WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-positioned sound condition

  1. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  2. Recognition of modified conditioning sounds by competitively trained guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayuki eOjima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The guinea pig (GP is an often-used species in hearing research. However, behavioral studies are rare, especially in the context of sound recognition, because of difficulties in training these animals. We examined sound recognition in a social competitive setting in order to examine whether this setting could be used as an easy model. Two starved GPs were placed in the same training arena and compelled to compete for food after hearing a conditioning sound (CS, which was a repeat of almost identical sound segments. Through a two-week intensive training, animals were trained to demonstrate a set of distinct behaviors solely to the CS. Then, each of them was subjected to generalization tests for recognition of sounds that had been modified from the CS in spectral, fine temporal and tempo (i.e., intersegment interval, ISI dimensions. Results showed that they discriminated between the CS and band-rejected test sounds but had no preference for a particular frequency range for the recognition. In contrast, sounds modified in the fine temporal domain were largely perceived to be in the same category as the CS, except for the test sound generated by fully reversing the CS in time. Animals also discriminated sounds played at different tempos. Test sounds with ISIs shorter than that of the multi-segment CS were discriminated from the CS, while test sounds with ISIs longer than that of the CS segments were not. For the shorter ISIs, most animals initiated apparently positive food-access behavior as they did in response to the CS, but discontinued it during the sound-on period probably because of later recognition of tempo. Interestingly, the population range and mean of the delay time before animals initiated the food-access behavior were very similar among different ISI test sounds. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a wide aspect of sound discrimination abilities of the GP and will provide a way to examine tempo perception mechanisms using this

  3. Sound propagation over screened ground under upwind conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo

    1996-01-01

    in the frequency domain. The meteorological data representing the wind conditions have been determined by means of hot-wire anemometry in positions on both sides of the screen as well as directly over the screen. The theoretical model used for comparison is a hybrid approach. The sound field without a barrier......A screen on an absorbing ground is investigated experimentally and theoretically under upwind conditions. The experimental data are the result of scale model experiments in a 1:25 scale model. The sound propagation is measured using a triggered spark source with signal spectrum averaging...

  4. The Totally Non-positive Matrix Completion Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junping Liang; Ming He

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the totally non-positive matrix is introduced. The totally nonpositive completion asks which partial totally non-positive matrices have a completion to a totally non-positive matrix. This problem has, in general, a negative answer. Therefore, ourquestion is for what kind of labeled graphs G each partial totally non-positive matrix whose associated graph is G has a totally non-positive completion? If G is not a monotonically labeled graph or monotonically labeled cycle, we give necessary and sufficient conditions that guarantee the existence of the desired completion.

  5. Constrained Spectral Conditioning for spatial sound level estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalt, Taylor B.; Brooks, Thomas F.; Fuller, Christopher R.

    2016-11-01

    Microphone arrays are utilized in aeroacoustic testing to spatially map the sound emitted from an article under study. Whereas a single microphone allows only the total sound level to be estimated at the measurement location, an array permits differentiation between the contributions of distinct components. The accuracy of these spatial sound estimates produced by post-processing the array outputs is continuously being improved. One way of increasing the estimation accuracy is to filter the array outputs before they become inputs to a post-processor. This work presents a constrained method of linear filtering for microphone arrays which minimizes the total signal present on the array channels while preserving the signal from a targeted spatial location. Thus, each single-channel, filtered output for a given targeted location estimates only the signal from that location, even when multiple and/or distributed sources have been measured simultaneously. The method is based on Conditioned Spectral Analysis and modifies the Wiener-Hopf equation in a manner similar to the Generalized Sidelobe Canceller. This modified form of Conditioned Spectral Analysis is embedded within an iterative loop and termed Constrained Spectral Conditioning. Linear constraints are derived which prevent the cancellation of targeted signal due to random statistical error as well as location error in the sensor and/or source positions. The increased spatial mapping accuracy of Constrained Spectral Conditioning is shown for a simulated dataset of point sources which vary in strength. An experimental point source is used to validate the efficacy of the constraints which yield preservation of the targeted signal at the expense of reduced filtering ability. The beamforming results of a cold, supersonic jet demonstrate the qualitative and quantitative improvement obtained when using this technique to map a spatially-distributed, complex, and possibly coherent sound source.

  6. Shell condition and survival of Puget Sound pteropods are impaired by ocean acidification conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Shallin Busch

    Full Text Available We tested whether the thecosome pteropod Limacina helicina from Puget Sound, an urbanized estuary in the northwest continental US, experiences shell dissolution and altered mortality rates when exposed to the high CO2, low aragonite saturation state (Ωa conditions that occur in Puget Sound and the northeast Pacific Ocean. Five, week-long experiments were conducted in which we incubated pteropods collected from Puget Sound in four carbon chemistry conditions: current summer surface (∼460-500 µatm CO2, Ωa≈1.59, current deep water or surface conditions during upwelling (∼760 and ∼1600-1700 µatm CO2, Ωa≈1.17 and 0.56, and future deep water or surface conditions during upwelling (∼2800-3400 µatm CO2, Ωa≈0.28. We measured shell condition using a scoring regime of five shell characteristics that capture different aspects of shell dissolution. We characterized carbon chemistry conditions in statistical analyses with Ωa, and conducted analyses considering Ωa both as a continuous dataset and as discrete treatments. Shell dissolution increased linearly as aragonite saturation state decreased. Discrete treatment comparisons indicate that shell dissolution was greater in undersaturated treatments compared to oversaturated treatments. Survival increased linearly with aragonite saturation state, though discrete treatment comparisons indicated that survival was similar in all but the lowest saturation state treatment. These results indicate that, under starvation conditions, pteropod survival may not be greatly affected by current and expected near-future aragonite saturation state in the NE Pacific, but shell dissolution may. Given that subsurface waters in Puget Sound's main basin are undersaturated with respect to aragonite in the winter and can be undersaturated in the summer, the condition and persistence of the species in this estuary warrants further study.

  7. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Muddled about what makes music? Stuck on the study of harmonics? Dumbfounded by how sound gets around? Now you no longer have to struggle to teach concepts you really don t grasp yourself. Sound takes an intentionally light touch to help out all those adults science teachers, parents wanting to help with homework, home-schoolers seeking necessary scientific background to teach middle school physics with confidence. The book introduces sound waves and uses that model to explain sound-related occurrences. Starting with the basics of what causes sound and how it travels, you'll learn how musical instruments work, how sound waves add and subtract, how the human ear works, and even why you can sound like a Munchkin when you inhale helium. Sound is the fourth book in the award-winning Stop Faking It! Series, published by NSTA Press. Like the other popular volumes, it is written by irreverent educator Bill Robertson, who offers this Sound recommendation: One of the coolest activities is whacking a spinning metal rod...

  8. Amplitude modulation of sound from wind turbines under various meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Conny; Öhlund, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbine (WT) sound annoys some people even though the sound levels are relatively low. This could be because of the amplitude modulated "swishing" characteristic of the turbine sound, which is not taken into account by standard procedures for measuring average sound levels. Studies of sound immission from WTs were conducted continually between 19 August 2011 and 19 August 2012 at two sites in Sweden. A method for quantifying the degree and strength of amplitude modulation (AM) is introduced here. The method reveals that AM at the immission points occur under specific meteorological conditions. For WT sound immission, the wind direction and sound speed gradient are crucial for the occurrence of AM. Interference between two or more WTs could probably enhance AM. The mechanisms by which WT sound is amplitude modulated are not fully understood.

  9. Sound

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Sound has the power to soothe, excite, warn, protect, and inform. Indeed, the transmission and reception of audio signals pervade our daily lives. Readers will examine the mechanics and properties of sound and provides an overview of the "interdisciplinary science called acoustics." Also covered are functions and diseases of the human ear.

  10. Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    ARL-TR-7602 ● FEB 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound...Laboratory Computer Modeling of the Effects of Atmospheric Conditions on Sound Signatures by Sarah Wagner Science and Engineering Apprentice...Program (SEAP), George Washington University Adrienne Raglin and John Noble Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  11. Influence of sound-conditioning on noise-induced susceptibility of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebke, Anne E; Stagner, Barden B; Martin, Glen K; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda L

    2015-07-01

    Cochlear damage caused by loud sounds can be attenuated by "sound-conditioning" methods. The amount of adaptation for distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) measured in alert rabbits previously predicted an ear's susceptibility to a subsequent noise exposure. The present study investigated if sound-conditioning influenced the robustness of such DPOAE adaptation, and if such conditioning elicited more protection by increasing the amount of DPOAE adaptation. Toward this end, rabbits were divided into two study groups: (1) experimental animals exposed to a sound-conditioning protocol, and (2) unconditioned control animals. After base-line measures, all rabbits were exposed to an overstimulation paradigm consisting of an octave band noise, and then re-assessed 3 weeks post-exposure to determine permanent changes in DPOAEs. A major result was that prior sound-conditioning protected reductions in DPOAE levels by an average of 10-15 dB. However, DPOAE adaptation decreased with sound-conditioning, so that such conditioning was no longer related to noise-induced reductions in DPOAEs. Together, these findings suggest that sound-conditioning affected neural pathways other than those that likely mediate DPOAE adaptation (e.g., medial olivocochlear efferent and/or middle-ear muscle reflexes).

  12. Sound conditioning protects hearing by activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahera, Yeasmin; Meltser, Inna; Johansson, Peter; Salman, Hazim; Canlon, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Sound conditioning primes the auditory system to low levels of acoustic stimuli and reduces damage caused by a subsequent acoustic trauma. This priming activates the HPA axis resulting in the elevation of plasma corticosterone with a consequent upregulation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the cochlea and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in the mouse. This protective effect is blocked by adrenalectomy or pharmacological treatment with RU486 + metyrapone. Sound conditioning prevents GR down-regulation induced by acoustic trauma and subsequently enhances GR activity in spiral ganglion neurons. Increased SRC-1 expression, triggered by sound conditioning, positively correlates with the upregulation of GR in the cochlea. These findings will help to define the cellular mechanisms responsible for protecting the auditory system from hearing loss by sound conditioning.

  13. Effect of automobile operating condition on the subjective equivalence of steering wheel vibration and sound

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    For the manufacturers of automobiles, automobile components and fuels, subjective equivalence relationships between vibration and sound can be used as a reference against which to plot the results from simulations or tests of specific operational conditions. The research described here was performed to define curves of subjective equivalence between steering wheel rotational vibration and sound using stimuli from different automobile operating conditions. The steering wheel acceleration stimu...

  14. Dark energy with non-adiabatic sound speed: initial conditions and detectability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184, Rome (Italy); Lesgourgues, Julien, E-mail: ballesteros@pd.infn.it, E-mail: julien.lesgourgues@cern.ch [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2010-10-01

    Assuming that the universe contains a dark energy fluid with a constant linear equation of state and a constant sound speed, we study the prospects of detecting dark energy perturbations using CMB data from Planck, cross-correlated with galaxy distribution maps from a survey like LSST. We update previous estimates by carrying a full exploration of the mock data likelihood for key fiducial models. We find that it will only be possible to exclude values of the sound speed very close to zero, while Planck data alone is not powerful enough for achieving any detection, even with lensing extraction. We also discuss the issue of initial conditions for dark energy perturbations in the radiation and matter epochs, generalizing the usual adiabatic conditions to include the sound speed effect. However, for most purposes, the existence of attractor solutions renders the perturbation evolution nearly independent of these initial conditions.

  15. Analysis and Optimal Condition of the Rear-Sound-Aided Control Source in Active Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Kreuter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active noise control scenario of simple ducts is considered. The previously suggested technique of using an single loudspeaker and its rear sound to cancel the upstream sound is further examined and compared to the bidirectional solution in order to give theoretical proof of its advantage. Firstly, a model with a new approach for taking damping effects into account is derived based on the electrical transmission line theory. By comparison with the old model, the new approach is validated, and occurring differences are discussed. Moreover, a numerical application with the consideration of damping is implemented for confirmation. The influence of the rear sound strength on the feedback-path system is investigated, and the optimal condition is determined. Finally, it is proven that the proposed source has an advantage of an extended phase lag and a time delay in the feedback-path system by both frequency-response analysis and numerical calculation of the time response.

  16. Increased resistance to free radical damage induced by low-level sound conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kelly Carney; Bielefeld, Eric; Hu, Bo Hua; Henderson, Donald

    2006-03-01

    Conditioning is the phenomenon where exposure to moderate-level acoustic stimuli can increase the ear's resistance to subsequent more intense sound exposures. In recent years, research has shown that conditioning increases the availability of antioxidant enzymes which presumably protects the ear from oxidative stress induced by a traumatic noise exposure [Jacono, A.A., Hu, B., Kopke, R.D., Henderson, D., Van De Water, T.R., Steinman, H.M., 1998. Changes in cochlear antioxidant enzyme activity after sound conditioning and noise exposure in the chinchilla. Hear Res 117, 31-8]. The current study was designed to assess whether the increase in endogenous antioxidants seen following conditioning could provide protection from oxidative stress induced by Paraquat, a potent generator of superoxide. Chinchillas were exposed to a conditioning noise, 500 Hz OBN at 95 dB for 6 h/day for 10 days, followed 5 days later with Paraquat application to the round window. Controls underwent the Paraquat application surgery, without prior conditioning. Evoked potential thresholds were determined prior to conditioning, at day 1, 5 and 10 during conditioning, at day 15 (5 days after conditioning), and at day 17, 19, 23, and 35 (1, 3, 7, and 20 days post-Paraquat). The conditioned animals showed reductions in permanent threshold shift and reduced inner hair cell loss relative to controls. These results reinforce the hypothesis that antioxidants are primary mediators of the conditioning effect.

  17. Speech Intelligibility in Various Noise Conditions with the Nucleus® 5 CP810 Sound Processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillier, Norbert; Lai, Wai Kong

    2015-06-11

    The Nucleus(®) 5 System Sound Processor (CP810, Cochlear™, Macquarie University, NSW, Australia) contains two omnidirectional microphones. They can be configured as a fixed directional microphone combination (called Zoom) or as an adaptive beamformer (called Beam), which adjusts the directivity continuously to maximally reduce the interfering noise. Initial evaluation studies with the CP810 had compared performance and usability of the new processor in comparison with the Freedom™ Sound Processor (Cochlear™) for speech in quiet and noise for a subset of the processing options. This study compares the two processing options suggested to be used in noisy environments, Zoom and Beam, for various sound field conditions using a standardized speech in noise matrix test (Oldenburg sentences test). Nine German-speaking subjects who previously had been using the Freedom speech processor and subsequently were upgraded to the CP810 device participated in this series of additional evaluation tests. The speech reception threshold (SRT for 50% speech intelligibility in noise) was determined using sentences presented via loudspeaker at 65 dB SPL in front of the listener and noise presented either via the same loudspeaker (S0N0) or at 90 degrees at either the ear with the sound processor (S0NCI+) or the opposite unaided ear (S0NCI-). The fourth noise condition consisted of three uncorrelated noise sources placed at 90, 180 and 270 degrees. The noise level was adjusted through an adaptive procedure to yield a signal to noise ratio where 50% of the words in the sentences were correctly understood. In spatially separated speech and noise conditions both Zoom and Beam could improve the SRT significantly. For single noise sources, either ipsilateral or contralateral to the cochlear implant sound processor, average improvements with Beam of 12.9 and 7.9 dB in SRT were found. The average SRT of -8 dB for Beam in the diffuse noise condition (uncorrelated noise from both sides and

  18. Separation of radiated sound field components from waves scattered by a source under non-anechoic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    A method of estimating the sound field radiated by a source under non-anechoic conditions has been examined. The method uses near field acoustic holography based on a combination of pressure and particle velocity measurements in a plane near the source for separating outgoing and ingoing wave...... components. The outgoing part of the sound field is composed of both radiated and scattered waves. The method compensates for the scattered components of the outgoing field on the basis of the boundary condition of the problem, exploiting the fact that the sound field is reconstructed very close...... to the source. Thus the radiated free-field component is estimated simultaneously with solving the inverse problem of reconstructing the sound field near the source. The method is particularly suited to cases in which the overall contribution of reflected sound in the measurement plane is significant....

  19. Relative fluoride response of caries lesions created in fluorotic and sound teeth studied under remineralizing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhawij, Hala; Lippert, Frank; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza Angeles

    2015-01-01

    The present in vitro pH cycling study investigated potential differences between caries lesions created in fluorosed and sound enamel with regards to their responsiveness to fluoride under remineralizing conditions. 360 human first molars (sound and fluorosed) were divided into four groups based on their Thylstrup-Fejerskov score (TF0-3). Each group was further divided into two treatment groups (n=45): deionized water or 383 ppm fluoride. Artificial enamel caries lesions were created and pH cycled for 20 d using an established net remineralization model. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence was used throughout the study to investigate lesion severity and changes thereof. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. There were no differences in lesion severity between all groups after lesion creation (plesion=0.1934). The TF score vs. treatment interaction was significant at all other time points (p10 d=0.0280; p20 d≤0.0001; psecdemin=0.0411). Relative differences in responsiveness to fluoride vs. deionized water increased with increasing TF scores. In comparison to lesions created in sound enamel, lesions created in enamel with moderate fluorosis (TF 2/3) were more prone to remineralization in the presence than in the absence of fluoride. Furthermore, lesions created in enamel with moderate fluorosis exhibited more remineralization in the presence of fluoride than lesions created in sound teeth, whereas the opposite was true for deionized water. Bearing in mind the limitations of laboratory research, the extent of enamel fluorosis severity may directly impact subsequent lesion re- and progression as well as the lesion's responsiveness to fluoride. Caries lesions in fluorotic teeth are more vulnerable to progression but respond more strongly to fluoride than those in non-impacted teeth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of the level difference between sound pressure and sound intensity in an aircraft cabin under different fuselage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, M. S.; Crocker, M. J.; Heitman, K. E.

    1985-01-01

    Problems in using two-microphone sound-intensity (SI) measurements to measure structural transmission losses are investigated in experiments involving light-aircraft fuselage panels and windows. Both sound pressure (SP) and SI are measured near the passenger and door windows and panels of a single-engine aircraft and with these barriers removed, and the effect of increasing interior acoustic absorption and blocking flanking transmission paths is also tested. The results are presented graphically, and the SP measurements are used to indicate frequency ranges in which the two-microphone technique significantly underestimates SI. It is inferred that flanking paths and interior reverberation must be effectively suppressed in order to obtain accurate transmission-loss measurements.

  1. Design, development and test of the gearbox condition monitoring system using sound signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the ways used for minimizing the cost of maintenance and repairs of rotating industrial equipment is condition monitoring using acoustic analysis. One of the most important problems which always have been under consideration in industrial equipment application is confidence possibility. Each dynamic, electrical, hydraulic or thermal system has certain characteristics which show the normal condition of the machine during function. Any changes of the characteristics can be a signal of a problem in the machine. The aim of condition monitoring is system condition determination using measurements of the signals of characteristics and using this information for system impairment prognostication. There are a lot of ways for condition monitoring of different systems, but sound analysis is accepted and used extensively as a method for condition investigation of rotating machines. The aim of this research is the design and construction of considered gearbox and using of obtaining data in frequency and time spectrum in order to analyze the sound and diagnosis. Materials and Methods This research was conducted at the department of mechanical biosystem workshop at Aboureihan College at Tehran University in February 15th.2015. In this research, in order to investigate the trend of diagnosis and gearbox condition, a system was designed and then constructed. The sound of correct and damaged gearbox was investigated by audiometer and stored in computer for data analysis. Sound measurement was done in three pinions speed of 749, 1050 and 1496 rpm and for correct gearboxes, damage of the fracture of a tooth and a tooth wear. Gearbox design and construction: In order to conduct the research, a gearbox with simple gearwheels was designed according to current needs. Then mentioned gearbox and its accessories were modeled in CATIA V5-R20 software and then the system was constructed. Gearbox is a machine that is used for mechanical power transition

  2. Design, development and test of the gearbox condition monitoring system using sound signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Zamani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction One of the ways used for minimizing the cost of maintenance and repairs of rotating industrial equipment is condition monitoring using acoustic analysis. One of the most important problems which always have been under consideration in industrial equipment application is confidence possibility. Each dynamic, electrical, hydraulic or thermal system has certain characteristics which show the normal condition of the machine during function. Any changes of the characteristics can be a signal of a problem in the machine. The aim of condition monitoring is system condition determination using measurements of the signals of characteristics and using this information for system impairment prognostication. There are a lot of ways for condition monitoring of different systems, but sound analysis is accepted and used extensively as a method for condition investigation of rotating machines. The aim of this research is the design and construction of considered gearbox and using of obtaining data in frequency and time spectrum in order to analyze the sound and diagnosis. Materials and Methods This research was conducted at the department of mechanical biosystem workshop at Aboureihan College at Tehran University in February 15th.2015. In this research, in order to investigate the trend of diagnosis and gearbox condition, a system was designed and then constructed. The sound of correct and damaged gearbox was investigated by audiometer and stored in computer for data analysis. Sound measurement was done in three pinions speed of 749, 1050 and 1496 rpm and for correct gearboxes, damage of the fracture of a tooth and a tooth wear. Gearbox design and construction: In order to conduct the research, a gearbox with simple gearwheels was designed according to current needs. Then mentioned gearbox and its accessories were modeled in CATIA V5-R20 software and then the system was constructed. Gearbox is a machine that is used for mechanical power transition

  3. A Significant Look at the Effects of Persian Gulf Environmental Conditions on Sound Scattering Based on Small Perturbation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parviz Ghadimi; Alireza Bolghasi; Mohammad A Feizi Chekab; Rahim Zamanian

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to investigate sound scattering from the sea surface, by Kuo’s small perturbation method (SPM), in the Persian Gulf’s environmental conditions. Accordingly, the SPM method is reviewed, then it is demonstrated how it can accurately model sound scattering from the sea surface. Since in Kuo’s approach, the effects of surface roughness and sub-surface bubble plumes on incident sounds can be studied separately, it is possible to investigate the importance of each mechanism in various scattering regimes. To conduct this study, wind and wave information reported by Arzanah station as well as some numerical atmospheric models for the Persian Gulf are presented and applied to examine sound scattering from the sea surface in the Persian Gulf region. Plots of scattering strength by Kuo’s SPM method versus grazing angle for various frequencies, wave heights, and wind speeds are presented. The calculated scattering strength by the SPM method for various frequencies and wind speeds are compared against the results of critical sea tests 7 (CST-7). The favorable agreement achieved for sound scattering in the Persian Gulf region is indicative of the fact that the SPM method can quite accurately model and predict sound scattering from the sea surface.

  4. SOUND EFFECTS INFLUENCE ON THE OPERATOR’S ORGANISM IN PRODUCTION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayda A. S.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a brief survey of noise effects on human’s organism in production conditions, including noise effects on operators of machines and technical devices. It is well known, that any biological organism exists in balance with its environment. However, noise effects being stress factors knock the operator of machines and technical devices out of the working rhythm and cause different kinds of health disorders such as blood pressure increase, fatigue, disorders of the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract and the like. All this may lead to accident situations, reduction of labor productivity and quality of work. Frequently health disorders start with hearing impairment which leads to disorientation in the threedimension space and malfunction. It is because the hearing apparatus as biological system provides the organism with sensory information and ensures selfpreservation. In the noise conditions, these characteristics are conflict: on one hand, the hearing organ should possess high enabling capability to receive positive signals, and on the other hand, in order to adapt to the sound hearing and sensitivity will decrease. The duration of noise exposure and the number of years spent under influence of the noise are also of great importance. Thus, it is obvious that control of the noise and prevention of harmful effects of the noise on machine operators are important components of production process in the agrarian sector

  5. The use of an unpleasant sound as the unconditional stimulus in aversive Pavlovian conditioning experiments that involve children and adolescent participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David L; Waters, Allison M; Westbury, H Rae

    2008-05-01

    Ethical considerations can prohibit the use of traditional unconditional stimuli (USs), such as electric shocks or loud tones, when children or adolescents participate in aversive Pavlovian conditioning experiments. The present study evaluated whether an unpleasant sound provides a viable alternative. Fifteen boys and girls aged 13 to 17 years completed a differential Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which a conditional stimulus (CS) was followed by the sound of metal scraping on slate. Acquisition of conditioned responses was found in startle blink magnitude, expectancy judgments of the sound, and skin conductance responses. Extinction of conditioned responses was found in all measures when the CS was no longer followed by the unpleasant sound. Subjective ratings and skin conductance responses indicated that the sound was unpleasant because of its qualitative features, rather than its intensity. The results support the use of an unpleasant sound as a low-risk alternative to traditional USs in aversive Pavlovian conditioning experiments with children and adolescents.

  6. Examining Word Factors and Child Factors for Acquisition of Conditional Sound-Spelling Consistencies: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Petscher, Yaacov; Park, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that children acquire spelling by picking up conditional sound-spelling consistencies. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated how variation in word characteristics (words that vary systematically in terms of phoneme-grapheme correspondences) and child factors (individual differences in the ability to extract…

  7. Examining Word Factors and Child Factors for Acquisition of Conditional Sound-Spelling Consistencies: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk Grace; Petscher, Yaacov; Park, Younghee

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that children acquire spelling by picking up conditional sound-spelling consistencies. To examine this hypothesis, we investigated how variation in word characteristics (words that vary systematically in terms of phoneme-grapheme correspondences) and child factors (individual differences in the ability to extract…

  8. Measurement of the speed of sound by observation of the Mach cones in a complex plasma under microgravity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukhovitskii, D. I., E-mail: dmr@ihed.ras.ru; Fortov, V. E.; Molotkov, V. I.; Lipaev, A. M.; Naumkin, V. N. [Joint Institute of High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Izhorskaya 13, Bd. 2, 125412 Moscow (Russian Federation); Thomas, H. M. [Research Group Complex Plasma, DLR, Oberpfaffenhofen, 82234 Wessling (Germany); Ivlev, A. V.; Morfill, G. E. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, 85748 Garching (Germany); Schwabe, M. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Graves Lab, D75 Tan Hall, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    We report the first observation of the Mach cones excited by a larger microparticle (projectile) moving through a cloud of smaller microparticles (dust) in a complex plasma with neon as a buffer gas under microgravity conditions. A collective motion of the dust particles occurs as propagation of the contact discontinuity. The corresponding speed of sound was measured by a special method of the Mach cone visualization. The measurement results are incompatible with the theory of ion acoustic waves. The estimate for the pressure in a strongly coupled Coulomb system and a scaling law for the complex plasma make it possible to derive an evaluation for the speed of sound, which is in a reasonable agreement with the experiments in complex plasmas.

  9. Measurement of the speed of sound by observation of the Mach cones in a complex plasma under microgravity conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhukhovitskii, D I; Molotkov, V I; Lipaev, A M; Naumkin, V N; Thomas, H M; Ivlev, A V; Schwabe, M; Morfill, G E

    2014-01-01

    We report the first observation of the Mach cones excited by a larger microparticle (projectile) moving through a cloud of smaller microparticles (dust) in a complex plasma with neon as a buffer gas under microgravity conditions. A collective motion of the dust particles occurs as propagation of the contact discontinuity. The corresponding speed of sound was measured by a special method of the Mach cone visualization. The measurement results are fully incompatible with the theory of ion acoustic waves. We explore the analogy between a strongly coupled Coulomb system and a solid. A scaling law for the complex plasma makes it possible to derive a theoretical estimate for the speed of sound, which is in a reasonable agreement with the experiments in strongly coupled complex plasmas.

  10. Production of cerium-apatite in sound and carious dental enamel under in vitro conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, J; Bánóczy, J; Fehérváry, E; Gintner, Z; Albrecht, M

    1990-01-01

    Incipient dental caries--according to up-to-date concepts in dental research--means a demineralization without cavity formation. At this stage the carious process is reversible, and remineralization can be achieved in the presence of locally applied fluorides. In chrystalchemical experiments, however, by treating natural apatites with lanthanides, [Ce, La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb ... Y, Sc] a more resistant complex could be developed. In this study extracted human molar teeth were kept for 60 days in Cerium (III)-nitrate solution, in order to investigate the incorporation of Ce3+ into human sound and carious enamel by light-microscopic-, and electron microprobe methods. Ce3+ was incorporated in sound enamel as well as into the incipient carious lesion, showing the histological characteristics of a remineralizing lesion. The mean values of the microprobe analysis data showed an increase in Ce3+ changing place with the Ca2+ the developing cerium-apatite being more hard and resistant from a mineralophysical point of view.

  11. Sound and sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    There is no difference in principle between the infrasonic and ultrasonic sounds, which are inaudible to humans (or other animals) and the sounds that we can hear. In all cases, sound is a wave of pressure and particle oscillations propagating through an elastic medium, such as air. This chapter...... is about the physical laws that govern how animals produce sound signals and how physical principles determine the signals’ frequency content and sound level, the nature of the sound field (sound pressure versus particle vibrations) as well as directional properties of the emitted signal. Many...... of these properties are dictated by simple physical relationships between the size of the sound emitter and the wavelength of emitted sound. The wavelengths of the signals need to be sufficiently short in relation to the size of the emitter to allow for the efficient production of propagating sound pressure waves...

  12. Constraints on Earth's inner core composition inferred from measurements of the sound velocity of hcp-iron in extreme conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Tatsuya; Ohtani, Eiji; Fukui, Hiroshi; Kamada, Seiji; Takahashi, Suguru; Sakairi, Takanori; Takahata, Akihiro; Sakai, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Rei; Seto, Yusuke; Tsuchiya, Taku; Baron, Alfred Q R

    2016-02-01

    Hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) is a main component of Earth's inner core. The difference in density between hcp-Fe and the inner core in the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) shows a density deficit, which implies an existence of light elements in the core. Sound velocities then provide an important constraint on the amount and kind of light elements in the core. Although seismological observations provide density-sound velocity data of Earth's core, there are few measurements in controlled laboratory conditions for comparison. We report the compressional sound velocity (V P) of hcp-Fe up to 163 GPa and 3000 K using inelastic x-ray scattering from a laser-heated sample in a diamond anvil cell. We propose a new high-temperature Birch's law for hcp-Fe, which gives us the V P of pure hcp-Fe up to core conditions. We find that Earth's inner core has a 4 to 5% smaller density and a 4 to 10% smaller V P than hcp-Fe. Our results demonstrate that components other than Fe in Earth's core are required to explain Earth's core density and velocity deficits compared to hcp-Fe. Assuming that the temperature effects on iron alloys are the same as those on hcp-Fe, we narrow down light elements in the inner core in terms of the velocity deficit. Hydrogen is a good candidate; thus, Earth's core may be a hidden hydrogen reservoir. Silicon and sulfur are also possible candidates and could show good agreement with PREM if we consider the presence of some melt in the inner core, anelasticity, and/or a premelting effect.

  13. ABOUT COMPLEX OPERATIONS IN NON-POSITIONAL RESIDUE NUMBER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. D. Polissky

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this work is the theoretical substantiation of methods for increased efficiency of execution of difficult, so-called not modular, operations in non-positional residue number system for which it is necessary to know operand digits for all grade levels. Methodology. To achieve the target the numbers are presented in odd module system, while the result of the operation is determined on the basis of establishing the operand parity. The parity is determined by finding the sum modulo for the values of the number positional characteristics for all of its modules. Algorithm of position characteristics includes two types of iteration. The first iteration is to move from this number to a smaller number, in which the remains of one or more modules are equal to zero. This is achieved by subtracting out of all the residues the value of one of them. The second iteration is to move from this number to a smaller number due to exclusion of modules, which residues are zero, by dividing this number by the product of these modules. Iterations are performed until the residues of one, some or all of the modules equal to zero and other modules are excluded. The proposed method is distinguished by its simplicity and allows you to obtain the result of the operation quickly. Findings. There are obtained rather simple solutions of not modular operations for definition of outputs beyond the range of the result of adding or subtracting pairs of numbers, comparing pairs of numbers, determining the number belonging to the specific half of the range, defining parity of numbers presented in non-positional residue number system. Originality. The work offered the new effective approaches to solve the non-modular operations of the non-positional residue number system. It seems appropriate to consider these approaches as research areas to enhance the effectiveness of the modular calculation. Practical value. The above solutions have high performance and can

  14. Sound Hole Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Politzer, David

    2015-01-01

    The volume of air that goes in and out of a musical instrument's sound hole is related to the sound hole's contribution to the volume of the sound. Helmholtz's result for the simplest case of steady flow through an elliptical hole is reviewed. Measurements on multiple holes in sound box geometries and scales relevant to real musical instruments demonstrate the importance of a variety of effects. Electric capacitance of single flat plates is a mathematically identical problem, offering an alternate way to understand the most important of those effects. The measurements also confirm and illuminate aspects of Helmholtz's "bottle" resonator model as applied to musical instrument sound boxes and sound holes.

  15. A machine-hearing system exploiting head movements for binaural sound localisation in reverberant conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Tobias; Ma, Ning; Wierstorf, Hagen;

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with machine localisation of multiple active speech sources in reverberant environments using two (binaural) microphones. Such conditions typically present a problem for ‘classical’ binaural models. Inspired by the human ability to utilise head movements, the current study...

  16. Evidence of trace conditioning in comatose patients revealed by the reactivation of EEG responses to alerting sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Elsa; Nguepnjo Nguissi, Nathalie Ata; Tzovara, Athina; Viceic, Dragana; Rusca, Marco; Oddo, Mauro; Rossetti, Andrea O; De Lucia, Marzia

    2016-11-01

    Trace conditioning refers to a learning process occurring after repeated presentation of a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS+) and a salient unconditioned stimulus (UCS) separated by a temporal gap. Recent studies have reported that trace conditioning can occur in humans in reduced levels of consciousness by showing a transfer of the unconditioned autonomic response to the CS+ in healthy sleeping individuals and in vegetative state patients. However, no previous studies have investigated the neural underpinning of trace conditioning in the absence of consciousness in humans. In the present study, we recorded the EEG activity of 29 post-anoxic comatose patients while presenting a trace conditioning paradigm using neutral tones as CS+ and alerting sounds as UCS. Most patients received therapeutic hypothermia and all were deeply unconscious according to standardized clinical scales. After repeated presentation of the CS+ and UCS couple, learning was assessed by measuring the EEG activity during the period where the UCS is omitted after CS+ presentation. Specifically we assessed the 'reactivation' of the neural response to UCS omission by applying a decoding algorithm derived from the statistical model of the EEG activity in response to the UCS presentation. The same procedure was used in a group of 12 awake healthy controls. We found a reactivation of the UCS response in absence of stimulation in eight patients (five under therapeutic hypothermia) and four healthy controls. Additionally, the reactivation effect was temporally specific within trials since it manifested primarily at the specific latency of UCS presentation and significantly less before or after this period. Our results show for the first time that trace conditioning may manifest as a reactivation of the EEG activity related to the UCS and even in the absence of consciousness.

  17. Unidentified Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates how urban spaces and its noises are approached by radio reporters in the first decades of public radio production in Denmark. Focussing on the period before reel tape was incorporated in production by late 1940es, I ask how urban space and urban sounds are heard...... in Danish radio until early post-war years. Yet I trace early attempts at managing noisy urban conditions and demonstrate how reporters experimented with available technological repositories and developed techniques in order to make sense in and through urban environments. Inspired by Michel Serres idea...... of the parasite I analyse such techniques as ways of distinguishing between noise and meaningful sounds, and ultimately show how such ventures constituted auditory responses to modernity and let organised sound enter the public sphere....

  18. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americansus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in Western Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Daniel; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically naïve lobsters heldin situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4–0.8 μ g/g/d (~16 μg/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 μg/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 μg/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 μg/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  19. Manganese concentration in lobster (Homarus americanus) gills as an index of exposure to reducing conditions in western Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxler, Andrew F.J.; Sherrell, Robert M.; Wieczorek, Dan; Lavigne, Michele G.; Paulson, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the accumulation of manganese (Mn) in gill tissues of chemically nai??ve lobsters held in situ at six sites in Long Island Sound (LIS) for up to six weeks to evaluate the possible contribution of eutrophication-driven habitat quality factors to the 1999 mass mortality of American lobsters (Homarus americanus). These western LIS lobster habitats experience seasonal hypoxia, which results in redox-mobilized Mn being transferred to and deposited on the tissues of the lobsters. Manganese accumulated in gill tissue of lobsters throughout the study, but rates were highest at western and southern LIS sites, ranging from 3.4-0.8 ??g/g/d (???16 ??g/g initial). The Baden-Eriksson observation that Mn accumulation in Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus) is associated with ecosystem hypoxia is confirmed and extended to H. americanus. It seems likely that, after accounting for molting frequency, certain critical values may be applied to other lobster habitats of the NE US shelf. If a high proportion of lobsters in autumn have gill Mn concentrations exceeding 30 ??g/g, then the habitats are likely experiencing some reduced oxygen levels. Manganese concentrations above 100 ??g/g suggest exposure to conditions with the potential for lobster mortality should the temperatures of bottom waters become elevated, and gill concentrations above some higher level (perhaps 300 ??g/g) indicate the most severe habitat conditions with a strong potential for hypoxia stress.

  20. The use of an unpleasant sound unconditional stimulus in an aversive conditioning procedure with 8- to 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, David L; Waters, Allison M; Westbury, H Rae; Henry, Julie

    2008-12-01

    The study of aversive Pavlovian conditioning in children can contribute to our understanding of how fears are acquired and extinguished during development. However, methodological issues hamper further research because of ethical and procedural concerns regarding the use of traditional aversive unconditional stimuli (USs) and no established method to measure trial-by-trial changes in the child's expectancy of the US. The present experiment used geometric shape conditional stimuli (CSs) and an unpleasant sound US with 8- to 11-year-old children. Reliable acquisition and extinction were observed with first, second, and third interval skin conductance responses, on-line expectancy judgments, and post-conditioning subjective ratings of pleasantness and arousal. The experiment confirms the novel use of an unpleasant sound of metal scraping on slate as a US in aversive conditioning with children. The methods have the potential to facilitate the ethical conduct of aversive conditioning research in children using psychophysiological, affective, and self-report expectancy measures.

  1. Decadal Trends in Abundance, Size and Condition of Antarctic Toothfish in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, 1972-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainley, David G.; Nur, Nadav; Eastman, Joseph T.; Ballard. Grant; Parkinson, Claire L; Evans, Clive W.; DeVries, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    We report analyses of a dataset spanning 38 years of near-annual fishing for Antarctic toothfish Dissostichus mawsoni, using a vertical setline through the fast ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, 1972-2010. This constitutes one of the longest biological time series in the Southern Ocean, and certainly the longest for any fish. Fish total length, condition and catch per unit effort (CPUE) were derived from the more than 5500 fish caught. Contrary to expectation, length-frequency was dominated by fish in the upper half of the industrial catch. The discrepancy may be due to biases in the sampling capabilities of vertical (this study) versus benthic (horizontal) fishing gear (industry long lines), related to the fact that only large Antarctic toothfish (more than 100 cm TL) are neutrally buoyant and occur in the water column. Fish length and condition increased from the early 1970s to the early 1990s and then decreased, related to sea ice cover, with lags of 8 months to 5 years, and may ultimately be related to the fishery (which targets large fish) and changes in the Southern Annular Mode through effects on toothfish main prey, Antarctic silverfish Pleuragramma antarcticum. CPUE was constant through 2001 and then decreased dramatically, likely related to the industrial fishery, which began in 1996 and which concentrates effort over the Ross Sea slope, where tagged McMurdo fish have been found. Due to limited prey choices and, therefore, close coupling among mesopredators of the Ross Sea, Antarctic toothfish included, the fishery may be altering the trophic structure of the Ross Sea.

  2. Ecological sounds affect breath duration more than artificial sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgia, Mauro; Santoro, Ilaria; Tamburini, Giorgia; Prpic, Valter; Sors, Fabrizio; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that auditory rhythms affect both movement and physiological functions. We hypothesized that the ecological sounds of human breathing can affect breathing more than artificial sounds of breathing, varying in tones for inspiration and expiration. To address this question, we monitored the breath duration of participants exposed to three conditions: (a) ecological sounds of breathing, (b) artificial sounds of breathing having equal temporal features as the ecological sounds, (c) no sounds (control). We found that participants' breath duration variability was reduced in the ecological sound condition, more than in the artificial sound condition. We suggest that ecological sounds captured the timing of breathing better than artificial sounds, guiding as a consequence participants' breathing. We interpreted our results according to the Theory of Event Coding, providing further support to its validity, and suggesting its possible extension in the domain of physiological functions which are both consciously and unconsciously controlled.

  3. Foley Sounds vs Real Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trento, Stefano; Götzen, Amalia De

    2011-01-01

    This paper is an initial attempt to study the world of sound effects for motion pictures, also known as Foley sounds. Throughout several audio and audio-video tests we have compared both Foley and real sounds originated by an identical action. The main purpose was to evaluate if sound effects...

  4. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  5. Imagining Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark; Garner, Tom Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We make the case in this essay that sound that is imagined is both a perception and as much a sound as that perceived through external stimulation. To argue this, we look at the evidence from auditory science, neuroscience, and philosophy, briefly present some new conceptual thinking on sound...... that accounts for this view, and then use this to look at what the future might hold in the context of imagining sound and developing technology....

  6. The Sounds of Sentences: Differentiating the Influence of Physical Sound, Sound Imagery, and Linguistically Implied Sounds on Physical Sound Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudschig, Carolin; Mackenzie, Ian Grant; Strozyk, Jessica; Kaup, Barbara; Leuthold, Hartmut

    2016-10-01

    Both the imagery literature and grounded models of language comprehension emphasize the tight coupling of high-level cognitive processes, such as forming a mental image of something or language understanding, and low-level sensorimotor processes in the brain. In an electrophysiological study, imagery and language processes were directly compared and the sensory associations of processing linguistically implied sounds or imagined sounds were investigated. Participants read sentences describing auditory events (e.g., "The dog barks"), heard a physical (environmental) sound, or had to imagine such a sound. We examined the influence of the 3 sound conditions (linguistic, physical, imagery) on subsequent physical sound processing. Event-related potential (ERP) difference waveforms indicated that in all 3 conditions, prime compatibility influenced physical sound processing. The earliest compatibility effect was observed in the physical condition, starting in the 80-110 ms time interval with a negative maximum over occipital electrode sites. In contrast, the linguistic and the imagery condition elicited compatibility effects starting in the 180-220 ms time window with a maximum over central electrode sites. In line with the ERPs, the analysis of the oscillatory activity showed that compatibility influenced early theta and alpha band power changes in the physical, but not in the linguistic and imagery, condition. These dissociations were further confirmed by dipole localization results showing a clear separation between the source of the compatibility effect in the physical sound condition (superior temporal area) and the source of the compatibility effect triggered by the linguistically implied sounds or the imagined sounds (inferior temporal area). Implications for grounded models of language understanding are discussed.

  7. 空调机房的隔音降噪措施研究%The sound insulation and noise elimination measures research on air conditioning room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛志飞

    2015-01-01

    Taking the Shanxi Library engineering as an example,analyzed the noise sources of air conditioning and ventilation system,from the layout,noise elimination,sound absorption and insulation three angles researched the noise elimination measures of air conditioning rooms,de-scribed in detail,so as to economy,effectively reduce the noise generated by the air conditioning system of large scale public buildings.%以山西省图书馆工程为例,分析了空调通风系统的噪声源,从布局、消声降噪、吸音隔音三个角度研究了空调机房降噪措施,并作了详细阐述,以经济、有效地降低大型公共建筑空调系统所产生的噪声。

  8. Constraints on Earth’s inner core composition inferred from measurements of the sound velocity of hcp-iron in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki, Tatsuya; Ohtani, Eiji; Fukui, Hiroshi; Kamada, Seiji; Takahashi, Suguru; Sakairi, Takanori; Takahata, Akihiro; Sakai, Takeshi; Tsutsui, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Daisuke; Shiraishi, Rei; Seto, Yusuke; Tsuchiya, Taku; Baron, Alfred Q. R.

    2016-01-01

    Hexagonal close-packed iron (hcp-Fe) is a main component of Earth’s inner core. The difference in density between hcp-Fe and the inner core in the Preliminary Reference Earth Model (PREM) shows a density deficit, which implies an existence of light elements in the core. Sound velocities then provide an important constraint on the amount and kind of light elements in the core. Although seismological observations provide density–sound velocity data of Earth’s core, there are few measurements in controlled laboratory conditions for comparison. We report the compressional sound velocity (VP) of hcp-Fe up to 163 GPa and 3000 K using inelastic x-ray scattering from a laser-heated sample in a diamond anvil cell. We propose a new high-temperature Birch’s law for hcp-Fe, which gives us the VP of pure hcp-Fe up to core conditions. We find that Earth’s inner core has a 4 to 5% smaller density and a 4 to 10% smaller VP than hcp-Fe. Our results demonstrate that components other than Fe in Earth’s core are required to explain Earth’s core density and velocity deficits compared to hcp-Fe. Assuming that the temperature effects on iron alloys are the same as those on hcp-Fe, we narrow down light elements in the inner core in terms of the velocity deficit. Hydrogen is a good candidate; thus, Earth’s core may be a hidden hydrogen reservoir. Silicon and sulfur are also possible candidates and could show good agreement with PREM if we consider the presence of some melt in the inner core, anelasticity, and/or a premelting effect. PMID:26933678

  9. Speed of sound measurements and mixing characterization of underexpanded fuel jets with supercritical reservoir condition using laser-induced thermal acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baab, S.; Förster, F. J.; Lamanna, G.; Weigand, B.

    2016-11-01

    The four-wave mixing technique laser-induced thermal acoustics was used to measure the local speed of sound in the farfield zone of extremely underexpanded jets. N-hexane at supercritical injection temperature and pressure (supercritical reservoir condition) was injected into quiescent subcritical nitrogen (with respect to the injectant). The technique's capability to quantify the nonisothermal, turbulent mixing zone of small-scale jets is demonstrated for the first time. Consistent radially resolved speed of sound profiles are presented for different axial positions and varying injection temperatures. Furthermore, an adiabatic mixing model based on nonideal thermodynamic properties is presented to extract mixture composition and temperature from the experimental speed of sound data. High fuel mass fractions of up to 94 % are found for the centerline at an axial distance of 55 diameters from the nozzle followed by a rapid decay in axial direction. This is attributed to a supercritical fuel state at the nozzle exit resulting in the injection of a high-density fluid. The obtained concentration data are complemented by existing measurements and collapsed in a similarity law. It allows for mixture prediction of underexpanded jets with supercritical reservoir condition provided that nonideal thermodynamic behavior is considered for the nozzle flow. Specifically, it is shown that the fuel concentration in the farfield zone is very sensitive to the thermodynamic state at the nozzle exit. Here, a transition from supercritical fluid to subcritical vapor state results in strongly varying fuel concentrations, which implies high impact on the mixture formation and, consequently, on the combustion characteristics.

  10. Unsound Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the change in premise that digitally produced sound brings about and how digital technologies more generally have changed our relationship to the musical artifact, not simply in degree but in kind. It demonstrates how our acoustical conceptions are thoroughly challenged...... by the digital production of sound and, by questioning the ontological basis for digital sound, turns our understanding of the core term substance upside down....

  11. Sound Absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, H. V.; Möser, M.

    Sound absorption indicates the transformation of sound energy into heat. It is, for instance, employed to design the acoustics in rooms. The noise emitted by machinery and plants shall be reduced before arriving at a workplace; auditoria such as lecture rooms or concert halls require a certain reverberation time. Such design goals are realised by installing absorbing components at the walls with well-defined absorption characteristics, which are adjusted for corresponding demands. Sound absorbers also play an important role in acoustic capsules, ducts and screens to avoid sound immission from noise intensive environments into the neighbourhood.

  12. Non-positively curved graph manifolds are virtually fibered over the circle

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    In this note we prove that any closed graph manifold admitting a metric of non-positive sectional curvature (NPC-metric) has a finite cover, which is fibered over the circle. An explicit criterion to have a finite cover, which is fibered over the circle, is presented for the graph manifolds of certain class.

  13. Treatment outcomes of mandibular advancement devices in positional and non-positional OSA patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin Woo; Enciso, Reyes; Levendowski, Daniel J.; Morgan, Todd D.; Westbrook, Philip R.; Clark, Glenn T.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to investigate treatment outcome of mandibular advancement devices (MADs) for positional and non-positional obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Study design Forty-two positional (supine apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 2x’s lateral AHI) and 30 non-positional (supine AHI < 2x’s lateral AHI) OSA patients performed two-nights of sleep study before and after insertion of MADs. Results The decreases in apnea severity based on a reduction in the overall and supine AHI values after MADs therapy were significantly greater for the positional OSA than non-positional OSA group. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that decrease in overall AHI was significantly associated with being in the positional group (standardized coefficient=0.505). Age, body mass index, gender, and time in supine position during sleep did not show significant associations with decrease in overall AHI after MAD therapy. Conclusion Our data suggest that MADs are more effective in positional OSA than non-positional OSA patients. PMID:20299246

  14. Insula and inferior frontal triangularis activations distinguish between conditioned brain responses using emotional sounds for basic BCI communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda evan der Heiden

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to enable communication through a brain-computer interface (BCI, it is necessary to discriminate between distinct brain responses. As a first step, we probed the possibility to discriminate between affirmative (yes and negative (no responses using a semantic classical conditioning paradigm, within an fMRI setting.Subjects were presented with congruent and incongruent word-pairs as conditioned stimuli (CS, respectively eliciting affirmative and negative responses. Incongruent word-pairs were associated to an unpleasant unconditioned stimulus (scream, US1 and congruent word-pairs were associated to a pleasant unconditioned stimulus (baby-laughter, US2, in order to elicit emotional conditioned responses (CR. The aim was to discriminate between affirmative and negative responses, enabled by their association with the positive and negative affective stimuli. In the late acquisition phase, when the US were not present anymore, there was a strong significant differential activation for incongruent and congruent word-pairs in a cluster comprising the left insula and the inferior frontal triangularis. This association was not found in the habituation phase. These results suggest that the difference in affirmative and negative brain responses was established as an effect of conditioning, allowing to further investigate the possibility of using this paradigm for a binary choice BCI.

  15. Measuring Sound-Processor Threshold Levels for Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients Using Conditioned Play Audiometry via Telepractice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Jenny L.; Hughes, Michelle L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the use of telepractice for measuring cochlear implant (CI) behavioral threshold (T) levels in children using conditioned play audiometry (CPA). The goals were to determine whether (a) T levels measured via telepractice were not significantly different from those obtained in person, (b) response probability differed…

  16. DC and Wave Electric Fields and Other Plasma Parameters Observed on Two Sounding Rockets in the Dark Cusp during IMF Bz North and South Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, R. F.; Acuna, M.; Bounds, S.; Farrell, W.; Freudenreich, W.; Lepping, R.; Vondrak, R.; Maynard, N. C.; Moen, J.; Egeland, A.

    1999-01-01

    Two Black Brant IX sounding rockets were launched into the dark, dayside cusp near magnetic noon on December 2 and 3, 1997, from Ny Alesund, Spitzbergen at 79 deg N reaching altitudes of about 450 km. Real-time ground-based and Wind IMF data were used to determine the launch conditions. The first launch, with Bz north conditions, crossed into and back out of an open field region with merging poleward of the projected trajectory. The second flight, into Bz south conditions, was timed to coincide with an enhancement in the merging rate from a increase in the negative Bz, while the DMSP Fl 3 satellite was situated slightly to the north of the rocket trajectory. Each payload returned DC electric and magnetic fields, plasma waves, energetic particles, photometer data, and thermal plasma data. Data from both flights will be shown, with an emphasis on the DC electric field results. In particular, the data gathered on December 2, 1997 will be used to discuss ionospheric signatures of merging and the open/closed character of the the cusp/low latitude boundary layer. In contrast, the data gathered on December 3, 1997 shows evidence of pulsed electric field structures which will be examined in the context of cusp plasma entry processes. Both data sets returned a rich variety of plasma waves, as well as optical emissions and thermal plasma data.

  17. Sounds of Web Advertising

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Iben Bredahl; Graakjær, Nicolai Jørgensgaard

    2010-01-01

    Sound seems to be a neglected issue in the study of web ads. Web advertising is predominantly regarded as visual phenomena–commercial messages, as for instance banner ads that we watch, read, and eventually click on–but only rarely as something that we listen to. The present chapter presents...... an overview of the auditory dimensions in web advertising: Which kinds of sounds do we hear in web ads? What are the conditions and functions of sound in web ads? Moreover, the chapter proposes a theoretical framework in order to analyse the communicative functions of sound in web advertising. The main...... argument is that an understanding of the auditory dimensions in web advertising must include a reflection on the hypertextual settings of the web ad as well as a perspective on how users engage with web content....

  18. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  19. Sound Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, M.J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  20. Sound intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocker, Malcolm J.; Jacobsen, Finn

    1998-01-01

    This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique.......This chapter is an overview, intended for readers with no special knowledge about this particular topic. The chapter deals with all aspects of sound intensity and its measurement from the fundamental theoretical background to practical applications of the measurement technique....

  1. Natural statistics of binaural sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural time (ITD) and level (ILD) disparities at pure frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. In order to process...

  2. Statistics of Natural Binaural Sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wiktor Młynarski; Jürgen Jost

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment....

  3. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice......Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  4. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    are tempo, time, voice, sound and music. Our goal is to bring analytical and performative awareness to academic means of expression, and the audio paper provides us with a new and experimental platform to do so. Our thoughts about and definition of the audio paper is explained in the first text of the issue...... by introducing a new format: The Audio Paper. The purpose of the audio paper is to extend the written academic text: to present discussions and explorations of a certain argument or problem in sound. The audio paper is an extension of expressive means: Not only words and syntax are means of expression – so...

  5. Sound Settlements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peder Duelund; Hornyanszky, Elisabeth Dalholm; Larsen, Jacob Norvig;

    2013-01-01

    Præsentation af projektresultater fra Interreg forskningen Sound Settlements om udvikling af bæredygtighed i det almene boligbyggerier i København, Malmø, Helsingborg og Lund samt europæiske eksempler på best practice...

  6. Remediating Non-Positive Definite State Covariances for Collision Probability Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Doyle T.; Hejduk, Matthew D.; Johnson, Lauren C.

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis team estimates the probability of collision (Pc) for a set of Earth-orbiting satellites. The Pc estimation software processes satellite position+velocity states and their associated covariance matri-ces. On occasion, the software encounters non-positive definite (NPD) state co-variances, which can adversely affect or prevent the Pc estimation process. Inter-polation inaccuracies appear to account for the majority of such covariances, alt-hough other mechanisms contribute also. This paper investigates the origin of NPD state covariance matrices, three different methods for remediating these co-variances when and if necessary, and the associated effects on the Pc estimation process.

  7. Bayesian inference of non-positive spectral functions in quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rothkopf, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We present the generalization to non positive definite spectral functions of a recently proposed Bayesian deconvolution approach (BR method). The novel prior used here retains many of the beneficial analytic properties of the original method, in particular it allows us to integrate out the hyperparameter $\\alpha$ directly. To preserve the underlying axiom of scale invariance, we introduce a second default-model related function, whose role is discussed. Our reconstruction prescription is contrasted with existing direct methods, as well as with an approach where shift functions are introduced to compensate for negative spectral features. A mock spectrum analysis inspired by the study of gluon spectral functions in QCD illustrates the capabilities of this new approach.

  8. Fluid Sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Explorations and analysis of soundscapes have, since Canadian R. Murray Schafer's work during the early 1970's, developed into various established research - and artistic disciplines. The interest in sonic environments is today present within a broad range of contemporary art projects and in arch...... are tempo, time, voice, sound and music. Our goal is to bring analytical and performative awareness to academic means of expression, and the audio paper provides us with a new and experimental platform to do so....... by introducing a new format: The Audio Paper. The purpose of the audio paper is to extend the written academic text: to present discussions and explorations of a certain argument or problem in sound. The audio paper is an extension of expressive means: Not only words and syntax are means of expression – so...

  9. Characterization of water-quality and bed-sediment conditions in Currituck Sound, North Carolina, prior to the Mid-Currituck Bridge construction, 2011–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Chad R.; Fitzgerald, Sharon; Antolino, Dominick J.

    2015-12-24

    The North Carolina Turnpike Authority, a division of the North Carolina Department of Transportation, is planning to make transportation improvements in the Currituck Sound area by constructing a two-lane bridge from U.S. Highway 158 just south of Coinjock, North Carolina, to State Highway 12 on the Outer Banks just south of Corolla, North Carolina. The results of the Final Environmental Impact Study associated with the bridge and existing roadway improvements indicated potential water-quality and habitat impacts to Currituck Sound related to stormwater runoff, altered light levels, introduction of piles as hard substrate, and localized turbidity and siltation during construction.

  10. Vacuum energy is non-positive for (2+1)-dimensional holographic CFTs

    CERN Document Server

    Hickling, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    We consider a (2+1)-dimensional holographic CFT on a static spacetime with globally timelike Killing vector. Taking the spatial geometry to be closed but otherwise general we expect a non-trivial vacuum energy at zero temperature due to the Casimir effect. We assume a thermal state has an AdS/CFT dual description as a static smooth solution to gravity with a negative cosmological constant, which ends only on the conformal boundary or horizons. A bulk geometric argument then provides an upper bound on the ratio of CFT free energy to temperature. Considering the zero temperature limit of this bound implies the vacuum energy of the CFT is non-positive. Furthermore the vacuum energy must be negative unless the boundary metric is locally conformal to a product of time with a constant curvature space. We emphasise the argument does not require the zero temperature bulk geometry to be smooth, but only that singularities are `good' so are hidden by horizons at finite temperature.

  11. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  12. Sound Search Engine Concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Sound search is provided by the major search engines, however, indexing is text based, not sound based. We will establish a dedicated sound search services with based on sound feature indexing. The current demo shows the concept of the sound search engine. The first engine will be realased June...

  13. The Effect of Intraoperative Sounds of Saw and Hammer on Psychological Condition in Patients with Total Knee Arthroplasty: Prospective Randomized Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkam Kömürcü

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Surgical procedures are likely to be stressful for patients and their families. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA is a major surgical procedure used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. During this procedure the sounds of the saw and hammer may irritate the patient and adversely affect mood. The present study examines the effect of these intraoperative sounds during TKA on postoperative mood and anxiety, by comparing two different anesthetic procedures. Methods. A total of 40 patients who underwent TKA for grade IV gonarthrosis participated in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients in the general anesthesia group and 20 patients in the spinal anesthesia group. Mood and anxiety changes were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI instruments, respectively. Results. The postoperative POMS value in the spinal anesthesia group was definitively higher than the general anesthesia group, though the difference in preoperative and postoperative POMS and STAI scores between the two groups was not significant. Conclusion. It would seem that sounds of hammer and saw have no evident negative effect on patient’s mood. Regional anesthesia is advisable for TKA patients and appropriate sedation can be administered during the operation if needed.

  14. The effect of intraoperative sounds of saw and hammer on psychological condition in patients with total knee arthroplasty: prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kömürcü, Erkam; Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Kaymaz, Burak; Gölge, Umut Hatay; Nusran, Gürdal; Göksel, Ferdi; Şahin, Hasan; Ömür, Dilek; Hancı, Volkan

    2015-01-01

    Surgical procedures are likely to be stressful for patients and their families. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a major surgical procedure used in the treatment of osteoarthritis. During this procedure the sounds of the saw and hammer may irritate the patient and adversely affect mood. The present study examines the effect of these intraoperative sounds during TKA on postoperative mood and anxiety, by comparing two different anesthetic procedures. A total of 40 patients who underwent TKA for grade IV gonarthrosis participated in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: 20 patients in the general anesthesia group and 20 patients in the spinal anesthesia group. Mood and anxiety changes were evaluated using the Profile of Mood States (POMS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) instruments, respectively. The postoperative POMS value in the spinal anesthesia group was definitively higher than the general anesthesia group, though the difference in preoperative and postoperative POMS and STAI scores between the two groups was not significant. It would seem that sounds of hammer and saw have no evident negative effect on patient's mood. Regional anesthesia is advisable for TKA patients and appropriate sedation can be administered during the operation if needed.

  15. AN ANALYSIS OF SOUND FOR FAULT ENGINE

    OpenAIRE

    Suphattharachai Chomphan; Theerathan Kingrattanaset

    2014-01-01

    Various types of faults of the gasoline engine may result in similar symptoms. Sound analysis of engine has been conducted to diagnose the engine faults. This study presents a study of sound analysis of the normal engine and the engine with three different fault conditions. The gasoline engine was our target of this study. The engine sound has been recorded by using a microphone at the engine room for three directions. Three conditions of engine faults including the engine that is not smooth ...

  16. NASA Space Sounds API

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has released a series of space sounds via sound cloud. We have abstracted away some of the hassle in accessing these sounds, so that developers can play with...

  17. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  18. Sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  19. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  20. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Młynarski

    Full Text Available Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD and level (ILD disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  1. Statistics of natural binaural sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Młynarski, Wiktor; Jost, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Binaural sound localization is usually considered a discrimination task, where interaural phase (IPD) and level (ILD) disparities at narrowly tuned frequency channels are utilized to identify a position of a sound source. In natural conditions however, binaural circuits are exposed to a stimulation by sound waves originating from multiple, often moving and overlapping sources. Therefore statistics of binaural cues depend on acoustic properties and the spatial configuration of the environment. Distribution of cues encountered naturally and their dependence on physical properties of an auditory scene have not been studied before. In the present work we analyzed statistics of naturally encountered binaural sounds. We performed binaural recordings of three auditory scenes with varying spatial configuration and analyzed empirical cue distributions from each scene. We have found that certain properties such as the spread of IPD distributions as well as an overall shape of ILD distributions do not vary strongly between different auditory scenes. Moreover, we found that ILD distributions vary much weaker across frequency channels and IPDs often attain much higher values, than can be predicted from head filtering properties. In order to understand the complexity of the binaural hearing task in the natural environment, sound waveforms were analyzed by performing Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Properties of learned basis functions indicate that in natural conditions soundwaves in each ear are predominantly generated by independent sources. This implies that the real-world sound localization must rely on mechanisms more complex than a mere cue extraction.

  2. Calculating Speed of Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Shalabh

    2017-01-01

    Sound is an emerging source of renewable energy but it has some limitations. The main limitation is, the amount of energy that can be extracted from sound is very less and that is because of the velocity of the sound. The velocity of sound changes as per medium. If we could increase the velocity of the sound in a medium we would be probably able to extract more amount of energy from sound and will be able to transfer it at a higher rate. To increase the velocity of sound we should know the speed of sound. If we go by the theory of classic mechanics speed is the distance travelled by a particle divided by time whereas velocity is the displacement of particle divided by time. The speed of sound in dry air at 20 °C (68 °F) is considered to be 343.2 meters per second and it won't be wrong in saying that 342.2 meters is the velocity of sound not the speed as it's the displacement of the sound not the total distance sound wave covered. Sound travels in the form of mechanical wave, so while calculating the speed of sound the whole path of wave should be considered not just the distance traveled by sound. In this paper I would like to focus on calculating the actual speed of sound wave which can help us to extract more energy and make sound travel with faster velocity.

  3. A note on measurement of sound pressure with intensity probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Peter; Jacobsen, Finn

    2004-01-01

    be improved under a variety of realistic sound field conditions by applying a different weighting of the two pressure signals from the probe. The improved intensity probe can measure the sound pressure more accurately at high frequencies than an ordinary sound intensity probe or an ordinary sound level meter......The effect of scattering and diffraction on measurement of sound pressure with "two-microphone" sound intensity probes is examined using an axisymmetric boundary element model of the probe. Whereas it has been shown a few years ago that the sound intensity estimated with a two-microphone probe...

  4. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  5. Sounds Exaggerate Visual Shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeny, Timothy D.; Guzman-Martinez, Emmanuel; Ortega, Laura; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    While perceiving speech, people see mouth shapes that are systematically associated with sounds. In particular, a vertically stretched mouth produces a /woo/ sound, whereas a horizontally stretched mouth produces a /wee/ sound. We demonstrate that hearing these speech sounds alters how we see aspect ratio, a basic visual feature that contributes…

  6. The Sound of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwade, Venkatesh; Eichinger, David; Harriger, Bradley; Doherty, Erin; Habben, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    While the science of sound can be taught by explaining the concept of sound waves and vibrations, the authors of this article focused their efforts on creating a more engaging way to teach the science of sound--through engineering design. In this article they share the experience of teaching sound to third graders through an engineering challenge…

  7. Sound reproduction system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, M.M.; De Vries, D.; Horbach, U.

    2002-01-01

    Arrangement of a sound reproduction system (1), including at least one input (2), a sound field generator (4), a loudspeaker panel (10); the at least one input (2) connected to the sound filed generator (4), and the sound filed (4) connected to the loudspeaker panel (10); the at least one input (2)

  8. Numerical Analysis for Impact of Sound Absorption Treatment on Ship Cabin Noise Radiated from Air-conditioning System%吸声处理对舱室空调噪声影响的数值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武耀; 季振林

    2013-01-01

    Air-conditioning system is a major noise source in ship cabin, and sound-absorption treatment is an efficient way to reduce the cabin noise. In order to examine the effect of sound-absorption on the noise reduction in cabin, the finite element predictive model of noise radiated from the ventilation pipe into the ship cabin was established. Taking the measured sound pressure as the noise source, the effects of sound-absorption of cabin wall and ventilation pipe on the ship cabin noise reduction were investigated, which was used to guide and improve the acoustic design of ship cabin. The cabin noise caused by the improved air-conditioning system was predicted, and the acoustic design for suppression of much higher noise was conducted, a satisfactory solution for reducing the noise level in cabin was obtained.%  通风空调系统辐射噪声是船舶舱室内最主要的噪声源,吸声处理是降低舱室噪声的一种有效途径。为考察吸声处理对降低舱室噪声的效果,建立通风空调管路噪声向船舶舱内辐射的有限元法数值预报模型。以实测的管口声压为噪声源,研究舱室壁面及通风管路吸声对舱室降噪效果的影响,进而用于指导和改进船舶舱室的声学设计。对通风空调系统改变后的舱室噪声进行预报,并针对较高的噪声进行声学设计,使舱室噪声问题得到解决。

  9. Mussels document loss of bioavailable polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the return to baseline conditions for oiled shorelines in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, D.S. [Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Boehm, P.D.; Brown, J.S. [Exponent, Inc., Maynard, MA (United States); Neff, J.M. [Battelle, MA (United States); Burns, W.A. [W.A. Burns Consulting Services, Houston, TX (United States); Bence, A.E. [ExxonMobil Upstream Research Co. Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in mussels (Mytilus trossulus) collected between 1990 and 2002 from 11 sites on the shores of Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, that were heavily oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS). This study, utilizing the methods of the NOAA Status and Trends Mussel Watch Program, found that concentrations of PAH released from spill remnants have decreased dramatically with time and by 2002 were at or near the range of total PAH (TPAH) of 3-355 ng/g dry weight obtained for mussels from unoiled reference sites in PWS. Time-series TPAH data indicate a mean TPAH half-life in mussel tissues of 2.4 years with a range from 1.4 to 5.3, yielding an annual mean loss of bioaccumulated TPAH of 25%. The petroleum-derived TPAH fraction in mussel tissues has decreased with time, reflecting the decreasing release of EVOS residues in shoreline sediments. These results show that PAH from EVOS residues that remain buried in shoreline sediments after the early 1990s are in a form and at locations that have a low accessibility to mussels living in the intertidal zone. (author)

  10. Sound Levels in East Texas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Aaron Lynn

    A survey of sound levels was taken in several Texas schools to determine the amount of noise and sound present by size of class, type of activity, location of building, and the presence of air conditioning and large amounts of glass. The data indicate that class size and relative amounts of glass have no significant bearing on the production of…

  11. Calibration of Underwater Sound Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R.S. Sastry

    1983-07-01

    Full Text Available The techniques of calibration of underwater sound transducers for farfield, near-field and closed environment conditions are reviewed in this paper .The design of acoustic calibration tank is mentioned. The facilities available at Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory, Cochin for calibration of transducers are also listed.

  12. What is sound energy ?

    CERN Document Server

    Loria, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Sounds are all around us, but what makes sound? How does it travel? What can it do? These questions and more will be answered as the science of sound energy is examined in depth. Readers will learn how the physical movement of objects creates sound, as well as the qualities of sound and how they vary, and are received. The uses of sound energy in various fields will be explored. Simple illustrations of sophisticated scientific concepts will enhance the young learner's understanding of the topic.

  13. Synthesized size-sound sound symbolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Hagoort, P.; Dingemanse, M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of sound symbolism have shown that people can associate sound and meaning in consistent ways when presented with maximally contrastive stimulus pairs of nonwords such as bouba/kiki (rounded/sharp) or mil/mal (small/big). Recent work has shown the effect extends to antonymic words from natura

  14. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  15. Early sound symbolism for vowel sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, Ferrinne; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki) to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba) to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound-shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound-shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat) and four rounded-jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko) rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba). Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p vowel sound and shape.

  16. Sound wave transmission (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    When sounds waves reach the ear, they are translated into nerve impulses. These impulses then travel to the brain where they are interpreted by the brain as sound. The hearing mechanisms within the inner ear, can ...

  17. Making fictions sound real

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkjær, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related...... to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy...... of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences....

  18. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  19. Modelling Hyperboloid Sound Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, Jane; Davis, Daniel; Peters, Brady;

    2011-01-01

    The Responsive Acoustic Surfaces workshop project described here sought new understandings about the interaction between geometry and sound in the arena of sound scattering. This paper reports on the challenges associated with modelling, simulating, fabricating and measuring this phenomenon using...

  20. Sound localization in the alligator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, Hilary S; Carr, Catherine E

    2015-11-01

    In early tetrapods, it is assumed that the tympana were acoustically coupled through the pharynx and therefore inherently directional, acting as pressure difference receivers. The later closure of the middle ear cavity in turtles, archosaurs, and mammals is a derived condition, and would have changed the ear by decoupling the tympana. Isolation of the middle ears would then have led to selection for structural and neural strategies to compute sound source localization in both archosaurs and mammalian ancestors. In the archosaurs (birds and crocodilians) the presence of air spaces in the skull provided connections between the ears that have been exploited to improve directional hearing, while neural circuits mediating sound localization are well developed. In this review, we will focus primarily on directional hearing in crocodilians, where vocalization and sound localization are thought to be ecologically important, and indicate important issues still awaiting resolution.

  1. An Antropologist of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2015-01-01

    PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology.......PROFESSOR PORTRAIT: Sanne Krogh Groth met Holger Schulze, newly appointed professor in Musicology at the Department for Arts and Cultural Studies, University of Copenhagen, to a talk about anthropology of sound, sound studies, musical canons and ideology....

  2. Man & Sound Environment 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings to the conference "Man and Sound Environment 2010" arranged by The sound Envirnment Center at Lund university. Ulf Landström, Swedish Noise Research Network & Frans Mossberg The Sound Environment Centre at Lund university. CONTENTS: Preface – Symposium “Man and Sound Environment 2010” The prevalence of noise problems. Gunn Marit Aasvang, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Department of Environmental Medicine, Nydalen, Oslo, Norway Effects of ...

  3. Broadcast sound technology

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot-Smith, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Broadcast Sound Technology provides an explanation of the underlying principles of modern audio technology. Organized into 21 chapters, the book first describes the basic sound; behavior of sound waves; aspects of hearing, harming, and charming the ear; room acoustics; reverberation; microphones; phantom power; loudspeakers; basic stereo; and monitoring of audio signal. Subsequent chapters explore the processing of audio signal, sockets, sound desks, and digital audio. Analogue and digital tape recording and reproduction, as well as noise reduction, are also explained.

  4. Researching home through sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    2014-01-01

    sounds via the sense of hearing; i.e., by listening. Furthermore, I examine some of the methodological challenges associated with listening to a space (as sound), interpreting what is heard and then representing the sounds in a text. I also discuss the types of knowledge that may be created through...... auditory and visual approaches....

  5. Sounds in the ocean at 1-100 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, William S D; Stafford, Kathleen M; Andrew, Rex K; Odom, Robert I

    2014-01-01

    Very-low-frequency sounds between 1 and 100 Hz propagate large distances in the ocean sound channel. Weather conditions, earthquakes, marine mammals, and anthropogenic activities influence sound levels in this band. Weather-related sounds result from interactions between waves, bubbles entrained by breaking waves, and the deformation of sea ice. Earthquakes generate sound in geologically active regions, and earthquake T waves propagate throughout the oceans. Blue and fin whales generate long bouts of sounds near 20 Hz that can dominate regional ambient noise levels seasonally. Anthropogenic sound sources include ship propellers, energy extraction, and seismic air guns and have been growing steadily. The increasing availability of long-term records of ocean sound will provide new opportunities for a deeper understanding of natural and anthropogenic sound sources and potential interactions between them.

  6. AN ANALYSIS OF SOUND FOR FAULT ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphattharachai Chomphan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of faults of the gasoline engine may result in similar symptoms. Sound analysis of engine has been conducted to diagnose the engine faults. This study presents a study of sound analysis of the normal engine and the engine with three different fault conditions. The gasoline engine was our target of this study. The engine sound has been recorded by using a microphone at the engine room for three directions. Three conditions of engine faults including the engine that is not smooth while idling, the engine that goes missing while idling and the engine that has no power are simulated. In the signal processing of the sound, we use five signal features including fundamental frequency, long term spectrum, energy, long term cestrum and zero crossing rate. Thereafter, the important differences between normal engine and the fault engines are concluded. These proposed signal features can be used to discriminate all three conditions and the engine with normal condition effectively.

  7. Sound visualization and manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Yang-Hann

    2013-01-01

    Unique in addressing two different problems - sound visualization and manipulation - in a unified way Advances in signal processing technology are enabling ever more accurate visualization of existing sound fields and precisely defined sound field production. The idea of explaining both the problem of sound visualization and the problem of the manipulation of sound within one book supports this inter-related area of study.  With rapid development of array technologies, it is possible to do much in terms of visualization and manipulation, among other technologies involved with the spatial dis

  8. Analysis of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keansub

    Environmental sound archives - casual recordings of people's daily life - are easily collected by MPS players or camcorders with low cost and high reliability, and shared in the web-sites. There are two kinds of user generated recordings we would like to be able to handle in this thesis: Continuous long-duration personal audio and Soundtracks of short consumer video clips. These environmental recordings contain a lot of useful information (semantic concepts) related with activity, location, occasion and content. As a consequence, the environment archives present many new opportunities for the automatic extraction of information that can be used in intelligent browsing systems. This thesis proposes systems for detecting these interesting concepts on a collection of these real-world recordings. The first system is to segment and label personal audio archives - continuous recordings of an individual's everyday experiences - into 'episodes' (relatively consistent acoustic situations lasting a few minutes or more) using the Bayesian Information Criterion and spectral clustering. The second system is for identifying regions of speech or music in the kinds of energetic and highly-variable noise present in this real-world sound. Motivated by psychoacoustic evidence that pitch is crucial in the perception and organization of sound, we develop a noise-robust pitch detection algorithm to locate speech or music-like regions. To avoid false alarms resulting from background noise with strong periodic components (such as air-conditioning), a new scheme is added in order to suppress these noises in the domain of autocorrelogram. In addition, the third system is to automatically detect a large set of interesting semantic concepts; which we chose for being both informative and useful to users, as well as being technically feasible. These 25 concepts are associated with people's activities, locations, occasions, objects, scenes and sounds, and are based on a large collection of

  9. Urban sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Krogh Groth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Within recent years, there has been a renewed focus on sound in urban environments. From sound installations in public space to sound festivals in alternative settings, we find a common interest in sound art relating to the urban environment. Artworks or interventions presented in such contexts share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel. The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point to how artists working with new information and media technologies create inventive ways of inserting sound and image into urban environments.

  10. Perceived loudness of spatially distributed sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Woo-keun; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    of a microphone (monaural) and a dummy head (binaural) placed at the listening position. The results show that while loudness metrics fared well in predicting perceived loudness for any single-sound condition, they failed to predict loudness for two simultaneous sounds. This suggests that current loudness......In noise-control engineering, one is often faced with the task of identifying the most problematic of several simultaneous sound sources. Traditionally, this has been done by deriving sound pressure (or intensity) maps by means of a microphone array. This approach does not, however, take...... psychoacoustic attributes into account. Therefore, a method for deriving loudness maps was developed in an earlier study [Song, Internoise2004, paper 271]. The present experiment investigates to which extent perceived loudness depends on the distribution of individual sound sources. Three loudspeakers were...

  11. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  12. Sound Insulation between Dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  13. Sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory sound insulation requirements for dwellings exist in more than 30 countries in Europe. In some countries, requirements have existed since the 1950s. Findings from comparative studies show that sound insulation descriptors and requirements represent a high degree of diversity...... and initiate – where needed – improvement of sound insulation of new and existing dwellings in Europe to the benefit of the inhabitants and the society. A European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs...... 2009-2013. The main objectives of TU0901 are to prepare proposals for harmonized sound insulation descriptors and for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality classes for dwellings. Findings from the studies provide input for the discussions in COST TU0901. Data collected from 24...

  14. The sound of distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaglia, Cristina D; Maglio, Sam J; Krehm, Madelaine; Seok, Jin H; Trope, Yaacov

    2016-07-01

    Human languages may be more than completely arbitrary symbolic systems. A growing literature supports sound symbolism, or the existence of consistent, intuitive relationships between speech sounds and specific concepts. Prior work establishes that these sound-to-meaning mappings can shape language-related judgments and decisions, but do their effects generalize beyond merely the linguistic and truly color how we navigate our environment? We examine this possibility, relating a predominant sound symbolic distinction (vowel frontness) to a novel associate (spatial proximity) in five studies. We show that changing one vowel in a label can influence estimations of distance, impacting judgment, perception, and action. The results (1) provide the first experimental support for a relationship between vowels and spatial distance and (2) demonstrate that sound-to-meaning mappings have outcomes that extend beyond just language and can - through a single sound - influence how we perceive and behave toward objects in the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects...... helped users detect rapid, multiple-event sequences that were difficult to visually detect using text and graphical interfaces. The authors describe the architecture of InfoSound, the use of the system, and the lessons learned....

  16. Comfort in Sound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIT GILLET

    2008-01-01

    @@ Drown your winter sorrows in sound with these three top surround-sound systems With winter here, it is time to start considering ways to improve your home entertainment options. While a good DVD or Blu-ray player and games console should keep you happily occupied without needing to leave the warmth of your apartment, investing in a cutting-edge surround sound system wiU ensure that winter passes without you even noticing.

  17. Intercepting a sound without vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Tonelli, Alessia; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Visual information is extremely important to generate internal spatial representations. In the auditory modality, the absence of visual cues during early infancy does not preclude the development of some spatial strategies. However, specific spatial abilities might result impaired. In the current study, we investigated the effect of early visual deprivation on the ability to localize static and moving auditory stimuli by comparing sighted and early blind individuals' performance in different spatial tasks. We also examined perceptual stability in the two groups of participants by matching localization accuracy in a static and a dynamic head condition that involved rotational head movements. Sighted participants accurately localized static and moving sounds. Their localization ability remained unchanged after rotational movements of the head. Conversely, blind participants showed a leftward bias during the localization of static sounds and a little bias for moving sounds. Moreover, head movements induced a significant bias in the direction of head motion during the localization of moving sounds. These results suggest that internal spatial representations might be body-centered in blind individuals and that in sighted people the availability of visual cues during early infancy may affect sensory-motor interactions.

  18. Sound Localization in the Alligator

    OpenAIRE

    Bierman, Hilary S.; Carr, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    In early tetrapods, it is assumed that the tympana were acoustically coupled through the pharynx and therefore inherently directional, acting as pressure difference receivers. The later closure of the middle ear cavity in turtles, archosaurs, and mammals is a derived condition, and would have changed the ear by decoupling the tympana. Isolation of the middle ears would then have led to selection for structural and neural strategies to compute sound source localization in both archosaurs and m...

  19. The role of sound symbolism in language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Padraic; Mattock, Karen; Walker, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Certain correspondences between the sound and meaning of words can be observed in subsets of the vocabulary. These sound-symbolic relationships have been suggested to result in easier language acquisition, but previous studies have explicitly tested effects of sound symbolism on learning category distinctions but not on word learning. In 2 word learning experiments, we varied the extent to which phonological properties related to a rounded-angular shape distinction and we distinguished learning of categories from learning of individual words. We found that sound symbolism resulted in an advantage for learning categories of sound-shape mappings but did not assist in learning individual word meanings. These results are consistent with the limited presence of sound symbolism in natural language. The results also provide a reinterpretation of the role of sound symbolism in language learning and language origins and a greater specification of the conditions under which sound symbolism proves advantageous for learning.

  20. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories...... of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel...

  1. Light and Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Karam, P Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Our world is largely defined by what we see and hear-but our uses for light and sound go far beyond simply seeing a photo or hearing a song. A concentrated beam of light, lasers are powerful tools used in industry, research, and medicine, as well as in everyday electronics like DVD and CD players. Ultrasound, sound emitted at a high frequency, helps create images of a developing baby, cleans teeth, and much more. Light and Sound teaches how light and sound work, how they are used in our day-to-day lives, and how they can be used to learn about the universe at large.

  2. Early Sound Symbolism for Vowel Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrinne Spector

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko rather than confounding vowel sound with consonant context and syllable variability (e.g., kiki vs. bouba. Toddlers consistently matched words with /o/ to rounded shapes and words with /i/ to jagged shapes (p < 0.01. The results suggest that there may be naturally biased correspondences between vowel sound and shape.

  3. Perceived loudness of spatially distributed sound sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Woo-keun; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    psychoacoustic attributes into account. Therefore, a method for deriving loudness maps was developed in an earlier study [Song, Internoise2004, paper 271]. The present experiment investigates to which extent perceived loudness depends on the distribution of individual sound sources. Three loudspeakers were...... of a microphone (monaural) and a dummy head (binaural) placed at the listening position. The results show that while loudness metrics fared well in predicting perceived loudness for any single-sound condition, they failed to predict loudness for two simultaneous sounds. This suggests that current loudness...... modelling will have to be extended to take the spatial distribution of sources into account....

  4. Inferring agency from sound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoblich, G.K.; Repp, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    In three experiments we investigated how people determine whether or not they are in control of sounds they hear. The sounds were either triggered by participants’ taps or controlled by a computer. The task was to distinguish between self-control and external control during active tapping, and durin

  5. Notes on Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Jones

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Bonnie Jones creates improvised and composed text-sound performances that explore the fluidity and function of electronic noise (field recordings, circuit bending and text (poetry, found, spoken. She is interested in how people perceive, “read” and interact with these sounds and texts given our current technological moment.

  6. The sounds of nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Norah; Deane, Cormac; Murphy, Padraig

    2017-07-01

    Public perceptions of nanotechnology are shaped by sound in surprising ways. Our analysis of the audiovisual techniques employed by nanotechnology stakeholders shows that well-chosen sounds can help to win public trust, create value and convey the weird reality of objects on the nanoscale.

  7. Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    大矢, 健一

    2013-01-01

    Hamiltonian Algorithm (HA) is an algorithm for searching solutions is optimization problems. This paper introduces a sound synthesis technique using Hamiltonian Algorithm and shows a simple example. "Hamiltonian Algorithm Sound Synthesis" uses phase transition effect in HA. Because of this transition effect, totally new waveforms are produced.

  8. OMNIDIRECTIONAL SOUND SOURCE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    A sound source comprising a loudspeaker (6) and a hollow coupler (4) with an open inlet which communicates with and is closed by the loudspeaker (6) and an open outlet, said coupler (4) comprising rigid walls which cannot respond to the sound pressures produced by the loudspeaker (6). According...

  9. Breaking the Sound Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tom; Boehringer, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Students in a fourth-grade class participated in a series of dynamic sound learning centers followed by a dramatic capstone event--an exploration of the amazing Trashcan Whoosh Waves. It's a notoriously difficult subject to teach, but this hands-on, exploratory approach ignited student interest in sound, promoted language acquisition, and built…

  10. Light and sound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佩夫

    2002-01-01

    Light travels at a speed which is about a million times faster than the speed of sound.In one second,light travels about 300,000 km,but sound travels only 314m,you can get some idea of this difference(区别) by watching the start of a race.

  11. The influence of ski helmets on sound perception and sound localisation on the ski slope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Ružić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate whether a ski helmet interferes with the sound localization and the time of sound perception in the frontal plane. Material and Methods: Twenty-three participants (age 30.7±10.2 were tested on the slope in 2 conditions, with and without wearing the ski helmet, by 6 different spatially distributed sound stimuli per each condition. Each of the subjects had to react when hearing the sound as soon as possible and to signalize the correct side of the sound arrival. Results: The results showed a significant difference in the ability to localize the specific ski sounds; 72.5±15.6% of correct answers without a helmet vs. 61.3±16.2% with a helmet (p < 0.01. However, the performance on this test did not depend on whether they were used to wearing a helmet (p = 0.89. In identifying the timing, at which the sound was firstly perceived, the results were also in favor of the subjects not wearing a helmet. The subjects reported hearing the ski sound clues at 73.4±5.56 m without a helmet vs. 60.29±6.34 m with a helmet (p < 0.001. In that case the results did depend on previously used helmets (p < 0.05, meaning that that regular usage of helmets might help to diminish the attenuation of the sound identification that occurs because of the helmets. Conclusions: Ski helmets might limit the ability of a skier to localize the direction of the sounds of danger and might interfere with the moment, in which the sound is firstly heard.

  12. Waveform analysis of sound

    CERN Document Server

    Tohyama, Mikio

    2015-01-01

    What is this sound? What does that sound indicate? These are two questions frequently heard in daily conversation. Sound results from the vibrations of elastic media and in daily life provides informative signals of events happening in the surrounding environment. In interpreting auditory sensations, the human ear seems particularly good at extracting the signal signatures from sound waves. Although exploring auditory processing schemes may be beyond our capabilities, source signature analysis is a very attractive area in which signal-processing schemes can be developed using mathematical expressions. This book is inspired by such processing schemes and is oriented to signature analysis of waveforms. Most of the examples in the book are taken from data of sound and vibrations; however, the methods and theories are mostly formulated using mathematical expressions rather than by acoustical interpretation. This book might therefore be attractive and informative for scientists, engineers, researchers, and graduat...

  13. InfoSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Gopinath, B.; Haberman, Gary O.

    1990-01-01

    The authors explore ways to enhance users' comprehension of complex applications using music and sound effects to present application-program events that are difficult to detect visually. A prototype system, Infosound, allows developers to create and store musical sequences and sound effects...... helped users detect rapid, multiple-event sequences that were difficult to visually detect using text and graphical interfaces. The authors describe the architecture of InfoSound, the use of the system, and the lessons learned....... with application events, and have real-time, continuous auditory control of sounds during application execution. InfoSound has been used to create auditory interfaces for two applications: a telephone network service simulation and a parallel computation simulation. The auditory interfaces in these applications...

  14. Analysis of the sources of error in the determination of sound power based on sound intensity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco; Jacobsen, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Sound intensity measurements make it possible to determine the sound power of a source in situ, even in the presence of other sources. However, the very fact that intensity-based sound power measurements can take place under widely different conditions makes it extremely difficult to evaluate...... the resulting measurement uncertainty. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effect of the most common sources of error in sound power determination based on sound intensity measurements. In particular the influence of the scanning procedure used in approximating the surface integral of the intensity...

  15. Lung Sounds in Bronchial Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Nagasaka

    2012-01-01

    In lung sound analysis, the narrower the airways are, the higher the frequency of breathing sounds is, and, if a patient has higher than normal breathing sounds, i.e., bronchial sounds, he or she may have airway narrowing or airway inflammation. It is sometimes difficult to detect subtle changes in lung sounds; therefore, we anticipate that automated analysis of lung sounds will be used to overcome these difficulties in the near future.

  16. Properties of a Sound Wave

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This interactive tutorial covers the following properties of sound wave: frequency, period, amplitude, total pressure, ambient pressure, and peak sound pressure. Students need to have a sound card on their computer and speakers to hear the sounds produced. The interactions in this tutorial include: Mouse over some text for visual explanations., Varying the frequency and amplitude of a sound wave, and be able to listen to the changing pitch of the sound., A short self-check quiz. PH2401 ...

  17. Photoacoustic Sounds from Meteors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalding, Richard; Tencer, John; Sweatt, William; Conley, Benjamin; Hogan, Roy; Boslough, Mark; Gonzales, GiGi; Spurný, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Concurrent sound associated with very bright meteors manifests as popping, hissing, and faint rustling sounds occurring simultaneously with the arrival of light from meteors. Numerous instances have been documented with −11 to −13 brightness. These sounds cannot be attributed to direct acoustic propagation from the upper atmosphere for which travel time would be several minutes. Concurrent sounds must be associated with some form of electromagnetic energy generated by the meteor, propagated to the vicinity of the observer, and transduced into acoustic waves. Previously, energy propagated from meteors was assumed to be RF emissions. This has not been well validated experimentally. Herein we describe experimental results and numerical models in support of photoacoustic coupling as the mechanism. Recent photometric measurements of fireballs reveal strong millisecond flares and significant brightness oscillations at frequencies ≥40 Hz. Strongly modulated light at these frequencies with sufficient intensity can create concurrent sounds through radiative heating of common dielectric materials like hair, clothing, and leaves. This heating produces small pressure oscillations in the air contacting the absorbers. Calculations show that −12 brightness meteors can generate audible sound at ~25 dB SPL. The photoacoustic hypothesis provides an alternative explanation for this longstanding mystery about generation of concurrent sounds by fireballs. PMID:28145486

  18. Sound as artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Jeffrey L.

    A distinguishing feature of the discipline of archaeology is its reliance upon sensory dependant investigation. As perceived by all of the senses, the felt environment is a unique area of archaeological knowledge. It is generally accepted that the emergence of industrial processes in the recent past has been accompanied by unprecedented sonic extremes. The work of environmental historians has provided ample evidence that the introduction of much of this unwanted sound, or "noise" was an area of contestation. More recent research in the history of sound has called for more nuanced distinctions than the noisy/quiet dichotomy. Acoustic archaeology tends to focus upon a reconstruction of sound producing instruments and spaces with a primary goal of ascertaining intentionality. Most archaeoacoustic research is focused on learning more about the sonic world of people within prehistoric timeframes while some research has been done on historic sites. In this thesis, by way of a meditation on industrial sound and the physical remains of the Quincy Mining Company blacksmith shop (Hancock, MI) in particular, I argue for an acceptance and inclusion of sound as artifact in and of itself. I am introducing the concept of an individual sound-form, or sonifact , as a reproducible, repeatable, representable physical entity, created by tangible, perhaps even visible, host-artifacts. A sonifact is a sound that endures through time, with negligible variability. Through the piecing together of historical and archaeological evidence, in this thesis I present a plausible sonifactual assemblage at the blacksmith shop in April 1916 as it may have been experienced by an individual traversing the vicinity on foot: an 'historic soundwalk.' The sensory apprehension of abandoned industrial sites is multi-faceted. In this thesis I hope to make the case for an acceptance of sound as a primary heritage value when thinking about the industrial past, and also for an increased awareness and acceptance

  19. The sound handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Crook, Tim

    2013-01-01

    'Tim Crook has written an important and much-needed book, and its arrival on our shelves has come at a highly appropriate time.' Professor Seán Street, Bournemouth UniversityThe Sound Handbook maps theoretical and practical connections between the creation and study of sound across the multi-media spectrum of film, radio, music, sound art, websites, animation and computer games entertainment, and stage theatre. Using an interdisciplinary approach Tim Crook explores the technologies, philosophies and cultural issues involved in making a

  20. Sound Objects for SVG

    OpenAIRE

    Colbrant, Audrey; Lasorsa, Yohan; Lemordant, Jacques; Liodenot, David; Razafimahazo, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A sound object can be defined as a time structure of audio chunks whose duration is on the time scale of 100 ms to several seconds. Sound objects have heterogeneous and time-varying properties. They are the basic elements of any format for Interactive Audio (IA). We have designed an XML language, A2ML, for Interactive Audio which offers, concerning the sequencing of sounds, a level of capabilities similar to that of iXMF, the interactive audio file format defined by th...

  1. The Perception of Sounds in Phonographic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is about the perception of space in recorded music, with particular reference to stereo recordings of popular music. It explores how sound engineers create imaginary musical environments in which sounds appear to listeners in different ways. It also investigates some of the conditions...... for making meaningful descriptions of phonographic space. In doing so, it contributes to the vocabulary we use to describe musical sound, and especially to descriptions of space in recordings. The thesis is divided into six chapters. Following an Introduction, four central chapters look at different...... theoretical perspectives in turn. In Chapter Two the reader is introduced to the term phonographic space, and the ways it can be described as an acoustic environment. The discussion focuses on the physical properties of sound, and how listeners decode audio signals in order to experience acoustic phenomena...

  2. Sound as Popular Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...

  3. A SOUND ECONOMIC FUTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    "Promoting sound and rapid development of the national economy"is China’s goal for economic development in the following five years,as put forward by Hu Jintao, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China(CPC), in his report to the 17th National Congress of the Party. China used to target"rapid and sound"economic growth.The fact that soundness is preferred to speed for China’s economic growth reflects an important change in the economic outlook of the CPC—China is beginning to value the quality of economic growth rather than the speed. How to attain the goal of sound and rapid development for the national economy is the subject of Hu’s eight-point proposal.

  4. The sound of activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, B; Vetter, C

    2001-01-01

    ABSTRACT A longtime advocate for female empowerment and equality, Boden Sandstrom has worked for political change in many arenas. In the 1960s, she began a career as a librarian, but soon made activism her full-time job, working for feminist, leftist and socialist causes. In the 1970s, she found a way to turn her lifelong passion for music into a career as a sound engineer. Once established in that profession, she began donating her services to political events, marches, demonstrations, and rallies. After thirteen years of running her own company, called Woman Sound,Inc. (later City Sound Productions,Inc.), she turned to the study of ethnomusicology. She is now Program Manager and Lecturer for the Ethnomusicology Program at the University of Maryland, where she is also working on her doctorate in that subject. She continues to freelance as a sound engineer and serve as a technical producer for major events.

  5. Propagation of sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Magnus; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2017-01-01

    As an acoustic signal travels from the source to a receiver, it is affected by a variety of physical processes, all dictated by properties of the signal and the environment. The signal energy is weakened by geometric attenuation as well as absorption by the medium. The temporal and spectral...... properties can be modified by sound absorption, refraction, and interference from multi paths caused by reflections.The path from the source to the receiver may be bent due to refraction. Besides geometrical attenuation, the ground effect and turbulence are the most important mechanisms to influence...... communication sounds for airborne acoustics and bottom and surface effects for underwater sounds. Refraction becomes very important close to shadow zones. For echolocation signals, geometric attenuation and sound absorption have the largest effects on the signals....

  6. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  7. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  8. It sounds good!

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Both the atmosphere and we ourselves are hit by hundreds of particles every second and yet nobody has ever heard a sound coming from these processes. Like cosmic rays, particles interacting inside the detectors at the LHC do not make any noise…unless you've decided to use the ‘sonification’ technique, in which case you might even hear the Higgs boson sound like music. Screenshot of the first page of the "LHC sound" site. A group of particle physicists, composers, software developers and artists recently got involved in the ‘LHC sound’ project to make the particles at the LHC produce music. Yes…music! The ‘sonification’ technique converts data into sound. “In this way, if you implement the right software you can get really nice music out of the particle tracks”, says Lily Asquith, a member of the ATLAS collaboration and one of the initiators of the project. The ‘LHC...

  9. Toward a self-consistent pressure scale: elastic moduli and equation of state of MgO by simultaneous x-ray density and Brillouin sound velocity measurements at high-pressure high-temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinogeikin, S. V.; Lakshtanov, D. L.; Prakapenka, V. B.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Wang, J.; Chen, B.; Shen, G.; Bass, J. D.

    2007-12-01

    Accurate phase diagrams and PVT equations of state (EOS) of materials strongly depend on the PVT calibrations of standard materials (e.g. MgO, NaCl, Au, Pt), which currently do not predict identical pressures at the same experimental conditions. MgO is commonly used as a pressure standard in a variety of high pressure and high- temperature experiments. Despite being one of the simplest and most studied materials, its accurate EOS is still uncertain, especially at high PT. The direct way of obtaining a self consistent pressure scale is by measuring acoustic velocities (Vp and Vs) and density simultaneously. Such P-V-T-Vp-Vs measurements allow one to determine the pressure directly, without resort to a separate calibration standard. Recently, as part of a major COMPRES initiative, we have constructed a Brillouin spectrometer at GSECARS, APS (13-BM-D) which allows accurate simultaneous sound velocity and lattice parameter measurements at high pressures and high temperatures. Such measurements were performed on single crystal MgO at simultaneously high pressures (up to 30 GPa) and high temperatures (up to 873K) in diamond cells with Ne or Ar as pressure medium. At each PT point we measured the unit cell parameters and the acoustic velocities of MgO in several crystallographic directions, and directly obtained all three single crystal elastic moduli, as well as isotropic adiabatic bulk (KS) and shear (μ) moduli. Unit cell parameters of pressure medium (Ne, Ar) and additional pressure calibrants (Au, Pt, NaCl) were measured at each PT for cross calibration. The results of these experiments and implications for a self consistent P-V-T(-Vp-Vs) pressure scale will be presented and discussed.

  10. Toward a self-consistent pressure scale: elastic moduli and equation of state of MgO and Ringwoodite by simultaneous x-ray density and Brillouin sound velocity measurements at high-pressure high-temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinogeikin, S.; Lakshtanov, D.; Prakapenka, V.; Sanchez-Valle, C.; Wang, J.; Shen, G.; Bass, J.

    2009-05-01

    Accurate phase diagrams and PVT equations of state (EOS) of materials strongly depend on the PVT calibrations of standard materials (e.g. MgO, NaCl, Au, Pt), which currently do not predict identical pressures at the same experimental conditions. MgO is commonly used as a pressure standard in a variety of high pressure and high-temperature experiments. Despite being one of the simplest and most studied materials, its accurate EOS is still uncertain, especially at high PT. The direct way of obtaining a self consistent pressure scale is by measuring acoustic velocities (Vp and Vs) and density simultaneously. Such P-V-T-Vp-Vs measurements allow one to determine the pressure directly, without resort to a separate calibration standard. Recently, as part of a major COMPRES initiative, we have constructed a Brillouin spectrometer at GSECARS, APS (13-BM-D) which allows accurate simultaneous sound velocity and lattice parameter measurements at high pressures and high temperatures. Such measurements were performed on single crystal MgO at simultaneously high pressures (up to 30 GPa) and high temperatures (up to 873K) in diamond cells. At each PT point we measured the unit cell parameters and the acoustic velocities of MgO in several crystallographic directions, and directly obtained all three single crystal elastic moduli, as well as isotropic adiabatic bulk (Ks) and shear (μ) moduli. Unit cell parameters of pressure medium (Ne, Ar) and additional pressure calibrants (Au, Pt, NaCl) were measured at each PT for cross calibration. In addition we demonstrate that successful P-V-T-Vp-Vs measurements can be performed on certain polycrystalline materials, e.g. Ringwoodite (γ-Mg2SiO4). The results of these experiments and implications for a self consistent P-V-T(-Vp-Vs) pressure scale will be presented and discussed.

  11. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    Sound is a part of architecture, and sound is complex. Upon this, sound is invisible. How is it then possible to design visual objects that interact with the sound? This paper addresses the problem of how to get access to the complexity of sound and how to make textile material revealing the form...... three-dimensional geometries of interfering spheres are created. Textiles are generally a very good sound dampening material. To dampen the sound most effective it should be placed where the sound energy is highest. To find these invisible spots of energy and to reveal the geometry of them, two...... experiments were carried out. One experiment was done in a laboratory with a sound measure instrument and textiles arranged in different positions and shapes. Here the high energy spots were located. The other experiment is ongoing and is an investigation of how textiles can take the shape of the sound...

  12. Wind Turbine Noise and Natural Sounds: Masking, Propagation and Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolin, Karl

    2009-05-15

    Wind turbines are an environmentally friendly and sustainable power source. Unfortunately, the noise impact can cause deteriorated living conditions for nearby residents. The audibility of wind turbine sound is influenced by ambient sound. This thesis deals with some aspects of noise from wind turbines. Ambient sounds influence the audibility of wind turbine noise. Models for assessing two commonly occurring natural ambient sounds namely vegetation sound and sound from breaking waves are presented in paper A and B. A sound propagation algorithm has been compared to long range measurements of sound propagation in paper C. Psycho-acoustic tests evaluating the threshold and partial loudness of wind turbine noise when mixed with natural ambient sounds have been performed. These are accounted for in paper D. The main scientific contributions are the following.Paper A: A semi-empiric prediction model for vegetation sound is proposed. This model uses up-to-date simulations of wind profiles and turbulent wind fields to estimate sound from vegetation. The fluctuations due to turbulence are satisfactory estimated by the model. Predictions of vegetation sound also show good agreement to measured spectra. Paper B: A set of measurements of air-borne sound from breaking waves are reported. From these measurements a prediction method of sound from breaking waves is proposed. Third octave spectra from breaking waves are shown to depend on breaker type. Satisfactory agreement between predictions and measurements has been achieved. Paper C: Long range sound propagation over a sea surface was investigated. Measurements of sound transmission were coordinated with local meteorological measurements. A sound propagation algorithm has been compared to the measured sound transmission. Satisfactory agreement between measurements and predictions were achieved when turbulence were taken into consideration in the computations. Paper D: The paper investigates the interaction between wind

  13. Early sound symbolism for vowel sounds

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrinne Spector; Daphne Maurer

    2013-01-01

    Children and adults consistently match some words (e.g., kiki) to jagged shapes and other words (e.g., bouba) to rounded shapes, providing evidence for non-arbitrary sound–shape mapping. In this study, we investigated the influence of vowels on sound–shape matching in toddlers, using four contrasting pairs of nonsense words differing in vowel sound (/i/ as in feet vs. /o/ as in boat) and four rounded–jagged shape pairs. Crucially, we used reduplicated syllables (e.g., kiki vs. koko) rather th...

  14. Meteor fireball sounds identified

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Colin

    1992-01-01

    Sounds heard simultaneously with the flight of large meteor fireballs are electrical in origin. Confirmation that Extra/Very Low Frequency (ELF/VLF) electromagnetic radiation is produced by the fireball was obtained by Japanese researchers. Although the generation mechanism is not fully understood, studies of the Meteorite Observation and Recovery Project (MORP) and other fireball data indicate that interaction with the atmosphere is definitely responsible and the cut-off magnitude of -9 found for sustained electrophonic sounds is supported by theory. Brief bursts of ELF/VLF radiation may accompany flares or explosions of smaller fireballs, producing transient sounds near favorably placed observers. Laboratory studies show that mundane physical objects can respond to electrical excitation and produce audible sounds. Reports of electrophonic sounds should no longer be discarded. A catalog of over 300 reports relating to electrophonic phenomena associated with meteor fireballs, aurorae, and lightning was assembled. Many other reports have been cataloged in Russian. These may assist the full solution of the similar long-standing and contentious mystery of audible auroral displays.

  15. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ...... and their professional design? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Nina Backmann, Jochen Bonz, Stefan Krebs, Esther Schelander & Holger Schulze......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  16. Sound classification of dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    dwellings, facade sound insulation and installation noise. The schemes have been developed, implemented and revised gradually since the early 1990s. However, due to lack of coordination between countries, there are significant discrepancies, and new standards and revisions continue to increase the diversity....... Descriptors, range of quality levels, number of quality classes, class intervals, denotations and descriptions vary across Europe. The diversity is an obstacle for exchange of experience about constructions fulfilling different classes, implying also trade barriers. Thus, a harmonized classification scheme...... is needed, and a European COST Action TU0901 "Integrating and Harmonizing Sound Insulation Aspects in Sustainable Urban Housing Constructions", has been established and runs 2009-2013, one of the main objectives being to prepare a proposal for a European sound classification scheme with a number of quality...

  17. Predicting outdoor sound

    CERN Document Server

    Attenborough, Keith; Horoshenkov, Kirill

    2014-01-01

    1. Introduction  2. The Propagation of Sound Near Ground Surfaces in a Homogeneous Medium  3. Predicting the Acoustical Properties of Outdoor Ground Surfaces  4. Measurements of the Acoustical Properties of Ground Surfaces and Comparisons with Models  5. Predicting Effects of Source Characteristics on Outdoor Sound  6. Predictions, Approximations and Empirical Results for Ground Effect Excluding Meteorological Effects  7. Influence of Source Motion on Ground Effect and Diffraction  8. Predicting Effects of Mixed Impedance Ground  9. Predicting the Performance of Outdoor Noise Barriers  10. Predicting Effects of Vegetation, Trees and Turbulence  11. Analytical Approximations including Ground Effect, Refraction and Turbulence  12. Prediction Schemes  13. Predicting Sound in an Urban Environment.

  18. Sound Art Situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Groth, Sanne; Samson, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback Environm......This article is an analysis of two sound art performances that took place June 2015 in outdoor public spaces in the social housing area Urbanplanen in Copenhagen, Denmark. The two performances were On the production of a poor acoustics by Brandon LaBelle and Green Interactive Biofeedback...... Environments (GIBE) by Jeremy Woodruff. In order to investigate the complex situation that arises when sound art is staged in such contexts, the authors of this article suggest exploring the events through approaching them as ‘situations’ (Doherty 2009). With this approach it becomes possible to engage...... integrated within the analysis, pursuing the most comprehensive interpretation of the pieces possible....

  19. Monaural Sound Localization Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, Frederic L.; Kistler, Doris J.

    1997-01-01

    Research reported during the past few decades has revealed the importance for human sound localization of the so-called 'monaural spectral cues.' These cues are the result of the direction-dependent filtering of incoming sound waves accomplished by the pinnae. One point of view about how these cues are extracted places great emphasis on the spectrum of the received sound at each ear individually. This leads to the suggestion that an effective way of studying the influence of these cues is to measure the ability of listeners to localize sounds when one of their ears is plugged. Numerous studies have appeared using this monaural localization paradigm. Three experiments are described here which are intended to clarify the results of the previous monaural localization studies and provide new data on how monaural spectral cues might be processed. Virtual sound sources are used in the experiments in order to manipulate and control the stimuli independently at the two ears. Two of the experiments deal with the consequences of the incomplete monauralization that may have contaminated previous work. The results suggest that even very low sound levels in the occluded ear provide access to interaural localization cues. The presence of these cues complicates the interpretation of the results of nominally monaural localization studies. The third experiment concerns the role of prior knowledge of the source spectrum, which is required if monaural cues are to be useful. The results of this last experiment demonstrate that extraction of monaural spectral cues can be severely disrupted by trial-to-trial fluctuations in the source spectrum. The general conclusion of the experiments is that, while monaural spectral cues are important, the monaural localization paradigm may not be the most appropriate way to study their role.

  20. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  1. Sound & The Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with Jonathan Sterne, AGF a.k.a Antye Greie, Jens Gerrit Papenburg & Holger Schulze....

  2. Sound & The Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2011-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological constructio...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with David Toop, Simon Zagorski-Thomas, Paul Théberge, Maria Hanáček & Holger Schulze....

  3. Sound & The Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2014-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions and their ......How are those sounds you hear right now socially constructed and evaluated, how are they architecturally conceptualized and how dependant on urban planning, industrial developments and political decisions are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with social interactions...

  4. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    A sound is never just a sound. It is becoming increasingly clear that auditory processing is best thought of not as a one-way afferent stream, but rather as an ongoing interaction between interior processes and the environment. Even the earliest stages of auditory processing in the nervous system...... time-course of contextual influence on auditory processing in three different paradigms: a simple mismatch negativity paradigm with tones of differing pitch, a multi-feature mismatch negativity paradigm in which tones were embedded in a complex musical context, and a cross-modal paradigm, in which...

  5. Sound & The Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Holger

    2011-01-01

    How are those sounds you hear right now technically generated and post-produced, how are they aesthetically conceptualized and how culturally dependant are they really? How is your ability to hear intertwined with all the other senses and their cultural, biographical and technological construction...... over time? And how is listening and sounding a deeply social activity – constructing our way of living together in cities as well as in apartment houses? A radio feature with David Toop, Simon Zagorski-Thomas, Paul Théberge, Maria Hanáček & Holger Schulze....

  6. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2013-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers. All audio topics are explored: if you work on anything related to audio you should not be without this book! The 4th edition of this trusted reference has been updated to reflect changes in the industry since the publication of the 3rd edition in 2002 -- including new technologies like software-based recording systems such as Pro Tools and Sound Forge; digital recording using MP3, wave files and others; mobile audio devices such as iPods and MP3 players. Over 40 topic

  7. Unmasking the dichoptic mask by sound: spatial congruency matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yung-Hao; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2014-04-01

    People tend to look toward where a sound occurs; however, the role of spatial congruency between sound and sight in the effect of sound facilitation on visual detection remains controversial. We propose that the role of spatial congruency depends on the reliability of the information provided by the facilitator; if it is relatively unreliable, adding spatially congruent information can help to unify different sensory inputs to compensate for this unreliability. To test this, we examine the influence of sound location on visual detection with a non-temporal task, presumably unfavorable for sound since it is better for temporal resolution, and predict that spatial congruency should matter in this situation. We used the continuous flash suppression paradigm that makes the visual stimuli invisible to keep the relationship of sound and sight opaque. The sound is on the same depth plane as the visual stimulus (the congruent condition) or on a different plane (the incongruent condition). The target was presented to one eye with luminance contrast gradually increased and continuously masked by flashed Mondrian masks presented to the other eye until the target was released from suppression. We found that sound facilitated visual detection (measured by released-from-suppression time) in the spatially congruent condition but not in the spatially incongruent condition. Together with previous findings in the literature, it is suggested that both task type and modality determine the reliability of the information for multisensory integration and thus determine whether spatial congruency is critical.

  8. Statistical Analysis for Subjective and Objective Evaluations of Dental Drill Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Yamada

    Full Text Available The sound produced by a dental air turbine handpiece (dental drill can markedly influence the sound environment in a dental clinic. Indeed, many patients report that the sound of a dental drill elicits an unpleasant feeling. Although several manufacturers have attempted to reduce the sound pressure levels produced by dental drills during idling based on ISO 14457, the sound emitted by such drills under active drilling conditions may negatively influence the dental clinic sound environment. The physical metrics related to the unpleasant impressions associated with dental drill sounds have not been determined. In the present study, psychological measurements of dental drill sounds were conducted with the aim of facilitating improvement of the sound environment at dental clinics. Specifically, we examined the impressions elicited by the sounds of 12 types of dental drills in idling and drilling conditions using a semantic differential. The analysis revealed that the impressions of dental drill sounds varied considerably between idling and drilling conditions and among the examined drills. This finding suggests that measuring the sound of a dental drill in idling conditions alone may be insufficient for evaluating the effects of the sound. We related the results of the psychological evaluations to those of measurements of the physical metrics of equivalent continuous A-weighted sound pressure levels (LAeq and sharpness. Factor analysis indicated that impressions of the dental drill sounds consisted of two factors: "metallic and unpleasant" and "powerful". LAeq had a strong relationship with "powerful impression", calculated sharpness was positively related to "metallic impression", and "unpleasant impression" was predicted by the combination of both LAeq and calculated sharpness. The present analyses indicate that, in addition to a reduction in sound pressure level, refining the frequency components of dental drill sounds is important for creating a

  9. Sound Symbolism in Basic Vocabulary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Wichmann

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between meanings of words and their sound shapes is to a large extent arbitrary, but it is well known that languages exhibit sound symbolism effects violating arbitrariness. Evidence for sound symbolism is typically anecdotal, however. Here we present a systematic approach. Using a selection of basic vocabulary in nearly one half of the world’s languages we find commonalities among sound shapes for words referring to same concepts. These are interpreted as due to sound symbolism. Studying the effects of sound symbolism cross-linguistically is of key importance for the understanding of language evolution.

  10. Advances in Effects of Sound Waves on Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reda H. E. Hassanien; HOU Tian-zhen; LI Yu-feng; and LI Bao-ming

    2014-01-01

    Sound waves technology has been applied to different plants. It has been found that sound waves were at different frequencies, sound pressure levels (SPLs), exposure periods, and distances from the source of sound inlfuence plant growth. Experiments have been conducted in the open ifeld and under greenhouse growing conditions with different levels of audible sound frequencies and sound pressure levels. Sound waves at 1 kHz and 100 dB for 1 h within a distance of 0.20 m could signiifcantly promote the division and cell wall lfuidity of callus cells and also signiifcantly enhance the activity of protective enzymes and endogenous hormones. Sound waves stimulation could increase the plant plasma-membrane H+-ATPase activity, the contents of soluble sugar, soluble protein, and amylase activity of callus. Moreover, sound waves could increase the content of RNA and the level of transcription. Stress-induced genes could switch on under sound stimulation. Sound waves at 0.1-1 kHz and SPL of (70±5) dB for 3 h from plant acoustic frequency technology (PAFT) generator within a distance ranged from 30 to 60 m every other day signiifcantly increased the yieldof sweet pepper, cucumber and tomato by 30.05, 37.1 and 13.2%, respectively. Furthermore, the yield of lettuce, spinach, cotton, rice, and wheat were increased by 19.6, 22.7, 11.4, 5.7, and 17.0%, respectively. Sound waves may also strengthen plant immune systems. It has been proved that spider mite, aphids, gray mold, late blight and virus disease of tomatoes in the greenhouses decreased by 6.0, 8.0, 9.0, 11.0, and 8.0%, respectively, and the sheath blight of rice was reduced by 50%. This paper provides an overview of literature for the effects of sound waves on various growth parameters of plant at different growth stages.

  11. See This Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Thomas Bjørnsten

    2009-01-01

    Anmeldelse af udstillingen See This Sound på Lentos Kunstmuseum Linz, Østrig, som markerer den foreløbige kulmination på et samarbejde mellem Lentos Kunstmuseum og Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Media.Art.Research. Udover den konkrete udstilling er samarbejdet tænkt som en ambitiøs, tværfaglig...

  12. Creative Sound Dramatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Rebecca; Eick, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Sound propagation is not easy for children to understand because of its abstract nature, often best represented by models such as wave drawings and particle dots. Teachers Rebecca Hendrix and Charles Eick wondered how science inquiry, when combined with an unlikely discipline like drama, could produce a better understanding among their…

  13. Sound of Stockholm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2013-01-01

    Med sine kun 4 år bag sig er Sound of Stockholm relativt ny i det internationale festival-landskab. Festivalen er efter sigende udsprunget af en større eller mindre frustration over, at den svenske eksperimentelle musikscenes forskellige foreninger og organisationer gik hinanden bedene, og...

  14. Urban Sound Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on the theories of Michel de Certeau and Gaston Bachelard to discuss how media architecture, in the form of urban sound interfaces, can help us perceive the complexity of the spaces we inhabit, by exploring the history and the narratives of the places in which we live...

  15. The Sounds of Metal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grund, Cynthia M.

    2015-01-01

    Two, I propose that this framework allows for at least a theoretical distinction between the way in which extreme metal – e.g. black metal, doom metal, funeral doom metal, death metal – relates to its sound as music and the way in which much other music may be conceived of as being constituted...

  16. Sounding Natural in English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JosephDeVeto

    2004-01-01

    Chinese is a "tonal" language with four different "tones". In standard Chinese the words "soup", "sugar", "recline", and "burn" are all pronounced as "tang". The first tone could be represented as a straight line, like this: - which is a high, flat sound. The second tone could

  17. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  18. Sight/Sound System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard

    This guide explains the purpose, components, and use of the Sight/Sound System, which is an alternative reading instruction approach designed to meet the individual needs of learners of all ages who have poor decoding skills. Described in the first section are the ways in which the system works to accomplish the following goals: develop…

  19. The Universe of Sound

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Sound Scultor, Bill Fontana, the second winner of the Prix Ars Electronica Collide@CERN residency award, and his science inspiration partner, CERN cosmologist Subodh Patil, present their work in art and science at the CERN Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 July 2013 at 19:00.

  20. SoleSound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zanotto, Damiano; Turchet, Luca; Boggs, Emily Marie;

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the design of SoleSound, a wearable system designed to deliver ecological, audio-tactile, underfoot feedback. The device, which primarily targets clinical applications, uses an audio-tactile footstep synthesis engine informed by the readings of pressure and inertial sensors...

  1. Sunny Norton Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A clear day over Norton Sound in the Bering Sea allowed SeaWiFS to capture this image of the phytoplankton bloom off the coast of Alaska. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  2. Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matz Larsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel and the target sound (speech were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal ("just follow conversation" or JFC level when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps.

  3. Effects of sounds of locomotion on speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Matz; Ekström, Seth Reino; Ranjbar, Parivash

    2015-01-01

    Human locomotion typically creates noise, a possible consequence of which is the masking of sound signals originating in the surroundings. When walking side by side, people often subconsciously synchronize their steps. The neurophysiological and evolutionary background of this behavior is unclear. The present study investigated the potential of sound created by walking to mask perception of speech and compared the masking produced by walking in step with that produced by unsynchronized walking. The masking sound (footsteps on gravel) and the target sound (speech) were presented through the same speaker to 15 normal-hearing subjects. The original recorded walking sound was modified to mimic the sound of two individuals walking in pace or walking out of synchrony. The participants were instructed to adjust the sound level of the target sound until they could just comprehend the speech signal ("just follow conversation" or JFC level) when presented simultaneously with synchronized or unsynchronized walking sound at 40 dBA, 50 dBA, 60 dBA, or 70 dBA. Synchronized walking sounds produced slightly less masking of speech than did unsynchronized sound. The median JFC threshold in the synchronized condition was 38.5 dBA, while the corresponding value for the unsynchronized condition was 41.2 dBA. Combined results at all sound pressure levels showed an improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for synchronized footsteps; the median difference was 2.7 dB and the mean difference was 1.2 dB [P < 0.001, repeated-measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA)]. The difference was significant for masker levels of 50 dBA and 60 dBA, but not for 40 dBA or 70 dBA. This study provides evidence that synchronized walking may reduce the masking potential of footsteps.

  4. Radiation of sound from unflanged cylindrical ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartharan, S. L.; Bayliss, A.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of sound radiated from unflanged cylindrical ducts are presented. The numerical simulation models the problem of an aero-engine inlet. The time dependent linearized Euler equations are solved from a state of rest until a harmonic solution is attained. A fourth order accurate finite difference scheme is used and solutions are obtained from a fully vectorized Cyber-203 computer program. Cases of both plane waves and spin modes are treated. Spin modes model the sound generated by a turbofan engine. Boundary conditions for both plane waves and spin modes are treated. Solutions obtained are compared with experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center.

  5. The Perception of Sounds in Phonographic Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    This thesis is about the perception of space in recorded music, with particular reference to stereo recordings of popular music. It explores how sound engineers create imaginary musical environments in which sounds appear to listeners in different ways. It also investigates some of the conditions...... that emerged with George Lakoff and Mark Johnson’s publications. The Conclusion summarises the different ways listeners may make sense of phonographic space, and I finish by suggesting that we understand and conceptualise the spatial experience we perceive in record listening in terms of a combination...

  6. About sound mufflers sound-absorbing panels aircraft engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudarev, A. S.; Bulbovich, R. V.; Svirshchev, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    The article provides a formula for calculating the frequency of sound absorbed panel with a perforated wall. And although the sound absorbing structure is a set of resonators Helmholtz, not individual resonators should be considered in acoustic calculations, and all the perforated wall panel. The analysis, showing how the parameters affect the size and sound-absorbing structures in the absorption rate.

  7. Sonic drifting: sound, city and psychogeography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budhaditya Chattopadhyay

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying and perceiving an emerging city by listening to its sounds might be phenomenologically reductive in approach, but it can lead to a framework for understanding the fabric of the urban environment through artistic practice. This paper describes a sound work, Elegy for Bangalore, and examines its artistic processes in order to shed light on the methodologies for listening to an expanding city by engaging with multilayered urban contexts and, subsequently, evoking the psychogeography of the city through sound-based artistic practice. The paper further investigates the project’s approach, development and method to speculate on present urban conditions in countries like India experiencing rapid growth. Devising the unfolding auditory situation of an Indian city in corresponding acts of drifting, listening, recording and composing, this paper examines the processes of perceiving an apparently chaotic and disorganised urban environment with its multisensory complexity.

  8. Physiological and psychological assessment of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihashi, R.; Ohira, Masayoshi; Kimura, Teiji; Fujiwara, Takayuki

    The psycho-physiological effects of several sound stimulations were investigated to evaluate the relationship between a psychological parameter, such as subjective perception, and a physiological parameter, such as the heart rate variability (HRV). Eight female students aged 21-22 years old were tested. Electrocardiogram (ECG) and the movement of the chest-wall for estimating respiratory rate were recorded during three different sound stimulations; (1) music provided by a synthesizer (condition A); (2) birds twitters (condition B); and (3) mechanical sounds (condition C). The percentage power of the low-frequency (LF; 0.05<=0.15 Hz) and high-frequency (HF; 0.15<=0.40 Hz) components in the HRV (LF%, HF%) were assessed by a frequency analysis of time-series data for 5 min obtained from R-R intervals in the ECG. Quantitative assessment of subjective perception was also described by a visual analog scale (VAS). The HF% and VAS value for comfort in C were significantly lower than in either A and/or B. The respiratory rate and VAS value for awakening in C were significantly higher than in A and/or B. There was a significant correlation between the HF% and the value of the VAS, and between the respiratory rate and the value of the VAS. These results indicate that mechanical sounds similar to C inhibit the para-sympathetic nervous system and promote a feeling that is unpleasant but alert, also suggesting that the HRV reflects subjective perception.

  9. Data sonification and sound visualization

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This article describes a collaborative project between researchers in the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory and the Computer Music Project of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The project focuses on the use of sound for the exploration and analysis of complex data sets in scientific computing. The article addresses digital sound synthesis in the context of DIASS (Digital Instrument for Additive Sound Synthesis) and sound visualization in a ...

  10. Measuring the `complexity’ of sound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nandini Chatterjee Singh

    2011-11-01

    Sounds in the natural environment form an important class of biologically relevant nonstationary signals. We propose a dynamic spectral measure to characterize the spectral dynamics of such non-stationary sound signals and classify them based on rate of change of spectral dynamics. We categorize sounds with slowly varying spectral dynamics as simple and those with rapidly changing spectral dynamics as complex. We propose rate of spectral dynamics as a possible scheme to categorize sounds in the environment.

  11. Just How Does Sound Wave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Bob

    2006-01-01

    When children first hear the term "sound wave" perhaps they might associate it with the way a hand waves or perhaps the squiggly line image on a television monitor when sound recordings are being made. Research suggests that children tend to think sound somehow travels as a discrete package, a fast-moving invisible thing, and not something that…

  12. On the propagation of sound waves in a stellar wind traversed by periodic strong shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Pijpers, F. P.

    1994-01-01

    It has been claimed that in stellar winds traversed by strong shocks the mechanism for driving the wind by sound wave pressure cannot operate because sound waves cannot propagate past the shocks. It is shown here that sound waves can propagate through shocks in one direction and that this is a sufficient condition for the sound wave pressure mechanism to work. A strong shock amplifies a sound wave passing through it and can drag the sound wave away from the star. It is immaterial for the soun...

  13. Direct-current vertical electrical-resistivity soundings in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westjohn, D.B.; Carter, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    Ninety-three direct-current vertical electrical-resistivity soundings were conducted in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan from June through October 1987. These soundings were made to assist in mapping the depth to brine in areas where borehole resistivity logs and water-quality data are sparse or lacking. The Schlumberger array for placement of current and potential electrodes was used for each sounding. Vertical electrical-resistivity sounding field data, shifted and smoothed sounding data, and electric layers calculated using inverse modeling techniques are presented. Also included is a summary of the near-surface conditions and depths to conductors and resistors for each sounding location.

  14. Pitch Based Sound Classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai; Kjems, U

    2006-01-01

    A sound classification model is presented that can classify signals into music, noise and speech. The model extracts the pitch of the signal using the harmonic product spectrum. Based on the pitch estimate and a pitch error measure, features are created and used in a probabilistic model with soft......-max output function. Both linear and quadratic inputs are used. The model is trained on 2 hours of sound and tested on publicly available data. A test classification error below 0.05 with 1 s classification windows is achieved. Further more it is shown that linear input performs as well as a quadratic......, and that even though classification gets marginally better, not much is achieved by increasing the window size beyond 1 s....

  15. Sound for Health

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    From astronomy to biomedical sciences: music and sound as tools for scientific investigation Music and science are probably two of the most intrinsically linked disciplines in the spectrum of human knowledge. Science and technology have revolutionised the way artists work, interact, and create. The impact of innovative materials, new communication media, more powerful computers, and faster networks on the creative process is evident: we all can become artists in the digital era. What is less known, is that arts, and music in particular, are having a profound impact the way scientists operate, and think. From the early experiments by Kepler to the modern data sonification applications in medicine – sound and music are playing an increasingly crucial role in supporting science and driving innovation. In this talk. Dr. Domenico Vicinanza will be highlighting the complementarity and the natural synergy between music and science, with specific reference to biomedical sciences. Dr. Vicinanza will take t...

  16. Sound in Ergonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebreil Seraji

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.

  17. Optimal Sound Absorbing Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Min; Fu, Caixing; Sheng, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Causal nature of the acoustic response, for any materials or structures, dictates an inequality that relates the absorption spectrum of the sample to its thickness. We present a general recipe for constructing sound-absorbing structures that can attain near-equality for the causal relation with very high absorption performance; such structures are denoted optimal. Our strategy involves using carefully designed acoustic metamaterials as backing to a thin layer of conventional sound absorbing material, e.g., acoustic sponge. By using this design approach, we have realized a 12 cm-thick structure that exhibits broadband, near-perfect flat absorption spectrum starting at around 400 Hz. From the causal relation, the calculated minimum sample thickness is 11.5 cm for the observed absorption spectrum. We present the theory that underlies such absorption performance, involving the evanescent waves and their interaction with a dissipative medium, and show the excellent agreement with the experiment.

  18. Wood for sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegst, Ulrike G K

    2006-10-01

    The unique mechanical and acoustical properties of wood and its aesthetic appeal still make it the material of choice for musical instruments and the interior of concert halls. Worldwide, several hundred wood species are available for making wind, string, or percussion instruments. Over generations, first by trial and error and more recently by scientific approach, the most appropriate species were found for each instrument and application. Using material property charts on which acoustic properties such as the speed of sound, the characteristic impedance, the sound radiation coefficient, and the loss coefficient are plotted against one another for woods. We analyze and explain why spruce is the preferred choice for soundboards, why tropical species are favored for xylophone bars and woodwind instruments, why violinists still prefer pernambuco over other species as a bow material, and why hornbeam and birch are used in piano actions.

  19. Sounds in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan

    are colored by contextual information. This can be longterm contextual information, such as knowledge of phonological or emotional categories, but can also be short-term local expectancies, such as the previous sound heard. In this paper, I present original electrophysiological data illustrating the early...... auditory processing of emotional speech was modulated by an accompanying visual context. I then discuss these results in terms of their implication for how we conceive of the auditory processing stream....

  20. The Sounds of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald

    2009-11-01

    The popular concept of space is that it is a vacuum, with nothing of interest between the stars, planets, moons and other astronomical objects. In fact most of space is permeated by plasma, sometimes quite dense, as in the solar corona and planetary ionospheres, and sometimes quite tenuous, as is in planetary radiation belts. Even less well known is that these space plasmas support and produce an astonishing large variety of waves, the ``sounds of space.'' In this talk I will give you a tour of these space sounds, starting with the very early discovery of ``whistlers'' nearly a century ago, and proceeding through my nearly fifty years of research on space plasma waves using spacecraft-borne instrumentation. In addition to being of scientific interest, some of these sounds can even be described as ``musical,'' and have served as the basis for various musical compositions, including a production called ``Sun Rings,'' written by the well-known composer Terry Riley, that has been performed by the Kronos Quartet to audiences all around the world.

  1. [Normal and Adventitious Breath Sounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, U; Hildebrandt, O; Kerzel, S; Urban, C; Hoehle, L; Weissflog, A; Nikolaizik, W; Koehler, J; Sohrabi, K; Gross, V

    2016-06-01

    Auscultation of the lung is an inexpensive, noninvasive and easy-to-perform tool. It is an important part of the physical examination and is help ful to distinguish physiological respiratory sounds from pathophysiological events. Computerized lung sound analysis is a powerful tool for optimizing and quantifying electronic auscultation based on the specific lung sound spectral characteristics. The automatic analysis of respiratory sounds assumes that physiological and pathological sounds are reliably analyzed based on special algorithms. The development of automated long-term lungsound monitors enables objective assessment of different respiratory symptoms.

  2. Underwater sound produced by individual drop impacts and rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pumphrey, Hugh C.; Crum, L. A.; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study of the underwater sound produced by water drop impacts on the surface is described. It is found that sound may be produced in two ways: first when the drop strikes the surface and, second, when a bubble is created in the water. The first process occurs for every drop......; the second occurs for some impacts but not others. A range of conditions is described in which a bubble is produced for every drop impact, and it is shown that these conditions are likely to be met by a significant fraction of the raindrops in a typical shower. Underwater sound produced by artificial as well...

  3. Estimating the diffuseness of sound fields: A wavenumber analysis method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Melanie; Davy, John L.; Brunskog, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    The concept of a diffuse sound field is widely used in the analysis of sound in enclosures. The diffuse sound field is generally described as composed of plane waves with random phases, which wave number vectors are uniformly distributed over all angles of incidence. In this study......, an interpretation in the spatial frequency domain is discussed, with the prospect of evaluating the diffuse field conditions in non-anechoic enclosures. This work examines how theoretical considerations compare with experimental results obtained in rooms with various diffuse field conditions. In addition, the paper...

  4. Psychophysiological acoustics of indoor sound due to traffic noise during sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulen, J. H. M.; Kumar, A.; Jurriëns, A. A.

    1986-10-01

    The relation between the physical characteristics of sound and an individual's perception of its as annoyance is complex and unclear. Sleep disturbance by sound is manifested in the physiological responses to the sound stimuli and the quality of sleep perceived in the morning. Both may result in deterioration of functioning during wakefulness. Therefore, psychophysiological responses to noise during sleep should be studied for the evaluation of the efficacy of sound insulation. Nocturnal sleep and indoor sound level were recorded in the homes of 12 subjects living along a highway with high traffic density. Double glazing sound insulation was used to create two experimental conditions: low insulation and high insulation. Twenty recordings were made per subject, ten recordings in each condition. During the nights with low insulation the quality of sleep was so low that both performance and mood were negatively affected. The enhancement of sound insulation was not effective enough to increase the restorative effects of sleep. The transient and peaky characteristics of traffic sound were also found to result in non-adaptive physiological responses during sleep. Sound insulation did have an effect on noise peak characteristics such as peak level, peak duration and slope. However, the number of sound peaks were found to be the same in both conditions. The relation of these sound peaks detected in the indoor recorded sound level signal to characteristics of passing vehicles was established, indicating that the sound peaks causing the psychophysiological disturbances during sleep were generated by the passing vehicles. Evidence is presented to show that the reduction in sound level is not a good measure of efficacy of sound insulation. The parameters of the sound peaks, as described in this paper, are a better representation of psychophysiological efficacy of sound insulation.

  5. Feedback control of sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafaely, Boaz

    This thesis is concerned with the development an application of feedback control techniques for active sound control. Both fixed and adaptive controllers are considered. The controller design problem for active sound control is formulated as a constrained optimisation problem with an H2 performance objective, of minimising the variance of the control error, and H2 and H∞ design constraints involving control power output, disturbance enhancement, and robust stability. An Internal Model Controller with an FIR control filter is assumed. Conventional H2 design methods for feedback controllers are studied first. Although such controllers can satisfy the design constraints by employing effort terms in the quadratic cost function, they do not achieve the best possible performance, and when adapted using LMS-based algorithms, they suffer from instabilities if the plant response varies significantly. Improved H2/H∞ design methods for fixed and adaptive controllers are then developed, which achieve the best H2 performance under the design constraints, offer an improved stability when made adaptive, and in general outperform the conventional H2 controllers. The H2/H∞ design problems employ convex programming to ensure a unique solution. The Sequential Quadratic Programming methods is used for the off-line design of fixed controllers, and penalty and barrier function methods, together with frequency domain LMS-based algorithms are employed in the H2/H∞ adaptive controllers. The controllers studied and developed here were applied to three active sound control systems: a noise-reducing headset, an active headrest, and a sound radiating panel. The emphasis was put on developing control strategies that improve system performance. First, a high performance controller for the noise-reducing headset was implemented in real-time, which combines analogue and adaptive digital controllers, and can thus reject disturbances which has both broad-band and periodic components. Then

  6. Do children with autism 'switch off' to speech sounds? An investigation using event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2008-07-01

    Autism is a disorder characterized by a core impairment in social behaviour. A prominent component of this social deficit is poor orienting to speech. It is unclear whether this deficit involves an impairment in allocating attention to speech sounds, or a sensory impairment in processing phonetic information. In this study, event-related potentials of 15 children with high functioning autism (mean nonverbal IQ = 109.87) and 15 typically developing children (mean nonverbal IQ = 115.73) were recorded in response to sounds in two oddball conditions. Participants heard two stimulus types: vowels and complex tones. In each condition, repetitive 'standard' sounds (condition 1: vowel; condition 2: complex tone) were replaced by a within stimulus-type 'deviant' sound and a between stimulus-type 'novel' sound. Participants' level of attention was also varied between conditions. Children with autism had significantly diminished obligatory components in response to the repetitive speech sound, but not to the repetitive nonspeech sound. This difference disappeared when participants were required to allocate attention to the sound stream. Furthermore, the children with autism showed reduced orienting to novel tones presented in a sequence of speech sounds, but not to novel speech sounds presented in a sequence of tones. These findings indicate that high functioning children with autism can allocate attention to novel speech sounds. However, they use top-down inhibition to attenuate responses to repeated streams of speech. This suggests that problems with speech processing in this population involve efferent pathways.

  7. Interpolated Sounding and Gridded Sounding Value-Added Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, M. P. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Toto, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Standard Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility sounding files provide atmospheric state data in one dimension of increasing time and height per sonde launch. Many applications require a quick estimate of the atmospheric state at higher time resolution. The INTERPOLATEDSONDE (i.e., Interpolated Sounding) Value-Added Product (VAP) transforms sounding data into continuous daily files on a fixed time-height grid, at 1-minute time resolution, on 332 levels, from the surface up to a limit of approximately 40 km. The grid extends that high so the full height of soundings can be captured; however, most soundings terminate at an altitude between 25 and 30 km, above which no data is provided. Between soundings, the VAP linearly interpolates atmospheric state variables in time for each height level. In addition, INTERPOLATEDSONDE provides relative humidity scaled to microwave radiometer (MWR) observations.

  8. The Body of Sound: Sounding out the History of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Schulze

    2012-01-01

    Sound affects and pervades our body in a physical as well as a phenomenological sense: a notion that may sound fairly trivial today. But for a long time in Western history ‘sound’ was no scientific entity. It was looked upon merely as the lower, material appearance of truly higher forces: of more ephemeral, angel-, spirit- or godlike structures – and later of compositional knowledge. To be interested in sound was to be defamed as being unscientific, noncompositional, unmanly. Which steps were...

  9. Offshore dredger sound: source levels, sound maps and risk assessment (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Port of Rotterdam is expanding to meet the growing demand to accommodate large cargo vessels. One of the licensing conditions was the monitoring of the underwater sound produced during its construction, with an emphasis on the establishment of acoustic source levels of the Trailing Suction Hoppe

  10. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically......: in general, the soundtracks of margarine commercials seem to merge into one, they are somewhat alike. The OMA commercials are no exception, but the OMA melody makes a distinction. In general the soundtracks of OMA margarine commercials (and the use of melody) seem to have shifted from using a predominantly...

  11. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids...

  12. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audienc......´s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  13. Handbook for sound engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballou, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Handbook for Sound Engineers is the most comprehensive reference available for audio engineers, and is a must read for all who work in audio.With contributions from many of the top professionals in the field, including Glen Ballou on interpretation systems, intercoms, assistive listening, and fundamentals and units of measurement, David Miles Huber on MIDI, Bill Whitlock on audio transformers and preamplifiers, Steve Dove on consoles, DAWs, and computers, Pat Brown on fundamentals, gain structures, and test and measurement, Ray Rayburn on virtual systems, digital interfacing, and preamplifiers

  14. JINGLE: THE SOUNDING SYMBOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the role of jingles in the industrial era, from the occurrence of the regular radio broadcasting, sound films and television up of modern video games, audio and video podcasts, online broadcasts, and mobile communications. Jingles are researched from the point of view of the theory of symbols: the forward motion is detected in the process of development of jingles from the social symbols (radio callsigns to the individual signs-images (ringtones. The role of technical progress in the formation of jingles as important cultural audio elements of modern digital civilization.

  15. Sound intensity radiated by Gaohu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Gaohu is one of the main bowed stringed instruments used in Guangdong music and Chinese native Orchestra. However its sound intensity has never been carefully measured. In this paper the sound power measurements of Gaohu were performed in a reverberation chamber according to the Chinese national standard. Two qualified musicians performed on their own instruments. The mean sound power levels and the dynamic ranges of Gaohu were investigated by four channel acoustic measuring equipments when single notes, music scale and melodies were performed under pp, mp, f and ff dynamics. Great differences were found when Gaohu performed single notes, while the sound power levels were quite close when music scale were performed under f dynamic to those when melodies were performed under normal dynamic mark, the sound power levels of Gaohu when music scale was performed under f dynamics were suggested as the typical and representative value of the sound intensities of Gaohu instrument.

  16. The maverick heart sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Chance M; Miranda, William R; Newman, Darrell B

    2016-07-01

    An asymptomatic 29-year-old woman presented for prenatal counselling. She had a history of a heart murmur since childhood and a previous echocardiogram suggesting 'enlargement of the heart'. Physical exam revealed normal jugular venous pressure and contour. Precordial palpation was unremarkable. Auscultation, however, was abnormal; findings on inspiration and expiration are presented in Figure 1, sound clip. Based on the phonocardiogram and online supplementary audio clip, which of the following is correct? An early diastolic filling sound (S3) is heard, indicating increased right ventricular filling pressures.An ejection click without respiratory variation and a systolic ejection murmur are heard, consistent with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis.An ejection click with respiratory variation and a systolic ejection murmur are heard, consistent with pulmonic valve stenosis.A holosystolic murmur with inspiratory augmentation is heard, indicating tricuspid regurgitation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  17. Multichannel spatial surround sound system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Dan; XIE Bosun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the consideration of being compatible with 5.1 channel horizontal surround sound system, a spatial surround sound system is proposed. Theoretical and experimental results show that the system has a wide listening area. It can not only recreate stable image in the front and rear direction, but also eliminate the defect of poor lateral image of 5.1 channel system. The system can be used to reproduce special 3D sound effect and the spaciousness of hall.

  18. Sound Localization in Multisource Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    D. (1997). Factors affecting the relative salience of sound localization cues. In Gilkey, R. and Anderson, T., editors, Binaural and Spatial Hearing...AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2009-0032 Sound Localization in Multisource Environments Nandini Iyer Douglas S. Brungart Brian D. Simpson Warfighter...From - To) October 2004 – September 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sound Localization in Multisource Environments 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b

  19. Sounds like Team Spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2002-01-01

    I recently accompanied my son Dan to one of his guitar lessons. As I sat in a separate room, I focused on the music he was playing and the beautiful, robust sound that comes from a well-played guitar. Later that night, I woke up around 3 am. I tend to have my best thoughts at this hour. The trouble is I usually roll over and fall back asleep. This time I was still awake an hour later, so I got up and jotted some notes down in my study. I was thinking about the pure, honest sound of a well-played instrument. From there my mind wandered into the realm of high-performance teams and successful projects. (I know this sounds weird, but this is the sort of thing I think about at 3 am. Maybe you have your own weird thoughts around that time.) Consider a team in relation to music. It seems to me that a crack team can achieve a beautiful, perfect unity in the same way that a band of brilliant musicians can when they're in harmony with one another. With more than a little satisfaction I have to admit, I started to think about the great work performed for you by the Knowledge Sharing team, including this magazine you are reading. Over the past two years I personally have received some of my greatest pleasures as the APPL Director from the Knowledge Sharing activities - the Masters Forums, NASA Center visits, ASK Magazine. The Knowledge Sharing team expresses such passion for their work, just like great musicians convey their passion in the music they play. In the case of Knowledge Sharing, there are many factors that have made this so enjoyable (and hopefully worthwhile for NASA). Three ingredients come to mind -- ingredients that have produced a signature sound. First, through the crazy, passionate playing of Alex Laufer, Michelle Collins, Denise Lee, and Todd Post, I always know that something startling and original is going to come out of their activities. This team has consistently done things that are unique and innovative. For me, best of all is that they are always

  20. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need...... to react on. In an ecological understanding of hearing our detection of audible information affords us ways of responding to our environment. In my paper I will address both these ways of using sound in relation to computer games. Since a game player is responsible for the unfolding of the game, his...

  1. The Aesthetic Experience of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Morten

    2005-01-01

    The use of sound in (3D) computer games basically falls in two. Sound is used as an element in the design of the set and as a narrative. As set design sound stages the nature of the environment, it brings it to life. As a narrative it brings us information that we can choose to or perhaps need to...... exploration of the virtual space laid out before him is pertinent. In this mood of exploration sound is important and heavily contributing to the aesthetic of the experience....

  2. Sound [signal] noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnsten, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    has been paid to, for instance, a category such as ‘sound art’ together with an equally strengthened interest in phenomena and concepts that fall outside the accepted aesthetic procedures and constructions of what we traditionally would term as musical sound – a recurring example being ‘noise’.......The article discusses the intricate relationship between sound and signification through notions of noise. The emergence of new fields of sonic artistic practices has generated several questions of how to approach sound as aesthetic form and material. During the past decade an increased attention...

  3. Oxford handbook of sound studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pinch, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    Written by the world's leading scholars and researchers in the emerging field of sound studies, The Oxford Handbook of Sound Studies offers new and fully engaging perspectives on the significance of sound in its material and cultural forms. The book considers sounds and music as experienced in such diverse settings as shop floors, laboratories, clinics, design studios, homes, and clubs, across an impressively broad range of historical periods and national and cultural contexts.Science has traditionally been understood as a visual matter, a study which has historically been undertaken with opti

  4. A Study of Sound Contents Development based On Analysis and Compare Foley Sound to Actual Sound of Wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ik-Soo Ahn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Foley sound of wind is often used as a background sound of radio drama in early period of broadcasting. It is one of the tools that has applied the most creative and scientific theory. This research provides scientific proof on similarities and creativity of Foley sound of wind through comparison and analysis of Foley sound and the actual wind sound.

  5. Sound production in the tiger-tail seahorse Hippocampus comes: Insights into the sound producing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, A C O; Chong, V C; Chew, W X; Muniandy, S V; Wong, C S; Ong, Z C

    2015-07-01

    Acoustic signals of the tiger-tail seahorse (Hippocampus comes) during feeding were studied using wavelet transform analysis. The seahorse "click" appears to be a compounded sound, comprising three acoustic components that likely come from two sound producing mechanisms. The click sound begins with a low-frequency precursor signal, followed by a sudden high-frequency spike that decays quickly, and a final, low-frequency sinusoidal component. The first two components can, respectively, be traced to the sliding movement and forceful knock between the supraorbital bone and coronet bone of the cranium, while the third one (purr) although appearing to be initiated here is produced elsewhere. The seahorse also produces a growling sound when under duress. Growling is accompanied by the highest recorded vibration at the cheek indicating another sound producing mechanism here. The purr has the same low frequency as the growl; both are likely produced by the same structural mechanism. However, growl and purr are triggered and produced under different conditions, suggesting that such "vocalization" may have significance in communication between seahorses.

  6. A computational model of cardiovascular physiology and heart sound generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watrous, Raymond L

    2009-01-01

    A computational model of the cardiovascular system is described which provides a framework for implementing and testing quantitative physiological models of heart sound generation. The lumped-parameter cardiovascular model can be solved for the hemodynamic variables on which the heart sound generation process is built. Parameters of the cardiovascular model can be adjusted to represent various normal and pathological conditions, and the acoustic consequences of those adjustments can be explored. The combined model of the physiology of cardiovascular circulation and heart sound generation has promise for application in teaching, training and algorithm development in computer-aided auscultation of the heart.

  7. Measurements of bubbles in sea water by nonstationary sound scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulichev, V A; Bulanov, V A

    2011-11-01

    Methods for the characterization of bubbles in sea water by acoustic scattering are analyzed. Nonstationary linear and nonlinear sound scattering methods are proposed. The transient linear and nonlinear sound scattering allows the scattering by resonant gas bubbles to be distinguished from the scattering by other microinhomogeneities. The application of parametric arrays in oceanic experiments, together with the broadband frequency analysis of the backscattering coefficient, allows information about bubbles in sea water to be obtained. Experimental results on sound scattering and gas bubble distribution functions are presented for different conditions in the ocean.

  8. The Influence of Visual Cues on Sound Externalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvajal, Juan Camilo Gil; Santurette, Sébastien; Cubick, Jens

    Background: The externalization of virtual sounds reproduced via binaural headphone-based auralization systems has been reported to be less robust when the listening environment differs from the room in which binaural room impulse responses (BRIRs) were recorded. It has been debated whether...... this is due to incongruent auditory cues between the recording and playback room during sound reproduction or to an expectation effect from the visual impression of the room. This study investigated the influence of a priori acoustic and visual knowledge of the playback room on sound externalization...... to the listener in rooms 2 and 3 than in room 1, with a larger effect in the reverberant than in the dry environment. In room 2, the perceived distance of the virtual sounds was more accurate in condition V than in conditions A and AV, where it was reduced. In room 3, differences in distance judgments between A...

  9. Sound and computer information presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bly, S

    1982-03-01

    This thesis examines the use of sound to present data. Computer graphics currently offers a vast array of techniques for communicating data to analysts. Graphics is limited, however, by the number of dimensions that can be perceived at one time, by the types of data that lend themselves to visual representation, and by the necessary eye focus on the output. Sound offers an enhancement and an alternative to graphic tools. Multivariate, logarithmic, and time-varying data provide examples for aural representation. For each of these three types of data, the thesis suggests a method of encoding the information into sound and presents various applications. Data values were mapped to sound characteristics such as pitch and volume so that information was presented as sets or sequences of notes. In all cases, the resulting sounds conveyed information in a manner consistent with prior knowledge of the data. Experiments showed that sound does convey information accurately and that sound can enhance graphic presentations. Subjects were tested on their ability to distinguish between two sources of test items. In the first phase of the experiments, subjects discriminated between two 6-dimensional data sets represented in sound. In the second phase of the experiment, 75 subjects were selected and assigned to one of three groups. The first group of 25 heard test items, the second group saw test items, and the third group both heard and saw the test items. The average percentage correct was 64.5% for the sound-only group, 62% for the graphics-only group, and 69% for the sound and graphics group. In the third phase, additional experiments focused on the mapping between data values and sound characteristics and on the training methods.

  10. Properties of sound attenuation around a two-dimensional underwater vehicle with a large cavitation number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Peng-Cheng; Pan, Guang

    2015-06-01

    Due to the high speed of underwater vehicles, cavitation is generated inevitably along with the sound attenuation when the sound signal traverses through the cavity region around the underwater vehicle. The linear wave propagation is studied to obtain the influence of bubbly liquid on the acoustic wave propagation in the cavity region. The sound attenuation coefficient and the sound speed formula of the bubbly liquid are presented. Based on the sound attenuation coefficients with various vapor volume fractions, the attenuation of sound intensity is calculated under large cavitation number conditions. The result shows that the sound intensity attenuation is fairly small in a certain condition. Consequently, the intensity attenuation can be neglected in engineering. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51279165 and 51479170) and the National Defense Basic Scientific Research Program of China (Grant No. B2720133014).

  11. The monster sound pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James

    2017-03-01

    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video (https://youtu.be/FU7a9d7N60Y) of the demonstration is included, which illustrates how an Internet keyboard can be used to estimate the fundamental pitches of each pipe. Since both pipes have similar end corrections, the pitch discrepancy between the smooth pipe and drainage tube is due to the corrugations, which lower the speed of sound inside the flexible tube, dropping its pitch a semitone.

  12. What is the sound?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Zia Taheri

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Human being is exponentially devoting attention to his environment since the 20th century. This has led in taking the air pollution seriously. Noise pollution as some kind of air pollution is excessive, displeasing human, animal or machine-created environmental noise that disrupts the activity or balance of human or animal life. The word noise comes from the Latin word nauseas, meaning seasickness. Noise can have a detrimental effect on animals by causing stress and increasing risk of death. In the current article we are aimed at defining the expression of noise and mentioning its differences with sound and then description of the mechanism of transferring noise in the human auditory system.

  13. The Sound of Silence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    烈日炎炎的八月,年轻的我们毕业了。哭过、笑过后,站在人生的十字路口,徘徊……眼前有太多的选择,也有太多的诱惑,你是否对自己的未来迷茫过?向左走,还是向右走,答案自在己心。把奥斯卡获奖影片《毕业生》的插曲《The Sound of silence》(《寂静之声》)送给大家。当我们面对这个复杂的世界,必须做出选择时,希望大家能够保持一份平和的心态。

  14. Timing sight and sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Derek H; Johnston, Alan; Nishida, Shinya

    2005-05-01

    It has been proposed that there is a perceptual compensation for the difference between the speeds of light and sound. We examined this possibility using a range of auditory-visual tasks, in which performance depends on the relative timing of auditory and visual information, and manipulated viewing distance to test for perceptual compensation. We explored auditory-visual integration, cross modal causal attributions, and auditory-visual temporal order judgments. We observed timing shifts with viewing distance following loudspeaker, but not headphone, presentations. We were unable to find reliable evidence of perceptual compensation. Our findings suggest that auditory and visual signals of an event that reach an observer at the same point in time tend to become perceptually bound, even when the sources of those signals could not have occurred together.

  15. Neuroplasticity beyond sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reybrouck, Mark; Brattico, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing from neuroscience knowledge on how individuals are affected by the sound environment, we propose to adopt a cybernetic and ecological point of view on the musical aesthetic experience, which includes subprocesses, such as feature extraction and integration, early affective reactions...... a predominant auditory component), which result in lasting changes of the internal state of the "agent". In a continuous loop, these changes affect, in turn, the subprocesses involved in a musical aesthetic experience, towards the final goal of achieving better perceptual, motor and proprioceptive responses...... adaptations in musicians, following long-term exposure to music, are then reviewed by keeping in mind the distinct subprocesses of a musical aesthetic experience. We conclude that these neural adaptations can be conceived of as the immediate and lifelong interactions with multisensorial stimuli (having...

  16. Entropic "sound" in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Apostol, B F; Apostol, M

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that small, local disturbances of entropy in the atmosphere may give rise to "sound" waves propagating with a velocity which depends on the amplitude ratio of the local relative variations of temperature and volume. This velocity is much smaller than the mean molecular velocity and the usual, adiabatic sound velocity.

  17. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  18. Designing a Sound Reducing Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erk, Kendra; Lumkes, John; Shambach, Jill; Braile, Larry; Brickler, Anne; Matthys, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Acoustical engineers use their knowledge of sound to design quiet environments (e.g., classrooms and libraries) as well as to design environments that are supposed to be loud (e.g., concert halls and football stadiums). They also design sound barriers, such as the walls along busy roadways that decrease the traffic noise heard by people in…

  19. The Textile Form of Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Cecilie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on a small part of the research taking place in the textile field. The article describes an ongoing PhD research project on textiles and sound and outlines the project's two main questions: how sound can be shaped by textiles and conversely how textiles can...

  20. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent...

  1. Thinking The City Through Sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    n Acoutic Territories. Sound Culture and Everyday Life Brandon LaBelle sets out to charts an urban topology through sound. Working his way through six acoustic territories: underground, home, sidewalk, street, shopping mall and sky/radio LaBelle investigates tensions and potentials inherent in mo...

  2. Discovery of Sound in the Sea (DOSITS) Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-04

    life affect ocean sound levels? • Science of Sound > Sounds in the Sea > How will ocean acidification affect ocean sound levels? • Science of Sound...Science of Sound > Sounds in the Sea > How does shipping affect ocean sound levels? • Science of Sound > Sounds in the Sea > How does marine...Advanced Topics > How does sound move? Wave propagation and Huygens’ Principle • Science of Sound > Advanced Topics > Statistical uncertainty aof

  3. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced...... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  4. Controlling sound with acoustic metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cummer, Steven A. ; Christensen, Johan; Alù, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic metamaterials can manipulate and control sound waves in ways that are not possible in conventional materials. Metamaterials with zero, or even negative, refractive index for sound offer new possibilities for acoustic imaging and for the control of sound at subwavelength scales....... The combination of transformation acoustics theory and highly anisotropic acoustic metamaterials enables precise control over the deformation of sound fields, which can be used, for example, to hide or cloak objects from incident acoustic energy. Active acoustic metamaterials use external control to create......-scale metamaterial structures and converting laboratory experiments into useful devices. In this Review, we outline the designs and properties of materials with unusual acoustic parameters (for example, negative refractive index), discuss examples of extreme manipulation of sound and, finally, provide an overview...

  5. Moth hearing and sound communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakano, Ryo; Takanashi, Takuma; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2015-01-01

    Active echolocation enables bats to orient and hunt the night sky for insects. As a counter-measure against the severe predation pressure many nocturnal insects have evolved ears sensitive to ultrasonic bat calls. In moths bat-detection was the principal purpose of hearing, as evidenced by compar......, revealing a bias towards what humans can sense, when studying (acoustic) communication in animals....... by comparable hearing physiology with best sensitivity in the bat echolocation range, 20–60 kHz, across moths in spite of diverse ear morphology. Some eared moths subsequently developed sound-producing organs to warn/startle/jam attacking bats and/or to communicate intraspecifically with sound. Not only...... the sounds for interaction with bats, but also mating signals are within the frequency range where bats echolocate, indicating that sound communication developed after hearing by “sensory exploitation”. Recent findings on moth sound communication reveal that close-range (~ a few cm) communication with low...

  6. Early sound distribution in auditorium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Guorong; WANG Jiqing

    2000-01-01

    The importance of early sound, i.e., the direct sound and the first reflections, has long been recognized in auditorium design, but the distributions of early sound in auditorium received less investigation in the past. As we know, the early sound level in the audience area varies not only with the source/receiver distance and room constant, but also related with the room geometry, the absorption arrangement and the location of the source and receiver. The early reflections are of discrete components, so it can not be predicted by the diffused field theory. This paper presents the results of measurement in four halls showing the attenuation rates of early sound level with the source/receiver distance are often much larger than the theoretical predictions. Therefore, they may give overestimated results in acoustical design.

  7. Binaural loudness summation for directional sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivonen, Ville Pekka; Ellermeier, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    , the present experiment employed 'generic' HRTFs to create directional sounds via binaural synthesis. When inspecting the results of the listening tests, however, large individual differences were still evident, as in the earlier study. The generality of this finding was further corroborated by running......In an earlier study (1), the loudness of directional sounds presented in an anechoic chamber was investigated by having listeners make loudness matches to a frontal reference source. The listeners' individual head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) were also measured, in an attempt to model...... the binaural loudness summation of the at-ear signals. Even though the effects of HRTFs were taken into account, considerable individual differences in the binaural summation of loudness remained. In order to create conditions in which the directional at-ear changes were identical for all participants...

  8. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    . Specifically, it is suggested that the phase differential of the source driving signals should be in agreement with the phase differential of the desired sound pressure field. The performance of the suggested method is compared with that of conventional effort regularization, wave field synthesis (WFS......In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...

  9. The effects of distractor sounds presented through bone conduction headphones on the localization of critical environmental sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Keenan R; Walker, Bruce N

    2017-05-01

    Bone conduction headphones are devices that transmit sound through the bones of a listener's head rather than through the air in their outer ear. They have been marketed as a safer way to enjoy audio content while walking, jogging, or cycling. However, listening to distracting sounds over bone conduction may still disrupt a listener's awareness of their auditory environment. The present study investigated the nature of this interference with the faculty of sound source localization-a key prerequisite for generating situation awareness through audio. Participants sat in the middle of a circle of loudspeakers and listened for target sounds played from different directions. Each time they heard a sound, they responded by indicating what direction they judged the sound to have come from. Meanwhile, participants listened to distractor sounds played through bone conduction headphones. Participants heard (1) no distractor sounds, (2) a spoken story that they were instructed to ignore, and (3) the same spoken story that they were instructed to attend to. For conditions (2) and (3), some participants heard a version of the story with background music, while others heard the spoken story without the music. Participants had greater localization error in the distractor-present conditions. Additionally, participants who heard the spoken story with music exhibited greater localization error. However, there was no effect of whether participants ignored or attended to distractors. This pattern was attributed to masking effects, and was more pronounced for narrow-band targets compared to broadband targets. Post-hoc analyses found evidence of a 'pulling' effect, in which localization judgments were systematically biased toward the apparent direction of the bone conducted distractors. These results indicate that using bone conduction headphones can be expected to cause a decline in a person's awareness of their environment, in a subtle way that a jogger or cyclist might not be

  10. Experiments of multichannel least-square methods for sound field reproduction inside aircraft mock-up: Objective evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, P.-A.; Camier, C.; Lebel, F.-A.; Pasco, Y.; Berry, A.; Langlois, J.; Verron, C.; Guastavino, C.

    2016-08-01

    Sound environment reproduction of various flight conditions in aircraft mock-ups is a valuable tool for the study, prediction, demonstration and jury testing of interior aircraft sound quality and annoyance. To provide a faithful reproduced sound environment, time, frequency and spatial characteristics should be preserved. Physical sound field reproduction methods for spatial sound reproduction are mandatory to immerse the listener's body in the proper sound fields so that localization cues are recreated at the listener's ears. Vehicle mock-ups pose specific problems for sound field reproduction. Confined spaces, needs for invisible sound sources and very specific acoustical environment make the use of open-loop sound field reproduction technologies such as wave field synthesis (based on free-field models of monopole sources) not ideal. In this paper, experiments in an aircraft mock-up with multichannel least-square methods and equalization are reported. The novelty is the actual implementation of sound field reproduction with 3180 transfer paths and trim panel reproduction sources in laboratory conditions with a synthetic target sound field. The paper presents objective evaluations of reproduced sound fields using various metrics as well as sound field extrapolation and sound field characterization.

  11. Offshore Dredger Sounds: Source Levels, Sound Maps, and Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Christ A F; Ainslie, Michael A; Heinis, Floor; Janmaat, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels of the dredgers, estimated source levels of other shipping, and time-dependent position data from a vessel-tracking system were used as input for a propagation model to generate dynamic sound maps. Various scenarios were studied to assess the risk of possible effects of the sound from dredging activities on marine fauna, specifically on porpoises, seals, and fish.

  12. What drives sound symbolism? Different acoustic cues underlie sound-size and sound-shape mappings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeferle, Klemens; Li, Jixing; Maggioni, Emanuela; Spence, Charles

    2017-07-17

    Sound symbolism refers to the non-arbitrary mappings that exist between phonetic properties of speech sounds and their meaning. Despite there being an extensive literature on the topic, the acoustic features and psychological mechanisms that give rise to sound symbolism are not, as yet, altogether clear. The present study was designed to investigate whether different sets of acoustic cues predict size and shape symbolism, respectively. In two experiments, participants judged whether a given consonant-vowel speech sound was large or small, round or angular, using a size or shape scale. Visual size judgments were predicted by vowel formant F1 in combination with F2, and by vowel duration. Visual shape judgments were, however, predicted by formants F2 and F3. Size and shape symbolism were thus not induced by a common mechanism, but rather were distinctly affected by acoustic properties of speech sounds. These findings portray sound symbolism as a process that is not based merely on broad categorical contrasts, such as round/unround and front/back vowels. Rather, individuals seem to base their sound-symbolic judgments on specific sets of acoustic cues, extracted from speech sounds, which vary across judgment dimensions.

  13. Reverberation negatively impacts musical sound quality for cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alexis T; Vigeant, Michelle; Munjal, Tina; Carver, Courtney; Jiradejvong, Patpong; Limb, Charles J

    2015-09-01

    Satisfactory musical sound quality remains a challenge for many cochlear implant (CI) users. In particular, questionnaires completed by CI users suggest that reverberation due to room acoustics can negatively impact their music listening experience. The objective of this study was to more specifically characterize of the effect of reverberation on musical sound quality in CI users, normal hearing (NH) non-musicians, and NH musicians using a previously designed assessment method, called Cochlear Implant-MUltiple Stimulus with Hidden Reference and Anchor (CI-MUSHRA). In this method, listeners were randomly presented with an anechoic musical segment and five-versions of this segment in which increasing amounts of reverberation were artificially added. Participants listened to the six reverberation versions and provided sound quality ratings between 0 (very poor) and 100 (excellent). Results demonstrated that on average CI users and NH non-musicians preferred the sound quality of anechoic versions to more reverberant versions. In comparison, NH musicians could be delineated into those who preferred the sound quality of anechoic pieces and those who preferred pieces with some reverberation. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to objectively compare the effects of reverberation on musical sound quality ratings in CI users. These results suggest that musical sound quality for CI users can be improved by non-reverberant listening conditions and musical stimuli in which reverberation is removed.

  14. The role of spectral composition of sounds on the localization of sound sources by cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollin, Daniel J; Ruhland, Janet L; Yin, Tom C T

    2013-03-01

    Sound localization along the azimuthal dimension depends on interaural time and level disparities, whereas localization in elevation depends on broadband power spectra resulting from the filtering properties of the head and pinnae. We trained cats with their heads unrestrained, using operant conditioning to indicate the apparent locations of sounds via gaze shift. Targets consisted of broadband (BB), high-pass (HP), or low-pass (LP) noise, tones from 0.5 to 14 kHz, and 1/6 octave narrow-band (NB) noise with center frequencies ranging from 6 to 16 kHz. For each sound type, localization performance was summarized by the slope of the regression relating actual gaze shift to desired gaze shift. Overall localization accuracy for BB noise was comparable in azimuth and in elevation but was markedly better in azimuth than in elevation for sounds with limited spectra. Gaze shifts to targets in azimuth were most accurate to BB, less accurate for HP, LP, and NB sounds, and considerably less accurate for tones. In elevation, cats were most accurate in localizing BB, somewhat less accurate to HP, and less yet to LP noise (although still with slopes ∼0.60), but they localized NB noise much worse and were unable to localize tones. Deterioration of localization as bandwidth narrows is consistent with the hypothesis that spectral information is critical for sound localization in elevation. For NB noise or tones in elevation, unlike humans, most cats did not have unique responses at different frequencies, and some appeared to respond with a "default" location at all frequencies.

  15. Dimensions of vehicle sounds perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Verena; Kallus, K Wolfgang; Foehl, Ulrich

    2017-10-01

    Vehicle sounds play an important role concerning customer satisfaction and can show another differentiating factor of brands. With an online survey of 1762 German and American customers, the requirement characteristics of high-quality vehicle sounds were determined. On the basis of these characteristics, a requirement profile was generated for every analyzed sound. These profiles were investigated in a second study with 78 customers using real vehicles. The assessment results of the vehicle sounds can be represented using the dimensions "timbre", "loudness", and "roughness/sharpness". The comparison of the requirement profiles and the assessment results show that the sounds which are perceived as pleasant and high-quality, more often correspond to the requirement profile. High-quality sounds are characterized by the fact that they are rather gentle, soft and reserved, rich, a bit dark and not too rough. For those sounds which are assessed worse by the customers, recommendations for improvements can be derived. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pitch features of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Kang, Jian

    2016-07-01

    A number of soundscape studies have suggested the need for suitable parameters for soundscape measurement, in addition to the conventional acoustic parameters. This paper explores the applicability of pitch features that are often used in music analysis and their algorithms to environmental sounds. Based on the existing alternative pitch algorithms for simulating the perception of the auditory system and simplified algorithms for practical applications in the areas of music and speech, the applicable algorithms have been determined, considering common types of sound in everyday soundscapes. Considering a number of pitch parameters, including pitch value, pitch strength, and percentage of audible pitches over time, different pitch characteristics of various environmental sounds have been shown. Among the four sound categories, i.e. water, wind, birdsongs, and urban sounds, generally speaking, both water and wind sounds have low pitch values and pitch strengths; birdsongs have high pitch values and pitch strengths; and urban sounds have low pitch values and a relatively wide range of pitch strengths.

  17. Recycling sound in Commercials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Rørdam Larsen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety: in general, the soundtracks of margarine commercials seem to merge into one, they are somewhat alike. The OMA commercials are no exception, but the OMA melody makes a distinction. In general the soundtracks of OMA margarine commercials (and the use of melody seem to have shifted from using a predominantly semantic causal soundtrack to tracks using aesthetic and musicalised elements which are supposed to arouse more sensuous feelings in the consumers.

  18. Sound symbolism: the role of word sound in meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Jan-Olof

    2017-03-22

    The question whether there is a natural connection between sound and meaning or if they are related only by convention has been debated since antiquity. In linguistics, it is usually taken for granted that 'the linguistic sign is arbitrary,' and exceptions like onomatopoeia have been regarded as marginal phenomena. However, it is becoming more and more clear that motivated relations between sound and meaning are more common and important than has been thought. There is now a large and rapidly growing literature on subjects as ideophones (or expressives), words that describe how a speaker perceives a situation with the senses, and phonaesthemes, units like English gl-, which occur in many words that share a meaning component (in this case 'light': gleam, glitter, etc.). Furthermore, psychological experiments have shown that sound symbolism in one language can be understood by speakers of other languages, suggesting that some kinds of sound symbolism are universal. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  19. Sound-resonance hydrogen sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Shuxiang; Bai, Feiming; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight D.

    2003-01-01

    A hydrogen sensor is reported in which a small piezoelectric-sound-resonance-cavity (PSRC) is used as the sensing element. Detection utilizes sound resonance and acoustic property differences between H-2 and air as a sensing mechanism. Changes in H-2 concentration result in a shift of the sound-resonance state of the PSRC. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated a sensitivity limit of 8 ppm, a fast response time similar to1.5 second, and detection capabilities over a broad concentration ran...

  20. Sound exposure measurements using hearing-aid technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Boelt; Drastrup, Mads; Morales, Esteban Chávez

    2016-01-01

    scenarios. The purpose of this work is to document the use of a modified behind-the-ear (BTE) hearing-aid as a portable sound pressure level (SPL) meter. In order to obtain sound level measurements with a BTE device comparable to sound field values that can be used with existing risk assessment strategies......, differences due to microphone positions and the presence of a person in the measurement must be taken into account. The present study presents measurements carried out to document the characteristics of the BTE device, using the same framework presented in the ISO 11904 standard series. The responses...... at the BTE position on a head and torso simulator (HATS) were measured and combined with the A-weighting filter, frequency weigted sound field values. The compensation filters improved the accuracy of the BTE devices especially in laboratory conditions. Field tests corroborate the necessity of both diffuse...

  1. Bimodal stimulation: benefits for music perception and sound quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucher, Catherine M; McDermott, Hugh J

    2009-01-01

    With recent expansions in cochlear implantation candidacy criteria, increasing numbers of implantees can exploit their remaining hearing by using bimodal stimulation (combining electrical stimulation via the implant with acoustic stimulation via hearing aids). This study examined the effect of bimodal stimulation on music perception and perceived sound quality. The perception of music and sound quality by nine post-lingually deafened adult implantees was examined in three conditions: implant alone, hearing aid alone and bimodal stimulation. On average, bimodal stimulation provided the best results for music perception and perceived sound quality when compared with results obtained with electrical stimulation alone. Thus, for implantees with usable acoustic hearing, bimodal stimulation may be advantageous when listening to music and other non-speech sounds.

  2. The Body of Sound: Sounding out the History of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Schulze

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sound affects and pervades our body in a physical as well as a phenomenological sense: a notion that may sound fairly trivial today. But for a long time in Western history ‘sound’ was no scientific entity. It was looked upon merely as the lower, material appearance of truly higher forces: of more ephemeral, angel-, spirit- or godlike structures – and later of compositional knowledge. To be interested in sound was to be defamed as being unscientific, noncompositional, unmanly. Which steps were taken historically that gradually gave sound the character of a scientific entity? This article moves along recent science history: since the nineteenth century when the physicality of sound and later the corporeality of sonic experiences were first discovered and tentatively described. Exemplary studies from the science history of acoustics, musicology and anthropology of the senses are analysed and restudied – from Hermann von Helmholtz to Michel Serres. Even today, we may ask ourselves: What would an auditorily-founded research be like? Could there be a field of sensory research – via sensing sound?

  3. Effects of ocean acidification on shell condition and survival of Puget Sound pteropods from laboratory experiment studies from 2012-05-10 to 2012-07-12 (NODC Accession 0125008)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains laboratory experiment data that were collected to examine the effects of ocean acidification on shell condition and survival of Puget...

  4. Wind turbine sound power measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Stephen E; Feder, Katya; Voicescu, Sonia A; Soukhovtsev, Victor; Denning, Allison; Tsang, Jason; Broner, Norm; Richarz, Werner; van den Berg, Frits

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides experimental validation of the sound power level data obtained from manufacturers for the ten wind turbine models examined in Health Canada's Community Noise and Health Study (CNHS). Within measurement uncertainty, the wind turbine sound power levels measured using IEC 61400-11 [(2002). (International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva)] were consistent with the sound power level data provided by manufacturers. Based on measurements, the sound power level data were also extended to 16 Hz for calculation of C-weighted levels. The C-weighted levels were 11.5 dB higher than the A-weighted levels (standard deviation 1.7 dB). The simple relationship between A- and C- weighted levels suggests that there is unlikely to be any statistically significant difference between analysis based on either C- or A-weighted data.

  5. The science of sound recording

    CERN Document Server

    Kadis, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The Science of Sound Recording will provide you with more than just an introduction to sound and recording, it will allow you to dive right into some of the technical areas that often appear overwhelming to anyone without an electrical engineering or physics background.  The Science of Sound Recording helps you build a basic foundation of scientific principles, explaining how recording really works. Packed with valuable must know information, illustrations and examples of 'worked through' equations this book introduces the theory behind sound recording practices in a logical and prac

  6. Freezing in Touch: Sound Enhances Tactile Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Yeh Tsai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual segregation in rapidly changing visual displays can be facilitated by a synchronized salient sound that segregates itself from other sounds in the sequence (Vroomen & de Gelder, 2000. We examined whether this “freezing” phenomenon can also be found in tactile perception. Three vibrators were placed on the participant's palm to produce four different tactile patterns. Four sounds were presented separately and simultaneously with each of the four tactile patterns. Among the three same-pitch tones, an abrupt high-pitch tone was presented simultaneously with the designated temporal position of the target pattern in the sequence of tactual stimuli that was presented rapidly and repeatedly. The task was to identify the tactile pattern of the target. Results showed that participants responded faster and more accurately with the high-pitch tone, compared to the condition when all the tones were of the same pitch. However, the result reversed when an extra tactile cue was presented on the wrist. This suggests that a salient auditory signal can improve perceptual segregation not only in vision but also in touch. That is, it is a cross-modal facilitation, not an alerting or attentional cueing effect.

  7. 46 CFR 7.20 - Nantucket Sound, Vineyard Sound, Buzzards Bay, Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Narragansett Bay, MA, Block Island Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. 7.20 Section 7.20... Sound and easterly entrance to Long Island Sound, NY. (a) A line drawn from Chatham Light to latitude 41... Southeast Light; thence to Montauk Point Light on the easterly end of Long Island....

  8. Problems in Nonlinear Acoustics: Scattering of Sound by Sound, Parametric Arrays, Focused Sound Beams, and Noncollinear Tone-Noise Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    of Texas at Austin 3(ARL:UT). 3 A. Background The problem of the scattering of sound by sound, as well as the terminology, was introduced3 by Ingard ...Texas at Austin, June 1987. [2] U. Ingard and D. C. Pridmore-Brown, "Scattering of Sound by Sound," J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 367-369 (1956). [3] R. T

  9. Sound Intensity of a Drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ticha Sethapakdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A small steel ball was dropped onto the center of a bongo drum. The relationship between impact energy and the maximum amplitude of the sound produced upon impact was determined using release heights ranging from 5 to 70 cm. It was found that there was a power relation between the impact energy and the maximum amplitude of the sound, indicating that the partitioning of energy in the system is dependent on impact energy.

  10. Sound of silo's: An experimental investigation into sound emissions from granular flows in a vertical tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porte, Elze; Masen, Marc; Vriend, Nathalie; de Boer, Andre

    2015-11-01

    When large storage silo's containing granular material are discharged, a loud sound emits from the silo. The noise causes disturbances for people working on site and for nearby residential areas. Insufficient knowledge exists to solve the problem efficiently and adequately. An experimental study using a scaled silo setup shows that the particle flow dynamics and system characteristics are both actors in determining the occurrence of the sound and its frequency. The extensive use of frequency analysis provides new insights into the complexity of the related parameters. The particle flow and tube characteristics are manipulated by changing the outflow rate, bulk material, wall material, wall pressure and tube dimensions. Frequency analysis of the recorded sound shows that the frequency depends on both the externally forced parameter changes and internal changes during flow. The latter indicates that during the flow, characteristic properties such as the packing fraction and sound speed change. As a result, the frequency changes as well. However, the external parameters that are manipulated as an initial condition are equally important in describing the frequency response.

  11. [Sound therapy in sudden deafness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Miguel A; Cambil, Esther; Abrante, Antonio; López-Fernández, Rocío; Esteban, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss is a hearing disorder of unknown cause. The spontaneous recovery rate ranges from 50 to 75% of the patients. Scientific experiments on animals support the present study in patients with sudden deafness treated with sounds. During the period 2003-2009, patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss were administered steroids, piracetam and antioxidants, together with the addition of sounds by means of music and words. Comparing the results of patients treated with medication (n=65) and those treated with medication and sounds (n=67), it was observed that patients treated with medication and sounds had higher recovery. Within the group of patients treated with medication and sounds, 25 (37%) experienced complete recovery, 28 (42%) good recovery, 11 (16%) slight recovery and 3 (5%) poor or no recovery. The patients who recovered more than half of their audition accounted for 54% in the group treated with medication and for 79% in the group of patients receiving medication and sounds. Auditory recuperation showed no alterations, at least up to 12 months after therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of sound intensity on velopharyngeal function in normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Meng; Yang, Zhenyu; Feng, Bin; You, Meng; Wang, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Velopharyngeal closure is an important physiological process contributing to the normal function of speech and swallowing. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of sound intensity on velopharyngeal function in normal individuals. Lateral cephalograms of 38 volunteers obtained at rest and during phonation of vowel /i:/ at both high and low sound intensity were carefully analyzed. The digital sound level meter was used to evaluate and record the sound intensity of the phonation process. The angular and linear parameters on the lateral cephalograms were then measured to reveal the correlation between sound intensity and velopharyngeal closure. All the angular parameter values measured in the study were significantly greater in high sound intensity condition. As for linear parameters, all values were found to be significantly larger at high sound intensity, except for the effective velopharyngeal length and the vertical velopharyngeal length. A multiple linear regression model was set up to describe the correlation between the sound intensity, the effective velopharyngeal length, and velopharyngeal closure. With the increase of sound intensity and the decrease of the effective velopharyngeal length, the width of velopharyngeal closure is enlarged. As one of the characteristic features of sound wave, the sound intensity was found to affect the objectively measured parameters of velopharyngeal closure on lateral cephalograms. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Temporomandibular joint sounds: a critique of techniques for recording and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, C G

    1989-01-01

    Sonography, or the graphic recording of sounds, has been proposed as an objective measure of various pathological conditions in the temporomandibular joint. Various electronic devices have been developed to enhance our ability to auscultate the joint, monitor the timing of the sounds with jaw movement, and analyze the characteristics of the sound; the intent of these devices is to diagnose the intracapsular condition "objectively." This review paper critically evaluates the advantages and limitations of this technique. Based on the existing literature, these instruments can record sounds; however, the origin of these sounds is uncertain, since room noise, skin and hair sounds, respiration, arterial blood flow, and cross-over noises from the opposite TMJ have not been excluded as possible artifacts of the recording. More important, the diagnostic specificity, as an indicator of each type of TMJ disease, has not been clearly and consistently demonstrated with the sonographic technique.

  14. 27 CFR 9.151 - Puget Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puget Sound. 9.151 Section... Sound. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Puget Sound.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Puget Sound viticultural area are...

  15. Sound Symbolism Facilitates Early Verb Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Nagumo, Miho; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2008-01-01

    Some words are sound-symbolic in that they involve a non-arbitrary relationship between sound and meaning. Here, we report that 25-month-old children are sensitive to cross-linguistically valid sound-symbolic matches in the domain of action and that this sound symbolism facilitates verb learning in young children. We constructed a set of novel…

  16. Young Children's Letter-Sound Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Barbara; Carr, Alex

    2003-01-01

    This study with 83 normally developing children (ages 4-6) compared three essential skills in early literacy, letter-sound recognition, letter-sound recall, and letter reproduction. Children performed better in letter-sound recognition than in letter-sound recall and letter reproduction. There were no performance differences due to sex or age.…

  17. A Probe into English Sound Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜华

    2009-01-01

    Sound changes play one of the most important role in the process of English language evolvement.The paper explores the regularity of English sound changes,how sound changes are realized and how sound changes spread from person to person.

  18. A Probe into English Sound Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李胜华

    2009-01-01

    Sound changes play one of the most impoaant role in the process of English language evolvement.The paper explores the regularity of English sound changes,how sound changes are realized and how sound changes spread from person to person.

  19. CODEX sounding rocket wire grid collimator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Ann; Zeiger, Ben; Rogers, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    CODEX is a sounding rocket payload designed to operate in the soft x-ray (0.1-1.0 kV) regime. The instrument has a 3.25 degree square field of view that uses a one meter long wire grid collimator to create a beam that converges to a line in the focal plane. Wire grid collimator performance is directly correlated to the geometric accuracy of actual grid features and their relative locations. Utilizing a strategic combination of manufacturing and assembly techniques, this design is engineered for precision within the confines of a typical rocket budget. Expected resilience of the collimator under flight conditions is predicted by mechanical analysis.

  20. Detection and identification of speech sounds using cortical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, T M; Sloan, A M; Reed, A C; Engineer, C T; Rennaker, R L; Kilgard, M P

    2014-01-31

    We have developed a classifier capable of locating and identifying speech sounds using activity from rat auditory cortex with an accuracy equivalent to behavioral performance and without the need to specify the onset time of the speech sounds. This classifier can identify speech sounds from a large speech set within 40 ms of stimulus presentation. To compare the temporal limits of the classifier to behavior, we developed a novel task that requires rats to identify individual consonant sounds from a stream of distracter consonants. The classifier successfully predicted the ability of rats to accurately identify speech sounds for syllable presentation rates up to 10 syllables per second (up to 17.9 ± 1.5 bits/s), which is comparable to human performance. Our results demonstrate that the spatiotemporal patterns generated in primary auditory cortex can be used to quickly and accurately identify consonant sounds from a continuous speech stream without prior knowledge of the stimulus onset times. Improved understanding of the neural mechanisms that support robust speech processing in difficult listening conditions could improve the identification and treatment of a variety of speech-processing disorders. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Distraction by novel and pitch-deviant sounds in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Wetzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The control of attention is an important part of our executive functions and enables us to focus on relevant information and to ignore irrelevant information. The ability to shield against distraction by task-irrelevant sounds is suggested to mature during school age. The present study investigated the developmental time course of distraction in three groups of children aged 7 – 10 years. Two different types of distractor sounds that have been frequently used in auditory attention research – novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds – were presented within an oddball paradigm while children performed a visual categorization task. Reaction time measurements revealed decreasing distractor-related impairment with age. Novel environmental sounds impaired performance in the categorization task more than pitch-deviant sounds. The youngest children showed a pronounced decline of novel-related distraction effects throughout the experimental session. Such a significant decline as a result of practice was not observed in the pitch-deviant condition and not in older children. We observed no correlation between cross-modal distraction effects and performance in standardized tests of concentration and visual distraction. Results of the cross-modal distraction paradigm indicate that separate mechanisms underlying the processing of novel environmental and pitch-deviant sounds develop with different time courses and that these mechanisms develop considerably within a few years in middle childhood.

  2. Sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences in young children with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Deun, Lieselot; van Wieringen, Astrid; Van den Bogaert, Tim; Scherf, Fanny; Offeciers, F Erwin; Van de Heyning, Paul H; Desloovere, Christian; Dhooge, Ingeborg J; Deggouj, Naïma; De Raeve, Leo; Wouters, Jan

    2009-04-01

    In this study, procedures for measuring sound localization, sound lateralization, and binaural masking level differences (BMLDs) in young children were developed. Sensitivity for these tasks was assessed in large groups of children between 4 and 9 yr of age to investigate potential developmental trends. Sound localization was measured in the sound field, with a broadband bell-ring presented from one of nine loudspeakers positioned in the frontal horizontal field. A group of 33 children between 4 and 6 yr of age and 5 adults took part in this experiment. Sound lateralization based on interaural time differences was measured with headphones in 49 children between 4 and 9 yr of age and 10 adults. A low-frequency stimulus containing harmonics 2 to 5 from a click train with a rate of 160 Hz was used. In the BMLD test, the same filtered click train was presented diotically or dichotically (phase reversed or time delayed) in a broadband (200 to 1000 Hz) frozen noise to 23 children between 4 and 6 yr of age and 10 adults. For comparison with literature, additional measurements with a 500-Hz sinusoid were administered to adults. All tasks were adapted to the interest and attention span of young children. Children of 5 yr of age did not perform significantly different from adults on the sound localization task, but mean absolute errors were larger for the 4-yr-olds. Also on the BMLD task, 5-yr-old children performed at the adult level, whereas the 4-yr-old children obtained significantly less binaural unmasking compared with the adults. Concerning sound lateralization, a small but significant difference between adults and children existed, but no age effects were apparent in the 4- to 9-yr-old group. Overall, the variation was relatively large in the 4-yr-old group, with some of the children performing at adult level, in all three tasks. The results of this study show that the modified procedures are suitable for testing children from the age of 4 to 5 yr. Furthermore, it

  3. What is the link between synaesthesia and sound symbolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankieris, Kaitlyn; Simner, Julia

    2015-03-01

    Sound symbolism is a property of certain words which have a direct link between their phonological form and their semantic meaning. In certain instances, sound symbolism can allow non-native speakers to understand the meanings of etymologically unfamiliar foreign words, although the mechanisms driving this are not well understood. We examined whether sound symbolism might be mediated by the same types of cross-modal processes that typify synaesthetic experiences. Synaesthesia is an inherited condition in which sensory or cognitive stimuli (e.g., sounds, words) cause additional, unusual cross-modal percepts (e.g., sounds trigger colours, words trigger tastes). Synaesthesia may be an exaggeration of normal cross-modal processing, and if so, there may be a link between synaesthesia and the type of cross-modality inherent in sound symbolism. To test this we predicted that synaesthetes would have superior understanding of unfamiliar (sound symbolic) foreign words. In our study, 19 grapheme-colour synaesthetes and 57 non-synaesthete controls were presented with 400 adjectives from 10 unfamiliar languages and were asked to guess the meaning of each word in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Both groups showed superior understanding compared to chance levels, but synaesthetes significantly outperformed controls. This heightened ability suggests that sound symbolism may rely on the types of cross-modal integration that drive synaesthetes' unusual experiences. It also suggests that synaesthesia endows or co-occurs with heightened multi-modal skills, and that this can arise in domains unrelated to the specific form of synaesthesia.

  4. Sound Level Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    exhaust brake , this deceleration test is to be repeated with the brake full on immediately following closing of the throttle. (9) Data. Set the...to the ground. For vehicle mounted weapons, mount the weapon in or on the vehicle as it would be under normal combat or training conditions...tested within an enclosure, the most suitable of which is the room or area of intended use. b. Portable Machinery (e.g., pneumatic hammers

  5. Ultrahromatizm as a Sound Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytseva Marina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The article scientifically substantiates the insights on the theory and the practice of using microchromatic in modern musical art, defines compositional and expressive possibilities of microtonal system in the works of composers of XXI century. It justifies the author's interpretation of the concept of “ultrahromatizm”, as a principle of musical thinking, which is connected with the sound space conception as the space-time continuum. The paper identifies the correlation of the notions “microchromatism” and “ultrahromatizm”. If microchromosome is understood, first and for most, as the technique of dividing the sound into microparticles, ultrahromatizm is interpreted as the principle of musical and artistic consciousness, as the musical focus of consciousness on the formation of the specific model of sound meditation and understanding of the world.

  6. A Sound Project Using Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjay Sharma,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the implementation of various digital audio effects (DAFXs as a combination of user defined parameters and input sound signal.An approach to implement various effects like delay based effects, spatial effects, time varying effects and modulators is provided.A unique listening environment is provided using 3-D spatialization and localization, simulated surround sound, dialogue normalisation, dynamic range control and down-mixing.An attempt has also been made for music and voice separation to provide karaoke effect to the sound. All the implementations are provided in python which is widely adopted, open source and general purpose programming language and has a vast array ofcode libraries and development tools, and integrates well with many other programming languages, frameworks and musical applications.

  7. Tracheal Sounds Acquisition Using Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersain A. Reyes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tracheal sounds have received a lot of attention for estimating ventilation parameters in a non-invasive way. The aim of this work was to examine the feasibility of extracting accurate airflow, and automating the detection of breath-phase onset and respiratory rates all directly from tracheal sounds acquired from an acoustic microphone connected to a smartphone. We employed the Samsung Galaxy S4 and iPhone 4s smartphones to acquire tracheal sounds from N = 9 healthy volunteers at airflows ranging from 0.5 to 2.5 L/s. We found that the amplitude of the smartphone-acquired sounds was highly correlated with the airflow from a spirometer, and similar to previously-published studies, we found that the increasing tracheal sounds’ amplitude as flow increases follows a power law relationship. Acquired tracheal sounds were used for breath-phase onset detection and their onsets differed by only 52 ± 51 ms (mean ± SD for Galaxy S4, and 51 ± 48 ms for iPhone 4s, when compared to those detected from the reference signal via the spirometer. Moreover, it was found that accurate respiratory rates (RR can be obtained from tracheal sounds. The correlation index, bias and limits of agreement were r2 = 0.9693, 0.11 (−1.41 to 1.63 breaths-per-minute (bpm for Galaxy S4, and r2 = 0.9672, 0.097 (–1.38 to 1.57 bpm for iPhone 4s, when compared to RR estimated from spirometry. Both smartphone devices performed similarly, as no statistically-significant differences were found.

  8. Sound oscillation of dropwise cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavlov, A. V.; Dzhumandzhi, V. A.; Romanyuk, S. N.

    2012-06-01

    There was registered sound oscillation of a dropwise cluster formed over the warmed-up water surface. We have calculated the electrical charge of drops on the basis of experimental data on ion-sound oscillation. It was demonstrated that the charge is proportional to surface area of the drops and does not depend on intensity of their evaporation (condensation) in the range of 60-100 °C. The charge of drops reaches 102-103 units of elementary charge and coincides on magnitude order with the literary value of a charge calculated by another method.

  9. Propagation of sound in oceans

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Advilkar, P.J.

    to him for motivating me towards new ideas and I take this opportunity to express my indebtedness and respect to him. I would like to thank The Director of NIO, Dr. Satish Shetye for giving me a golden opportunity to carry out my internship in such a..., scientists are able to find out structure and materials lying beneath the sea-floor. This is how sound is useful in scientific study. This is the motivation of the present project. 1.2 ACOUSTICS We hear different sounds around us, which includes bird...

  10. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Liping; Qiu, Chunyin, E-mail: cyqiu@whu.edu.cn; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Jia, Han [State Key Laboratory of Acoustics and Key Laboratory of Noise and Vibration Research, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhengyou [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Institute for Advanced Studies, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  11. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...... and discusses the sources of error in measurement of sound intensity and the resulting limitations imposed on various applications of such measurements. Finally, some unresolved problems are mentioned, and the possibility of improving the instrumentation is discussed....

  12. Making sound vortices by metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Liping; Lu, Jiuyang; Tang, Kun; Jia, Han; Ke, Manzhu; Peng, Shasha; Liu, Zhengyou

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, a metasurface structure is designed to generate a sound vortex beam in airborne environment. The metasurface is constructed by a thin planar plate perforated with a circular array of deep subwavelength resonators with desired phase and amplitude responses. The metasurface approach in making sound vortices is validated well by full-wave simulations and experimental measurements. Potential applications of such artificial spiral beams can be anticipated, as exemplified experimentally by the torque effect exerting on an absorbing disk.

  13. Sound preferences in urban open public spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Yang, Wei

    2003-10-01

    This paper studies people's perception of sound, based on an intensive questionnaire survey in fourteen urban open public spaces of five European countries. The questionnaire includes identification of recognized sounds, classification of sound preference, and indication of wanted and unwanted sounds. The results indicate three facets to people's sound preferences. First, people generally prefer natural and culture-related sounds rather than artificial sounds. Vehicle sounds and construction sounds are regarded as the most unpopular, whereas sounds from human activities are normally rated as neutral. Second, cultural background and long-term environmental experience play an important role in people's judgment of sound preference. People from a similar environment may show a similar tendency on their sound preferences, which can be defined as macro-preference. Third, personal differences, such as age and gender, further influence people's sound preference, which can be defined as micro-preference. For example, with increasing age, a higher percentage of people are favorable to, or tolerate, sounds relating to nature, culture or human activities. Male and female exhibit only slight differences. [Work supported by the European Commission.

  14. Congruent sound can modulate odor pleasantness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Han-Seok; Lohse, Franziska; Luckett, Curtis R; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to determine 1) whether certain background sounds can be matched with specific odors and 2) whether the background sounds can increase pleasantness for their congruent odors. In Experiment 1, congruent sounds increased odor pleasantness, but not odor intensity, significantly more than incongruent sounds. Experiment 2 demonstrated that certain background sounds can be paired with specific odors. For example, cinnamon, clove, and orange odors were rated significantly more congruent with a Christmas carol compared with the sound of brushing teeth and/or the beach sound. The congruent sounds increased odor pleasantness significantly more than incongruent sounds. Similarly, the congruent sound-induced odor pleasantness was observed in Experiment 3. As participants judged the pair of odor and sound to be more congruent, they rated the odor significantly more pleasant. Congruent sound assisted participants in identifying and in being familiar with the odor, thereby leading to an increase in odor pleasantness. However, the congruent sound-induced odor pleasantness was not obtained in all odors. In conclusion, this study provides new empirical evidence that pleasantness ratings for odors can increase in the presence of their congruent sounds.

  15. A numerical investigation of the performance of sound intensity probes at high frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutanda, Vicente; Juhl, Peter Møller; Jacobsen, Finn

    1996-01-01

    The influence of diffraction on the performance of sound intensity probes has been examined using a boundary element model of an axisymmetric 'two-microphone' probe with the microphones in the usual 'face-to-face' arrangement. On the basis of calculations for a variety of sound field conditions a...

  16. The Effect of Low-Frequency Sound Stimulation on Patients with Fibromyalgia: A Clinical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Naghdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have hypothesized that thalamocortical dysfunction plays a role in fibromyalgia. The use of low-frequency sound stimulation to ameliorate thalamocortical dysfunction has also been investigated, and has shown promise in treating certain pain conditions. Accordingly, the authors of this study aimed to assess the effects of treatment with low-frequency sound stimulation among patients with fibromyalgia.

  17. Thunderstorms in my computer : The effect of visual dynamics and sound in a 3D environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtkamp, J.; Schuurink, E.L.; Toet, A.

    2008-01-01

    We assessed the effects of the addition of dynamic visual elements and sounds to a levee patroller training game on the appraisal of the environment and weather conditions, the engagement of the users and their performance. Results show that the combination of visual dynamics and sounds best conveys

  18. Spectro-temporal analysis of complex sounds in the human auditory system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piechowiak, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Most sounds encountered in our everyday life carry information in terms of temporal variations of their envelopes. These envelope variations, or amplitude modulations, shape the basic building blocks for speech, music, and other complex sounds. Often a mixture of such sounds occurs in natural...... acoustic scenes, with each of the sounds having its own characteristic pattern of amplitude modulations. Complex sounds, such as speech, share the same amplitude modulations across a wide range of frequencies. This "comodulation" is an important characteristic of these sounds since it can enhance...... in conditions which are sensitive to cochlear suppression. The fourth chapter examines the role of cognitive processing in different stimulus paradigms: CMR, binaural masking level differences and modulation detection interference are investigated in contexts of auditory grouping. It is shown that auditory...

  19. Sound levels inside incubators and oxygen hoods used with nebulizers and humidifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, R W; Mishoe, S C

    1982-01-01

    Degree of hearing loss in the infant is related to high-intensity or high-frequency sound (noise). We measured sound levels of 6 models of pneumatic nebulizers and 8 models of humidifiers at various flowrates, FIO2 settings, and water levels, when they were attached to incubators and oxygen hoods; we also evaluated sound levels from 2 models of ultrasonic nebulizers at various output settings. Among the pneumatic nebulizers, the recommended 58-dbA maximum sound level was exceeded by the Aquapak 621, Ohio Deluxe, and Puritan All-Purpose devices. The Bard Parker, Foregger, and Inspiron pneumatic nebulizers' sound levels were 58 dbA or below except during the dry water-level condition. Among the humidifiers, all produced sound levels below the recommended 58-dbA maximum except the Travenol humidifier; the Bennett Cascade, Conchapak, Foregger, and Hudson humidifiers produced mean sound levels in the 43.0- to 43.5-dbA range. Sound levels increased under all conditions when the devices were used with oxygen hoods. The ultrasonic nebulizers produced low sound levels, but the high-frequency ultrasound they also produce may be undesirable for infants; this question requires further investigation.

  20. Sound Exposure of Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jesper Hvass; Pedersen, Ellen Raben; Juhl, Peter Møller;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Assessment of sound exposure by noise dosimetry can be challenging especially when measuring the exposure of classical orchestra musicians where sound originate from many different instruments. A new measurement method of bilateral sound exposure of classical musicians was developed...... and used to characterize sound exposure of the left and right ear simultaneously in two different symphony orchestras.Objectives: To measure binaural sound exposure of professional classical musicians and to identify possible exposure risk factors of specific musicians.Methods: Sound exposure was measured...

  1. Sound absorption property of openpore aluminum foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Fang

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on sound absorption property of aluminum foam by evaluating its sound absorption coefficients using standing wave tube method. Experimental results showed that the average values of sound absorption coefficients (over the test frequency range are all above 0.4, which indicate very good sound absorption property of the aluminum foams. The sound absorption coefficient is affected by frequency and pore structure, and reaches its maximum value at around 1 000 Hz. With the increase of porosity and decrease of cell diameter, the sound absorption coefficient values increase.

  2. Low Frequency Sound Propagation in Lipid Membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Mosgaard, Lars D; Heimburg, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In the recent years we have shown that cylindrical biological membranes such as nerve axons under physiological conditions are able to support stable electromechanical pulses called solitons. These pulses share many similarities with the nervous impulse, e.g., the propagation velocity as well as the measured reversible heat production and changes in thickness and length that cannot be explained with traditional nerve models. A necessary condition for solitary pulse propagation is the simultaneous existence of nonlinearity and dispersion, i.e., the dependence of the speed of sound on density and frequency. A prerequisite for the nonlinearity is the presence of a chain melting transition close to physiological temperatures. The transition causes a density dependence of the elastic constants which can easily be determined by experiment. The frequency dependence is more difficult to determine. The typical time scale of a nerve pulse is 1 ms, corresponding to a characteristic frequency in the range up to one kHz. ...

  3. Sound intensity and its measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    1997-01-01

    The paper summarises the basic theory of sound intensity and its measurement and gives an overview of the state of the art with particular emphasis on recent developments in the field. Eighty references are given, most of which to literature published in the past two years. The paper describes...

  4. Sound propagation through nonuniform ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Methods of determining the transmission and attenuation of sound propagating in nonuniform ducts with and without mean flows are discussed. The approaches reviewed include purely numerical techniques, quasi-one-dimensional approximations, solutions for slowly varying cross sections, solutions for weak wall undulations, approximation of the duct by a series of stepped uniform cross sections, variational methods and solutions for the mode envelopes.

  5. Towards an open sound card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a sound card can, in simple terms, be described as an electronic board containing a digital bus interface hardware, and analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters; then, a soundcard driver software on a personal computer's (PC) operating system (OS) can con...

  6. Towards an open sound card

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    The architecture of a sound card can, in simple terms, be described as an electronic board containing a digital bus interface hardware, and analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters; then, a soundcard driver software on a personal computer's (PC) operating system (OS) can con...

  7. Facing sound – voicing art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansa Lønstrup

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art with a primary focus on the Tony Oursler solo exhibition Face to Face in Aarhus Art Museum ARoS, 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience’s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space, and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics, phenomenology, and newer writings on sound, voice and listening. The focus of the investigation is the quality and possible perspectives of the interaction with audiovisual works of art, articulating and sounding out their own ‘voices’. This methodological combination has been chosen to transgress the dichotomy between the aesthetic or hermeneutic artwork ‘text’ analysis and cultural theory, which focuses on the context understood as the framing, the cultural acts and agendas around the aesthetic ‘text’. The article will include experiences with another exhibition, David Lynch: The Air is on Fire (Fondation Cartier pour l’art contemporain, Paris, 2007 and Kunstforeningen Gl. Strand, Copenhagen, 2010- 2011. The two exhibitions are fundamentally different in their integration of sound. My field of interest concerns the exploration of sound as artistic material in audiovisual combinations and those audiovisual works of art that might cause a change in the participatory strategy of the art museum towards the audience.

  8. Perfect NIZK with Adaptive Soundness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abe, M.; Fehr, S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a very simple and efficient adaptively-sound perfect NIZK argument system for any NP-language. In contrast to recently proposed schemes by Groth, Ostrovsky and Sahai, our scheme does not pose any restriction on the statements to be proven. Besides, it enjoys a number of desirable

  9. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  10. Sound is Multi-Dimensional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    Intuitive Music at Music Therapy, AAU. 20 of these have sound files as well. The work thus serves as an anthology of this form of composition. All the compositions are systematically presented according to parameters: pitch, duration, dynamics, timbre, density, pulse-no pulse, tempo, stylistic...

  11. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  12. Evaluation of multichannel reproduced sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choisel, Sylvain; Wickelmaier, Florian Maria

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted with the goal of quantifying auditory attributes which underlie listener preference for multichannel reproduced sound. Short musical excerpts were presented in mono, stereo and several multichannel formats to a panel of forty selected listeners. Scaling of auditory attributes...

  13. Neural mechanisms for sound localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterton, R B; Imig, T J

    1984-01-01

    Although the efforts to find a place map of sound direction within the auditory system of mammals has been reinspired by the recent discoveries in owl, progress to date has not been encouraging. Neither the inferior colliculus nor auditory cortex has yielded immediate evidence of such a map, despite ingenious and persistent efforts to find it. Thus, at present, the evidence suggests that a head-referenced map of auditory space is more likely to be found in structures more motor than sensory in function--in the deep layers of the superior colliculus or brainstem tegmentum, for example. Insofar as these structures have been implicated in eye, ear, and head orientation toward a sound source, one might expect that premotor units for orienting would be sensitive to sound direction and thus, collectively, constitute a map of auditory azimuth isomorphic to the map of motor azimuth. However, even for these structures, the possibility for significant variation among mammalian species exists. Because many candidate motor structures (such as the deep superior colliculus) receive input from the cerebral cortex, and because the role of auditory cortex in sound localization seems to vary widely among mammals (38, 51) an equal amount of variation in auditory-motor maps may also exist.

  14. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Plaatide "Hip Hop Forever. Mixed by Kenny Dope", "Permaculture", Ronnye & Clyde "In Glorious Black and Blue", "E-Z Rollers presents Drumfunk Hooliganz. Liquid Cooled Tunez From The Original Superfly Drum & Bass Generation", Iron Savior "Unification", Peter Thomas Sound Orchestra "Futuremuzik", "Sushi 4004.The Return Of Spectacular Japanese Clubpop"

  15. Sound / Märt Milter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Milter, Märt

    1999-01-01

    Plaatide "Hip Hop Forever. Mixed by Kenny Dope", "Permaculture", Ronnye & Clyde "In Glorious Black and Blue", "E-Z Rollers presents Drumfunk Hooliganz. Liquid Cooled Tunez From The Original Superfly Drum & Bass Generation", Iron Savior "Unification", Peter Thomas Sound Orchestra "Futuremuzik", "Sushi 4004.The Return Of Spectacular Japanese Clubpop"

  16. Sound Probabilistic #SAT with Projection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Klebanov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present an improved method for a sound probabilistic estimation of the model count of a boolean formula under projection. The problem solved can be used to encode a variety of quantitative program analyses, such as concerning security of resource consumption. We implement the technique and discuss its application to quantifying information flow in programs.

  17. Washington Commentary: Sound and Fury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2005-01-01

    Policy makers really sounded off this spring about public education. State legislators derided No Child Left Behind (NCLB) for taking away state prerogatives in setting education policy and the National Governors Association essentially tell federal officials to stay away from repeating NCLB at the high school level. President Bush tried to move…

  18. Sounding Off and Lighting Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Teaching about light and sound is to teach about the processes of hearing and seeing. In considering the kinds of leading questions that we might ask in teaching, I suggest that a rethinking of how we consider the contribution of the energetic descriptions to this area will probably help to make these questions more fruitful. A subtly changed…

  19. Thermodynamics of light and sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Kremer

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a thermodynamic theory of light and sound. It demonstrates that extended thermodynamics permits the explicit calculation of the main part of the equations of balance of energy for photons and phonons. Wave speeds are calculated and the limiting cases of near-equilibrium and free streaming are discussed.

  20. Geometric Constraints on Human Speech Sound Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Ewan; Dupoux, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the idea that the languages of the world have developed coherent sound systems in which having one sound increases or decreases the chances of having certain other sounds, depending on shared properties of those sounds. We investigate the geometries of sound systems that are defined by the inherent properties of sounds. We document three typological tendencies in sound system geometries: economy, a tendency for the differences between sounds in a system to be definable on a relatively small number of independent dimensions; local symmetry, a tendency for sound systems to have relatively large numbers of pairs of sounds that differ only on one dimension; and global symmetry, a tendency for sound systems to be relatively balanced. The finding of economy corroborates previous results; the two symmetry properties have not been previously documented. We also investigate the relation between the typology of inventory geometries and the typology of individual sounds, showing that the frequency distribution with which individual sounds occur across languages works in favor of both local and global symmetry. PMID:27462296

  1. Geometric constraints on human speech sound inventories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan Dunbar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the idea that the languages of the world have developed coherent sound systems in which having one sound increases or decreases the chances of having certain other sounds, depending on shared properties of those sounds. We investigate the geometries of sound systems that are defined by the inherent properties of sounds. We document three typological tendencies in sound system geometries: economy, a tendency for the differences between sounds in a system to be definable on a relatively small number of independent dimensions; local symmetry, a tendency for sound systems to have relatively large numbers of pairs of sounds that differ only on one dimension; and global symmetry, a tendency for sound systems to be relatively balanced. The finding of economy corroborates previous results; the two symmetry properties have not been previously documented. We also investigate the relation between the typology of inventory geometries and the typology of individual sounds, showing that the frequency distribution with which individual sounds occur across languages works in favour of both local and global symmetry.

  2. Sound production mechanism in Gobius paganellus (Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Eric; Kéver, Loïc; Boyle, Kelly; Corbisier, Yves-Eric; Sawelew, Ludovic; Malavasi, Stefano

    2013-09-01

    Gobiidae, the largest fish family (>1500 species), has species from at least 10 genera that produce sounds for communication. Studies focused on goby sound production mechanisms have suggested that sounds are produced by the forcible ejection of water through small apertures in the opercles (hydrodynamic mechanism). The present study was a multidisciplinary investigation (morphology, muscle histology, high-speed video, sound analysis and electromyography) of the sound emission mechanism in Gobius paganellus, which produces both pulsed and tonal calls. Two populations were used, from Brittany and Venice. In the French population, sounds were accompanied by a suite of coordinated movements of the buccal, branchial and opercular regions. This was not the case in the Venetian population, and thus the direct role of head movements in sound production was rejected. The hydrodynamic mechanism hypothesis was also rejected in G. paganellus on the basis of sound oscillogram shape and because sounds are still produced after the opercles and hyohyoid muscles are cut. The use of both electromyography and electron microscopy showed that the levator pectoralis muscle, which originates on the skull and inserts on the dorsal tip of the cleithrum, is involved in sound production. We propose that the contraction of this muscle and associated vibration of the large radials is used to make sounds. In addition, we propose that different sound types (pulsed sounds and tonal calls) could occur because of differences in fish size.

  3. [Study of deglutition using various sound signals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, D; Parel, C; Thouvenot, J

    1990-03-01

    In man quantitative information on deglutition may be obtained with the aid of various sounds recorded by way of microphone and magnetic tapes. The different tapes, microphonic, dynamic and piezoelectric, can be compared through the use of a Doppler signal in high middle position, thus showing the backward movements of the mylohyoïdeus. The sound of the deglutition consists of 1 to 3 peaks of great amplitude: 350 +/- 180 microV or 14 +/- 3.3 mV according to the type of microphone used (the piezo gives the greatest amplitude, specially in low frequency range); duration for the main phoneburst: 48 +/- 24 ms with a prolongation with the smaller noises: so total duration amounts to 400 ms. Each sound impulsion repeated in 10 Hz range includes frequency up to 6 KHz. The direct recording on a polygraph falls into 10-60 range; upper frequencies may be eliminated by filtering. In front, the inspiratory relative time increases of 57 +/- 12% without deglutition whereas it reaches 62 +/- 16% with deglutition. In clinical situation, a magnetic tape recorder can be used. The main components in normal situation of deglutition of saliva, water or yogurt show a frequent variability. Nevertheless, a certain number of recurring impulsions can be defined according to the type of deglutition, thus further defining several basic types of deglutition. Amplitude and duration deglutition type 1 (= one impulsion) was observed in young subjects for saliva and yogurt; deglutition type 2-3 (greater than or equal to 200 ms) more frequently for water and also in oldest subjects, whatever the mode of deglutition. In some pathological situations, a significant increase of amplitude and duration was observed. Technical conditions are discussed for application in clinical situations and their control in laboratory.

  4. Inexpensive Audio Activities: Earbud-based Sound Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joshua; Boucher, Alex; Meggison, Dean; Hruby, Kate; Vesenka, James

    2016-11-01

    Inexpensive alternatives to a number of classic introductory physics sound laboratories are presented including interference phenomena, resonance conditions, and frequency shifts. These can be created using earbuds, economical supplies such as Giant Pixie Stix® wrappers, and free software available for PCs and mobile devices. We describe two interference laboratories (beat frequency and two-speaker interference) and two resonance laboratories (quarter- and half-wavelength). Lastly, a Doppler laboratory using rotating earbuds is explained. The audio signal captured by all experiments is analyzed on free spectral analysis software and many of the experiments incorporate the unifying theme of measuring the speed of sound in air.

  5. Sound classification of dwellings in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Turunen-Rise, Iiris

    1997-01-01

    A draft standard INSTA 122:1997 on sound classification of dwellings is for voting as a common national standard in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Iceland) and in Estonia. The draft standard specifies a sound classification system with four classes A, B, C and D, where...... class C is proposed as the future minimum requirements for new dwellings. The classes B and A define criteria for dwellings with improved or very good acoustic conditions, whereas class D may be used for older, renovated dwellings in which the acoustic quality level of a new dwelling cannot reasonably...

  6. Orienting asymmetries and lateralized processing of sounds in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rübsamen Rudolf

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lateralized processing of speech is a well studied phenomenon in humans. Both anatomical and neurophysiological studies support the view that nonhuman primates and other animal species also reveal hemispheric differences in areas involved in sound processing. In recent years, an increasing number of studies on a range of taxa have employed an orienting paradigm to investigate lateralized acoustic processing. In this paradigm, sounds are played directly from behind and the direction of turn is recorded. This assay rests on the assumption that a hemispheric asymmetry in processing is coupled to an orienting bias towards the contralateral side. To examine this largely untested assumption, speech stimuli as well as artificial sounds were presented to 224 right-handed human subjects shopping in supermarkets in Germany and in the UK. To verify the lateralized processing of the speech stimuli, we additionally assessed the brain activation in response to presentation of the different stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Results In the naturalistic behavioural experiments, there was no difference in orienting behaviour in relation to the stimulus material (speech, artificial sounds. Contrary to our predictions, subjects revealed a significant left bias, irrespective of the sound category. This left bias was slightly but not significantly stronger in German subjects. The fMRI experiments confirmed that the speech stimuli evoked a significant left lateralized activation in BA44 compared to the artificial sounds. Conclusion These findings suggest that in adult humans, orienting biases are not necessarily coupled with lateralized processing of acoustic stimuli. Our results – as well as the inconsistent orienting biases found in different animal species – suggest that the orienting assay should be used with caution. Apparently, attention biases, experience, and experimental conditions may all affect head turning

  7. Velocity of sound in hadron matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Roulet, E.

    1987-09-01

    The velocity of sound in hadron matter, in both the confined and deconfined phases, is studied. This velocity of sound appears to be an important tool to distinguish among different bag-model-based thermodynamical descriptions of hadronic matter.

  8. Dredged Material Management in Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on Western and Central Long Island Sound Dredged Material Disposal Sites including the Dredged Material Management Plan and Regional Dredging Team. Information regarding the Eastern Long Island Sound Selected Site including public meetings.

  9. Good vibrations: Controlling light with sound (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Choudhary, Amol

    2016-10-01

    One of the surprises of nonlinear optics, is that light may interact strongly with sound. Intense laser light literally "shakes" the glass in optical fibres, exciting acoustic waves (sound) in the fibre. Under the right conditions, it leads to a positive feedback loop between light and sound termed "Stimulated Brillouin Scattering," or simply SBS. This nonlinear interaction can amplify or filter light waves with extreme precision in frequency which makes it uniquely suited to solve key problems in the fields of defence, biomedicine, wireless communications, spectroscopy and imaging. We have achieved the first demonstration of SBS in compact chip-scale structures, carefully designed so that the optical fields and the acoustic fields are simultaneously confined and guided. This new platform has opened a range of new functionalities that are being applied in communications and defence with breathtaking performance and compactness. My talk will introduce this new field and review our progress and achievements, including silicon based optical phononic processor.

  10. Ultra-thin metamaterial for perfect and omnidirectional sound absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Jiménez, Noé; Romero-García, Vicent; Pagneux, Vincent; Groby, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Using the concepts of slow sound and of critical coupling, an ultra-thin acoustic metamaterial panel for perfect and omnidirectional absorption is theoretically and experimentally conceived in this work. The system is made of a rigid panel with a periodic distribution of thin closed slits, the upper wall of which is loaded by Helmholtz Resonators (HRs). The presence of resonators produces a slow sound propagation shifting the resonance frequency of the slit to the deep sub-wavelength regime ($\\lambda/88$). By controlling the geometry of the slit and the HRs, the intrinsic visco-thermal losses can be tuned in order to exactly compensate the energy leakage of the system and fulfill the critical coupling condition to create the perfect absorption of sound in a large range of incidence angles due to the deep subwavelength behavior.

  11. Time dependent wave envelope finite difference analysis of sound propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, K. J.

    1984-01-01

    A transient finite difference wave envelope formulation is presented for sound propagation, without steady flow. Before the finite difference equations are formulated, the governing wave equation is first transformed to a form whose solution tends not to oscillate along the propagation direction. This transformation reduces the required number of grid points by an order of magnitude. Physically, the transformed pressure represents the amplitude of the conventional sound wave. The derivation for the wave envelope transient wave equation and appropriate boundary conditions are presented as well as the difference equations and stability requirements. To illustrate the method, example solutions are presented for sound propagation in a straight hard wall duct and in a two dimensional straight soft wall duct. The numerical results are in good agreement with exact analytical results.

  12. RF Sounding: A System for Generating Sounds from Spectral Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, Fabio; Rinaldi, Claudia; Tarquini, Francesco

    In this paper we present RF Sounding, an open space installation which comprises both artistic and technological innovations. The aim of this project is to provide the user entering a specifically defined area, with awareness of radio frequency signals characterizing the cellular networks band. Indeed, radio signals are shifted, with proper elaboration, to the audible band and the result is spread all over the specific area through a certain number of loudspeakers. The system produces different reactions depending on the communication phase (e.g. initial handshake procedure, reception or initiation of a call, etc.). Moreover, the sound produced after translation of signals to the audible band, is assumed to be spatialized as a function of user movement; localization is indeed achieved through a wireless sensor network that is installed in the defined area.

  13. Sound transmission in porcine thorax through airway insonification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ying; Dai, Zoujun; Mansy, Hansen A; Henry, Brian M; Sandler, Richard H; Balk, Robert A; Royston, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Many pulmonary injuries and pathologies may lead to structural and functional changes in the lungs resulting in measurable sound transmission changes on the chest surface. Additionally, noninvasive imaging of externally driven mechanical wave motion in the chest (e.g., using magnetic resonance elastography) can provide information about lung structural property changes and, hence, may be of diagnostic value. In the present study, a comprehensive computational simulation (in silico) model was developed to simulate sound wave propagation in the airways, lung, and chest wall under normal and pneumothorax conditions. Experiments were carried out to validate the model. Here, sound waves with frequency content from 50 to 700 Hz were introduced into airways of five porcine subjects via an endotracheal tube, and transmitted waves were measured by scanning laser Doppler vibrometry at the chest wall surface. The computational model predictions of decreased sound transmission with pneumothorax were consistent with experimental measurements. The in silico model can also be used to visualize wave propagation inside and on the chest wall surface for other pulmonary pathologies, which may help in developing and interpreting diagnostic procedures that utilize sound and vibration.

  14. Airborne sound propagation over sea during offshore wind farm piling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Renterghem, T; Botteldooren, D; Dekoninck, L

    2014-02-01

    Offshore piling for wind farm construction has attracted a lot of attention in recent years due to the extremely high noise emission levels associated with such operations. While underwater noise levels were shown to be harmful for the marine biology, the propagation of airborne piling noise over sea has not been studied in detail before. In this study, detailed numerical calculations have been performed with the Green's Function Parabolic Equation (GFPE) method to estimate noise levels up to a distance of 10 km. Measured noise emission levels during piling of pinpiles for a jacket-foundation wind turbine were assessed and used together with combinations of the sea surface state and idealized vertical sound speed profiles (downwind sound propagation). Effective impedances were found and used to represent non-flat sea surfaces at low-wind sea states 2, 3, and 4. Calculations show that scattering by a rough sea surface, which decreases sound pressure levels, exceeds refractive effects, which increase sound pressure levels under downwind conditions. This suggests that the presence of wind, even when blowing downwind to potential receivers, is beneficial to increase the attenuation of piling sound over the sea. A fully flat sea surface therefore represents a worst-case scenario.

  15. Effects of Sound on Postural Stability during Quiet Standing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Sung

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Loss of postural stability can increase the likelihood of slips and falls in workplaces. The present study intended to extend understanding of the effects of frequency and pressure level of sound on postural stability during standing. Eleven male subjects participated. Standing on a force platform, the subjects' center of pressures were measured under different combinations of pressure level and frequency of the sound. Variables such as the position variability of COP and the length of postural sway path in anterior-posterior (AP and medio-lateral (ML direction were evaluated. Subjective ratings of perceived disturbance at each experimental condition were also obtained using a 7-point rating scale. Results showed that the length of sway path and the position variability of COP increased as the frequency of sound increased in posterior-anterior axis. The effect of sound pressure level, however, was not significant on both the postural sway length and the position variability of COP. These results suggested substantial disturbance of standing balance system among subjects exposed to high frequency noise. The results implied that physical workers should be alerted that their abilities of postural balance could be degraded significantly as disturbance caused by a sound existed.

  16. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Marine Geology , 209, 147-172, (2004). Jiang, Y. and N.R. Chapman. The Impact of Ocean Sound Speed Variability on the Uncertainty of Geoacoustic...1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Dispersion of Sound in Marine Sediments N. Ross...our understanding of the interaction of sound with the ocean bottom is the frequency dependence of sound speed and attenuation in marine sediments

  17. A Sound Engine for Virtual Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Shih-Han,; Le Prado, Cécile,; Natkin, Stéphane; Tiger, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper is a position paper to specify and implement a general-purpose sound engine for virtual cities. The work is motivated by the project Terra Dynamica funded by the French government. We present a state of the art of the virtual urban sound spaces emphasizing various types of virtual cities and their relationships to auditory space. We then discuss the choice of a sound engine, sound spatialization and scene description languages as ongoing works.

  18. Aerodynamic sound of flow in corrugated tubes

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Aerodynamic sound emitted by flow through a finite length duct with corrugated inner surface is experimentally investigated. As the mechanism of sound generating oscillation, so far popular 'cavity-tone' mechanism was definitely denied. The principal reason is: With corrugation of helical geometry, no characteristic sound came on, while a pair of a nozzle edge and a leading edge both of which are helical, with constant distance, made essentially as loud sound as a pair of normal edges. Other ...

  19. Sound absorption mapping of highway noise barrier

    OpenAIRE

    Grosso, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Sound propagation from highway to the urban areas can be reduced using noise barriers. The general computational modeling takes typically into account sound ray lines, reflection and diffraction, although the absorption distribution over the surface in not considered. The sound absorption coefficient can be calculated using a PU probe, by the impedance measured “in situ” close by the surface. Well known methods are available on the market for estimating the sound absor...

  20. SOME FEATURES OF PERCEPTION OF SCREEN SOUND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poznin Vitaly F.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the specifics psychological features of a viewer's perception of screen image and screen sound. Also it reveals the degree of an artistic convention which is necessary for creating the sound image in films. Using extensive empirical material, the author explores the evolution of sound aesthetics in movies and he analyzes some aspects of the interaction between technological and creative parts of the on-screen sounds.

  1. Interactive footstep sounds modulate the perceptual-motor aftereffect of treadmill walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchet, Luca; Camponogara, Ivan; Cesari, Paola

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of interactive auditory feedback in modulating the inadvertent forward drift experienced while attempting to walk in place with closed eyes following a few minutes of treadmill walking. Simulations of footstep sounds upon surface materials such as concrete...... and snow were provided by means of a system composed of headphones and shoes augmented with sensors. In a control condition, participants could hear their actual footstep sounds. Results showed an overall enhancement of the forward drift after treadmill walking independent of the sound perceived, while...... the strength of the aftereffect, measured as the proportional increase (posttest/pretest) in forward drift, was higher under the influence of snow compared to both concrete and actual sound. In addition, a higher knee angle flexion was found during the snow sound condition both before and after treadmill...

  2. The technoperception of electronic sound in cyberculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Abad Miguélez

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available One characteristic of new information and communications technologies is that they make possible new technical uses at an instrumental level and new technological practices that affect intersubjective relationships, behaviours and models... Computer culture, or cyberculture, is no exception. With the original device that has given rise to it, now widespread and improved, we have the socially generated conditions for a radical change in even the most stable practices, concepts and cultural foundations. Most authors that have looked at the cultural sensorium have tended to look at the speed and acceleration of images and text, ignoring the role of sound and silence, in other words, of music, electronically generated. However, in the "digital" era in which computers govern our daily lives, it would be an unpardonable sin not to consider electronic, digitalised music as the most appropriate soundtrack for this new context. For these reasons, in this paper we will look at some of the cultural changes that characterise cyberculture and attempt to establish connections between the image revolution and the revolution in electronically generated music. The ultimate objective of our incursion into this field is to examine how technoperception of electronic sound affects the senses in the "the era of the intelligent machine".

  3. Rayleigh scattering of a spherical sound wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Oleg A

    2013-02-01

    Acoustic Green's functions for a homogeneous medium with an embedded spherical obstacle arise in analyses of scattering by objects on or near an interface, radiation by finite sources, sound attenuation in and scattering from clouds of suspended particles, etc. An exact solution of the problem of diffraction of a monochromatic spherical sound wave on a sphere is given by an infinite series involving products of Bessel functions and Legendre polynomials. In this paper, a simple, closed-form solution is obtained for scattering by a sphere with a radius that is small compared to the wavelength. Soft, hard, impedance, and fluid obstacles are considered. The solution is valid for arbitrary positions of the source and receiver relative to the scatterer. Low-frequency scattering is shown to be rather sensitive to boundary conditions on the surface of the obstacle. Low-frequency asymptotics of the scattered acoustic field are extended to transient incident waves. The asymptotic expansions admit an intuitive interpretation in terms of image sources and reduce to classical results in appropriate limiting cases.

  4. MegaSound: Sound in Irish megalithic buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijs, Victor

    2002-11-01

    Stimulated by the studies done by Paul Deveraux and Robert Jahn, research has been conducted on the sound properties of two megalithic chambers is Ireland: Dowth South and Fourknocks I. As reference measurements two normal rooms (bed- and bathroom) have been studied. The following aspects will be covered in the presentation: some theoretical background on acoustical modes (within a passage, a chamber, and a combination of them: Helmholtz resonator); tips for doing sound experiments inside megalithic chambers (like: equipment, measurement software, power provisioning and calibrating); frequency response measurements (between 20 and 200 Hz) for the surveyed chambers/rooms; comparison of the results with other researchers' results; background on the pitch of the human (male, female, and child) voices in neolithic times and recommendations for future research. The presentation also provides insight in the aeralization (simulation) of sound in a megalithic chamber, covering: software that can do these simulations; issues in finding the basic information, e.g., acoustic absorption coefficients and provide examples of the results. I would like to thank all the people who have provided constructive feedback on my work (http://www.iol.ie/approxgeniet/eng/megasound.htm).

  5. The Early Years: Becoming Attuned to Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Exploration of making and changing sounds is part of the first-grade performance expectation 1-PS4-1, "Plan and conduct investigations to provide evidence that vibrating materials can make sound and that sound can make materials vibrate" (NGSS Lead States 2013, p. 10; see Internet Resource). Early learning experiences build toward…

  6. 33 CFR 62.47 - Sound signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sound signals. 62.47 Section 62... UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.47 Sound signals. (a) Often sound signals are located on or adjacent to aids to navigation. When visual signals are obscured...

  7. Discovery of Sound in the Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    effects of temperature, bubbles, and other particles on underwater sound. Sound Off is a memory-based game that examines relationships between...pages on the DOSITS website. The DOSITS Facts and Myths is a quiz on important concepts of underwater sound and its potential effects on marine life

  8. Sound-Symbolism Boosts Novel Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Gwilym; Dingemanse, Mark; Hagoort, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally occurring sound-symbolic words that depict sensory…

  9. Research on the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials at high sound pressure levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porous metal materials are widely used in noise control with high sound pressure applications such as aircraft engine liners and combustion chambers for rocket engines due to their excellent performance of sound absorption characteristics and distinguished advantages in heat resistance, lightness, and stiffness. Understanding the effect of sound pressure on the acoustic properties of these materials is crucial when attempting to predict silencer performance. In this article, we experimentally investigate the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials at high sound pressure level. The effects of material parameters on the sound absorption characteristics of porous metal materials under high sound pressure level are further explored experimentally. Measurements are carried out by using a standard impedance tube that has been modified to accommodate sound pressure level of up to 150 dB. The experimental results show that with the increase in sound pressure level, the effect of sound pressure level on the sound absorption characteristics yields different variation regularities in different frequencies. The sound absorption performance of porous metal materials increases with the increase in sound pressure level in low frequency, which is reasonably consistent with the theoretical results. Under high sound pressure level, the sound absorption characteristics are significantly dependent upon the material parameters such as the metal fiber diameter, the material porosity, and the material thickness. It could provide a reliable experimental validation for the applications of porous metal materials in the area of vibration and noise control at high sound pressure levels.

  10. Low frequency sound attenuation in a flow duct using a thin slow sound material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurégan, Yves; Farooqui, Maaz; Groby, Jean-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    A thin subwavelength material that can be flush mounted in a duct and that gives an attenuation band at low frequencies in air flow channels is presented. To decrease the material thickness, the sound is slowed in the material using folded side branch tubes. The impedance of the material is compared to the optimal value given by the Cremer condition, which can differ greatly from the air characteristic impedance. Grazing flow on this material increases the losses at the interface between the flow and the material.

  11. Masking effect of different durations of forward masker sound on acoustical responses of mouse inferior collicular neurons to probe sound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MEI Huixian; GUO Yuping; WU Feijian; CHEN Qicai

    2006-01-01

    To study the effects of different durations of forward masker sound on neuronal firing and rate-intensity function(RIF)of mouse inferior collicular(IC)neurons,a tone relative to 5 dB above the minimum threshold(re MT+5 dB)of the best frequency of recorded neurons was used as forward masker sound under free field stimulation condition.The masker durations used were 40,60,80,and 100 ms.Results showed that as masker duration was increased,inhibition in neuronal firing was enhanced(P<0.0001,n=41)and the latency of neurons was lengthened(P<0.01,n=41).In addition,among 41 inhibited IC neurons,90.2%(37/41)exhibited narrowed dynamic range(DR)when masker sound duration was increased(P<0.0001),whereas the DR of 9.8%(4/41)became wider.These data suggest that masking effects of different durations of forward masker sound might be correlated with the amplitude and duration of inhibitory input to IC neurons elicited by the masker sound.

  12. Models of ancient sound vases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruel, Per V.

    2002-11-01

    Models were made of vases described by Vitruvius in Rome in about the year 70 A.D. and of sound vases (lydpotter) placed in Danish churches from 1100-1300 A.D. Measurements of vase's resonant frequencies and damping (reradiation) verified that the model vases obeyed expected physical rules. It was concluded that the excellent acoustical quality of many ancient Greek and Roman theaters cannot be ascribed to the vases placed under their seats. This study also found that sound vases placed in Nordic churches could not have shortened the reverberation time because there are far too few of them. Moreover, they could not have covered a broad frequency range. It remains a mystery why vases were installed under the seats of ancient Greek theaters and why, 1000 years later, Danes placed vases in their churches.

  13. SOUNDS OF MODERN TALK AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bysko Maxim V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the role of broadcasting from inception to the present day; he means a new historical round of mass media that links modern radio with 1920-30s radio. Art genres of broadcasting and TV news covered in the direct synthesis with information radio genres. In this case, a more organized and balanced sounding of contemporary information radio (order of texts, music-speech structure, and sound design has a more limited, local space in society. Radio is not only within national boundaries, but also within cultural, subcultural, narrow consumer boundaries. Hence the clear dominance of the road radio audience, as well as a return to the private broadcasting (mobiles, web-channels, podcasts.

  14. Metadata Guidelines for Digital Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Minaret software2 for bibliographic data entry. DVL recorded sound cataloging uses customized versions of Minaret-supplied OCLC (Online Computer...Information Center 19 June 2001 LEADER MARC Tag (Field Name): Leader MARC Definition ( OCLC code) Codes Descriptions /00-/04 Logical record...field. MARC Definition ( OCLC codes) Codes Descriptions /00 Form of material m Computer file /01-/04 Undefined / Blank /05 Target audience / Blank

  15. Speedy sound and cosmic structure

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, Joao

    2008-01-01

    If the speed of sound were vastly larger in the early Universe a near scale-invariant spectrum of density fluctuations could have been produced even if the Universe did not submit to conventional solutions to the horizon problem. We examine how the mechanism works, presenting full mathematical solutions and their heuristics. We then discuss several concrete models based on scalar fields and hydrodynamical matter which realize this mechanism, but stress that the proposed mechanism is more fundamental and general.

  16. Speedy sound and cosmic structure

    OpenAIRE

    Magueijo, Joao

    2008-01-01

    If the speed of sound were vastly larger in the early Universe a near scale-invariant spectrum of density fluctuations could have been produced even if the Universe did not submit to conventional solutions to the horizon problem. We examine how the mechanism works, presenting full mathematical solutions and their heuristics. We then discuss several concrete models based on scalar fields and hydrodynamical matter which realize this mechanism, but stress that the proposed mechanism is more fund...

  17. Numerical Models for Sound Propagation in Long Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chenly Yuen Cheung

    Both reverberation time and steady-state sound field are the key elements for assessing the acoustic condition in an enclosed space. They affect the noise propagation, speech intelligibility, clarity index, and definition. Since the sound field in a long space is non diffuse, classical room acoustics theory does not apply in this situation. The ray tracing technique and the image source methods are two common models to fathom both reverberation time and steady-state sound field in long enclosures nowadays. Although both models can give an accurate estimate of reverberation times and steady-state sound field directly or indirectly, they often involve time-consuming calculations. In order to simplify the acoustic consideration, a theoretical formulation has been developed for predicting both steady-state sound fields and reverberation times in street canyons. The prediction model is further developed to predict the steady-state sound field in a long enclosure. Apart from the straight long enclosure, there are other variations such as a cross junction, a long enclosure with a T-intersection, an U-turn long enclosure. In the present study, an theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted to develop formulae for predicting reverberation times and steady-state sound fields in a junction of a street canyon and in a long enclosure with T-intersection. The theoretical models are validated by comparing the numerical predictions with published experimental results. The theoretical results are also compared with precise indoor measurements and large-scale outdoor experimental results. In all of previous acoustical studies related to long enclosure, most of the studies are focused on the monopole sound source. Besides non-directional noise source, many noise sources in long enclosure are dipole like, such as train noise and fan noise. In order to study the characteristics of directional noise sources, a review of available dipole source was conducted. A dipole was

  18. The effect of a crunchy pseudo-chewing sound on perceived texture of softened foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Hiroshi; Ino, Shuichi; Fujisaki, Waka

    2016-12-01

    Elderly individuals whose ability to chew and swallow has declined are often restricted to unpleasant diets of very soft food, leading to a poor appetite. To address this problem, we aimed to investigate the influence of altered auditory input of chewing sounds on the perception of food texture. The modified chewing sound was reported to influence the perception of food texture in normal foods. We investigated whether the perceived sensations of nursing care foods could be altered by providing altered auditory feedback of chewing sounds, even if the actual food texture is dull. Chewing sounds were generated using electromyogram (EMG) of the masseter. When the frequency properties of the EMG signal are modified and it is heard as a sound, it resembles a "crunchy" sound, much like that emitted by chewing, for example, root vegetables (EMG chewing sound). Thirty healthy adults took part in the experiment. In two conditions (with/without the EMG chewing sound), participants rated the taste, texture and evoked feelings of five kinds of nursing care foods using two questionnaires. When the "crunchy" EMG chewing sound was present, participants were more likely to evaluate food as having the property of stiffness. Moreover, foods were perceived as rougher and to have a greater number of ingredients in the condition with the EMG chewing sound, and satisfaction and pleasantness were also greater. In conclusion, the "crunchy" pseudo-chewing sound could influence the perception of food texture, even if the actual "crunchy" oral sensation is lacking. Considering the effect of altered auditory feedback while chewing, we can suppose that such a tool would be a useful technique to help people on texture-modified diets to enjoy their food. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sound oscillation of dropwise cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlov, A.V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian Branch, P.O. 1230, 625000 Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V.A.; Romanyuk, S.N. [Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian Branch, P.O. 1230, 625000 Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    2012-06-04

    There was registered sound oscillation of a dropwise cluster formed over the warmed-up water surface. We have calculated the electrical charge of drops on the basis of experimental data on ion-sound oscillation. It was demonstrated that the charge is proportional to surface area of the drops and does not depend on intensity of their evaporation (condensation) in the range of 60–100 °C. The charge of drops reaches 10{sup 2}–10{sup 3} units of elementary charge and coincides on magnitude order with the literary value of a charge calculated by another method. -- Highlights: ► The present investigation registered short-wave sound oscillations of water drops in a dropwise cluster in the range of 60–100 °C. ► We have found autocorrelation functions and Fourier transforms of time series of interdroplet distance; defined oscillation frequencies. ► Calculated electrical charge of drops and specified that the charge is proportional to the drop surface area.

  20. Sound radiation from railway sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xianying; Thompson, David J.; Squicciarini, Giacomo

    2016-05-01

    The sleepers supporting the rails of a railway track are an important source of noise at low frequencies. The sound radiation from the sleepers has been calculated using a three-dimensional boundary element model including the effect of both reflective and partially absorptive ground. When the sleeper flexibility and support stiffness are taken into account, it is found that the radiation ratio of the sleeper can be approximated by that of a rigid half-sleeper. When multiple sleepers are excited through the rail, their sound radiation is increased. This effect has been calculated for cases where the sleeper is embedded in a rigid or partially absorptive ground. It is shown that it is sufficient to consider only three sleepers in determining their radiation ratio when installed in track. At low frequencies the vibration of the track is localised to the three sleepers nearest the excitation point whereas at higher frequencies the distance between the sleepers is large enough for them to be treated independently. Consequently the sound radiation increases by up to 5 dB below 100 Hz compared with the result for a single sleeper whereas above 300 Hz the result can be approximated by that for a single sleeper. Measurements on a 1/5 scale model railway track are used to verify the numerical predictions with good agreement being found for all configurations.

  1. Sparse Spectrotemporal Coding of Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Körding Konrad P

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of biological auditory processing have revealed that sophisticated spectrotemporal analyses are performed by central auditory systems of various animals. The analysis is typically well matched with the statistics of relevant natural sounds, suggesting that it produces an optimal representation of the animal's acoustic biotope. We address this topic using simulated neurons that learn an optimal representation of a speech corpus. As input, the neurons receive a spectrographic representation of sound produced by a peripheral auditory model. The output representation is deemed optimal when the responses of the neurons are maximally sparse. Following optimization, the simulated neurons are similar to real neurons in many respects. Most notably, a given neuron only analyzes the input over a localized region of time and frequency. In addition, multiple subregions either excite or inhibit the neuron, together producing selectivity to spectral and temporal modulation patterns. This suggests that the brain's solution is particularly well suited for coding natural sound; therefore, it may prove useful in the design of new computational methods for processing speech.

  2. [Neurons that encode sound direction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, J L

    In the auditory system, the inner ear breaks down complex signals into their spectral components, and encodes the amplitude and phase of each. In order to infer sound direction in space, a computation on each frequency component of the sound must be performed. Space specific neurons in the owl s inferior colliculus respond only to sounds coming from a particular direction and represent the results of this computation. The interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD define the auditory space for the owl and are processed in separate neural pathways. The parallel pathways that process these cues merge in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus where the space specific neurons are selective to combinations of ITD and ILD. How do inputs from the two sources interact to produce combination selectivity to ITD ILD pairs? A multiplication of postsynaptic potentials tuned to ITD and ILD can account for the subthreshold responses of these neurons to ITD ILD pairs. Examples of multiplication by neurons or neural circuits are scarce, but many computational models assume the existence of this basic operation. The owl s auditory system uses such operation to create a 2 dimensional map of auditory space. The map of space in the owl s auditory system shows important similarities with representations of space in the cerebral cortex and other sensory systems. In encoding space or other stimulus features, individual neurons appear to possess analogous functional properties related to the synthesis of high order receptive fields.

  3. Ion sound instability driven by ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Koshkarov, O; Kaganovich, I D; Ilgisonis, V I

    2014-01-01

    In many natural and laboratory conditions, plasmas are often in the non-equilibrium state due to presence of stationary flows, when one particle species (or a special group, such as group of high energy particles, i.e. beam) is mowing with respect to the other plasma components. Such situations are common for a number of different plasma application such as diagnostics with emissive plasma probes, plasma electronics devices and electric propulsion devices. The presence of plasma flows often lead to the instabilities in such systems and subsequent development of large amplitude perturbations. The goal of this work is to develop physical insights and numerical tools for studies of stability of the excitation of the ion sound waves by the ion beam in the configuration similar to the plasma Pierce diode. This systems, in some limiting cases, reduce to mathematically similar equations originally proposed for Pierce instability. The finite length effect are crucial for this instability which generally belong to the...

  4. Sound quality and subjective hearing perception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛东兴

    2006-01-01

    @@ Increasing attention is being paid on sound quality and subjective hearing perception properties of sound/noise signals. While lots of efforts had been done and is being continually done on describing sound character physically, subjective sensation found to be more suitable way reflecting sound character in human related products and environments, demonstrating that human-being is the central object. A wide range of work is being carried out, including subjective evaluation methodology, general sound quality metrics and metrics for special type of noise or products, acoustic comfort and soundscape in living and work spaces and applications in product sound design and product quality evaluation. The aim of this special issue is to reflect the state-of-the-art in sound quality study of Chinese researchers.

  5. Wave Superposition Based Sound Field Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia-qing; CHEN Jin; YANG Chao

    2008-01-01

    In order to overcome the obstacle of singular integral in boundary element method (BEM), wepresented an efficient sound field reconstruction technique based on the wave superposition method (WSM). Itsprinciple includes three steps: first, the sound pressure field of an arbitrary shaped radiator is measured witha microphone array; then, the exterior sound field of the radiator is computed backward and forward using theWSM; at last, the final results are visualized in terms of sound pressure contours or animations. With thesevisualized contours or animations, noise sources can be easily located and quantified; also noise transmissionpath can be found out. By numerical simulation and experimental results, we proved that the technique aresuitable and accurate for sound field reconstruction. In addition, we presented a sound field reconstruction sys-tem prototype on the basis of this technique. It makes a foundation for the application of wave superpositionin the sound field reconstruction in industry situations.

  6. Residual velocities in combustion experiments on board of sounding rockets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juste, G. L.

    1996-12-01

    Most combustion experiments on microgravity conditions require extensive testing time, thus making necessary the use of sounding rockets, satellites and spatial laboratories. Sounding rockets and satellites offer some advantages over spatial laboratories, i.e. less strict safety requirements than those in manned flights, the cost of the experiment is also lower. In combustion experiments, the gas velocities inside test modules must be smaller than the characteristic velocity of the process. The initial spin stabilization of sounding rockets has been identified as a possible origin of residual velocities inside the aforementioned modules. The object of the present work is to study the gas residual velocity in the module designed by SENER for carrying out of combustion experiments in microgravity conditions in sounding rockets. Particle image velocimetry was used to measure these velocities. The study shows that, after the spin stabilization, a rapid slowing down of such velocities is produced, decreasing by 5 mm/s after 10 s and down to 0.1 mm/s after 40 s.

  7. Decoupling of first sound from second sound in dilute 3He-superfluid 4He mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekki, T. S.; Manninen, M. S.; Tuoriniemi, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Bulk superfluid helium supports two sound modes: first sound is an ordinary pressure wave, while second sound is a temperature wave, unique to superfluid systems. These sound modes do not usually exist independently, but rather variations in pressure are accompanied by variations in temperature, and vice versa. We studied the coupling between first and second sound in dilute 3He -superfluid 4He mixtures, between 1.6 and 2.2 K, at 3He concentrations ranging from 0% to 11%, under saturated vapor pressure, using a quartz tuning fork oscillator. Second sound coupled to first sound can create anomalies in the resonance response of the fork, which disappear only at very specific temperatures and concentrations, where two terms governing the coupling cancel each other, and second sound and first sound become decoupled.

  8. Sound sensitivity of neurons in rat hippocampus during performance of a sound-guided task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnik, Ekaterina; Honey, Christian; Schnupp, Jan; Diamond, Mathew E.

    2012-01-01

    To investigate how hippocampal neurons encode sound stimuli, and the conjunction of sound stimuli with the animal's position in space, we recorded from neurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus in rats while they performed a sound discrimination task. Four different sounds were used, two associated with water reward on the right side of the animal and the other two with water reward on the left side. This allowed us to separate neuronal activity related to sound identity from activity related to response direction. To test the effect of spatial context on sound coding, we trained rats to carry out the task on two identical testing platforms at different locations in the same room. Twenty-one percent of the recorded neurons exhibited sensitivity to sound identity, as quantified by the difference in firing rate for the two sounds associated with the same response direction. Sensitivity to sound identity was often observed on only one of the two testing platforms, indicating an effect of spatial context on sensory responses. Forty-three percent of the neurons were sensitive to response direction, and the probability that any one neuron was sensitive to response direction was statistically independent from its sensitivity to sound identity. There was no significant coding for sound identity when the rats heard the same sounds outside the behavioral task. These results suggest that CA1 neurons encode sound stimuli, but only when those sounds are associated with actions. PMID:22219030

  9. Robust Sounds of Activities of Daily Living Classification in Two-Channel Audio-Based Telemonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Maunder

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in the area of home telemonitoring, the challenge of automatically detecting the sound signatures of activities of daily living of an elderly patient using nonintrusive and reliable methods remains. This paper investigates the classification of eight typical sounds of daily life from arbitrarily positioned two-microphone sensors under realistic noisy conditions. In particular, the role of several source separation and sound activity detection methods is considered. Evaluations on a new four-microphone database collected under four realistic noise conditions reveal that effective sound activity detection can produce significant gains in classification accuracy and that further gains can be made using source separation methods based on independent component analysis. Encouragingly, the results show that recognition accuracies in the range 70%–100% can be consistently obtained using different microphone-pair positions, under all but the most severe noise conditions.

  10. A review of research progress in air-to-water sound transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Ling-Shan

    2016-12-01

    International and domestic research progress in theory and experiment and applications of the air-to-water sound transmission are presented in this paper. Four classical numerical methods of calculating the underwater sound field generated by an airborne source, i.e., the ray theory, the wave solution, the normal-mode theory and the wavenumber integration approach, are introduced. Effects of two special conditions, i.e., the moving airborne source or medium and the rough air-water interface, on the air-to-water sound transmission are reviewed. In experimental studies, the depth and range distributions of the underwater sound field created by different kinds of airborne sources in near-field and far-field, the longitudinal horizontal correlation of underwater sound field and application methods for inverse problems are reviewed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012 and 11674349).

  11. Virtual nature environment with nature sound exposure induce stress recovery by enhanced parasympathetic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annerstedt, Matilda; Jönsson, Peter; Wallergård, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    Experimental research on stress recovery in natural environments is limited, as is study of the effect of sounds of nature. After inducing stress by means of a virtual stress test, we explored physiological recovery in two different virtual natural environments (with and without exposure to sounds...... of nature) and in one control condition. Cardiovascular data and saliva cortisol were collected. Repeated ANOVA measurements indicated parasympathetic activation in the group subjected to sounds of nature in a virtual natural environment, suggesting enhanced stress recovery may occur in such surroundings....... The group that recovered in virtual nature without sound and the control group displayed no particular autonomic activation or deactivation. The results demonstrate a potential mechanistic link between nature, the sounds of nature, and stress recovery, and suggest the potential importance of virtual reality...

  12. Sound symbolism scaffolds language development in preverbal infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Michiko; Imai, Mutsumi; Kita, Sotaro; Kitajo, Keiichi; Okada, Hiroyuki; Thierry, Guillaume

    2015-02-01

    A fundamental question in language development is how infants start to assign meaning to words. Here, using three Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based measures of brain activity, we establish that preverbal 11-month-old infants are sensitive to the non-arbitrary correspondences between language sounds and concepts, that is, to sound symbolism. In each trial, infant participants were presented with a visual stimulus (e.g., a round shape) followed by a novel spoken word that either sound-symbolically matched ("moma") or mismatched ("kipi") the shape. Amplitude increase in the gamma band showed perceptual integration of visual and auditory stimuli in the match condition within 300 msec of word onset. Furthermore, phase synchronization between electrodes at around 400 msec revealed intensified large-scale, left-hemispheric communication between brain regions in the mismatch condition as compared to the match condition, indicating heightened processing effort when integration was more demanding. Finally, event-related brain potentials showed an increased adult-like N400 response - an index of semantic integration difficulty - in the mismatch as compared to the match condition. Together, these findings suggest that 11-month-old infants spontaneously map auditory language onto visual experience by recruiting a cross-modal perceptual processing system and a nascent semantic network within the first year of life.

  13. Sound is Multi-Dimensional

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2006-01-01

    Intuitive Music at Music Therapy, AAU. 20 of these have sound files as well. The work thus serves as an anthology of this form of composition. All the compositions are systematically presented according to parameters: pitch, duration, dynamics, timbre, density, pulse-no pulse, tempo, stylistic......First part of this work examines the concept of musical parameter theory and discusses its methodical use. Second part is an annotated catalogue of 33 different students' compositions, presented in their totality with English translations, created between 1985 and 2006 as part of the subject...

  14. Sound absorption of metallic sound absorbers fabricated via the selective laser melting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li-Wei; Cheng, Chung-Wei; Chung, Kuo-Chun; Kam, Tai-Yan

    2017-01-01

    The sound absorption capability of metallic sound absorbers fabricated using the additive manufacturing (selective laser melting) method is investigated via both the experimental and theoretical approaches. The metallic sound absorption structures composed of periodic cubic cells were made of laser-melted Ti6Al4 V powder. The acoustic impedance equations with different frequency-independent and frequency-dependent end corrections factors are employed to calculate the theoretical sound absorption coefficients of the metallic sound absorption structures. The calculated sound absorption coefficients are in close agreement with the experimental results for the frequencies ranging from 2 to 13 kHz.

  15. Using sound to unmask losses disguised as wins in multiline slot machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Mike J; Collins, Karen; Harrigan, Kevin A; Graydon, Candice; Fugelsang, Jonathan A

    2015-03-01

    Losses disguised as wins (LDWs) are slot machine outcomes where participants bet on multiple lines and win back less than their wager. Despite losing money, the machine celebrates these outcomes with reinforcing sights and sounds. Here, we sought to show that psychophysically and psychologically, participants treat LDWs as wins, but that we could expose LDWs as losses by using negative sounds as feedback. 157 participants were allocated into one of three conditions: a standard sound condition where LDWs, despite being losses, are paired with winning sights and sounds; a silent condition, where LDWs are paired with silence; and a negative sound condition where LDWs and regular losses are both followed by a negative sound. After viewing a paytable, participants conducted 300 spins on a slot machine simulator while heart rate deceleration (HRD) and skin conductance responses (SCRs) were monitored. Participants were then shown 20 different spin outcomes including LDWs and asked whether they had won or lost on that outcome. Participants then estimated on how many spins (out of 300) they won more than they wagered. SCRs were similar for losses and LDWs (both smaller than actual wins). HRD, however, was steeper for both wins and LDWs, compared to losses. In the standard condition, a majority of participants (mis)categorized LDWs as wins, and significantly overestimated the number of times they actually won. In the negative sound condition, this pattern was reversed; most participants correctly categorized LDWs as losses, and they gave high-fidelity win estimates. We conclude that participants both think and physiologically react to LDWs as though they are wins, a miscategorization that misleads them to think that they are winning more often than they actually are. Sound can be used to effectively prevent this misconception and unmask the disguise of LDWs.

  16. Multiple sound channels in satellite broadcasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windram, M. D.

    1982-09-01

    Proposals for a common European standard for sound satellite broadcasting are reviewed. Digital techniques are needed to provide multiple sound channels which would carry the stereophonic, multilanguage, and high quality sound desired. Agreement has been reached within the European Broadcasting Union on the digital sound coding parameters; a sampling frequency of 32 kHz should be used for satellite broadcasting, with 14 bits per sample in the initial coding, reduced to 10 bits by near instantaneous companding, if desired. Continuous and packet multiplexing are the two multiplexing techniques being considered. Three proposals for modulation are being considered which employ either a frequency-division or a time-division multiplex system. The close relation between sound and vision, particularly for modulation, is shown. It is likely that sound and vision standards will be agreed upon by spring 1983.

  17. Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's interior

    CERN Document Server

    Spichak, Viacheslav V

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition provides a comprehensive up-to-date collection of contributions, covering methodological, computational and practical aspects of Electromagnetic sounding of the Earth by different techniques at global, regional and local scales. Moreover, it contains new developments such as the concept of self-consistent tasks of geophysics and , 3-D interpretation of the TEM sounding which, so far, have not all been covered by one book. Electromagnetic Sounding of the Earth's Interior 2nd edition consists of three parts: I- EM sounding methods, II- Forward modelling and inversion techniques, and III - Data processing, analysis, modelling and interpretation. The new edition includes brand new chapters on Pulse and frequency electromagnetic sounding for hydrocarbon offshore exploration. Additionally all other chapters have been extensively updated to include new developments. Presents recently developed methodological findings of the earth's study, including seism...

  18. Musical Sounds, Motor Resonance, and Detectable Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Launay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the paradox that while human music making evolved and spread in an environment where it could only occur in groups, it is now often apparently an enjoyable asocial phenomenon. Here I argue that music is, by definition, sound that we believe has been in some way organized by a human agent, meaning that listening to any musical sounds can be a social experience. There are a number of distinct mechanisms by which we might associate musical sound with agency. While some of these mechanisms involve learning motor associations with that sound, it is also possible to have a more direct relationship from musical sound to agency, and the relative importance of these potentially independent mechanisms should be further explored. Overall, I conclude that the apparent paradox of solipsistic musical engagement is in fact unproblematic, because the way that we perceive and experience musical sounds is inherently social.

  19. Quaternary Evolution of North Core Sound Sound, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietsche, Andrew

    Northern Core Sound is a shallow lagoonal estuary located behind the Outer Banks barrier islands of eastern North Carolina. Thirty-two vibracores and 155 km of chirp and boomer seismic data have been used to define the geologic framework and establish the Holocene evolution of this back-barrier lagoon. Vibracores have been logged for lithology, and sampled to establish the distribution and abundance of foraminifera. The lithostratigraphy and biofacies could not be directly correlated but when related to the seismic data, apparent patterns could be recognized. The Quaternary stratigraphic framework of North Core Sound consists of five depositional sequences, comprising transgressive, highstand, and falling stage systems tracts. Seismic reflections are prominent and are correlated to the sequence stratigraphic surfaces within Pamlico Sound defined by Mallinson et al. (2010). The late Pleistocene paleotopographic surface dips slightly seaward and is characterized by two or three fluvial channels correlating to modern embayments. These channels are separated by a paleotopographic high that extends from Cedar Island seaward. The channels run northeast in the north and southwest in the south creating two different paleo-environments. The paleotopographic high may have contributed to differing foraminiferal assemblages found within Holocene unit. The Holocene unit is characterized by high salinity estuarine deposits dominated by the foraminifera Elphidium excavatum and Ammonia parkinsoniana. Three very similar biofacies were defined with more abundant Ammonia parkinsoniana where salinities may have been slightly lower. Only a salt marsh facies was significantly different. The biofacies may also represent the two paleo-environments illustrated in the seismic data as one is mainly found to the north of the paleotopographic high and the other to the south. Two seismic reflections, H30 and H60, are interpreted as tidal ravinement surfaces and divide the Holocene into three

  20. Magnetic Fields Can Control Heat and Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-23

    sound waves , which then propagate through the air until they hit a listener’s eardrums and make them vibrate as well. From these vibrations , the listener... vibrations as particles. This is similar to the concept of light as both a wave and a particle we call a photon. Physicists called the sound wave ...Physics, and Materials Science & Engineering at The Ohio State University Sound is carried by periodic vibrations of atoms in gases, liquids and

  1. Freezing in Touch: Sound Enhances Tactile Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Yeh Tsai; Su-Ling Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Perceptual segregation in rapidly changing visual displays can be facilitated by a synchronized salient sound that segregates itself from other sounds in the sequence (Vroomen & de Gelder, 2000). We examined whether this “freezing” phenomenon can also be found in tactile perception. Three vibrators were placed on the participant's palm to produce four different tactile patterns. Four sounds were presented separately and simultaneously with each of the four tactile patterns. Among the three sa...

  2. New lattices of sound tubes with harmonically related eigenfrequencies

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In 1994, the first author of the present paper and J. Kergomard published in acta acustica a paper entitled : Latticies of sound tubes with harmonically related eigenfrequencies. These lattices are made of a succession of truncated cones with equal length that have to respect certain rules. When looking at the eigenmodes with closed-open boundary conditions (i.e. reed wind instruments case), the solution were found to be stepped cone, that is cones made with a successi...

  3. Automatic Recognition of Breathing Route During Sleep Using Snoring Sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Tsuyoshi; Kojima, Yohichiro

    This letter classifies snoring sounds into three breathing routes (oral, nasal, and oronasal) with discriminant analysis of the power spectra and k-nearest neighbor method. It is necessary to recognize breathing route during snoring, because oral snoring is a typical symptom of sleep apnea but we cannot know our own breathing and snoring condition during sleep. As a result, about 98.8% classification rate is obtained by using leave-one-out test for performance evaluation.

  4. Theory of sound field in a room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAADah-You

    2003-01-01

    In the normal-mode theory of Morse, it gives a series of normal modes as the solution of forced vibration in a room. But actually there is always the direct radiation besides the normal modes which represent the reverbrant sound field only. The reason is that the normal modes were assumed only in the source, and naturally normal modes only are obtained in the solution. A theory of double source is proposed, that the sound source is both the source of the direct radiation as if in free space before the boundary surfaces were reached by the direct radiation, and after the first reflection from the boundary surfaces, the source of the reflected wavelets, randomly distributed both in space an in time on the boundary surfaces that build up the normal modes after further reflections. The wave equation is formed accordingly, and the solution of the wave equation, the sound field in a room, contains explicitly both the direct radiation and the reverberant sound formed of normal modes. The approximate mean square sound pressure is found to be the dircet sound determined by the sound power of the source,and reverberant sound determined by the sound power reduced by a factor of π/2, different slightly from the result obtained from energy consideration, if the source is pure tone. There is essentially no difference for a source of band noise.

  5. Improved Soundness for QMA with Multiple Provers

    CERN Document Server

    Chiesa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We present three contributions to the understanding of QMA with multiple provers: 1) We give a tight soundness analysis of the protocol of [Blier and Tapp, ICQNM '09], yielding a soundness gap Omega(1/N^2), which is the best-known soundness gap for two-prover QMA protocols with logarithmic proof size. Maybe surprisingly, our improvement is achieved without the use of an instance with a constant soundness gap (i.e., without using a PCP); this is unlike the previously best-known soundness gap of Omega(1/N^(3+epsilon)) given by [Beigi, QIC '10], which was achieved using a (balanced) 2-out-of-4 instance with constant soundness gap. 2) We give a tight soundness analysis of the protocol of [Chen and Drucker, ArXiV '10], thereby improving their result from a monolithic protocol where Theta(sqrt(N)) provers are needed in order to have any soundness gap, to a protocol with a smooth trade-off between the number of provers k and a soundness gap Omega(k^2/N), as long as k>=Omega(log N). (And, when k=Theta(sqrt(N)), we re...

  6. Anisotropy and sound propagation in glass wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1999-01-01

    Sound propagation in glass wool is studied theoretically and experimentally. Theoretical computation of attenuation and phase velocity for plane, harmonic waves will be presented. Glass wool is a highly anisotropic material, and sound waves propagating in different directions in the material...... by regarding it as a continuous medium described by its elastic moduli and mass density. The computed attenuation of sound waves, for frequencies 50–5000 Hz, will be compared with experimental results for glass wool with fiber diameters of 6.8 micrometers, mass density of 15 and 30 kg/m3, and elastic moduli...... of 2000 and 16 000 Pa (sound wave vector perpendicular to fibers)....

  7. Sound field separation with sound pressure and particle velocity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jacobsen, Finn; Leclère, Quentin

    2012-01-01

    separation techniques make it possible to distinguish between outgoing and incoming waves from the two sides, and thus NAH can be applied. In this paper, a separation method based on the measurement of the particle velocity in two layers and another method based on the measurement of the pressure...... and the velocity in a single layer are proposed. The two methods use an equivalent source formulation with separate transfer matrices for the outgoing and incoming waves, so that the sound from the two sides of the array can be modeled independently. A weighting scheme is proposed to account for the distance...... pressure-velocity method, although it requires an additional measurement surface. On the whole, the separation methods can be useful when the disturbance of the incoming field is significant. Otherwise the direct reconstruction is more accurate and straightforward. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America....

  8. Making fictions sound real - On film sound, perceptual realism and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Langkjær

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences.

  9. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part 1: Perception of Sound and Music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    Presents the first of a series of articles that discuss the perception of sound and music. This series of articles is intended to provide an introduction to the broad subject of high-fidelity sound recording and reproduction. (HM)

  10. Making fictions sound real - On film sound, perceptual realism and genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Langkjær

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role that sound plays in making fictions perceptually real to film audiences, whether these fictions are realist or non-realist in content and narrative form. I will argue that some aspects of film sound practices and the kind of experiences they trigger are related to basic rules of human perception, whereas others are more properly explained in relation to how aesthetic devices, including sound, are used to characterise the fiction and thereby make it perceptually real to its audience. Finally, I will argue that not all genres can be defined by a simple taxonomy of sounds. Apart from an account of the kinds of sounds that typically appear in a specific genre, a genre analysis of sound may also benefit from a functionalist approach that focuses on how sounds can make both realist and non-realist aspects of genres sound real to audiences.

  11. Visualization of relation between sound symbolic word and perceptual characteristics of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J.; Sakamoto, M.

    2017-01-01

    Humans interact with environmental sounds by easily and quickly identifying external and natural sounds in daily life. Interestingly, we verbalize the perceived auditory information from environmental sound. Onomatopoeia, i.e. sound symbolic word, indicates the linguistic form deeply related to environmental sound. The objective of this study is to visualize the relationship between perceptual properties of onomatopoeia and affective characteristics ("pleasant - unpleasant") perceived from the environmental sound. We have mapped the correlation between perceptual properties by phonemes of onomatopoeia and "pleasant/unpleasant" evaluations of environmental sound. The results showed that many onomatopoeias are related to various perceptual and affective scales. We suggest the importance of relation between the perceptual characteristics in auditory sensation and the phonological properties of sound symbolic words.

  12. Attention Effects on Letter-Speech Sound Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mittag

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested that attention modulates how well we integrate sounds with visual cues. In the present study, we examined attention effects on integration of written and heard syllables in fluent readers. Subjects were presented with auditory stimuli (consonant-vowel syllables together with synchronized visual stimuli, which differed between conditions. The auditory stimuli included consonant and pitch changes. Visual stimuli were sound-congruent written syllables or their scrambled images. In four different attention conditions, subjects pressed a button to duration changes in 1 the visual modality, 2 auditory modality or 3 either modality, or 4 counted mentally backwards and ignored the auditory and visual stimuli. Preliminary analysis showed in event-related potentials to spoken syllables larger mismatch negativities (MMNs to pitch changes during audiovisual, auditory, and visual tasks than during mental counting indicating that attention to either one or both modalities facilitated MMN elicitation, that is, even during the visual task, attention spread covertly to coinciding speech sounds, integrating written syllables with their spoken counterparts. Additionally, these MMNs were larger in all four conditions when the visual stimuli were syllables than when they were scrambled images, indicating that written syllables facilitated processing of coinciding spoken syllables independent of attention.

  13. Effect of Velocity and Time-Step on the Continuity of a Discrete Moving Sound Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Seki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As a basic study into 3-D audio display systems, this paper reports the conditions of moving sound image velocity and time-step where a discrete moving sound image is perceived as continuous motion. In this study, the discrete moving sound image was presented through headphones and ran along the ear-axis. The experiments tested the continuity of a discrete moving sound image using various conditions of velocity (0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, and 4 m/s and time-step (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, 0.10, 0.12, and 0.14 s. As a result, the following were required in order to present the discrete moving sound image as continuous movement. (1 The 3-D audio display system was required to complete the sound image presentation process, including head tracking and HRTF simulation, in a time shorter than 0.02 s, in order to present sound image movement at all velocities. (2 A processing time longer than 0.1 s was not acceptable. (3 If the 3-D audio display system only presented very slow movement (less than about 0.5 m/s, processing times ranging from 0.04 s to 0.06 s were still acceptable.

  14. Designing sound identity: providing new communication tools for building brands "corporate sound"

    OpenAIRE

    Carron, Maxime; DUBOIS, Françoise; Misdariis, Nicolas; Talotte, Corinne; Susini, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we focus through a series of interviews on the relation between sound and brand identity in the context of musical and sound design for the industry. The interviews showed that the sound design process involves stakeholders who have different domains of expertise, which leads to difficulties in the interaction between them. As a solution, we propose a methodological framework for designing sound identity supported by two communication tools: a deck of car...

  15. Zero Sound in Neutron Stars with Dense Quark Matter under Strong Magnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kouvaris, Chris

    2009-01-01

    We study a neutron star with a quark matter core under extremely strong magnetic fields. We investigate the possibility of an Urca process as a mechanism for the cooling of such a star. We found that apart from very particular cases, the Urca process cannot occur. We also study the stability of zero sound modes under the same conditions. We derive limits for the coupling constant of an effective theory, in order the zero sound to be undamped. We show that zero sound modes can help kinematically to facilitate a cooling process.

  16. High-frequency sound wave propagation in binary gas mixtures flowing through microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M.; Lorenzani, S.

    2016-05-01

    The propagation of high-frequency sound waves in binary gas mixtures flowing through microchannels is investigated by using the linearized Boltzmann equation based on a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK)-type approach and diffuse reflection boundary conditions. The results presented refer to mixtures whose constituents have comparable molecular mass (like Ne-Ar) as well as to disparate-mass gas mixtures (composed of very heavy plus very light molecules, like He-Xe). The sound wave propagation model considered in the present paper allows to analyze the precise nature of the forced-sound modes excited in different gas mixtures.

  17. Speech Sound Processing Deficits and Training-Induced Neural Plasticity in Rats with Dyslexia Gene Knockdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centanni, Tracy M.; Chen, Fuyi; Booker, Anne M.; Engineer, Crystal T.; Sloan, Andrew M.; Rennaker, Robert L.; LoTurco, Joseph J.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    In utero RNAi of the dyslexia-associated gene Kiaa0319 in rats (KIA-) degrades cortical responses to speech sounds and increases trial-by-trial variability in onset latency. We tested the hypothesis that KIA- rats would be impaired at speech sound discrimination. KIA- rats needed twice as much training in quiet conditions to perform at control levels and remained impaired at several speech tasks. Focused training using truncated speech sounds was able to normalize speech discrimination in quiet and background noise conditions. Training also normalized trial-by-trial neural variability and temporal phase locking. Cortical activity from speech trained KIA- rats was sufficient to accurately discriminate between similar consonant sounds. These results provide the first direct evidence that assumed reduced expression of the dyslexia-associated gene KIAA0319 can cause phoneme processing impairments similar to those seen in dyslexia and that intensive behavioral therapy can eliminate these impairments. PMID:24871331

  18. Sound Synthesis and Evaluation of Interactive Footsteps and Environmental Sounds Rendering for Virtual Reality Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Turchet, Luca; Serafin, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    We propose a system that affords real-time sound synthesis of footsteps on different materials. The system is based on microphones, which detect real footstep sounds from subjects, from which the ground reaction force (GRF) is estimated. Such GRF is used to control a sound synthesis engine based ...

  19. WFMOS - Sounding the Dark Cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Bassett, B A; Nichol, R C; Bassett, Bruce A.; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Team, the WFMOS Feasibility Study Dark Energy

    2005-01-01

    Vast sound waves traveling through the relativistic plasma during the first million years of the universe imprint a preferred scale in the density of matter. We now have the ability to detect this characteristic fingerprint in the clustering of galaxies at various redshifts and use it to measure the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. The Wide-Field Multi-Object Spectrograph (WFMOS) would use this test to shed significant light on the true nature of dark energy, the mysterious source of this cosmic acceleration. WFMOS would also revolutionise studies of the kinematics of the Milky Way and provide deep insights into the clustering of galaxies at redshifts up to z~4. In this article we discuss the recent progress in large galaxy redshift surveys and detail how WFMOS will help unravel the mystery of dark energy.

  20. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...... on the antenna performance. The optimized antenna demonstrates S11 below -10 dB and a stable omnidirectional radiation pattern robust against the cable effect over the frequency band 1.5-41 GHz despite its compactness (the maximum electrical dimension is of 0.29max, where max is the free space wavelength...... at the lowest frequency of operation). A prototype of the antenna is fabricated and tested. The simulated and measured S11 are in a good agreement. Measured radiation patterns confirm the pattern stability in terms of the direction of maximum radiation and 3 dB beamwidth....

  1. Exploring the effect of sound and music on health in hospital settings: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyendo, Timothy Onosahwo

    2016-11-01

    positive emotion, and decreasing the levels of stressful conditions. Whilst sound holds both negative and positive aspects of the hospital ecosystem and may be stressful, it also possesses a soothing quality that induces positive feelings in patients. Conceptualizing the nature of sound in the hospital context as a soundscape, rather than merely noise can permit a subtler and socially useful understanding of the role of sound and music in the hospital setting, thereby creating a means for improving the hospital experience for patients and nurses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sound characteristics of viscoelastic coating containing periodic cavities by the finite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong; TAN Hongbo; AN Junying; XU Haiting

    2004-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is applied to analyze sound characteristics of the viscoelastic coatings containing doubly periodic cavities immersed in water or adhered to steel plate between water and air. The reflection coefficients and transmission coefficients are obtained for the coatings with spherical, cylindrical or conic cavities in above two conditions.Moreover, the vibration modes of the coatings are analyzed. Numerical results show that the cavities have great impact on the sound characteristics at low frequency.

  3. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the psychophysics of sound localization and the spatial attributes of sound, attempting to explain some of the methods used to produce more realistic sound images. Topics include: direct and indirect sound; localization and sound images; precedence effect; and techniques for creating spaciousness and for sonic image enhancement. (JM)

  4. 33 CFR 67.10-15 - Approval of sound signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of sound signals. 67.10... Sound signals § 67.10-15 Approval of sound signals. (a) The Coast Guard approves a sound signal if: (1) It meets the requirements for sound signals in § 67.10-1 (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) when tested...

  5. Sound Symbolic Word Learning in the Middle Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parault, Susan J.; Parkinson, Meghan

    2008-01-01

    Sound symbolism is the notion that there is a subset of words in the world's languages for which sounds and their symbols have some degree of correspondence. Two studies assessed 5th and 6th graders' knowledge of word meanings for English sound symbolic and non-sound symbolic words. Both studies found that the meanings of sound symbolic words were…

  6. Physics and Psychophysics of High-Fidelity Sound. Part V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Thomas D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the psychophysics of sound localization and the spatial attributes of sound, attempting to explain some of the methods used to produce more realistic sound images. Topics include: direct and indirect sound; localization and sound images; precedence effect; and techniques for creating spaciousness and for sonic image enhancement. (JM)

  7. Sounding the Object: A Timebase Archive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toop

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A proposition for a hypothetical environment in which intangible multi-sensory events can be experienced as if in a museum. This museum of the imagination displays various sounding devices and listening events, all of which are footnoted by ancillary theoretical, conceptual and anecdotal material from the author’s sound work practice and research between 1971 and the present.

  8. Wide-Screen Cinema and Stereophonic Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysotsky, Michael Z.

    Developments in the techniques of wide screen cinema and stereophonic sound throughout the world are detailed in this book. Particular attention is paid to progress in the Soviet Union in these fields. Special emphasis is placed on the Soviet view of stereophonic sound as a vital adjunct in the search for enchanced realism as opposed to the…

  9. Representations of Sound in American Deaf Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2007-01-01

    Sound plays a prominent role in narrative description of characters and environs in mainstream American literature. A review of American Deaf literature shows that the representations of sound held for deaf writers are in extensional and oppositional terms. American deaf writers, in their descriptions of entities, characters, functions, and…

  10. 78 FR 58530 - Puget Sound Energy, Inc.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Puget Sound Energy, Inc.; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...: Puget Sound Energy, Inc. e. Name of Project: Baker River Hydroelectric Project f. Location: Baker...

  11. The Impact of Sound Structure on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaha, Sabine; Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of sound structure on children’s acquisition of noun plural morphology, focussing on stem change. For this purpose, a threelevel classification of stem change properties according to sound structure is presented, with increasing opacity of the plural stem: no change...

  12. Environmental Sound Training in Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiro, Valeriy; Sheft, Stanley; Kuvadia, Sejal; Gygi, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the effect of a short computer-based environmental sound training regimen on the perception of environmental sounds and speech in experienced cochlear implant (CI) patients. Method: Fourteen CI patients with the average of 5 years of CI experience participated. The protocol consisted of 2 pretests, 1 week apart,…

  13. 33 CFR 117.309 - Nassau Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nassau Sound. 117.309 Section 117.309 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.309 Nassau Sound. The draw of the Fernandina Port...

  14. 7 CFR 29.2298 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2298 Section 29.2298 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2298 Sound...

  15. 7 CFR 29.1058 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.1058 Section 29.1058 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 92) § 29.1058 Sound. Free of damage. [42 FR 21092, Apr. 25, 1977. Redesignated at 47 FR 51721, Nov...

  16. 7 CFR 29.3546 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3546 Section 29.3546 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3546 Sound. Free of damage. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3056 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.3056 Section 29.3056 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Sound. Free of damage. [24 FR 8771, Oct. 29, 1959. Redesignated at 47 FR 51722, Nov. 17, 1982, and at 49...

  18. 7 CFR 29.6036 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.6036 Section 29.6036 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6036 Sound. Free of damage. (See Rule 4.) ...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2550 - Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sound. 29.2550 Section 29.2550 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2550 Sound. Free of damage. [37 FR 13626...

  20. Speech Sound Disorders: Articulation and Phonological Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be related to a feature of a dialect or accent. For example, speakers of African American Vernacular English (AAVE) may use a "d" sound for a " ... were accompanied by hearing loss. Speaking with an accent and/or dialect is ... in English correctly. How effective are treatments for speech sound ...

  1. 42 CFR 460.80 - Fiscal soundness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fiscal soundness. 460.80 Section 460.80 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... organization must have a fiscally sound operation, as demonstrated by the following: (1) Total assets...

  2. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Scorescapes : on sound, environment and sonic consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Yolande

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores sound, its image and its role in relating humans and our technologies to the environment. It investigates two related questions: How does sound mediate our relationship to environment? And how can contemporary multidisciplinary art practices articulate and explore this rel

  4. Waves and Sound, An Experiment that Walks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunschwig, Fernand

    An experiment on sound waves, developed for non-science majors in a college physics course, is described. The student investigates the interference of two sound waves and measures and wavelength as he uses a prerecorded tape and a cassette player. The student is tutored by the cassette tape recorder, which also produces the overlapping sound…

  5. Sound-symbolism boosts novel word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lockwood, G.F.; Dingemanse, M.; Hagoort, P.

    2016-01-01

    The existence of sound-symbolism (or a non-arbitrary link between form and meaning) is well-attested. However, sound-symbolism has mostly been investigated with nonwords in forced choice tasks, neither of which are representative of natural language. This study uses ideophones, which are naturally o

  6. The Sound-Symbolic System of Japanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Shoko

    This study explores sound-symbolic, or mimetic, words in the Japanese language, the majority of which are never entered in Japanese dictionaries, and which may not be fully understood in all their nuances by native speakers. The extensiveness of the sound-symbolic system is related to the semantic under-differentiation of Japanese verbs. An…

  7. The Sounds of Nanoscience: Acoustic STM Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euler, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    A hands-on model of scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) is presented. It uses near-field imaging with sound and computer assisted visualization to create acoustic mappings of resonator arrangements. Due to the (partial) analogy of matter and sound waves the images closely resemble STM scans of atoms. Moreover, the method can be extended to build…

  8. The Impact of Sound Structure on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaha, Sabine; Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of sound structure on children’s acquisition of noun plural morphology, focussing on stem change. For this purpose, a threelevel classification of stem change properties according to sound structure is presented, with increasing opacity of the plural stem: no change...

  9. Scorescapes : on sound, environment and sonic consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harris, Yolande

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation explores sound, its image and its role in relating humans and our technologies to the environment. It investigates two related questions: How does sound mediate our relationship to environment? And how can contemporary multidisciplinary art practices articulate and explore this

  10. Sound insulation requirements in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    All Nordic countries have sound insulation requirements for housing and sound classification schemes originating from a common INSTA‐proposal in the mid 90’s, but unfortunately being increasingly diversified since then. The present situation impedes development and create barriers for trade and e.......cost.esf.org/index.php?id=240&action_number=TU0901...

  11. Robust segmentation and retrieval of environmental sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichern, Gordon

    The proliferation of mobile computing has provided much of the world with the ability to record any sound of interest, or possibly every sound heard in a lifetime. The technology to continuously record the auditory world has applications in surveillance, biological monitoring of non-human animal sounds, and urban planning. Unfortunately, the ability to record anything has led to an audio data deluge, where there are more recordings than time to listen. Thus, access to these archives depends on efficient techniques for segmentation (determining where sound events begin and end), indexing (storing sufficient information with each event to distinguish it from other events), and retrieval (searching for and finding desired events). While many such techniques have been developed for speech and music sounds, the environmental and natural sounds that compose the majority of our aural world are often overlooked. The process of analyzing audio signals typically begins with the process of acoustic feature extraction where a frame of raw audio (e.g., 50 milliseconds) is converted into a feature vector summarizing the audio content. In this dissertation, a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) is used to monitor changes in acoustic features in order to determine the segmentation of continuously recorded audio signals. Experiments demonstrate effective segmentation performance on test sets of environmental sounds recorded in both indoor and outdoor environments. Once segmented, every sound event is indexed with a probabilistic model, summarizing the evolution of acoustic features over the course of the event. Indexed sound events are then retrieved from the database using different query modalities. Two important query types are sound queries (query-by-example) and semantic queries (query-by-text). By treating each sound event and semantic concept in the database as a node in an undirected graph, a hybrid (content/semantic) network structure is developed. This hybrid network can

  12. A Fast Algorithm of Cartographic Sounding Selection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUI Haigang; HUA Li; ZHAO Haitao; ZHANG Yongli

    2005-01-01

    An effective strategy and framework that adequately integrate the automated and manual processes for fast cartographic sounding selection is presented. The important submarine topographic features are extracted for important soundings selection, and an improved "influence circle" algorithm is introduced for sounding selection. For automatic configuration of soundings distribution pattern, a special algorithm considering multi-factors is employed. A semi-automatic method for solving the ambiguous conflicts is described. On the basis of the algorithms and strategies a system named HGIS for fast cartographic sounding selection is developed and applied in Chinese Marine Safety Administration Bureau (CMSAB). The application experiments show that the system is effective and reliable. At last some conclusions and the future work are given.

  13. Broadband sound pressure enhancement in passive metafluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Bogdan-Ioan

    2017-09-01

    Acoustic sensors operating in lossy environments, such as water, require significant sensitivity to overcome the sound attenuation in the environment and thus see farther. We show here that a surprisingly large class of passive fluids has the ability to enhance the sound pressure propagating inside them without employing active actuation. Specifically, the general requirements for this remarkable property are fluid impedance higher than the impedance of the environment and negligible insertion loss as sound propagates from the environment into the high impedance fluid. We demonstrate the pressure enhancing effect by designing a broadband isotropic metafluid that increases the pressure of sound waves impinging from water. We validate the design in numerical simulations showing that significant sound pressure level increases are achievable in realistic metafluid structures in large bandwidths covering several octaves. Our approach opens up unexplored avenues towards improving acoustic transducer sensitivity, which is critical in applications, such as medical ultrasound imaging, sonar, and acoustic communications.

  14. Regularity extraction from non-adjacent sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra eBendixen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The regular behavior of sound sources helps us to make sense of the auditory environment. Regular patterns may, for instance, convey information on the identity of a sound source (such as the acoustic signature of a train moving on the rails. Yet typically, this signature overlaps in time with signals emitted from other sound sources. It is generally assumed that auditory regularity extraction cannot operate upon this mixture of signals because it only finds regularities between adjacent sounds. In this view, the auditory environment would be grouped into separate entities by means of readily available acoustic cues such as separation in frequency and location. Regularity extraction processes would then operate upon the resulting groups. Our new experimental evidence challenges this view. We presented two interleaved sound sequences which overlapped in frequency range and shared all acoustic parameters. The sequences only differed in their underlying regular patterns. We inserted deviants into one of the sequences to probe whether the regularity was extracted. In the first experiment, we found that these deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN component. Thus the auditory system was able to find the regularity between the non-adjacent sounds. Regularity extraction was not influenced by sequence cohesiveness as manipulated by the relative duration of tones and silent inter-tone-intervals. In the second experiment, we showed that a regularity connecting non-adjacent sounds was discovered only when the intervening sequence also contained a regular pattern, but not when the intervening sounds were randomly varying. This suggests that separate regular patterns are available to the auditory system as a cue for identifying signals coming from distinct sound sources. Thus auditory regularity extraction is not necessarily confined to a processing stage after initial sound grouping, but may precede grouping when other acoustic cues are unavailable.

  15. Ecology of Albemarle Sound, North Carolina: an estuarine profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, B.J.; Hodson, R.G.; Riggs, S.R.; Easley, J.E. Jr.

    1983-09-01

    Albemarle Sound, a large oligohaline estuary in northeastern North Carloina, constitutes a significant portion of North Carolina's coastal system. It is shallow, wind dominated, and strongly influenced by freshwater inflow. These conditions, combined with limited oceanic access and exchange, maintain fresh- to brackish water conditions throughout most of the estuary during the year. The nekton are the most well-known biological component of this extensive estuarine system. Albemarle Sound is an important nursery area for a number of anadromous and migratory fish as well as the blue crab and supports fisheries for many of these species. Other biological components (phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthos) in the estuary are less well studied. Declining fisheries, algal blooms in freshwater tributaries, and changing patterns of land and water use are among the critical issues facing managers of Albemarle Sound. This report discusses current steps being taken toward holistic management and provides a state-of-the-art information base and ecological synthesis of the estuary and its watershed. 89 references, 50 figures, 19 tables.

  16. Stimulus coherence influences sound-field localization and fusion/segregation of leading and lagging sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Julian; van de Par, Steven; Trahiotis, Constantine

    2017-04-01

    The ability to localize sound sources in reverberant environments is dependent upon first-arriving information, an outcome commonly termed "the precedence effect." For example, in laboratory experiments, the combination of a leading (direct) sound followed by a lagging (reflected) sound is localized in the direction of the leading sound. This study was designed to measure the degree to which stimulus compactness/diffuseness (i.e., coherence as represented by interaural cross correlation) of leading and lagging sounds influences performance. The compactness/diffuseness of leading or lagging sounds was varied by either presenting a sound from a single loudspeaker or by presenting mutually uncorrelated versions of similar sounds from nine adjacent loudspeakers. In separate experiments, the listener's task was to point to the perceived location of leading and lagging 10-ms long low-pass filtered white noises or 2-s long tokens of speech. The leading and lagging stimuli were presented either from speakers located directly in front of the listeners or from speakers located ±45° to the right or left. The results indicate that leading compact (coherent) sounds influence perceived location more so than do leading diffuse (incoherent) sounds. This was true independent of whether the sounds were Gaussian noises or tokens of speech.

  17. Tuning the cognitive environment: Sound masking with 'natural' sounds in open-plan offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLoach, Alana

    With the gain in popularity of open-plan office design and the engineering efforts to achieve acoustical comfort for building occupants, a majority of workers still report dissatisfaction in their workplace environment. Office acoustics influence organizational effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction through meeting appropriate requirements for speech privacy and ambient sound levels. Implementing a sound masking system is one tried-and-true method of achieving privacy goals. Although each sound masking system is tuned for its specific environment, the signal -- random steady state electronic noise, has remained the same for decades. This research work explores how `natural' sounds may be used as an alternative to this standard masking signal employed so ubiquitously in sound masking systems in the contemporary office environment. As an unobtrusive background sound, possessing the appropriate spectral characteristics, this proposed use of `natural' sounds for masking challenges the convention that masking sounds should be as meaningless as possible. Through the pilot study presented in this work, we hypothesize that `natural' sounds as sound maskers will be as effective at masking distracting background noise as the conventional masking sound, will enhance cognitive functioning, and increase participant (worker) satisfaction.

  18. 49 CFR 325.35 - Ambient conditions; highway operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambient conditions; highway operations. 325.35... Ambient conditions; highway operations. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the microphone... § 325.23. (2) The measured ambient level must be 10 dB(A) or more below that level specified in §...

  19. 49 CFR 325.55 - Ambient conditions; stationary test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ambient conditions; stationary test. 325.55... MOTOR CARRIER NOISE EMISSION STANDARDS Measurement of Noise Emissions; Stationary Test § 325.55 Ambient conditions; stationary test. (a)(1) Sound. The ambient A-weighted sound level at the microphone...

  20. Acoustic clouds: standing sound waves around a black hole analogue

    CERN Document Server

    Benone, Carolina L; Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Under certain conditions sound waves in fluids experience an acoustic horizon with analogue properties to those of a black hole event horizon. In particular, a draining bathtub-like model can give rise to a rotating acoustic horizon and hence a rotating black hole (acoustic) analogue. We show that sound waves, when enclosed in a cylindrical cavity, can form stationary waves around such rotating acoustic black holes. These acoustic perturbations display similar properties to the scalar clouds that have been studied around Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes; thus they are dubbed acoustic clouds. We make the comparison between scalar clouds around Kerr black holes and acoustic clouds around the draining bathtub explicit by studying also the properties of scalar clouds around Kerr black holes enclosed in a cavity. Acoustic clouds suggest the possibility of testing, experimentally, the existence and properties of black hole clouds, using analog models.

  1. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan : Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    A specific need exists in the Puget Sound area for balance between east-west transmission capacity and the increasing demand to import power generated east of the Cascades. At certain times of the year, and during certain conditions, there is more demand for power in the Puget Sound area than the transmission system and existing generation can reliably supply. This high demand, called peak demand occurs during the winter months when unusually cold weather increases electricity use for heating. The existing power system can supply enough power if no emergencies occur. However, during emergencies the system will not operate properly. As demand grows, the system becomes more strained. To meet demand, the rate of growth of demand must be reduced or the ability to serve the demand must be increased, or both.

  2. Effect of occlusion on joint sounds in asymptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Alício Rosalino; Zuim, Paulo R Junqueira; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; dos Santos, Paulo H; Ribeiro, Adriana Barbosa; Pita, Murillo Sucena; Flacón-Antenucci, Rosse M

    2008-01-01

    Occlusion is a predisposing factor for Temporomandibular Dysfunctions (TMD) of the joint, whose first sign and/or symptom is usually joint sound. To verify the effect of occlusion on joint sounds, temporomandibular joints (TMJ) were analyzed in 78 asymptomatic individuals with various dental conditions. Electrosonography was used to determine the intensity of the vibration in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) on opening and closing the mouth. Transducers (piezoelectric accelerometer) were placed on the right and left joints. Results were tabled and analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test (a=0.05). It was concluded that TMJ vibration in partly edentulous individuals from Kennedy classes I, II and III is statistically higher than in dentate and fully edentulous subjects.

  3. Scattering of sound waves by a compressible vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colonius, Tim; Lele, Sanjiva K.; Moin, Parviz

    1991-01-01

    Scattering of plane sound waves by a compressible vortex is investigated by direct computation of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Nonreflecting boundary conditions are utilized, and their accuracy is established by comparing results on different sized domains. Scattered waves are directly measured from the computations. The resulting amplitude and directivity pattern of the scattered waves is discussed, and compared to various theoretical predictions. For compact vortices (zero circulation), the scattered waves directly computed are in good agreement with predictions based on an acoustic analogy. Strong scattering at about + or - 30 degrees from the direction of incident wave propagation is observed. Back scattering is an order of magnitude smaller than forward scattering. For vortices with finite circulation refraction of the sound by the mean flow field outside the vortex core is found to be important in determining the amplitude and directivity of the scattered wave field.

  4. Vortex sound in confined flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmans, Gerardus Carolus Johannus

    The interaction of vortex structures with the acoustic velocity field is prerequisite for the production or absorption of acoustic energy. When the source region in which this interaction occurs is much smaller than the wavelength of the acoustic wave, it is possible to neglect wave propagation in the source region itself. Such a source region is called 'compact' and it results in a simplified description of the acoustic source. We have restricted ourselves to compact source regions. Three relevant applications have been studied: speech modelling, damping of acoustic waves by means of diaphragms, and the prediction of flow-induced resonances in bifurcated pipe systems with T-shaped junctions. Experimental as well as numerical work has been carried out for rigid in vitro models of the vocal folds. It was found that it is possible to use a simplified quasi- steady model, which describes the boundary-layer flow in the glottis, to reasonably predict the separation point during a part of one cycle of the vocal-fold movement. This results in a reasonable prediction of the source of sound in voiced speech. Furthermore, it was found that the instability of the jet, that is formed downstream of the glottis, can be a significant source of broad-band sound. A diaphragm used as a constriction in a pipe is a common element in mufflers. This configuration is investigated theoretically, numerically, and experimentally. Results of the quasi-steady flow model and of the numerical calculations are in good agreement with results of experiments. Theory also correctly describes the limit of high frequencies. For the intermediate frequencies we found some deviation between theory and experiments, which is not yet fully understood. The flow through T-joints, with sharp edges, has been numerically investigated as a function of the acoustic amplitude, the Strouhal number, and the flow configuration. In the limit of low frequencies the acoustic source in a T-joint can be described by means

  5. Soft computing based feature selection for environmental sound classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakoor, A.; May, T.M.; Van Schijndel, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental sound classification has a wide range of applications,like hearing aids, mobile communication devices, portable media players, and auditory protection devices. Sound classification systemstypically extract features from the input sound. Using too many features increases complexity unne

  6. Soft computing based feature selection for environmental sound classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shakoor, A.; May, T.M.; Van Schijndel, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Environmental sound classification has a wide range of applications,like hearing aids, mobile communication devices, portable media players, and auditory protection devices. Sound classification systemstypically extract features from the input sound. Using too many features increases complexity unne

  7. Evaluating Environmental Sounds from a Presence Perspective for Virtual Reality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordahl Rolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodology to design and evaluate environmental sounds for virtual environments. We propose to combine physically modeled sound events with recorded soundscapes. Physical models are used to provide feedback to users' actions, while soundscapes reproduce the characteristic soundmarks of an environment. In this particular case, physical models are used to simulate the act of walking in the botanical garden of the city of Prague, while soundscapes are used to reproduce the particular sound of the garden. The auditory feedback designed was combined with a photorealistic reproduction of the same garden. A between-subject experiment was conducted, where 126 subjects participated, involving six different experimental conditions, including both uni- and bimodal stimuli (auditory and visual. The auditory stimuli consisted of several combinations of auditory feedback, including static sound sources as well as self-induced interactive sounds simulated using physical models. Results show that subjects' motion in the environment is significantly enhanced when dynamic sound sources and sound of egomotion are rendered in the environment.

  8. Acoustic Performance of a Real-Time Three-Dimensional Sound-Reproduction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Kenneth J., II; Rizzi, Stephen A.; Aumann, Aric R.

    2013-01-01

    The Exterior Effects Room (EER) is a 39-seat auditorium at the NASA Langley Research Center and was built to support psychoacoustic studies of aircraft community noise. The EER has a real-time simulation environment which includes a three-dimensional sound-reproduction system. This system requires real-time application of equalization filters to compensate for spectral coloration of the sound reproduction due to installation and room effects. This paper describes the efforts taken to develop the equalization filters for use in the real-time sound-reproduction system and the subsequent analysis of the system s acoustic performance. The acoustic performance of the compensated and uncompensated sound-reproduction system is assessed for its crossover performance, its performance under stationary and dynamic conditions, the maximum spatialized sound pressure level it can produce from a single virtual source, and for the spatial uniformity of a generated sound field. Additionally, application examples are given to illustrate the compensated sound-reproduction system performance using recorded aircraft flyovers

  9. Development of a High Sound Absorption Material CEMCOM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Bao-guo; ZHU Hong-bo; DONG Rong-zhen

    2002-01-01

    Based on sound absorption mechanism of material, the special sound absorption material CEMCOM for road sound insulation is introduced. This high sound absorption material is mainly composed of expanded perlite. Using multiple sound absorption structure can improve sound absorption property of material. According to the preparation principle and durability design of material, a new kind of material with low cost and high durability is developed.

  10. Rapid neural adaptation to sound level statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Isabel; Robinson, Ben L; Harper, Nicol S; McAlpine, David

    2008-06-18

    Auditory neurons must represent accurately a wide range of sound levels using firing rates that vary over a far narrower range of levels. Recently, we demonstrated that this "dynamic range problem" is lessened by neural adaptation, whereby neurons adjust their input-output functions for sound level according to the prevailing distribution of levels. These adjustments in input-output functions increase the accuracy with which levels around those occurring most commonly are coded by the neural population. Here, we examine how quickly this adaptation occurs. We recorded from single neurons in the auditory midbrain during a stimulus that switched repeatedly between two distributions of sound levels differing in mean level. The high-resolution analysis afforded by this stimulus showed that a prominent component of the adaptation occurs rapidly, with an average time constant across neurons of 160 ms after an increase in mean level, much faster than our previous experiments were able to assess. This time course appears to be independent of both the timescale over which sound levels varied and that over which sound level distributions varied, but is related to neural characteristic frequency. We find that adaptation to an increase in mean level occurs more rapidly than to a decrease. Finally, we observe an additional, slow adaptation in some neurons, which occurs over a timescale of tens of seconds. Our findings provide constraints in the search for mechanisms underlying adaptation to sound level. They also have functional implications for the role of adaptation in the representation of natural sounds.

  11. Tonotopic cortical representation of periodic complex sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansino, Selene; Ducorps, Antoine; Ragot, Richard

    2003-10-01

    Most of the sounds that are biologically relevant are complex periodic sounds, i.e., they are made up of harmonics, whose frequencies are integer multiples of a fundamental frequency (Fo). The Fo of a complex sound can be varied by modifying its periodicity frequency; these variations are perceived as the pitch of the voice or as the note of a musical instrument. The center frequency (CF) of peaks occurring in the audio spectrum also carries information, which is essential, for instance, in vowel recognition. The aim of the present study was to establish whether the generators underlying the 100 m are tonotopically organized based on the Fo or CF of complex sounds. Auditory evoked neuromagnetic fields were recorded with a whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system while 14 subjects listened to 9 different sounds (3 Fo x 3 CF) presented in random order. Equivalent current dipole (ECD) sources for the 100 m component show an orderly progression along the y-axis for both hemispheres, with higher CFs represented more medially. In the right hemisphere, sources for higher CFs were more posterior, while in the left hemisphere they were more inferior. ECD orientation also varied as a function of the sound CF. These results show that the spectral content CF of the complex sounds employed here predominates, at the latency of the 100 m component, over a concurrent mapping of their periodic frequency Fo. The effect was observed both on dipole placement and dipole orientation.

  12. Graphene-on-paper sound source devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, He; Ren, Tian-Ling; Xie, Dan; Wang, Yu-Feng; Zhou, Chang-Jian; Feng, Ting-Ting; Fu, Di; Yang, Yi; Peng, Ping-Gang; Wang, Li-Gang; Liu, Li-Tian

    2011-06-28

    We demonstrate an interesting phenomenon that graphene can emit sound. The application of graphene can be expanded in the acoustic field. Graphene-on-paper sound source devices are made by patterning graphene on paper substrates. Three graphene sheet samples with the thickness of 100, 60, and 20 nm were fabricated. Sound emission from graphene is measured as a function of power, distance, angle, and frequency in the far-field. The theoretical model of air/graphene/paper/PCB board multilayer structure is established to analyze the sound directivity, frequency response, and efficiency. Measured sound pressure level (SPL) and efficiency are in good agreement with theoretical results. It is found that graphene has a significant flat frequency response in the wide ultrasound range 20-50 kHz. In addition, the thinner graphene sheets can produce higher SPL due to its lower heat capacity per unit area (HCPUA). The infrared thermal images reveal that a thermoacoustic effect is the working principle. We find that the sound performance mainly depends on the HCPUA of the conductor and the thermal properties of the substrate. The paper-based graphene sound source devices have highly reliable, flexible, no mechanical vibration, simple structure and high performance characteristics. It could open wide applications in multimedia, consumer electronics, biological, medical, and many other areas.

  13. Decadal trends in Indian Ocean ambient sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Bradley, David L; Niu, Xiaoyue Maggie

    2013-11-01

    The increase of ocean noise documented in the North Pacific has sparked concern on whether the observed increases are a global or regional phenomenon. This work provides evidence of low frequency sound increases in the Indian Ocean. A decade (2002-2012) of recordings made off the island of Diego Garcia, UK in the Indian Ocean was parsed into time series according to frequency band and sound level. Quarterly sound level comparisons between the first and last years were also performed. The combination of time series and temporal comparison analyses over multiple measurement parameters produced results beyond those obtainable from a single parameter analysis. The ocean sound floor has increased over the past decade in the Indian Ocean. Increases were most prominent in recordings made south of Diego Garcia in the 85-105 Hz band. The highest sound level trends differed between the two sides of the island; the highest sound levels decreased in the north and increased in the south. Rate, direction, and magnitude of changes among the multiple parameters supported interpretation of source functions driving the trends. The observed sound floor increases are consistent with concurrent increases in shipping, wind speed, wave height, and blue whale abundance in the Indian Ocean.

  14. Visualizing Sound: Demonstrations to Teach Acoustic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennoll, Valerie

    Interference, a phenomenon in which two sound waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater or lower amplitude, is a key concept when learning about the physics of sound waves. Typical interference demonstrations involve students listening for changes in sound level as they move throughout a room. Here, new tools are developed to teach this concept that provide a visual component, allowing individuals to see changes in sound level on a light display. This is accomplished using a microcontroller that analyzes sound levels collected by a microphone and displays the sound level in real-time on an LED strip. The light display is placed on a sliding rail between two speakers to show the interference occurring between two sound waves. When a long-exposure photograph is taken of the light display being slid from one end of the rail to the other, a wave of the interference pattern can be captured. By providing a visual component, these tools will help students and the general public to better understand interference, a key concept in acoustics.

  15. The CODEX sounding rocket payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, B.; Shipley, A.; Cash, W.; Rogers, T.; Schultz, T.; McEntaffer, R.; Kaiser, M.

    2011-05-01

    We present the CODEX sounding rocket payload, a soft x-ray (0.1-1.0 keV) spectrometer designed to observe diffuse high-surface brightness astronomical sources. The payload is composed of two modules, each with a 3.25° x 3.25° field of view defined by a stack of wire grids that block light not coming to a 3.0 m focus and admit only nearly-collimated light onto an array of 67 diffraction gratings in an off-plane mount. After a 2.0 m throw, the spectrum is detected by offset large-format gaseous electron multiplier (GEM) detectors. CODEX will target the Vela supernova remnant later this year to measure the temperature and abundances and to determine the contributions of various soft x-ray emission mechanisms to the remnant's energy budget; resulting spectra will have resolution (E/▵E) ranging from 50 to 100 across the band. CODEX is the third-generation of similar payloads from the University of Colorado, with an increased bandpass, higher throughput, and a more robust mechanical structure than its predecessors.

  16. Jordan Banks Financial Soundness Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imad Kutum

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to examine the Jordanian banks using financial soundness indicators. This is to establish if Jordanian banks were affected because of the 2007/2008 financial crisis and determine the underlying reasons. The research paper was conducted on 25 banks in Jordan listed in the countries securities exchange. The research methodology used consisted of examining the banks financial records in order to derive four crucial Basel III ratio such as the capital adequacy ratio, the leverage ratio, the liquidity ratio and finally the Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans %. The results revealed that out of the four hypotheses under examination Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Capital Adequacy Ratio, Jordan Banks does not meet Basel financial Indicators for Liquidity Ratio , Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Leverage Ratio and Jordan Banks do not meet Basel financial Indicators for Total Provisions (As % Of Non-Performing Loans ratio. Only one hypothesis was accepted based on the research outcomes. The rest of the hypothesis was rejected since the average trend line did not go below the Basel III required ratio level. The general outcome of the research revealed that Jordanian banks were not affected significantly by the financial crisis.

  17. Mulcaster’s Tyrant Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wesley

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The privileging of writing, often not simply metaphorically, over the “fantasies” of a pristine orality has been the impetus of much recent scholarship built on the foundations laid in Derrida’s _Of Grammatology_ (1967. But such explicit privileging is not new. Richard Mulcaster (1531/32-1611, an Elizabethan schoolmaster and educational reformer, declared in his _Positions_ (1581 that “though writing in order to traine do succeed reading, yet in nature and time it must needes be elder,” a stance Jonathan Goldberg (1990 has perceptively discovered at work even when Mulcaster claims, one year later in the _Elementarie_ (1582, to tell an allegory of sound’s originary position in the history of writing. While it does not seek to restore the primacy of orality in his works, this essay argues first that Mulcaster’s displacement of sound is not as tidy as both he and Goldberg would suggest, and therefore, second, that the consequent perception of “nature”—here that of children—is not as determinative.

  18. Electric field soundings through thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Thomas C.; Rust, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    Twelve balloon soundings of the electric field in thunderstorms are reported. The maximum magnitude of E in the storms averaged 96 +/-28 kV/m, with the largest being 146 kV/m. The maximum was usually observed between vertically adjacent regions of opposite charge. Using a 1D approximation to Gauss' law, four to ten charge regions in the storms are inferred. The magnitude of the density in the charge regions varied between 0.2 and 13 nC/cu m. The vertical extent of the charge regions ranged from 130 to 2100 m. None of the present 12 storms had charge distributions that fit the long-accepted model of Simpson et al. (1937, 1941) of a lower positive charge, a main negative charge, and an upper positive charge. In addition to regions similar to the Simpson model, the present storms had screening layers at the upper and lower cloud boundaries and extra charge regions, usually in the lower part of the cloud.

  19. Geological and Electrical Resistivity Sounding of Olokonla Area in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Akorede

    polygon was also constructed based on the radial electrical sounding. The geoelectric ... KEYWORDS: Vertical electrical sounding, aquifer, electrical resistivity, anisotropy polygon, geological mapping, fracture pattern .... Introduction to.

  20. Binaural Release from Masking for a Speech Sound in Infants, Preschoolers, and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozza, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Binaural masked thresholds for a speech sound (/ba/) were estimated under two interaural phase conditions in three age groups (infants, preschoolers, adults). Differences as a function of both age and condition and effects of reducing intensity for adults were significant in indicating possible developmental binaural hearing changes, especially…

  1. Development of a Sound Quality Evaluation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Preben; Thomsen, Carsten; Lee, Sanjil

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the first version of the Sound Quality Evaluation System. The purpose of the system is to predict the subjective sound quality of home theater systems from objective measurements. 16 home theater systems were measured in an anechoic room. Several metrics...... expected to correlate w ith the subjective quality were proposed and tested. A model for the sound quality was created by mapping the subjective evaluations of the Home Theater System s with the metrics calculated for each system. Correlation between subjective listening test and the prediction is presente...

  2. Interpolated Sounding Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyan, D [Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2013-04-01

    The Interpolated Sounding (INTERPSONDE) value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), and surface meteorological instruments in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of at least 266 altitude levels. This VAP is part of the Merged Sounding (MERGESONDE) suite of VAPs. INTERPSONDE is the profile of the atmospheric thermodynamic state created using the algorithms of MERGESONDE without including the model data from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). More specifically, INTERPSONDE VAP represents an intermediate step within the larger MERGESONDE process.

  3. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  4. Spatially extended sound equalization in rectangular rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco

    2001-01-01

    of broadband signals can be achieved by the simulation of a traveling plane wave using FIR filters. The optimal solution has been calculated following the traditional least-squares approximation, where a modeling delay has been applied to minimize reverberation. An advantage of the method is that the sound......The results of a theoretical study on global sound equalization in rectangular rooms at low frequencies are presented. The zone where sound equalization can be obtained is a continuous three-dimensional region that occupies almost the complete volume of the room. It is proved that the equalization...

  5. On the sound of snapping shrimp

    CERN Document Server

    Versluis, Michel; von der Heydt, Anna; Lohse, Detlef

    2007-01-01

    Fluid dynamics video: Snapping shrimp produce a snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of their snapper claw. Our high speed imaging of the claw closure has revealed that the sound is generated by the collapse of a cavitation bubble formed in a fast flowing water jet forced out from the claws during claw closure. The produced sound originates from the cavitation collapse of the bubble. At collapse a short flash of light is emitted, just as in single bubble sonoluminescence. A model based on the Rayleigh-Plesset equation can quantitatively account for the visual and acoustical observations.

  6. Robust Design of Sounds in Mechanical Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boegedal Jensen, Annemette; Munch, Natasja; Howard, Thomas J.;

    2015-01-01

    Current practices for creating a desired sound by a mechanical mechanism are irrelative design-build-test processes. It seems that very little guidance is available relating design to the sound output. The focus of this study was to identify, which parameters that affect the sound output of a click...... mechanism consisting of a toothed rack and a click arm. First several geometries of the teeth and the click arm’s head were investigated to identify the most robust and repeatable design. It was found that a flat surface in the valleys between the teeth is very beneficial in relation to repeatability...... mechanisms....

  7. Spatially extended sound equalization in rectangular rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santillan, Arturo Orozco

    2001-01-01

    The results of a theoretical study on global sound equalization in rectangular rooms at low frequencies are presented. The zone where sound equalization can be obtained is a continuous three-dimensional region that occupies almost the complete volume of the room. It is proved that the equalization...... of broadband signals can be achieved by the simulation of a traveling plane wave using FIR filters. The optimal solution has been calculated following the traditional least-squares approximation, where a modeling delay has been applied to minimize reverberation. An advantage of the method is that the sound...

  8. Using Sound to Reduce Visual Distraction from In-vehicle Human-Machine Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Pontus; Niemand, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Driver distraction and inattention are the main causes of accidents. The fact that devices such as navigation displays and media players are part of the distraction problem has led to the formulation of guidelines advocating various means for minimizing the visual distraction from such interfaces. However, although design guidelines and recommendations are followed, certain interface interactions, such as menu browsing, still require off-road visual attention that increases crash risk. In this article, we investigate whether adding sound to an in-vehicle user interface can provide the support necessary to create a significant reduction in glances toward a visual display when browsing menus. Two sound concepts were developed and studied; spearcons (time-compressed speech sounds) and earcons (musical sounds). A simulator study was conducted in which 14 participants between the ages of 36 and 59 took part. Participants performed 6 different interface tasks while driving along a highway route. A 3 × 6 within-group factorial design was employed with sound (no sound /earcons/spearcons) and task (6 different task types) as factors. Eye glances and corresponding measures were recorded using a head-mounted eye tracker. Participants' self-assessed driving performance was also collected after each task with a 10-point scale ranging from 1 = very bad to 10 = very good. Separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted for different eye glance measures and self-rated driving performance. It was found that the added spearcon sounds significantly reduced total glance time as well as number of glances while retaining task time as compared to the baseline (= no sound) condition (total glance time M = 4.15 for spearcons vs. M = 7.56 for baseline, p =.03). The earcon sounds did not result in such distraction-reducing effects. Furthermore, participants ratings of their driving performance were statistically significantly higher in the spearcon conditions compared to the baseline

  9. Courtship sounds advertise species identity and male quality in sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. gobies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Silvia S; Barber, Iain; Svensson, Ola; Fonseca, Paulo J; Amorim, Maria Clara P

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods) were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour) also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study.

  10. Courtship sounds advertise species identity and male quality in sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. gobies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia S Pedroso

    Full Text Available Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study.

  11. Courtship Sounds Advertise Species Identity and Male Quality in Sympatric Pomatoschistus spp. Gobies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroso, Silvia S.; Barber, Iain; Svensson, Ola; Fonseca, Paulo J.; Amorim, Maria Clara P.

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic signals can encode crucial information about species identity and individual quality. We recorded and compared male courtship drum sounds of the sand goby Pomatoschistus minutus and the painted goby P. pictus and examined if they can function in species recognition within sympatric populations. We also examined which acoustic features are related to male quality and the factors that affect female courtship in the sand goby, to determine whether vocalisations potentially play a role in mate assessment. Drums produced by the painted goby showed significantly higher dominant frequencies, higher sound pulse repetition rates and longer intervals between sounds than those of the sand goby. In the sand goby, male quality was predicted by visual and acoustic courtship signals. Regression analyses showed that sound amplitude was a good predictor of male length, whereas the duration of nest behaviour and active calling rate (i.e. excluding silent periods) were good predictors of male condition factor and fat reserves respectively. In addition, the level of female courtship was predicted by male nest behaviour. The results suggest that the frequency and temporal patterns of sounds can encode species identity, whereas sound amplitude and calling activity reflects male size and fat reserves. Visual courtship duration (nest-related behaviour) also seems relevant to mate choice, since it reflects male condition and is related to female courtship. Our work suggests that acoustic communication can contribute to mate choice in the sand goby group, and invites further study. PMID:23755129

  12. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M

    2016-02-09

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton's bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially, an extended sonar sound group.

  13. Environmental Sound Perception: Metadescription and Modeling Based on Independent Primary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McAdams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to transpose and extend to a set of environmental sounds the notion of sound descriptors usually used for musical sounds. Four separate primary studies dealing with interior car sounds, air-conditioning units, car horns, and closing car doors are considered collectively. The corpus formed by these initial stimuli is submitted to new experimental studies and analyses, both for revealing metacategories and for defining more precisely the limits of each of the resulting categories. In a second step, the new structure is modeled: common and specific dimensions within each category are derived from the initial results and new investigations of audio features are performed. Furthermore, an automatic classifier based on two audio descriptors and a multinomial logistic regression procedure is implemented and validated with the corpus.

  14. Sound quality measures for speech in noise through a commercial hearing aid implementing digital noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2005-05-01

    This brief report discusses the affect of digital noise reduction (DNR) processing on aided speech recognition and sound quality measures in 14 adults fitted with a commercial hearing aid. Measures of speech recognition and sound quality were obtained in two different speech-in-noise conditions (71 dBA speech, +6 dB SNR and 75 dBA speech, +1 dB SNR). The results revealed that the presence or absence of DNR processing did not impact speech recognition in noise (either positively or negatively). Paired comparisons of sound quality for the same speech in noise signals, however, revealed a strong preference for DNR processing. These data suggest that at least one implementation of DNR processing is capable of providing improved sound quality, for speech in noise, in the absence of improved speech recognition.

  15. Characterization of sound emitted by wind machines used for frost control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambino, V.; Gambino, T. [Aercoustics Engineering Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); Fraser, H.W. [Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Vineland, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Wind machines are used in Niagara-on-the-Lake to protect cold-sensitive crops against cold injury during winter's extreme cold temperatures,spring's late frosts and autumn's early frosts. The number of wind machines in Ontario has about doubled annually from only a few in the late 1990's, to more than 425 in 2006. They are not used for generating power. Noise complaints have multiplied as the number of wind machines has increased. The objective of this study was to characterize the sound produced by wind machines; learn why residents are annoyed by wind machine noise; and suggest ways to possibly reduce sound emissions. One part of the study explored acoustic emission characteristics, the sonic differences of units made by different manufacturers, sound propagation properties under typical use atmospheric conditions and low frequency noise impact potential. Tests were conducted with a calibrated Larson Davis 2900B portable spectrum analyzer. Sound was measured with a microphone whose frequency response covered the range 4 Hz to 20 kHz. The study examined and found several unique acoustic properties that are characteristic of wind machines. It was determined that noise from wind machines is due to both aerodynamic and mechanical effects, but aerodynamic sounds were found to be the most significant. It was concluded that full range or broadband sounds manifest themselves as noise components that extend throughout the audible frequency range from the bladepass frequency to upwards of 1000 Hz. The sound spectrum of a wind machine is full natural tones and impulses that give it a readily identifiable acoustic character. Atmospheric conditions including temperature, lapse rate, relative humidity, mild winds, gradients and atmospheric turbulence all play a significant role in the long range outdoor propagation of sound from wind machines. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Embedded Stethoscope for Heart Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Ashish Harsola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In India significant percentage of the people who die due to cardiovascular diseases belong to rural part. The major reasons are lack of awareness, lifestyle, and the cost factor. While the first two reasons are more applicable in urban India, the third is a pain point for rural areas where there are no cost-effective ways available for an early diagnosis of heart diseases. There are different tests and investigations used to diagnose heart disease. The tests doctor chooses depending upon risk of heart disease, history of heart problems and the symptoms one might have but the initial diagnosis can be done using the stethoscope used for auscultation.For many years healthcare professionals would listen quietly to patients internal organs so they could diagnose from specific sounds of these organs. But it requires lot of expertise for such diagnosis, which is not available in the rural part. The objective is to develop a Digital Stethoscope for early initial diagnosis of cardiac disorders without any high end test which the patients can be referred to, if required. The proposed design consists of a Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC based system which consists of following stages: Front end pick-up circuitry, PIC18F4550 controller, graphic LCD display or high resolution TFT display, a memory device, USB and Bluetooth connectivity. Recorded data on memory device helps professionals to analyze later on at far distances. Bluetooth facilitates professionals to use portable devices along with its Bluetooth connectivity to capture these transmitted recordings and then analyzing these waveforms in time and frequency domain by using software such as LabVIEW.

  17. Ionospheric Oblique Incidence Soundings by Satellites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The oblique incidence sweep-frequency ionospheric sounding technique uses the same principle of operation as the vertical incidence sounder. The primary difference...

  18. Benthic Mapping in Long Island Sound

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — QTCView is used with an incorporated depthfinder to create a sonar map of the bottom to the west of the Charles Island, in Long Island Sound in Connecticut waters....

  19. Game Sound from Behind the Sofa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garner, Tom Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The central concern of this thesis is upon the processes by which human beings perceive sound and experience emotions within a computer video gameplay context. The potential of quantitative sound parameters to evoke and modulate emotional experience is explored, working towards the development of...... closer towards the development of an automated computer system that is capable of interpreting player-emotion and adapting the game environment in response, to create a continuously evolving and unique, player-centred game experience.......The central concern of this thesis is upon the processes by which human beings perceive sound and experience emotions within a computer video gameplay context. The potential of quantitative sound parameters to evoke and modulate emotional experience is explored, working towards the development...... of structured hypothetical frameworks of auditory processing and emotional experience. Research relevant to computer game theory, embodied cognition, psychophysiology, emotion studies, fear processing and acoustics/psychoacoustics are reviewed in detail and several primary experimental trials are presented...

  20. Heart sounds: are you listening? Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kent, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    All nurses should have an understanding of heart sounds and be proficient in cardiac auscultation. Unfortunately, this skill is not part of many nursing school curricula, nor is it necessarily a required skillfor employment. Yet, being able to listen and accurately describe heart sounds has tangible benefits to the patient, as it is an integral part of a complete cardiac assessment. In this two-part article, I will review the fundamentals of cardiac auscultation, how cardiac anatomy and physiology relate to heart sounds, and describe the various heart sounds. Whether you are a beginner or a seasoned nurse, it is never too early or too late to add this important diagnostic skill to your assessment tool kit.

  1. A sound absorbing metasurface with coupled resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junfei; Wang, Wenqi; Xie, Yangbo; Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A.

    2016-08-01

    An impedance matched surface is able, in principle, to totally absorb the incident sound and yield no reflection, and this is desired in many acoustic applications. Here we demonstrate a design of impedance matched sound absorbing surface with a simple construction. By coupling different resonators and generating a hybrid resonance mode, we designed and fabricated a metasurface that is impedance-matched to airborne sound at tunable frequencies with subwavelength scale unit cells. With careful design of the coupled resonators, over 99% energy absorption at central frequency of 511 Hz with a 50% absorption bandwidth of 140 Hz is achieved experimentally. The proposed design can be easily fabricated, and is mechanically stable. The proposed metasurface can be used in many sound absorption applications such as loudspeaker design and architectural acoustics.

  2. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: INDEX

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  3. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1999-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings.......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the dif-ficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  4. Acoustic quality and sound insulation between dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger

    1998-01-01

    to another, however, several of the results show a slope around 4 % per dB. The results may be used to evaluate the acoustic quality level of a certain set of sound insulation requirements, or they may be used as a basis for specifying the desired acoustic quality of future buildings......During the years there have been several large field investigations in different countries with the aim to find a relationship between sound insulation between dwellings and the subjective degree of annoyance. This paper presents an overview of the results, and the difficulties in comparing...... the different findings are discussed. It is tried to establish dose-response relationships between airborne sound insulation or impact sound pressure level according to ISO 717 and the percentage of people being annoyed by noise from neighbours. The slopes of the dose-response curves vary from one investigation...

  5. Prince William Sound, Alaska ESI: HYDRO (Hydrology)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Prince William Sound, Alaska. ESI data characterize estuarine environments and wildlife by...

  6. Diffuse sound field: challenges and misconceptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2016-01-01

    incident intensity distribution (directional diffusion or isotropy). In practice, reverberation chambers are assumed to be acoustically diffuse, and important acoustic quantities measured in there, i.e., sound absorption, scattering, transmission, and power, etc. However, the measured quantities vary...

  7. AFSC/ABL: Salisbury Sound sponge recovery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In 1995, an area of the seafloor near Salisbury Sound was trawled to identify immediate effects on large, erect sponges and sea whips. Video transects were made in...

  8. Long Island Sound Surficial Sediment Data (LISSEDDATA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Many scientific questions and policy issues related to sediments in Long Island Sound require data of historical, regional and interdisciplinary scope. Existent data...

  9. Strong Coupling Problem with Time-Varying Sound Speed

    CERN Document Server

    Joyce, Austin

    2011-01-01

    For a single scalar field with unit sound speed, there are exactly three distinct cosmological solutions which produce a scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbations in a dynamical attractor background, assuming vacuum initial conditions: slow-roll inflation; a slowly contracting adiabatic ekpyrotic phase, described by a rapidly-varying equation of state; and an adiabatic ekpyrotic phase on a slowly expanding background. Of these three, only inflation remains weakly coupled over a wide range of modes, while the other scenarios can produce at most 12 e-folds of scale invariant and gaussian modes. In this paper, we investigate how allowing the speed of sound of fluctuations to evolve in time affects this classification. While in the presence of a variable sound speed there are many more scenarios which are scale invariant at the level of the two-point function, they generically suffer from strong coupling problems similar to those in the canonical case. There is, however, an exceptional case with superlu...

  10. Spatial perception of motion-tracked binaural sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melick, Joshua B.; Algazi, V. Ralph; Duda, Richard O.

    2005-04-01

    Motion-tracked binaural sound reproduction extends conventional headphone-based binaural techniques by providing the dynamic cues to sound localization produced by voluntary head motion [V. R. Algazi, R. O. Duda, and D. M. Thompson, J. Aud. Eng. Soc. 52, 1142-1156 (2004)]. It does this by using several microphones to sample the acoustic field around a dummy head, interpolating between the microphone signals in accordance with the dynamically measured orientation of the listener's head. Although the provision of dynamic cues reduces the sensitivity of the method to characteristics of the individual listener, differences between the scattered field produced by the dummy head and the scattered field that would be produced by a particular listener distorts the spatial perception. A common observation is that sound sources appear to rise in elevation when the listener turns to face them. We investigate this effect by comparing the perceived rise in elevation under three different conditions: recordings in which recordings are made using (a) the listener's own head, (b) a KEMAR mannequin, and (c) a cylindrical head with no torso. Quantitative results are presented showing the degree to which perceptual distortions are least for (a) and greatest for (c). [Work supported by NSF.

  11. Blind separation of incoherent and spatially disjoint sound sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Antoni, Jérôme; Pereira, Antonio; Kellermann, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Blind separation of sound sources aims at reconstructing the individual sources which contribute to the overall radiation of an acoustical field. The challenge is to reach this goal using distant measurements when all sources are operating concurrently. The working assumption is usually that the sources of interest are incoherent - i.e. statistically orthogonal - so that their separation can be approached by decorrelating a set of simultaneous measurements, which amounts to diagonalizing the cross-spectral matrix. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is traditionally used to this end. This paper reports two new findings in this context. First, a sufficient condition is established under which "virtual" sources returned by PCA coincide with true sources; it stipulates that the sources of interest should be not only incoherent but also spatially orthogonal. A particular case of this instance is met by spatially disjoint sources - i.e. with non-overlapping support sets. Second, based on this finding, a criterion that enforces both statistical and spatial orthogonality is proposed to blindly separate incoherent sound sources which radiate from disjoint domains. This criterion can be easily incorporated into acoustic imaging algorithms such as beamforming or acoustical holography to identify sound sources of different origins. The proposed methodology is validated on laboratory experiments. In particular, the separation of aeroacoustic sources is demonstrated in a wind tunnel.

  12. Sound absorption and reflection with coupled tubes

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a special sound absorbing technique with an accompanying efficient numerical design tool. As a basis pressure waves in a single narrow tube or pore are considered. In such a tube the viscosity and the thermal conductivity of the air, or any other fluid, can have a significant effect on the wave propagation. An important aspect is that due to the viscothermal wave propagation sound energy is being dissipated. This has been applied to configurations consisting of a manifold...

  13. Merged Sounding Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyan, D

    2010-03-03

    The Merged Sounding value-added product (VAP) uses a combination of observations from radiosonde soundings, the microwave radiometer (MWR), surface meteorological instruments, and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model output with a sophisticated scaling/interpolation/smoothing scheme in order to define profiles of the atmospheric thermodynamic state at one-minute temporal intervals and a total of 266 altitude levels.

  14. Beijing’s Rich Legacy in Sound

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Colin; Chinnery

    2015-01-01

    Last year I embarked on a new project for which I still don’t have a satisfactory title.It started out being the Beijing Hutong Sound Project,then the Beijing Sound History Project,and now the Beijing Sonic Reenactment Project.The lineage of titles reflects the project’s conceptualization from last summer,when it first began,up until the moment earlier this year when I started realizing its potential to

  15. Calculation of sound propagation in fibrous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnow, Viggo

    1996-01-01

    Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements.......Calculations of attenuation and velocity of audible sound waves in glass wools are presented. The calculations use only the diameters of fibres and the mass density of glass wools as parameters. The calculations are compared with measurements....

  16. Fluctuation sound absorption in quark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kerbikov, B O

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the sound absorption in quark matter due to the interaction of the sound wave with the precritical fluctuations of the diquark-pair field above $T_c$. The soft collective mode of the pair field is derived using the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau functional with random Langevin forces. The strong absorption near the phase transition line may be viewed as a manifestation of the Mandelshtam-Leontovich slow relaxation time theory.

  17. On the timbre of chaotic algorithmic sounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, Dimitrios A.; Sotiropoulos, Anastasios D.; Sotiropoulos, Vaggelis D.

    Chaotic sound waveforms generated algorithmically are considered to study their timbre characteristics of harmonic and inharmonic overtones, loudness and onset time. Algorithms employed in the present work come from different first order iterative maps with parameters that generate chaotic sound waveforms. The generated chaotic sounds are compared with each other in respect of their waveforms' energy over the same time interval. Interest is focused in the logistic, double logistic and elliptic iterative maps. For these maps, the energy of the algorithmically synthesized sounds is obtained numerically in the chaotic region. The results show that for a specific parameter value in the chaotic region for each one of the first two maps, the calculated sound energy is the same. The energy, though, produced by the elliptic iterative map is higher than that of the other two maps everywhere in the chaotic region. Under the criterion of equal energy, the discrete Fourier transform is employed to compute for the logistic and double logistic iterative maps, a) the generated chaotic sound's power spectral density over frequency revealing the location (frequency) and relative loudness of the overtones which can be associated with fundamental frequencies of musical notes, and b) the generated chaotic sound's frequency dependent phase, which together with the overtones' frequency, yields the overtones' onset time. It is found that the synthesized overtones' loudness, frequency and onset time are totally different for the two generating algorithms (iterative maps) even though the sound's total generated power is equal. It is also demonstrated that, within each one of the iterative maps considered, the overtone characteristics are strongly affected by the choice of initial loudness.

  18. Sound-by-sound thalamic stimulation modulates midbrain auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnath, Abhilash; Farris, Hamilton E

    2014-01-01

    Descending circuitry can modulate auditory processing, biasing sensitivity to particular stimulus parameters and locations. Using awake in vivo single unit recordings, this study tested whether electrical stimulation of the thalamus modulates auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in neurons of the amphibian midbrain. In addition, by using electrical stimuli that were either longer than the acoustic stimuli (i.e., seconds) or presented on a sound-by-sound basis (ms), experiments addressed whether the form of modulation depended on the temporal structure of the electrical stimulus. Following long duration electrical stimulation (3-10 s of 20 Hz square pulses), excitability (spikes/acoustic stimulus) to free-field noise stimuli decreased by 32%, but returned over 600 s. In contrast, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation using a single 2 ms duration electrical pulse 25 ms before each noise stimulus caused faster and varied forms of modulation: modulation lasted sound-by-sound electrical stimulation varied between different acoustic stimuli, including for different male calls, suggesting modulation is specific to certain stimulus attributes. For binaural units, modulation depended on the ear of input, as sound-by-sound electrical stimulation preceding dichotic acoustic stimulation caused asymmetric modulatory effects: sensitivity shifted for sounds at only one ear, or by different relative amounts for both ears. This caused a change in the relative difference in binaural sensitivity. Thus, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation revealed fast and ear-specific (i.e., lateralized) auditory modulation that is potentially suited to shifts in auditory attention during sound segregation in the auditory scene.

  19. Sound-by-sound thalamic stimulation modulates midbrain auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in frogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhilash ePonnath

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Descending circuitry can modulate auditory processing, biasing sensitivity to particular stimulus parameters and locations. Using awake in vivo single unit recordings, this study tested whether electrical stimulation of the thalamus modulates auditory excitability and relative binaural sensitivity in neurons of the amphibian midbrain. In addition, by using electrical stimuli that were either longer than the acoustic stimuli (i.e., seconds or presented on a sound-by-sound basis (ms, experiments addressed whether the form of modulation depended on the temporal structure of the electrical stimulus. Following long duration electrical stimulation (3-10 s of 20 Hz square pulses, excitability (spikes / acoustic stimulus to free-field noise stimuli decreased by 32%, but returned over 600 s. In contrast, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation using a single 2 ms duration electrical pulse 25 ms before each noise stimulus caused faster and varied forms of modulation: modulation lasted < 2 s and, in different cells, excitability either decreased, increased or shifted in latency. Within cells, the modulatory effect of sound-by-sound electrical stimulation varied between different acoustic stimuli, including for different male calls, suggesting modulation is specific to certain stimulus attributes. For binaural units, modulation depended on the ear of input, as sound-by-sound electrical stimulation preceding dichotic acoustic stimulation caused asymmetric modulatory effects: sensitivity shifted for sounds at only one ear, or by different relative amounts for both ears. This caused a change in the relative difference in binaural sensitivity. Thus, sound-by-sound electrical stimulation revealed fast and ear-specific (i.e., lateralized auditory modulation that is potentially suited to shifts in auditory attention during sound segregation in the auditory scene.

  20. Wavelets in Recognition of Bird Sounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Arja

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method to recognize inharmonic and transient bird sounds efficiently. The recognition algorithm consists of feature extraction using wavelet decomposition and recognition using either supervised or unsupervised classifier. The proposed method was tested on sounds of eight bird species of which five species have inharmonic sounds and three reference species have harmonic sounds. Inharmonic sounds are not well matched to the conventional spectral analysis methods, because the spectral domain does not include any visible trajectories that computer can track and identify. Thus, the wavelet analysis was selected due to its ability to preserve both frequency and temporal information, and its ability to analyze signals which contain discontinuities and sharp spikes. The shift invariant feature vectors calculated from the wavelet coefficients were used as inputs of two neural networks: the unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM and the supervised multilayer perceptron (MLP. The results were encouraging: the SOM network recognized 78% and the MLP network 96% of the test sounds correctly.