource-poor countries and to make infertility care in all its aspects, including assisted reproductive technologies, available and accessible for a much larger part of the population.

  16. Democracy and non-profit housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Vorre; Langergaard, Luise Li

    2017-01-01

    Resident democracy as a special form of participatory democratic set-up is fundamental in the understanding, and self-understanding, of the non-profit housing sector in Denmark. Through a case study, the paper explores how resident democracy is perceived and narrated between residents and employees...... at a housing association. The study indicates that the meta-story of democracy is disconnected from practice and the lived lives of residents. Three analytical tensions structure the analysis, which relate to the conditions for realizing the democratic ideal embedded in the structure of the sector....... The tensions are related to representative versus participatory democracy; collectivity versus individuality; and service versus welfare. The tensions elucidate how resident democracy is squeezed between different logics, which result in an ambiguous setting for practising democracy. Based on the results...

  17. Communication Strategy of a Non-Profit Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Crhová, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the diploma thesis is to analyze the communication strategy of the non-profit organization Otevřená OKNA, z. ú. including its assessment, and to suggest an optimization of the communication strategy based on this analysis. The real possibilities of non-profit organizations and the environment in which it is located and operates were taken into account. The theoretical part defines and formulates the fundamental findings related to the non-profit sector, non-profit organizatio...

  18. Civil society: beyond non profit / Sociedad civil: más allá del non profit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel de Haro Serrano

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available For a numerous group of recognized and proved authority authors, the Civil Society is limited to the Non Profit organizations. Non Profit is the great limit, the rigid and static border. The limes on the Roman Empire were less overwhelming than the non profit of certain academics. Dura lex and unfair law that keeps aside from the civil society scope the entities on the social economy and the whole market around mercantile enterprises and businesses. Nevertheless, the new changes in the today’s society and the new concept of businesses oriented to the society without forsaking the quest for economic profit, poses a Civil Society beyond non profit.

  19. 7 CFR 3015.193 - Other non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Other non-profit organizations. 3015.193 Section 3015.193 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF THE CHIEF FINANCIAL... non-profit organizations. (a) OMB Circular No. A-122, including any subsequent amendments to...

  20. Summit to Sea Characterization of Coastal Watersheds - US Virgin Islands 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Characterization of Coastal Watershed for St Croix, St. John and St Thomas, US Virgin Islands, is a GIS products suite consisting of layers derived from diverse...

  1. NOAA's Coastal Protection and Restoration Division: Watershed Database and Mapping Projects

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Protection and restoration of coastal watersheds requires the synthesis of complex environmental issues. Contaminated site remediation, dredging and disposal of...

  2. Increasing N Retention in Coastal Plain Agricultural Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth W. Staver

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, N availability has limited agricultural production as well as primary production in coastal waters. Prior to the middle of the last century, N available for grain production generally was limited to that supplied by previous legume crops, released from soil organic matter, or returned to the soil in animal wastes. The development of infrastructure to produce relatively low-cost inorganic N fertilizers eliminated the need to focus management of the entire agricultural system on increasing soil N availability. Increased N availability has contributed to dramatic increases in agricultural production but also has led to increased losses of both N and C from agricultural systems. N losses from cropland have been linked to increased algal production in the Chesapeake Bay, with N loss from cropland estimated to be the primary N input to the Bay from Coastal Plain regions of the watershed. The decade-long effort to reduce these losses has focused on reducing agricultural N use, but this strategy has yet to yield apparent reductions in N loadings to Coastal Plain tributaries. Although nitrate leaching losses are often attributed to inefficient use of N inputs, soil nitrate data indicate that both corn and soybeans can utilize nearly all available soil nitrate during periods of active growth. However, both crops tend to stop utilizing nitrate before mineralization has ceased, resulting in a late season buildup of root zone nitrate levels and significant leaching losses even when no N was applied. Reducing nitrate losses due to the inherent N inefficiency of summer annual grain crops will require the addition of winter annual crops to rotations or changes in weed management approaches that result in plant N uptake capacity being more closely matched to soil microbial N processes.

  3. Calibration and validation of the SWAT model for a forested watershed in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra M. Amatya; Elizabeth B. Haley; Norman S. Levine; Timothy J. Callahan; Artur Radecki-Pawlik; Manoj K. Jha

    2008-01-01

    Modeling the hydrology of low-gradient coastal watersheds on shallow, poorly drained soils is a challenging task due to the complexities in watershed delineation, runoff generation processes and pathways, flooding, and submergence caused by tropical storms. The objective of the study is to calibrate and validate a GIS-based spatially-distributed hydrologic model, SWAT...

  4. THE CONSTITUTION, ORGANIZATION AND OPERATION OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUMITRU FRANCA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations are associations, foundations or federations which use their own assets and revenues in order to pursue activities of general, community or non-patrimonial purpose. According to these legal regulations, associations and foundations can be constituted by natural or legal persons with the purpose of undertaking such activities of general, community or non-patrimonial (non-profit purpose. The organization and operation of non-profit organizations presents a series of particularities in the case of associations as opposed to foundations, but there are also common elements.

  5. Enti non profit e diritto dell’Unione Europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Perrone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. Diritto dell’Unione Europea e disciplina degli enti non profit - 2. Principio di non discriminazione, libera circolazione dei capitali e disposizioni nazionali in materia di fiscalità degli enti non profit - 2.1. Alcune implicazioni sistematiche della recente giurisprudenza della Corte di Giustizia - 2.2. Le ricadute operative e le conseguenze per le confessioni religiose - 3. Agevolazioni fiscali per gli enti non profit come aiuti di Stato? - 3.1. Le conseguenze della giurisprudenza della Corte di Giustizia su una dibattuta questione italiana - 3.2. Uno spunto finale di riflessione.

  6. Comparative Corporate Governance of Non-Profit Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2014-01-01

    Based on the impressive work of Hopt and von Hippel (2010), I review the comparative corporate governance of non-profit organizations and propose topics for future research. There is evidence of agency problems in non-profit as well as for-profit organizations, but the governance mechanisms...... employed to address them are by necessity different. In the absence of important governance mechanisms like monitoring by external owners or performance based pay, other mechanisms like regulation, reputation and transparency come to the foreground. However, we have little systematic knowledge of the costs...... and benefits of alternative governance arrangements in non-profits, which provides a range of opportunities for future research....

  7. Evaluation of a Florida coastal golf complex as a local and watershed source of bioavailable contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael A., Robert L. Quarles, Darrin D. Dantin and James C. Moore. 2004. Evaluation of a Coastal Golf Complex as a Local and Watershed Source of Bioavailable Contaminants. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48(3-4):254-262. (ERL,GB 1183). Contaminant fate in coastal areas impacte...

  8. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and Habitat Conditions in Relation to Watershed Connectivity and Landcover

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators o...

  9. Internal branding : Within a Swedish non-profit organization

    OpenAIRE

    Diep, Lisa; Stedt, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The aid sector has received a lot of attention the recent years whereas the public has recognized the societal situation in developing countries. As many people has become more generous with their donations, an increasing number of non-profit organizations (NPO) has emerged which has created a competitive environment in the non-profit sector. As a result, many NPOs has started to adapt business-like qualities such as implementing a marketing strategy and building a brand. The purpose of this ...

  10. Internal branding : Within a Swedish non-profit organization

    OpenAIRE

    Diep, Lisa; Stedt, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The aid sector has receive a lot of attention the recent years whereas the public has recognized the societal situation in developing countries. As many people has become more generous with their donations, an increasing number of non-profit organizations (NPO) has emerged which has created a competitive environment in the non-profit sector. As a result, many NPOs has started to adapt business-like qualities such as implementing a marketing strategy and building a brand. The purpose of this s...

  11. 24 CFR 5.107 - Audit requirements for non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Non-profit Organizations” (see 24 CFR 84.26). For HUD programs, a non-profit organization is the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Audit requirements for non-profit... Federal Requirements; Waivers § 5.107 Audit requirements for non-profit organizations....

  12. Measurement of the effectiveness of non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudz Petro Vasilovych

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of implementing evaluation of effectiveness in non-profit organizations activity is grounded in this article. Shown adaptation EERL approach based on result monitoring. Analyzed one of the activity effectiveness on the example of the civil organization. Evaluation of effectiveness is important as for organizations to improve their services as to present the results for audience.

  13. pyLIDEM: A Python-Based Tool to Delineate Coastal Watersheds Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Banion, R.; Alameddine, I.; Gronewold, A.; Reckhow, K.

    2008-12-01

    Accurately identifying the boundary of a watershed is one of the most fundamental and important steps in any hydrological assessment. Representative applications include defining a study area, predicting overland flow, estimating groundwater infiltration, modeling pollutant accumulation and wash-off rates, and evaluating effectiveness of pollutant mitigation measures. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) program, the most comprehensive water quality management program in the United States (US), is just one example of an application in which accurate and efficient watershed delineation tools play a critical role. For example, many impaired water bodies currently being addressed through the TMDL program drain small coastal watersheds with relatively flat terrain, making watershed delineation particularly challenging. Most of these TMDL studies use 30-meter digital elevation models (DEMs) that rarely capture all of the small elevation changes in coastal watersheds, leading to errors not only in watershed boundary delineation, but in subsequent model predictions (such as watershed runoff flow and pollutant deposition rate predictions) for which watershed attributes are key inputs. Manually delineating these low-relief coastal watersheds through the use of expert knowledge of local water flow patterns, often produces relatively accurate (and often more accurate) watershed boundaries as compared to the boundaries generated by the 30-meter DEMs. Yet, manual delineation is a costly and time consuming procedure that is often not opted for. There is a growing need, therefore, particularly to address the ongoing needs of the TMDL program (and similar environmental management programs), for software tools which can utilize high resolution topography data to more accurately delineate coastal watersheds. Here, we address this need by developing pyLIDEM (python LIdar DEM), a python-based tool which processes bare earth high

  14. Climate change and watershed mercury export in a Coastal Plain watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather Golden; Christopher D. Knightes; Paul A. Conrads; Toby D. Feaster; Gary M. Davis; Stephen T. Benedict; Paul M. Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Future changes in climatic conditions may affect variations in watershed processes (e.g., hydrological, biogeochemical) and surface water quality across a wide range of physiographic provinces, ecosystems, and spatial scales. How such climatic shifts will impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and hydrologically-driven Hg transport is a significant concern.

  15. Hydrologic Factors Determining Linkages of Great Lake Coastal Wetlands to Watershed and Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water can enter Great Lakes coastal wetlands (CWs) from both watershed and offshore sources. Identifying the relative contribution of these potential sources, and the spatial scale at which sources are influenced by human activities, are critical steps in wetland protection. We d...

  16. Storms do not alter long-term watershed development influences on coastal water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yushun; Cebrian, Just; Lehrter, John; Christiaen, Bart; Stutes, Jason; Goff, Josh

    2017-09-15

    A twelve year (2000-2011) study of three coastal lagoons in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted to assess the impacts of local watershed development and tropical storms on water quality. The lagoons have similar physical and hydrological characteristics, but differ substantially in the degree of watershed urban development and nutrient loading rates. In total the lagoons experienced 22 storm events during the period studied. Specifically, we examine (1) whether there are influences on water quality in the lagoons from watershed development, (2) whether there are influences on water quality in the lagoons from storm activity, and (3) whether water quality is affected to a greater degree by watershed development versus storm activity. The two urbanized lagoons typically showed higher water-column nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen, and phosphate compared with the non-urbanized lagoon. One of the urbanized lagoons had higher water-column chlorophyll a concentrations than the other two lagoons on most sampling dates, and higher light extinction coefficients on some sampling dates. The non-urbanized lagoon had higher water-column dissolved oxygen concentrations than other lagoons on many sampling dates. Our results suggest long-term influences of watershed development on coastal water quality. We also found some evidence of significant storm effects on water quality, such as increased nitrate, phosphate, and dissolved oxygen, and decreased salinity and water temperature. However, the influences of watershed development on water quality were greater. These results suggest that changes in water quality induced by human watershed development pervade despite the storm effects. These findings may be useful for environmental management since they suggest that storms do not profoundly alter long-term changes in water quality that resulted from human development of watersheds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Defining the non-profit sector: some lessons from history

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Susannah

    2000-01-01

    This paper seeks to establish whether the structural-operational definition of the sector, used by the John Hopkins Comparative Non-profit Sector Project (JHCNSP), is universal in its applicability. Historical case studies of primary health care and social housing provision in nineteenth-century England demonstrate that the definition cannot accommodate the institutional diversity of earlier periods and does not produce meaningful sectoral distinctions. The structural-operational definition r...

  18. Causes and consequences of ecosystem service regionalization in a coastal suburban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollheim, Wilfred M.; Mark B. Green,; Pellerin, Brian A.; Morse, Nathaniel B.; Hopkinson, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    The demand for ecosystem services and the ability of natural ecosystems to provide those services evolve over time as population, land use, and management practices change. Regionalization of ecosystem service activity, or the expansion of the area providing ecosystem services to a population, is a common response in densely populated coastal regions, with important consequences for watershed water and nitrogen (N) fluxes to the coastal zone. We link biophysical and historical information to explore the causes and consequences of change in ecosystem service activity—focusing on water provisioning and N regulation—from 1850 to 2010 in a coastal suburban watershed, the Ipswich River watershed in northeastern Massachusetts, USA. Net interbasin water transfers started in the late 1800s due to regionalization of water supply for use by larger populations living outside the Ipswich watershed boundaries, reaching a peak in the mid-1980s. Over much of the twentieth century, about 20 % of river runoff was diverted from reaching the estuary, with greater proportions during drought years. Ongoing regionalization of water supply has contributed to recent declines in diversions, influenced by socioecological feedbacks resulting from the river drying and fish kills. Similarly, the N budget has been greatly perturbed since the suburban era began in the 1950s due to food and lawn fertilizer imports and human waste release. However, natural ecosystems are able to remove most of this anthropogenic N, mitigating impacts on the coastal zone. We propose a conceptual model whereby the amount and type of ecosystem services provided by coastal watersheds in urban regions expand and contract over time as regional population expands and ecosystem services are regionalized. We hypothesize that suburban watersheds can be hotspots of ecosystem service sources because they retain sufficient ecosystem function to still produce services that meet increasing demand from the local population

  19. INTEGRATING STAKEHOLDER PERSPECTIVES IN A SYSTEMS APPROACH TO EXPLORING SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS: TRIPLE VALUE SIMULATION (3VS) MODELS IN COASTAL WATERSHEDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decision makers often need assistance in understanding the dynamic interactions and linkages among economic, environmental and social systems in coastal watersheds. They also need scientific input to better evaluate the potential costs and benefits of intervention options. The US...

  20. Establishment of the Northeast Coastal Watershed Geospatial Data Network (NECWGDN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannigan, Robyn [University of Massachusetts Boston

    2014-02-17

    The goals of NECWGDN were to establish integrated geospatial databases that interfaced with existing open-source (water.html) environmental data server technologies (e.g., HydroDesktop) and included ecological and human data to enable evaluation, prediction, and adaptation in coastal environments to climate- and human-induced threats to the coastal marine resources within the Gulf of Maine. We have completed the development and testing of a "test bed" architecture that is compatible with HydroDesktop and have identified key metadata structures that will enable seamless integration and delivery of environmental, ecological, and human data as well as models to predict threats to end-users. Uniquely this database integrates point as well as model data and so offers capacities to end-users that are unique among databases. Future efforts will focus on the development of integrated environmental-human dimension models that can serve, in near real time, visualizations of threats to coastal resources and habitats.

  1. Toward a Collaborative, Transformative Model of Non-Profit Leadership: Some Conceptual Building Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Bramwell Osula; Eddie C. W. Ng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors propose extending the construct of non-profit leadership to accommodate collaborative and transformational themes. The suggestion is that the resultant broader definition accords with the modern context within which non-profits now operate and feeds into a more resilient model of non-profit leadership. The paper begins with a review of emergent trends in leadership theory and the changing context of the non-profit sector. The argument is made that the extraordinary...

  2. 25 CFR 276.16 - Subgrants and subcontracts to non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Subgrants and subcontracts to non-profit organizations... Subgrants and subcontracts to non-profit organizations. The uniform administrative requirements in this part... subgrants or subcontracts made to non-profit organizations....

  3. 2 CFR Appendix C to Part 230 - Non-Profit Organizations Not Subject to This Part

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-Profit Organizations Not Subject to This... GUIDANCE Reserved COST PRINCIPLES FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-122) Pt. 230, App. C Appendix C to Part 230—Non-Profit Organizations Not Subject to This Part 1. Advance Technology...

  4. 13 CFR 120.820 - CDC non-profit status and good standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CDC non-profit status and good... CDC non-profit status and good standing. A CDC must be a non-profit corporation, except that for-profit CDCs certified by SBA prior to January 1, 1987 may retain their certifications. An SBIC may...

  5. Risk Assessment of Nitrogen Discharge from a Coastal Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Neng-Wang; HONG Hua-Sheng; ZHANG Luo-Ping; CAO Wen-Zhi

    2007-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) uses probability theory to quantify the probability of occurrence of an event. In this study, PRA was conducted for the discharge of excess nitrogen (N) from an agricultural (Jiulong River) watershed in Southeast China. Using fault tree analysis, a type of PRA, the probability of occurrence of excess N discharge into the river during a runoff event was evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Land use maps, soil maps, fertilizer use records, and expert opinions were used to determine probabilities of individual events within the fault tree and to calculate the overall probability of excess N discharge during a runoff event. Qualitative analysis showed that the risk of excess N discharge was mainly related to crop and livestock practices in the watershed. Proper management of tillage, fertilizer, and manure was necessary to control N releases. Quantitative assessment results indicated that alternative practices including reduction of fertilization, installation of vegetative strip buffer around the pig farms, and installation of more riparian buffers along the Jiulong River could reduce the likelihood of N discharge through runoff.

  6. The relative importance of road density and physical watershed features in determining coastal marsh water quality in Georgian Bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decatanzaro, Rachel; Cvetkovic, Maja; Chow-Fraser, Patricia

    2009-09-01

    We used a GIS-based approach to examine the influence of road density and physical watershed features (watershed size, wetland cover, and bedrock type) on water quality in coastal marshes of Georgian Bay, Ontario. We created a GIS that included landscape information and water-quality data from a 9-year synoptic survey of 105 coastal marshes covering 28 quaternary watersheds. Multiple regressions and partial correlations were used to discern confounding effects of human-induced (road density) versus natural physical watershed determinants of water quality. Road density was the dominant factor influencing many water quality variables, showing positive correlations with specific conductivity (COND), total suspended solids (TSS), and inorganic suspended solids (ISS) and a negative correlation with overall Water Quality Index scores. Road density also showed positive correlations with total nitrate nitrogen (TNN) and total phosphorus (TP). By comparison, larger watershed area was the main factor leading to elevated TP concentrations. The proportion of the watershed occupied by wetlands explained the largest amount of variation in TNN concentrations (negative correlation) and was also negatively correlated with COND and positively correlated with TSS and ISS when we controlled for road density. Bedrock type did not have a significant effect in any of the models. Our findings suggest that road density is currently the overriding factor governing water quality of coastal marshes in Georgian Bay during the summer low-flow period. We recommend that natural variation in physical watershed characteristics be considered when developing water quality standards and management practices for freshwater coastal areas.

  7. Relationships between watershed emergy flow and coastal New England salt marsh structure, function, and condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Williams, Sherry; Wigand, Cathleen; Campbell, Daniel E

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the link between watershed activities and salt marsh structure, function, and condition using spatial emergy flow density (areal empower density) in the watershed and field data from 10 tidal salt marshes in Narragansett Bay, RI, USA. The field-collected data were obtained during several years of vegetation, invertebrate, soil, and water quality sampling. The use of emergy as an accounting mechanism allowed disparate factors (e.g., the amount of building construction and the consumption of electricity) to be combined into a single landscape index while retaining a uniform quantitative definition of the intensity of landscape development. It expanded upon typical land use percentage studies by weighting each category for the intensity of development. At the RI salt marsh sites, an impact index (watershed emergy flow normalized for marsh area) showed significant correlations with mudflat infauna species richness, mussel density, plant species richness, the extent and density of dominant plant species, and denitrification potential within the high salt marsh. Over the 4-year period examined, a loading index (watershed emergy flow normalized for watershed area) showed significant correlations with nitrite and nitrate concentrations, as well as with the nitrogen to phosphorus ratios in stream discharge into the marshes. Both the emergy impact and loading indices were significantly correlated with a salt marsh condition index derived from intensive field-based assessments. Comparison of the emergy indices to calculated nitrogen loading estimates for each watershed also produced significant positive correlations. These results suggest that watershed emergy flow is a robust index of human disturbance and a potential tool for rapid assessment of coastal wetland condition.

  8. Integration of Tidal Prism Model and HSPF for simulating indicator bacteria in coastal watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Rose S.; Rifai, Hanadi S.; Petersen, Christina M.

    2017-09-01

    Coastal water quality is strongly influenced by tidal fluctuations and water chemistry. There is a need for rigorous models that are not computationally or economically prohibitive, but still allow simulation of the hydrodynamics and bacteria sources for coastal, tidally influenced streams and bayous. This paper presents a modeling approach that links a Tidal Prism Model (TPM) implemented in an Excel-based modeling environment with a watershed runoff model (Hydrologic Simulation Program FORTRAN, HSPF) for such watersheds. The TPM is a one-dimensional mass balance approach that accounts for loading from tidal exchange, runoff, point sources and bacteria die-off at an hourly time step resolution. The novel use of equal high-resolution time steps in this study allowed seamless integration of the TPM and HSPF. The linked model was calibrated to flow and E. Coli data (for HSPF), and salinity and enterococci data (for the TPM) for a coastal stream in Texas. Sensitivity analyses showed the TPM to be most influenced by changes in net decay rates followed by tidal and runoff loads, respectively. Management scenarios were evaluated with the developed linked models to assess the impact of runoff load reductions and improved wastewater treatment plant quality and to determine the areas of critical need for such reductions. Achieving water quality standards for bacteria required load reductions that ranged from zero to 90% for the modeled coastal stream.

  9. Competitive spillovers across non-profit and for-profit nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, David C; Hirth, Richard A

    2003-01-01

    The importance of non-profit institutions in the health care sector has generated a vast empirical literature examining quality differences between non-profit and for-profit nursing homes. Recent theoretical work has emphasized that much of this empirical literature is flawed in that previous studies rely solely on dummy variables to capture the effects of ownership rather than accounting for the share of non-profit nursing homes in the market. This analysis considers whether competitive spillovers from non-profits lead to higher quality in for-profit nursing homes. Using instrumental variables to account for the potential endogeneity of non-profit market share, this study finds that an increase in non-profit market share improves for-profit and overall nursing home quality. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that non-profits serve as a quality signal for uninformed nursing home consumers.

  10. Do non-profits make a difference?: Evaluating non-profit vis-à-vis for-profit organisations in social

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P.; Noailly, J.; Visser, S.

    2006-01-01

    This CPB Document provides a framework for the evaluation of non-profit organisations. This framework addresses the question under which conditions, and, if so, in what way non-profits should be stimulated. Essentially, in order to answer these questions, three steps can be followed: (i)

  11. Do non-profits make a difference?: Evaluating non-profit vis-à-vis for-profit organisations in social

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, P.; Noailly, J.; Visser, S.

    2006-01-01

    This CPB Document provides a framework for the evaluation of non-profit organisations. This framework addresses the question under which conditions, and, if so, in what way non-profits should be stimulated. Essentially, in order to answer these questions, three steps can be followed: (i) identifyin

  12. Characterizing mercury concentrations and fluxes in a Coastal Plain watershed: Insights from dynamic modeling and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, H.E.; Knightes, C.D.; Conrads, P.A.; Davis, G.M.; Feaster, T.D.; Journey, C.A.; Benedict, S.T.; Brigham, M.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the leading water quality concerns in surface waters of the United States. Although watershed-scale Hg cycling research has increased in the past two decades, advances in modeling watershed Hg processes in diverse physiographic regions, spatial scales, and land cover types are needed. The goal of this study was to assess Hg cycling in a Coastal Plain system using concentrations and fluxes estimated by multiple watershed-scale models with distinct mathematical frameworks reflecting different system dynamics. We simulated total mercury (HgT, the sum of filtered and particulate forms) concentrations and fluxes from a Coastal Plain watershed (McTier Creek) using three watershed Hg models and an empirical load model. Model output was compared with observed in-stream HgT. We found that shallow subsurface flow is a potentially important transport mechanism of particulate HgT during periods when connectivity between the uplands and surface waters is maximized. Other processes (e.g., stream bank erosion, sediment re-suspension) may increase particulate HgT in the water column. Simulations and data suggest that variable source area (VSA) flow and lack of rainfall interactions with surface soil horizons result in increased dissolved HgT concentrations unrelated to DOC mobilization following precipitation events. Although flushing of DOC-HgT complexes from surface soils can also occur during this period, DOC-complexed HgT becomes more important during base flow conditions. TOPLOAD simulations highlight saturated subsurface flow as a primary driver of daily HgT loadings, but shallow subsurface flow is important for HgT loads during high-flow events. Results suggest limited seasonal trends in HgT dynamics.

  13. Optimization of Non-Profit Projects’ Portfolio: Chosen Aspects and Assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Woźniak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The chosen aspects and assumptions of the author’s proposal of the optimization model of the non-profit projects’ portfolio are presented. The functional model of the non-profit sector (third sector, which is the base for the further analyses, is also characterized. The article also contains the quantification of fundamental conditions of portfolio optimization. There is developed the utility model for the management system in the non-profit portfolio, in the framework of which there are specified the scope of the model and relationships between four categories of the non-profit portfolio’s participants/stakeholders: non-profit organizations, donors, co-participants and customers (recipients of the basic benefits/values associated with the realization of the non-profit projects. The main optimality conditions and optimization algorithm of the non-profit portfolio are also given. The paper is concluded with exemplary analytical matrixes used for optimization of the non-profit portfolios and based on the evaluation of both the optimization utility conditions and added parameters. Only basic and chosen aspects of the optimization of the non-profit projects’ portfolio have been described here. [b]Keywords[/b]: Management, Organization, Non-Profit, Project, Portfolio, Optimization, Utility

  14. Call for Papers – Special issue: Project Management in the Non-Profit Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Sankaran

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This journal special issue will explore diverse stakeholder perspectives and share examples of project management practices in the non-profit sector. Key objectives are to develop understandings of project management practice in the sector, to examine how cross-sectoral collaboration and learning can help non-profit organisations achieve their project and programme objectives, and to explore ways in which the wider project management community can learn from experiences in the non-profit sector.

  15. A global hotspot for dissolved organic carbon in hypermaritime watersheds of coastal British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Oliver

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The perhumid region of the coastal temperate rainforest (CTR of Pacific North America is one of the wettest places on Earth and contains numerous small catchments that discharge freshwater and high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC directly to the coastal ocean. However, empirical data on the flux and composition of DOC exported from these watersheds are scarce. We established monitoring stations at the outlets of seven catchments on Calvert and Hecate islands, British Columbia, which represent the rain-dominated hypermaritime region of the perhumid CTR. Over several years, we measured stream discharge, stream water DOC concentration, and stream water dissolved organic-matter (DOM composition. Discharge and DOC concentrations were used to calculate DOC fluxes and yields, and DOM composition was characterized using absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC. The areal estimate of annual DOC yield in water year 2015 was 33.3 Mg C km−2 yr−1, with individual watersheds ranging from an average of 24.1 to 37.7 Mg C km−2 yr−1. This represents some of the highest DOC yields to be measured at the coastal margin. We observed seasonality in the quantity and composition of exports, with the majority of DOC export occurring during the extended wet period (September–April. Stream flow from catchments reacted quickly to rain inputs, resulting in rapid export of relatively fresh, highly terrestrial-like DOM. DOC concentration and measures of DOM composition were related to stream discharge and stream temperature and correlated with watershed attributes, including the extent of lakes and wetlands, and the thickness of organic and mineral soil horizons. Our discovery of high DOC yields from these small catchments in the CTR is especially compelling as they deliver relatively fresh, highly terrestrial organic matter directly to the coastal ocean. Hypermaritime landscapes are common on the

  16. Strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana – Julieta Josan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to summarize the strategies and techniques of communication and public relations applied to non-profit sector.The approach of the paper is to identify the most appropriate strategies and techniques that non-profit sector can use to accomplish its objectives, to highlight specific differences between the strategies and techniques of the profit and non-profit sectors and to identify potential communication and public relations actions in order to increase visibility among target audience, create brand awareness and to change into positive brand sentiment the target perception about the non-profit sector.

  17. Health care reform and Connecticut's non-profit hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jeffrey R; Gerrish, William; Galvin, J Robert

    2010-01-01

    The recent federal Health Care Reform Act signed into law by President Obama is expected to lead to greater patient volumes at non-profit hospitals in Connecticut (and throughout the country). The financial implications for these hospitals depend on how the costs per patient are expected to change in response to the anticipated higher patient volumes. Using a regression analysis of costs with annual data on 30 Connecticut hospitals over the period 2006 to 2008, we find that there are considerable differences between outpatient and inpatient unit cost structures at these hospitals. Based on the results of our analysis, and assuming health care reform leads to an overall increase in the number of outpatients, we would expect Connecticut hospitals to experience lower costs per outpatient treated (economies of scale). On the other hand, an influx of additional inpatients would be expected to raise unit costs (diseconomies of scale). After controlling for other cost determinants, we find that the marginal cost of an inpatient is about $8,000 while the marginal cost of an outpatient is about $44. This disparity may provide an explanation for our finding that the effect of additional patient volumes overall (combining inpatient and outpatient) is an increase in hospitals' unit costs.

  18. Drainage network structure and hydrologic behavior of three lake-rich watersheds on the Arctic Coastal Plain, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, C.D.; Whitman, M.S.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Kemnitz, R.; Grosse, G.; Urban, F.E.

    2012-01-01

    Watersheds draining the Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) of Alaska are dominated by permafrost and snowmelt runoff that create abundant surface storage in the form of lakes, wetlands, and beaded streams. These surface water elements compose complex drainage networks that affect aquatic ecosystem connectivity and hydrologic behavior. The 4676 km2 Fish Creek drainage basin is composed of three watersheds that represent a gradient of the ACP landscape with varying extents of eolian, lacustrine, and fluvial landforms. In each watershed, we analyzed 2.5-m-resolution aerial photography, a 5-m digital elevation model, and river gauging and climate records to better understand ACP watershed structure and processes. We show that connected lakes accounted for 19 to 26% of drainage density among watersheds and most all channels initiate from lake basins in the form of beaded streams. Of the > 2500 lakes in these watersheds, 33% have perennial streamflow connectivity, and these represent 66% of total lake area extent. Deeper lakes with over-wintering habitat were more abundant in the watershed with eolian sand deposits, while the watershed with marine silt deposits contained a greater extent of beaded streams and shallow thermokarst lakes that provide essential summer feeding habitat. Comparison of flow regimes among watersheds showed that higher lake extent and lower drained lake-basin extent corresponded with lower snowmelt and higher baseflow runoff. Variation in baseflow runoff among watersheds was most pronounced during drought conditions in 2007 with corresponding reduction in snowmelt peak flows the following year. Comparison with other Arctic watersheds indicates that lake area extent corresponds to slower recession of both snowmelt and baseflow runoff. These analyses help refine our understanding of how Arctic watersheds are structured and function hydrologically, emphasizing the important role of lake basins and suggesting how future lake change may impact hydrologic

  19. A web GIS based integrated flood assessment modeling tool for coastal urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A. T.; Mohanty, J.; Eldho, T. I.; Rao, E. P.; Mohan, B. K.

    2014-03-01

    Urban flooding has become an increasingly important issue in many parts of the world. In this study, an integrated flood assessment model (IFAM) is presented for the coastal urban flood simulation. A web based GIS framework has been adopted to organize the spatial datasets for the study area considered and to run the model within this framework. The integrated flood model consists of a mass balance based 1-D overland flow model, 1-D finite element based channel flow model based on diffusion wave approximation and a quasi 2-D raster flood inundation model based on the continuity equation. The model code is written in MATLAB and the application is integrated within a web GIS server product viz: Web Gram Server™ (WGS), developed at IIT Bombay, using Java, JSP and JQuery technologies. Its user interface is developed using open layers and the attribute data are stored in MySQL open source DBMS. The model is integrated within WGS and is called via Java script. The application has been demonstrated for two coastal urban watersheds of Navi Mumbai, India. Simulated flood extents for extreme rainfall event of 26 July, 2005 in the two urban watersheds of Navi Mumbai city are presented and discussed. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of the flood simulation tool in a web GIS environment to facilitate data access and visualization of GIS datasets and simulation results.

  20. Mental health promotion and non-profit health organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Frances M; Donald, Maria; Dean, Julie H; Conrad, Sue; Mutch, Allyson J

    2007-11-01

    Health related non-profit organisations (NPOs) provide a potentially important but largely untapped role in mental health promotion in communities. This paper reports on a study investigating the activities and contributions made by NPOs to mental health and well-being. One hundred and eight NPOs based in the metropolitan area of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, participated in a survey exploring agency activities that contribute to promoting mental well-being; factors that helped or hindered the organisation in engaging in mental health promotion activities and evaluation methods and processes. An index of key themes was developed and frequencies derived from categorical data. NPOs undertook five key types of activities to promote mental health and well-being: support provision (81%); service provision (59%); information sharing (52%); activities to promote well-being (24%); and advocacy (6%). Systematic evaluation of longer-term outcomes was rare, with most NPOs (72%) relying on informal feedback from clients. Human resources in the form of paid or volunteer workers were most frequently (58%) identified as contributing to the capacity of agencies to carry out mental health promotion activities. Training and education emerged as a substantive need (34%). NPOs are well placed to enhance resiliency in the context of ongoing health problems, disability or other adverse psychosocial circumstances that place people at risk of mental health problems. As such they constitute a significant resource for advancing mental health promotion goals. What is needed to extend the practice and evidence base in this area is training and skill development for NPO workers, along with larger-scale research conducted in collaboration with NPOs to assess the contributions and cost-effectiveness of the sector.

  1. Dom Export from Coastal Temperate Bog Forest Watersheds to Marine Ecosystems: Improving Understanding of Watershed Processes and Terrestrial-Marine Linkages on the Central Coast of British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, A. A.; Giesbrecht, I.; Tank, S. E.; Hunt, B. P.; Lertzman, K. P.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal temperate bog forests of British Columbia, Canada, export high amounts of dissolved organic matter (DOM) relative to the global average. Little is known about the factors influencing the quantity and quality of DOM exported from these forests or the role of this terrestrially-derived DOM in near-shore marine ecosystems. The objectives of this study are to better understand patterns and controls of DOM being exported from bog forest watersheds and its potential role in near-shore marine ecosystems. In 2013, the Kwakshua Watershed Ecosystems Study at Hakai Beach Institute (Calvert Island, BC) began year-round routine collection and analysis of DOM, nutrients, and environmental variables (e.g. conductivity, pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen) of freshwater grab samples from the outlets of seven watersheds draining directly to the ocean, as well as near-shore marine samples adjacent to freshwater outflows. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) varied across watersheds (mean= 11.45 mg L-1, sd± 4.22) and fluctuated synchronously with seasons and storm events. In general, higher DOC was associated with lower specific UV absorbance (SUVA254; mean= 4.59 L mg-1 m-1, sd± 0.55). The relationship between DOC and SUVA254 differed between watersheds, suggesting exports in DOM are regulated by individual watershed attributes (e.g. landscape classification, flow paths) as well as precipitation. We are using LiDAR and other remote sensing data to examine watershed controls on DOC export. At near-shore marine sites, coupled CTD (Conductivity Temperature Depth) and optical measures (e.g. spectral slopes, slope ratios (SR), EEMs), showed a clear freshwater DOM signature within the system following rainfall events. Ongoing work will explore the relationship between bog forest watershed attributes and DOM flux and composition, with implications for further studies on biogeochemical cycling, carbon budgets, marine food webs, and climate change.

  2. Toward a Collaborative, Transformative Model of Non-Profit Leadership: Some Conceptual Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramwell Osula

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors propose extending the construct of non-profit leadership to accommodate collaborative and transformational themes. The suggestion is that the resultant broader definition accords with the modern context within which non-profits now operate and feeds into a more resilient model of non-profit leadership. The paper begins with a review of emergent trends in leadership theory and the changing context of the non-profit sector. The argument is made that the extraordinary challenges facing the sector signal the need for fresh new perspectives in leadership. The authors then proceed to examine the significance of a nascent non-profit culture point to a re-alignment of the sector that is informed by transformational principles and a values-orientation. The result is said to be a new model of non-profit and public sector leadership that raises important methodological questions which the authors maintain can inform future analyses of the structure, role, and responsibilities of non-profit leadership. Finally, a world of new possibilities is envisioned, one in which non-profit organizations are strategically repositioned to take advantage of a new values-based ethic that is rooted in principles of integrity, increased self-awareness, a collaborative agenda, intentionality, emphasis of followership, cultural competence, and orientation toward the future.

  3. Training in Portuguese Non-Profit Organizations: The Quest towards Professionalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana; Melo, Solange; Ferreira, Ana Paula

    2016-01-01

    The non-profit sector is increasingly important, both in terms of the services rendered to society and level of employment provided. As part of a move towards the professionalization of the sector, training is seen as a vital tool for capacity building. Although the training practices of non-profits are fairly well documented in countries like…

  4. Between state and market: Non-profit housing organisations in three national contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullins, D.W.; Milligan, V.; Nieboer, N.E.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an international collaborative study5 of non-profit housing involving researchers6 in three countries using a common methodology to engage the leaders of non-profit organisations themselves in the research process. The paper draws on earlier work on the

  5. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Jayakaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal watersheds in South Carolina in terms of stream flow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after the hurricane's passage in 1989. The study objectives were to quantify the magnitude and timing of changes including a reversal in relative streamflow-difference between two paired watersheds, and to examine the selective impacts of a hurricane on the vegetative composition of the forest. We related these impacts to their potential contribution to change watershed hydrology through altered evapotranspiration processes. Using over thirty years of monthly rainfall and streamflow data we showed that there was a significant transformation in the hydrologic character of the two watersheds – a transformation that occurred soon after the hurricane's passage. We linked the change in the rainfall-runoff relationship to a catastrophic shift in forest vegetation due to selective hurricane damage. While both watersheds were located in the path of the hurricane, extant forest structure varied between the two watersheds as a function of experimental forest management techniques on the treatment watershed. We showed that the primary damage was to older pines, and to some extent larger hardwood trees. We believe that lowered vegetative water use impacted both watersheds with increased outflows on both watersheds due to loss of trees following hurricane impact. However, one watershed was able to recover to pre hurricane levels of canopy transpiration at a quicker rate due to the greater abundance of pine seedlings and saplings in that watershed.

  6. Wolves in sheep's clothing: Is non-profit status used to signal quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel B; Propper, Carol; Smith, Sarah

    2017-09-01

    Why do many firms in the healthcare sector adopt non-profit status? One argument is that non-profit status serves as a signal of quality when consumers are not well informed. A testable implication is that an increase in consumer information may lead to a reduction in the number of non-profits in a market. We test this idea empirically by exploiting an exogenous increase in consumer information in the US nursing home industry. We find that the information shock led to a reduction in the share of non-profit homes, driven by a combination of home closure and sector switching. The lowest quality non-profits were the most likely to exit. Our results have important implications for the effects of reforms to increase consumer provision in a number of public services. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Agriculture and future riverine nitrogen export to US coastal regions: Insights from the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examine contemporary (2000) and future (2030) estimates of coastal N loads in the continental US by the Nutrient Export from WaterSheds (NEWS) model. Future estimates are based on Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA) scenarios and two additional scenarios that reflect “...

  8. Hurricane impacts on a pair of coastal forested watersheds: implications of selective hurricane damage to forest structure and streamflow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.D. Jayakaran; T.M. Williams; H. Ssegane; D.M. Amatya; B. Song; C.C. Trettin

    2014-01-01

    Hurricanes are infrequent but influential disruptors of ecosystem processes in the southeastern Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Every southeastern forested wetland has the potential to be struck by a tropical cyclone. We examined the impact of Hurricane Hugo on two paired coastal South Carolina watersheds in terms of streamflow and vegetation dynamics, both before and after...

  9. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laruelle, G.G.; Dürr, H.H.; Lauerwald, R.; Hartmann, J.; Slomp, C.P.; Goossens, N.; Regnier, P.A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and dista

  10. Application of LiDAR data for hydrologic assessments of low-gradient coastal watershed drainage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Carl Trettin; Sudhanshu Panda; Herbert. Ssegane

    2013-01-01

    Documenting the recovery of hydrologic functions following perturbations of a landscape/watershed is important to address issues associated with land use change and ecosystem restoration. High resolution LiDAR data for the USDA Forest Service Santee Experimental Forest in coastal South Carolina,USA was used to delineate the remnant historical water management...

  11. Evaluation of a Florida coastal golf complex as a local and watershed source of bioavailable contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Michael A.; Quarles, Robert L.; Dantin, Darrin D.; Moore, James C

    2004-02-01

    Contaminant fate in coastal areas impacted by golf course runoff is not well understood. This report summarizes trace metal, pesticide and PCB residues for colonized periphyton, Ruppia maritima (widgeon grass), Callinectes sapidus Rathbun (blue crabs) and Crassostrea virginica Gemlin (Eastern oyster) collected from areas adjacent to a Florida golf course complex which receive runoff containing reclaimed municipal wastewater. Concentrations of 19 chlorinated pesticides and 18 PCB congeners were usually below detection in the biota. In contrast, 8 trace metals were commonly detected although concentrations were not usually significantly different for biota collected from reference and non-reference coastal areas. Residue concentrations in decreasing order were typically: zinc, arsenic, copper, chromium, lead, nickel, cadmium and mercury. Mean BCF values for the eight trace metals ranged between 160-57 000 (periphyton), 79-11 033 (R. maritima), 87-162 625 (C. virginica) and 12-9800 (C. sapidus). Most trace metal residues in periphyton colonized adjacent to the golf complex, were either similar to or significantly less than those reported for periphyton colonized in nearby coastal areas impacted by urban stormwater runoff and treated municipal and industrial wastewater discharges. Consequently, the recreational complex does not appear to be a major source of bioavailable contaminants locally nor in the immediate watershed based on results for the selected biota.

  12. Biogeochemical and Hydrological Controls on Mercury and Methylmercury in First Order Coastal Plain Watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, A.; Gilmour, C. C.; Bell, J. T.; Butera, D.; McBurney, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past 7 years we made use of the long-term research site at the Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) in central Maryland to study the fluxes of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in three small first-order mid-Atlantic coastal plain watersheds. One watershed is entirely forested, one watershed is primarily agriculture with a forested stream buffer, and one watershed is mixed land use but contains a beaver produced wetland pond. Our initial goals were to assess watershed Hg yields in the mid-Atlantic and to establish a baseline prior to implementation of Hg emissions controls. All three studied watersheds produced relatively high yields of Hg, with the greatest yield coming from the forested watershed. Our initial evaluation of three watersheds showed that MeHg production and flux could also be high, but varied dramatically among watersheds and across years and seasons. During each year we observed episodic MeHg production in the spring and sometimes during prolonged high-flow storm events in the fall. The observed spring maxima of MeHg release coincided with development of anoxia in riparian groundwater. MeHg accumulation in riparian groundwater began once nitrate was depleted and either iron accumulation or sulfate depletion of groundwater began. We propose the presence of nitrate was modulating MeHg production through the suppression of sulfate and iron reducers and perhaps methanogens. As sulfate is not limiting in any of the watersheds owing to the sediments marine origin, we hypothesize the depletion of nitrate allows sulfate reducing bacteria to now utilize available carbon. Although wetlands are generally thought of as the primary zones of MeHg production in watersheds, shallow riparian groundwaters very close to the stream appear to play that role in SERC Coastal Plain watersheds. We hypothesize that the balance between nitrate, sulfate and other microbial electron acceptors in watersheds is a major control on MeHg production. Land

  13. Quantifying the Uncertainty in Streamflow Predictions Using Swat for Brazos-Colorado Coastal Watershed, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, D.; Bhatia, N.; Srivastav, R. K.

    2016-12-01

    Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is one of the most comprehensive hydrologic models to simulate streamflow for a watershed. The two major inputs for a SWAT model are: (i) Digital Elevation Models (DEM), and (ii) Land Use and Land Cover Maps (LULC). This study aims to quantify the uncertainty in streamflow predictions using SWAT for San Bernard River in Brazos-Colorado coastal watershed, Texas, by incorporating the respective datasets from different sources: (i) DEM data will be obtained from ASTER GDEM V2, GMTED2010, NHD DEM, and SRTM DEM datasets with ranging resolution from 1/3 arc-second to 30 arc-second, and (ii) LULC data will be obtained from GLCC V2, MRLC NLCD2011, NOAA's C-CAP, USGS GAP, and TCEQ databases. Weather variables (Precipitation and Max-Min Temperature at daily scale) will be obtained from National Climatic Data Centre (NCDC) and SWAT in-built STASGO tool will be used to obtain the soil maps. The SWAT model will be calibrated using SWAT-CUP SUFI-2 approach and its performance will be evaluated using the statistical indices of Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), ratio of Root-Mean-Square-Error to standard deviation of observed streamflow (RSR), and Percent-Bias Error (PBIAS). The study will help understand the performance of SWAT model with varying data sources and eventually aid the regional state water boards in planning, designing, and managing hydrologic systems.

  14. Performance of non-profit organizations: Empirical contrasts between privately and publicly funded Croatian humanitarian organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfirević Nikša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we contrast different aspects of non-profit organizations’ performance from the perspective of their funding sources. Based on previous empirical results indicating that sources of funding influence fundraising performance, we extend the existing research to the analysis of overall non-profit organizational performance. We use the social constructivist approach to non-profit performance to discuss contrasts between privately and publicly funded humanitarian organizations in Croatia. Some differences in growth- and development-oriented measures of nonprofit performance for these groups are identified and discussed in the context of future regional research.

  15. The impact of changing glacial coverage on yields of freshwater and nutrients from coastal watersheds with in southeastern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, E.; Scott, D.

    2007-12-01

    Glaciers in southeastern Alaska are particularly sensitive to climate change because of their low elevation and proximity to the coast. Currently, glaciers in this region are experiencing high rates of ice loss resulting in rapid thinning and retreat. We are examining how changing glacial coverage is altering fluxes of freshwater and nutrients from coastal watersheds in southeastern Alaska. Our study includes three adjacent watersheds that range in area from 37 km2 to 230 km2 and span a range of watershed glacier coverage from 0% to 55%. Physical and hydrochemical parameters were sampled weekly to bi-monthly for the period May 2006-April 2007 in the three watersheds. Physical measurements included temperature, suspended sediment and conductivity; and hydrochemical parameters included total and inorganic nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, sulfate, and orthophosphate. During the glacier melt season, glacial coverage within a watershed exerted a strong influence on physiochemical properties. Streamwater temperature and conductivity, as well as nutrient concentrations, were negatively correlated with glacier coverage, while suspended sediment loads were positively correlated with glacial coverage. Changing glacial coverage had a strong impact on watershed yields of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Watershed yields of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 4246 to 7646 kg km-2 yr- 1 and were strongly negatively correlated with percent glacier coverage. Watershed yields of dissolved inorganic nitrogen ranged from 180 to 498 kg km-2 yr-1 and were highest in the watershed with intermediate glacier coverage that has a high proportion of transitional nitrogen fixing plant species. Watershed yields of orthophosphate ranged from 19 to 46 kg km-2 yr-1 and were strongly positively correlated with glacier coverage. Our findings suggest that the magnitude and timing of freshwater and nutrient fluxes from coastal watersheds to receiving marine ecosystems will be altered

  16. Flood risk trends in coastal watersheds in South Spain: direct and indirect impact of river regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egüen, M.; Polo, M. J.; Gulliver, Z.; Contreras, E.; Aguilar, C.; Losada, M. A.

    2015-06-01

    Spain is one of the world's countries with a large number of reservoirs per inhabitant. This intense regulation of the fluvial network during the 20th century has resulted in a decrease in flood events, a higher availability of water resources, and a high development of the irrigated crop area, even in the drier regions. For decades, flood perception was reduced since the development of reservoirs protected the floodplains of river; this resulted in later occupation of soil by urban, agricultural and industrial uses. In recent years, an increasing perception of flood events is observed, associated to the higher damage associated to extreme events in the now occupied areas, especially in coastal watersheds. This work shows the change on flood risk in the coastal areas of three hydrographic basins in Andalusia (South Spain) during the reservoir expansion period: the Guadalete, Guadalquivir and Guadalhorce river basins. The results differentiate the impact of the regulation level on both the cumulative distribution functions of the fluvial discharge near the river mouth, for different time scales, and the associated damage related to the enhanced soil occupation during this period. The different impact on the final medium and long term flood risk is also assessed in terms of the storage capacity per unit area throughout the basins, the effective annual runoff/precipitation index, the frequency of sea storms, and the human factor (change in social perception of floods), for different intervals in the flood extreme regime. The implications for adaptation actions is also assessed.

  17. Ground water flow analysis of a mid-Atlantic outer coastal plain watershed, Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Reay, William G

    2002-01-01

    Models for ground water flow (MODFLOW) and particle tracking (MODPATH) were used to determine ground water flow patterns, principal ground water discharge and recharge zones, and estimates of ground water travel times in an unconfined ground water system of an outer coastal plain watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. By coupling recharge and discharge zones within the watershed, flowpath analysis can provide a method to locate and implement specific management strategies within a watershed to reduce ground water nitrogen loading to surface water. A monitoring well network was installed in Eyreville Creek watershed, a first-order creek, to determine hydraulic conductivities and spatial and temporal variations in hydraulic heads for use in model calibration. Ground water flow patterns indicated the convergence of flow along the four surface water features of the watershed; primary discharge areas were in the nontidal portions of the watershed. Ground water recharge zones corresponded to the surface water features with minimal development of a regional ground water system. Predicted ground water velocities varied between water features. Some ground water residence times exceeded 100 years, although average residence times ranged between 16 and 21 years; approximately 95% of the ground water resource would reflect land use activities within the last 50 years.

  18. Administrative Coordination in Non-Profit Human Service Delivery Networks: The Role of Competition and Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunger, Alicia C

    2013-12-01

    Non-profit human service organizations operating within the same regional network are often faced with dual pressure to compete as well as coordinate administrative operations (by sharing funding, staff or space) to enhance efficiency. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that competing organizations coordinate, despite the risks. Trust, or perceived trustworthiness between two organizations may mitigate the negative influence of competition on coordination, however there have been few explicit tests of this hypothesis among non-profit organizations. Drawing on quantitative data collected from a network of 36 non-profit children's behavioral health organizations, this paper empirically tests how competition and perceived trustworthiness interact to influence administrative coordination. Results support the hypothesis that trustworthiness moderates the influence of competition on administrative coordination. Findings suggest that as competing non-profit leaders build trust, the more their agencies coordinate their administrative functions. This study highlights the importance of leaders' perceptions for organizational strategy.

  19. Physically active lifestyles for all Americans: a call to action for non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Colleen; Hutber, Adrian; McCarthy, William J

    2009-10-01

    Many nonprofit organizations and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are strategically poised to encourage and facilitate healthier lifestyles. Non-profit organizations can play leadership roles in improving physical levels among all Americans.

  20. A Project Portfolio Management model adapted to non-profit organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Martins Lacerda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As they strive towards greater professionalism in carrying out their activities, non-profit organizations (NPOs have begun paying attention to project management. The non-profit sector (NPS has also begun to adopt strategic planning techniques, thus making the acceptance of project portfolio management (PPM methodology a natural consequence. This article aims to propose a project portfolio management model adapted to the context of NPOs.

  1. A Critical Appraisal of the Concept of Non-profit Services Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    NOVATOROV, Edouard V.

    2010-01-01

    The author deconstructs the prevailing conceptualization of non-profit marketing and concludes it rests on three principles: voluntary exchange, an open system organization, and self-interest motivation. A review of the genesis of these principles revealed that alternative principles were ignored in the social science literature. Based on a qualitative analysis a revised conceptualization of non-profit marketing was suggested which incorporated the principles of reciprocity, the features of a...

  2. Traditions and Management Perspectives of Community and Non-Profit Organizations in Lithuania

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    Andrius Stasiukynas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – To overview the traditions and management perspectives of community and non-profit organizations in Lithuania.Methodology – For the purpose of this research a literature analysis on community and non-profit organization case studies was conducted. The case studies describing stories of success were singled out and leaders of these organizations were interviewed.Findings – The research has showed the growth of the number of community and nonprofit organizations during the last twenty years and the difficulties of collecting the statistical data. This study presupposes the possibility to identify the tendencies of management in community and non-profit organizations, including the following: increasing use of the social networks for communication; proliferation of strategic planning; greater emphasis on educating and empowering new generation of leaders.Research implications – Prior studies in this area in Lithuania have not exhaustively analyzed the components of human resource management of non-profit organizations. An important follow up on this study would be to analyze the human resource management in community organizations.Practical implications – This study covered the management aspects important for the improvement of how community and non-profit organizations work.Originality/Value – This study expands the knowledge on Lithuanian community and non-profit organization development and management.Research type – literature review, research paper.

  3. Comparison of sediment supply to San Francisco Bay from Coastal and Sierra Nevada watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, L. J.

    2012-12-01

    Quantifying suspended sediment loads is of paramount importance for managing the world's estuaries. To address this information need, a comprehensive analysis was completed for the San Francisco Bay system by combining a number of formerly disparate data sets. Suspended sediment and optical backscatter measurements near the head of the estuary were used to generate a continuous suspended sediment concentration record. In addition, periodic measurements of velocity and suspended sediment variation in the cross-section were used to validate the use of point samples collected on the edge of the channel for generating loads. Suspended sediment loads were determined by combining daily averaged suspended sediment concentrations with daily flow estimates adjusting for dispersive loads. Sediment loads from 482 small drainages around the Bay were determined using 235 station years of suspended sediment data covering 38 watershed locations, regression analysis, and simple modeling. Over 16 years, net annual load to the head of the estuary from its 154000 km2 watershed varied from 0.13-2.58 (mean = 0.89) million metric t, or 5.8 t/km2/yr. Small drainages in the nine-county Bay Area discharged between 0.089 and 4.35 (mean = 1.43) million metric t with an average yield of 175 metric t/km2/yr. Our results indicate that external loads to the Bay are dominated by the many hundreds of urbanized and tectonically active tributaries that drain just 8145 km2 adjacent to the Bay and that during only 5 years did sediment loads from the Central Valley likely exceed loads from the sum of the local smaller drainages. If San Francisco Bay is typical of other estuaries in active tectonic or climatically variable coastal regimes, managers responsible for water quality, sediment accumulating in shipping channels, or restoring wetlands in the world's estuaries may need to more carefully account for proximal small urban drainages that may dominate allochthonous sediment supply.

  4. Mercury and methylmercury dynamics in a coastal plain watershed, New Jersey, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barringer, J.L.; Riskin, M.L.; Szabo, Z.; Reilly, P.A.; Rosman, R.; Bonin, J.L.; Fischer, J.M.; Heckathorn, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    The upper Great Egg Harbor River watershed in New Jersey's Coastal Plain is urbanized but extensive freshwater wetlands are present downstream. In 2006-2007, studies to assess levels of total mercury (THg) found concentrations in unfiltered streamwater to range as high as 187 ng/L in urbanized areas. THg concentrations were water with THg that exceeds the drinking water standard (2,000 ng/L). THg concentrations were lower (Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in unfiltered streamwater ranged from 0.17 ng/L at a forest/wetlands site to 2.94 ng/L at an urban site. The percentage of THg present as MeHg increased as the percentage of forest + wetlands increased, but also was high in some urban areas. MeHg was detected only in groundwater water/sediment interface. Atmospheric deposition is presumed to be the main source of Hg to the wetlands and also may be a source to groundwater, where wastewater inputs in urban areas are hypothesized to mobilize Hg deposited to soils. ?? 2010 US Government.

  5. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2013-05-29

    Past characterizations of the land-ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air-water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies. © 2013 Author(s).

  6. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Laruelle

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems. Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation and 149 sub-units (COSCATs. Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  7. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Laruelle

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The complex coastline of the Earth is over 400 000 km long and about 40% of the world's population lives within 100 km of the sea. Past characterizations of the global coastline were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCAT: Coastal Segmentation and related CATchments or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LME: Large Marine Ecosystems. Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles which retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation and 149 sub-units (COSCATS. Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and fresh water residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric profiles. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. These results can be used for regional analyses and combined with various typologies for upscaling and biogeochemical budgets. In addition, the three levels segmentation can be used for application in Earth System analysis.

  8. Global multi-scale segmentation of continental and coastal waters from the watersheds to the continental margins

    KAUST Repository

    Laruelle, G. G.

    2012-10-04

    Past characterizations of the land–ocean continuum were constructed either from a continental perspective through an analysis of watershed river basin properties (COSCATs: COastal Segmentation and related CATchments) or from an oceanic perspective, through a regionalization of the proximal and distal continental margins (LMEs: large marine ecosystems). Here, we present a global-scale coastal segmentation, composed of three consistent levels, that includes the whole aquatic continuum with its riverine, estuarine and shelf sea components. Our work delineates comprehensive ensembles by harmonizing previous segmentations and typologies in order to retain the most important physical characteristics of both the land and shelf areas. The proposed multi-scale segmentation results in a distribution of global exorheic watersheds, estuaries and continental shelf seas among 45 major zones (MARCATS: MARgins and CATchments Segmentation) and 149 sub-units (COSCATs). Geographic and hydrologic parameters such as the surface area, volume and freshwater residence time are calculated for each coastal unit as well as different hypsometric pro- files. Our analysis provides detailed insights into the distributions of coastal and continental shelf areas and how they connect with incoming riverine fluxes. The segmentation is also used to re-evaluate the global estuarine CO2 flux at the air–water interface combining global and regional average emission rates derived from local studies.

  9. Coupled effects of natural and anthropogenic controls on seasonal and spatial variations of river water quality during baseflow in a coastal watershed of Southeast China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Huang

    Full Text Available Surface water samples of baseflow were collected from 20 headwater sub-watersheds which were classified into three types of watersheds (natural, urban and agricultural in the flood, dry and transition seasons during three consecutive years (2010-2012 within a coastal watershed of Southeast China. Integrating spatial statistics with multivariate statistical techniques, river water quality variations and their interactions with natural and anthropogenic controls were examined to identify the causal factors and underlying mechanisms governing spatiotemporal patterns of water quality. Anthropogenic input related to industrial effluents and domestic wastewater, agricultural activities associated with the precipitation-induced surface runoff, and natural weathering process were identified as the potential important factors to drive the seasonal variations in stream water quality for the transition, flood and dry seasons, respectively. All water quality indicators except SRP had the highest mean concentrations in the dry and transition seasons. Anthropogenic activities and watershed characteristics led to the spatial variations in stream water quality in three types of watersheds. Concentrations of NH(4(+-N, SRP, K(+, COD(Mn, and Cl- were generally highest in urban watersheds. NO3(-N Concentration was generally highest in agricultural watersheds. Mg(2+ concentration in natural watersheds was significantly higher than that in agricultural watersheds. Spatial autocorrelations analysis showed similar levels of water pollution between the neighboring sub-watersheds exhibited in the dry and transition seasons while non-point source pollution contributed to the significant variations in water quality between neighboring sub-watersheds. Spatial regression analysis showed anthropogenic controls played critical roles in variations of water quality in the JRW. Management implications were further discussed for water resource management. This research

  10. Applying Emotional Intelligence Skills to Leadership and Decision Making in Non-Profit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Hess

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations and leaders may benefit from the utilization of behaviors attributed to emotional intelligence. The consideration of emotional intelligence skills becomes a strategy for the development of the non-profit organizational leader’s ability to assess the impact and consequences of decisions, while simultaneously improving the quality and effectiveness of the decision-making process. The purpose of this paper is to identify how emotional intelligence skills can be applied to enhance the leadership decision-making processes within the non-profit organization. Goleman’s (2001 and Boyatzis’ et al. (2000 four essential elements of emotional intelligence and their associated 20 behavioral competencies are utilized to develop a methodology for the practical application of emotional intelligence skills to leadership decision-making within the non-profit organization. A checklist of questions and observations is provided to assist non-profit leaders in the improvement of emotional intelligence awareness, as well as the application of emotional intelligence skills to decisions and decision-making processes.

  11. Economic and social pre-conditions for marketization of domestic non-profit sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Borysova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the article is to analyze social and economic conditions of development of non-profit organizations (NPOs. Among them are shifting responsibility for social problems from governmental bodies on not-for-profit subjects, low quality of social product, declining of volume of financing from governmental bodies, business and international organizations, reducing of skilled labour potential, radical changes in composition of clients which are served by non-profit organizations. The research objectives are: to find out economic and social conditions of activity of domestic nonprofits; to ground expedience of domestic non-profit sphere marketization. The results of the analysis. The research makes possible to state the following: - permanent shifting responsibility for social problems from governmental bodies on not-for-profit subjects is the imperative of development, that stimulates marketization of not-for-profit sector in particular; - social services are delivered by governmental bodies and NPOs and characterized by low level of quality. That why it is necessary to search the ways of solving the problem through organizational development and strengthening of financial potential of NPOs, and by control of accordance of social services delivered by the governmental bodies to the minimum standards of ones; - the main reasons of diminishing of financial possibility of the majority of NPOs are: growth of amount of non-profit organizations, ineffective use of grants caused by the failed mechanisms of verification of recipients activity, corruption and problem of estimation of effectiveness of the non-profit programs and services, a recent financial crisis which compelled to cut down expenses for such programs; - client market of non-profit organizations is constantly transformed in results of change of demographic structure, change of old and appearance of new behaviour models, appearance of new target markets and

  12. THE INSUFFICIENCY OF FINANCIAL ANALYSIS FOR THE PERFORMANCE OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

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    Delia Corina MIHĂLŢAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper work is based on the hypothesis that the financial analysis is insufficient when it comes to reflecting the performance of nonprofit organizations. Our main argument is the social purpose of non-profit organization, which is the reason why the analyst has to find optimal solutions for analyzing their performance while taking into account their social impact. Our research focused on the conceptualizations of the performance of non-profit organizations and the adequacy of the existing models for analyzing it. The research results refer to the limits of financial analysis regarding the performance of non-profit organizations because it can only offer relevant information regarding its effectiveness.

  13. For profit versus non-profit: does economic sector make a difference in child-care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelles, E

    1999-01-01

    The child-care industry in a large, southeastern community serves as this study's vehicle for comparing non-profit with for profit dependent care in areas not easily observable to clients. The cross-sectional analysis compares child-care centers on marketed and actual staff-to-child ratio; staff salary; consistency in the child's group environment; staff stability; and extent of parental involvement. Findings are based on self-reports of directors and support hypotheses derived from the theory that for profit day care centers will use their discretionary authority to vary the care environment to achieve profit goals despite the potential effect on the quality of the child's environment. Further, despite potential cost economies and enhanced quality of care achievable as a non-profit entity, few for profit center directors consider becoming non-profit centers.

  14. Guest Editorial: Reinvigorating Project Management Research and Practice: Perspectives from the Non-Profit Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Lannon

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The genesis of this Special Issue was a conference on “Delivering Social Good: Managing Projects in the Non-Profit Sector” held at the University of Limerick in October 2014.  The diversity that exists within the broad non-profit sector became apparent at this event, as did its increasing projectification and the variety of organizational forms and models resulting from this trend. Tools, techniques, processes and practices inherited from the business world were described, as were methodologies adopted, adapted and specifically designed for work in areas like international development, humanitarian work and community settings. Insights into the lived experiences of project managers in the non-profit sector were also shared, as were a number of diverse conceptualisations of temporary organisations.

  15. Detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed representative of the Brazilian Coastal Plains and its practical application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walbert Júnior Reis dos Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed soil survey of an experimental watershed with representative pedoclimatic characteristics of the Coastal Plains in Espírito Santo State and its practical applications. For the pedological survey, 35 observation sites and three soil profiles were sampled and described, which were morphologically characterized and subjected to physical (particle size and chemical analyses (routine and sulfuric acid digestion. The soil map was made using the geographic information system ArcGIS 9.3. This GIS software was also used to generate the digital elevation model (DEM for identifying the slope classes. SAGA software was used to calculate the topographic wetness index (WI which aided in a more accurate separation of Haplic Organosol from other soils. The predominant soil class in the watershed was the dystrophic/dystrocohesive Yellow Argisol (97%, containing morphological, chemical and physical characteristics representative of the most expressive Coastal Plains soils. Geoprocessing tools and techniques aided to make the watershed soil map.

  16. The engagement and retention of non-profit employees in Belgium and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: A lack of qualitative research exists that investigates work engagement and retention within Belgium and South Africa, particularly within the non-profit sector.Research purpose: The study aimed to gather in-depth qualitative data pertaining to the factors that promote work engagement and retention amongst non-profit employees working within these two countries.Motivation for the study: Because of scarce funding and resources, non-profit organisations are pressured to retain their talented employees, with high levels of turnover being a standard for low-paid, human-service positions. However, when individuals are engaged in their work, they display lower turnover intentions, suggesting the importance of work engagement in relation to retention.Research design, approach and method: Non-probability purposive and convenience sampling was used to organise in-depth interviews with 25 paid non-profit employees working on either a full-time or a part-time basis within Belgium and South Africa. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data produced.Main findings: Participants were found to be absorbed in, dedicated to and energised by their work, and revealed numerous aspects promoting their retention including working towards a purpose, finding fulfilment in their tasks and working in a caring environment.Practical/managerial implications: Non-profit organisations should develop positive work environments for their employees to sustain their levels of work engagement, as well as place significance on intrinsic rewards in order to retain employees.Contribution: This study provides insights into the means by which non-profit employees across two nations demonstrate their enthusiasm, pride and involvement in the work that they perform. It moreover sheds light on the factors contributing to such employees intending to leave or stay within the employment of their organisations.

  17. Mitigating Concerns and Maximizing Returns: Social Media Strategies for Injury Prevention Non-profits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tressie McMillan-Cottom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  18. Mitigating concerns and maximizing returns: social media strategies for injury prevention non-profits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan-Cottom, Tressie

    2014-08-01

    Injury prevention programs can use social media to disseminate information and recruit participants. Non-profit organizations have also used social media for fundraising and donor relationship management. Non-profit organizations (NPOs) with injury prevention missions often serve vulnerable populations. Social media platforms have varied levels of access and control of shared content. This variability can present privacy and outreach challenges that are of particular concern for injury prevention NPOs. This case report of social media workshops for injury prevention NPOs presents concerns and strategies for successfully implementing social media campaigns.

  19. Bi-criteria evaluation of MIKE SHE model for a forested watershed on South Carolina coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Li, C.; Trettin, C.; Sun, G.; Amatya, D.; Li, H.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrological models are important tools for effective management, conservation and restoration of forested wetlands. The objective of this study was to test a distributed hydrological model, MIKE SHE by using bi-criteria (two measurable variables, streamflow and water table depth) to describe the hydrological processes in a forested watershed that is characteristic of the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain. Simulations were compared against observations of both streamflow and water table depth measured on a first-order watershed (WS80) on the Santee Experimental Forest in South Carolina, USA. Model performance was evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe's model efficiency (E). The E and root mean squared error (RMSE) were chosen as objective functions for sensitivity analysis of parameters. The model calibration and validation results demonstrated that the streamflow and water table depth were sensitive to most of the model input parameters, especially to surface detention storage, drainage depth, soil hydraulic properties, plant rooting depth, and surface roughness. Furthermore, the bi-criteria used for distributed model calibration and validation was shown to be better than the single-criterion in obtaining optimum model input parameters, especially for those parameters that were only sensitive to some specific conditions. Model calibration using the bi-criteria approach should be advantageous for constructing the uncertainty bounds of model inputs to simulate the hydrology for this type of forested watersheds. R2 varied from 0.60-0.99 for daily and monthly streamflow, and from 0.52-0.91 for daily water table depth. E changed from 0.53-0.96 for calibration and 0.51-0.98 for validation of daily and monthly streamflow, while E varied from 0.50-0.90 for calibration and 0.66-0.80 for validation of daily water table depth. This study showed that MIKE SHE was applicable for predicting the streamflow and water table depth in this coastal plain

  20. Bi-criteria evaluation of the MIKE SHE model for a forested watershed on the South Carolina coastal plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Li, C.; Trettin, C.; Sun, G.; Amatya, D.; Li, H.

    2010-06-01

    Hydrological models are important tools for effective management, conservation and restoration of forested wetlands. The objective of this study was to test a distributed hydrological model, MIKE SHE, by using bi-criteria (i.e., two measurable variables, streamflow and water table depth) to describe the hydrological processes in a forested watershed that is characteristic of the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain. Simulations were compared against observations of both streamflow and water table depth measured on a first-order watershed (WS80) on the Santee Experimental Forest in South Carolina, USA. Model performance was evaluated using coefficient of determination (R2) and Nash-Sutcliffe's model efficiency (E). The E and root mean squared error (RMSE) were chosen as objective functions for sensitivity analysis of parameters. The model calibration and validation results demonstrated that the streamflow and water table depth were sensitive to most of the model input parameters, especially to surface detention storage, drainage depth, soil hydraulic properties, plant rooting depth, and surface roughness. Furthermore, the bi-criteria approach used for distributed model calibration and validation was shown to be better than the single-criterion in obtaining optimum model input parameters, especially for those parameters that were only sensitive to some specific conditions. Model calibration using the bi-criteria approach should be advantageous for constructing the uncertainty bounds of model inputs to simulate the hydrology for this type of forested watersheds. R2 varied from 0.60-0.99 for daily and monthly streamflow, and from 0.52-0.91 for daily water table depth. E changed from 0.53-0.96 for calibration and 0.51-0.98 for validation of daily and monthly streamflow, while E varied from 0.50-0.90 for calibration and 0.66-0.80 for validation of daily water table depth. This study showed that MIKE SHE could be a good candidate for simulating streamflow and water table depth in

  1. Increasing a Community's Knowledge about Drought, Watershed Ecosystems, and Water Quality Through Educational Activities Added to Coastal Cleanup Day Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, R.; Allen, L.; Cole, P.; Rho, C.

    2016-12-01

    International Coastal Cleanup Day, held each September, is an effective campaign to bring volunteers together to clean trash from beaches and waterways and document results. Over 500,000 participants cleared over 9 million pounds of trash in 2015. To build on the enthusiasm for this event, the city of Livermore, California's Water Resource Department, the Livermore Valley Joint Unified School District, Livermore Area Recreation and Parks Department created a water education program to embed within the city's Coastal Cleanup Day events. Goals of the education program are to increase awareness of the local watershed and its geographic reach, impacts of climate change and drought on local water supplies, pollution sources and impacts of local pollution on the ocean, positive impacts of a recent plastic bag ban, water quality assessment, and action steps citizens can take to support a healthy watershed. Volunteers collect and test water samples (when water is in the creek) using modified GLOBE and World Water Monitoring Day protocols. Test results are uploaded to the World Water Monitoring Day site and documented on the program web site. Volunteers report that they did not know about watersheds, impacts of local pollution, and water quality components before the education program. Volunteers are encouraged to adopt a creek spot for one year, and continue to collect and document trash. High school and middle school science classes added the water quality testing into curriculum, and regularly visit creek sites to clean the spots and monitor habitats. Each year for the past five years, about 300 volunteers have worked on creek clean-up events, 20 have adopted creek sites, and collected over 4,000 gallons of trash annually. As a result of these efforts, sites have been downgraded from a trash hot spot of concern. Strategies will be shared to expand an established (or start a new) Coastal Cleanup Day event into a successful watershed and climate awareness citizen science

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INTEGRATED MODEL OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION STRUCTURE ON THE PUBLIC PARTICIPATING NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tien Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main body of social stratification structure in Taiwan is transformed with social mobility. By transforming the social stratification structure, the function of non-profit organizations is operating steadily. How does people’s awareness of social strata directly or indirectly influence the operation of non-profit organizations? How do non-profit organizations and governments respond to the transformation of social stratum compositions? And how promotion and policy marketing could guide the general public to be attentive and participate in the operations of non-profit organizations? These questions require in-depth investigation. This study bases on the experiments and concepts of fairness measurement in information integration theory to comprehend the integrated model of social stratification in the public. By means of analyzing the awareness and orientation of the public to the constitution of social stratification which lead the public to identify themselves with the visions of non-profit organizations and the motion of participating non-profit matters to provide the interrelated recommendations of proceeding non-profit matters to non-profit organizations and the government. Comparing the cognitive algebraic functions of input information and outcome information of various groups in the social strata, the only difference is that if the input information is education background and the outcome information profession prestige. Empirically, non-profit organizations promoting and encouraging people to engage in occupational aid related activities could find different methods available.

  3. 34 CFR Appendix B to Subpart L of... - Ratio Methodology for Private Non-Profit Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ratio Methodology for Private Non-Profit Institutions B Appendix B to Subpart L of Part 668 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT ASSISTANCE GENERAL...

  4. Primary care teams: New Zealand's experience with community-governed non-profit primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Peter; Davis, Peter; Lay-Yee, Roy

    2005-05-01

    Community-governed non-profit primary care organisations started developing in New Zealand in the late 1980s with the aim to reduce financial, cultural and geographical barriers to access. New Zealand's new primary health care strategy aims to co-ordinate primary care and public health strategies with the overall objective of improving population health and reducing health inequalities. The purpose of this study is to carry out a detailed examination of the composition and characteristics of primary care teams in community-governed non-profit practices and compare them with more traditional primary care organisations, with the aim of drawing conclusions about the capacity of the different structures to carry out population-based primary care. The study used data from a representative national cross-sectional survey of general practitioners in New Zealand (2001/2002). Primary care teams were largest and most heterogeneous in community-governed non-profit practices, which employed about 3% of the county's general practitioners. Next most heterogeneous in terms of their primary care teams were practices that belonged to an Independent Practitioner Association, which employed the majority of the country's general practitioners (71.7%). Even though in absolute and relative terms the community-governed non-profit primary care sector is small, by providing a much needed element of professional and organisational pluralism and by experimenting with more diverse staffing arrangements, it is likely to continue to have an influence on primary care policy development in New Zealand.

  5. Resistance towards persuasion: differences between non-profit and commercial advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, C.R.; Fransen, M.L.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the present research we examined a variety of strategies that consumers may use to resist persuasion towards non-profit and commercial advertising. Based on research by Jacks and Cameron (2003), we investigated seven strategies (i.e., attitude bolstering, counter arguing, negative affect, selecti

  6. A Guide to Community Shared Solar: Utility, Private, and Non-Profit Project Development (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Grove, J.; Irvine, L.; Jacobs, J. F.; Johnson Phillips, S.; Sawyer, A.; Wiedman, J.

    2012-05-01

    This guide is organized around three sponsorship models: utility-sponsored projects, projects sponsored by special purpose entities - businesses formed for the purpose of producing community solar power, and non-profit sponsored projects. The guide addresses issues common to all project models, as well as issues unique to each model.

  7. The Homogenized Imagery of Non-Profit Organizations on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenix, Linda Jean

    2007-01-01

    This research evaluates websites from 200 "non-deviant" and 200 "deviant" non-profit organizations to better understand the relationship between the type of advocacy group and the visual imagery used for self-representation. Seventeen of 21 variables measured for this study found no difference between non-deviant and deviant non-profit…

  8. An Examination of Adjunct Faculty Characteristics: Comparison between Non-Profit and For-Profit Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcher, Keith; Mandernach, B. Jean

    2016-01-01

    Institutions must understand the unique characteristics and motivations of adjunct faculty teaching online to more effectively support a diverse faculty population. The current study examines faculty characteristics and motivations to explore differences in the types of adjunct faculty teaching at non-profit or for-profit institutions. A survey of…

  9. Developing a Theoretical Framework of Responsiveness in Educational Institutions and Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bheda, Divya Narendra

    2013-01-01

    A number of education institutions and non-profit organizations seek to be responsive toward the stakeholders they serve. They engage in numerous organizational and evaluative processes to be perceived as responsive. They consider evaluating and improving responsiveness, important to their practice. Unfortunately, such efforts are often impeded…

  10. An Examination of Childcare Teachers in For-Profit and Non-Profit Childcare Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Mullis, Ronald L.; Mullis, Ann K.; Shriner, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of childcare teachers in for-profit and non-profit centers were examined. Previous research indicates that childcare teachers earn consistently low wages, have little employee benefits and are dissatisfied with their work environments. This study further explores the employment issues and work environments that childcare teachers…

  11. Embedding energy saving policies in the Dutch non-profit housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, N.; Kroese, R.; Straub, A.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies on policy implementation have emphasized the difficulties of putting policies into practice. The paper presents several ways in which Dutch non-profit housing providers incorporate their energy saving policies in their ‘regular’ housing management regarding the existing stock, such as

  12. Evaluating Outsourcing Information Technology and Assurance Expertise by Small Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Fillmore

    2013-01-01

    Small non-profit organizations outsource at least one information technology or information assurance process. Outsourcing information technology and information assurance processes has increased every year. The study was to determine the key reasons behind the choice to outsource information technology and information assurance processes. Using…

  13. Evaluating Outsourcing Information Technology and Assurance Expertise by Small Non-Profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Fillmore

    2013-01-01

    Small non-profit organizations outsource at least one information technology or information assurance process. Outsourcing information technology and information assurance processes has increased every year. The study was to determine the key reasons behind the choice to outsource information technology and information assurance processes. Using…

  14. Paired Watershed Study of Suspended Sediment Sources in a Watershed Undergoing Road-Building and Timber Harvest, Railroad Gulch, Coastal Northern California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, A. P.; Beach, S.; Harrison, N.; Haskins, M.; MacDonald, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    This presentation reports on the first three years of a paired watershed study to evaluate sediment sources and sediment delivery from roads and timber harvest units in in two small, highly erodible watersheds on the South Fork of the Elk River in coastal Northern California. The study design includes two years of pre-treatment, one year of data collection after road construction, and four years of monitoring after timber harvest in year four. The control watershed is the 1.48 km2 West Branch of Railroad Gulch. The 1.28 km2 East Branch had 0.84 km of new road construction in summer 2015 and 1.52 km of road reopening. 47% of the watershed was selectively logged in summer 2016 using both ground-based and cable logging. Road condition surveys assess rill erosion and delivery to waterways. Headward migration of low order waterways and landslide activation and delivery is assessed with aerial and field surveys. Further field measurements include streamside landslide and channel bank erosion inventories, cross section surveys, and pebble counts. During storm events turbidity synoptic sampling takes place on the main stem of each branch and at small tributary mouths. Monitoring at the outlets of the basins consists of continuous turbidity and discharge recording throughout the year, and automated pump sampling and synoptic sampling for total suspended sediment concentrations during storm events. Rainfall and peak flow analysis, and determination of long term erosion rates with Be-10 methods, completes the study. The initial results indicate that suspended sediment loads from the two basins are strongly correlated, with respectively 38.26 and 49.22 Mg km-2 from the East and West Branch in the exceptionally dry water year of 2014, and 716.07 and 860.55 Mg km-2 in water year 2015. The much higher loading in 2015 is attributed to the higher rainfall, particularly one large storm that triggered debris torrents and streamside failures. Shallow landslides that are hydrologically

  15. A Non-Profit University and a For-Profit Consulting Company Partner to a Offer a New Master's Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Gary; Dalton, Thomas M.

    2008-01-01

    The University of San Diego, School of Business Administration (non-profit university) and the Ken Blanchard Companies (for profit management consulting company) teamed to create the Master of Science in Executive Leadership at USD. Fusing a traditional non-profit university faculty and staff with a for-profit consulting company created a plethora…

  16. Between state and market: The relationship between non-profit housing organisations and the state in three national contexts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullins, D.W.; Milligan, V.; Nieboer, N.E.T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an international collaborative study5 of non-profit housing; one of the main alternatives to public housing developed in many countries. The study involved researchers6 in three countries using a common methodology to engage the leaders of non-profit organisations

  17. Organizational Structure and Behaviour in Day Care: Differences between Non-Profit and For-Profit Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, Patricia M.; Lyon, Mary E.; Kienapple, Kim; Young, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Examined how Canadian day care centers are operated and managed, to identify differences in organizational structure and behavior between non-profit and for-profit centers and characteristics of structure and management linked with high quality care. Found that non-profit centers were more complex, more formalized, and less centralized than…

  18. Assessing the effectiveness of winter cover crop on nitrate reduction in two-paired sub-basins on the Coastal Plain of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Yeo, I. Y.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Mccarty, G.; Hively, W. D.; Lang, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Best management practices (BMPs) have been widely adopted to improve water quality throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed (CBW). Winter cover crops (WCC) use has been highlighted for the reduction of nitrate leaching over the fallow season. Although various WCC practices are currently conducted in local croplands, the water quality improvement benefits of WCC have not been studied thoroughly at the watershed scale. The objective of this study is to assess the long-term impacts of WCC on reducing nitrate loadings using a processed-based watershed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Remote sensing based estimates of WCC biomass will be used to calibrate plant growth processes of SWAT and its nutrient cycling. The study will be undertaken in two-paired agricultural watersheds in the Coastal Plain of CBW. Multiple WCC practice scenarios will be prepared to investigate how nitrate loading varies with crop species, planting dates, and implementation areas. The performance of WCC on two-paired watersheds will be compared in order to understand the effects of different watershed characteristics on nitrate uptake by crops. The results will demonstrate the nitrate reduction efficiency of different WCC practices and identify the targeting area for WCC implementation at the watershed scale. This study will not only integrate remote sensing data into the physically based model but also extend our understandings of WCC functions. This will provide key information for effective conservation decision making. Key words: Water quality, Chesapeake Bay Watershed, Winter Cover Crop, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT)

  19. ‘Value for Whom, by Whom’: Investigating Value Constructs in Non-Profit Project Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karyne Cheng Siew Ang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In most non-profit organisations (NPOs, there are multiple programs, projects or initiatives running simultaneously. The management of multiple projects in organisations can be coined as project portfolio management (PPM (Archer & Ghasemzadeh 1999; Pennypacker & Dye 2002.  In any project-based organisation, it is critical that selected projects align with and deliver the organisation’s strategy or mission. Decisions about project funding are strategic decisions, particularly when there are resource limitations. In PPM decision making, the allocation of resources to projects requires a clear judgement of value across multiple perspectives. Value has often been expressed in financial terms, however increasingly research indicates that non-financial considerations are equally important in evaluating value. A key task in project portfolio management is to maximise value across the portfolio.  However, value can be a subjective notion, as each person may have different expectations of what is valuable. The involvement of diverse stakeholder interests could create complexities in decision making in non-profit organisations due to value being interpreted in different ways by the stakeholders. Furthermore in order to achieve its purpose, non-profits depend heavily on donors, patrons and sponsors - stakeholders who contribute to the portfolio but are often not the direct recipients of the services provided by the non-profit organisation (Kaplan 2012. Non-profit portfolios often compete with other initiatives for resources and attention from the same donors and sponsors, and may need to constantly justify the value they provide to these stakeholders. Most research about value in PPM has been conducted in the ‘for-profit’ sector. Recent value-based studies in the project portfolio field stress the importance of considering both commercial and non-commercial value in portfolio decision making (Killen, du Plessis & Young 2012; Kopman 2013; Martinsuo

  20. Multiobjective Optimization Model for Pricing and Seat Allocation Problem in Non Profit Performing Arts Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldin, Andrea; Bille, Trine; Ellero, Andrea

    The implementation of Revenue Management (RM) techniques in non profit performing arts organizations presents new challenges compared to other sectors, such as transportion or hospitality industries, in which these techniques are more consolidated. Indeed, performing arts organizations are charac......The implementation of Revenue Management (RM) techniques in non profit performing arts organizations presents new challenges compared to other sectors, such as transportion or hospitality industries, in which these techniques are more consolidated. Indeed, performing arts organizations...... is to incentive the customers to discriminate among themselves according to their reservation price, offering a schedule of different prices corresponding to different seats in the venue. In this context, price and allocation of the theatre seating area are decision variables that allow theatre managers to manage...... of heterogeneity among customer categories in both choice and demand. The proposed model is validated with booking data referring to the Royal Danish Theatre during the period 2010-2015....

  1. Person-Organization Commitment: Bonds of Internal Consumer in the Context of Non-profit Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Clavel San Emeterio, Mónica; González-Menorca, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    From an Organizational Behavior perspective, it is important to recognize the links generated between individuals and the organization that encourage a desire for permanence. After more than a half century of research, Organizational Commitment remains one of the open questions in the Psychology of Organizations. It is considered an essential factor for explaining individual behavior in the organization such as satisfaction, turnover intention, or loyalty. In this paper, we analyze different contributions regarding the nature of the bond between the individual and the organization. Taking into account the peculiarities of Non-profit Organizations, we present different interpretation for later validation, comparing results from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the four models obtained using exploratory factor analysis, both conducted on a sample of 235 members of Non-profit Organizations. PMID:28775699

  2. State power and elite autonomy: The board interlock network of Chinese non-profits

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Ji

    2016-01-01

    In response to failures of central planning, the Chinese government has experimented not only with free-market trade zones, but with allowing non-profit foundations to operate in a decentralized fashion. A network study shows how these foundations have connected together by sharing board members, in a structural parallel to what is seen in corporations in the United States. This board interlock leads to the emergence of an elite group with privileged network positions. While the presence of government officials on non-profit boards is widespread, state officials are much less common in a subgroup of foundations that control just over half of all revenue in the network. This subgroup, associated with business elites, not only enjoys higher levels of within-elite links, but even preferentially excludes government officials from the nodes with higher degree. The emergence of this structurally autonomous sphere is associated with major political and social events in the state-society relationship.

  3. Person-Organization Commitment: Bonds of Internal Consumer in the Context of Non-profit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juaneda-Ayensa, Emma; Clavel San Emeterio, Mónica; González-Menorca, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    From an Organizational Behavior perspective, it is important to recognize the links generated between individuals and the organization that encourage a desire for permanence. After more than a half century of research, Organizational Commitment remains one of the open questions in the Psychology of Organizations. It is considered an essential factor for explaining individual behavior in the organization such as satisfaction, turnover intention, or loyalty. In this paper, we analyze different contributions regarding the nature of the bond between the individual and the organization. Taking into account the peculiarities of Non-profit Organizations, we present different interpretation for later validation, comparing results from the Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the four models obtained using exploratory factor analysis, both conducted on a sample of 235 members of Non-profit Organizations.

  4. Strategic communication management in the non-profit sector:  a simplified model

    OpenAIRE

    11714166 - Wiggill, Magrita Nicolene

    2011-01-01

    A model for strategic communication management was developed in South Africa on the basis of the excellence study and relationship management theories. This normative, theoretical model has been applied as part of a project in non-profit organisations (NPOs), government institutions and small-to-medium sized companies. However, the operational reality of organisations' communication practices has not been measured against the model. It was therefore the objective of this article to comprehend...

  5. Strategic planning models in public and non-profit sport organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELENA THEAKOU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Strategic planning is widely used by organisations, as itis an integral part of strategy. The present study tackles thetopic of strategic planning as it is developed by public andnon-profit organizations and provides an extensive review ofliterature in the area of the development and role of strategic planning within strategic management and the way it is adopted by public and non-profit organizations. For the purposes of this paper, five models of strategic planning have been discussed with the belief that they describe better the models that can be approached and developed by public and non-profit organizations in the area of sport. This article aims at partly contributing to the theoretical discussion concerning the ability of organizations to integrate and deploy strategic planning. For this study we examined a non-profitsport organization in British Columbia, Canada. The authorspropose that public and non-profit sport organizations shoulddevelop their own model of strategic planning, which mayhelp them to think and act strategically.

  6. Organizational Mission and Revenue Diversification among Non-profit Sports Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Breuer

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial effects of diversified income portfolios are well documented in previous research on non-profit organizations. This study examines how different types of organizational missions affect the level of revenue diversification of organizations in one industry, a question that was neglected in previous research. Based on contingency theory, it is assumed that different missions are associated with different funding sources. Since missions can be complementary or conflicting, specific attention needs to be paid to the combination of missions. The sport sector is chosen as an empirical setting because non-profit sports clubs can have various missions while their overall purpose is promoting sport. Panel data from a nationwide survey of non-profit sports clubs in Germany are used for the analysis. The regression results show that revenue diversification is significantly determined by organizational mission. Historically, typical mission statements like promoting elite sport, tradition, conviviality, non-sport programs, and youth sport have a positive effect on revenue diversification, while clubs with a commercial orientation and a focus on leisure and health sport have more concentrated revenues. The findings have implications for club management in the sense that some missions are associated with higher financial risk and that the combination of missions should be chosen carefully.

  7. Generation and distribution of wealth in Blumenau non-profit social service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loriberto Starosky Filho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations exist all over the world and they have an important role to the economy. These are not aimed at profits and they appeared to develop initiatives of social aspects. The main goal of this research is to check how the wealth is generated and distributed by the non-profits that are enrolled in the Welfare Assistance Council in Blumenau city. This data was gotten through a qualitative, descriptive and documentary research based on analysis of published financial statements of a sample consisting of  nineteen non-profit Welfare Assistance Organizations. The results showed that: a To maintain their activities most  institutions  rely on resources coming from social grants, partnerships and donations; b The added value distributed represents more than fifty percent of the total proceeds in a large number  of institutions; c in most organizations the biggest share of the wealth distribution was used to the workers payment; d a low percentage of  the wealth is to lenders and government. As a general rule, most organizations presented a very low rate of retentions for themselves because they do not seek profits. Their goals are related to social services activities.

  8. Differences between non-profit and for-profit hospices: patient selection and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Sabina Ohri

    2012-06-01

    This research compares the behavior of non-profit organizations and private for-profit firms in the hospice industry, where there are financial incentives created by the Medicare benefit. Medicare reimburses hospices on a fixed per diem basis, regardless of patient diagnosis. Because under this system patients with lower expected costs are more profitable, hospices can selectively enroll patients with longer lengths of stay. While it is illegal for hospices to reject potential patients explicitly, they can influence their patient mix through referral networks. A fixed per diem rate also creates an incentive shirk on quality and to substitute lower skilled for higher skilled labor, which has implications for quality of care. By using within-market variation in hospice characteristics, the empirical evidence suggests that for-profit hospices differentially take advantage of these incentives. The results show that for-profit hospices engage in patient selection through significantly different referral networks than non-profits. They receive more patients from long-term care facilities and fewer patients through more traditional paths, such as physician referrals. This mechanism of patient selection is supported by the result that for-profits have fewer cancer patients and more patients with longer lengths of stay. While non-profit and for-profit hospices report similar numbers of staff visits per patient, for-profit firms make significantly less use of skilled nursing providers. We also find some weak evidence of lower levels of quality in for-profit hospices.

  9. NITROGEN CONCENTRATIONS IN LOADING SOURCES FOR THREE COASTAL LAGOONS FROM ATMOSPHERIC AND WATERSHED SOURCES, ADJACENT COASTAL MARSHES, TIDAL EXCHANGES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract and Oral Presentation Gulf Estuarine Research Society.Standing stocks and inputs of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) to three coastal lagoons, hereafter referred to as Kee's Bayou, Gongora, and State Park, with varying adjacent land-use, geomorphology, and water re...

  10. Mercury and methylmercury stream concentrations in a Coastal Plain watershed: A multi-scale simulation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knightes, Christopher D.; Golden, Heather E.; Journey, Celeste A.; Davis, Gary M.; Conrads, Paul A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Brigham, Mark E.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a ubiquitous global environmental toxicant responsible for most US fish advisories. Processes governing mercury concentrations in rivers and streams are not well understood, particularly at multiple spatial scales. We investigate how insights gained from reach-scale mercury data and model simulations can be applied at broader watershed scales using a spatially and temporally explicit watershed hydrology and biogeochemical cycling model, VELMA. We simulate fate and transport using reach-scale (0.1 km2) study data and evaluate applications to multiple watershed scales. Reach-scale VELMA parameterization was applied to two nested sub-watersheds (28 km2 and 25 km2) and the encompassing watershed (79 km2). Results demonstrate that simulated flow and total mercury concentrations compare reasonably to observations at different scales, but simulated methylmercury concentrations are out-of-phase with observations. These findings suggest that intricacies of methylmercury biogeochemical cycling and transport are under-represented in VELMA and underscore the complexity of simulating mercury fate and transport.

  11. Vectors of marketing implementation into domestic practice of non-profit entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Borysova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research results concerning problems of marketization of domestic non-profits in the context of financial paradigm are presented in the paper. The aim of our research is to analyze the dimensions of marketing implementation into non-profit organization activity. The methods of the research are written surveys of leading Ukrainian non-profit organizations, systematic and comparative analysis of scientific literature. The study of the works of native and foreign scientists, as well as our own empirical research allowed to identify the most important factors of intensification of the marketization of domestic non-profit sphere, including the growth in the number of NPOs at various levels of reduced funding on existing significant donor dependence, increased competition for labour resources, the growing importance of human capacity and marketing culture. Study allows to identify a number of areas of the marketization of domestic NPOs: delineation of consumer and producer of social services through creation of quasi-markets; a shift towards short term contracts on the basis of competition, collateral and tax credit; measurement of the effectiveness of projects and social audit that are more adaptable foundations for the evaluation of the results of NPOs; the focus on the measurability of results, on achieving a positive rate of return philanthropic investments, in attracting donors to ensure the effective management of the organization; strengthening adaptation practices and ideals of business management to the management of NPOs; social enterprise development. In general, the marketization of domestic non-profit sector has a positive impact on social capital in two directions at least. On the one hand, a non-profit organization will become less dependent on public funding or donors, diversifying sources of revenues and gaining some financial independence. The dominance of the financial paradigm in the NPOs will make effectively wasting all the

  12. Characterization of coastal urban watershed bacterial communities leads to alternative community-based indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy H Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip, we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and alpha-proteobacteria found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.

  13. Characterization of coastal urban watershed bacterial communities leads to alternative community-based indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.H.; Sercu, B.; Van De Werhorst, L.C.; Wong, J.; DeSantis, T.Z.; Brodie, E.L.; Hazen, T.C.; Holden, P.A.; Andersen, G.L.

    2010-03-01

    Microbial communities in aquatic environments are spatially and temporally dynamic due to environmental fluctuations and varied external input sources. A large percentage of the urban watersheds in the United States are affected by fecal pollution, including human pathogens, thus warranting comprehensive monitoring. Using a high-density microarray (PhyloChip), we examined water column bacterial community DNA extracted from two connecting urban watersheds, elucidating variable and stable bacterial subpopulations over a 3-day period and community composition profiles that were distinct to fecal and non-fecal sources. Two approaches were used for indication of fecal influence. The first approach utilized similarity of 503 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) common to all fecal samples analyzed in this study with the watershed samples as an index of fecal pollution. A majority of the 503 OTUs were found in the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria. The second approach incorporated relative richness of 4 bacterial classes (Bacilli, Bacteroidetes, Clostridia and a-proteobacteria) found to have the highest variance in fecal and non-fecal samples. The ratio of these 4 classes (BBC:A) from the watershed samples demonstrated a trend where bacterial communities from gut and sewage sources had higher ratios than from sources not impacted by fecal material. This trend was also observed in the 124 bacterial communities from previously published and unpublished sequencing or PhyloChip- analyzed studies. This study provided a detailed characterization of bacterial community variability during dry weather across a 3-day period in two urban watersheds. The comparative analysis of watershed community composition resulted in alternative community-based indicators that could be useful for assessing ecosystem health.

  14. Strengthening Resiliency in Coastal Watersheds: An Ecosystem Services and Ecological Integrity Decision Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    This product provides an integrated assessment framework linked to a decision support system (DSS) that incorporates the ecological integrity (EI) principles and goals described in detail in the US EPA’s Office of Water’s Healthy Watersheds Program (HWP), with Ecosyst...

  15. Identifying Riparian Buffer Effects on Stream 1 Nitrogen in Southeastern Coastal Plain Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian areas have long demonstrated their ability to attenuate nutrients and sediments from agricultural runoff at the field scale; however, to inform effective nutrient management choices, the impact of riparian buffers on water quality services must be assessed at watershed s...

  16. Fine sediment sources in coastal watersheds with uplifted marine terraces in northwest Humboldt County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen Sungnome Madrone; Andrew P. Stubblefield

    2012-01-01

    Erosion in the Mill and Luffenholtz Creek watersheds in Humboldt County, California, with their extensive clay soils, can lead to high turbidity levels in receiving bodies of water, increasing the costs of treating water for domestic water supplies. Detailed road and erosion surveys and monitoring of suspended sediment, discharge, and turbidity levels in Mill Creek (3....

  17. Climate change and agricultural development: adapting Polish agriculture to reduce future nutrient loads in a coastal watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniewski, Mikołaj; Kardel, Ignacy; Giełczewski, Marek; Marcinkowski, Paweł; Okruszko, Tomasz

    2014-09-01

    Currently, there is a major concern about the future of nutrient loads discharged into the Baltic Sea from Polish rivers because they are main contributors to its eutrophication. To date, no watershed-scale studies have properly addressed this issue. This paper fills this gap by using a scenario-modeling framework applied in the Reda watershed, a small (482 km²) agricultural coastal area in northern Poland. We used the SWAT model to quantify the effects of future climate, land cover, and management changes under multiple scenarios up to the 2050s. The combined effect of climate and land use change on N-NO3 and P-PO4 loads is an increase by 20-60 and 24-31 %, respectively, depending on the intensity of future agricultural usage. Using a scenario that assumes a major shift toward a more intensive agriculture following the Danish model would bring significantly higher crop yields but cause a great deterioration of water quality. Using vegetative cover in winter and spring (VC) would be a very efficient way to reduce future P-PO4 loads so that they are lower than levels observed at present. However, even the best combination of measures (VC, buffer zones, reduced fertilization, and constructed wetlands) would not help to remediate heavily increased N-NO3 loads due to climate change and agricultural intensification.

  18. Survival dynamics of fecal bacteria in ponds in agricultural watersheds of the Piedmont and Coastal Plain of Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Michael B; Endale, Dinku M; Fisher, Dwight S; Adams, M Paige; Lowrance, Richard; Newton, G Larry; Vellidis, George

    2012-01-01

    Animal agriculture in watersheds produces manure bacteria that may contaminate surface waters and put public health at risk. We measured fecal indicator bacteria (commensal Escherichia coli and fecal enterococci) and manure pathogens (Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7), and physical-chemical parameters in pond inflow, within pond, pond outflow, and pond sediments in three ponds in agricultural watersheds. Bishop Pond with perennial inflow and outflow is located in the Piedmont, and Ponds A and C with ephemeral inflow and outflow in the Coastal Plain of Georgia. Bromide and chloride tracer experiments at Bishop Pond reflected a residence time much greater than that estimated by two models, and indicated that complete mixing within Bishop Pond was never obtained. The long residence time meant that fecal bacteria were exposed to solar UV-radiation and microbial predation. At Bishop Pond outflow concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria were significantly less than inflow concentrations; such was not observed at Ponds A and C. Both Salmonella and E. coli 0157:H7 were measured when concomitant concentrations of commensal E. coli were below the criterion for surface water impairment indicating problems with the effectiveness of indicator organisms. Bishop Pond improved down stream water quality; whereas, Ponds A and C with ephemeral inflow and outflow and possibly greater nutrient concentrations within the two ponds appeared to be less effective in improving down stream water quality.

  19. Influence of barriers to movement on within-watershed genetic variation of coastal cutthroat trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, John E.B.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Banks, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Because human land use activities often result in increased fragmentation of aquatic and terrestrial habitats, a better understanding of the effects of fragmentation on the genetic heterogeneity of animal populations may be useful for effective management. We used eight microsatellites to examine the genetic structure of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) in Camp Creek, an isolated headwater stream in western Oregon. Our objectives were to determine if coastal cutthroat trout were genetically structured within streams and to assess the effects of natural and anthropogenic barriers on coastal cutthroat trout genetic variation. Fish sampling occurred at 10 locations, and allele frequencies differed significantly among all sampling sections. Dispersal barriers strongly influenced coastal cutthroat trout genetic structure and were associated with reduced genetic diversity and increased genetic differentiation. Results indicate that Camp Creek coastal cutthroat trout exist as many small, partially independent populations that are strongly affected by genetic drift. In headwater streams, barriers to movement can result in genetic and demographic isolation leading to reduced coastal cutthroat trout genetic diversity, and potentially compromising long-term population persistence. When habitat fragmentation eliminates gene flow among small populations, similar results may occur in other species.

  20. ANALYSIS OF ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF NON-PROFIT INSTITUTIONS: THE CASE OF LIFELONG LEARNING INSTITUTIONS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Mihanović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the organisational performance of non-profit institutions of lifelong learning and analyses factors constituting performance of non-profit institutions and educational institutions in particular, as well as the level and structure of performance of these institutions. The verification of the research goals is based on the review of literature, which identifies the specific factors of non-profit educational institutions. On the basis of previous research, a valid research instrument, used to measure performance of institutions of lifelong learning, was created. The level and structure of organisational performance of non-profit educational institutions and the verification of research goals are empirically analysed on a random sample of Croatian institutions. It is believed that the research results can assist managers of educational institutions in creating a strategy, leading to the better organisational performance

  1. Recovery, non-profit organisations and mental health services: 'Hit and miss' or 'dump and run'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungerford, Catherine; Hungerford, Alice; Fox, Cathy; Cleary, Michelle

    2016-03-08

    The evolution of Recovery-oriented mental health services in Western nations across the globe has given rise to a growth in community-based psychosocial support services, to assist in meeting the diverse needs of consumers. This article reports findings of research that explored the perceptions of community workers who are employed by non-profit organisations and deliver psychosocial support services to support delivery of Recovery-oriented clinical mental health services. The focus of the research reported in this article includes the benefits and challenges encountered by the community workers when working with clinicians. The research was undertaken as part of a single-case embedded study, which evaluated the implementation of Recovery-oriented approaches to the delivery of clinical mental health services in a major urban centre located in south-eastern Australia. Generally, community workers employed by the non-profit organisations perceived the implementation of Recovery-oriented clinical mental health services to be a positive step forward for consumers. Challenges to the delivery of Recovery-oriented services included issues arising from the many different understandings of what it means to experience mental health Recovery, the quality of communication between the community workers and clinicians and the clinicians' lack of understanding of the role of non-profit organisations and community workers. The article concludes with recommendations to address the challenges involved, with a view to improving the partnerships between community workers and clinicians, and the Recovery journey of people with serious mental illness. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Reflection in the non-profit legal persons accounting of the grant-oriented operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nătăliţa-Mihaela Lesconi Frumuşanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will analyse the legal stipulations regarding the reflection in accounting of the grant-oriented (structural funds operations within a non-profit organization. The suitability and importance of the paper is obvious, since the grants constitute an important source of funds for this category of entities. The paper indicates, in addition to the specific accounting notes, the main problems the grant beneficiaries have to face regarding the organization and management of the project accounting, thus the paper having a profound practical nature.

  3. 41 CFR 102-75.575 - Who notifies non-profit organizations that surplus real property and related personal property to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who notifies non-profit... Or Housing Assistance § 102-75.575 Who notifies non-profit organizations that surplus real property... available? HUD notifies eligible non-profit organizations, following guidance in the GSA Customer Guide...

  4. The Expanded Value Added Statement as Applied at a Non-Profit Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sady Mazzioni

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available his study poses to investigate the impact of entries of social nature as overlooked by traditional accounting when compiling expanded value added figures, before value added accounting. To this effect, an exploratory qualitative survey was conducted at a non-profit organization located in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The study´s object was Indaial´s Women's Network Against Cancer (SC, an association of social and philanthropic purpose, deemed of both municipal and state public interest. Study results indicate that the value added statement -compiled as of financial information gathered at the researched institution– presents both employees and the government as being the prime beneficiaries of the wealth therein generated. Once both acknowledgement and measurement of volunteer service derived social entries are incorporated, compiled value added figures raise 82.92%. This disclosure approach extends the scope of beneficiaries of generated wealth beyond that of employees and government to include the organization itself - which receives social care program preparation and management services - and society as a whole, the ultimate addressee of services deployed by non-profit entities. One may come to the conclusion that social accounting concepts enable the understanding of both social and economic dynamics of this kind of organization.

  5. FIGHTING AGAINST CORRUPTION: POTENTIAL OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (BASED ON EMPIRICAL RESEARCH IN NIZHNEKAMSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Yu. Nosanenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of non-profit organizations in Russia is inquiry of time today. Difficulties in carrying out reforms, the termination of foreign financing of "the third sector", the European sanctions, all these factors stimulate the Russian society to selforganization and force NPOs to take the responsibility for more and more wide range of problems, bringing, thus, to the forefront function of social control. In the last decade studying of "nonprofitable sector" in Russia was carried out generally at the level of territorial subjects of the Russian Federation and didn't affect the level of local government. Thus, the difficulty with collection of information was one of problems. Practically all noted that from 100% of the registered NPOs less than a half really works. This study is the first analysis of the third sector of Nizhnekamsk and its interaction with the government. The results show the strengths and weaknesses of civil society of the city, the feasibility of social control functions. Identified characteristics of non-profit organizations of Nizhnekamsk, as an institution of civil society. It has enormous potential for the fight against corruption, but is not putting itselve such purposes because of financial and organizational weakness. The study's results can be used to develop a concept of civil society and human capital formation at the municipal level.

  6. FACILITATORS OF INTERNET PROMOTION (E-BROCHURE ADOPTION BY NON-PROFIT ORGANISATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Oly Ndubisi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet promotion, otherwise e-brochure (EB or partial e-commerce adoption by non-profit organisations denotes the use of the Internet to provide business and service related information by academic institutions (as in the present study, non-profit organisations, religious organisations, and government agencies to reduce their expenses or to improve their operations and customer service. A field survey of Malaysian universities was conducted to determine the key factors that facilitate the adoption of non-business EB. Since EB adoption decision is a strategic one, a comprehensive list of potential facilitators for the strategic use of information technology (IT was derived from extant literature and used in collecting data from 65 schools and centres in five public universities in Kota Kinabalu and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The data were factor-analysed to determine the key underlying dimensions of facilitators. On the basis of the resulting five dimensions namely, relative advantage orientation, network orientation, information efficiency orientation, innovativeness orientation, and competitiveness orientation, regression analysis was done to determine the impact of the five dimensions on non-business EB adoption.

  7. Cause Related Marketing: Consumers Perceptions and Benefits for Profit and Non-Profits Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Farache

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is an attempt to understand consumers’ perceptions regarding Cause Related Marketing [CRM]. The research findings were based on a survey of 200 consumers in the Brighton area and published data. The research aim was focused on the consumers’ perception of the alliance between corporations and non-profit organisations. The research found that consumers have a better perception of firms that work with charities and good causes than those that do not. They believe that the partnership between corporations and charities has an impact on the good of society. However, they are aware that corporations themselves benefit from this partnership. Concerning good causes, consumers prefer to support those related to Children. The researchers noticed that an individual connection with a cause might have considerable influence on consumer attitudes and behaviour in relation to a specific cause.

  8. Impact of non-profit organizations on drug discovery: opportunities, gaps, solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matter, Alex; Keller, Thomas H

    2008-04-01

    Non-profit organizations (NPO) play an increasingly important role in drug discovery and development for diseases that are neglected by the pharmaceutical industry because of low or absent commercial incentives. Governments and major private foundations such as the Wellcome Trust and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation increasingly step in to provide strategic direction, communication platforms and major resources, motivated by the fact that major healthcare problems remain unsolved. Drug discovery in the field of neglected diseases is fraught with complexities since, in many cases, important tools are lacking including readily available diagnostics, molecular epidemiology, appropriate model systems, representative strain collections, biomarkers, up-to-date trial methodologies and regulatory strategies. On top of this, the high hurdles addressing novel drug targets must be cleared.

  9. Healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI) and non-profit organization (NPO): essentials for healthcare data exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Yasushi; Nakagawa, Katsuhiko; Teratani, Tadamasa; Qiyan, Zhang; Kusuoka, Hideo; Matsuoka, Masami

    2004-01-01

    To share healthcare information and to promote cooperation among healthcare providers and customers (patients) under computerized network environment, a non-profit organization (NPO), named as OCHIS, was established at Osaka, Japan in 2003. Since security and confidentiality issues on the Internet have been major concerns in the OCHIS, the system has been based on healthcare public key infrastructure (HPKI), and found that there remained problems to be solved technically and operationally. An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the central and the local function in terms of a registration authority and a time stamp authority by contracting with the Ministry of Economics and Trading Industries in 2003. This paper describes the experimental design with NPO and the results of the study concerning message security and HPKI. The developed system has been operated practically in Osaka urban area.

  10. Managing Boundaries: The Role of Non-Profit Organisations in Russia’s Managed Democracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubownikow, Sergej; Crotty, Jo

    2017-01-01

    This article examines Russian human service non-profit organisations (NPOs) to investigate the nature of civil society in a managed democracy. Specifically the focus is on emerging vertical ties between NPOs and ruling and governing elites. Drawing on qualitative data collected from health and education NPOs in three industrial regions, we find that in establishing such vertical ties the role of organisations and individuals within is changing – they have moved away from ignored outsiders towards accessing the circles of power and being tasked with managing the boundary between the state and civil society. In exploring these arrangements this article highlights that in the post-Soviet space, NPOs and the state are closely intertwined resembling co-optation. As a result the democratisation potential of human service NPOs is constrained. In discussing these insights we also draw parallels to contexts in which the state has outsourced welfare service to human service NPOs.

  11. Multiobjective Optimization Model for Pricing and Seat Allocation Problem in Non Profit Performing Arts Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldin, Andrea; Bille, Trine; Ellero, Andrea

    The implementation of Revenue Management (RM) techniques in non profit performing arts organizations presents new challenges compared to other sectors, such as transportion or hospitality industries, in which these techniques are more consolidated. Indeed, performing arts organizations...... are characterized by a multi-objective function that is not solely limited to revenue. On the one hand, theatres aim to increase revenue from box office as a consequence of the systematic reduction of public funds; on the other hand they pursue the objective to increase its attendance. A common practice by theatres...... is to incentive the customers to discriminate among themselves according to their reservation price, offering a schedule of different prices corresponding to different seats in the venue. In this context, price and allocation of the theatre seating area are decision variables that allow theatre managers to manage...

  12. Assessment of a tool for measuring non-profit advocacy efforts in India, Uganda and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Tanya; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; McOwen, Jordan; Gordis, Deborah J; Bowen, Lisa A; Bernson, Jeff

    2016-03-01

    To improve maternal and child health, the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA) implemented an innovative policy advocacy project in India, Uganda and Yemen from 2009 to 2011. PATH assisted WRA in designing an approach to measure the short- and long-term results of WRA's advocacy efforts.Expert rating instruments have been widely used since 1970s to track country-level program efforts focusing on family planning, maternal and neonatal health, and HIV/AIDS. This article assesses and establishes the strength and applicability of an expert rating tool, the Maternal Health Policy Score (MHPS), in measuring and guiding a non-profit's advocacy efforts.The tool was assessed using five criteria: validity of results, reproducibility of results, acceptability to respondents, internal consistency and cost. The tool proved effective for measuring improvements in the policy environment at both the national and subnational levels that the non-profit intended to effect and useful for identifying strong and weak policy domains. The results are reproducible, though ensuring fidelity in implementation during different rounds of data collection may be difficult. The acceptability of the tool was high among respondents, and also among users of the information.MHPS provides a quick, low-cost method to measure overall changes in the policy environment, giving advocacy organizations and grant makers timely information to gauge the influence of their work and take corrective action. WRA demonstrated the use of MHPS at multiple points in the project: at the onset of a project to identify and strategize around policy domains that need attention, during and at the end of the project to monitor progress made and redirect efforts.

  13. Academic and Non-Profit Accessibility to Commercial Remote Sensing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A. S.; Farr, B.

    2013-12-01

    Remote Sensing as a topic of teaching and research at the university and college level continues to increase. As more data is made freely available and software becomes easier to use, more and more academic and non-profits institutions are turning to remote sensing to solve their tough and large spatial scale problems. Exelis Visual Information Solutions (VIS) has been supporting teaching and research endeavors for over 30 years with a special emphasis over the last 5 years with scientifically proven software and accessible training materials. The Exelis VIS academic program extends to US and Canadian 2 year and 4 year colleges and universities with tools for analyzing aerial and satellite multispectral and hyperspectral imagery, airborne LiDAR and Synthetic Aperture Radar. The Exelis VIS academic programs, using the ENVI Platform, enables labs and classrooms to be outfitted with software and makes software accessible to students. The ENVI software provides students hands on experience with remote sensing software, an easy teaching platform for professors and allows researchers scientifically vetted software they can trust. Training materials are provided at no additional cost and can either serve as a basis for course curriculum development or self paced learning. Non-profit organizations like The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and CGIAR have deployed ENVI and IDL enterprise wide licensing allowing researchers all over the world to have cost effective access COTS software for their research. Exelis VIS has also contributed licenses to the NASA DEVELOP program. Exelis VIS is committed to supporting the academic and NGO community with affordable enterprise licensing, access to training materials, and technical expertise to help researchers tackle today's Earth and Planetary science big data challenges.

  14. [Comparative analysis of the non-profit, for-profit and public hospital providers: American experiences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogyorósy, Zsolt

    2004-07-04

    The new legislation allowed hospitals and other health care facilities to be converted into for-profit status. The detailed regulatory framework is under development in Hungary. This article reviews the literature of studies comparing hospital financial performance and the quality of care before and after conversion from public or non-profit status to for-profit. Studies were identified through electronic search of Medline (Pubmed), EconLit, Cochrane Library, Economic Evaluation Database (EED), az Health Technology Assessment (HTA) databases, library files and reference lists. The literature search was extended to the Internet, World Bank, International Labor Office (ILO), Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), and WHO websites as well as government, academic institutions and large insurance companies web pages for unpublished online information. Time series and before-after studies and systematic literature reviews were included. The conversion from non-profit to for-profit status improved the profitability of the hospitals. However the quality of care (measures in mortality, frequency of side effects, complications) might suffer in the first couple years of the conversion. The conversion may increase the total health care expenditures per capita. Trustful relationship between patients and physicians may also be threatened. The generalisability of the American experiences into the Hungarian single payer system may be limited. From societal point of view, for-profit providers could provide socially beneficial care in areas where it is possible to define, monitor and evaluate the nature and quality characteristics of the services, as well as market competition can be ensured. However most of the healthcare services are too complex to fall into this category.

  15. Community-based home support agencies: comparing the quality of care of cooperative and non-profit organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviten-Reid, Catherine; Hoyt, Ann

    2009-06-01

    In the province of Québec, services focusing on the instrumental activities of daily living are delivered to seniors by a combination of non-profit organizations and cooperatives. But do these organizations perform differently? This study asks whether home support cooperatives deliver higher-quality care than non-profit home support agencies. The specific effects of consumer and worker participation on the board of directors are also tested. Data were collected in 2006 and 2007 from 831 individuals receiving home support services from nine cooperatives and nine non-profits. Two consumer-centered measures of quality were used: a summated, 39-point satisfaction score and a 4-point overall quality score. Data were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. Results show that although organizational type was not a predictor of the two quality outcomes, worker involvement in governance was positively associated with the satisfaction score, while consumer involvement was positively associated with the overall quality score.

  16. Mineral sources and transport pathways for arsenic release in a coastal watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Nora K.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Metasedimentary bedrock of coastal Maine contains a diverse suite of As-bearing minerals that act as significant sources of elements found in ground and surface waters in the region. Arsenic sources in the Penobscot Formation include, in order of decreasing As content by weight: löllingite and realgar (c.70%), arsenopyrite, cobaltite, glaucodot, and gersdorffite (in the range of 34–45%), arsenian pyrite ( glaucodot, arsenopyrite-cobaltian > arsenopyrite, cobaltite, gersdorffite, fine-grained pyrite, Ni-pyrite > coarse-grained pyrite. Reactions illustrate that oxidation of Fe-As disulphide group and As-sulphide minerals is the primary release process for As. Liberation of As by carbonation of realgar and orpiment in contact with high-pH groundwaters may contribute locally to elevated contents of As in groundwater, especially where As is decoupled from Fe. Released metals are sequestered in secondary minerals by sorption or by incorporation in crystal structures. Secondary minerals acting as intermediate As reservoirs include claudetite (c.75%), orpiment (61%), scorodite (c. 45%), secondary arsenopyrite (c. 46%), goethite (<4490 ppm), natrojarosite (<42 ppm), rosenite, melanterite, ferrihydrite, and Mn-hydroxide coatings. Some soils also contain Fe-Co-Ni-arsenate, Ca-arsenate, and carbonate minerals. Reductive dissolution of Fe-oxide minerals may govern the ultimate release of iron and arsenic – especially As(V) – to groundwater; however, dissolution of claudetite (arsenic trioxide) may directly contribute As(III). Processes thought to explain the release of As from minerals in bedrock include oxidation of arsenian pyrite or arsenopyrite, or carbonation of As-sulphides, and most models based on these generally rely on discrete minerals or on a fairly limited series of minerals. In contrast, in the Penobscot Formation and other metasedimentary rocks of coastal Maine, oxidation of As-bearing Fe-cobalt-nickel-sulphide minerals, dissolution (by reduction) of

  17. The supporting behaviour of generations towards non-profit organisations in Gauteng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laureane du Plessis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and objective: The purpose of this paper is to provide a better understanding of different generations' supporting behaviour towards non-profit organisations (NPOs. It more specifically focuses on uncovering the different methods with which the generations support NPOs; how frequently they support NPOs; the type of NPOs that they prefer supporting; and the reasons why they support NPOs. Problem Investigated: Non-profit organisations (NPOs are facing greater challenges than ever before. They have to compete with a growing number of other NPOs for donations and volunteers. Their traditional support from Baby Boomers is declining as this generation grows older and supports NPOs to a lesser extent than before. NPOs are therefore compelled to pay more attention to younger generations as a possible donor base and source for volunteers. It is therefore critical for an NPO that wishes to survive and prosper to understand the supporting behaviour of the different generations in order to successfully target them to grow the donor and volunteer base. Methodology: A descriptive research design was followed. A self-administered questionnaire was fielded amongst a target population that included Baby Boomers, Generation X and Generation Y consumers residing in Gauteng who have supported an NPO in the previous year. Quota sampling was used to ensure that equal numbers of respondents from the different generations were included, while each quota was filled on the basis of convenience to collect 602 responses for analysis. Findings: The results reveal significant associations between the different generations and different supporting behaviours. Significant differences were also uncovered between the different generations and the reasons for supporting NPOs. The paper reveals a number of marketing strategies NPOs could follow to encourage supporting behaviour from the different generations. Value of the research: This research provides insights into the

  18. Evaluating Landsat 8 Satellite Sensor Data for Improved Vegetation Mapping Accuracy of the New Hampshire Coastal Watershed Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledoux, Lindsay

    Remote sensing is a technology that has been used for many years to generate land cover maps. These maps provide insight as to the landscape, and features that are on the ground. One way in which this is useful is through the visualization of forest cover types. The forests of New England have been notoriously difficult to map, due to their high complexity and fine-scale heterogeneity. In order to be able to better map these features, the newest satellite imagery available may be the best technology to use. Landsat 8 is the newest satellite created by a team of scientists and engineers from the United States Geological Survey and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and was launched in February of 2013. The Landsat 8 satellite sensor is considered an improvement over previous Landsat sensors, as it has three additional bands: (1) a coastal/ aerosol band, band 1, that senses light in deep blue, (2) a cirrus band, band 9, that provides detection of wispy clouds that may interfere with analysis, and (3) a Quality Assessment band whose bits contain information regarding conditions that may affect the quality and applicability of certain image pixels. In addition to these added bands, the data generated by Landsat 8 are delivered at an increased radiometric resolution compared with previous Landsat sensors, increasing the dynamic range of the data the sensor can retrieve. In order to investigate the satellite sensor data, a novel approach to classifying Landsat 8 imagery was used. Object-Based Image Analysis was employed, along with the random forest machine learning classifier, to segment and classify the land cover of the Coastal Watershed of southeastern New Hampshire. In order to account strictly for band improvements, supervised classification using the maximum likelihood classifier was completed, on imagery created: (1) using all of the original bands provided by Landsat 8, and (2) an image created using Landsat 8 bands that were only available on

  19. The Spread of Neoliberalism in US Community Colleges: TQM Accreditation, "Consumers," and Corporate Sponsored Non-Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the extent of neoliberalism's influence within US community colleges during the last decade. It argues that such influence is changing non-profit, publicly funded community colleges into consumer colleges, serving the needs of corporations and "customers" at the expense of civic responsibility. Educating 46% of all…

  20. 78 FR 41424 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance... Facilities Formula Grants (as part of the Federal Transit Cluster) The deleted programs are: CFDA 14.258--Tax.... Appendix VII provides an audit alert concerning deletion of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

  1. 75 FR 44814 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; Circular A-133 Compliance... through the Government Printing Office. DATES: The 2010 Supplement will apply to audits of fiscal years...

  2. 76 FR 32377 - Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET Audits of States, Local Governments, and Non-Profit Organizations; OMB Circular A-133 Compliance... 2011 Supplement can be found at Appendix V. It updates Appendix VII that provides an audit alert and...

  3. Organization and Management of Non-Profit Private Higher Education in a Multi-Ethnic and Multi-Lingual Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, Dennis; Abazi, Alajdin

    2009-01-01

    The South East European University (SEEU) was founded in 2001 as a non-profit university established by co-operation between OSCE, USAID, the European Commission and the Government of the Republic of Macedonia (or FYROM) as a contribution towards conflict prevention. There has been a gradual transition from a centrally managed project to a modern…

  4. The Spread of Neoliberalism in US Community Colleges: TQM Accreditation, "Consumers," and Corporate Sponsored Non-Profits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Scott H.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the extent of neoliberalism's influence within US community colleges during the last decade. It argues that such influence is changing non-profit, publicly funded community colleges into consumer colleges, serving the needs of corporations and "customers" at the expense of civic responsibility. Educating 46% of all…

  5. Rael Artel Gallery: Non-Profit Project Space : short tale of an experimental project's space tactics / Kiwa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiwa, pseud., 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Aastatel 2004-2008 Pärnus ja aastatel 2006-2008 Tartus tegutsenud Rael Artel Galeriist, mille looja ja moderaator oli Rael Artel. Galerii tegevus lõppes kunstialbumi "Hotell Pärnu : Rael Arel Gallery : Non Profit Project Space 2004-2008 / kontseptsioon ja toimetamine: Rael Artel" ilmumisega 2009. aastal

  6. The Effective Use of Scientific and Technical Information in Industrial and Non-Profit Settings: A Study of Managerial Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Albert; And Others

    A study conducted in a non profit research and development organization and the technical development department of a profit corporation was designed to develop and implement interventions that would modify the information-communication behaviors of the technical professionals in these organizations, and to measure and analyze the effects of the…

  7. The emergence of the non-profit foundation as a significant organizational format for group practice in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R

    1988-01-01

    The non-profit foundation is fast becoming a factor in the organizational structure of group practices. A growing number of group practices have adopted this format as a means of positioning themselves for survival and success in the turbulent, changing environment of the health care delivery system.

  8. Teaching How to Fish? New Non-Profit Organisation Professors Beyond Borders Seeks to Humanise Higher Education Internationalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Last week saw the launch of Professors Beyond Borders (PBB), a new non-profit organisation aiming to engage international scholars as volunteers in international disaster recovery and sustainable development. The primary goal of the organisation is to enhance the capacity of communities to organise themselves to solve specific problems via the…

  9. Rael Artel Gallery: Non-Profit Project Space : short tale of an experimental project's space tactics / Kiwa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiwa, pseud., 1975-

    2009-01-01

    Aastatel 2004-2008 Pärnus ja aastatel 2006-2008 Tartus tegutsenud Rael Artel Galeriist, mille looja ja moderaator oli Rael Artel. Galerii tegevus lõppes kunstialbumi "Hotell Pärnu : Rael Arel Gallery : Non Profit Project Space 2004-2008 / kontseptsioon ja toimetamine: Rael Artel" ilmumisega 2009. aastal

  10. Nitrogen transport and transformations in a coastal plain watershed: Influence of geomorphology on flow paths and residence times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Spruill, T.B.; Mew, H.E.; Farrell, K.M.; Harden, S.L.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrogen transport and groundwater-surface water interactions were examined in a coastal plain watershed in the southeastern United States. Groundwater age dates, calculated using chlorofluorocarbon and tritium concentrations, along with concentrations of nitrogen species and other redox-active constituents, were used to evaluate the fate and transport of nitrate. Nitrate is stable only in recently recharged (water found in the upper few meters of saturated thickness in the upland portion of a surficial aquifer. Groundwater with a residence time between 10 and 30 years typically has low nitrate and elevated excess N2 concentrations, indications that denitrification has reduced nitrate concentrations. Groundwater older than 30 years also has low nitrate concentrations but contains little or no excess N2, suggesting that this water did not contain elevated concentrations of nitrate along its flow path. Nitrate transport to streams varies between first- and third-order streams. Hydrologic, lithologic, and chemical data suggest that the surficial aquifer is the dominant source of flow and nitrate to a first-order stream. Iron-reducing conditions occur in groundwater samples from the bed and banks of the first-order stream, suggesting that direct groundwater discharge is denitrified prior to entering the stream. However, nitrogen from the surficial aquifer is transported directly to the stream via a tile drain that bypasses these reduced zones. In the alluvial valley of a third-order stream the erosion of a confining layer creates a much thicker unconfined alluvial aquifer with larger zones of nitrate stability. Age dating and chemical information (SiO 2, Na/K ratios) suggest that water in the alluvial aquifer is derived from short flow paths through the riparian zone and/or from adjacent streams during high-discharge periods. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  11. Precise image-guided irradiation of small animals: a flexible non-profit platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillner, Falk; Thute, Prasad; Löck, Steffen; Dietrich, Antje; Fursov, Andriy; Haase, Robert; Lukas, Mathias; Rimarzig, Bernd; Sobiella, Manfred; Krause, Mechthild; Baumann, Michael; Bütof, Rebecca; Enghardt, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    Preclinical in vivo studies using small animals are essential to develop new therapeutic options in radiation oncology. Of particular interest are orthotopic tumour models, which better reflect the clinical situation in terms of growth patterns and microenvironmental parameters of the tumour as well as the interplay of tumours with the surrounding normal tissues. Such orthotopic models increase the technical demands and the complexity of preclinical studies as local irradiation with therapeutically relevant doses requires image-guided target localisation and accurate beam application. Moreover, advanced imaging techniques are needed for monitoring treatment outcome. We present a novel small animal image-guided radiation therapy (SAIGRT) system, which allows for precise and accurate, conformal irradiation and x-ray imaging of small animals. High accuracy is achieved by its robust construction, the precise movement of its components and a fast high-resolution flat-panel detector. Field forming and x-ray imaging is accomplished close to the animal resulting in a small penumbra and a high image quality. Feasibility for irradiating orthotopic models has been proven using lung tumour and glioblastoma models in mice. The SAIGRT system provides a flexible, non-profit academic research platform which can be adapted to specific experimental needs and therefore enables systematic preclinical trials in multicentre research networks.

  12. Managing Competency in Non-Profit Organization: Experience with a European University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostaq M. Hussain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Competence Management (CM has been discussed in contemporary academic and practitioner literature as a managing tool of Core Competences. Most of the studies of CM deal with manufacturing sector and profit organizations. Very little is known about CM in services and almost nothing in not-for profit organization. No research report has yet been found in educational institutions. Although, CM is not only important in manufacturing and profit organizations but also important in non-profit, like educational institutions, in order to meet the required quality and competitiveness of 21st century's education. Thus, an attempt has been made in this research to study CM in the administration of one the top ranking University in a Nordic country. The result results reveal that competencies had been defined in individual, network and unit level, but lack of integration of a comprehensive CM framework unable the higher educational institution to achieve the benefits of core competence. Based on the empirical findings, some policy and research directions are given at the end of the research.

  13. Exploring Reasons for the Resistance to Sustainable Management within Non-Profit Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus-Heinrich Daub

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The numerous empirical and conceptual studies that have been conducted over recent years concerning the social responsibility of enterprises and their contributions towards sustainable development have given very little consideration to non-profit organizations (NPOs. This is surprising, because NPOs are confronted with very similar challenges to profit-orientated enterprises regarding their evolution into sustainable organizations. This paper is a preliminary conceptual study and explores the question of why the corporate social responsibility, or corporate sustainability, of NPOs has to date been both neglected by research establishments and also extensively ignored by the NPOs during their day-to-day practical management. The example of church and pastoral institutions in Germany is used to demonstrate the extent to which they take account of ecological and social aspects in their management systems and processes and, thus, implement sustainable management within their day-to-day practice. The paper concludes with some proposals for further empirical and conceptual research projects, which are designed to analyze developments within NPOs with relation to the integration of sustainability into their management systems and processes.

  14. Building sustainable neuroscience capacity in Africa: the role of non-profit organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, Thomas K; Cobham, Ansa E; Ndams, Iliya S

    2016-02-01

    While advances in neuroscience are helping to improve many aspects of human life, inequalities exist in this field between Africa and more scientifically-advanced continents. Many African countries lack the infrastructure and appropriately-trained scientists for neuroscience education and research. Addressing these challenges would require the development of innovative approaches to help improve scientific competence for neuroscience across the continent. In recent years, science-based non-profit organisations (NPOs) have been supporting the African neuroscience community to build state-of-the-art scientific capacity for sustainable education and research. Some of these contributions have included: the establishment of training courses and workshops to introduce African scientists to powerful-yet-cost-effective experimental model systems; research infrastructural support and assistance to establish research institutes. Other contributions have come in the form of the promotion of scientific networking, public engagement and advocacy for improved neuroscience funding. Here, we discuss the contributions of NPOs to the development of neuroscience in Africa.

  15. Predicting Firm Success From the Facial Appearance of Chief Executive Officers of Non-Profit Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re, Daniel E; Rule, Nicholas O

    2016-10-01

    Recent research has demonstrated that judgments of Chief Executive Officers' (CEOs') faces predict their firms' financial performance, finding that characteristics associated with higher power (e.g., dominance) predict greater profits. Most of these studies have focused on CEOs of profit-based businesses, where the main criterion for success is financial gain. Here, we examined whether facial appearance might predict measures of success in a sample of CEOs of non-profit organizations (NPOs). Indeed, contrary to findings for the CEOs of profit-based businesses, judgments of leadership and power from the faces of CEOs of NPOs negatively correlated with multiple measures of charitable success (Study 1). Moreover, CEOs of NPOs looked less powerful than the CEOs of profit-based businesses (Study 2) and leadership ratings positively associated with warmth-based traits and NPO success when participants knew the faces belonged to CEOs of NPOs (Study 3). CEOs who look less dominant may therefore achieve greater success in leading NPOs, opposite the relationship found for the CEOs of profit-based companies. Thus, the relationship between facial appearance and leadership success varies by organizational context.

  16. Community benefit in exchange for non-profit hospital tax exemption: current trends and future outlook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Simone Rauscher

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the adequacy of the community benefits that not-for-profit hospitals provide in exchange for tax exemption remains a challenge. While recent changes to Internal Revenue Service (IRS) reporting requirements have improved transparency, the lack of clearly defined charitable expectations has resulted in critical scrutiny of not-for-profit hospitals' community benefits and numerous challenges to their tax exempt status. Using data from the revised IRS Form 990 Schedule H for 2009, this article documents the wide range of community benefit activities that not-for-profit hospitals in California engage in and compares them to a set of minimum spending thresholds. The findings show that when community benefit was defined narrowly in terms of charity care, very few hospitals would have met any of the minimum spending thresholds. When community benefit was defined as in the revised IRS Form 990 Schedule H, however, a majority of hospitals in California would have been considered charitable. Whether focusing on expenditures is the most appropriate way to assess the adequacy of a hospital's community benefits remains an open question. To that end, this article concludes by outlining a more comprehensive evaluation approach that builds on recent changes to non-profit hospital tax exemption implemented by the Affordable Care Act.

  17. Hydroclimate temporal variability in a coastal Mediterranean watershed: the Tafna basin, North-West Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulariah, Ouafik; Longobardi, Antonia; Meddi, Mohamed

    2017-04-01

    One of the major challenges scientists, practitioners and stakeholders are nowadays involved in, is to provide the worldwide population with reliable water supplies, protecting, at the same time, the freshwater ecosystems quality and quantity. Climate and land use changes undermine the balance between water demand and water availability, causing alteration of rivers flow regime. Knowledge of hydro-climate variables temporal and spatial variability is clearly helpful to plan drought and flood hazard mitigation strategies but also to adapt them to future environmental scenarios. The present study relates to the coastal semi-arid Tafna catchment, located in the North-West of Algeria, within the Mediterranean basin. The aim is the investigation of streamflow and rainfall indices temporal variability in six sub-basins of the large catchment Tafna, attempting to relate streamflow and rainfall changes. Rainfall and streamflow time series have been preliminary tested for data quality and homogeneity, through the coupled application of two-tailed t test, Pettitt test and Cumsum tests (significance level of 0.1, 0.05 and 0.01). Subsequently maximum annual daily rainfall and streamflow and average daily annual rainfall and streamflow time series have been derived and tested for temporal variability, through the application of the Mann Kendall and Sen's test. Overall maximum annual daily streamflow time series exhibit a negative trend which is however significant for only 30% of the station. Maximum annual daily rainfall also e exhibit a negative trend which is intend significant for the 80% of the stations. In the case of average daily annual streamflow and rainfall, the tendency for decrease in time is unclear and, in both cases, appear significant for 60% of stations.

  18. How can work be designed to be intrinsically rewarding? Qualitative insights from South African non-profit employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Renard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Intrinsic rewards are personal, psychological responses to the work thatemployees perform, which stem from the manner in which their work is designed.Research purpose: This study sought to discover in what ways non-profit employees arepsychologically rewarded by the nature of their work tasks. The use of a qualitative approachto data collection and analysis ensured that in-depth responses from participants were gained.Motivation for the study: Intrinsic rewards are of particular importance to non-profitemployees, who tend to earn below-market salaries. This implies that their motivationoriginates predominantly from intrinsic as opposed to extrinsic rewards; yet, research into thisarea of rewards is lacking.Research approach, design and method: In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conductedusing a sample of 15 extrinsically rewarded non-profit employees working within South Africa.Thematic analysis was utilised in order to generate codes which led to the formation of fiveintrinsic rewards categories.Main findings: Intrinsic rewards were classified into five categories, namely (1 MeaningfulWork, (2 Flexible Work, (3 Challenging Work, (4 Varied Work and (5 Enjoyable Work.These rewards each comprise of various subcategories, which provide insight into why suchwork is rewarding to non-profit employees.Practical/managerial implications: Traditional performance management systems shouldbe re-evaluated in the non-profit sector to shift focus towards intrinsic rewards, asopposed to focusing only on the use of extrinsic rewards such as incentives to motivateemployees.Contribution/value-add: The study provides a qualitative understanding of how extrinsicallyrewarded non-profit employees perceive their work to be intrinsically rewarding, whichbridges the empirical gap pertaining to intrinsic rewards within this sector.

  19. Application of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT Model on a small tropical island (Great River Watershed, Jamaica as a tool in Integrated Watershed and Coastal Zone Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orville P. Grey

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Great River Watershed, located in north-west Jamaica, is critical for development, particularly for housing, tourism, agriculture, and mining. It is a source of sediment and nutrient loading to the coastal environment including the Montego Bay Marine Park. We produced a modeling framework using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and GIS. The calculated model performance statistics for high flow discharge yielded a Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE value of 0.68 and a R² value of 0.70 suggesting good measured and simulated (calibrated discharge correlation. Calibration and validation results for streamflow were similar to the observed streamflows. For the dry season the simulated urban landuse scenario predicted an increase in surface runoff in excess of 150%. During the wet season it is predicted to range from 98 to 234% presenting a significant risk of flooding, erosion and other environmental issues. The model should be used for the remaining 25 watersheds in Jamaica and elsewhere in the Caribbean. The models suggests that projected landuse changes will have serious impacts on available water (streamflow, stream health, potable water treatment, flooding and sensitive coastal ecosystems.

  20. Managing corporate identities of non-profit organisations in the social welfare sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lida Holtzhausen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Present-day South Africa is characterised by many societal and developmental issues, such as HIV awareness and prevention, child-headed households, environmental protection, poverty alleviation, violence and victim aid. However, it is widely acknowledged that government alone cannot address these issues effectively. The role of non-profit organisations (NPOs in addressing social and development issues is increasingly emphasised. NPOs work at grass-roots level and they can therefore, on the whole, identify societal vulnerabilities and risks earlier than the government sector. However, due to the economic recession, NPOs operate in a competitive environment where an increasing number of NPOs rely on a small number of donors and other resources. NPOs should therefore differentiate themselves from the competition in order to obtain public legitimacy and funding. Corporate identity management is important for NPOs to fulfil their role in social welfare and thus contribute to disaster risk reduction. The exploratory nature of this study dictates a qualitative research approach. Semi-structured interviews with management of five NPOs in the social welfare sector were conducted in order to provide an answer to the study’s research question: ‘To what extent do NPOs in the social welfare sector practise corporate identity management, in order to prevent and address social welfare risks?’ The research found that NPOs do not realise the full potential of managing their corporate identities. NPOs therefore do not take advantage of a strong and distinct corporate identity which would allow them to ensure their ability to assess, address, reduce and/or alleviate vulnerabilities and disaster risks.

  1. A critique of social marketing in the non-profit development sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Fourie

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In its struggle to find funding, non-profit organisations world-wide are increasingly using social marketing strategies. This approach potentially influences non governmental organisations (NGOs and community based organisations (CBOs in their communication with their “clients”, i.e. those persons and com-munities in need of development. Marketing strategies con-sequently become instruments in achieving social development, with as main premise that behaviour could be changed by means of persuasive, top-down communication. Social marketing, with its roots in marketing, has a strong focus on persuasion and favours top-down communication rather than dialogical communication strategies suggested by the par-ticipatory development communication approach. It is also questionable whether social marketing can be equated with the principles of a Biblically informed approach to communication. With these questions in mind, this article discusses Biblical views on communication and the participatory development communication approach. A critique of the social marketing approach is then offered. It is argued here that there is no clear-cut answer as to whether social marketing could be described as participatory. What is clear is that there are many different views on social marketing, as is the case with participatory approaches. It would thus seem more correct to place social marketing on a participation continuum, rather than to define it as being participatory and thus per definition ethical or not. Finally, a number of suggestions are made which could bring it more in line with the participatory communication approach as well as Biblical principles on com-munication.

  2. Applying the prudence principle in non-profit organizations and financial institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Otavová

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes in detail the accounting principle of prudence in non-profit organizations and financial institutions. It defines its application in such organizations and based on comparison it evaluates the practical use of the prudence principle and its reflection in the accounting books. The main focus is on differences in applying the prudence principle that result from differences in the purpose activities and methods of asset management in these organizations. The practical application of the prudence principle in accounting consists mainly in the creation and use of provisions and impairments. These methods are defined by the Implementing Regulation to the Accounting Act No. 563/1991. The paper also provides tables where the creation and use of impairments and provisions in the above-mentioned organizations is compared with how business companies proceed in creating impairments and provisions. The key legislation standardizing accounting in the Czech Republic is the Accounting Act No. 563/1991, as amended, which stipulates the general accounting principles, the so-called accounting philosophy. The accounting is built around the general accounting principles, which are perceived as the pillars of accounting. Even though they are not stipulated in any particular law, they are legally enforceable and their ignorance can be sanctioned. The general accounting principles represent a set of rules to be observed in keeping the accounting books, preparing the accounting reports and submitting the accounting reports to users. The keystone accounting principle is the principle of true and fair refl ection of facts the essential goal of which is to report in the fi nancial statement actual assets and the fi nancial position of the accounting unit with an essential focus on reporting events that occurred during the accounting period with respect to their content.

  3. Determinants of Sustainability and Organisational Effectiveness in Non-Profit Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This case study investigates the criteria for organizational effectiveness in non-profit organizations (NPOs with the aim to determine how the elements of sustainability fit within the criteria. To achieve this, the study utilized the research questions: “what criteria do NPOs use to evaluate their effectiveness?” and “how is sustainability embedded in NPO effectiveness?” The research design was interpretivist, adopting focus group interviews to obtain data. Specifically, two focus group interviews were held with the top management of an NPO which revealed that both financial and non-financial criteria were equally essential for NPO effectiveness. This finding is consistent with the literature, although it contradicts the initial assumption of the study that NPO effectiveness was based more on non-financial criteria than financial criteria. The study also found that the effectiveness of an NPO should be viewed in two ways: firstly, “the full achievement of its mandate” and, secondly, “the ability to run business projects to cover cost.” It also emerged that both the ability to cover costs and the achievement of a mandate should be done in a sustainable manner (a sustainable manner is seen as one that is harmonious with the natural and the socio-political environment. The results of this paper present a practical case for the management of NPOs by reiterating that the full achievement of the NPO mandate and the successful running of social projects to generate funds for sustainability are key elements of effectiveness. Given the essential role that NPOs play in developing countries, this study has provided the foundation for more widespread enquiry into the sustainability and effectiveness of NPOs.

  4. [Mental health, vulnerability and general practice: a study of non-profit health centers in Grenoble].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois-Fabing, Delphine; Pichon, Philippe; Arnevielhe, Alizée; Suscillon, Marie-Paule; Caron, Bruno; Saillard, Fabienne; François, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Very little research has been conducted on the role of general practitioners (GPs) in mental health care among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations in France. The non-profit community health care centers in Grenoble provide populations living in sensitive urban zones with high quality primary health care that includes a medico-social and prevention dimension. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of mental health issues diagnosed by GPs in health care centers, to identify the factors associated with these issues and to describe treatment characteristics. This cross-sectional study focused on general practice consultations in the AGECSA Grenoble health care centers over the course of one week. At the end of each consultation, the GP collected information about the patient, including personal data, psychological disorders, vulnerability, and patient health management. Among the 451 patients included in the study, GPs found that 45.2% of patients were in vulnerable situations and 43% of patients suffered from a mental disorder, including 29% of cases of anxiety and 20% of cases of depression. 44% of patients suffered from a psychological disorder (mental disorder and/or psychological suffering). For these patients, 52.8% of the consultations lasted more than 20 minutes. Their treatment generally included a mental health care follow-up (in 76% of cases), including psychological support (59%) and treatment of functional somatic disorders (46%). The study shows the high prevalence of psychological disorders diagnosed in the patients treated by GPs working in health care centers in disadvantaged urban areas. Research shows that GPs play an important and specific role in mental health care and prevention. An analysis of the organizational methods used in health care centers is highly relevant.

  5. FROM FRAYED ROPE TO TIGHT STRINGS: NEGOTIATING NON-PROFIT GOVERNANCE IN A NEOLIBERAL STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ready, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberal policies have created economic disparities and increased the gap between the rich and the poor in Canada. The Mulroney government initiated neoliberal revisions to the Canadian social welfare state as it quietly changed complex regulations that impacted the welfare and well-being of Canadians. This government worked “by stealth” and with little consultation to dismantle key components of the social welfare state, while publicly pronouncing its sacred value. In Ontario, neoliberal policies are identified with the Harris government’s visible and public attack on the poor, on women and on those marginalized by race. The Harris government made significant cuts to services offered by non-governmental organizations (NGOs and, in particular, to women’s organizations and advocacy groups. This paper examines the impact of neoliberalism by exploring changes through such policies in the relationship between the state and non-profit organizations in Ontario. It is based on initial findings from qualitative research conducted in 2010 and 2011 with three YWCA organizations. It characterizes a shift from the way NGO-state relationships were depicted by Katherine Scott in 2003 as a “frayed rope” about to break, to being represented by an image of multiple “tight strings.” This research forms part of a dissertation examining how the neoliberal policies that have reduced government support for, and downloaded responsibilities to, the non-profit sector have affected the capacity of community-based women’s organizations to implement a feminist agenda in their work with women. The timeframe studied, from 2003 to 2008, builds on the now extensive scholarly research on the impact of neoliberal policies that occurred from 1995 to 2003, the years led by Progressive Conservative Premiers Mike Harris and Ernie Eves. It closely examines continuities and discontinuities between the two governments, revealing many dangers for women buried in

  6. Toward a balanced framework to evaluate and improve the internal functioning of non-profit economic development business incubators : A study in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanderstraeten, J.; Matthyssens, P.; van Witteloostuijn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit organisations, such as economic development incubators, may adapt the balanced scorecard and strategy map in their efforts to improve their internal functioning. In this paper, we employ qualitative research among non-profit economic development incubators in Antwerp, Belgium, to modify t

  7. Cultural challenges and essential factors in the implementation of IS in a non-profit organisation in a developing country

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup Nielsen, Sebastian; Svejvig, Per

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to describe some of the challenges in the implementation of IS in a non-profit or-ganization in a developing country. When people from developed countries assist in the process of making requirements specification, an understanding of local culture is essential for a successful...... with a requirements specification for an organization, is the basis of this action research study in the Philippines....

  8. Legal environment of non-profit organizations in Iceland Réttarumhverfi félagasamtaka á Íslandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrafn Bragason

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite a high number of non-profit organizations and their important social function a comprehensive legislation on their activities does not exist in Iceland, as is the case for most other operating entities. In the article existing rules on non-profit activities in Iceland are analyzed. In addition, the entity, non-profit organizations, is defined, and rules on their establishment, member participation, organization, accountability and obligations are described. The analysis will also focus on current regulation on fundraising, business activities, taxation and income from the government. A comparison of non-profit organizations and foundations is performed.Þrátt fyrir fjölda félagasamtaka og þýðingarmikið samfélagslegt hlutverk þeirra eru ekki í gildi heildarlög á Íslandi um starfsemi þeirra eins og um flest önnur félagaform. Í greininni er fjallað um þær reglur sem þó gilda um starfsemi félagasamtaka eða almennra félaga eins og þau eru nefnd í félagarétti. Auk skilgreiningar á félagaforminu er þeim reglum lýst sem gilda um stofnun þeirra, félagsaðild, skipulag, ábyrgð og skuldbindingar. Einnig er rætt um þá reglu um gjörð sem gildir um tekjuöflun félagasamtaka, atvinnustarfsemi, skattlagningu og fjárveitingar frá hinu opinbera. Gerður er samanburður á félagasamtökum og sjálfseignarstofnunum sem starfa á sambærilegum vettvangi.

  9. Evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research in France between 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandré, Coralie; Prigent, Amélie; Kemel, Marie-Louise; Leboyer, Marion; Chevreul, Karine

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, actions have been undertaken in France to foster mental health research. Our objective was to assess their utility by estimating the evolution of public and non-profit funding for mental health research between 2007 and 2011, both in terms of total funding and the share of health research budgets. Public and non-profit funding was considered. Core funding from public research institutions was determined through a top-down approach by multiplying their total budget by the ratio of the number of psychiatry-related publications to the total number of publications focusing on health issues. A bottom-up method was used to estimate the amount of project-based grants and funding by non-profit organizations, which were directly contacted to obtain this information. Public and non-profit funding for mental health research increased by a factor of 3.4 between 2007 and 2011 reaching €84.8 million, while the share of health research funding allocated to mental health research nearly doubled from 2.2% to 4.1%. Public sources were the main contributors representing 94% of the total funding. Our results have important implications for policy makers, as they suggest that actions specifically aimed at prioritizing mental health research are effective in increasing research funding. There is therefore an urgent need to further undertake such actions as funding in France remains particularly low compared to the United Kingdom and the United States, despite the fact that the epidemiological and economic burden represented by mental disorders is expected to grow rapidly in the coming years.

  10. Human Impacts to Coastal Ecosystems in Puerto Rico (HICE-PR): Actual Condition of Coral Reefs Associated with the Guanica and Manati Watersheds in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Perez, J. L.; Barreto, M.; Guild, L. S.; Ortiz, J.; Setegn, S. G.; Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Armstrong, R.; Santiago, L.

    2015-12-01

    For several decades Puerto Rico's coastal and marine ecosystems (CMEs), particularly coral reefs, have suffered the effects of anthropogenic stresses associated to population growth and varying land use. Here we present an overview of the first year of findings of a NASA-funded project that studies human impacts in two priority watersheds (Manatí and Guánica). The project includes remote sensing analysis and hydrological, ecological and socio-economic modeling to provide a multi-decadal assessment of change of CMEs. The project's main goal is to evaluate the impacts of land use/land cover changes on the quality and extent of CMEs in priority watersheds in the north and south coasts of Puerto Rico. This project will include imagery from Landsat 8 to assess coastal ecosystems extent. Habitat and species distribution maps will be created by incorporating field and remotely-sensed data into an Ecological Niche Factor Analysis. The social component will allow us to study the valuation of specific CMEs attributes from the stakeholder's point of view. Field data was collected through a series of phototransects at the main reefs associated with these two priority watersheds. A preliminary assessment shows a range in coral cover from 0.2-30% depending on the site (Guánica) whereas apparently healthy corals dominate the reef in the north coast (Manatí). Reefs on the southwest coast of PR (Guánica) show an apparent shift from hard corals to a more algae and soft corals dominance after decades of anthropogenic impacts (sedimentation, eutrophication, mechanical damage through poorly supervised recreational activities, etc.). Additionally preliminary results from land cover/land use changes analyses show dynamic historical shoreline changes in beaches located west of the Manatí river mouth and a degradation of water quality in Guánica possibly being one of the main factors affecting the actual condition of its CMEs.

  11. Win-Win-Win: Reflections from a Work-Integrated Learning Project in a Non-Profit Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale C MacKrell

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the educational aspects of an information systems work-integrated learning (WIL capstone project for an organization which operates to alleviate homelessness in the Australian non-profit sector. The methodology adopted for the study is Action Design Research (ADR which draws on action research and design research as a means for framing a project's progress. Reflective insights by the project stakeholders, namely, students, academics, and the non-profit client, reveal a curriculum at work through internal features of the organization; personal features of the participants and features of the external environment. Preliminary findings suggest that students in a WIL project for a non-profit are highly engaged, especially when they become aware of the project’s social value. As well, the improvement of professional skills and emotional intelligence by students is more likely in real-life practice settings than in other less authentic WIL activities, equipping graduates for the workforce with both strong disciplinary and generic skills. Win-win-win synergies through project collaboration represent worthwhile outcomes to education, industry and research.

  12. Residence time, chemical and isotopic analysis of nitrate in the groundwater and surface water of a small agricultural watershed in the Coastal Plain, Bucks Branch, Sussex County, Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clune, John W.; Denver, Judith M.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate is a common contaminant in groundwater and surface water throughout the Nation, and water-resource managers need more detailed small-scale watershed research to guide conservation efforts aimed at improving water quality. Concentrations of nitrate in Bucks Branch are among the highest in the state of Delaware and a scientific investigation was performed to provide water-quality information to assist with the management of agriculture and water resources. A combination of major-ion chemistry, nitrogen isotopic composition and age-dating techniques was used to estimate the residence time and provide a chemical and isotopic analysis of nitrate in the groundwater in the surficial aquifer of the Bucks Branch watershed in Sussex County, Delaware. The land use was more than 90 percent agricultural and most nitrogen inputs were from manure and fertilizer. The apparent median age of sampled groundwater is 18 years and the estimated residence time of groundwater contributing to the streamflow for the entire Bucks Branch watershed at the outlet is approximately 19 years. Concentrations of nitrate exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter (as nitrogen) in 60 percent of groundwater samples and 42 percent of surface-water samples. The overall geochemistry in the Bucks Branch watershed indicates that agriculture is the predominant source of nitrate contamination and the observed patterns in major-ion chemistry are similar to those observed in other studies on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain. The pattern of enrichment in nitrogen and oxygen isotopes (δ15N and δ18O) of nitrate in groundwater and surface water indicates there is some loss of nitrate through denitrification, but this process is not sufficient to remove all of the nitrate from groundwater discharging to streams, and concentrations of nitrate in streams remain elevated.

  13. Minnesota Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide minor watershed delineations with major/minor watershed identifiers and names for provinces, major watersheds, and basins. Also included are watershed...

  14. Bank foundation – a symbiotic legal institution at the crossroad of banking system and non-profit sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena CATARGIU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the development and omnipresence, in Europe, of the non-profit sector and due to the diversification of the legal entities that are involved in the configuration of the third sector, an legal analysis of the foundation of banking origins, is very appealing. Throughout this study we aim to point out key moments in the evolution of this particular figure, mainly in the Italian legislation. Nevertheless, we intend to identify the legal nature of the foundation of banking origins in order to draw a line between banking and philanthropic activities.

  15. 公共图书馆公益培训研究%Study on Public Library's Non-profit Training Services

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈慧慧

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounds the background and necessity of carrying out the non-profit training service in the public library, and puts forward some working focuses of public library's non-profit training service.%阐述了图书馆开展公益培训的背景及必要性,提出了公共图书馆开展公益培训的工作要点.

  16. Performance evaluation of public non-profit hospitals using a BP artificial neural network: the case of Hubei Province in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhui; Yu, Chuanhua

    2013-08-15

    To provide a reference for evaluating public non-profit hospitals in the new environment of medical reform, we established a performance evaluation system for public non-profit hospitals. The new "input-output" performance model for public non-profit hospitals is based on four primary indexes (input, process, output and effect) that include 11 sub-indexes and 41 items. The indicator weights were determined using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and entropy weight method. The BP neural network was applied to evaluate the performance of 14 level-3 public non-profit hospitals located in Hubei Province. The most stable BP neural network was produced by comparing different numbers of neurons in the hidden layer and using the "Leave-one-out" Cross Validation method. The performance evaluation system we established for public non-profit hospitals could reflect the basic goal of the new medical health system reform in China. Compared with PLSR, the result indicated that the BP neural network could be used effectively for evaluating the performance public non-profit hospitals.

  17. Legitimacy, trustee incentives, and board processes: the case of public and private non-profit nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaelheyns, Nico; Eeckloo, Kristof; Van Hulle, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Using a unique data set, this study explores how type of ownership (government/private) is related to processes of governance. The findings suggest that the neo-institutional perspective and the self-interest rationale of the agency perspective are helpful in explaining processes of governance in both government- and privately owned non-profit organizations. Due to adverse incentives and the quest for legitimacy, supervising governance bodies within local government-owned non-profit institutions pay relatively less attention to the development of high quality supervising bodies and delegate little to management. Our findings also indicate that governance processes in private institutions are more aligned with the business model and that this alignment is likely driven by a concern to improve decision making. By contrast, our data also suggest that in local government-owned institutions re-election concerns of politicians-trustees are an important force in the governance processes of these institutions. In view of these adverse incentives - in contrast to the case of private organizations - a governance code is unlikely to entail much improvement in government-owned organizations.

  18. Short-term variability of 7Be atmospheric deposition and watershed response in a Pacific coastal stream, Monterey Bay, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaway, Christopher H; Storlazzi, Curt D; Draut, Amy E; Swarzenski, Peter W

    2013-06-01

    Beryllium-7 is a powerful and commonly used tracer for environmental processes such as watershed sediment provenance, soil erosion, fluvial and nearshore sediment cycling, and atmospheric fallout. However, few studies have quantified temporal or spatial variability of (7)Be accumulation from atmospheric fallout, and parameters that would better define the uses and limitations of this geochemical tracer. We investigated the abundance and variability of (7)Be in atmospheric deposition in both rain events and dry periods, and in stream surface-water samples collected over a ten-month interval at sites near northern Monterey Bay (37°N, 122°W) on the central California coast, a region characterized by a rainy winters, dry summers, and small mountainous streams with flashy hydrology. The range of (7)Be activity in rainwater samples from the main sampling site was 1.3-4.4 Bq L(-1), with a mean (±standard deviation) of 2.2 ± 0.9 Bq L(-1), and a volume-weighted average of 2.0 Bq L(-1). The range of wet atmospheric deposition was 18-188 Bq m(-2) per rain event, with a mean of 72 ± 53 Bq m(-2). Dry deposition fluxes of (7)Be ranged from less than 0.01 up to 0.45 Bq m(-2) d(-1), with an estimated dry season deposition of 7 Bq m(-2) month(-1). Annualized (7)Be atmospheric deposition was approximately 1900 Bq m(-2) yr(-1), with most deposition via rainwater (>95%) and little via dry deposition. Overall, these activities and deposition fluxes are similar to values found in other coastal locations with comparable latitude and Mediterranean-type climate. Particulate (7)Be values in the surface water of the San Lorenzo River in Santa Cruz, California, ranged from erosion in the watershed. There were too few particulate (7)Be data over the storm to accurately model a (7)Be load, but the results suggest enhanced watershed export of (7)Be from small, mountainous river systems compared to other watershed types.

  19. Interactions between groundwater and surface water in a Virginia coastal plain watershed. 2. Acid-base chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, A. K.; Eshleman, K.N.; Pollard, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    At the Reedy Creek watershed sulphate concentrations were higher and alkalinity lower in the groundwater in the hillslope than in the stream. Sulphate concentrations and alkalinity observed in groundwater in the wetland were usually between those of the hillslope and stream. These data suggest that the wetland is a sink for sulphate and acidity; sulphate reduction may be an important mechanism for generating alkalinity in the wetland. The DOC concentrations were higher in the stream and wetland groundwater than in hillslope groundwater. No consistent spatial patterns in sulphate concentrations were observed in surface water chemistry under base flow conditions. Stream discharge was found to be positively correlated with base flow sulphate concentrations and inversely correlated with alkalinity. A sulphate mass balance indicated that approximately 30% of the estimated 24.9 kg SO42-/ha yr wet atmospheric input was exported from the watershed as sulphate in stream runoff in the water year 1990. -from Authors

  20. Earnings Management Also Exists in Non-profit Organizations%非盈利组织液存在盈余管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王逸远

    2015-01-01

    Domestic literatures about earnings management pay more attention to the listed company such as for-profit businesses, rarely focusing on non-profit organizations. In this article, through analyzing the characteristics of the non-profit organization, it is concluded that non-profit organizations also have a surplus management motivation, threshold effect will occur by earnings management. And its different forms comparing with enterprises are explored. It is pointed out a possible surplus information error in non-profit organizations in order to cause the attention of the interested party, to strengthen the specification and supervision of non-profit organization.%国内关于盈余管理的文献,多关注上市公司等营利组织,鲜少聚焦于非营利组织。本文通过分析非营利组织的特点,说明非营利组织同样具有盈余管理动机,也会发生盈余管理的门槛效应,并探索其与企业的不同表现方式,指出非营利组织中可能存在盈余信息偏误,以期引起各利害关系人的关注,加强对非营利组织的规范和监督。

  1. Links Between Workplace Spirituality, Job-Related Attitudes, and Value Fit in a Non-Profit Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kimberly T; DeSouza, Eros R; Durst, Renee N

    2015-01-01

    We examined perceptions of spirituality and meaning among 192 employees (77% female) from a non-profit organization in a mid-sized Midwestern city in the United States. We hypothesized that employees' values related to workplace spirituality would be positively related to various measures of job satisfaction and general meaning in life. We also examined employees' perceptions of the fit of their co-workers' values with the agency mission and predicted that these perceptions would act as a moderator of the relationship between employees' workplace spirituality and job satisfaction. Our hypotheses were generally supported. Spirituality predicted work contributing to the meaning of life and various facets of job satisfaction. Implications of the importance of employees' perceptions of organizational fit related to spirituality and the perceived fit of co-workers' values with the organizational mission are discussed.

  2. An analysis of the value of marketing to non-profit organizations: the case of child safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razis, V; Razis, N

    1993-01-01

    This paper considers a broad spectrum of literature concerning the limitations and value of applying marketing management principles from the private sector to public or non-profit organizations. The Child Accident Prevention Foundation of Southern Africa is used as a principle case-study. The authors conclude that there is much to be gained from applying a more systematic approach, providing one adapts business strategies to more complex social environments and objectives. Since both marketing and social issues share the challenge of 'sensitivity serving and satisfying human needs,' (Kotler, 1983 p 272) there are also some instances where business can learn from the experience of social organizations in attempts to influence human behavior.

  3. Applying Marketing Concepts to Non-Profit/Educational Organizations: The Youth Professional’s Responsibilities in Program Marketing & Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith G. Diem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The degree of participation in community-based youth development programs is typically affected by both the recruitment and retention of participants. A review of literature over more than forty years revealed the value of marketing and promotion to the viability of a company, product, or organization and how it may contribute to company sales or an organization’s membership. This article is focused on the application of marketing concepts to a non-profit organization or educational program. Using a marketing approach to program development can result in improved program quality as well as increased enrollment. Utilizing marketing activities such as needs assessment will aide in ensuring the program remains current in meeting needs and interests of clientele, the community, and society. Promoting an accurate and relevant image is a key in making sure people realize the value of your program.

  4. Does non-profit health insurance reduce financial burden? Evidence from the Vietnam Living Standards Survey Panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Ardeshir; Sarma, Sisira; Simpson, Wayne

    2006-06-01

    Many low-income countries are implementing non-profit medical insurance to increase access to health services, especially among low-income households, and to raise additional revenue for financing public health services. This paper estimates the effect of insurance on out-of-pocket health expenditures using the Vietnam Living Standards Surveys for 1993 and 1998 and appropriate models for panel data. Our findings suggest that health insurance reduces health expenditure when unobserved heterogeneity is accounted for. Failure to capture unobserved heterogeneity produces contrary results that are consistent with previous cross-sectional studies in the literature. Health insurance is found to reduce out-of-pocket expenditure between 16 and 18% and the reduction in expenditure is more pronounced for individuals with lower incomes. At mean income, the effect of health insurance is to reduce health expenditures between 28 and 35%.

  5. Organizational resilience: Sustained institutional effectiveness among smaller, private, non-profit US higher education institutions experiencing organizational decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kenneth A

    2016-06-04

    Recent changes in the United States (US) economy have radically disrupted revenue generation among many institutions within higher education within the US. Chief among these disruptions has been fallout associated with the financial crisis of 2008-2009, which triggered a change in the US higher education environment from a period of relative munificence to a prolonged period of scarcity. The hardest hit by this disruption have been smaller, less wealthy institutions which tend to lack the necessary reserves to financially weather the economic storm. Interestingly, a review of institutional effectiveness among these institutions revealed that while many are struggling, some institutions have found ways to not only successfully cope with the impact of declining revenue, but have been able to capitalize on the disruption and thrive. Organizational response is an important factor in successfully coping with conditions of organizational decline. The study examined the impacts of organizational response on institutional effectiveness among higher education institutions experiencing organizational decline. The study's research question asked why some US higher educational institutions are more resilient at coping with organizational decline than other institutions operating within the same segment of the higher education sector. More specifically, what role does organizational resilience have in helping smaller, private non-profit institutions cope and remain effective during organizational decline? A total of 141 US smaller, private non-profit higher educational institutions participated in the study; specifically, the study included responses from participant institutions' key administrators. 60-item survey evaluated administrator responses corresponding to organizational response and institutional effectiveness. Factor analysis was used to specify the underlying structures of rigidity response, resilience response, and institutional effectiveness. Multiple regression

  6. The Capacity Development of Non-Profit Organizations in the Growth Stage (An Action Research Based on the SSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Nenobais

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims in analyzing the capacity development of non-profit organizations in the growth stage through six internal components and four external components at Papuan Pesat Foundation. The approach used in the research is the action research based on the soft systems methodology that consists of two activities that had been done simultaneously, which are the research interest and the problem solving interest (McKay and Marshall, 2001. It fulfills criteria that are systematically desirable and culturally feasible (Flood an Jackson, 1991. Whilst the theory used is according to Brothers and Sherman (2012 that states that there are six internal components that should be strengthened in the growth stage, which are the leadership, the organization’s culture, the role of the board, programs’ extension, the management and infrastructure, the financial sustainable.  Afterwards, according to De Vita, et. al. (2001 there are four organization’s external components that should be maintained, which are the social demographic, the economy/market, the politic and values, and the norms. The result of this research shows the research interest, that the organization needs to be equipped with the transformational leadership, the simple structure design, and the improvement of the role of the board. For the problem solving interest, it needs the working programs’ extension through the correct formulation process, the human resources management, the organization’s financial sustainability. Then the external components which need to be formed are the collaboration among the non-profit organizations, the local government, the private sectors, business activities, politic participations and the public relation.

  7. The Features of Forming and Using the Finansial and Material Resources of Socially Oriented Non-Profit Organizations of Volgograd Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleynik Olga Stepanovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of interaction of regional authorities and the institute of socially oriented non-profit organizations that carry out the activity aimed at solving social problems, the development of civil society in Russia. The forms and activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations are systematically presented. The authors reveal the directions and tools for supporting the activities of socially oriented non-profit organizations by public authorities and local self-government bodies. The authors aimed at fixing the peculiarities of organization and conduct of statistical observation over the activity of socially-oriented organizations in Volgograd region. The organizational events were arranged. They were necessary for the conduct of qualitative statistical analysis of the activity of socially oriented organizations. For the first time the official data on the activity of socially oriented non-profit organizations in Volgograd region, including the information on formation and use of money and other property, was received as a result of the statistical observation. The authors focus on the analysis of the sources of money and other property, reveal the composition of income in non-profit organizations of various organizational and legal forms. The forms of work in socially oriented non-profit organizations of Volgograd region and its results as of 2013 are thoroughly studied. The conducted statistical analysis showed that the significant public sector has been established in the region. It provides the necessary public social services, financial or social assistance to the most vulnerable members of society.

  8. Impact of mixed land-use practices on the microbial water quality in a subtropical coastal watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhanbei; He, Zhenli; Zhou, Xuxia; Powell, Charles A; Yang, Yuangen; He, Li Ming; Stoffella, Peter J

    2013-04-01

    Surface runoff water is an important non-point source of fecal pollution to downstream water; however, there is a lack of systematic studies on the microbial quality of surface runoff water from watersheds with mixed land uses. In this study water samples from 12 surface runoff holding water bodies (SRW), which collected runoff from various patterns of land use within the St. Lucie watershed along the southeastern coastline of Florida, were collected monthly for 22 months. The concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and frequency of detection of Salmonella and host specific markers (HF183, CF128, CF193, and HS-esp) were determined, and their associations with land use, rainfall, and water physico-chemical parameters were investigated. Higher FIB concentrations were observed from urban land and cattle ranch sites. Within the same primary land use pattern, different sub-patterns did not have the same level of FIB: golf communities contributed less to fecal pollution than residential areas, and plant nursery sites contained relative higher FIB concentrations than other agricultural sites. Salmonella, CF128, and CF193 markers were more frequently detected from the cattle ranch sites. In contrast the frequency of detecting human specific markers (HF183 and HS-esp) was much higher in residential sites. Rainfall positively affected the concentration of FIB and occurrence of Salmonella, possibly by providing more inputs or mobilizing the sources from sediments. Water temperature, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and nutrient levels were positively correlated with FIB concentrations and occurrence in SRW, possibly by promoting their growth and survival. This study indicated the need for site specific mitigation strategies to improve SRW and downstream water quality.

  9. 中国非营利组织人力资源管理的对策%Chinese Non-profit Organization of Human Resources Management Countermeasure Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧林

    2011-01-01

    In view of our country non-profit organization of human resources management in the existing such as salary welfare difference,lack of staff personnel,lack a sense of belonging,incentive mechanism is not perfect and the brain drain is serious wait for a problem,attempts to correctly grasp the non-profit organization and the meaning of strengthening the nonprofit organization the importance of human resources management perspective,dialectical study and discussion non profit organization to our human resources management challenges,draw on the advantages and avoid disadvantages,adopt corresponding countermeasures,so that the fruits of economic development to improve people's livelihood more embodied,so as to achieve the non-profit organization of human resources management and development purposes,in order to realize the sustainable development of human resources.%文章从非营利组织的含义以及加强非营利组织人力资源管理的必要性的出发,研究非营利组织对我国人力资源管理的挑战以及对策,实现我国人力资源的可持续发展。

  10. TO THE QUESTION OF THE LEGAL CAPACITY OF NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS IN THE LIGHT OF THE REFORM OF CIVIL LEGISLATION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberg A. N.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During 6 years since 2008 active work on the reformation of the Russian civil legislation has been carried out. The legal capacity of non-profit organizations and improvements in its content proposed by the authors of the reform are considered in the article. The proposed changes wait for the researchers

  11. Non-Profit Ecological Organizations in the Function of the Realization of the Right to Freedom of Association and the Development of Civil Environmental Liability in Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitimov, Bolat Zh.; Dussipov, Erkin Sh.; Altynbekkyzy, Alua; Ashimova, Dinara I.; Nurbek, Dana T.; Urazymbetov, Talgat E.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental issues have become a central issue, which is considered not only at the state level, but also in the international arena. At the moment the main initiators of drawing attention to the environment are the environmental non-profit organizations. In developed countries, these organizations provide full support to the government and…

  12. Managing competition in the countryside: Non-profit and for-profit perceptions of long-term care in rural Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Mark W; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2006-12-01

    This paper contributes to the current debates surrounding private delivery of health care services by addressing the distinctive challenges, constraints and opportunities facing for-profit and non-profit providers of long-term care in rural and small town settings. It focuses on the empirical case of Ontario, Canada where extensive restructuring of long-term care, under the rubric of managed competition, has been underway since the mid-1990s. In-depth interviews with 72 representatives from local governments, public health institutions and authorities, for-profit and non-profit organisations, and community groups during July 2003 to December 2003 form the platform for a qualitative analysis of the implications of managed competition as it relates to the provision of long-term care in the countryside. The results suggest that the introduction and implementation of managed competition has accentuated the problems of service provision in rural communities, and that the long-standing issues of caregiving in rural situations transcend the differences, perceived or otherwise, between for-profit and non-profit provision. Understanding the implications of market-oriented long-term care restructuring initiatives for providers, and their clients, in rural situations requires a re-focussing of research beyond the for- versus non-profit dichotomy.

  13. Non-Profit Education Providers vis-a-vis the Private Sector: Comparative Analysis of Non-Governmental Organizations and Traditional Voluntary Organizations in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Masooda

    2008-01-01

    Under the New Policy Agenda, international development institutions have promoted non-profit organizations (NPOs) in developing countries, on a dual logic: firstly, they deliver social services more efficiently than the state; secondly, they mitigate equity concerns around privatization of basic social services by reaching out to the poor. Based…

  14. Kindergarten Teachers' Perceived School Culture and Well-Being: A Comparison of Non-Profit-Making and Profit-Making Kindergartens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yau Ho P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has rarely examined teachers' perceptions of school culture (perceived school culture) and well-being in Hong Kong's non-profit-making (NPM) and profit-making (PM) kindergartens. Thus, the purpose of this study was twofold: first, it examined the relationships between Hong Kong kindergarten teachers' perceived school culture and…

  15. Analysis of Funding Sources and Methods of Non-profit Organization%非营利组织筹资渠道与方式探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚舟波

    2011-01-01

    Various non-profit organizations have become the important form of social organization. Expanding financing channels, flexibly using various means of financing, and improving their fund-raising capacity is the problem to be solved for non-profit organization. This paper summarizes and analyzes the status and problems of financing of non-profit organization, and proposed countermeasures to expand financing channels and methods for non-profit organizations.%各类非营利组织已成为重要的社会组织形式,拓展筹资渠道,灵活运用各种筹资方式,提高自身筹资能力,是目前大多数非营利组织急待解决的问题.本文在分析总结非营利组织筹资现状和问题的基础上,提出拓展非营利组织筹资渠道与方式的对策措施.

  16. Age differences in career activities among higher-level employees in the Netherlands: a comparison between profit sector and non-profit sector staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, van der Beatrice Isabella Johanna Maria

    2006-01-01

    The present study describes age differences in the occurrence of career activities among profit sector and non-profit sector employees in the Netherlands. Three different types of variables have been studied, i.e. individual, job-related and organizational variables. Hypotheses have been tested with

  17. THE MARKETING MENTALITY WITHIN THE ORGANIZATION - A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN COMPANIES AND NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Al.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary Marketing theory and practice, debates regarding the role and place of the homonymous activity within the company are frequent. The development of a marketing mentality, as specialists state, allows the implementation of a marketing vision in all the organization’s departments, regardless of the activities performed. The economic theory enunciates all the more the existence of a marketing doctrine urged to ensure the methodological frame of the organization regarding market and consumer orientation. Based upon two selective exploratory market research performed among the major distributors of electro-technical materials and electro-technical solutions integrators, respectively among some public faculties’ management the authors want to examine the existence and the decision makers’ responsiveness regarding the implementation of a marketing mentality in one’s organization. The conclusions concern both business environment and academic non-profit organizations’ activity. The connection between the marketing mentality as an essential premise for the development of the entrepreneurial university concept is also emphasized.

  18. Vertically integrated educational collaboration between a college of veterinary medicine and a non-profit animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Karen; Bice, Kathryn; Craig, Tom; Howe, Lisa; Jarrett, Melissa; Jeter, Elizabeth; Kochevar, Deborah; Simpson, R Bruce; Stickney, Mark; Wesp, Ashley; Wolf, Alice M; Zoran, Debra

    2008-01-01

    The College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (CVMBS) at Texas A&M University (TAMU) has developed a multifaceted program in partnership with the Brazos Animal Shelter to provide teaching opportunities with shelter animals during all four years of the professional curriculum. In the first three semesters of the professional program, students working in small groups spend two hours per semester at the shelter performing physical examinations, administering vaccinations and anthelmintics, completing heartworm or FeLV/FIV testing, and performing simple medical treatments. In an expanded fourth-year program, groups of six students spend 16 contact hours at the shelter during two-week rotations, completing similar tasks. Through this program, each student practices animal-handling skills and routine procedures on an average of 150 to 200 dogs and cats. In addition, during third- and fourth-year surgery courses, student teams spay or neuter an average of 12 to 18 dogs or cats each week. More than 800 animals are spayed/neutered annually through this program, and each student directly participates in 12 to 15 spay/neuter survival surgeries. The program represents a creative approach to veterinary training that conscientiously uses animal resources in a positive fashion. We believe that this is a successful partnership between a state-supported veterinary college and a non-profit shelter that benefits both agencies. We encourage other veterinary colleges to explore similar partnership opportunities to provide optimal training for professional students while using animal resources efficiently.

  19. License Compliance Issues For Biopharmaceuticals: Special Challenges For Negotiations Between Companies And Non-Profit Research Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzio, Todd A; Feindt, Hans; Ferguson, Steven

    2011-09-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are therapeutic products based on biotechnology. They are manufactured by or from living organisms and are the most complex of all commercial medicines to develop, manufacture and qualify for regulatory approval. In recent years biopharmaceuticals have rapidly increased in number and importance with over 400() already marketed in the U.S. and European markets alone. Many companies throughout the world are now ramping up investments in biopharmaceutical R&D and expanding their portfolios through licensing of early-stage biotechnologies from universities and other non-profit research institutions, and there is an increasing number of license agreements for biopharmaceutical product development relative to traditional small molecule drug compounds. This trend will only continue as large numbers of biosimilars and biogenerics enter the market.A primary goal of technology transfer offices associated with publicly-funded, non-profit research institutions is to establish patent protection for inventions deemed to have commercial potential and license them for product development. Such licenses help stimulate economic development and job creation, bring a stream of royalty revenue to the institution and, hopefully, advance the public good or public health by bringing new and useful products to market. In the course of applying for such licenses, a commercial development plan is usually put forth by the license applicant. This plan indicates the path the applicant expects to follow to bring the licensed invention to market. In the case of small molecule drug compounds, there exists a widely-recognized series of clinical development steps, dictated by regulatory requirements, that must be met to bring a new drug to market, such as completion of preclinical toxicology, Phase 1, 2 and 3 testing and product approvals. These steps often become the milestone/benchmark schedule incorporated into license agreements which technology transfer offices use to monitor

  20. Integrating Hydrologic and Water Quality Models as a Decision Support Tool for Implementation of Low Impact Development in a Coastal Urban Watershed under Climate Variability and Sea Level Rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, N. B.

    2016-12-01

    Many countries concern about development and redevelopment efforts in urban regions to reduce the flood risk by considering hazards such as high-tide events, storm surge, flash floods, stormwater runoff, and impacts of sea level rise. Combining these present and future hazards with vulnerable characteristics found throughout coastal communities such as majority low-lying areas and increasing urban development, create scenarios for increasing exposure of flood hazard. As such, the most vulnerable areas require adaptation strategies and mitigation actions for flood hazard management. In addition, in the U.S., Numeric Nutrient Criteria (NNC) are a critical tool for protecting and restoring the designated uses of a waterbody with regard to nitrogen and phosphorus pollution. Strategies such as low impact development (LID) have been promoted in recent years as an alternative to traditional stormwater management and drainage to control both flooding and water quality impact. LID utilizes decentralized multifunctional site designs and incorporates on-site storm water management practices rather than conventional storm water management approaches that divert flow toward centralized facilities. How to integrate hydrologic and water quality models to achieve the decision support becomes a challenge. The Cross Bayou Watershed of Pinellas County in Tampa Bay, a highly urbanized coastal watershed, is utilized as a case study due to its sensitivity to flood hazards and water quality management within the watershed. This study will aid the County, as a decision maker, to implement its stormwater management policy and honor recent NNC state policy via demonstration of an integrated hydrologic and water quality model, including the Interconnected Channel and Pond Routing Model v.4 (ICPR4) and the BMPTRAIN model as a decision support tool. The ICPR4 can be further coupled with the ADCIRC/SWAN model to reflect the storm surge and seal level rise in coastal regions.

  1. Sources and delivery of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus to the coastal zone: An overview of global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS) models and their application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seitzinger, S.P.; Harrison, J.A.; Dumont, E.L.; Beusen, A.H.W.; Bouwman, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the first spatially explicit, multielement (N, P, and C), multiform (dissolved inorganic: DIN, DIP; dissolved organic: DOC, DON, DOP; and particulate: POC, PN, PP) predictive model system of river nutrient export from watersheds (Global Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS)) is prese

  2. Creating and developing a non-profit community-outreach healthcare clinic in the developing world: lessons learnt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favara, D M

    2014-05-01

    Chesed Children's Clinic is a non-profit, non-governmental, volunteer-run primary care paediatric-outreach clinic servicing the severely under-resourced informal settlement of Mzamomhle within South Africa's impoverished Eastern Cape Province. Founded in May 2011 by a group of junior medical professionals and volunteers, the clinic has been successfully operating a weekend clinic on alternate Sundays since September 2011. This paper discusses 10 points of essential consideration for individuals and organisations intent on pursuing similar projects.

  3. Communicating Corporate Community Involvement: Partnership, sponsorship, or donation? A study of companies’ relationships with sports, culture and non-profit organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Clementsen, Margrethe Tombre

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies how companies communicate their corporate community involvement (CCI), and how consumers’ respond to various communication strategies in this regard. Companies’ CCI may entail relationships with different organizations in the community. It is common for companies to have relationships with different organizations within sports and culture, as well as non-profit organizations. These relationships may vary according to the scope of activities and the company’s involvement. S...

  4. 非营利组织发展模式的比较研究%A Comparative Study on the Development Model of Non-profit Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕慧

    2013-01-01

    Along with the social development, non-profit organization play a growing role for national management and optimization of social resources, the development of nonprofit organization is an important indicator of democratic society and developed degree. Dif erent organizations in dif erent areas also have dif erent characteristics, the goal of this paper is to analyses the development mode of non-profit organization , and give some suggestions on the basis of the comparison of dif erent development model of non-profit organizations .%  随着社会不断发展,非营利组织对于国家治理和社会资源优化的作用日益凸显,非营利组织的发展更是社会民主程度和发达程度地重要指标。不同地区的非营利组织也具有不同特色,本文在对比不同的发展模式的基础上对非营利组织发展提出一些建议。

  5. 非营利组织企业所得税税务筹划研究%Enterprise income tax planning of non-profit organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘家乡; 刘景娟

    2012-01-01

    为了研究非营利组织所得税税务筹划的思路和方法,对企业进行所得税税务筹划的理论与实践以及非营利组织与企业的区别进行了探讨。分析认为:非营利组织应根据所得税一般计税机理和相关法律法规,从纳税主体身份、收入、税率3个方面进行所得税税务筹划。%In order to study the non-profit organization income tax planning, this thesis analyzes the theory and practice of enterprise income tax planning and the difference between non-profit organization and enterprise. The conclusion is that non-profit organization's income tax planning should attend to iden- tity of taxpayer, income and tax rate and be based on general tax calculation mechanism of income tax and related laws and regulations.

  6. "When doing good is just the start to being good": a possible tool to improve the organizational effectiveness of non-profit health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Health care is an area where many non-profit organizations do good work, relieving governments and for-profit providers of workload. They contribute often specific knowledge and competence or provide better access to patients through their cultural and ethnic affiliations. Non-profit organizations, NPOs, are often dependent on one or more significant donors, sometimes governments, sometimes for-profit health providers and mostly private/corporate donors with an interest in specific medical areas, such as Alzheimers, or in unique communities, such as the Laotian neighborhoods in Southern California. In the media, high profile scandals involving financial irresponsibility have caused shock waves around the world. Concerns among some donors over the lack of a transparent performance measurement of non-profit entities have increased with the greater call for transparency and good governance in the corporate world. Not all the scandals have been in the commercial sector; some Not for Profit Organizations (NPOs) have been identified as having less than credible governance structures (Thomson, 2003). The watchdog organization SustainAbility reported that accountability and transparency are issues on which several NPOs are found wanting (Anon., 2003) and the New York Times reports that until recently NPOs were thought to be exempt from traditional oversight; their do-good nature and the commitment of their participants were thought to be sufficient to produce positive results (Christensen, 2004).

  7. Broad-spectrum monitoring strategies for predicting occult precipitation contribution to water balance in a coastal watershed in California: Ground-truthing, areal monitoring and isotopic analysis of fog in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohafkan, M.; Thompson, S. E.; Leonardson, R.; Dufour, A.

    2013-12-01

    We showcase a fog monitoring study designed to quantitatively estimate the contribution of summer fog events to the water balance of a coastal watershed managed by the San Francisco Public Utilities Commission. Two decades of research now clearly show that fog and occult precipitation can be major contributors to the water balance of watersheds worldwide. Monitoring, understanding and predicting occult precipitation is therefore as hydrologically compelling as forecasting precipitation or evaporation, particularly in the face of climate variability. We combine ground-based monitoring and collection strategies with remote sensing technologies, time-lapse imagery, and isotope analysis to trace the ';signature' of fog in physical and ecological processes. Spatial coverage and duration of fog events in the watershed is monitored using time-lapse cameras and leaf wetness sensors strategically positioned to provide estimates of the fog bank extent and cloud base elevation, and this fine-scale data is used to estimate transpiration suppression by fog and is examined in the context of regional climate through the use of satellite imagery. Soil moisture sensors, throughfall collectors and advective fog collectors deployed throughout the watershed provide quantitative estimates of fog drip contribution to soil moisture and plants. Fog incidence records and streamflow monitoring provide daily estimates of fog contribution to streamflow. Isotope analysis of soil water, fog drip, stream water and vegetation samples are used to probe for evidence of direct root and leaf uptake of fog drip by plants. Using this diversity of fog monitoring methods, we develop an empirical framework for the inclusion of fog processes in water balance models.

  8. 德国职业教育公益性实践及其对中国的启示%The Practice on the Non-profit Vocational Education in Germany and Its Inspiration to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜艾芳

    2012-01-01

    The non-profit vocational education is that the vocational education has the non-profit attribute in the abstract. The practice of the non-profit vocational education in Germany has laid a sol- id foundation for the national competitiveness. The current Chinese vocational education has the non- profit attribute, but it's not completely non-profit, which objectively not only has the necessity to fur- ther promote the non-profit attribute, but has great space to make efforts in the non-profit attribute as well. Nowadays and in the future stage, we should draw lessons from German experience and promote the transformation of non-profit vocational education.%职业教育的公益属性,就是职业教育在其抽象意义上所具有的公益教育之性质特点。德国职业教育公益性实践为德国国家竞争力奠定了坚实基础。当前,中国职业教育是一种具有公益属性因素的不完全公益教育,客观上不仅具有进一步推进公益属性化发展的现实必要性,而且依然具有很大的公益属性努力空间。当前和今后一个时期,中国的职业教育应当借鉴德国经验,有针对性地推进职业教育公益属性的转型。

  9. Professional identifications of Social Work in the public and non-profit private sector in time of crisis in Malaga (Andalusia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Sánchez-Luque

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on Social Work (SW show that a lack of social recognition of the discipline and of the profession as a group continues to persist. This work comparatively analyses how the professional identifications of SW are constructed in various sectors of intervention in times of Crisis in Malaga (Andalusia, Spain. Qualitative research is carried out through interviews with 20 professionals (10 from the public sector and 10 from the non-profit private sector between July and November 2015. The results indicate that the personnel interviewed allude to the performance of the function of aid to populations to identify their role, regardless of the sector. However, the aid is determined by social and economic changes. The impact of the Crisis on professional practice stands out amongst these through social cuts, the suppression of budgets, services and jobs. From the point of view of the public sector, these aspects generate a greater bureaucratization, an increase in clients and the complexity of their needs. From the point of view of the non-profit private sector, these limitations are compensated through the prominence of the aid relationship.  This highlights that the identifications of SW are shaped by the social, economic and political circumstances that historically and contextually condition the hegemony of the social aid from the standpoint of different sectors. 

  10. 从非盈利组织视角看民办高等教育%From the perspective of private higher education non-profit organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凤伟

    2013-01-01

    民办高等学校是一个特殊的非盈利组织,其办学活动处于公益与盈利的矛盾冲突之中,具有较强的独立性和专业性。由于多方面的原因,我国民办高校的市场化特征表现得非常明显,对我国民办高等教育的发展产生着重大影响。从非盈利组织视角看,获取公众支持和混合支持是私立(民办)高等教育发展的共同趋势。%Private colleges and universities is a special non-profit organization whose activities are in public schools and profitability among the conflicts, with strong independence and professionalism. Due to various reasons, China's market-oriented private colleges were very obvious characteristic of the development of private higher education produce significant impact. From the perspective of non-profit organizations to obtain public support and mixed support private (private) common trend of higher education development.

  11. Research on Social Non-Profit Organization Financial Performance Evaluation%社会非营利组织财务绩效评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤文利

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the existing problems of social non-profit organization financial performance evaluation. It puts forward corresponding countermeasures combining with the current development situation of our non-profit organizations from following six aspect clearly defining rights and responsibilities, focusing on the performance evaluation work, perfecting the evaluation system, improving the evaluation personnel quality, creating suitable development environment, innovating independent revenue model.%分析了其财务绩效评价的社会公益性针对存在的问题,结合我国非营利组织发展的现状,从明确权责、重视绩效评价工作、完善评价体制、提高评价人员素质、营造适宜的发展环境、创新自主创收模式6个方面提出了相应的解决对策。

  12. New insight into the correlations between land use and water quality in a coastal watershed of China: Does point source pollution weaken it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, Jinliang; Pontius, Robert Gilmore; Hong, Huasheng

    2016-02-01

    Uncovering the associations between land use and river water quality is useful for managing land-based pollution in the catchment-coast continuum. However, it is not clear how land use affects water quality in the context of simultaneous point source (PS) pollution. In this study, we develop a self-organizing map (SOM)-based approach to explore the relationship between land use and water quality in the Minjiang River Watershed, Southeast China. Water samples from 139 headwater sub-watersheds were associated with six land use categories, namely, Woodland, Agriculture, Orchard, Built-up, Unused land and Water. Sampling sites are delineated into six clusters based on six water quality parameters: ammonium-N, nitrate-N, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphate, total phosphate and potassium permanganate index. Local relationships between land use and water quality among four clusters that have sufficient sample sizes are further identified. There is no significant land use-water quality correlation in one of the four clusters (including 37 sub-watersheds). And the greater the PS pollution is, the less significant the land use-water quality correlations are in clusters. The results demonstrate how PS pollution weakens the land use-water quality correlation. Our method can help to determine whether non-point source or PS pollution exerts greater influence on the quality of the water coming from watershed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling global nutrient export from watersheds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, C.; Bouwman, L.; Seitzinger, S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe how global models can be used to analyze past and future trends in nutrient export from watersheds and how such models can be used to analyze causes and effects of coastal eutrophication. Future nutrient inputs to coastal waters may be higher than today, and nutrient ratios may depart fr

  14. Problems in Development of Non-profit Organizations in China and Countermeasures%我国发展非营利组织的问题和对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶韵

    2013-01-01

      Starting from the problems in the development of non-profit organizations in China, this article gives the suggestions on how government create conditions to promote the development of non-for-profit organizations, and how nonprofit organizations continuously improve their capacity for survival and development.%  本文从我国非营利组织发展中存在的问题出发,对政府应如何创造条件推动非营利组织的发展,非营利组织应如何不断提高自身生存和发展能力提出了建议。

  15. Need of fostering academic research for bridging the gap of and ldquo;science- commerce disconnect and rdquo; in and lsquo;non-profitable' therapy areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant D. Patil

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical companies share the goal of patient benefit with healthcare professionals. However, they are commercial organizations and hence, sometimes, commercial interest may take over science, resulting in and ldquo;science-commercial disconnect and rdquo;. This can result in innovation-deficit and financial burden on the patients. Finding new indications for existing drugs and promoting academic research in and lsquo;non-profitable areas' are some measures to curtail pharmaceutical innovation-deficit. Greater involvement of academicians and non-government organizations in clinical research with government support/funding will help in providing best treatment options to the patients for better outcomes. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2016; 5(6.000: 2295-2297

  16. 云南社会组织绩效评价实证研究%An Empirical Study on Performance Evaluation of Yunnan Non-profit Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王智慧; 李贞

    2014-01-01

    Based on the eight-dimension performance evaluation index system and taking eleven foundations and sixty-nine social associations as examples,this research analyzed the performance of non-profit organizations in Yunnan Province.By em-ploying Analytic Hierarchy Process and Clustering Analysis approach,this research found that there are some problems with these units in their development.Namely,inefficient funding,lack of professional staff and absence of competition and cooperation. To regulate and promote the non-profit organizations of Yunnan to develop in a healthy way,we make the following practical suggestions:establishing performance valuation internet-platform,enhancing fund-raising capability,improving social welfare of the staff and strengthening monitoring and cooperation.%运用八维度绩效评价指标体系,以云南11家基金会和69家社会团体为样本,本文做了一次社会组织绩效评价问卷调查。通过聚类分析,可以很清晰地归纳出目前云南社会组织发展存在资金筹集困难,专业人才缺失,缺乏竞争与合作等问题,并提出构建社会组织绩效评价网络平台,加强筹资能力,提高人员社会保障,加强监管及合作的建议,规范云南社会组织健康发展。

  17. ①浅谈公益性农业科研单位绩效管理%Performance Management in Non-profit Agricultural Research Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔伟丽; 孙慧武; 莽琦; 崔鹤; 郑志灵

    2016-01-01

    With its in-depth development in non-profit agricultural research institutions, with its in-depth development of the national science and technology system reform, performance management as the most effective modern government management, has become increasingly important to promote the comprehensive development of research institutions. In this paper, the current performance management practice of non-profit agricultural research institutions was analyzed and the pending key issues were discussed. Countermeasures for further development were put forward in order to boost the scientific management.%随着公益性农业科研单位绩效管理的深入推进,随着国家科技体制改革的深入开展,绩效管理作为当代政府管理最有效的工具,其对公益性农业科研单位的综合管理和发展日益重要,因此探讨如何有效开展已刻不容缓。本文通过分析公益性农业科研单位绩效管理的有效做法、需要着力研究解决的重点问题,有针对性提出了深入开展绩效管理的对策建议,以期更好的助推农业科技管理工作,促进农业发展。

  18. EXOTIC AND INVASIVE AQUATIC PLANTS IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS: DISTRIBUTION AND RELATION TO WATERSHED LAND USE AND PLANT RICHNESS AND COVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript provides previously unavailable information to researchers and managers concerning exotic plants in the Great Lakes...This work arises out of our broader efforts to describe biota - habitat relationships in coastal wetlands, and as such falls under Aquatic Stresso...

  19. Integrated Resource Management at a Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Cairns, D.; Barnes, C. C.; Mirmasoudi, S. S.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed hydrologists, managers and planners have a long list of resources to "manage." Our group has worked for over a decade to develop and apply the GENESYS (Generate Earth Systems Science) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model. GENESYS was intended for modelling of alpine snowpack, and that work has been the subject of a series of hydrometeorology papers that applied the model to evaluate how climate change may impact water resources for a series of climate warming scenarios through 2100. GENESYS has research modules that have been used to assess alpine glacier mass balance, soil water and drought, forest fire risk under climate change, and a series of papers linking GENESYS to a water temperature model for small headwater streams. Through a major commercialization grant, we are refining, building, adopting, and adapting routines for flood hydrology and hydraulics, surface and groundwater storage and runoff, crop and ecosystem soil water budgets, and biomass yields. The model will be available for research collaborations in the near future. The central goal of this development program is to provide a series of research and development tools for non-profit integrated resource management in the developed and developing world. A broader question that arises is what are the bounds of watershed management, if any? How long should our list of "managed" resources be? Parallel work is evaluating the relative values of watershed specialists managing many more resources with the watershed. Hydroelectric power is often a key resource complimentary to wind, solar and biomass renewable energy developments; and biomass energy is linked to water supply and agriculture. The August 2014 massive tailings dam failure in British Columbia threatens extensive portions of the Fraser River sockeye salmon run, millions of fish, and there are concerns about long-term contamination of water supplies for many British Columbians. This disaster, and many others that may occur

  20. Watershed District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Boundaries show on this map are derived from legal descriptions contained in petitions to the Kansas Secretary of State for the creation or extension of watershed...

  1. Watershed Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Investigating local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. Investigation activities promote learning in an investigations interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…

  2. 非营利组织财务管理问题的对策研究%Solution to the Financial Management Problems of Non-Profit Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单鹏飞

    2013-01-01

    As the economic development and government reform proceed, non-profit organizations in China are increasing. However, their scales are comparatively small, rules and regulations for their operations are less detailed. In addition, the legal and regulatory system are not complete in financial management, the procurement procedure and materials management are chaotic, the financial information are less transparent, and the performance assessment is difficult to be quantified. In order to boost the healthy and sustainable development of non-profit organizations, professional legislation study institutions should be set up to sound relative laws and regulations, the procurement pro-cess should be normalized, advanced financial management system and specialized talents should be introduced, a professional channel for opening financial information should be built to raise information transparency, and a system for evaluating the performance of the organi-zations should be designed.%随着社会经济的发展和政府改革的推进,我国非营利组织数量在不断增加,但是规模相对较小,相关的规章制度不够具体和完善,在财务管理方面存在着法律法规制度上的不完善、组织内部采购和物资管理混乱、财务信息透明度低、绩效评估难以量化等问题。为促进非营利组织的健康可持续发展,应成立专门的立法研究机构,健全完善相关的法律法规政策;加强采购过程的规范化;引进先进的财务管理系统和专业人才;建立公开财务信息的专业渠道,提高信息的透明度;设计专门的评估系统进行非营利组织绩效的评估。

  3. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Healthy Watersheds Protection (HWP) Share ... live in a watershed — thus watershed condition is important to everyone. Watersheds exist at different geographic scales, ...

  4. Linking a Large-Watershed Hydrogeochemical Model to a Wetland Community-Ecosystem Model to Estimate Plant Invasion Risk in the Coastal Great Lakes Region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, W. S.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.; Elgersma, K. J.; French, N. H. F.; Goldberg, D. E.; Hart, S.; Hyndman, D. W.; Kendall, A. D.; Martin, S. L.; Martina, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    In the Laurentian Great Lakes region of the Upper Midwest, USA, agricultural and urban land uses together with high N deposition are contributing to elevated flows of N in rivers and groundwater to coastal wetlands. The functioning of coastal wetlands, which provide a vital link between land and water, are imperative to maintaining the health of the entire Great Lakes Basin. Elevated N inflows are believed to facilitate the spread of large-stature invasive plants (cattails and Phragmites) that reduce biodiversity and have complex effects on other ecosystem services including wetland N retention and C accretion. We enhanced the ILHM (Integrated Landscape Hydrology Model) to simulate the effects of land use on N flows in streams, rivers, and groundwater throughout the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. We used the hydroperiods and N loading rates simulated by ILHM as inputs to the Mondrian model of wetland community-ecosystem processes to estimate invasion risk and other ecosystem services in coastal wetlands around the Michigan coast. Our linked models produced threshold behavior in the success of invasive plants in response to N loading, with the threshold ranging from ca. 8 to 12 g N/m2 y, depending on hydroperiod. Plant invasions increased wetland productivity 3-fold over historically oligotrophic native communities, decreased biodiversity but slightly increased wetland N retention. Regardless of invasion, elevated N loading resulted in significantly enhanced rates of C accretion, providing an important region-wide mechanism of C storage. The linked models predicted a general pattern of greater invasion risk in the southern basins of lakes Michigan and Huron relative to northern areas. The basic mechanisms of invasion have been partially validated in our field mesocosms constructed for this project. The general regional patterns of increased invasion risk have been validated through our field campaigns and remote sensing conducted for this project.

  5. The Strategic Involvement of Stakeholders in the Efficiency of Non-Profit Sport Organisations: From a Perspective of Survival to Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Alexandra Marques Miragaia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyse the efficiency of non-profit sports clubs and identify the perceptions of their directors with regards to the stakeholders that exert the greatest influence over club efficiency levels. In order to analyse the efficiency of these clubs, we made recourse to the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method. We also applied the Mann-Whitney test, to identify whether there are significant differences between efficient and non-efficient clubs with regards to the influence held by their stakeholders. We thus report that the majority of clubs operate efficiently. Both the efficient and the non-efficient clubs classify the club managers, members, sponsors, fans and athletes as the most important stakeholders to their efficiency levels. The results convey how there are no significant differences among the management team perceptions on the role of stakeholders in attaining club efficiency. The study also details the respective procedures that inefficient clubs should adopt in order to approximate the efficiency frontier.

  6. Transforming the tobacco market: why the supply of cigarettes should be transferred from for-profit corporations to non-profit enterprises with a public health mandate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callard, C; Thompson, D; Collishaw, N

    2005-08-01

    Current tobacco control strategies seek primarily to decrease the demand for cigarettes through measures that encourage individuals to adopt healthier behaviours. These measures are impeded and undermined by tobacco corporations, whose profit drive compels them to seek to maintain and expand cigarette sales. Tobacco corporations seek to expand cigarette sales because they are for-profit business corporations and are obliged under law to maximise profits, even when this results in harm to others. It is not legally possible for a for-profit corporation to relinquish its responsibility to make profits or for it to temper this obligation with responsibilities to support health. Tobacco could be supplied through other non-profit enterprises. The elimination of profit driven behaviour from the supply of tobacco would enhance the ability of public health authorities to reduce tobacco use. Future tobacco control strategies can seek to transform the tobacco market from one occupied by for-profit corporations to one where tobacco is supplied by institutions that share a health mandate and will help to reduce smoking and smoking related disease and death.

  7. Provider-related barriers to rapid HIV testing in U.S. urban non-profit community clinics, community-based organizations (CBOs) and hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Laura M; Howerton, Devery; Lange, James; Setodji, Claude Messan; Becker, Kirsten; Klein, David J; Asch, Steven M

    2010-06-01

    We examined provider-reported barriers to rapid HIV testing in U.S. urban non-profit community clinics, community-based organizations (CBOs), and hospitals. 12 primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs; three per region) were sampled randomly, with sampling weights proportional to AIDS case reports. Across PMSAs, all 671 hospitals and a random sample of 738 clinics/CBOs were telephoned for a survey on rapid HIV test availability. Of the 671 hospitals, 172 hospitals were randomly selected for barriers questions, for which 158 laboratory and 136 department staff were eligible and interviewed in 2005. Of the 738 clinics/CBOs, 276 were randomly selected for barriers questions, 206 were reached, and 118 were eligible and interviewed in 2005-2006. In multivariate models, barriers regarding translation of administrative/quality assurance policies into practice were significantly associated with rapid HIV testing availability. For greater rapid testing diffusion, policies are needed to reduce administrative barriers and provide quality assurance training to non-laboratory staff.

  8. The Principle of Subsidiarity and the Development of German Non-profit Sectors%辅助原则与德国非营利部门发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张网成

    2012-01-01

    The principle of subsidiarity is used to allocate the responsibilities between social and political actors in the upper and lower administrative and organizational levels.As an important principle,it has made significant contributions to the development of the non-profit sectors,to the construction of the dual welfare system with German specialties as well as to the transformation of German welfare system in post-war time.German experience could be learned by China in handling with the relationship between the government and the civil organizations as well as in developing Chinese welfare system.%辅助原则是调节不同层级的社会主体之间责任关系的重要原则,在战后德国推动非营利部门发展、构建德国特色的二元福利体系及改革德国福利体制的过程中起过重要的作用。对于我国政府与民间组织的关系定位和福利制度的路径选择,德国的经验有一定的借鉴意义。

  9. Review of Public Services Supply by Non-profit Organization%非营利组织供给公共服务研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐海丽

    2011-01-01

    在公共管理主体多元化和倡导管理重心下移的今天,“政府中心论”的价值理念正在悄然变化,政府不再是社会公共管理职能的惟一主体,大量的社会公共事务落到了第三部门肩上,非营利组织在公共事务治理中发挥着越来越重要的作用。%Today, diversification of public administration body and advocacy of move down the management focus is being formed, the value and ideal of "Government Center" theory is quietly changing, the government is no longer the only body of social public administration function, a large number of social and public affairs have been undertaken by the third department, non-profit organizations are playing an increasingly important role in public affairs management.

  10. [Open space of Non-Profit Organization La Casona de los Barriletes. Support program for youth in the process of being discharged from shelter facilities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Juan José; Mattarucco, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    On this paper we outline a work program called Outpatient Therapeutic Family Space (Open Space) of the Non-Profit Organization La Casona de los Barriletes, whose goals consist of supporting youth going through discharge processes from shelter facilities in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires (CABA) where they were admitted or residing, and contributing with the consolidation of social inclusion processes. After a brief inspection of the history of the institution from where this program is developed, we explain a group of conceptual themes that help us focus on the problems, and we develop notions such as vulnerability, mental condition/disorder/disease, and health/illness/care process. Based on these definitions, we describe areas for the development of multidimensional interventions from an interdisciplinary team, aiming at developing cross-institution and cross-sector coordination allowing for the construction of community reference networks for youth accompanied by their families or affective referents. Later on we analyze certain factors that operate as stimuli and obstacles in this task. Lastly, we present several considerations based on the revision of the work carried out.

  11. Adenovirus-associated health risks for recreational activities in a multi-use coastal watershed based on site-specific quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Arti; McBride, Graham; Wuertz, Stefan

    2013-10-15

    We used site-specific quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to assess the probability of adenovirus illness for three groups of swimmers: adults with primary contact, children with primary contact, and secondary contact regardless of age. Human enteroviruses and adenoviruses were monitored by qPCR in a multi-use watershed and Adenovirus type 40/41 was detected in 11% of 73 samples, ranging from 147 to 4117 genomes per liter. Enterovirus was detected only once (32 genomes per liter). Seven of eight virus detections occurred when E. coli concentrations were below the single sample maximum water quality criterion for contact recreation, and five of eight virus detections occurred when fecal coliforms were below the corresponding criterion. We employed dose-harmonization to convert viral genome measurements to TCID50 values needed for dose-response curves. The three scenarios considered different amounts of water ingestion and Monte Carlo simulation was used to account for the variability associated with the doses. The mean illness risk in children based on adenovirus measurements obtained over 11 months was estimated to be 3.5%, which is below the 3.6% risk considered tolerable by the current United States EPA recreational criteria for gastrointestinal illnesses (GI). The mean risks of GI illness for adults and secondary contact were 1.9% and 1.0%, respectively. These risks changed appreciably when different distributions were fitted to the data as determined by Monte Carlo simulations. In general, risk was at a maximum for the log-logistic distribution and lowest for the hockey stick distribution in all three selected scenarios. Also, under default assumptions, the risk was lowered considerably when assuming that only a small proportion of Adenovirus 40/41 (3%) was as infectious as Adenovirus type 4, compared to the assumption that all genomes were Adenovirus 4. In conclusion, site-specific QMRA on water-borne adenoviruses in this watershed provided a similar

  12. Service & non-profit marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Čedomir

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Services are dominantly untouchable products which cannot be physically owned. Services promotion is difficult for its untouchables. Personal sale is very powerful in service companies because customers must interact with employees. Price is very important for service's companies. It has psychological role, economic role and it creates attitude for goal achievement. Marketing goal for nonprofit organizations is to get an answer from target market Development of marketing strategies of nonprofit organizations consists of defining and analyzing target market and creating and maintaining marketing mix. In nonprofit organizations product is usually an idea or a service. Promotion in nonprofit organizations is very important. Personal sale, promotional sale, advertising and publicity are used for communicating an idea and informing people about services.

  13. 非营利组织理事会治理与财务绩效研究%Research on Board Governance and Financial Performance of Non-profit Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜克高; 薛钱伟

    2013-01-01

    The paper carries out theoretical analysis and empirical study on the influence of board governance on finan -cial performance of non -profit organizations .The major findings include:expanding the board size can enhance its abil-ity in spanning boundary and absorbing resources , and helps to improve the financing ability and financial performance of non-profit organizations;board′s political association has a positive impact on financing ability and financial perform -ance , because it makes non -profit organizations carry out social mobilization and financing by depending on the govern -ment′s political resources;director′s high age will weaken the financing ability of non -profit organizations , and is not conducive to the improvement of financial performance of non -profit organizations .%本文就理事会治理对非营利组织财务绩效的影响进行了理论分析和实证研究,发现扩大理事会规模能增强理事会边界跨越和资源吸纳的能力,有利于改善非营利组织的筹资能力和财务绩效;理事会的政治关联使非营利组织能依赖政府的政治资源进行社会动员和筹集资金,对筹资能力和财务绩效具有积极影响;理事年龄过高将削弱非营利组织的筹资能力,不利于非营利组织财务绩效的提高。

  14. 非营利性项目社会评价的定量研究%The Quantitative Research on the Social Evaluation for the Non-profit Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝龙

    2013-01-01

    With rapid development of Chinese economy, the supply of public goods and service increases constantly, one of which is non-profit projects. Due to the characteristics of non-profit projects, the social evaluation should be the main content of the evaluation of non-profit projects. This paper is to aim at the "public" nature of non-profit projects and to perform quantitative research on the social evaluation for the non-profit projects. First of all, this paper demonstrated the practice and theory of the so-cial evaluation for the non-profit projects. Based on the demonstration, this paper described the basic framework of the social eval-uation for the non-profit projects, adopted the system dynamics method to perform the quantitative study on the social evaluation for non-profit projects, and analyzed the social revenue of non-profit projects through the macro-data obtained. In the end, this paper used road project in northern China to perform case study to verify the viewpoint of this paper.%  随着我国社会经济的快速发展,公共产品和服务的供给也在不断地增长,其中之一就是非营利性项目。由于非营利性项目所具有的“公共”属性以及不以盈利为主要目的,因此对其进行评价应以社会评价为主。本文的研究主要是针对非营利性项目的“公共”属性,开展非营利性项目社会评价的定量研究。首先,本文对非营利性项目社会评价的实践和理论进行了回溯。其次,在此基础之上,本文给出了非营利性项目社会效益评价的基本框架,采用了系统动力学方法开展非营利性项目社会评价的定量研究,通过获取的宏观数据,对非营利性项目的社会效益进行分析。最后,本文以北方地区某跨省公路为例来进行案例分析,对本文的观点进行了验证。

  15. The influence of episodic mood disorders on length of stay among patients admitted to private and non-profit hospitals with alcohol dependence syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin B. Dickerson

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Episodic mood disorders are often associated with alcohol dependence. Few studies have explored the contribution of episodic mood disorders to length of stay among those hospitalized with alcohol dependence syndrome. Filling this research gap could improve care for patients while minimizing hospital utilization costs. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Hospital Discharge Survey. ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify those admitted to a private or non-profit hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome, and a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (n=358. Descriptive statistics were used to highlight differences in key demographic and hospital variables between those with and without episodic mood disorders. Negative binomial regression was used to associate episodic mood disorders with hospital length of stay. Incidence rate ratios were calculated. Co-morbid episodic mood disorders (b=0.31, P=0.001, referral to a hospital by a physician (b=0.35, P=0.014, and increasing age (b= 0.01, P=0.001 were associated with longer hospital stays. Hospital patients with an admitting diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome were 36% more likely to have a longer hospital stay if they also had a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (IRR=1.36, CI=1.14-1.62. Patients admitted to a hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome should be routinely screened for episodic mood disorders. Opportunities exist for enhanced transitional care between acute, ambulatory, and community-based care settings to lower hospital utilization.

  16. The influence of episodic mood disorders on length of stay among patients admitted to private and non-profit hospitals with alcohol dependence syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Justin B

    2011-02-22

    Episodic mood disorders are often associated with alcohol dependence. Few studies have explored the contribution of episodic mood disorders to length of stay among those hospitalized with alcohol dependence syndrome. Filling this research gap could improve care for patients while minimizing hospital utilization costs. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of the National Hospital Discharge Survey. ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes were used to identify those admitted to a private or non-profit hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome, and a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (n=358). Descriptive statistics were used to highlight differences in key demographic and hospital variables between those with and without episodic mood disorders. Negative binomial regression was used to associate episodic mood disorders with hospital length of stay. Incidence rate ratios were calculated. Co-morbid episodic mood disorders (β=0.31, P=0.001), referral to a hospital by a physician (β=0.35, P=0.014), and increasing age (β= 0.01, P=0.001) were associated with longer hospital stays. Hospital patients with an admitting diagnosis of alcohol dependence syndrome were 36% more likely to have a longer hospital stay if they also had a co-morbid diagnosis of an episodic mood disorder (IRR=1.36, CI=1.14-1.62). Patients admitted to a hospital with alcohol dependence syndrome should be routinely screened for episodic mood disorders. Opportunities exist for enhanced transitional care between acute, ambulatory, and community-based care settings to lower hospital utilization.

  17. Lead isotopic compositions of soil and near-surface till profiles from a watershed containing arsenic-enriched groundwater in coastal Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert; Foley, Nora; Wandless, Gregory; Dillingham, Jeremy; Colvin, Anna

    2005-01-01

    Lead isotope compositions of soils and near-surface tills from an area of coastal Maine known to have groundwater with anomalously high arsenic contents were measured in order to determine the source of the lead and, by inference, possible sources of arsenic. Five soil and till sites were selected for detailed chemical and isotopic analysis. To construct profiles of the soil and till horizons, five samples were collected at 10-cm intervals from the surface to the base of each horizon. Total lead and arsenic concentrations and lead isotopic compositions were measured for 48 leaches and bulk residues. The soils and tills are underlain by sulfidic schists of the Penobscot Formation. Several generations of minerals containing arsenic and lead exist in the regional bedrock, including rock-forming silicates (feldspar and micas), sulfide minerals formed during diagenesis (for example, arsenic-rich pyrite), and sulfide and oxide minerals that formed as a result of Silurian metamorphic and igneous events (for example, arsenopyrite, galena, iron-oxides, and arsenic-sulfides). A young group of secondary minerals (for example, iron-hydroxides, arsenic-hydroxides, lead-sulfate, and arsenic-jarosite) formed from recent weathering and pedogenic processes.

  18. A Research on the Perfection of Preferential Tax System for ChineseNon-Profit Organizations%我国非营利组织税收优惠法律制度完善的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波

    2012-01-01

    In order to encourage the development of non-profit organizations, our country enacted a series of tariff preference measures to the donators and also the non-profit organizations themselves. But the current tax preference system that exists some deficiencies can't meet the requirements of Chinese non-profit organizations' development. Our country should perfect our nonprofit tax preferec elegal system by distinguishing the properties of nonprofit or- ganizations, making reasonable tax exemption for the profit income of nonprofit organizations and improving the do- nation incentive mechanisms ere, so as to realize the sustainable development of the non-profit organizations.%我国为鼓励非营利组织的发展,为捐赠人和非营利组织自身都制定了一系列税收优惠措施。但是现阶段的税收优惠制度存在的诸多不足不能满足我国非营利组织的发展要求。我国应从合理区分非营利组织性质,对非营利组织的营利收入予以合理免税、改进捐赠激励机制等方面完善非营利组织的税收优惠法律制度,以便实现非营利组织的可持续发展。

  19. Analysis of administrative mechanism of non-profit geological survey industry%公益性地质调查行业管理机制探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽佳; 方伟

    2014-01-01

    为了探索和完善公益性地质调查行业管理机制,本文在分析公益性地质调查行业运行现状的基础上,分析了公益性地质调查在管理中的问题,如整个行业运行过程中管理方式单一、中央和地方的协调性不高、权利分配不够清晰、公益性特点不够突出等。通过借鉴和对比气象、测绘、地震三个行业的管理机制,从四个方面提出了公益性地质调查行业完善自身管理机制的建议:完善行业法律体系;在机构设置上更强调对服务项目的管理;在管理机制上丰富上下级沟通形式,强化管理层次和职权分配;项目设立上充分发挥行业特点,挖掘本身的服务潜力,紧跟社会需求。%This research investigates the current operation of non-profit geological survey industry , aiming to explore and perfect the administration of public geological survey .The authors find that the main problem facing public geological survey administration is that the administrative approach in the w hole management process is simplex .Consequently ,the boundary between central power and local power is not delimited ,which leads to redundant coordinated actions .To cope with these problems ,this paper puts forward four solutions on the administration institution perfection immediately after comparative institution analysis on meteorology administration ,survey administration and seismological administration .The solutions are as follows :first ,efforts should be made to perfect industry laws ;second ,priority of organization set-up should be given to services projects administration;third ,do improvement on hierarchy or vertical communications and delimit authority boundaries more clearly ;last but not least ,establishment of projects should be social demand oriented to make full use of industry own services potential .

  20. Development of non-profit organisations providing health and social services in rural South Africa: a three-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosa Moshabela

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In an effort to increase understanding of formation of the community and home-based care economy in South Africa, we investigated the origin and development of non-profit organisations (NPOs providing home- and community-based care for health and social services in a remote rural area of South Africa. METHODS: Over a three-year period (2010-12, we identified and tracked all NPOs providing health care and social services in Bushbuckridge sub-district through the use of local government records, snowballing techniques, and attendance at NPO networking meetings--recording both existing and new NPOs. NPO founders and managers were interviewed in face-to-face in-depth interviews, and their organisational records were reviewed. RESULTS: Forty-seven NPOs were formed prior to the study period, and 14 during the study period--six in 2010, six in 2011 and two in 2012, while four ceased operation, representing a 22% growth in the number of NPOs during the study period. Histories of NPOs showed a steady rise in the NPO formation over a 20-year period, from one (1991-1995 to 12 (1996-2000, 16 (2001-2005 and 24 (2006-2010 new organisations formed in each period. Furthermore, the histories of formation revealed three predominant milestones--loose association, formal formation and finally registration. Just over one quarter (28% of NPOs emerged from a long-standing community based programme of 'care groups' of women. Founders of NPOs were mostly women (62%, with either a religious motivation or a nursing background, but occasionally had an entrepreneurial profile. CONCLUSION: We observed rapid growth of the NPO sector providing community based health and social services. Women dominated the rural NPO sector, which is being seen as creating occupation and employment opportunities. The implications of this growth in the NPO sector providing community based health and social services needs to be further explored and suggests the need for greater

  1. Food products qualifying for and carrying front-of-pack symbols: a cross-sectional study examining a manufacturer led and a non-profit organization led program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Teri E; Cohen, Joanna E; Lou, Wendy Y; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2013-09-13

    Concern has been raised that the coexistence of multiple front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition rating systems in a marketplace may mislead consumers into believing that a specific food with a FOP is 'healthier' than foods without the symbol. Eleven summary indicator FOP systems are in use in Canada, including one non-profit developed system, the Heart and Stroke Foundation's Health Check™, and ten manufacturer-developed systems, like Kraft's Sensible Solutions™. This study evaluated FOP's potential to mislead consumers by comparing the number of products qualifying to carry a given FOP symbol to the number of products that actually carry the symbol. The nutritional criteria for the Health Check™ and the Sensible Solutions™ systems were applied to a 2010-2011 Canadian national database of packaged food products. The proportion of foods qualifying for a given FOP system was compared to the proportion carrying the symbol using McNemar's test. Criteria were available to categorize 7503 and 3009 of the 10,487 foods in the database under Health Check™ and Sensible Solutions™, respectively. Overall 45% of the foods belonging to a Health Check™ category qualified for Health Check's™ symbol, while only 7.5% of the foods carried the symbol. Up to 79.1% of the foods belonging to a Sensible Solutions™, category qualified for Sensible Solutions's™ symbol while only 4.1% of the foods carried the symbol. The level of agreement between products qualifying for and carrying FOP systems was poor to moderate in the majority of food categories for both systems. More than 75% of the products in 24 of the 85 Health Check™ subcategories and 9 of 11 Sensible Solution™ categories/subcategories qualified for their respective symbols based on their nutritional composition. FOP systems as they are currently applied are not, in most instances, a useful guide to identifying healthier food products in the supermarket as many more products qualify for these systems than the number

  2. Balanced Scorecard: a New Perspective of the Performance Evaluation of the Non-profit Organization%平衡计分卡:非营利组织绩效评估的新视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭泽保

    2012-01-01

    平衡计分卡作为先进的绩效评估方法,开始应用到非营利组织绩效评估之中,为改善和加强非营利组织绩效管理提供了一个崭新的视角。针对平衡计分卡在非营利组织绩效评估应用中存在的障碍,在组织使命与战略规划、顾客满意度、财务维度、信息沟通等方面提出具体的对策与建议。%As an advanced performance evaluation methods, the balanced scorecard was applied in the performance evaluation of the non-profit organization which provided a new perspective of improving and strengthening the performance management of the non-profit organization. Aiming at the obstacles of the balanced scorecard applied in the performance evaluation of the non-profit organization, the paper put forward concrete countermeasures and suggestions from the organization's mission and strategic planning, customer satisfaction, financial dimensions and information communication.

  3. 基于公允价值的民间非营利组织会计研究%Based on the Research on Non Profit Organizations Accounting of Fair Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王育英

    2011-01-01

    随着全球经济一体化进程不断加快,以历史成本为主的会计计量模式已不能满足会计信息使用者需要,在民间非营利组织会计中扩大公允价值应用已是大势所趋。文章分析了民间非营利组织会计的现行计量属性,在此基础上,对公允价值在民间非营利组织会计中的应用进行初步探讨。%As the acceleration of the global economic integration, the accounting measurement that based on historic cost can't meet the demand of accounting information user, expand the fair value for non profit organizations accounting is an irresistible trend. The article has analyzed the current measurement attributes for the non profit organization accounting, Based on this, start the discussion on the application of fair value used in the non profit organization accounting.

  4. Financial Risk and Early-warning Index System Design for Non-profit Organization%非营利性组织财务风险及预警指标体系设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽

    2012-01-01

    Financial risk management is an important part of non - profit organization financial activities. The concept, classification and characteristics of non - profit organization financial risk were briefly discussed. An early - warning index system was constructed from four levels:earning power, spending ability, asset management ability and solvency. It is beneficial for providing reference for non - profit organization financial risk prevention and control.%财务风险管理是非营利性组织财务活动的重要组成部分.在阐述非营利性组织财务风险的内涵、分类及其特点的基础上,从收入能力、支出能力、资产管理能力和偿债能力4个层次建立了非营利性组织财务风险预警指标体系,旨在为非营利性组织财务风险防范与控制提供参考依据.

  5. The Sample Analysis of For-profit and Non-profit Distinguishing Management for Non-governmental Schools%民办学校营利性和非营利性分类管理的实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方建锋

    2011-01-01

    本文基于调研分析了民办学校实施营利性、非营利性分类管理的时机、理由、适用的教育领域以及推行分类管理后学校的选择、学校资产归属等问题,提出应结合我国民办教育实际,将民办学校划分为营利性民办学校、非营利性不要求合理回报的民办学校、非营利性要求合理回报的民办学校三种,并实施相应的配套政策。%This study focuses on the research of the for-profit and non-profit distinguishing management for non-governmental schools,including time,reason,educational field,school's choices,and school capital ownership after the implementation of distinguishing management policy and analyses the spot check result.According to the factual situation in China,the non-governmental schools can be categorized into three classes with the implementation of relevant educational policy,which are for-profit non-governmental schools,non-profit non-governmental schools with no reasonable return and non-profit non-governmental schools with reasonable return.

  6. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  7. Attenuation of landscape signals through the coastal zone: A basin-wide analysis for the US Great Lakes shoreline, circa 2002-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compare statistical models developed to describe a) the relationship between watershed properties and Great Lakes coastal wetlands with b) the relationship developed between watershed properties and the Great Lakes nearshore. Using landscape metrics from the GLEI project (Dan...

  8. Elements Portfolio Analysis of the Business Model of Non-profit Standards Organization%非营利标准组织商业模式要素组合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬娟

    2014-01-01

    In the context of market economy, business model is an important support for the sustainable development of an organization. Taking three non-profit standards organization with international influence (ISO, IEC and ASTM) for examples, the paper conducts an elements portfolio analysis of business model, providing a reference for finding a balance between social and economic values for non-profit organizations.%在市场经济的大环境下,商业模式是一个组织可持续发展的重要支撑。本文以ISO、IEC和ASTM三个有国际影响力的非营利标准组织为例,进行商业模式要素组合分析,以期为非营利标准组织寻求社会价值与经济价值之间的平衡提供借鉴参考。

  9. Adopt Your Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adopt Your Watershed is a Website that encourages stewardship of the nation's water resources and serves as a national inventory of local watershed groups and...

  10. Coastal Morphology and Coastal Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Graaff, J.

    2009-01-01

    Lecture notes ct5309. Tides, currents and water; coastal problems; sediment transport processes; coastal transport modes; longshore transport; cross-shore transport; fundamentals of mud; channels and trenches; coastal protection; application of structures; application of nourishments.

  11. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  12. 论非营利组织在水库移民后期扶持中的作用%Functions of Non-profit Organizations in Later-stage Support of Reservoir Immigrants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    嵇雷

    2013-01-01

      水库移民后期扶持系统的组织结构包括政府、企业、非营利组织。其中,非营利组织以其特有的组织优势,在提供社会服务、化解社会风险、保障移民权益、增进移民整合、提升社会资本存量、促进移民社会发展等方面发挥了重要作用。%Organizations which support reservoir immigrants after moving include governments, enterprises and non-profit organizations (NPO). Among these, NPO with its special advantages is vital to provide social service, eliminate social risks, protect immigrants, rights, promote integration of them, increase their social capital and hasten social development.

  13. 非营利组织财务开发策略分析:利益相关者视角%Financial Development Strategy of Non - profit Organizations (NPO) Based on the Perspective of Stakeholders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程博; 王建玲; 熊婷

    2011-01-01

    When both the "government" and "market" fail to function, non -profit organizations are created and the social structure of modern triple is built. As the third sector, the non -profit organizations, in providing the public goods and services distribution, have too much responsibility for social development in the transformation of society in China. However, the bottleneck of funds of non -profit organization in China restrain their development. Many scholars from political and administrative science, sociology, management, economics and governance studied the necessity of nonprofit organizations and the value and significance. So far as it is concerned, there is few about the system of financial development of the non - profit organizations. Therefore, this article attempts to explore the stakeholder perspective studies, by establishing the concept of public relations model and a series of financial development strategy for Chinas financial development for nonprofit organizations in order to provide guidance to try to alleviate or solve the main difficulties they face and achieve a healthy and sustainable development.%“政府”和“市场”双双失灵之时产生了非营利组织,构筑了现代三元社会结构.作为第三部门的非营利组织为社会提供公共产品和服务配送,在中国的转型社会中肩负着太多的责任,其发展状况是中国社会能否成功转型的关键,然而,资金瓶颈制约着中国非营利组织的生存和发展.众多学者已从政治学、行政学、社会学、管理学、经济学以及治理与善治等视角研究非营利组织存在的必要性和作为社会公益人不断演进的价值及意义,但迄今为止,系统研究非营利组织财务开发的文献甚少.因此,从利益相关者视角进行探索性研究,建立公共关系概念模型,提出了一系列财务开发策略,为我国为非营利组织财务开发提供指导意见,试图缓解或解决其所面临的主要困境,以实现健康可持续发展.

  14. Decision-making in Coastal Management and a Collaborative Governance Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over half of the US population lives in coastal watersheds, creating a regional pressure for coastal ecosystems to provide a broad spectrum of services while continuing to support healthy communities and economies. The National Ocean Policy, issued in 2010, and Coastal and Marin...

  15. Decision-making in Coastal Management and a Collaborative Governance Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over half of the US population lives in coastal watersheds, creating a regional pressure for coastal ecosystems to provide a broad spectrum of services while continuing to support healthy communities and economies. The National Ocean Policy, issued in 2010, and Coastal and Marin...

  16. Watershed Boundaries - Watershed Boundary Database for Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer of the Subbasins (8-digit), Watersheds (10-digit), and Subwatersheds (12-digit) for Montana. This...

  17. 社会资本举办的非营利性医疗机构营利行为分析与对策研究%Study on Seeking Profit Behavior and Countermeasures of Non-profit Medical Institution s Launched by Social Capital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段光锋; 田文华; 金春林; 吴扬; 夏文明

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, the article summarized the possible seeking profit behavior based upon the characteristics of non-profit hospital launched by social capital. Secondly, the reasons of seeking profit behavior were analyzed. Finally, the preventive countermeasures were put forward, which would make sure that non-profit hospitals launched by social capital were non-profit and public interest.%根据非营利性医疗机构的性质,文章归纳总结了社会资本举办的非营利性医疗机构可能存在的营利行为,并对其愿因进行了分析,最后提出了防范社会办非营利性医疗机构营利行为的对策,以确保其非营利性和公益性.

  18. 制度变迁视域中政府与非营利组织的关系研究——以上海市非营利组织发展为例%Relationships between the Government and the Non-profit Organizations in the Perspective of Institutional Change Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田恒

    2012-01-01

    At a time of diversification of subjects in public governance,the non-profit organization is undoubtedly one of the important participation subjects.The premise,without any doubt,is that the non-profit organizations are full developed,and that their development is affected by current institutional and environmental forces.Therefore,the institution composes one of the significant variables in analyzing the development of the non-profit organizations and the relationships between the government and the non-profit organizations.In view of this,this paper analyses the logical evolution of the relationships between the government and the non-profit organizations.It is helpful for us to comprehend the trend of the relationships between the government and the non-profit organizations macroscopically,and then provide ideas for policy making.%在强调公共治理主体多元化的今天,非营利组织无疑是重要的参与主体之一。当然,这是以非营利组织的充分发展为前提的,而非营利组织的发展又必然受到特定环境下的制度的影响。因此,制度就构成了分析非营利组织的发展及其与政府关系的一个重要变量。鉴于此,本文从制度变迁视角分析政府与非营利组织关系的逻辑演变,有助于从宏观上理解政府与非营利组织关系的走向,进而为公共政策实践提供思考。

  19. Geospatial techniques for developing a sampling frame of watersheds across a region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresswell, Robert E.; Bateman, Doug; Lienkaemper, George; Guy, T.J.

    2004-01-01

    Current land-management decisions that affect the persistence of native salmonids are often influenced by studies of individual sites that are selected based on judgment and convenience. Although this approach is useful for some purposes, extrapolating results to areas that were not sampled is statistically inappropriate because the sampling design is usually biased. Therefore, in recent investigations of coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) located above natural barriers to anadromous salmonids, we used a methodology for extending the statistical scope of inference. The purpose of this paper is to apply geospatial tools to identify a population of watersheds and develop a probability-based sampling design for coastal cutthroat trout in western Oregon, USA. The population of mid-size watersheds (500-5800 ha) west of the Cascade Range divide was derived from watershed delineations based on digital elevation models. Because a database with locations of isolated populations of coastal cutthroat trout did not exist, a sampling frame of isolated watersheds containing cutthroat trout had to be developed. After the sampling frame of watersheds was established, isolated watersheds with coastal cutthroat trout were stratified by ecoregion and erosion potential based on dominant bedrock lithology (i.e., sedimentary and igneous). A stratified random sample of 60 watersheds was selected with proportional allocation in each stratum. By comparing watershed drainage areas of streams in the general population to those in the sampling frame and the resulting sample (n = 60), we were able to evaluate the how representative the subset of watersheds was in relation to the population of watersheds. Geospatial tools provided a relatively inexpensive means to generate the information necessary to develop a statistically robust, probability-based sampling design.

  20. Influences of climate and land use on contemporary anthropogenic watershed phosphorus input and riverine export across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human beings have greatly accelerated nitrogen and phosphorus flows from land to aquatic ecosystems, often resulting in eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, and hypoxia in lakes and coastal waters. Although differences in nitrogen export from watersheds have been clearly linked ...

  1. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  2. Comparing and determining the causes of ribbed mussel nitrogen isotope signatures in three New England sub-watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukensia demissa, the ribbed mussel, is a useful indicator of sources of nitrogen input into coastal watersheds as it possesses a slow tissue turnover rate and is a common salt marsh species. During the summer of 2016, we sampled ribbed mussels from three New England sub-watersh...

  3. Analysis of the Reshaping Strategy of Non-profit Organizations' Image under the Background of Micro-propagation%微传播背景下非营利性组织形象重塑策略探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何云春

    2015-01-01

    非营利性组织在提供公共产品,完善社会保障,增加就业岗位以及公共事业服务等方面发挥了重要的作用. 但微媒体的广泛运用使得非营利性组织的形象受到了巨大的冲击. 微传播背景下的非营利性组织公信力弱化的根源在于政府相关法律制度不健全,组织自身素质存在缺陷以及社会监督体系不完善. 只有政府尽快完善相关法律制度,组织自身在加强宣传的同时努力提升服务能力和水平;社会公众增强自身素质并积极参与和监督以及微传播媒体信息选择机制不断完善,重塑非营利性组织的良好形象才有可能实现.%Nonprofit organizations play an important role in the provision of public goods,perfecting the social security,increasing jobs and public utility services.But the widespread application of micro media has made a negative impact on the image of the non-profit organizations.Micro propagation under the background of nonprofit organization credibility weakening is rooted in that the government related legal system is not sound,the organizations have their own quality defects and the social supervision system is not perfect.Only when the government perfects the relevant legal system as soon as possible,the organization itself strengthens publicity while improving the ability and level of services,the public enhance their quality and actively participate in and supervise that,Micro-media information selection mechanism has been improved can the renewing the good image of the non-profit organizations be achieved.

  4. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  5. Watersheds in disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S

    2014-01-01

    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics o...

  6. 教育类非营利组织案例分析--以可汗学院为例%A Case Study of Non-profit Educatio nal Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅; 张静

    2015-01-01

    可汗学院作为教育类的非营利组织,对全球的教育领域产生了巨大的影响,给传统教育教学带来了一场革命。试以可汗学院为案例,对可汗学院的战略管理进行战略分析、选择和执行研究,同时分析了可汗学院以柔性管理为主导的志愿者管理,通过研究分析,可以为我国的教育类非营利组织的管理与发展提供借鉴。%Khan Academy , which is a non-profit educational organization , has a huge impact on global education field , and brought a revolution to the traditional teaching .By analyzing the case of khan academy for the strategic management of khan acade -my strategic analysis , choice and implementation .The paper analyzes the flexible management of volunteer management in order to provide some assistance in the management for nonprofit organizations .

  7. Export and Metabolism of Carbon in Urban Watersheds: Climate Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. M.; Kaushal, S.

    2014-12-01

    Rivers export and transform globally-significant quantities of carbon from watersheds to coastal ecosystems. Urbanization and climate change influence these fluxes by altering the hydrologic regime, water temperature, and anthropogenic sources of organic matter. Here, we quantify export and metabolism of carbon in highly urbanized, coastal watersheds, and evaluate the importance of physical drivers linked to climate and land use. Using a combination of discrete-samples, continuous water quality sensors, lab experiments, and modeling, we quantified rates of DOC, DIC, and CO2 export as well as changes in DOC quality and in-stream metabolism in four highly developed watersheds of the Chesapeake Bay over three years. Annual DOC and DIC exports from the four watersheds varied from 9 to 23 and 19 to 59 Kg ha-1yr-1 respectively. The range of daily CO2 concentrations was 0.01 to 2.6mg L-1, equivalent to between 0.37 and 53% of daily DOC export across all streams and dates. All sites were net-heterotrophic for the majority of the year (NEP0) during spring and early summer. There was a significant (P<0.05) relationship between gross primary production and ecosystem respiration, suggesting that autotrophic respiration is an important fraction of ER, and labile algal biomass may influence oxygen demand downstream. Our results suggest that urban watersheds can export significant amounts of DOC, DIC, and CO2 to coastal zones. The influence of urbanization on coastal water quality and greenhouse gases may be exacerbated by climate change as temperatures and storm frequency continue to rise.

  8. Green Energy for Your Non Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skulnik, Gary; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2010-01-01

    meet this challenge. * * Helps nonprofits green their efforts and carbon footprint * Shows CEOs, presidents, deans, marketing officers, board members proactive steps they can take to protect the environment * Teaches how to do a self-audit and plan for a more environmentally sensitive future......The definitive, practical, go-to resource guide on helping all charities become more "green" Nonprofit Guide to Going Green is your comprehensive learning tool to guide nonprofits and NGOs towards becoming greener. A desktop reference for any charitable organization to become greener......, this essential book gives your organization the support it needs to take proactive steps to protect the environment while fulfilling its mission. Timely and clearly written, with contributions from experts from around the globe, Nonprofit Guide to Going Green leads the way in helping charities in all countries...

  9. Ambidexterity in non-profit, voluntary organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter

    Artiklen forbinder organisatorisk læring med strategisk ledelse af nonprofit, frivillige organisationer. Den forklarer hvor de to forbundne strategiske udfordringer – frivilligt engagement og organisatorisk læring kan håndteres ved at anvende indsigt fra litteraturen om udforskning og udnyttelse og...... om ambidekstrale organisationer. Artiklen præsenterer tre cases om nonprofit, frivillige organisationer for at tydeliggøre forbindelserne mellem frivilligt engagement og organisatorisk læring. De strategiske implikationer er, at nonprofit frivillige organisationer bør have et ambidekstralt forhold...

  10. Green Energy for Your Non Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skulnik, Gary; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2010-01-01

    , this essential book gives your organization the support it needs to take proactive steps to protect the environment while fulfilling its mission. Timely and clearly written, with contributions from experts from around the globe, Nonprofit Guide to Going Green leads the way in helping charities in all countries...... meet this challenge. * * Helps nonprofits green their efforts and carbon footprint * Shows CEOs, presidents, deans, marketing officers, board members proactive steps they can take to protect the environment * Teaches how to do a self-audit and plan for a more environmentally sensitive future...... * Nonprofit Guide to Going Green delivers a timely and essential call to action for this new century. Can your organization afford not to "go green?"...

  11. Wirkungsorientiertes Non Profit Organisation-Controlling

    OpenAIRE

    Halfar, Bernd; Hegenauer, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    "Benötigen 'Non-for-Profit-Organisationen' ein eigenes Controllinginstrumentarium, das sich von den Aufgaben, Verfahren und Methoden der 'normalen' Controllerarbeit unterscheidet? Müssen sich NPO-Controller nicht auch, so wie es im Controllerleitbild der International Group of Controlling formuliert ist, um Planung, Steuerung, Ergebnistransparenz, Wirtschaftlichkeit, Berichtswesen, Zielorientierung und betriebswirtschaftliche Informationsversorgung kümmern?" (Autorenreferat)

  12. CEIBS' Tenet: Be Non-Profit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    When people are focusing on those "future economic leaders" in China, or searching new faces from China's 1 O0 richest people, what they are doing is a proof of intuition—expecting the birth of new power which symbols the competitiveness of China. Nowadays, the global competition is changing the business environment.No matter standing on a higher point or striving to catch up with, Chinese enterprises need more

  13. A comparative study of a private non-profit hospital and a public hospital on financial operation and sustainable developmen t%不同举办主体的两家非营利性医疗机构财务经营和持续发展比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嫣; 齐璐璐; 朱骞; 朱同玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To indicate the difficulties of operating private non-profit hospitals by a comparative study of a private non-profit hospital and a public hospital in the economic performance and the social benefits. Methods:In-depth interviews and a questionnaire survey were conducted to analyze the economic performance and the social benefits of a private non-profit hospital and a public hospital. Results:Between the private non-profit hospital and the public hospital,there were differences in the economic performance and the sustainable development ability. Conclusion:Public hospitals surpass private non-profit hospitals in the economic performance and sustainable development ability.%目的:比较两家不同举办主体的医疗机构在经济运行情况和社会效益方面的差异,揭示社会资本办医之困境。方法:通过深度访谈和问卷调查,对两家医院经济运行和社会效益等指标和数据进行描述性分析。结果:两家不同举办主体的医疗机构,在经济运行状况和持续发展能力方面存在差异。结论:公立医院的经济运行状况和持续发展能力好于民营医院。

  14. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  15. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  16. Watershed Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  17. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  18. Headwater management alters sources, flowpaths, and fluxes of water, carbon, and nitrogen in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennino, M. J.; Kaushal, S.; Mayer, P. M.; Welty, C.; Miller, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Increased urbanization has altered watershed hydrology and increased nutrient pollution, leading to eutrophication and hypoxia in downstream coastal ecosystems. Due to urban stream degradation, there have been efforts to restore streams and reduce peak-flow discharges and contaminant export through stormwater management and stream restoration. However, there have been relatively few studies comparing watershed scale impacts of contrasting headwater management practices on sources and fluxes of water, carbon, and nutrients across space and time. In this study we compared sources and fluxes of water, carbon (C), and nitrogen (N) along 4 watersheds of contrasting headwater management: 2 urban degraded watersheds with minimal or no stormwater management and 2 managed urban watersheds with stormwater controls and stream restoration. Surface water samples were collected biweekly at USGS gauging stations located within each watershed over 2 years. Spatially, watersheds were sampled longitudinally during 4 seasons. Sources of water, nitrate, and carbon were investigated using isotopic and spectroscopic tracer techniques. Indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) were also used to trace anthropogenic vs. natural water sources. Hydrologic flowpaths (groundwater vs. overland flow) were assessed with longitudinal synoptic surveys using stable water isotopes of H and O. Annual fluxes of water, C, and N, were estimated using the USGS program LOADEST. H and O isotope data showed that the source of stream water is primarily groundwater during summer months, with greater contributions from stormflow during winter months for all 4 watersheds. Elevated levels of indicator anions (F-, Cl-, I-, SO42-) as well as greater "pulses" of C and N over time in the degraded vs. managed watersheds indicate potential sewage sources due to leaky sanitary sewers and greater stormdrain inputs. Unlike the managed watersheds where hydrologic flowpaths were from groundwater in headwaters, the longitudinal

  19. On the Role of the Non-profit Organizations in Public Administration, the Problems and the Countermeasures%非营利组织在公共管理中的作用、存在问题及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方博野; 戴桂玉

    2011-01-01

    在我国,随着市场经济结构的转型,非营利组织在社会公共管理中发挥着越来越重要的作用。现阶段重视对非营利组织的研究,对改善我国的公共管理,具有重要的现实意义。本文试图从非营利组织的特征和发展状况出发,分析其在公共管理中的角色和作用,以及发展过程中存在的问题和不足,并提出了相应的对策,以期对我国非营利组织的发展有一定的借鉴作用。%With the establishment and transformation of the market economy, nonprofit organizations play a greater role in public administration in China. It is genuinely significant to attach a great deal of importance upon the study of nonprofit organizations and to find new approaches to improving public administration. This thesis defines the specific features of the nonprofit organization and its current developmental situation. It analyzes the roles of non- profit organizations in the area of management of public affairs, reveals its problems, and proposes an applicable so- lution for the sake of giving a new perspective for the development of nonprofit organizations in China.

  20. The Definition of Profitable Activities and Improvement of Income Tax System Standard for Non-profit Organizations%营利性行为界定与完善非营利组织所得税制标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张思强; 卞继红

    2011-01-01

    In addition to adherence to income purpose standard and related operating standard,the income tax system standards for non-profit organizations must also be added as follows: the upper limit of income tax preference must fit the objective of maximum organizational performance;the salaries difference exceeding the social average should be levied income tax;the returns of investment below risk-free return are exempt from income tax;if non-restrictive growth rate of net assets exceed the prescribed standards,net assets tax should be levied at progressive tax rate;the determination of pre-tax deductions for administrative expenses are based on the social service amounts.%非营利组织营利性行为所得的税制标准除了必须坚持收入用途标准和相关经营标准外,还必须做如下补充或修正:税收优惠所得上限符合组织绩效最大化目标;高于社会平均劳动报酬的薪酬差额应调增应纳税所得额;不高于无风险投资收益率的出资者回报免征所得税;非限定性净资产增长率超过规定标准的,实行超额累进税率征收净资产税;依社会服务总量确定管理费用的税前扣除额。

  1. 非营利组织的品牌战略探究以“壹基金”为例%A Research on Brand Strategy of Non-profit Organization -- Taking the "One Foundation" as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳; 陈雷

    2011-01-01

    NPo是一支重要的社会资源分配力量。当前,我国NPo虽然数量上大幅增长,但在质量和规模上有待提升,并且大多数不具备品牌效应。“壹基金”在运作的过程中引入品牌战略,形成了其独特的优势。基于品牌战略的视角,剖析“壹基金”的先进管理理念及成功经验,提出培育品牌文化、凸显品牌定位、拓展品牌营销、积极应对品牌危机等的发展对策,有利于整合NPo的内外部资源,进而更有效地服务公众。%Non-profit Organization (NPO) plays an important role in the allocation of social resources. At present, the number of NPO is substantially growing, but its quality and scale still need to be improved. Most of them do not have a brand. "One Foundation" introduces brand strategy in the course of the operation, forming a unique force. It is in favor of integrating internal and external resources to make NPO more effectively serve the public by analyzing the successful experience, and advanced management concepts of "One Foundation" based on the perspective of brand strategy, proposing the training of brand culture, highlighting brand positioning, brand marketing development, the re- sponse to brand crisis and so on.

  2. A Study of the Structures and Development of Non-profit Sport in Universities%高校非营利体育组织构成及发展对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯梦儒; 肖青

    2012-01-01

    With the use of literature review, savant visitation, and questionnaire, we can sum up non-profit sport structures in a university as follows: mass sport structure, high-level athletic team structure, sport association struc- ture, gymnasium manage and training institution structure. In order for the school to be realized as an important channel to cultivate excellent athlete, every sport structure of school will mutate its function, as to carry out scien- tific management, mutual cooperation, and systemic training. Through organizing first-class games to advance ath- lete level, we can build up relationship and intercommunion with other schools and make the best uses of social re- sources for the development of sport.%运用文献资料法、专家访谈法和问卷调查法,简要介绍了我国高校非营利体育组织,包括群众体育组织、协会体育组织、高水平运动队组织和体育场馆及培训机构组织。为了实现学校是国家优秀运动员培养和普及群众体育运动的重要基地的目的,学校各体育组织要转变职能,科学管理,明确分工,相互配合,系统训练。通过打造品牌赛事提高赛事水平,增进校际间、校友间、学校和社会问交流,充分调动社会资源支持学校体育的发展。

  3. Coastal Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, W.T.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals on "Coastal Dynamics", which will be defined in a narrow sense as a mathematical theory, which starts from given equations of motion for the sediment, which leads with the continuity equation and given boundary conditions to a calculated (eventually schematized) coastal topography,

  4. Impacts of reforestation upon sediment load and water outflow in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Ouyang; Theodor D. Leininger; Matt Moran

    2013-01-01

    Among the world’s largest coastal and river basins, the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV)is one of the most disturbed by human activities. This study ascertained the impacts of reforestation on water outflow attenuation (i.e., water flow out of the watershed outlet) and sediment load reduction in the Lower Yazoo River Watershed (LYRW) within the LMRAV...

  5. Welfare non-profit organizations and foundations in Iceland Félagasamtök og sjálfseignarstofnanir sem starfa að velferðarmálum á Íslandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ómar H. Kristmundsson

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-profit organizations and foundations, a part of the so-called third sector, have for a long period of time been an important part of the Icelandic welfare system. Despite this there is limited statistical and research data on their number and operations. The article includes findings from preliminary research on the subject. A theoretical models and international classification systems are used in the analysis to define their number, functions and operations and relations with the government. The data is derived from the authors’ database on the effects of recent economic crisis and historical data on individual non-profits and foundations. The findings confirm their extensive function in welfare services but a changing role through the 20th. century. Nonprofit-government relations have changed accordingly. Based on the authors’ definition 144 non-profit organizations and foundations were in operation in 2009, the former comprising 85% of the total number. A little less than 6 of every 10 were entities with the primary function of providing public service, approx. 2 of every 10 were member-oriented such as self-help societies and similar ratio campaigning organizations. Organizations providing public service have the largest operating activities and number of employees. Approx. 2/3 of the entities had one or two primary income bases. Most frequently the largest portion of the organizations’ income was provided by the central government. The importance of reliable official data and research on the third sector in Icelandic is emphasized.Félagasamtök og sjálfseignarstofnanir, sem eru hluti af hinum svokallaða þriðja geira, hafa um langa hríð gegnt mikilvægu hlutverki í íslenska velferðarkerfinu. Þrátt fyrir þetta skortir upplýsingar um viðfangsefni, starf þeirra og umfang. Í greininni koma fram niðurstöður frumgreiningar á þessum viðfangsefnum. Notast er við greiningalíkön fræðimanna og al

  6. Water quality trading opportunities in two sub-watersheds in the northern Lake Okeechobee watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2017-03-25

    For decades, the increase of nutrient enrichment has threatened the ecological integrity and economic sustainability of many rivers, lakes, and coastal waters, including Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Water quality trading programs have been an area of active development to both, reduce nutrient pollution and minimize abatement costs. The objective of this study was to apply a comprehensive modeling framework, integrating a hydrologic-water quality model with an economic model, to assess and compare the cost-effectiveness of a water quality trading program over a command-and-control approach in order to reduce phosphorus loadings to Lake Okeechobee. The Upper Kissimmee (UK) and Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough (TCNS) sub-watersheds, identified as major sources of total phosphorus (TP) loadings to the lake, were selected for this analysis. The effect of different caps on the market potential was assessed while considering four factors: the least-cost abatement solutions, credit prices, potential cost savings, and credit supply and demand. Hypothetical trading scenarios were also developed, using the optimal caps selected for the two sub-watersheds. In both sub-watersheds, a phosphorus credit trading program was less expensive than the conventional command-and-control approach. While attaining cost-effectiveness, keeping optimal credit prices, and fostering market competition, phosphorus reduction targets of 46% and 32% were selected as the most appropriate caps in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds, respectively. Wastewater treatment facilities and urban areas in the UK, and concentrated animal feeding operations in the TCNS sub-watershed were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas improved pastures were identified as the major credit sellers in both sub-watersheds. The estimated net cost savings resulting from implementing a phosphorus trading program in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds were 76% ($ 34.9 million per

  7. Calibração e aplicação do modelo MUSLE em uma microbacia hidrográfica nos Tabuleiros Costeiros brasileiros Calibration and application of the MUSLE model in a small watershed of the Coastal Table Lands of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junior C. Avanzi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A erosão hídrica é uma das principais preocupações relacionadas ao manejo de solos tropicais e o escoamento superficial o responsável pelo transporte e deposição desses sedimentos, razão por que se objetivou, com este estudo, ajustar um modelo semi-empírico às variáveis hidrológicas do escoamento superficial, aplicando-se a Equação Universal de Perdas de Solo Modificada - MUSLE, em uma microbacia hidrográfica ocupada por plantações de eucalipto e floresta nativa, na região dos Tabuleiros Costeiros, Aracruz, ES. As classes de solo ocorrentes na microbacia são o Argissolo Amarelo textura média/argilosa (PA1, Argissolo Amarelo moderadamente rochoso (PA8 e Plintossolo Háplico (FX. O trabalho foi conduzido no período de 1997 a 2004. Modelos para o deflúvio e vazão de pico foram ajustados, obtendo-se estimativas adequadas, podendo-se utilizá-los para simulação hidrológica. O modelo MUSLE mostrou-se apropriado para predições das perdas de solo na microbacia, recomendando-se os coeficientes "a" e "b" iguais a 14,96 e 0,59, respectivamente, com fator topográfico de 1,28.Water erosion is one of the main worries linked to tropical soil management, surface runoff being responsible for sediment transportation and bedding particles. The objective of this study was to adopt a semi-empirical hydrological model to surface runoff and peak discharge, applying the Modified Universal Soil Loss Equation (MUSLE to a small watershed occupied by eucalyptus plantations and native forest, in the Coastal Table Land region, Aracruz, in the State of Espírito Santo, Brazil. Medium clayey texture Yellow Argisol (PA1, moderately rocky Yellow Argisol (PA8, and Haplic Plinthosol (FX are the main soil classes. Hydrological data were monitored from 1997 to 2004. Models for surface runoff and peak discharge were adjusted, obtaining adequate estimates which can be used for hydrological simulation. The MUSLE model showed itself to be appropriate for

  8. How misapplication of the hydrologic unit framework diminishes the meaning of watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omernik, James M.; Griffith, Glenn E.; Hughes, Robert M.; Glover, James B.; Weber, Marc H.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrologic units provide a convenient but problematic nationwide set of geographic polygons based on subjectively determined subdivisions of land surface areas at several hierarchical levels. The problem is that it is impossible to map watersheds, basins, or catchments of relatively equal size and cover the whole country. The hydrologic unit framework is in fact composed mostly of watersheds and pieces of watersheds. The pieces include units that drain to segments of streams, remnant areas, noncontributing areas, and coastal or frontal units that can include multiple watersheds draining to an ocean or large lake. Hence, half or more of the hydrologic units are not watersheds as the name of the framework “Watershed Boundary Dataset” implies. Nonetheless, hydrologic units and watersheds are commonly treated as synonymous, and this misapplication and misunderstanding can have some serious scientific and management consequences. We discuss some of the strengths and limitations of watersheds and hydrologic units as spatial frameworks. Using examples from the Northwest and Southeast United States, we explain how the misapplication of the hydrologic unit framework has altered the meaning of watersheds and can impair understanding associations between spatial geographic characteristics and surface water conditions.

  9. Realities of the Watershed Management Approach: The Magat Watershed Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Elazegui, Dulce D.; Combalicer, Edwin A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to showcase the experience of the Magat watershed in the implementation of the watershed management approach. Magat watershed was declared as a forest-reservation area through Proclamation No. 573 on June 26, 1969 because of its great importance to human survival and environmental balance in the region. The Magat case demonstrates the important role that ‘champions’ like the local government unit (LGU) could play in managing the country’s watersheds. With the Nueva Viscaya pro...

  10. Research on the autonomy and effectiveness of non-profit organizations in the field of the strong government:A case study of T Community in Tianjin%强政府场域下公益组织的行动自主性与实效性研究--以天津市T社区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓冬

    2015-01-01

    The alignment degree between autonomy and effectiveness is the key influencing factor in the relationship between non-profit organizations and government departments. Through a case study on the running of non-profit organizations ranging from the civilian-run to the government-run, the present essay shows that the relation between the state and the society synchronizes with the interaction and conflicts between the government and social organizations in practice, that government trust is an important factor in influencing the autonomy and effectiveness of non-profit activities. Hence, the mode of government-run public welfare is sketched, which means that the local government establishes the organization, sponsors major portion of the capital for its business, and supervises and evaluates it without interfering in its practice. In the field of strong administration, government-run non-profit activities can coordinate effectively the relationship between the government and the non-profit organization, balance the conflicts between autonomy and effectiveness, and serves as a rational choice of preliminary development of non-profit organization in the community. Non-profit organizations cannot step into the civilian-run non-profit type in participating in community governance, and government-run profit may be the first step in this complicated transformation process.%自主性与实效性之间的契合程度是决定公益组织与政府部门互动形式的关键,以自主性为核心的传统分析范式容易忽视组织行动的实效性。通过对公益组织运作形式由民办到官办的个案研究发现:实践层面的“国家—社会”关系是在政府与公益组织的互动与冲突中演化发展的,政府信任是影响公益组织行动自主性与实效性的重要因素,由此勾勒出官办公益模式,即由地方政府设立并提供主要运作资金,在不干预组织具体实践的情况下对其进行监督与评估。在

  11. Linking ecosystem service supply to stakeholder concerns on both land and sea: An example from Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policies to protect coastal resources may lead to greater social, economic, and ecological returns when they consider potential co-benefits and trade-offs on land. In Guánica Bay watershed, Puerto Rico, a watershed management plan is being implemented to restore declining ...

  12. Climate change and watershed mercury export: a multiple projection and model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Heather E; Knightes, Christopher D; Conrads, Paul A; Feaster, Toby D; Davis, Gary M; Benedict, Stephen T; Bradley, Paul M

    2013-09-01

    Future shifts in climatic conditions may impact watershed mercury (Hg) dynamics and transport. An ensemble of watershed models was applied in the present study to simulate and evaluate the responses of hydrological and total Hg (THg) fluxes from the landscape to the watershed outlet and in-stream THg concentrations to contrasting climate change projections for a watershed in the southeastern coastal plain of the United States. Simulations were conducted under stationary atmospheric deposition and land cover conditions to explicitly evaluate the effect of projected precipitation and temperature on watershed Hg export (i.e., the flux of Hg at the watershed outlet). Based on downscaled inputs from 2 global circulation models that capture extremes of projected wet (Community Climate System Model, Ver 3 [CCSM3]) and dry (ECHAM4/HOPE-G [ECHO]) conditions for this region, watershed model simulation results suggest a decrease of approximately 19% in ensemble-averaged mean annual watershed THg fluxes using the ECHO climate-change model and an increase of approximately 5% in THg fluxes with the CCSM3 model. Ensemble-averaged mean annual ECHO in-stream THg concentrations increased 20%, while those of CCSM3 decreased by 9% between the baseline and projected simulation periods. Watershed model simulation results using both climate change models suggest that monthly watershed THg fluxes increase during the summer, when projected flow is higher than baseline conditions. The present study's multiple watershed model approach underscores the uncertainty associated with climate change response projections and their use in climate change management decisions. Thus, single-model predictions can be misleading, particularly in developmental stages of watershed Hg modeling. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  13. Los códigos de buen gobierno corporativo en las entidades sin ánimo de lucro: en especial en las fundaciones (Codes of good corporate governance in non-profit organizations: especially in foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén García Álvarez

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-Profit Organizations must deal too with corporate governance problems. Therefore, it can be convenient that these types of Organizations have Codes of Good Corporate Governance in order to achieve an optimum attainment of their purposes of general interest and a higher responsibility and efficiency in the administration of the organization. This necessity makes clear especially in Organizations with partnership public-private. In a Code of Good Corporate Governance must deal several aspects, as transparency, accountability, duties and rights of donors and beneficiaries of the foundation, duties fiduciaries of the board members and directors, and enforcement (including options of private enforcement. A las entidades sin ánimo de lucro como, señaladamente las fundaciones, también se debe extender la noción de gobierno corporativo. En este sentido, resulta conveniente que las propias entidades se doten de instrumentos internos como puede ser un código de buen gobierno en aras de lograr una óptima consecución de los fines de interés general y una mayor responsabilidad y eficiencia en la administración de la entidad. Esta necesidad se acrecienta en las fundaciones por medio de las cuales se plasma la colaboración público-privada. En un código de esta naturaleza deben tratarse diversos aspectos, entre los que cabe destacar los mecanismos para lograr un mayor transparencia informativa y un mayor control de la fundación, así como la posición jurídica de los colaboradores, beneficiarios y donantes de la fundación. Igualmente, deben abordarse con rigor y profundidad los deberes de los miembros del Patronato, así como de los órganos directivos de la fundación. Asimismo, deben establecerse medidas para conseguir un adecuado cumplimiento de las disposiciones del código de buen gobierno. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2043112

  14. On the handling of injury risks of non-profit fitness places%论非营利性健身场所伤害风险的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    井厚亮

    2013-01-01

    For handling injury accidents occurring at non-profit fitness places, systems should be established and laws should be interpreted by basing the core on social benefits and the orientation on perfecting sports environ-ments. An ordinary injury accident occurring at such a place as a natural risk in individual life should be borne mainly by the individual;if the individual is impotent to bear or does not have medical insurance, the state should undertake emergency rescue obligation;it is not appropriate to let the administrator and owner etc undertake secu-rity obligation or fair responsibly;if they do not have major negligence, they should not undertake the responsibility for compensation. In order to effectively prevent injury risks, a safety supervision system led by the sports admini-stration should be established, meanwhile, manufacturers’ responsibilities should be probed into, their responsibility fulfilling ability should be enhanced, their duty of care should be intensified.%  处理非营利性健身场所的伤害事故纠纷时,应当以社会利益为核心、以完善体育环境为取向,制定制度、解释法律。其间发生的一般伤害事故,作为个体生活中的自然风险,应主要由个人承担;个人无力承担或未参加医疗保险的,由国家承担紧急救助义务。不宜让管理者和所有人等承担安保义务或公平责任,如果他们没有重大过失,就不应承担赔偿责任。为了有效防范伤害风险,应当建立以体育行政部门为主导的安全监管制度;同时,应当注意落实对生产商的责任追究,提高其责任能力,强化其注意义务。

  15. History of the World Federation of Societies for Laser Medicine and Surgery (WFSLMS) and its Non-Profit Organization (NPO-WFSLMS): Part 2: 2(nd) WFSLMS Meeting (2009) to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohshiro, Toshio

    2015-03-31

    The first part of this historical overview, (see Laser Therapy, 2014; 23: 89-95), took the reader from the conception of the WFSLMS to its inception at the inaugural meeting in Tokyo, 2005 and events up to the 2009 2(nd) WFSLMS in Tokyo when the author was the congress president. The previous article also dealt with the necessity for founding a non-profit organization, NPO-WFSLMS, to handle the commercial and social responsibilities of the WFSLMS. For details, please refer to that previous article. Meetings: The 2(nd) WFSLMS congress was successfully held in 2009 in Japan, under the presidency of Professor Krishna Rau. The third WFSLMS meeting was planned for Paris in 2013 together with the 20(th) ISLSM congress under the Meeting Presidency of Dr Jean Abitbol, while the 19(th) ISLSM was to be held in Korea in 2011 under the Meeting Presidency of Prof. Jin-Wang Kim. Unforseen problems beyond the control of the organizers forced the cancellation of both the 19(th) and 20(th) meetings of the ISLSM, the latter also being the location of the planned third WFSLMS congress in Paris, but with the cooperation of the organizers of the 5(th) congress of the International Phototherapy Association (IPTA) the 3(rd) WFSLMS meeting was held in Lithuania, again under the presidency of Prof Rau concurrently with the 20(th) ISLSM, at which much was debated regarding the future course of NPO-WFSLMS and WFSLMS. The venue of the 2015 21(st) ISLSM Congress was set as Indore, India, and the 4(th) WFSLMS meeting was allocated to Florence, Italy, in tandem with the 22(nd) ISLSM congress. In the interim, NPO-WFSLMS effectively managed laser education programs in Japan for developing country doctors, and also handled the donation of laser systems to Vietnam and Thailand, the latter being under the auspices of the Greek Medical Laser Association, together with associated education programs. The laser-based Blood Saving Campaign (BSaC) has been actively promoted in Asian countries up to the

  16. Evolving Human Alteration of the Carbon Cycle: the Watershed Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Delaney Newcomb, K.; Newcomer Johnson, T.; Pennino, M. J.; Smith, R. M.; Beaulieu, J. J.; Belt, K.; Grese, M.; Blomquist, J.; Duan, S.; Findlay, S.; Likens, G.; Mayer, P. M.; Murthy, S.; Utz, R.; Yepsen, M.

    2014-12-01

    Watersheds experiencing land development are constantly evolving, and their biogeochemical signatures are expected to evolve across both space and time in drainage waters. We investigate how land development influences spatial and temporal evolution of the carbon cycle from small streams to major rivers in the Eastern U.S. Along the watershed continuum, we show that there is spatial evolution in: (1) the amount, chemical form, and bioavailability of carbon; (2) carbon retention/release at the reach scale; and (3) ecosystem metabolism of carbon from headwaters to coastal waters. Over shorter time scales, the interaction between land use and climate variability alters magnitude and frequency of carbon "pulses" in watersheds. Amounts and forms of carbon pulses in agricultural and urban watersheds respond similarly to climate variability due to headwater alteration and loss of ecosystem services to buffer runoff and temperature changes. Over longer time scales, land use change has altered organic carbon concentrations in tidal waters of Chesapeake Bay, and there have been increased bicarbonate alkalinity concentrations in rivers throughout the Eastern U.S. due to human activities. In summary, our analyses indicates that the form and reactivity of carbon have evolved over space and time along the watershed continuum with major implications for downstream ecosystem metabolism, biological oxygen demand, carbon dioxide production, and river alkalinization.

  17. Factors controlling aquatic dissolved inorganic nitrogen removal and export in suburban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineau, M.; Wollheim, W. M.; Stewart, R.; Daley, M.; McDowell, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Human activity has accelerated the nitrogen (N) cycle and enriched the landscape with N which can result in eutrophication, especially in coastal zones where N is typically limiting. N exported to coastal zones is a function of both N loading to aquatic systems and N removal in transit through the river network. To determine drivers of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) removal and export from suburban river networks, we compared 2 well-studied suburban New-England watersheds. The Lamprey River watershed (474 km2) in NH has a mean population density of 53 inhabitants per km2 and feeds into the Great Bay estuary which is designated as N impaired. The Ipswich River (400 km2) in MA has a much higher population density with 302 inhabitants per km2 and feeds into the Plum Island estuary, which is not N impaired. Median (2000 - 2009) watershed DIN export was 171 kg km-2 y-1 for the Ipswich and 77 kg km-2 y-1 for the Lamprey. We used the Framework for Aquatic Modeling in the Earth System (FrAMES) to evaluate the relative importance of anthropogenic N loading and river network DIN processing in determining N export from these watersheds. FrAMES is a spatially distributed and time varying coupled hydrologic and biogeochemical model for river networks. We hypothesized that greater N export relative to population density in the Lamprey watershed was due in part to less aquatic N processing caused by interactions among: 1. The distribution of development/sources in the watershed (i.e. mean flow path length N has to travel), and 2. The area and distribution of intact fluvial wetlands in the watershed. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to determine the relative importance of these factors in limiting aquatic N removal in the Lamprey river watershed. Our results suggest that the distribution of loading within a river system has important influence on nutrient export to coastal zones.

  18. Designing for Watershed Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we describe a collaborative design initiative with three secondary school teachers to promote the use of Web-based inquiry in the context of a watershed investigation. Design interviews that focus on instructional goals and pedagogical beliefs of classroom teachers were conducted. The interview protocol used a curricular framework…

  19. Watersheds in disordered media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S. Andrade Jr.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watershedsseparating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have beenused to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes betweencountries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance,slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in awatershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arisesnaturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide,and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields suchas image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scalingproperties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a moreprofound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed andstatistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of awatershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometricaland physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificialmodel landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be ingood qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  20. Watershed hydrology. Chapter 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elons S. Verry; Kenneth N. Brooks; Dale S. Nichols; Dawn R. Ferris; Stephen D. Sebestyen

    2011-01-01

    Watershed hydrology is determined by the local climate, land use, and pathways of water flow. At the Marcell Experimental Forest (MEF), streamflow is dominated by spring runoff events driven by snowmelt and spring rains common to the strongly continental climate of northern Minnesota. Snowmelt and rainfall in early spring saturate both mineral and organic soils and...

  1. Fundamentals of watershed hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Karl W.J. Williard; Jon E. Schoonover

    2015-01-01

    This is a primer about hydrology, the science of water. Watersheds are the basic land unit for water resource management and their delineation, importance, and variation are explained and illustrated. The hydrologic cycle and its components (precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, soil water, groundwater, and streamflow) which collectively provide a foundation for...

  2. Allegheny County Watershed Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the 52 isolated sub-Watersheds of Allegheny County that drain to single point on the main stem rivers. Created by 3 Rivers 2nd Nature based...

  3. Dual nitrate isotopes clarify the role of biological processing and hydrologic flow paths on nitrogen cycling in subtropical low-gradient watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Natalie A.; Jackson, C. Rhett; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Klaus, Julian; Du, Enhao; Bitew, Menberu M.

    2016-02-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an important nutrient as it often limits productivity but in excess can impair water quality. Most studies on watershed N cycling have occurred in upland forested catchments where snowmelt dominates N export; fewer studies have focused on low-relief watersheds that lack snow. We examined watershed N cycling in three adjacent, low-relief watersheds in the Upper Coastal Plain of the southeastern United States to better understand the role of hydrological flow paths and biological transformations of N at the watershed scale. Groundwater was the dominant source of nitrified N to stream water in two of the three watersheds, while atmospheric deposition comprised 28% of stream water nitrate in one watershed. The greater atmospheric contribution may have been due to the larger stream channel area relative to total watershed area or the dominance of shallow subsurface flow paths contributing to stream flow in this watershed. There was a positive relationship between temperature and stream water ammonium concentrations and a negative relationship between temperature and stream water nitrate concentrations in each watershed suggesting that N cycling processes (i.e., nitrification and denitrification) varied seasonally. However, there were no clear patterns in the importance of denitrification in different water pools possibly because a variety of factors (i.e., assimilatory uptake, dissimilatory uptake, and mixing) affected nitrate concentrations. Together, these results highlight the hydrological and biological controls on N cycling in low-gradient watersheds and variability in N delivery flow paths among adjacent watersheds with similar physical characteristics.

  4. Hydrologic and water quality monitoring on Turkey Creek watershed, Francis Marion National Forest, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.M. Amatya; T.J. Callahan; A. Radecki-Pawlik; P. Drewes; C. Trettin; W.F. Hansen

    2008-01-01

    The re-initiation of a 7,260 ha forested watershed study on Turkey Creek, a 3rd order stream, within the Francis Marion National forest in South Carolina, completes the development of a multi-scale hydrology and ecosystem monitoring framework in the Atlantic Coastal Plain. Hydrology and water quality monitoring began on the Santee Experimental...

  5. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De;

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  6. Watershed based intelligent scissors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieclawek, W; Pietka, E

    2015-07-01

    Watershed based modification of intelligent scissors has been developed. This approach requires a preprocessing phase with anisotropic diffusion to reduce subtle edges. Then, the watershed transform enhances the corridors. Finally, a roaming procedure, developed in this study, delineates the edge selected by a user. Due to a very restrictive set of pixels, subjected to the analysis, this approach significantly reduces the computational complexity. Moreover, the accuracy of the algorithm performance makes often one click point to be sufficient for one edge delineation. The method has been evaluated on structures as different in shape and appearance as the retina layers in OCT exams, chest and abdomen in CT and knee in MR studies. The accuracy is comparable with the traditional Life-Wire approach, whereas the analysis time decreases due to the reduction of the user interaction and number of pixels processed by the method.

  7. Ghana Watershed Prototype Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction/Background A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  8. 辽宁省“非营利”普惠性幼儿园发展存在的问题及对策%Problems andSuggestions on Policy to the Development of Non-profit Inclusive Kindergarten in Laioning Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 张鲜丽; 赵丽

    2014-01-01

    Non-profit inclusive kindergarten is the main part of public preschool education .The government should spare no pains to promote the development of non-profit inclusive kindergarten with reasonable policies . From our foregoing research ,some fundamental problems exiting in the system of non-profit inclusive kindergar-ten in Liaoning province ,such as the low level of inputting of the public property ,less quantity of public kin-dergartens,general lack of standardization in private kindergartens and the lower comprehensive quality of teachers .In view of this ,the author gives some key measures to solve these problems ,such as transforming the exiting public kindergartens ,public finance taking priority to villages , implementing award and subsidy policy to private kindergartens ,and perfecting the system of teacher-employment .%“非营利”普惠性幼儿园是公益性学前教育的主体。政府必须以合理的政策全力推进“非营利”普惠性幼儿园的发展。基于我们的研究,辽宁省“非营利”普惠性幼儿园体系存在着公共财政投入水平偏低、公办园数量少、民办园普遍不规范、教师队伍综合素质较低等基础性问题。在此基础上,笔者提出改造现有公办性质幼儿园、公共财政优先进入乡村、民办幼儿园实施奖补、建立完善教师聘用制度是解决问题的关键。

  9. 公益性城市动物园再现活力的探讨--以广州动物园为例%Study on Reappearing the Non-profit City Zoo Dynamic:A Case Study of Guangzhou Zoo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁毅飚

    2013-01-01

      公益性城市动物园多建于上世纪50~70年代,由政府投资建设,是我国主要的动物迁地保护基地和科普教育基地,体现着一个城市的文明程度和发展水平。随着社会经济发展,公益性城市动物园由于建设资金缺乏、观念落后、产品老化等原因,逐渐缺乏动物主题公园的活力和魅力。文章以广州动物园为例,深入分析公益性城市动物园存在的问题,提出通过淘汰消极印象、展示动物精品、丰富体验项目、提升品牌价值等方法,改善公益性城市动物园的品牌形象、产品质量和经营状况,从而再现动物园活力,吸引更多市民关注并从中受益。%  Most of the non-profit city zoos were built in 1950s to 1970s, invested by the government. They are China’s major ex-situ conservation and science education base, which embody the civilization and development of a city. With social and economic development, non-profit city zoos are gradually lack of animal theme park vitality and charm because of the lack of funds, backward ideas, aging products and other reasons. This paper takes Guangzhou Zoo as a case study and deeply analyzes the existing problems of the non-profit city zoo, according to which give the idea of improving the brand image, product quality and operating conditions of the non-profit city zoo by the ways of eliminating the negative impression, showing the animal boutique, enriching the experience programs and enhancing brand value, thereby reappearing the zoo vitality so that more citizens can give their concerns and benefit from the zoos.

  10. Watershed councils: it takes a community to restore a watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Rebecca Flitcroft

    2011-01-01

    Regulation alone cannot solve complex ecological problems on private lands that are managed for diverse uses. Executing coordinated restoration projects at the watershed scale is only possible with the cooperation and commitment of all stakeholders. Locally organized, nonregulatory watershed councils have proven to be a powerful method of engaging citizens from all...

  11. SPECIFIC DEGRADATION OF WATERSHEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boubacar KANE; Pierre Y.JULIEN

    2007-01-01

    An extensive database of reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout continental United States is compiled and analyzed to determine specific degradation SD relationships as function of mean annual rainfall R, drainage area A, and watershed slope S. The database contains 1463 field measurements and specific degradation relationships are defined as function of A, R and S. Weak trends and significant variability in the data are noticeable. Specific degradation measurements are log normally distributed with respect to R, A, and S and 95% confidence intervals are determined accordingly. The accuracy of the predictions does not significantly increase as more independent variables are added to the regression analyses.

  12. 英国非营利艺术机构管理经验及其启示——以经常性资助机构为例%The Management of Non-profit Art Organizations in UK and its Inspiration:Taking the Regularly Funded Organization as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正兵

    2012-01-01

    英国对艺术领域的资助无论是其规模还是方式而言都享誉全球,也被称为英国模式。本文以经常性资助非营利性艺术机构为例,全面分析英国非营利艺术机构运营的政策背景、制度框架、管理机制,科学剖析其经验及其可资借鉴之处,以期为我国目前正在开展的文化体制改革,特别是文艺院团等具有非营利性质艺术机构的改革提供智力支持。%The British pattern,as a well-known model in governmental aid for arts,performs remarkably in both the scope and manner of patronage.Taking the regularly funded organization as an example,this article analyzes the background of policy,frame of system,and mechanism of management of non-profit art organizations,probes into the experience of the management,so as to bring forth inspiration and reference for the ongoing reform of Chinese cultural system,especially for the reform of non-profit performing art organizations and other art organizations.

  13. Coastal Inlet Model Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Inlet Model Facility, as part of the Coastal Inlets Research Program (CIRP), is an idealized inlet dedicated to the study of coastal inlets and equipped...

  14. COASTAL, Pacific, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a coastal study.

  15. Coastal Analysis, Northampton, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  16. 非营利组织服务导向对组织公民行为与组织绩效的影响%The Impact of Non-profit Organization Service Orientation on Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Organizational Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈鹏熠; 张雅

    2016-01-01

    The paper,based on the questionnaire survey of non-profit organization supervisors and employees,makes an empirical analysis on the influencing mechanism of non-profit organization service orientation on organizational citizenship behavior and organizational performance. The results indicate that non-profit organization service orientation consists of five dimensions:employee personality management,customer relationship management,service encounter management,human resources management and service system management. Employee personality management,customer relationship management, service encounter management and human resources management have positive impacts on employee job satisfaction ,while employee personality management,customer relationship management,human resources management and service system management have positive impacts on organizational commitment. Meanwhile,employee job satisfaction has a positive impact on organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior,organizational commitment has a positive impact on organizational citizenship behavior and organizational performance,and organizational citizenship behavior has a positive impact on organizational performance. Therefore,non-profit organization service orientation has an indirect impact on organi-zational citizenship behavior and organizational performance through employee job satisfaction and organizational commit-ment. In addition,the analysis of multi group structural equation model shows that the impacts of non-profit organization characteristic variables varies significantly in different hypothetical paths.%文章基于非营利组织主管和员工的问卷调查,实证分析了非营利组织服务导向对组织公民行为与组织绩效的影响机制.结果表明,非营利组织服务导向由员工个性管理、顾客关系管理、服务接触管理、人力资源管理和服务系统管理五维度构成;员工个性管理、顾客关系管理、服务接触管

  17. Coastal Navigation Portfolio Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-19

    the entire navigation portfolio of projects , both inland and coastal. The Coastal Structures Management , Analysis, and Ranking Tool (CSMART) is a...FEB 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coastal Navigatoin Portfolio Management 5a. CONTRACT...CIRP.aspx Coastal Inlets Research Program Coastal Navigation Portfolio Management The Coastal Navigatoin Portfolio Management work unit

  18. Introduction to coastal engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D' Angremond, K.; Pluim-van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Lecture notes on genesis of the coastline, climatology, oceanography, coastal morphology, coastal formations, coastalzonde management, tidal inlets and estuaries, pollution and density problems, practical problems and common solutions.

  19. Watershed Boundaries - MO 2015 Metro No Discharge Watersheds (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains watersheds associated with Missouri's use designations for streams listed in Table F - Metropolitan No-Discharge Streams of the Water...

  20. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  1. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    was also evaluated on the riparian scale, with appropriate landscape variables analyzed within riparian buffers around each stream or river channel. Included in the overall watershed assessment are field habitat surveys and analyses of the physical and hydrological characteristics of primary chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and spawning habitat availability and use. This assessment is a significant step in a comprehensive program to ensure the survival and recovery of Columbia River chum salmon in its most productive system and builds on existing recovery planning efforts for these ESA-listed salmonids within the Grays River and the lower Columbia River. This assessment also provides a basis for the recovery of other fish species in the Grays River, including coho salmon, winter steelhead, coastal cutthroat trout, and Pacific lamprey.

  2. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    was also evaluated on the riparian scale, with appropriate landscape variables analyzed within riparian buffers around each stream or river channel. Included in the overall watershed assessment are field habitat surveys and analyses of the physical and hydrological characteristics of primary chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and spawning habitat availability and use. This assessment is a significant step in a comprehensive program to ensure the survival and recovery of Columbia River chum salmon in its most productive system and builds on existing recovery planning efforts for these ESA-listed salmonids within the Grays River and the lower Columbia River. This assessment also provides a basis for the recovery of other fish species in the Grays River, including coho salmon, winter steelhead, coastal cutthroat trout, and Pacific lamprey.

  3. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  4. Five critical questions of scale for the coastal zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, D. P.; Humborg, C.; Emeis, K.; Kannen, A.; Silvert, W.; Tett, P.; Pastres, R.; Solidoro, C.; Yamamuro, M.; Hénocque, Y.; Nicholls, R.

    2012-01-01

    Social and ecological systems around the world are becoming increasingly globalized. From the standpoint of understanding coastal ecosystem behavior, system boundaries are not sufficient to define causes of change. A flutter in the stock market in Tokyo or Hong Kong can affect salmon producers in Norway or farmers in Togo. The globalization of opportunistic species and the disempowerment of people trying to manage their own affairs on a local scale seem to coincide with the globalization of trade. Human-accelerated environmental change, including climate change, can exacerbate this sense of disenfranchisement. The structure and functioning of coastal ecosystems have been developed over thousands of years subject to environmental forces and constraints imposed mainly on local scales. However, phenomena that transcend these conventional scales have emerged with the explosion of human population, and especially with the rise of modern global culture. Here, we examine five broad questions of scale in the coastal zone: How big are coastal ecosystems and why should we care? Temporal scales of change in coastal waters and watersheds: Can we detect shifting baselines due to economic development and other drivers? Are footprints more important than boundaries? What makes a decision big? The tyranny of small decisions in coastal regions. Scales of complexity in coastal waters: the simple, the complicated or the complex? These questions do not have straightforward answers. There is no single "scale" for coastal ecosystems; their multiscale nature complicates our understanding and management of them. Coastal ecosystems depend on their watersheds as well as spatially-diffuse "footprints" associated with modern trade and material flows. Change occurs both rapidly and slowly on human time scales, and observing and responding to changes in coastal environments is a fundamental challenge. Apparently small human decisions collectively have potentially enormous consequences for

  5. Reply to comment on “Suburban watershed nitrogen retention: Estimating the effectiveness of stormwater management structures” by Koch et al. (Elem Sci Anth 3:000063, July 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Koch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reply to a comment on our recent structured expert judgment analysis of stormwater nitrogen retention in suburban watersheds. Low relief, permeable soils, a dynamic stream channel, and subsurface flows characterize many lowland Coastal Plain watersheds. These features result in unique catchment hydrology, limit the precision of streamflow measurements, and challenge the assumptions for calculating runoff from rainfall and catchment area. We reiterate that the paucity of high-resolution nitrogen loading data for Chesapeake Bay watersheds warrants greater investment in long-term empirical studies of suburban watershed nutrient budgets for this region.

  6. Integrated modelling in coastal lagoons: Sacca di Goro case study

    OpenAIRE

    Marinov, D.; Zaldivar, J.M.; Norro, A.; Giordani, G.; Viaroli, P.

    2008-01-01

    A coupled 3D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model was developed and implemented for the Sacca di Goro coastal lagoon. The model considers nutrient and oxygen dynamics in water column and sediments. Among the biological elements, phytoplankton, zooplankton, bacteria, Ulva sp. and commercial shellfish (Tapes philippinarum) were taken into consideration. Nutrients fluxes from the watershed and open sea, as well as atmospheric inputs, heat flux, light intensity and wind shear stress at the water sur...

  7. Incorporating uncertainty into the ranking of SPARROW model nutrient yields from Mississippi/Atchafalaya River basin watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Saad, David A.; Alexander, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    watersheds in the Central Mississippi, Ohio, and Lower Mississippi River basins. With 90% confidence, only a few watersheds can be reliably placed into the highest 150 category; however, many more watersheds can be removed from consideration as not belonging to the highest 150 category. Results from this ranking procedure provide robust information on watershed nutrient yields that can benefit management efforts to reduce nutrient loadings to downstream coastal waters, such as the Gulf of Mexico, or to local receiving streams and reservoirs.

  8. A Series of Studies on Benefit Analysis of Chinese Medical and Health Undertakings:Social Benefit Analysis of China's Non-profit and For-profit Medical and Health during 2005-2009%中国医疗卫生事业效益分析之系列研究——2005-2009年中国非营利与营利医疗卫生效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏; 顾俊

    2012-01-01

    研究2005-2009年全国非营利与营利医疗卫生的发展,中国医疗卫生事业以非营利性为主.医院占据主要床位数.营利医疗机构运用外部资产能力强,非营利机构长期偿债能力强.营利医疗机构有效控制成本费用,就诊方便,住院便捷,以优质医疗服务不断取得社会效益.两类机构还有很大利用资源的空间和提高管理水平.%The development of the national non-profit and for-profit medical health during 2005-2009 was studied, and Chinese medical and health undertaking is given priority to non-profit: Hospitals dominate the number of beds. It is strong to use the ability of external assets for for-profit medical institutions, and it is strong to the long-term solvency of non-profit organization, For-profit medical institutions effectively control costs, convenience for treatment and hospitalization, and gets social benefits constantly with high-quality medical services. These two institutions have great space of use of resources, and can improve the management level.

  9. A Study of the Climate Change during 21st Century over Peninsular Malaysia Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvas, M. L.; Ercan, A.; Ishida, K.; Chen, Z. R.; Jang, S.; Amin, M. Z. M.; Shaaban, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    15 coarse-resolution (150 - 300 km) climate projections for the 21st century by 3 different coupled land-atmosphere-ocean GCMs (ECHAM5 of the Max Planck Institute of Meteorology of Germany, CCSM3 of the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) of the United States, and MRI-CGCM2.3.2 of the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan) under 4 different greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, A2, A1FI) were dynamically downscaled at hourly intervals by a regional hydro-climate model of Peninsular Malaysia (RegHCM-PM) that consisted of Regional Atmospheric Model MM5 that was coupled with WEHY watershed hydrology model over Peninsular Malaysia (PM), at the scale of the hillslopes of 13 selected watersheds (Batu Pahat, Johor, Muda, Kelang, Kelantan, Linggi, Muar, Pahang, Perak, Selangor, Dungun, Kemaman and Kuantan) and 12 selected intervening coastal regions in order to assess the impact of climate change on the climate conditions at the selected watersheds and coastal regions of PM. From the downscaled climate projections it can be concluded that the mean annual precipitation gradually increases toward the end of the 21st century over each of the 13 watersheds and the 12 coastal regions. The basin-average mean annual temperature increases in the range of 2.50C - 2.950C over PM during the 2010 -2100 period when compared to the 1970-2000 historical period. The ensemble average basin-average annual potential evapotranspiration increases gradually throughout the 21st century over all watersheds.

  10. The distribution of phosphorus in Popes Creek, VA, and in the Pocomoke River, MD: Two watersheds with different land management practices in the Chesapeake Bay Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, N.S.; Bricker, O.P.; Newell, W.; McCoy, J.; Morawe, R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares phosphorus (P) concentrations in sediments from two watersheds, one with, and one without, intensive animal agriculture. The watersheds are in the coastal plain of the Chesapeake Bay and have similar physiographic characteristics. Agriculture in the Pocomoke River, MD, watershed supplied 2.7 percent of all broiler chickens produced in the USA in 1997. Poultry litter is an abundant, local source of manure for crops. Broiler chickens are not produced in the Popes Creek, VA, watershed and poultry manure is, therefore, not a major source of fertilizer. The largest concentrations of P in sediment samples are found in floodplain and main-stem bottom sediment in both watersheds. Concentrations of total P and P extracted with 1N HCl are significantly larger in main-stem bottom sediments from the Pocomoke River than in main-stem bottom sediments from Popes Creek. Larger concentrations of P are associated with what are potentially redox sensitive iron oxyhydroxides in sediment samples from the Pocomoke River watershed than are associated with what are potentially redox sensitive iron oxyhydroxides in sediment samples from the Popes Creek watershed. Data for P and iron (Fe) concentrations in sediments from the Popes Creek watershed provide a numerical framework (baseline) with which to compare P and Fe concentrations in sediment from the Pocomoke River watershed. ?? Springer 2005.

  11. From ridge to reef—linking erosion and changing watersheds to impacts on the coral reef ecosystems of Hawai‘i and the Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Jonathan D.; Cochran, Susan A.; Field, Michael E.; Jacobi, James D.; Tribble, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems are threatened by unprecedented watershed changes in the United States and worldwide. These ecosystems sustain fishing and tourism industries essential to the economic survival of many communities. Sediment, nutrients, and pollutants from watersheds are increasingly transported to coastal waters, where these contaminants damage corals. Although pollution from watersheds is one of many factors threatening coral survival, it is one that local people can have a profound influence on. U.S. Geological Survey scientists are using mapping, monitoring, and computer modeling to better forecast the effects of watershed changes on reef health. Working with communities in Hawai‘i and on other U.S. islands in the Pacific, they are helping to provide the science needed to make informed decisions on watershed and coral reef management.

  12. Watershed management and the web

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voinov, A.; Costanza, R. [Univ. of Maryland, Solomons, MD (United States). Inst. for Ecological Economics

    1999-08-01

    Watershed analysis and watershed management are developing as tools of integrated ecological and economic study. They also assist decision-making at the regional scale. The new technology and thinking offered by the advent of the Internet and the World Wide Web is highly complementary to some of the goals of watershed analysis. Services delivered by the Web are open, interactive, gas, spatially distributed, hierarchical and flexible. The Web offers the ability to display information creatively, to interact with that information and to change and modify it remotely. In this way the Internet provides a much-needed opportunity to deliver scientific findings and information to stakeholders and to link stakeholders together providing for collective decision=making. The benefits fall into two major categories: methological and educational. Methodologically the approach furthers the watershed management concept, offering an avenue for practical implementation of watershed management principles. For educational purposes the Web is a source of data and insight serving a variety of needs at all levels.

  13. The Watershed Algorithm for Image Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yan; LIN Nan

    2007-01-01

    This article introduced the watershed algorithm for the segmentation, illustrated the segmation process by implementing this algorithm. By comparing with another three related algorithm, this article revealed both the advantages and drawbacks of the watershed algorithm.

  14. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 02 - HUC 04

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Level 02 Watersheds....

  15. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  16. DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Watershed Hydrology - UAV Sensor Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, S. D.; Baruah, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States, with a watershed extending through six states and the nation's capital. Urbanization and agriculture practices have led to an excess runoff of nutrients and sediment into the bay. Nutrients and sediment loading stimulate the growth of algal blooms associated with various problems including localized dissolved oxygen deficiencies, toxic algal blooms and death of marine life. The Chesapeake Bay Program, among other stakeholder organizations, contributes greatly to the restoration efforts of the Chesapeake Bay. These stakeholders contribute in many ways such as monitoring the water quality, leading clean-up projects, and actively restoring native habitats. The first stage of the DEVELOP Chesapeake Bay Coastal Management project, relating to water quality, contributed to the restoration efforts by introducing NASA satellite-based water quality data products to the stakeholders as a complement to their current monitoring methods. The second stage, to be initiated in the fall 2008 internship term, will focus on the impacts of land cover variability within the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Multiple student led discussions with members of the Land Cover team at the Chesapeake Bay Program Office in the DEVELOP GSFC 2008 summer term uncovered the need for remote sensing data for hydrological mapping in the watershed. The Chesapeake Bay Program expressed in repeated discussions on Land Cover mapping that significant portions of upper river areas, streams, and the land directly interfacing those waters are not accurately depicted in the watershed model. Without such hydrological mapping correlated with land cover data the model will not be useful in depicting source areas of nutrient loading which has an ecological and economic impact in and around the Chesapeake Bay. The fall 2008 DEVELOP team will examine the use of UAV flown sensors in connection with in-situ and Earth Observation satellite data. To maximize the

  17. Future trends in urbanization and coastal water pollution in the Bay of Bengal: the lived experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zinia, N.J.; Kroeze, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bay of Bengal includes coastal seas of several countries, including Bangladesh, India, and Myanmar. We present scenarios for future river export of eutrophying nutrients into the Bay of Bengal, and the role of urbanization therein. We used NEWS (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds) model to analyze

  18. Nutrient export by rivers to the coastal waters of China: management strategies and future trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Hong Juan; Kroeze, C.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed past and future trends in river export of dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China, for a selection of rivers, as calculated by the Global NEWS models (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds). Over the period 1970–2000, river export of dissolved nutrients

  19. Past and Future Trends in Nutrient Export by Nineteen Rivers to the Coastal Waters of Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwarno, A.; Löhr, A.; Kroeze, C.; Widianarko, B.

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes past and future trends in nutrient export of dissolved and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus by rivers into the coastal waters of Indonesia. The focus is on 19 rivers included in the Global Nutrients Export from WaterSheds model. In the past, export of dissolved inorganic nit

  20. Nutrient export by rivers to the coastal waters of China: management strategies and future trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qu, Hong Juan; Kroeze, C.

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed past and future trends in river export of dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to the coastal waters of China, for a selection of rivers, as calculated by the Global NEWS models (Nutrient Export from WaterSheds). Over the period 1970–2000, river export of dissolved nutrients increas

  1. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  2. Watershed boundaries for the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.

    2016-01-01

    The National Water Quality Network (NWQN) for Rivers and Streams includes 113 surface-water river and stream sites monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Program (NWQP). The NWQN represents the consolidation of four historical national networks: the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project, the USGS National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN), the National Monitoring Network (NMN), and the Hydrologic Benchmark Network (HBN). The NWQN includes 22 large river coastal sites, 41 large river inland sites, 30 wadeable stream reference sites, 10 wadeable stream urban sites, and 10 wadeable stream agricultural sites. In addition to the 113 NWQN sites, 3 large inland river monitoring sites from the USGS Cooperative Matching Funds (Co-op) program are also included in this annual water-quality reporting Web site to be consistent with previous USGS studies of nutrient transport in the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin. This data release contains geo-referenced digital data and associated attributes of watershed boundaries for 113 NWQN and 3 Co-op sites. Two sites, "Wax Lake Outlet at Calumet, LA"; 07381590, and "Lower Atchafalaya River at Morgan City, LA"; 07381600, are outflow distributaries into the Gulf of Mexico. Watershed boundaries were delineated for the portion of the watersheds between "Red River near Alexandria, LA"; 07355500 and "Atchafalaya River at Melville, LA"; 07381495 to the two distributary sites respectively. Drainage area was undetermined for these two distributary sites because the main stream channel outflows into many smaller channels so that streamflow is no longer relative to the watershed area. NWQN watershed boundaries were derived from the Watershed Boundary Dataset-12-digit hydrologic units (WBD-12). The development of the WBD-12 was a coordinated effort between the United States Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA-NRCS), the USGS, and the Environmental

  3. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  4. Coastal Erosion Armoring 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Coastal armoring along the coast of California, created to provide a database of all existing coastal armoring based on data available at the time of creation....

  5. Watershed Education for Broadcast Meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, J. P.; Sliter, D.; Espinoza, S.; Spangler, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Environmental Education and Training Organization (NEETF) published a report in 2005 that summarized the findings of ten years of NEETF and Roper Research. The report stated, "Our years of data from Roper surveys show a persistent pattern of environmental ignorance even among the most educated and influential members of society." Market research has also shown that 80% of television viewers list the weather as the primary reason for watching the local news. Broadcast meteorologists, with a broader understanding of environmental and related sciences have an opportunity to use their weathercasts to inform the public about the environment and the factors that influence environmental health. As "station scientists," broadcast meteorologists can use the weather, and people's connection to it, to broaden their understanding of the environment they live in. Weather and watershed conditions associated with flooding and drought have major human and environmental impacts. Increasing the awareness of the general public about basic aspects of the hydrologic landscape can be an important part of mitigating the adverse effects of too much or too little precipitation, and of protecting the environment as well. The concept of a watershed as a person's natural neighborhood is a very important one for understanding hydrologic and environmental issues. Everyone lives in a watershed, and the health of a watershed is the result of the interplay between weather and human activity. This paper describes an online course to give broadcast meteorologists a basic understanding of watersheds and how watersheds are impacted by weather. It discusses how to convey watershed science to a media- savvy audience as well as how to model the communication of watershed and hydrologic concepts to the public. The course uses a narrative, story-like style to present its content. It is organized into six short units of instruction, each approximately 20 minutes in duration. Each unit is

  6. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucker, Nathan J.; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A.; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J.; Elonen, Colleen M.; Whorley, Sarah B.; Jicha, Terri M.; Serbst, Jonathan R.; Hill, Brian H.; Wehr, John D.

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km2), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 - and Cl- that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria.

  7. Time lags in watershed-scale nutrient transport: an exploration of dominant controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, K. J.; Basu, N. B.

    2017-08-01

    Unprecedented decreases in atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition together with increases in agricultural N-use efficiency have led to decreases in net anthropogenic N inputs in many eastern US and Canadian watersheds as well as in Europe. Despite such decreases, N concentrations in streams and rivers continue to increase, and problems of coastal eutrophication remain acute. Such a mismatch between N inputs and outputs can arise due to legacy N accumulation and subsequent lag times between implementation of conservation measures and improvements in water quality. In the present study, we quantified such lag times by pairing long-term N input trajectories with stream nitrate concentration data for 16 nested subwatersheds in a 6800 km2, Southern Ontario watershed. Our results show significant nonlinearity between N inputs and outputs, with a strong hysteresis effect indicative of decadal-scale lag times. The mean annual lag time was found to be 24.5 years, with lags varying seasonally, likely due to differences in N-delivery pathways. Lag times were found to be negatively correlated with both tile drainage and watershed slope, with tile drainage being a dominant control in fall and watershed slope being significant during the spring snowmelt period. Quantification of such lags will be crucial to policy-makers as they struggle to set appropriate goals for water quality improvement in human-impacted watersheds.

  8. Watershed nutrient inputs, phytoplankton accumulation, and C stocks in Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, T. R.; Boynton, W. R.; Hagy, J. D.

    2002-12-01

    Inputs of N and P to Chesapeake Bay have been enhanced by anthropogenic activities. Fertilizers, urbanization, N emissions, and industrial effluents contribute to point and diffuse sources currently 2-7X higher for P and 5-20X higher for N than those from undisturbed watersheds. Enhanced nutrient inputs cause phytoplankton blooms which obscure visibility, eliminate submerged grasses, and influence the distribution of C within the Bay. Accumulations of dissolved organic and particulate organic C lead to enhanced microbial respiration in isolated bottom waters, and dissolved oxygen is seasonally reduced to trace levels during summer. Cultural eutrophication is not unique to Chesapeake Bay. Although some estuaries such as the Delaware, Hudson, and San Francisco Bay also have high anthropogenic inputs, these estuaries have much shorter residence times, and much of the N and P may be exported to the coastal ocean. However, in Chesapeake Bay, with residence times >2 months, internal processing of watershed inputs results in local algal blooms within the estuary. Watershed restoration strategies for Chesapeake watersheds have had limited success to date. Groundwaters are enriched with nitrate, and the long residence times of groundwaters mean slow responses to watershed improvements. The few successes in the Chesapeake have been associated with point source reductions, although continued human population growth can easily override restoration efforts. Widespread improvement in water quality has yet to occur, but the limited successes show that the Bay responds to load changes.

  9. Multiagent distributed watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

    2012-04-01

    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing

  10. Linear Modeling and Evaluation of Controls on Flow Response in Western Post-Fire Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxe, S.; Hogue, T. S.; Hay, L.

    2015-12-01

    This research investigates the impact of wildfires on watershed flow regimes throughout the western United States, specifically focusing on evaluation of fire events within specified subregions and determination of the impact of climate and geophysical variables in post-fire flow response. Fire events were collected through federal and state-level databases and streamflow data were collected from U.S. Geological Survey stream gages. 263 watersheds were identified with at least 10 years of continuous pre-fire daily streamflow records and 5 years of continuous post-fire daily flow records. For each watershed, percent changes in runoff ratio (RO), annual seven day low-flows (7Q2) and annual seven day high-flows (7Q10) were calculated from pre- to post-fire. Numerous independent variables were identified for each watershed and fire event, including topographic, land cover, climate, burn severity, and soils data. The national watersheds were divided into five regions through K-clustering and a lasso linear regression model, applying the Leave-One-Out calibration method, was calculated for each region. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) was used to determine the accuracy of the resulting models. The regions encompassing the United States along and west of the Rocky Mountains, excluding the coastal watersheds, produced the most accurate linear models. The Pacific coast region models produced poor and inconsistent results, indicating that the regions need to be further subdivided. Presently, RO and HF response variables appear to be more easily modeled than LF. Results of linear regression modeling showed varying importance of watershed and fire event variables, with conflicting correlation between land cover types and soil types by region. The addition of further independent variables and constriction of current variables based on correlation indicators is ongoing and should allow for more accurate linear regression modeling.

  11. Local biogeomorphic feedbacks and macroscale drivers shape coastal wetland distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braswell, A. E.; Heffernan, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    Recent models have demonstrated that lateral biogeomorphic processes are important for the persistence of coastal wetlands in the face of sea level rise and other anthropogenic pressures. Yet empirical studies of marsh ecomorphodynamics have largely focused on vertical accretion. Moreover, local vertical and lateral processes of marsh-building depend on external sediment supply and the wave energy environment, and thus are connected to macroscale characteristics such as estuarine morphology and watershed size. These broad scale drivers, combined with local biogeomorphic feedbacks within wetlands, determine wetland extent. Our goal is to understand the scales at which local biogeomorphic feedbacks and macroscale estuarine and watershed characteristics influence the distribution of coastal marshes. To that end, we examined the distribution of wetland extent and its potential watershed and estuarine drivers at multiple scales along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts, USA. Using existing GIS resources, we delineated extents of coastal wetlands, and generated proxies of sediment input, estuarine energy, and human alteration. We found that distributions of wetland extent were bi-modal at the finest scale of our analysis (approx. 1-100 km2), a finding that is consistent with theoretical models of local marsh feedbacks. At larger spatial scales, distributions of marsh extent were associated with both estuarine size and drainage ratio. These relationships indicate that sediment supply and erosion ultimately constrain the extent of marsh development and persistence, while local feedbacks operate at smaller scales. Our findings support and extend theory and observation at the scale of marsh platforms and lagoons, but also demonstrate the importance of macroscale watershed and estuarine characteristics for wetland establishment and persistence.

  12. Coastal river plumes: Collisions and coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan A.; Farnsworth, Katherine L.

    2017-02-01

    Plumes of buoyant river water spread in the ocean from river mouths, and these plumes influence water quality, sediment dispersal, primary productivity, and circulation along the world's coasts. Most investigations of river plumes have focused on large rivers in a coastal region, for which the physical spreading of the plume is assumed to be independent from the influence of other buoyant plumes. Here we provide new understanding of the spreading patterns of multiple plumes interacting along simplified coastal settings by investigating: (i) the relative likelihood of plume-to-plume interactions at different settings using geophysical scaling, (ii) the diversity of plume frontal collision types and the effects of these collisions on spreading patterns of plume waters using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, and (iii) the fundamental differences in plume spreading patterns between coasts with single and multiple rivers using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Geophysical scaling suggests that coastal margins with numerous small rivers (watershed areas 100,000 km2). When two plume fronts meet, several types of collision attributes were found, including refection, subduction and occlusion. We found that the relative differences in pre-collision plume densities and thicknesses strongly influenced the resulting collision types. The three-dimensional spreading of buoyant plumes was found to be influenced by the presence of additional rivers for all modeled scenarios, including those with and without Coriolis and wind. Combined, these results suggest that plume-to-plume interactions are common phenomena for coastal regions offshore of the world's smaller rivers and for coastal settings with multiple river mouths in close proximity, and that the spreading and fate of river waters in these settings will be strongly influenced by these interactions. We conclude that new investigations are needed to characterize how plumes interact offshore of river mouths to better

  13. Coastal river plumes: Collisions and coalescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Jonathan; Farnsworth, Katherine L

    2017-01-01

    Plumes of buoyant river water spread in the ocean from river mouths, and these plumes influence water quality, sediment dispersal, primary productivity, and circulation along the world’s coasts. Most investigations of river plumes have focused on large rivers in a coastal region, for which the physical spreading of the plume is assumed to be independent from the influence of other buoyant plumes. Here we provide new understanding of the spreading patterns of multiple plumes interacting along simplified coastal settings by investigating: (i) the relative likelihood of plume-to-plume interactions at different settings using geophysical scaling, (ii) the diversity of plume frontal collision types and the effects of these collisions on spreading patterns of plume waters using a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model, and (iii) the fundamental differences in plume spreading patterns between coasts with single and multiple rivers using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. Geophysical scaling suggests that coastal margins with numerous small rivers (watershed areas  100,000 km2). When two plume fronts meet, several types of collision attributes were found, including refection, subduction and occlusion. We found that the relative differences in pre-collision plume densities and thicknesses strongly influenced the resulting collision types. The three-dimensional spreading of buoyant plumes was found to be influenced by the presence of additional rivers for all modeled scenarios, including those with and without Coriolis and wind. Combined, these results suggest that plume-to-plume interactions are common phenomena for coastal regions offshore of the world’s smaller rivers and for coastal settings with multiple river mouths in close proximity, and that the spreading and fate of river waters in these settings will be strongly influenced by these interactions. We conclude that new investigations are needed to characterize how plumes interact offshore of river mouths to

  14. Multiple Stressors: Lessons from Louisiana Coastal Waters (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is a Mississippi River-dominated landscape driven by the long-term (millennia) and short-term (decades to hundreds of years) changes in materials flux, nature and human activities. The results are a highly productive coastal landscape and nearshore coastal waters that support rich natural and non-renewable resources. The ecosystem and socio-economic systems are intimately linked. Several factors have led to the demise of many of the healthy features of this coastal system, including long-term changes in the landscape of the Mississippi River basin watershed, alterations to the structure and flow of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, coastal landscape alterations leading to loss of productive marshes and protective barrier islands, increases in nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the coastal ocean and their detrimental effects, and reduction in the sediments delivered by the river. Increases in population and extraction of living resources and oil and gas reserves continue to drive many actions taken in the coastal landscape and waters. As a result, Louisiana is in a state of major disrepair (to be charitable) and needs thoughtful consideration of restoration actions taken in the river basin and within the coastal landscape. The first thought is to cause no further harm. The second is to proceed acknowledging that human and natural forces (particularly climate change, rising sea level and changing global economies) must be taken into account. Thirdly, a broader consideration of the river basin and coastal landscapes, their interconnectivity, and ecosystem health and social welfare must be taken into account.

  15. Modeling and sediment study in the watershed Medjerda, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotti, Fatma; Mahé, Gil; Habaieb, Hamadi; Dieulin, Claudine; Hermassi, Taoufik

    2015-04-01

    series than should be about one century. The cores' analysis results show a succession of sedimentary layers that likely correspond to different flood deposits that succeeded on this site, and especially the datation of the cores shows that the selected area is a very important deposition area. This sedimentary study will help estimate the sediment dynamics to major estuaries, which is poorly known for most of the rivers of Maghreb. The reduction of the sediment supply to the sea is tipped as a major factor to be taken into account for a better understanding of the dynamics of coastal areas in the context of global climate change and sea level rise. Keywords: sediment core, Medjerda watershed, dam, hydrology, modeling, Tunisia

  16. Coastal Economic Trends for Coastal Geographies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These market data provide a comprehensive set of measures of changes in economic activity throughout the coastal regions of the United States. In regard to the...

  17. Energy care. The tool for structured attention for energy efficiency. For profit and non-profit organizations conform ISO 14001(2004); Energiezorg. Het middel voor structurele aandacht voor energie-efficiency. Voor profit- en non-profitorganisaties conform ISO14001:2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    An energy care ('energiezorg' in Dutch) system has been developed by means of which profit and non-profit organizations can continuously control the consumption of energy and improve the energy efficiency within their organization. [Dutch] Steeds meer organisaties en bedrijven nemen maatregelen om energie te besparen of de energie-efficiency te verbeteren. Dit levert zowel financiele als milieuwinst op. Helaas zijn de effecten van de inspanningen vaak maar tijdelijk. Zodra de aandacht voor het onderwerp wegebt, neemt het energiegebruik weer toe. Daarom heeft SenterNovem een systeem voor structurele aandacht ontwikkeld. Dit zorgt ervoor dat energiegebruik binnen de onderneming of organisatie de aandacht krijgt die het verdient en dat de aandacht nooit verslapt. Dat blijkt ook uit de ervaringen van veel bedrijven en instellingen. Zij constateren dat invoering van Energiezorg niet alleen bijdraagt aan een blijvende verlaging van het energiegebruik, maar zelfs ook extra energiebesparing oplevert van gemiddeld 3 procent. Dit geldt voor zowel profit- als non-profitorganisaties. Het instrument Energiezorg is geschikt voor kleine, middelgrote en grote organisaties en bedrijven.

  18. Polish and Silesian Non-Profit Organizations Liquidity Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Michalski

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The kind of realized mission inflows the sensitivity to risk. Among other factors, the risk results from decision about liquid assets investment level and liquid assets financing. The higher the risk exposure, the higher the level of liquid assets. If the specific risk exposure is smaller, the more aggressive could be the net liquid assets strategy. The organization choosing between various solutions in liquid assets needs to decide what level of risk is acceptable for her owners (or donors and / or capital suppliers. The paper shows how, in authors opinion, decisions, about liquid assets management strategy inflow the risk of the organizations and its economicalresults during realization of main mission. Comparison of theoretical model with empirical data for over 450 Silesian nonprofit organization results suggests that nonprofit organization managing teams choose more risky aggressive liquid assets solutions than for-profit firms.

  19. A unified model of non-profit sport organizations performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manu Claessens; Erik Thibaut; Mathieu Winand; Jeroen Scheerder; Steven Vos

    2014-01-01

    Little consensus has emerged about how organizational performance should be defined and measured. Most studies have used traditional approaches to give their own perspective about organizational performance and effectiveness, but none have recently tried to encompass these different views into one

  20. Marketing the charitable image of the non-profit hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolu, S; Parsons, R J

    1992-01-01

    Because of nonprofit hospitals' charitable contribution to communities, the great majority of these nonprofit hospitals deserve their tax-exempt status. In order for them to maintain this status, hospitals must promote their charitable image in the community. The hospital that is successful in promoting this image will benefit in several ways: 1. The citizens of the community will look on the hospital in a favorable light. 2. The local and state government officials will not feel compelled to vigorously pursue hospital tax dollars. 3. Those people in the community who need charity care will know of its availability. 4. New taxing legislation is less likely to be passed if the legislators know that their public is well educated on the benefits the hospitals provide. Over the years, the image of the hospital has become that of a business rather than that of a charitable service organization. The public has been inundated with information by the media on the business of healthcare rather than the social service role of the hospital. In order for nonprofit institutions to survive, they will need to communicate otherwise the public will remain ignorant, and the repercussions could be disastrous.

  1. Structural Considerations in Defining the Non-profit Sector Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Vanya Kraleva

    2013-01-01

    After the beginning of the democratic changes the number of civil organizations in this country has increased considerably, causing a heightened scientific interest in the forming non-commercial sector. The variegated character of the organizations constituting it, however, renders the unequivocal determination of its scope difficult and creates conditions for conducting studies with low rate of validity. In this context the differentiation of the various concepts, which have entered the lite...

  2. Vocational Home Economics Education Classes as Non-Profit Businesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Vesta C.

    1979-01-01

    Suggests organizing one or more vocational home economics classes by the entrepreneur system to operate the class as a nonprofit business. Lists activities for planning and implementing the operation, benefits for the students, and ideas to develop skills in professional sewing, food service production, and occupational homemaking. (MF)

  3. Marketing strategy of non-profit organisation Chance for Children

    OpenAIRE

    Holá, Kristýna

    2012-01-01

    The bachelor's thesis addresses the application of marketing in nonprofit organizations using "Chance for children" a civic association as an example. The main aim of this work is to define marketing strategies in nonprofit organizations, the greatest emphasis are placed on communication strategy and partly on product strategy. In the practical part I introduce the chosen nonprofit organization as such, outline the range of their products and their current marketing situation. Based on the re...

  4. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  5. A Watershed Integrity Definition and Assessment Approach to Support Strategic Management of Watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although defined hydrologically as a drainage basin, watersheds are systems that physically link the individual social and ecological attributes that comprise them. Hence the structure, function, and feedback systems of watersheds are dependent on interactions between these soci...

  6. Watershed Fact Sheet: Improving Utah's Water Quality, Upper Bear River Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Upper Watershed of the Bear River Basin extends from the river's headwaters to Pixley Dam in Wyoming. This is the largest watershed in the Bear River Basin, with an area of about 2,000 square miles.

  7. Land Use Patterns and Fecal Contamination of Coastal Waters in Western Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norat, Jose

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Environmental Health of the Graduate School of Public Health of the Medical Sciences Campus, University of Puerto Rico (UPR-RCM) conducted this research project on how different patterns of land use affect the microbiological quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Coastal shellfish growing areas, stream and ocean bathing beaches, and pristine marine sites in the Bay are affected by the discharge of the three study rivers. Satellite imagery was used to study watershed land uses which serve as point and nonpoint sources of pathogens affecting stream and coastal water users. The study rivers drain watersheds of different size and type of human activity (including different human waste treatment and disposal facilities). Land use and land cover in the study watersheds were interpreted, classified and mapped using remotely sensed images from NASA's Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). This study found there is a significant relationship between watershed land cover and microbiological water quality of rivers flowing into Mayaguez Bay in Western Puerto Rico. Land covers in the Guanajibo, Anasco, and Yaguez watersheds were classified into forested areas, pastures, agricultural zones and urban areas so as to determine relative contributions to fecal water contamination. The land cover classification was made processing TM images with IDRISI and ERDAS software.

  8. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  9. A Model for Experiential Learning: Coastal Ecosystems of Micronesia in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, A. E.; Ladd, N.; Sachs, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    An intensive undergraduate course taught in Pohnpei (Federated States of Micronesia) June 22nd - July 19, 2013 through the University of Washington Study Abroad Program allowed students to intimately explore estuary, mangrove, seagrass, and coral habitat from a systems perspective. The curriculum was developed in 2010 and 2011 during a similar course taught in nearby Kosrae (Federated States of Micronesia). The course was based on field surveys of several sites from each habitat with assistance from local non-profit groups and Pohnpei government partners. Field surveys were supplemented by lectures from these local agencies or the course instructors. Classroom activities explored the connectivity of coastal ecosystems and how each habitat may be impacted by climate change. The instructors' tropical paleoclimate research objectives further supplemented the curriculum. Additionally, cultural activities facilitated an understanding of social interactions with coastal ecosystems. Students wrote field reports for each habitat and communicated the data to local agencies in an oral presentation. The class activities allowed students to engage in data analysis, interpretation, and communication while being immersed in the unique culture and environment of Micronesia.

  10. Engaging Communities Where They Are: New Hampshire's Coastal Adaptation Workgroup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, C. P.; Godlewski, S.; Howard, K.; Labranche, J.; Miller, S.; Peterson, J.; Ashcraft, C.

    2015-12-01

    Rising seas are expected to have significant impacts on infrastructure and natural and cultural resources on New Hampshire's 18 mile open-ocean coastline and 235 miles of tidal shoreline. However, most coastal municipalities in NH lack financial and human resources to even assess vulnerability, let alone plan for climate change. This gap has been filled since 2010 by the NH Coastal Adaptation Workgroup (CAW), composed of 21 regional, state, and federal agencies, businesses, municipalities, academics, and NGOs that bring together stakeholders to discuss climate change challenges and collaboratively develop and implement effective coastal adaptation strategies. Our grassroot efforts serve to nurture existing and build new relationships, disseminate coastal watershed climate assessments, and tap into state, federal, and foundation funds for specific coastal adaptation projects. CAW has achieved collective impact in by connecting federal and state resources to communities by raising money and facilitating projects, translating climate science, educating community members, providing direct technical assistance and general capacity, and sharing success stories and lessons learned. Indicators of success include: 12 coastal communities improved their technical, financial, and human resources for climate adaptation; 80% of the 300 participants in the eleven CAW 'Water, Weather, Climate, and Community Workshops' have increased knowledge, motivation, and capacity to address climate adaptation; $3 million in grants to help communities with climate adaptation; winner of the 2015 EPA Region 1 Environmental Merit Award; and ongoing support for community-led adaptation efforts. In addition, the NH Climate Summit attracts over 100 participants each year, over 90% whom attest to the applicability of what they learn there. CAW also plays a central role in the Coastal Risks and Hazards Commission (established by the state legislature in 2013) to help communities and businesses prepare

  11. Landscape characterization for watershed management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunsaker, C.T.; Jackson, B.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Schwartz, P.M. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Streams and rivers serve as integrators of terrestrial landscape characteristics and as recipients of pollutants from both the atmosphere and the land; thus, large rivers are especially good indicators of cumulative impacts. Landscape ecologists seek to better understand the relationships between landscape structure and ecosystem processes at various spatial scales. Understanding how scale, both data resolution and geographic extent, influences landscape characterization and how terrestrial processes affect water quality are critically important for model development and translation of research results from experimental watersheds to management of large drainage basins. Measures of landscape structure are useful to monitor change and assess the risks it poses to ecological resources. Many studies have shown that the proportion of different land uses within a watershed can account for some of the variability in surface water quality. Hunsaker and Levine showed that both proportion of land uses and the spatial pattern of land uses is important for characterizing and modeling water quality; however, proportion consistently accounted for the most variance (40% to 86%) across a range of watershed sizes (1000 to 1.35 million ha). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is performing a demonstration of its Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) for the Mid-Atlantic Region. One activity, the Mid-Atlantic Integrated Assessment, is designed as a collaborative initiative between EPA`s Office of Research and Development and EPA`s Region III.

  12. Effects of watershed land use on nitrogen concentrations and δ15 nitrogen in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Marci L.; Kroeger, Kevin D.; McClelland, J.W.; Valiela, I.

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication is a major agent of change affecting freshwater, estuarine, and marine systems. It is largely driven by transportation of nitrogen from natural and anthropogenic sources. Research is needed to quantify this nitrogen delivery and to link the delivery to specific land-derived sources. In this study we measured nitrogen concentrations and δ 15N values in seepage water entering three freshwater ponds and six estuaries on Cape Cod, Massachusetts and assessed how they varied with different types of land use. Nitrate concentrations and δ 15N values in groundwater reflected land use in developed and pristine watersheds. In particular, watersheds with larger populations delivered larger nitrate loads with higher δ 15N values to receiving waters. The enriched δ 15N values confirmed nitrogen loading model results identifying wastewater contributions from septic tanks as the major N source. Furthermore, it was apparent that N coastal sources had a relatively larger impact on the N loads and isotopic signatures than did inland N sources further upstream in the watersheds. This finding suggests that management priorities could focus on coastal sources as a first course of action. This would require management constraints on a much smaller population.

  13. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  14. Coastal Conditions 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Dataset developed by California Coastal Commission's Melanie Coyne by attaching names to a dynamically segmented coastline using the Department of Navigation and...

  15. Coastal Innovation Imperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce C. Glavovic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the second of two articles that explores the coastal innovation paradox and imperative. Paradoxically, innovation is necessary to escape the vulnerability trap created by past innovations that have degraded coastal ecosystems and imperil coastal livelihoods. The innovation imperative is to reframe and underpin business and technology with coherent governance innovations that lead to social transformation for coastal sustainability. How might coastal management help to facilitate this transition? It is argued that coastal management needs to be reconceptualised as a transformative practice of deliberative coastal governance. A foundation comprising four deliberative or process outcomes is posited. The point of departure is to build human and social capital through issue learning and improved democratic attitudes and skills. Attention then shifts to facilitating community-oriented action and improving institutional capacity and decision-making. Together, these endeavours enable improved community problem-solving. The ultimate process goal is to build more collaborative communities. Instituting transformative deliberative coastal governance will help to stimulate innovations that chart new sustainability pathways and help to resolve the coastal problems. This framework could be adapted and applied in other geographical settings.

  16. Using Predictive Uncertainty Analysis to Assess Hydrologic Model Performance for a Watershed in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brannan, K. M.; Somor, A.

    2016-12-01

    A variety of statistics are used to assess watershed model performance but these statistics do not directly answer the question: what is the uncertainty of my prediction. Understanding predictive uncertainty is important when using a watershed model to develop a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). TMDLs are a key component of the US Clean Water Act and specify the amount of a pollutant that can enter a waterbody when the waterbody meets water quality criteria. TMDL developers use watershed models to estimate pollutant loads from nonpoint sources of pollution. We are developing a TMDL for bacteria impairments in a watershed in the Coastal Range of Oregon. We setup an HSPF model of the watershed and used the calibration software PEST to estimate HSPF hydrologic parameters and then perform predictive uncertainty analysis of stream flow. We used Monte-Carlo simulation to run the model with 1,000 different parameter sets and assess predictive uncertainty. In order to reduce the chance of specious parameter sets, we accounted for the relationships among parameter values by using mathematically-based regularization techniques and an estimate of the parameter covariance when generating random parameter sets. We used a novel approach to select flow data for predictive uncertainty analysis. We set aside flow data that occurred on days that bacteria samples were collected. We did not use these flows in the estimation of the model parameters. We calculated a percent uncertainty for each flow observation based 1,000 model runs. We also used several methods to visualize results with an emphasis on making the data accessible to both technical and general audiences. We will use the predictive uncertainty estimates in the next phase of our work, simulating bacteria fate and transport in the watershed.

  17. Volunteer Watershed Health Monitoring by Local Stakeholders: New Mexico Watershed Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, William

    2003-01-01

    Volunteers monitor watershed health in more than 700 programs in the US, involving over 400,000 local stakeholders. New Mexico Watershed Watch is a student-based watershed monitoring program sponsored by the state's Department of Game and Fish which provides high school teachers and students with instruction on methods for water quality…

  18. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  19. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development…

  20. Engaging Watershed Stakeholders for Cost-Effective Environmental Management Planning with "Watershed Manager"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffery R.; Smith, Craig M.; Roe, Josh D.; Leatherman, John C.; Wilson, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    "Watershed Manager" is a spreadsheet-based model that is used in extension education programs for learning about and selecting cost-effective watershed management practices to reduce soil, nitrogen, and phosphorus losses from cropland. It can facilitate Watershed Restoration and Protection Strategy (WRAPS) stakeholder groups' development of…

  1. Water and Poverty in Two Colombian Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Johnson

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds, especially in the developing world, are increasingly being managed for both environmental conservation and poverty alleviation. How complementary are these objectives? In the context of a watershed, the actual and potential linkages between land and water management and poverty are complex and likely to be very site specific and scale dependent. This study analyses the importance of watershed resources in the livelihoods of the poor in two watersheds in the Colombian Andes. Results of the participatory poverty assessment reveal significant decreases in poverty in both watersheds over the past 25 years, which was largely achieved by the diversification of livelihoods outside of agriculture. Water is an important resource for household welfare. However, opportunities for reducing poverty by increasing the quantity or quality of water available to the poor may be limited. While improved watershed management may have limited direct benefits in terms of poverty alleviation, there are important indirect linkages between watershed management and poverty, mainly through labour and service markets. The results suggest that at the level of the watershed the interests of the rich and the poor are not always in conflict over water. Sectoral as well as socio-economic differences define stakeholder groups in watershed management. The findings have implications for policymakers, planners and practitioners in various sectors involved in the implementation of integrated water resources management (IWRM.

  2. Community-Based Integrated Watershed Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qianxiang; Kennedy N.logbokwe; Li Jiayong

    2005-01-01

    Community-based watershed management is different from the traditional natural resources management. Traditional natural resources management is a way from up to bottom, but the community-based watershed management is from bottom to up. This approach focused on the joining of different stakeholders in integrated watershed management, especially the participation of the community who has been ignored in the past. The purpose of this paper is to outline some of the important basic definitions, concepts and operational framework for initiating community-based watershed management projects and programs as well as some successes and practical challenges associated with the approach.

  3. Sichtbarkeit von Bibliotheken durch Non-Profit-Marketing / High-profile for libraries through non-profit-marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzinkay, Mark

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Tight budgets and an increasing competition in the information market force libraries to rethink their „awareness“ strategies. Therefore, Marketing iis an essential tool to address this topic. Tools from the Web 2.0 (blogs and others universe offer an efficient and effective way to approach such strategy.

  4. A conceptual hydrologic model for a forested Carolina bay depressional wetland on the Coastal Plain of South Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer E. Pyzoha; Timothy J. Callahan; Ge Sun; Carl C. Trettin; Masato Miwa

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how climate influences the hydrology of an ephemeral depressional wetland. Surface water and groundwater elevation data were collected for 7 years in a Coastal Plain watershed in South Carolina USA containing depressional wetlands, known as Carolina bays. Rainfall and temperature data were compared with water-table well and piezometer data in and...

  5. Future Trends in Nutrient Export to the Coastal Waters of South America: Implications for Occurrence of Eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijk, F.; Kroeze, C.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze future trends in nutrient export to the coastal waters of South America, with a special focus on the causes of nutrient export and their potential effects. Nutrient Export from Watersheds (NEWS) model results for South America are presented, including trends in human activities and the as

  6. Enhancing hydrologic mapping using LIDAR and high resolution aerial photos on the Frances Marion National Forest in coastal South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andy Maceyka; William F. Hansen

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating hydrology within coastal marine terrace features has always been problematic as watershed boundaries and stream detail are difficult to determine in low gradient terrain with dense bottomland forests. Various studies have improved hydrologic detail using USGS Topographic Contour Maps (Hansen 2001, Eidson and others 2005) or Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR...

  7. Coastal Analysis, Surry County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  8. Coastal Analysis, Nassau,NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  9. Coastal Analysis, Virginia Beach, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  10. Coastal Analysis, Mathews County, VA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  11. Coastal Analysis, Charles County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  12. Coastal Analysis, Dorchester County, MD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study as defined in FEMA Guides and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping submitted as a result of a coastal study....

  13. Effect of Landscape-Watershed Attributes on CDOM in Florida's Gulf Coast Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, R. N.; Lehrter, J. C.; Jackson, J.; Coble, P. G.; Hastings, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    Florida’s Gulf Coast has multiple river systems with unique landscape and watershed attributes. Systems that supply water and material to the West Florida Shelf include the Apalachicola, Suwannee, Tampa Bay, Charlotte Harbor and the Shark Rivers. Northern riversheds have large watershed size and are dominated by forest and agricultural land cover, whereas riversheds in Central Florida are primarily urbanized landscapes (Tampa Bay system) that transition to agricultural landscapes (Charlotte Harbor) to the south. The southernmost rivershed in the Everglades is tidally driven and has landcover dominated by water and wetlands. Despite uniqueness amongst systems, Landscape Development Intensity (LDI) scores and precipitation patterns; magnitude of river discharge can be used to explain quantity of CDOM and DOC within headwaters with data collected during 2003-2005, as well as with historic data in Tampa Bay collected through the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County (EPCHC) monitoring program. Beyond organic matter concentration within the rivers, the quality of the material, as per absorption and fluorescence properties, are correlated with the characteristics of the watershed itself, including land-use/land cover. Implications of utilizing discharge and landscape-watershed attributes in estimating flux and quality of terrestrial DOM exported to estuaries and the coastal ocean will be addressed.

  14. The Community – Based Flood Disaster Risk Reduction (CBDRR in Beringin Watershed in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiara Sartika Worowirasmi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Population growth in Semarang city is certainly increasing land demand for settlement. Limited land and weak regulation enforcement of land control trigger the land use change including the watershed area. Semarang City Spatial Plan 2011-2031 has determined Beringin as a buffer area with limited physical development allocation but the citizens utilized the watershed area for settlement. Settlement developments in the area reduce the watershed ability to catch water and river capacity due to increased sedimentation. These two reasons are the main cause of the flash flood disaster (regularly in rainy season in seven villages of Beringin watershed. The condition is exacerbated by the tidal flood occurred in two village lies in coastal. In 2012, Semarang City government developed Flood Forecasting and Warning System as one of Climate Change Adaptation Measures known as Flood Early Warning System (FEWS. One of important output of FEWS is community-based disaster risk reduction. Community participation process in the FEWS has made it possible for the community to identify disaster risk characteristics, to propose solution for reducing flood risk which is suitable to the local wisdom, to increase the community capacity and to organize one of themselves in a disaster preparedness group which run quite independently.

  15. Water Quality Monitoring and Assessment in Northern New Jersey Watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H.; Mirrer, L. K.; Pelak, N. F.; Wu, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    Over a century of rapid urbanization and industrialization in New Jersey brought visible ever-increasing stress on the resource and environmental capacities of the watershed. Environmental quality is a major concern in this region with the urbanization and economic development. As a 8-week long National Science Foundation (NSF)-supported Research Experience for Undergraduate Students (REU) program, this study compares the stream water quality in four Northern New Jersey watersheds with different land use types (i.e., urban, agricultural, and forested). A total of eight sites were chosen for this study with two sites for each watershed to investigate if the land use type has an effect on the water quality, and if so, what that effect is. Physical and chemical parameters, such as temperature, pH, conductivity, solids content, nitrate, and phosphate, were measured during this study as indicators of the water quality. A number of correlations between these parameters were found during the data analysis. Our preliminary results indicate that the land use change has a significant impact on the water quality, causing impaired rivers, streams, lakes and reservoirs in New Jersey watershed. The results from this study are important and useful for developing future environmental management strategies for environmental restoration and urban coastal development. Acknowledgement: The research was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation (Award EAR-1004829).

  16. Drought intensity and spatial variability in Gabes Watershed, south-eastern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemai Sabrine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronological series of monthly and annual precipitation data recorded in Gabes Watershed, south-eastern Tunisia, were analyzed. The study is based on the standardized precipitation index (SPI values, computed for 10 rainfall stations over the period 1987–2012, which corresponds to an observatory period of 25 hydrologic years (from September to August. The results obtained show a great variability in SPI values. The historical evolution of the SPI made it possible to define the periods of excess and deficit, corresponding to wet and dry periods respectively. The wet years were found to be 1989–1990, 1995–1996 and 2006–2007 while the dry years were 1987–1988, 1996–1997, 2000–2001, 2001–2002, 2007–2008, 2008–2009 and 2009–2010. This clearly shows alternating wet and dry periods, but with drought episodes taking prevalence over rainy fronts throughout the study period. Indeed, a high tendency towards a drop in precipitation and important sequences of drought were observed. Spatial variability of drought throughout Gabes Watershed was examined by geostatistical analysis of SPI, as drought and rainfall distribution vary with latitude, longitude, topography and proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. The results obtained showed that, compared to coastal and southern areas, drought was observed to be more important in the West and the North of Gabes Watershed. The SPI showed that moderate droughts are generally more frequent than severe or extreme droughts in most of the Watershed.

  17. Sources of suspended-sediment flux in streams of the chesapeake bay watershed: A regional application of the sparrow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakebill, J.W.; Ator, S.W.; Schwarz, G.E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the sources and transport of fluvial suspended sediment in nontidal streams of the Chesapeake Bay watershed and vicinity. We applied SPAtially Referenced Regressions on Watershed attributes, which spatially correlates estimated mean annual flux of suspended sediment in nontidal streams with sources of suspended sediment and transport factors. According to our model, urban development generates on average the greatest amount of suspended sediment per unit area (3,928 Mg/km2/year), although agriculture is much more widespread and is the greatest overall source of suspended sediment (57 Mg/km2/year). Factors affecting sediment transport from uplands to streams include mean basin slope, reservoirs, physiography, and soil permeability. On average, 59% of upland suspended sediment generated is temporarily stored along large rivers draining the Coastal Plain or in reservoirs throughout the watershed. Applying erosion and sediment controls from agriculture and urban development in areas of the northern Piedmont close to the upper Bay, where the combined effects of watershed characteristics on sediment transport have the greatest influence may be most helpful in mitigating sedimentation in the bay and its tributaries. Stream restoration efforts addressing floodplain and bank stabilization and incision may be more effective in smaller, headwater streams outside of the Coastal Plain. ?? 2010 American Water Resources Association. No claim to original U.S. government works.

  18. Confidence in Coastal Forecasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, F.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis answers the question "How can we show and improve our confidence in coastal forecasts?", by providing four examples of common coastal forecasts. The first example shows how to improve the estimate of the one in ten thousand year storm-surge level. The three dimensional reconstruction,

  19. USDA-ARS Southeast Watershed Laboratory at Tifton, GA:Index Site Design for the Suwannee Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, D.; Strickland, T.; Sheridan, J.; Lowrance, R.; Truman, C.; Hubbard, R.; Potter, T.; Wauchope, D.; Vellidis, G.; Thomas, D.

    2001-12-01

    The Southeast Watershed Hydrology Research Center (SEWHRC) was established in 1966 by order of the U.S. Senate "to identify and characterize those elements that control the flow of water from watersheds in the southeast". A 129 sq.mi. area within the headwaters of Little River Watershed (LRW) in central south Georgia was instrumented to provide data for evaluating and characterizing Coastal Plain hydrologic processes and for development and testing of prediction methodologies for use in ungaged watersheds in regions of low topographic relief. Pesticide analytical capabilities were added in 1976, and inorganic chemistry and sediment transport research were expanded. In 1980, the Center was renamed as the Southeast Watershed Research Laboratory (SEWRL), and laboratories were constructed for nutrient analysis and soil physics. A pesticide analysis laboratory was constructed in 1987. In the early 1990s, a hydraulics laboratory was established for sediment and chemical transport studies, and research on riparian buffers was expanded. The SEWRL research program continues to focus on hydrologic and environmental concerns. Major components of the program are hydrology, pesticides behavior, buffer systems, animal waste management, erosion, remote sensing of watershed condition, and relationships between site-specific agricultural management (BMPs) and small-to-large watershed response. SEWRL's program will be expanded over the next five years to include two additional watersheds comparable in size and instrumentation to the LRW; nesting the LRW within the full Little River drainage and subsequently...all three watersheds within the full Suwannee Basin; and mapping and quantifying irrigation water removals within the Suwannee Basin. We will instrument the three intensive study watersheds and the full Suwannee Basin to provide real-time characterization of precipitation, soil moisture, hydrologic flow, and water quality at a range of spatial and temporal scales. We will

  20. A Study on the Performance Evaluation Indicator System of Non-profit Investment Project in Post-disaster Reconstruction ——Based on Delphi Method%灾后重建公益性投资项目绩效评估指标体系研究——基于德尔菲法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖靖; 宋伟

    2012-01-01

    In order to explore the methods of the performance evaluation of non-profit project in post-disaster reconstruction,this paper puts forward nine dimensions of performance evaluation based on the mainstream thought of"4E" in the performance evaluation of public sector.And then a full and systematic description of the use of these dimensions is carried out by using Delphi method and SPSS,and the possible scope of the dimensions selection for performance evaluation is obtained by descriptive and correlation analysis.Finally,the above nine dimensions are classified into 4 dimensions: economy,efficiency,effectiveness and equality,and specific performance evaluation indicators are proposed for each demension.%为了探索灾后重建公益性项目绩效评价方法,在公共部门绩效评估的4E主流思想上,提出了灾后重建公益性项目绩效评估的九大维度。运用Delphi法和SPSS软件对这些维度的使用情况进行了全面系统的描述,通过数据整理进行描述性、相关性分析,得出了灾后重建公益性投资项目绩效评估维度选择的可能范围。最后,把上述的九大维度具体的划分到经济性、效率性、效益性、公平性等4个维度,并提出了每个维度下具体的绩效评估指标。

  1. Factors Affecting Nitrate Delivery to Streams from Shallow Ground Water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of data collected at five flow-path study sites between 1997 and 2006 was performed to identify the factors needed to formulate a comprehensive program, with a focus on nitrogen, for protecting ground water and surface water in the North Carolina Coastal Plain. Water-quality protection in the Coastal Plain requires the identification of factors that affect the transport of nutrients from recharge areas to streams through the shallow ground-water system. Some basins process or retain nitrogen more readily than others, and the factors that affect nitrogen processing and retention were the focus of this investigation to improve nutrient management in Coastal Plain streams and to reduce nutrient loads to coastal waters. Nitrate reduction in ground water was observed at all five flow-path study sites in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, although the extent of reduction at each site was influenced by various environmental, hydrogeologic, and geochemical factors. Denitrification was the most common factor responsible for decreases in nitrate along the ground-water flow paths. Specific factors, some of which affect denitrification rates, that appeared to influence ground-water nitrate concentrations along the flow paths or in the streams include soil drainage, presence or absence of riparian buffers, evapotranspiration, fertilizer use, ground-water recharge rates and residence times, aquifer properties, subsurface tile drainage, sources and amounts of organic matter, and hyporheic processes. The study data indicate that the nitrate-reducing capacity of the buffer zone combined with that of the hyporheic zone can substantially lower the amount of ground-water nitrate discharged to streams in agricultural settings of the North Carolina Coastal Plain. At the watershed scale, the effects of ground-water discharge on surface-water quality appear to be greatly influenced by streamflow conditions and the presence of extensive riparian vegetation. Streamflow statistics

  2. Geology of the Teakettle Creek watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert S. LaMotte

    1937-01-01

    The Teakettle Creek Experimental Watersheds lie for the most part on quartzites of probable Triassic age. However one of the triplicate drainages has a considerable acreage developed on weathered granodiorite. Topography is relatively uniform and lends itself to triplicate watershed studies. Locations for dams are suitable if certain engineering precautions...

  3. Watershed: A Successful Voyage into Integrative Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark

    This book describes a "whole learning" approach to education called the Watershed Program, which stresses integrated curriculum and experiential learning. Each chapter begins with an episode from the history of eastern Pennsylvania along the Brandywine River, used as an analogy to problems faced by the teachers in the Watershed program.…

  4. Segmentation by watersheds : definition and parallel implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Meijster, Arnold

    1997-01-01

    The watershed algorithm is a method for image segmentation widely used in the area of mathematical morphology. In this paper we first address the problem of how to define watersheds. It is pointed out that various existing definitions are not equivalent. In particular we explain the differences betw

  5. 18 CFR 801.9 - Watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Watershed management... GENERAL POLICIES § 801.9 Watershed management. (a) The character, extent, and quality of water resources... management including soil and water conservation measures, land restoration and rehabilitation,...

  6. Uncertainty Consideration in Watershed Scale Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watershed scale hydrologic and water quality models have been used with increasing frequency to devise alternative pollution control strategies. With recent reenactment of the 1972 Clean Water Act’s TMDL (total maximum daily load) component, some of the watershed scale models are being recommended ...

  7. Retrospect and prospect of watershed hydrological model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.CHEN; Z.F.YANG; 等

    2001-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the development of watershed hydrological models,COnventional Hydrological Model,Grey Hydrological Model,Digital Hydrological Model and Intelligent Hydrological Model are analyzed.The Frameworks of Fuzzy Cognitive Hydrological Model and Integrated Digital Watershed Hydrological Model are presented.

  8. Watershed Management: Lessons from Common Property Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kerr

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Watershed development is an important component of rural development and natural resource management strategies in many countries. A watershed is a special kind of common pool resource: an area defined by hydrological linkages where optimal management requires coordinated use of natural resources by all users. Management is difficult because natural resources comprising the watershed system have multiple, conflicting uses, so any given management approach will spread benefits and costs unevenly among users. To address these challenges, watershed approaches have evolved from more technocratic to a greater focus on social organization and participation. However, the latter cannot necessarily be widely replicated. In addition, participatory approaches have worked better at a small scale, but hydrological relationships cover a larger scale and some projects have faced tradeoffs in choosing between the two. Optimal approaches for future efforts are not clear, and theories from common property research do not support the idea that complex watershed management can succeed everywhere. Solutions may include simplifying watershed projects, pursuing watershed projects where conditions are favorable, and making other investments elsewhere, including building the organizational capacity that can facilitate watershed management.

  9. Prioritization of sub-watersheds based on morphometric analysis using geospatial technique in Piperiya watershed, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandniha, Surendra Kumar; Kansal, Mitthan Lal

    2017-03-01

    Hydrological investigation and behavior of watershed depend upon geo-morphometric characteristics of catchment. Morphometric analysis is commonly used for development of regional hydrological model of ungauged watershed. A critical valuation and assessment of geo-morphometric constraints has been carried out. Prioritization of watersheds based on water plot capacity of Piperiya watershed has been evaluated by linear, aerial and relief aspects. Morphometric analysis has been attempted for prioritization for nine sub-watersheds of Piperiya watershed in Hasdeo river basin, which is a tributary of the Mahanadi. Sub-watersheds are delineated by ArcMap 9.3 software as per digital elevation model (DEM). Assessment of drainages and their relative parameters such as stream order, stream length, stream frequency, drainage density, texture ratio, form factor, circulatory ratio, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio and compactness ratio has been calculated separately for each sub-watershed using the Remote Sensing (RS) and Geospatial techniques. Finally, the prioritized score on the basis of morphometric behavior of each sub-watershed is assigned and thereafter consolidated scores have been estimated to identify the most sensitive parameters. The analysis reveals that stream order varies from 1 to 5; however, the first-order stream covers maximum area of about 87.7 %. Total number of stream segment of all order is 1,264 in the watershed. The study emphasizes the prioritization of the sub-watersheds on the basis of morphometric analysis. The final score of entire nine sub-watersheds is assigned as per erosion threat. The sub-watershed with the least compound parameter value was assigned as highest priority. However, the sub-watersheds has been categorized into three classes as high (4.1-4.7), medium (4.8-5.3) and low (>5.4) priority on the basis of their maximum (6.0) and minimum (4.1) prioritized score.

  10. Elk River Watershed - Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, C. C.; Byrne, J. M.; MacDonald, R. J.; Lewis, D.

    2014-12-01

    Flooding has the potential to cause significant impacts to economic activities as well as to disrupt or displace populations. Changing climate regimes such as extreme precipitation events increase flood vulnerability and put additional stresses on infrastructure. Potential flooding from just under 100 (2009 NPRI Reviewed Facility Data Release, Environment Canada) toxic tailings ponds located in Canada increase risk to human safety and the environment. One such geotechnical failure spilt billions of litres of toxic tailings into the Fraser River watershed, British Columbia, when a tailings pond dam breach occurred in August 2014. Damaged and washed out roadways cut access to essential services as seen by the extensive floods that occurred in Saskatchewan and Manitoba in July 2014, and in Southern Alberta in 2013. Recovery efforts from events such as these can be lengthy, and have substantial social and economic impacts both in loss of revenue and cost of repair. The objective of this study is to investigate existing conditions in the Elk River watershed and model potential future hydrological changes that can increase flood risk hazards. By analyzing existing hydrology, meteorology, land cover, land use, economic, and settlement patterns a baseline is established for existing conditions in the Elk River watershed. Coupling the Generate Earth Systems Science (GENESYS) high-resolution spatial hydrometeorological model with flood hazard analysis methodology, high-resolution flood vulnerability base line maps are created using historical climate conditions. Further work in 2015 will examine possible impacts for a range of climate change and land use change scenarios to define changes to future flood risk and vulnerability.

  11. Payments for watershed services: opportunities and realities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Ivan

    2007-08-15

    Many nations have found that regulatory approaches to land and water management have limited impact. An alternative is to create incentives for sound management - under mechanisms known as payments for ecosystem services. It is a simple idea: people who look after ecosystems that benefit others should be recognised and rewarded. In the case of watersheds, downstream beneficiaries of wise upstream land and water use should compensate the stewards. To be effective these 'payments for watershed services' must cover the cost of watershed management. In developing countries, they might also aid local development and reduce poverty. But new research shows that the problems in watersheds are complex and not easily solved. Payments for watershed services do not guarantee poverty reduction and cannot replace the best aspects of regulation.

  12. Measuring environmental sustainability of water in watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Erich T; Little, John C

    2013-08-06

    Environmental sustainability assessment is a rapidly growing field where measures of sustainability are used within an assessment framework to evaluate and compare alternative actions. Here we argue for the importance of evaluating environmental sustainability of water at the watershed scale. We review existing frameworks in brief before reviewing watershed-relevant measures in more detail. While existing measures are diverse, overlapping, and interdependent, certain attributes that are important for watersheds are poorly represented, including spatial explicitness and the effect of natural watershed components, such as rivers. Most studies focus on one or a few measures, but a complete assessment will require use of many existing measures, as well as, perhaps, new ones. Increased awareness of the broad dimensions of environmental sustainability as applied to water management should encourage integration of existing approaches into a unified assessment framework appropriate for watersheds.

  13. Sustainable Management of Coastal Environments Through Coupled Terrestrial-Coastal Ocean Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrenz, S. E.; Cai, W.; Tian, H.; He, R.; Xue, Z.; Fennel, K.; Hopkinson, C.; Howden, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Changing climate and land use practices have the potential to dramatically alter coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical processes and associated movement of water, carbon and nutrients through various terrestrial reservoirs into rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters. Consequences of climate- and land use-related changes will be particularly evident in large river basins and their associated coastal outflow regions. The large spatial extent of such systems necessitates a combination of satellite observations and model-based approaches coupled with targeted ground-based site studies to adequately characterize relationships among climate forcing (e.g., wind, precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, humidity, extreme weather), land use practice/land cover change, and transport of materials through watersheds and, ultimately, to coastal regions. Here, we describe a NASA Interdisciplinary Science project that employs an integrated suite of models in conjunction with remotely sensed as well as targeted in situ observations with the objectives of describing processes controlling fluxes on land and their coupling to riverine, estuarine and ocean ecosystems. The objectives of this effort are to 1) assemble and evaluate long term datasets for the assessment of impacts of climate variability, extreme weather events, and land use practices on transport of water, carbon and nitrogen within terrestrial systems and the delivery of materials to waterways and rivers; 2) using the Mississippi River as a testbed, develop and evaluate an integrated suite of models to describe linkages between terrestrial and riverine systems, transport of carbon and nutrients in the Mississippi river and its tributaries, and associated cycling of carbon and nutrients in coastal ocean waters; and 3) evaluate uncertainty in model products and parameters and identify areas where improved model performance is needed through model refinement and data assimilation. The effort employs the Dynamic Land

  14. Model Calibration in Watershed Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Koray K.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Gupta, Hoshin V.; Sorooshian, Soroosh

    2009-01-01

    Hydrologic models use relatively simple mathematical equations to conceptualize and aggregate the complex, spatially distributed, and highly interrelated water, energy, and vegetation processes in a watershed. A consequence of process aggregation is that the model parameters often do not represent directly measurable entities and must, therefore, be estimated using measurements of the system inputs and outputs. During this process, known as model calibration, the parameters are adjusted so that the behavior of the model approximates, as closely and consistently as possible, the observed response of the hydrologic system over some historical period of time. This Chapter reviews the current state-of-the-art of model calibration in watershed hydrology with special emphasis on our own contributions in the last few decades. We discuss the historical background that has led to current perspectives, and review different approaches for manual and automatic single- and multi-objective parameter estimation. In particular, we highlight the recent developments in the calibration of distributed hydrologic models using parameter dimensionality reduction sampling, parameter regularization and parallel computing.

  15. Mercury cycling in terrestrial watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James B.; Bishop, Kevin; Banks, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter discusses mercury cycling in the terrestrial landscape, including inputs from the atmosphere, accumulation in soils and vegetation, outputs in streamflow and volatilization, and effects of land disturbance. Mercury mobility in the terrestrial landscape is strongly controlled by organic matter. About 90% of the atmospheric mercury input is retained in vegetation and organic matter in soils, causing a buildup of legacy mercury. Some mercury is volatilized back to the atmosphere, but most export of mercury from watersheds occurs by streamflow. Stream mercury export is episodic, in association with dissolved and particulate organic carbon, as stormflow and snowmelt flush organic-rich shallow soil horizons. The terrestrial landscape is thus a major source of mercury to downstream aquatic environments, where mercury is methylated and enters the aquatic food web. With ample organic matter and sulfur, methylmercury forms in uplands as well—in wetlands, riparian zones, and other anoxic sites. Watershed features (topography, land cover type, and soil drainage class) are often more important than atmospheric mercury deposition in controlling the amount of stream mercury and methylmercury export. While reductions in atmospheric mercury deposition may rapidly benefit lakes, the terrestrial landscape will respond only over decades, because of the large stock and slow turnover of legacy mercury. We conclude with a discussion of future scenarios and the challenge of managing terrestrial mercury.

  16. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. 

  17. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-06-13

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout.

  18. Different seasonality of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed in Midwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, S.; Youssef, M. A.; Richards, R. P.; Liu, J.; Baker, D. B.; Liu, Y.

    2016-10-01

    Land use/land cover is a critical factor affecting temporal dynamics of nitrate export from watersheds. Based on a long-term (>30 years) water quality monitoring program in the Western Lake Erie area, United States, this study compared seasonal variation of nitrate export from an agricultural watershed and an urbanized watershed. A seasonality index was adapted to quantitatively characterize seasonal variation of nitrate export from the two watersheds. Results showed that monthly nitrate concentrations from the two watersheds exhibited different seasonal variation. Seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading for the agricultural watershed is approximately 3 times of that from the urbanized watershed and the difference is statistically significant (p export from the two watersheds were mainly attributed to their distinct nitrogen sources, physical and biogeochemical settings. The declining seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading from the agricultural watershed could be partially caused by historical climate change in the study region, especially increased temperature during winter. Urbanization could be one key factor contributing to the declining seasonality index of monthly nitrate loading from the urbanized watershed. Information derived from this study have practical implications for developing proper management practices to mitigate nitrate pollution in Midwestern United States.

  19. MAPPING WATERSHED INTEGRITY FOR THE CONTERMINOUS UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watersheds provide a variety of ecosystem services valued by society. Production of these services is sensitive to watershed alteration by human activities. Flotemersch and others (2015), defined watershed integrity (WI) as the “capacity of a watershed to support and maint...

  20. Coastal change and hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR has identified the input of nutrient-rich water from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River Basin (MARB as the prime cause of hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the prime means for its control. A Watershed Nutrient Task Force was formed to solve the hypoxia problem by managing the MARB catchment. However, the hypoxic zone is also experiencing massive physical, hydrological, chemical and biological changes associated with an immense river-switching and delta-building event that occurs here about once a millennium. Coastal change induced hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico prior to European settlement. It is recommended that for further understanding and control of Gulf hypoxia the Watershed Nutrient Task Force adopt a truly holistic environmental approach which includes the full effects of this highly dynamic coastal area.

  1. Holocene paleoclimate records from a large California estuarine system and its watershed region: linking watershed climate and bay conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud-Roam, Frances P.; Lynn Ingram, B.; Hughes, Malcolm; Florsheim, Joan L.

    2006-07-01

    The San Francisco Bay-Delta system includes a watershed that covers a large area of California and provides water to two-thirds of the State's population. Climate over the estuary and its watershed in the dry summer months is controlled by the subtropical high which dominates and deflects storms from California. The subtropical high weakens and migrates south as the Aleutian Low strengthens, bringing wet winter storms to the region. Paleoclimatic records from the Bay and its greater watershed, spanning the Holocene, are reviewed here in order to better understand natural variations of precipitation and runoff and the linkages between those variations and the salinity and ecosystems of the estuary. To better understand regional-scale climate patterns, paleoclimate records from coastal California and the Great Basin are also considered. Large fluctuations in climate have occurred during the period of interest, and there is generally good agreement between the paleoclimate records from different regions. Early Holocene climate throughout California was marked by rising temperatures and reduced moisture as seen in fire records from the watershed. This warmth and aridity peaked about 5000-7000 years ago and was followed by a cooling trend, with variable moisture conditions. The Estuary formed relatively rapidly in response to a high rate of sea level rise that dominated the Holocene until about 6000 years ago, and the subsequent reduced rate of inundation allowed vast tidal marshes to form along the edges of the estuary, which have since been recording changes in environmental conditions. The impacts of changing regional climate patterns are experienced in the San Francisco Bay-Delta system, as altered fresh water flows result in altered estuary salinity. For example, approximately 3800 cal yr B.P., records from throughout the state indicate a cool, moist period, and Bay salinity was reduced; this period was followed by a general drying trend throughout California over

  2. Quantifying Urban Watershed Stressor Gradients and Evaluating How Different Land Cover Datasets Affect Stream Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smucker, Nathan J; Kuhn, Anne; Charpentier, Michael A; Cruz-Quinones, Carlos J; Elonen, Colleen M; Whorley, Sarah B; Jicha, Terri M; Serbst, Jonathan R; Hill, Brian H; Wehr, John D

    2016-03-01

    Watershed management and policies affecting downstream ecosystems benefit from identifying relationships between land cover and water quality. However, different data sources can create dissimilarities in land cover estimates and models that characterize ecosystem responses. We used a spatially balanced stream study (1) to effectively sample development and urban stressor gradients while representing the extent of a large coastal watershed (>4400 km(2)), (2) to document differences between estimates of watershed land cover using 30-m resolution national land cover database (NLCD) and land cover data, and (3) to determine if predictive models and relationships between water quality and land cover differed when using these two land cover datasets. Increased concentrations of nutrients, anions, and cations had similarly significant correlations with increased watershed percent impervious cover (IC), regardless of data resolution. The NLCD underestimated percent forest for 71/76 sites by a mean of 11 % and overestimated percent wetlands for 71/76 sites by a mean of 8 %. The NLCD almost always underestimated IC at low development intensities and overestimated IC at high development intensities. As a result of underestimated IC, regression models using NLCD data predicted mean background concentrations of NO3 (-) and Cl(-) that were 475 and 177 %, respectively, of those predicted when using finer resolution land cover data. Our sampling design could help states and other agencies seeking to create monitoring programs and indicators responsive to anthropogenic impacts. Differences between land cover datasets could affect resource protection due to misguided management targets, watershed development and conservation practices, or water quality criteria.

  3. Coastal California Digital Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This digital ortho-imagery dataset is a survey of coastal California. The project area consists of approximately 3774 square miles. The project design of the digital...

  4. Topics in coastal engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijker, E.W.

    1972-01-01

    Harbors, development of longshore current formulas, radiation stress, determination of currents along a coast, longshore sand transportation, local coastal accretion, beaches with groins, wave forces on piles, offshore constructions, offshore moorings, submarine pipelines.

  5. National Coastal Mapping Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) National Coastal Mapping Program (NCMP) is designed to provide high-resolution elevation and imagery data along U.S....

  6. Coastal Temperate Rainforest Symposium

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The North Pacific LCC is helping sponsor the April 2012 science symposium - Coastal Temperate Rainforests: Integrating Communities, Climate Science, and Resource...

  7. Coastal Zone of Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water, Salt and Nutrients Budgets of Two Estuaries in the. Coastal Zone of ... in destabilization of plankton communities, resulting in high ...... The water exchange time (1) was. 315 and 48 days in ..... account. Know your Milieu Series. Limbe,.

  8. Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Coastal Harbors Modeling Facility is used to aid in the planning of harbor development and in the design and layout of breakwaters, absorbers, etc.. The goal is...

  9. Watershed modeling tools and data for prognostic and diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambel-Leitao, P.; Brito, D.; Neves, R.

    2009-04-01

    -572 Borgvang, S-A. & Selvik, J.S., 2000, eds. Development of HARP Guidelines - Harmonised Quantification and Reporting Procedure for Nutrients. SFT Report 1759/2000. ISBN 82-7655-401-6. 179 pp. Chambel-Leitão P. (2008) Load and flow estimation: HARP-NUT guidelines and SWAT model description. In Perspectives on Integrated Coastal Zone Management in South America R Neves, J Baretta & M Mateus (eds.). IST Press, Lisbon, Portugal. (ISBN: 978-972-8469-74-0) Chambel-Leitão P. Sampaio. A., Almeida, P. (2008) Load and flow estimation in Santos watersheds. In Perspectives on Integrated Coastal Zone Management in South America R Neves, J Baretta & M Mateus (eds.). IST Press, Lisbon, Portugal. (ISBN: 978-972-8469-74-0) Chambel-Leitão P., F. Braunschweig, L. Fernandes, R. Neves, P. Galvão. (2007) Integration of MOHID model and tools with SWAT model, submitted to the Proceedings of the, 4th International SWAT Conference, July 2-6 2007. Coelho H., Silva A., P. Chambel-Leitão, Obermann M. (2008) On The Origin Of Cyanobacteria Blooms In The Enxoé Reservoir. 13th World Water Congress, Montpellier, France Galvão P., Chambel-Leitão, P., P. Leitão, R. Neves. (2004a) A different approach to the modified Picard method for water flow in variably saturated media. Computational Methods in Water Resources. Chapel Hill, North Carolina USA Galvão P., Neves R., Silva A., Chambel-Leitão P. & F. Braunchweig (2004b) Integrated Watershed Modeling. Proceedings of MERIS User Workshop ESA-ESRIN, Frascati, Italy May 2004. Neves R., Galvao P., Braunschewig F.Chambel-Leitão P. (2007) New Approaches to Integrated Watershed Modeling. Proceedings of SPS (NFA) 5th Workshop on Sustainable Use And Development Of Watersheds For Human Security And Peace October 22-26, 2007 Istanbul, TURKEY Schoumans, O.F. & Silgram, M. (eds.), 2003. Review and literature evaluation of Quantification Tools for the assessment of nutrient losses at catchment scale. EUROHARP report 1-2003, NIVA report SNO 4739-2003, ISBN 82

  10. Modeling the impact of climate change on sediment transport and morphology in coupled watershed-coast systems:A case study using an integrated approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Achilleas GSAMARAS; Christopher GKOUTITAS

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is an issue of major concern nowadays. Its impact on the natural and human environment is studied intensively, as the expected shift in climate will be significant in the next few decades. Recent experience shows that the effects will be critical in coastal areas, resulting in erosion and inundation phenomena worldwide. In addition to that, coastal areas are subject to"pressures"from upstream watersheds in terms of water quality and sediment transport. The present paper studies the impact of climate change on sediment transport and morphology in the aforementioned coupled system. The study regards a sandy coast and its upstream watershed in Chalkidiki, North Greece; it is based on: (a) an integrated approach for the quantitative correlation of the two through numerical modeling, developed by the authors, and (b) a calibrated application of the relevant models Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and PELNCON-M, applied to the watershed and the coastal zone, respectively. The examined climate change scenarios focus on a shift of the rainfall distribution towards fewer and more extreme rainfall events, and an increased frequency of occurrence of extreme wave events. Results indicate the significance of climatic pressures in wide-scale sediment dynamics, and are deemed to provide a useful perspective for researchers and policy planners involved in the study of coastal morphology evolution in a changing climate.

  11. Identifying Watershed Regions Sensitive to Soil Erosion and Contributing to Lake Eutrophication--A Case Study in the Taihu Lake Basin (China).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; He, Bin

    2015-12-24

    Taihu Lake in China is suffering from severe eutrophication partly due to non-point pollution from the watershed. There is an increasing need to identify the regions within the watershed that most contribute to lake water degradation. The selection of appropriate temporal scales and lake indicators is important to identify sensitive watershed regions. This study selected three eutrophic lake areas, including Meiliang Bay (ML), Zhushan Bay (ZS), and the Western Coastal region (WC), as well as multiple buffer zones next to the lake boundary as the study sites. Soil erosion intensity was designated as a watershed indicator, and the lake algae area was designated as a lake quality indicator. The sensitive watershed region was identified based on the relationship between these two indicators among different lake divisions for a temporal sequence from 2000 to 2012. The results show that the relationship between soil erosion modulus and lake quality varied among different lake areas. Soil erosion from the two bay areas was more closely correlated with water quality than soil erosion from the WC region. This was most apparent at distances of 5 km to 10 km from the lake, where the r² was as high as 0.764. Results indicate that soil erosion could be used as an indicator for identifying key watershed protection areas. Different lake areas need to be considered separately due to differences in geographical features, land use, and the corresponding effects on lake water quality.

  12. Data access and decision tools for coastal water resources ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA has supported the development of numerous models and tools to support implementation of environmental regulations. However, transfer of knowledge and methods from detailed technical models to support practical problem solving by local communities and watershed or coastal management organizations remains a challenge. We have developed the Estuary Data Mapper (EDM) to facilitate data discovery, visualization and access to support environmental problem solving for coastal watersheds and estuaries. EDM is a stand-alone application based on open-source software which requires only internet access for operation. Initially, development of EDM focused on delivery of raw data streams from distributed web services, ranging from atmospheric deposition to hydrologic, tidal, and water quality time series, estuarine habitat characteristics, and remote sensing products. We have transitioned to include access to value-added products which provide end-users with results of future scenario analysis, facilitate extension of models across geographic regions, and/or promote model interoperability. Here we present three examples: 1) the delivery of input data for the development of seagrass models across estuaries, 2) scenarios illustrating the implications of riparian buffer management (loss or restoration) for stream thermal regimes and fish communities, and 3) access to hydrology model outputs to foster connections across models at different scales, ultimately feeding

  13. Quantifying the Influence of Urbanization on a Coastal Floodplain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, A.; Juan, A.; Bedient, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Gulf Coast is the fastest growing region in the United States; between 1960 and 2010, the number of housing units along the Gulf of Mexico increased by 246%, vastly outpacing growth in other parts of the country (NOAA 2013). Numerous studies have shown that increases in impervious surface associated with urbanization reduce infiltration and increase surface runoff. While empirical evidence suggests that changes in land use are leading to increased flood damage in overland areas, earlier studies have largely focused on the impacts of urbanization on surface runoff and watershed hydrology, rather than quantifying its influence on the spatial extent of flooding. In this study, we conduct a longitudinal assessment of the evolution of flood risk since 1970 in an urbanizing coastal watershed. Utilizing the distributed hydrologic model, Vflo®, in combination with the hydraulic model, HEC-RAS, we quantify the impact of localized land use/land cover (LULC) change on the spatial extent of flooding in the watershed and the underlying flood hazard structure. The results demonstrate that increases in impervious cover between 1970 and 2010 (34%) and 2010 and 2040 (18%) increase the size of the floodplain by 26 and 17%, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate that the depth and frequency of flooding in neighborhoods within the 1% floodplain have increased substantially (see attached figure). Finally, this analysis provides evidence that outdated FEMA floodplain maps could be underestimating the extent of the floodplain by upwards of 25%, depending on the rate of urbanization in the watershed; and, that by incorporating physics-based distributed hydrologic models into floodplain studies, floodplain maps can be easily updated to reflect the most recent LULC information available. The methods presented in this study have important implications for the development of mitigation strategies in coastal areas, such as deterring future development in flood prone areas

  14. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Monitoring Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project is an interagency effort to increase public awareness of the common reedgrass problem, demonstrate effective control...

  15. Southern Watersheds Common Reedgrass Project Progress Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Southern Watersheds includes the drainages of the Northwest River, the North Landing River, and Back Bay in the southeastern corner of Virginia. Common reedgrass...

  16. Tribal boundaries in the Nass watershed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sterritt, N. J; Marsden, S; Galois, R; Grant, P.R; Overstall, R

    1998-01-01

    Tribal Boundaries in the Nass Watershed makes an important contribution to our understanding on how First Nations traditionally establish their rights to territory and to how these rights are played...

  17. Watershed Boundaries, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, was produced all or in part from Road Centerline Files information as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in...

  18. Watershed impervious cover relative to stream location

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Estimates of watershed (12-digit huc) impervious cover and impervious cover near streams and water body shorelines for three dates (2001, 2006, 2011) using NLCD...

  19. Blob Objects Analysis Using Watershed Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for overlapping or touching blob object ( particles ) segmentation. It is based on the watershed transformation, one of the most powerful image analysis tools provided by mathematical morphology. In this method, we first build the distance function of the blob image, and then extract the regional minima as markers, and finally the watershed transformation is performed. The applications of this algorithm illustrated using the examples of red blood cell segmentation and broken medicine pill detection.

  20. Using Four Capitals to Assess Watershed Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Maqueo, Octavio; Martinez, M. Luisa; Vázquez, Gabriela; Equihua, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The La Antigua watershed drains into the Gulf of Mexico and can be considered as one of the most important areas in Mexico because of its high productivity, history, and biodiversity, although poverty remains high in the area in spite of these positive attributes. In this study, we performed an integrated assessment of the watershed to recommend a better direction toward a sustainable management in which the four capitals (natural, human, social, and built) are balanced. We contrasted these four capitals in the municipalities of the upper, middle and lower watershed and found that natural capital (natural ecosystems and ecosystem services) was higher in the upper and middle watershed, while human and social capitals (literacy, health, education and income) were generally higher downstream. Overall, Human Development Index was negatively correlated with the percentage of natural ecosystems in the watershed, especially in the upper and lower watershed regions. Our results indicate that natural capital must be fully considered in projections for increasing human development, so that natural resources can be preserved and managed adequately while sustaining intergenerational well-being.

  1. Tracing back nutrients from Southern North Sea eutrophicated areas up to the watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulière, Valérie; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane; Thieu, Vincent; Luyten, Patrick; Lacroix, Geneviève

    2015-04-01

    The Southern North Sea faces eutrophication problems. They result from growing anthropogenic pressure in the river watersheds, and subsequent increase in nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) loading to the sea. Establishing the link between human activities and eutrophication problems requires the identification of the major nutrient sources and the ecological response of the coastal ecosystem to these nutrient alterations. This information is crucial to mitigate eutrophication in coastal zones by applying appropriate dual-nutrient reduction strategies, therefore achieving the Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020. The marine biogeochemical model (MIRO&CO) has been coupled to a newly developed generic watershed model (PyNuts) based on Riverstrahler model. A nutrient tracking approach has been adapted and implemented in MIRO&CO. The transboundary nutrient transport method has been used to track the nutrients in the sea, and trace back their sources (river, ocean, and atmosphere). Here, the relative contributions of the different nutrient sources will be presented. Results show that the nitrogen contribution from atmospheric deposition is not negligible and that the nutrients released by French rivers reach the Southern North Sea in significant proportions. This work has done in the framework of the EMoSEM EU project (http://www.odnature.be/emosem/) that aims at providing support to eutrophication management in the North Atlantic Ocean, using state-of-the-art modelling tools.

  2. Net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs and nitrogen fluxes from Indian watersheds: An initial assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, D. P.; Hong, B.; Paneer Selvam, A.; Howarth, R. W.; Ramesh, R.; Purvaja, R.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we apply an established methodology for estimating Net Anthropogenic Nitrogen Inputs (NANI) to India and its major watersheds. Our primary goal here is to provide initial estimates of major nitrogen inputs of NANI for India, at the country level and for major Indian watersheds, including data sources and parameter estimates, making some assumptions as needed in areas of limited data availability. Despite data limitations, we believe that it is clear that the main anthropogenic N source is agricultural fertilizer, which is being produced and applied at a growing rate, followed by N fixation associated with rice, leguminous crops, and sugar cane. While India appears to be a net exporter of N in food/feed as reported elsewhere (Lassaletta et al., 2013b), the balance of N associated with exports and imports of protein in food and feedstuffs is sensitive to protein content and somewhat uncertain. While correlating watershed N inputs with riverine N fluxes is problematic due in part to limited available riverine data, we have assembled some data for comparative purposes. We also suggest possible improvements in methods for future studies, and the potential for estimating riverine N fluxes to coastal waters.

  3. Distribution and contamination of metals in the soil of Guandu Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo Pacheco Ferreira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Coastal areas provide important benefits to humans in terms of food resources and ecosystem services. At the same time, human activities can have significant negative impacts on ecosystem health. Thus, control of watershed pollution is both necessary and essential in order to reduce and systematically eliminate the detrimental consequences that are evident in marine and estuarine ecosystems. The present study investigated the distribution of metals at the Guandu Watershed. Five sampling sites were selected for the soil analysis. Samples were collected from February 2013 to December 2014 and analysed for concentrations of As, Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Co, using ICP. For control, some samples were used in uncontaminated areas outside the direct effect of chemical industries. The data indicate the presence of metals at the research sites. While the levels of contamination are still slightly below the peak concentrations established by Brazilian legislation, they are approaching levels of concern, particularly with regard to As, Cd, Pb and Cr. The results indicate that the use of water from the Guandu Watershed for recreational purposes and fishing is harmful to both human health and the environment.

  4. COASTAL STUDY, SOLANO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  5. Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert G.; Dalrymple, Robert A.

    2004-03-01

    The world's coastlines, dividing land from sea, are geological environments that are unique in their composition and the physical processes affecting them. At the dynamically active intersection of land and the oceans, humans have been building structures throughout history. Initially used for naval and commercial purposes, more recently recreation and tourism have increased activity in the coastal zone dramatically. Shoreline development is now causing a significant conflict with natural coastal processes. This text on coastal engineering will help the reader understand these coastal processes and develop strategies to cope effectively with shoreline erosion. The book is organized in four parts: (1) an overview of coastal engineering, using case studies to illustrate problems; (2) hydrodynamics of the coastal zone, reviewing storm surges, water waves, and low frequency motions within the nearshore and surf zone; (3) coastal responses including equilibrium beach profiles and sediment transport; (4) applications such as erosion mitigation, beach nourishment, coastal armoring, tidal inlets, and shoreline management.

  6. COASTAL STUDY, LINCOLN COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Coastal study data as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix D: Guidance for Coastal Flooding Analyses and Mapping, submitted as a result of a...

  7. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  8. Scour around coastal structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Whiteouse, J. S.; Tørum, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the European Union Marine Science and Technology (EU MAST) III project "Scour Around Coastal Structures" (SCARCOST). The summary is presented under three headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Flow and scour processes with the subheadings: flow and scour processes...... pressures and effective stresses around a bottom seated cylinder; non-linear soil modelling with respect to wave-induced pore pressures and gradients; wave-induced pressures on the bottom for non-linear coastal waves, including also wave kinematics; development of a numerical model (linear soil modelling...

  9. Geomorphometry in coastal morphodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Jackson, Derek

    2017-04-01

    Geomorphometry is a cross-cutting discipline that has interwoven itself into multiple research themes due to its ability to encompass topographic quantification on many fronts. Its operational focus is largely defined as the extraction of land-surface parameters and earth surface characterisation. In particular, the coastal sciences have been enriched by the use of digital terrain production techniques both on land and in the nearshore/marine area. Numerous examples exist in which the utilisation of field instrumentation (e.g. LIDAR, GPS, Terrestrial Laser Scanning, multi-beam echo-sounders) are used for surface sampling and development of Digital Terrain Models, monitoring topographic change and creation of nearshore bathymetry, and have become central elements in modern investigations of coastal morphodynamics. The coastal zone is a highly dynamic system that embraces variable and at times, inter-related environments (sand dunes, sandy beaches, shoreline and nearshore) all of which require accurate and integrated monitoring. Although coastal studies can be widely diverse (with interconnected links to other related disciplines such as geology or biology), the characterisation of the landforms (coastal geomorphology) and associated processes (morphodynamics, hydrodynamics, aeolian processes) is perhaps where geomorphometry (topo-bathymetry quantification) is best highlighted. In this respect, many tools have been developed (or improved upon) for the acquisition of topographic data that now commands a high degree of accuracy, simplicity, and ultimately acquisition cost reduction. We present a series of field data acquisitions examples that have produced land surface characterisation using a range of techniques including traditional GPS surveys to more recent Terrestrial Laser Scanning and airborne LIDAR. These have been conducted within beach and dune environments and have helped describe erosion and depositional processes driven by wind and wave energy (high

  10. Evaluation of groundwater resources of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed using an integrated hydrologic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seck, A.; Welty, C.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    We present results from a distributed integrated hydrologic model of the Chesapeake Bay Watershed using ParFlow-CLM. The model covers an area of 400,000 km2 spanning five physiographic provinces, discretized at a horizontal resolution of 2 km and vertical resolution of 5 m. Synthesis of published hydrogeologic data as well as analysis of well completion reports from state agencies were used to construct a hydrogeologic model framework. The model was run for the period of 2003-2004 using National Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) meteorological forcing. Model output captures seasonal and spatial variability in subsurface storage and surface storage, and produces water table depths consistent with the topography, meteorological forcing, and hydrogeological setting. Model results show spatial variability in evaporation fluxes correlated to land cover at higher resolution than either NLDAS outputs or the EPA Chesapeake Bay Watershed Model Phase 5.3. Comparison with USGS streamflow data at selected stream gages shows good agreement in daily discharge timing and fluxes for high and average flows, whereas the model does not perform as well for low flows during summer and dry periods. Analysis of groundwater stores and fluxes showed marked variability across physiographic provinces. Highest groundwater stores were expectedly found in the Coastal Plain, while the Blue Ridge physiographic province had the lowest stores. The Appalachian Plateau was characterized by the highest net recharge rates. The highest discharge rates were found in the Valley and Ridge, Piedmont and Coastal Plain. The construction of this model constitutes a step forward in understanding the groundwater system in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and its role in solute delivery to the Chesapeake Bay.

  11. Lessons From Watershed-Based Climate Smart Agricultural Practices In Jogo-Gudedo Watershed Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abera Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Land degradation is the most chronic problem in the Ethiopia. Soil erosion and denudation of vegetation covers are tending to enlarge the area of degraded and west land in semi-arid watersheds. It is therefore watershed management is believed as a holistic approach to create a climate smart landscape that integrate forestry agriculture pasture and soil water management with an objective of sustainable management of natural resources to improve livelihood. This approach pursues to promote interactions among multiple stakeholders and their interests within and between the upstream and downstream locations of a watershed. Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre MARC has been implementing integrated watershed management research project in the Jogo-gudedo watershed from 2010-2014 and lessons from Jogo-gudedo watershed are presented in this research report. Participatory action research PAR was implemented on Soil and Water Conservation SWC area enclosure Agroforestry AF Conservation Tillage CT energy saving stove drought resistance crop varieties in the Jogo-gudedo watershed. Empirical research and action research at plot level and evaluation of introduced technologies with farmers through experimental learning approach and documentation were employed. The participatory evaluation and collective action of SWC and improved practices brought high degree of acceptance of the practices and technologies. This had been ratified by the implementation of comprehensive watershed management action research which in turn enabled to taste and exploit benefits of climate-smart agricultural practices. Eventually significant reduction on soil loss and fuel wood consumption improvements on vegetation cover and crop production were quantitatively recorded as a good indicator and success. Field visit meetings trainings and frequent dialogues between practitioners and communities at watershed level have had a help in promoting the climate smart agriculture

  12. Tracking Nonpoint Source Nitrogen and Carbon in Watersheds of Chesapeake Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; Pennino, M. J.; Duan, S.; Blomquist, J.

    2012-12-01

    Humans have altered nitrogen and carbon cycles in rivers regionally with important impacts on coastal ecosystems. Nonpoint source nitrogen pollution is a leading contributor to coastal eutrophication and hypoxia. Shifts in sources of carbon impact downstream ecosystem metabolism and fate and transport of contaminants in coastal zones. We used a combination of stable isotopes and optical tracers to investigate fate and transport of nitrogen and carbon sources in tributaries of the largest estuary in the U.S., the Chesapeake Bay. We analyzed isotopic composition of water samples from major tributaries including the Potomac River, Susquehanna River, Patuxent River, and Choptank River during routine and storm event sampling over multiple years. A positive correlation between δ15N-NO3- and δ18O-NO3- in the Potomac River above Washington D.C. suggested denitrification or biological uptake in the watershed was removing agriculturally-derived N during summer months. In contrast, the Patuxent River in Maryland showed elevated δ15N-NO3- (5 - 12 per mil) with no relationship to δ18O-NO3- suggesting the importance of wastewater sources. From the perspective of carbon sources, there were distinct isotopic values of the δ13C-POM of particulate organic matter and fluorescence excitation emission matrices (EEMS) for rivers influenced by their dominant watershed land use. EEMS showed that there were increases in the humic and fulvic fractions of dissolved organic matter during spring floods, particularly in the Potomac River. Stable isotopic values of δ13C-POM also showed rapid depletion suggesting terrestrial carbon "pulses" in the Potomac River each spring. The δ15N-POM peaked to 10 - 15 per mil each spring suggested a potential manure source or result of biological processing within the watershed. Overall, there were considerable changes in sources and transformations of nitrogen and carbon that varied across rivers and that contribute to nitrogen and carbon loads

  13. A statistical model for water quality predictions from a river discharge using coastal observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S.; Terrill, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding and predicting coastal ocean water quality has benefits for reducing human health risks, protecting the environment, and improving local economies which depend on clean beaches. Continuous observations of coastal physical oceanography increase the understanding of the processes which control the fate and transport of a riverine plume which potentially contains high levels of contaminants from the upstream watershed. A data-driven model of the fate and transport of river plume water from the Tijuana River has been developed using surface current observations provided by a network of HF radar operated as part of a local coastal observatory that has been in place since 2002. The model outputs are compared with water quality sampling of shoreline indicator bacteria, and the skill of an alarm for low water quality is evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. In addition, statistical analysis of beach closures in comparison with environmental variables is also discussed.

  14. Connectivities of estuarine fishes to the coastal realm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, G. Carleton

    2005-07-01

    Connectivity is an important concept in landscape ecology, but has several meanings. Here, I treat this term generically, including interactions among land- and seascape elements, transfers of nutrients among them, and interactions among closely related species comprising guilds. Complex relationships between the natural histories of estuary-dependent fishes are best understood in the context of the "coastal realm", the heterogeneous and diverse portion of Earth where land, sea, and atmosphere interact with great intensity through exchanges of energy and materials. Especially for anadromous fishes, estuaries form especially important conduits between terrestrial watersheds and the coastal ocean. For this reason, these species may be termed "estuary-dependent". However, for many species that use estuaries, dependency may be difficult to define. I illustrate coastal-realm connectivities for two groups of closely related estuarine species from different latitudes: (1) clupeids of the US east coast, and (2) salmonids of the Bering Sea. These groups inhabit coastal-ocean waters as adults and use estuaries and/or freshwaters for reproduction or as nursery areas. Both groups have evolved metapopulation structures, perhaps also contingent patterns of behavior, that indicate hierarchical interactions within metaestuarine or metafluvial systems. Their natural histories suggest an estuary-dependent adaptive complex involving opportunistic life histories and redundancies within species guilds, which offer resiliency for these guilds under conditions of ecological and/or environmental change. I conclude that: (1) estuarine connectivities are best illustrated for fishes that can be shown to be estuary dependent at some life-history stage; (2) resiliency for functionally important guilds may also offer resiliency to their ecosystems; and (3) further understanding connectivities among coastal fishes and their changing environments depends on the fusion of natural history with land

  15. Environmental Impacts - Coastal Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, J.P.; Baas, Andreas C.W.; Bartholdy, Jesper; Jones, Laurence; Ruessink, B.G.; Temmerman, Stijn; van de Pol, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the impacts of climate change on the natural coastal ecosystems in the North Sea region. These comprise sandy shores and dunes and salt marshes in estuaries and along the coast. The chapter starts by describing the characteristic geomorphological features of these systems and t

  16. Recife: Coastal protection plan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kibrit, B.; Imambaks, R.; Anijs, M.; Tarigheh, A.S.; Mungar, S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past decades the north-eastern coast of Brazil has been degrading due to erosion. This degradation has both natural- and men-made causes. Brazil has no specific laws and acts which relate to coastal protection and management up to this date. Beaches in the metropolitan area of Recife show v

  17. Neotropical coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Karen L.; Batzer, Darold P.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical region, which includes the tropical Americas, is one of the world's eight biogeographic zones. It contains some of the most diverse and unique wetlands in the world, some of which are still relatively undisturbed by humans. This chapter focuses on the northern segment of the Neotropics (south Florida, the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and Central America), an area that spans a latitudinal gradient from about 7 N to 29 N and 60 W to 112 W. Examples of coastal wetlands in this realm include the Everglades (Florida, USA), Ten Thousand Islands (Florida, USA), Laguna de Terminos (Mexico), Twin Cays (Belize), and Zapata Swamp (Cuba). Coastal wetlands are dominated by mangroves, which will be emphasized here, but also include freshwater swamps and marshes, saline marshes, and seagrass beds. The aim of this chapter is to provide a broad overview of Neotropical coastal wetlands of the North American continent, with an emphasis on mangroves, since this is the dominant vegetation type and because in-depth coverage of all wetland types is impossible here. Instead, the goal is to describe the environmental settings, plant and animal communities, key ecological controls, and some conservation concerns, with specific examples. Because this book deals with wetlands of North America, this chapter excludes coastal wetlands of South America. However, much of the information is applicable to mangrove, marsh, and seagrass communities of other tropicaI regions.

  18. Community DECISIONS: stakeholder focused watershed planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Darrell; Pease, James; Wolfe, Mary Leigh; Zobel, Christopher; Osorio, Javier; Cobb, Tanya Denckla; Evanylo, Greg

    2012-12-15

    Successful watershed planning can be enhanced by stakeholder involvement in developing and implementing plans that reflect community goals and resource limitations. Community DECISIONS (Community Decision Support for Integrated, On-the-ground Nutrient Reduction Strategies) is a structured decision process to help stakeholders evaluate strategies that reduce watershed nutrient imbalances. A nutrient accounting algorithm and nutrient treatment database provide information on nutrient loadings and costs of alternative strategies to reduce loadings. Stakeholders were asked to formulate goals for the North Fork Shenandoah River Watershed in Virginia and select among strategies to achieve those goals. The Vector Analytic Hierarchy Process was used to rank strategies. Stakeholders preferred a Maximum strategy that included point source upgrades, riparian buffers, no-till corn silage, wheat cover, and bioretention filters in developed areas. Participants generally agreed that the process helped improve communication among stakeholders, was helpful for watershed planning, and should be used for TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) planning. Participants suggested more attention be paid to ensuring that all relevant issues are addressed and all information needed to make decisions is available. Watershed planning should provide stakeholders with clear scientific information about physical and socioeconomic processes. However, planning processes must give stakeholders adequate time to consider issues that may not have been addressed by existing scientific models and datasets.

  19. Watershed Watch - Student-driven Research Experiences That Attract Undeclared Undergraduate Students Into STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, B. N.; Hale, S. R.; Hayden, L. B.; Graham, K. J.

    2007-12-01

    The NSF-sponsored partnership between the University of New Hampshire (UNH), Elizabeth City State University (ECSU), New Hampshire Community Technical College (NHCTC), and the College of the Albemarle (COA) has implemented a unique series of courses designed to attract undergraduate students with undeclared majors into the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. These courses incorporate student- driven research comparing the Merrimack River (NH/MA) and Pasquotank River watersheds (VA/NC). Entitled Watershed Watch (WW), the courses utilize pedagogical approaches based on hands-on, inquiry-based teaching and learning. In alternating years, a two-week WW summer institute is held in each watershed. Students conduct authentic research on various aspects of the watershed's geology, limnology, and landscape ecology. Then during the academic year, WW students enroll in a course where they are paired with faculty mentors, and engage in more in-depth research projects. Samples of student research include assessing calcium oxalate crystals as an indicator of plant stress in NH red spruce (Picea rubens) and balsam fir (Abies balsamea) and GIS modeling/mapping coastal NC changes resulting from postulated melting of the Greenland ice sheet. After completing the first year in a five-year funding cycle, formative/summative evaluation methods have identified the following student perceptions regarding STEM disciplines: participating students found WW to be enjoyable, exciting, and meaningful; as a result of WW, 60 percent of undeclared students from the four-year institutions (UNH/ECSU) declared a STEM major or minor; and approximately 20 percent of the two-year students (NHCTC/COA) enrolled in four-year STEM programs or are employed in STEM fields.

  20. A summary report of sediment processes in Chesapeake Bay and watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland, Michael; Cronin, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay, the Nation's largest estuary, has been degraded because of diminished water quality, loss of habitat, and over-harvesting of living resources. Consequently, the bay was listed as an impaired water body due to excess nutrients and sediment. The Chesapeake Bay Program (CBP), a multi-jurisdictional partnership, completed an agreement called ?Chesapeake 2000? that revises and establishes new restoration goals through 2010 in the bay and its watershed. The goal of this commitment is the removal of the bay from the list of impaired waterbodies by the year 2010. The CBP is committed to developing sediment and nutrient allocations for major basins within the bay watershed and to the process of examining new and innovative management plans in the estuary itself and along the coastal zones of the bay. However, additional information is required on the sources, transport, and deposition of sediment that affect water clarity. Because the information and data on sediment processes in the bay were not readily accessible to the CBP or to state, and local managers, a Sediment Workgroup (SWGP) was created in 2001. The primary objective of this report, therefore, is to provide a review of the literature on the sources, transport, and delivery of sediment in Chesapeake Bay and its watershed with discussion of potential implications for various management alternatives. The authors of the report have extracted, discussed, and summarized the important aspects of sediment and sedimentation that are most relevant to the CBP and other sediment related-issues with which resources managers are involved. This report summarizes the most relevant studies concerning sediment sources, transport and deposition in the watershed and estuary, sediments and relation to water clarity, and provides an extensive list of references for those wanting more information.

  1. Quantifying the Urban and Rural Nutrient Fluxes to Lake Erie Using a Paired Watershed Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M.; Beck, M.; Rossi, E.; Luh, N.; Allen-King, R. M.; Lowry, C.

    2016-12-01

    Excess nutrients have a detrimental impact on the water quality of Lake Erie, specifically nitrate and phosphate, which can lead to toxic algae blooms. Algae blooms have negatively impacted Lake Erie, which is the main source of drinking water for many coastal Great Lake communities. In 2014 the city of Toledo, Ohio was forced to shut down its water treatment plant due to these toxic algae blooms. The objective of this research is to quantify surface water nutrient fluxes to the eastern basin of Lake Erie using a paired watershed approach. Three different western New York watersheds that feed Lake Erie were chosen based on land use and areal extent: one small urban, one small rural, and one large rural. These paired watersheds were chosen to represent a range of sources of potential nutrient loading to the lake. Biweekly water samples were taken from the streams during the 2015-2016 winter to summer seasonal transition to quantify springtime snow melt effects on nutrient fluxes. These results were compared to the previous year samples, collected over the summer of 2015, which represented wetter conditions. Phosphorous levels were assessed using the ascorbic acid colorimetric assay, while nitrate was analyzed by anion-exchange chromatography. Stream gaging was used to obtain flow measurements and establish a rating curve, which was incorporated to quantify seasonal nutrient fluxes entering the lake. Patterns in the nutrient levels show higher level of nutrients in the rural watersheds with a decrease in concentration over the winter to spring transition. However, nutrient patterns in the urban stream show relatively constant patters of nutrient flux, which is independent of seasonal transition or stream discharge. A comparison of wet and dry seasons shows higher nutrient concentrations during summers with greater rainfall. By identifying the largest contributors of each nutrient, we can better allocate limited attenuation resources.

  2. Land protection plan : Bear River Watershed Conservation Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is establishing a conservation area for the Bear River watershed in Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. The Bear River Watershed...

  3. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 04 - HUC 08 - Majors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of 81 watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Major Watersheds....

  4. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  5. How Sustainable is Participatory Watershed Development in India?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, J.; Soest, van D.P.; Bulte, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    Watershed conservation is widely recognized as a major strategy for rural development throughout the developing world. In India, the apparent success of participatory approaches to watershed development resulted in a decentralization of project planning, implementation, and management to local

  6. US Forest Service Watershed Condition Class and Assessment Status 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — The map contains the Watershed Condition Class and assessment status for the assessment year of 2011. The layer is symbolized by the Watershed Condition Class for...

  7. Information Management for the Watershed Approach in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of interviews with leaders and key participants in the statewide watershed approach activities in the State of Washington. Additionally, there are reviews of Washington’s statewide watershed activities in a case study fashion.

  8. Dissolved and particulate exportations to the Mediterranean sea from the Herault watershed (Southern France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petelet-Giraud, E.; Négrel, Ph.; Weng, Ph.; Ludwig, W.

    2003-04-01

    This study is part of the French Program "Zone Atelier ORME" which aims is to identify and quantify the dissolved and particulate nutrient exportations and their evolution from the continent to the Mediterranean Sea. The Hérault watershed is one of the 3 studied coastal streams also including the Têt and Rhône Rivers. The Hérault watershed measures 2500 km^2 and is composed of 3 main geological units: (1) the north part is composed of granite and schist, (2) the middle part is composed of highly karstified Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones, and (3) up to the mouth of the river, the alluvial plain is composed of Ternary and Quaternary alluvial deposits. In a first stage of the program, the dissolved and particulate loads carried by the Hérault River have been measured by manual bimonthly sampling at the outlet of the watershed over one hydrological cycle. Measured parameters are major ions (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, NO_3, SO_4, HCO_3, NO_2, PO_4), Dissolved Organic Carbon, Suspended Matter (SPM) amount, Total Carbon and Nitrogen of the SPM. Strontium concentrations and isotopic compositions have also been measured in order to constraint the origin of the waters from this contrasted watershed. This first approach has allowed to better understand the great variations over one hydrological cycle and to point out the major role of the floods, often brief but very considerable, in a Mediterranean context. In a second stage of the program, an automatic sampler has been installed at the outlet of the watershed, dedicated to monitor flood events. The sampler is automatically activated when the discharge reaches 35 m^3/s, two 1l-bottles are then sampled 4 times per day. Two floods have been sampled over the 2001--2002 hydrological cycle, one in oct-2001 and the other one in april-2002. Selected samples have been analysed according to the discharge. First results indicate that most of the particulate matter is exported during flood, with a reverse TDS/SPM ratio between the

  9. Application of watershed modeling system (WMS) for integrated management of a watershed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Ali; Gurel, Melike; Baloch, Mansoor Ahmed; Dikerler, Teoman; Varol, Evren; Akbulut, Neslihan; Tanik, Aysegul

    2006-01-01

    Watershed models, that enable the quantification of current and future pollution loading impacts, are essential tools to address the functions and conflicts faced in watershed planning and management. In this study, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) version 7.1 was used for the delineation of boundaries of Koycegiz Lake-Dalyan Lagoon watershed located in the southwest of Turkey at the Mediterranean Sea coast. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was created for one of the major streams of the watershed, namely, Kargicak Creek by using WMS, and DEM data were further used to extract stream networks and delineate the watershed boundaries. Typical properties like drainage areas, characteristic length and slope of sub-drainage areas have also been determined to be used as model inputs in hydrological and diffuse pollution modeling. Besides, run-off hydrographs for the sub-drainages have been calculated using the Rational Method, which produces valuable data for calculating the time variable inflow and input pollution loads to be further utilized in the future water quality models of the Creek. Application of WMS in the study has shown that, it is capable to visualize the results in establishing watershed management strategies.

  10. Identifying and Classifying Pollution Hotspots to Guide Watershed Management in a Large Multiuse Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fangli; Kaplan, David; Li, Lifeng; Li, Haifu; Song, Fei; Liu, Haisheng

    2017-03-03

    In many locations around the globe, large reservoir sustainability is threatened by land use change and direct pollution loading from the upstream watershed. However, the size and complexity of upstream basins makes the planning and implementation of watershed-scale pollution management a challenge. In this study, we established an evaluation system based on 17 factors, representing the potential point and non-point source pollutants and the environmental carrying capacity which are likely to affect the water quality in the Dahuofang Reservoir and watershed in northeastern China. We used entropy methods to rank 118 subwatersheds by their potential pollution threat and clustered subwatersheds according to the potential pollution type. Combining ranking and clustering analyses allowed us to suggest specific areas for prioritized watershed management (in particular, two subwatersheds with the greatest pollution potential) and to recommend the conservation of current practices in other less vulnerable locations (91 small watersheds with low pollution potential). Finally, we identified the factors most likely to influence the water quality of each of the 118 subwatersheds and suggested adaptive control measures for each location. These results provide a scientific basis for improving the watershed management and sustainability of the Dahuofang reservoir and a framework for identifying threats and prioritizing the management of watersheds of large reservoirs around the world.

  11. Geospatial Habitat Analysis in Pacific Northwest Coastal Estuaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borde, Amy B.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Thom, Ronald M.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Rumrill, Steven (South Slough Estuarine Research Reserve); Miller, L M.(GEORGE A GRANT INC)

    2003-08-01

    We assessed historical changes in the location and amount of estuarine habitat in three of the four largest coastal estuaries in the Pacific Northwest (Grays Harbor, Willapa Bay, and Coos Bay) as part of the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ecosystem Regional Study (PNCERS). To accomplish this, navigation charts, hydrographic survey data, maps, and published descriptions were used to gain information on the location of the shoreline, bathymetry, and vegetated habitats, which was then digitized and subjected to geospatial analysis using a geographic information system. In addition, we used present-day elevational boundaries for marshes, flats, and eelgrass meadows to help define habitat areas where they were not indicated on historical maps. The analysis showed that tidal flats have decreased in all study areas; potential eelgrass habitat has increased in Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay and decreased slightly in Coos Bay; tidal wetland area has declined in all three coastal estuaries, with increases in localized areas due to filling and sedimentation; and dramatic changes have occurred at the mouths of Grays Harbor and Willapa Bay. As has been shown before, these data illustrate that direct physical alteration (filling and diking) has resulted in large changes to habitats. However, indirect impacts from forest practices in the watershed, as well as variation in climatic factors and oceanographic processes, may also have contributed to changes. The information provides more evidence for managing estuarine habitats in the region and a employing a historical template to plan habitat restoration in the future.

  12. Watershed modeling and monitoring for assessing nutrient ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation for the American Water Works Association Water Sustainability Conference. The presentation highlights latest results from water quality trading research conducted by ORD using the East Fork Watershed in Southwestern Ohio as a case study. The watershed has a nutrient enrichment problem that is creating harmful algal blooms in a reservoir used for drinking water and recreation. Innovative modeling and monitoring is combined to understand how to best manage this water quality problem and costs associated with this endeavor. The presentation will provide an overview of the water quality trading feasibility research. The research includes the development and evaluation of innovative modeling and monitoring approaches to manage watersheds for nutrient pollution using a whole systems approach.

  13. Watershed Boundaries, Watershed Boundaries, Published in 2002, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Iredell County GIS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale as of 2002. It is described as 'Watershed Boundaries'. Data by this publisher are often...

  14. Regionalization of SWAT Model Parameters for Use in Ungauged Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrajeet Chaubey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been a steady shift towards modeling and model-based approaches as primary methods of assessing watershed response to hydrologic inputs and land management, and of quantifying watershed-wide best management practice (BMP effectiveness. Watershed models often require some degree of calibration and validation to achieve adequate watershed and therefore BMP representation. This is, however, only possible for gauged watersheds. There are many watersheds for which there are very little or no monitoring data available, thus the question as to whether it would be possible to extend and/or generalize model parameters obtained through calibration of gauged watersheds to ungauged watersheds within the same region. This study explored the possibility of developing regionalized model parameter sets for use in ungauged watersheds. The study evaluated two regionalization methods: global averaging, and regression-based parameters, on the SWAT model using data from priority watersheds in Arkansas. Resulting parameters were tested and model performance determined on three gauged watersheds. Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies (NS for stream flow obtained using regression-based parameters (0.53–0.83 compared well with corresponding values obtained through model calibration (0.45–0.90. Model performance obtained using global averaged parameter values was also generally acceptable (0.4 ≤ NS ≤ 0.75. Results from this study indicate that regionalized parameter sets for the SWAT model can be obtained and used for making satisfactory hydrologic response predictions in ungauged watersheds.

  15. Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) v2: Theoretical Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a decision support tool that evaluates the relative cost-effectiveness of management practices at the local or watershed scale. WMOST models the environmental effects and costs of management decisions in a watershed c...

  16. Guiding principles for management of forested, agricultural, and urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W.J. Williard

    2015-01-01

    Human actions must be well planned and include consideration of their potential influences on water and aquatic ecosystems - such consideration is the foundation of watershed management. Watersheds are the ideal land unit for managing and protecting water resources and aquatic health because watersheds integrate the physical, biological and chemical processes within...

  17. Wind River Watershed Restoration: 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2001-09-01

    This document represents work conducted as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project during its first year of funding through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the basin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. Entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), U.S. Geological Survey--Columbia River Research Lab (USGS-CRRL), and WA Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Following categories given in the FY1999 Statement of Work, the broad categories, the related objectives, and the entities associated with each objective (lead entity in boldface) were as follows: Coordination--Objective 1: Coordinate the Wind River watershed Action Committee (AC) and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) to develop a prioritized list of watershed enhancement projects. Monitoring--Objective 2: Monitor natural production of juvenile, smolt, and adult steelhead in the Wind River subbasin. Objective 3: Evaluate physical habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Assessment--Objective 4: Assess watershed health using an ecosystem-based diagnostic model that will provide the technical basis to prioritize out-year restoration projects. Restoration--Objective 5: Reduce road related sediment sources by reducing road densities to less than 2 miles per square mile. Objective 6: Rehabilitate riparian corridors, flood plains, and channel morphology to reduce maximum water temperatures to less than 61 F, to increase bank stability to greater than 90%, to reduce bankfull width to depth ratios to less than 30, and to provide natural levels of pools and cover for fish. Objective 7: Maintain and evaluate passage for adult and juvenile steelhead at artificial barriers. Education

  18. Safe Shores and Resilient Transit Corridors: Using Science, Design, and Stakeholder Partnerships to Address Connecticut's Coastal Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, R. A.; Felson, A. J.; Kirmmse, E.; Hagemann, K.

    2015-12-01

    Connecticut's densely developed coastline is highly vulnerable to sea level rise and coastal storms. 95% of the state's entire population lives within 50 miles of the shore. Connecticut has more than $542 billion in insured assets in harms way, only Florida has a greater exposure. As part of the state of Connecticut Phase 1 application for the HUD National Disaster Resilience Competition, the Connecticut Institute for Resilience and Climate Adaptation (CIRCA) at the University of Connecticut undertook an assessment of coastal vulnerabilities, including the impacts of sea level rise on the frequency of flooding, socioeconomic factors, critical infrastructure, and housing using data collected from federal, state, and municipal sources. Connecticut's unique geology, characterized by a glaciated coastline with highly erodible former deltas and elevated ridgelines extending out to rocky headlands, became the basis of the climate adaptation approach. Together with a nine state agency workgroup, municipal and regional government, and non-profit and industry representatives, CIRCA and the Yale UED lab developed a long-term urban redevelopment solution of resilient access and egress corridors layered over ridgelines and resilient zones of transit oriented economic development linked to shoreline communities. This concept can be applied in both Connecticut's coastal cities like New Haven and its smaller towns. The process demonstrated the effective partnership between the universities and state agencies in bringing the science of flood modeling and mapping together with innovative design to create solutions for climate adaptation. However, it also revealed significant gaps in data availability to analyze the economic and social drivers for adopting different adaptation strategies. Furthermore, the accuracy of current flood mapping tools needs to be improved to predict future flooding at the municipal project scale. As Connecticut and other states move forward with resilience

  19. The Chena River Watershed Hydrology Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    ER D C/ CR R EL T R -1 2 -1 The Chena River Watershed Hydrology Model C ol d R eg io n s R es ea rc h an d E n gi n ee ri n g La...14 Table 6. Estimated monthly ET using Hargreaves method and pan...using water balance method A generalized water balance for the Chena River watershed can be written as mS P S ET R     (3) where P

  20. Assessing the Influence of Land Use and Land Cover Datasets with Different Points in Time and Levels of Detail on Watershed Modeling in the North River Watershed, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinliang Huang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover (LULC information is an important component influencing watershed modeling with regards to hydrology and water quality in the river basin. In this study, the sensitivity of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model to LULC datasets with three points in time and three levels of detail was assessed in a coastal subtropical watershed located in Southeast China. The results showed good agreement between observed and simulated values for both monthly and daily streamflow and monthly NH4+-N and TP loads. Three LULC datasets in 2002, 2007 and 2010 had relatively little influence on simulated monthly and daily streamflow, whereas they exhibited greater effects on simulated monthly NH4+-N and TP loads. When using the two LULC datasets in 2007 and 2010 compared with that in 2002, the relative differences in predicted monthly NH4+-N and TP loads were −11.0 to −7.8% and −4.8 to −9.0%, respectively. There were no significant differences in simulated monthly and daily streamflow when using the three LULC datasets with ten, five and three categories. When using LULC datasets from ten categories compared to five and three categories, the relative differences in predicted monthly NH4+-N and TP loads were −6.6 to −6.5% and −13.3 to −7.3%, respectively. Overall, the sensitivity of the SWAT model to LULC datasets with different points in time and levels of detail was lower in monthly and daily streamflow simulation than in monthly NH4+-N and TP loads prediction. This research provided helpful insights into the influence of LULC datasets on watershed modeling.