WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-point source assessment

  1. Assessment of Economic Loss Caused by Agricultural Non-point Source Nutrient Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Liang-qian; CHEN Feng-hui

    2012-01-01

    Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we use the JOHNES export coefficient model to estimate the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load of agricultural planting, livestock and poultry breeding and rural living non-point source in 2009. Based on the protection cost method in environmental economics, we quantitatively assess the economic loss caused by these three types of non-point source nutrient loss. The results show that in TN non-point source load, the load of land for planting accounts for 57.48%, the load of rural living accounts for 30.22%, and the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 12.30%; in TP non-point source load, the load of rural living accounts for 46.18%, the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 29.00%, and the load of land for planting accounts for 24.82%. The economic loss arising from the agricultural non-point source nutrient loss is equivalent to 2.329 424 7 billion yuan per year (the loss from land for planting accounts for 55.46%; the loss from rural living accounts for 31.21%; the loss from livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 13.33%). It indicates that in order to reduce the loss arising from agricultural non-point source nutrient loss, we should pay attention to controlling the land for planting and rural living source.

  2. Regional-scale assessment of non-point source groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loague, Keith; Corwin, Dennis L.

    1998-05-01

    Predictive assessments of non-point source (NPS) pollution can have great utility for environmentally focused land use decisions related to both the remediation of existing groundwater contamination and the regulation of current (and future) agrochemical use. At the regional scales associated with NPS agrochemical applications there are staggering data management problems in assessing potential groundwater vulnerability. Geographical information system (GIS) technology is a timely tool that greatly facilitates the organized characterization of regional-scale variability. In this paper we review the recently reported (Loague et al., 1998a,b) simulations of NPS groundwater vulnerability, resulting from historical applications of the agrochemical DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane), for east-central Fresno County (California). The Fresno case study helps to illustrate the data requirements associated with process-based three-dimensional simulations of coupled fluid flow and solute transport in the unsaturated/saturated subsurface at a regional scale. The strengths and weaknesses of using GIS in regional-scale vulnerability assessments, such as the Fresno case study, and the critical problem of estimating the uncertainties in these assessments (owing to both data and model errors) are discussed. A regional GIS-driven integrated assessment approach is proposed, which is based upon cost-benefit analysis, and incorporates both physical and economic factors that can be used in a regulatory decision process.

  3. Introduction: Assessing non-point source pollution in the vadose zone with advanced information technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Dennis L.; Loague, Keith; Ellsworth, Timothy R.

    The information age has ushered in a global awareness of complex environmental problems that do not respect political or physical boundaries: climatic change, ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, and non-point source (NPS) pollution. Among these global environmental problems, NPS pollutants represent a perfect example of a complex multidisciplinary problem that exists over multiple scales with tremendous spatial and temporal complexity. To address the NPS problem, specific to the vadose zone, advanced information technologies must be applied in a spatial context. An integrated system of advanced information technologies (i.e., global positioning, geographic information system, geostatistics, remote sensing, solute transport modeling, neural networks, transfer functions, fuzzy logic, hierarchical theory, and uncertainty analysis) provides a framework from which real-time and/or simulated assessments of NPS pollution can be made. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS-pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales provides a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities.

  4. Assessing the effects of non-point source pollution on American Samoa's coral reef communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Peter; Didonato, Guy; Iguel, John; Van Woesik, Robert

    2005-08-01

    Surveys were completed on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, to characterize reef development and assess the impacts of non-point source pollution on adjacent coral reefs at six sites. Multivariate analyses of benthic and coral community data found similar modern reef development at three locations; Aoa, Alofau, and Leone. These sites are situated in isolated bays with gentle sloping foundations. Aoa reefs had the highest estimates of crustose coralline algae cover and coral species richness, while Leone and Alofau showed high abundances of macroalgae and Porites corals. Aoa has the largest reef flat between watershed discharge and the reef slope, and the lowest human population density. Masefau and Fagaalu have a different geomorphology consisting of cemented staghorn coral fragments and steep slopes, however, benthic and coral communities were not similar. Benthic data suggest Fagaalu is heavily impacted compared with all other sites. Reef communities were assessed as bio-criteria indicators for waterbody health, using the EPA aquatic life use support designations of (1) fully supportive, (2) partially supportive, and (3) non-supportive for aquatic life. All sites resulted in a partially supportive ranking except Fagaalu, which was non-supportive. The results of this rapid assessment based upon relative benthic community measures are less desirable than long-term dataset analyses from monitoring programs, however it fills an important role for regulatory agencies required to report annual waterbody assessments. Future monitoring sites should be established to increase the number of replicates within each geological and physical setting to allow for meaningful comparisons along a gradient of hypothesized pollution levels.

  5. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level.

  6. Assessing the effects of rural livelihood transition on non-point source pollution: a coupled ABM-IECM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengcheng; Liu, Liming; Ye, Jinwei; Ren, Guoping; Zhuo, Dong; Qi, Xiaoxing

    2017-04-02

    Water pollution caused by anthropogenic activities and driven by changes in rural livelihood strategies in an agricultural system has received increasing attention in recent decades. To simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on non-point source (NPS) pollution, a model combining an agent-based model (ABM) and an improved export coefficient model (IECM) was developed. The ABM was adopted to simulate the dynamic process of household livelihood transition, and the IECM was employed to estimate the effects of household livelihood transition on NPS pollution. The coupled model was tested in a small catchment in the Dongting Lake region, China. The simulated results reveal that the transition of household livelihood strategies occurred with the changes in the prices of rice, pig, and labor. Thus, the cropping system, land-use intensity, resident population, and number of pigs changed in the small catchment from 2000 to 2014. As a result of these changes, the total nitrogen load discharged into the river initially increased from 6841.0 kg in 2000 to 8446.3 kg in 2004 and then decreased to 6063.9 kg in 2014. Results also suggest that rural living, livestock, paddy field, and precipitation alternately became the main causes of NPS pollution in the small catchment, and the midstream region of the small catchment was the primary area for NPS pollution from 2000 to 2014. Despite some limitations, the coupled model provides an innovative way to simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on NPS pollution with the change of socioeconomic factors, and thereby identify the key factors influencing water pollution to provide valuable suggestions on how agricultural environmental risks can be reduced through the regulation of the behaviors of farming households in the future.

  7. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

  8. Assessment of Non-Point Source Total Phosphorus Pollution from Different Land Use and Soil Types in a Mid-High Latitude Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The transport characteristics of phosphorus in soil and the assessment of its environmental risk have become hot topics in the environmental and agricultural fields. The Sanjiang Plain is an important grain production base in China, and it is characterised by serious land use change caused by large-scale agricultural exploitation. Agricultural inputs and tillage management have destroyed the soil nutrient balance formed over long-term conditions. There are few studies on non-point source phosphorus pollution in the Sanjiang Plain, which is the largest swampy low plain in a mid-high-latitude region in China. Most studies have focused on the water quality of rivers in marsh areas, or the export mechanism of phosphorus from specific land uses. They were conducted using experimental methods or empirical models, and need further development towards mechanism models and the macro-scale. The question is how to find a way to couple processes in phosphorus cycling and a distributed hydrological model considering local hydrological features. In this study, we report an attempt to use a distributed phosphorus transport model to analyse non-point source total phosphorus pollution from different land uses and soil types on the Sanjiang Plain. The total phosphorus concentration generally shows an annually increasing trend in the study area. The total phosphorus load intensity is heterogeneous in different land use types and different soil types. The average total phosphorus load intensity of different land use types can be ranked in descending order from paddy field, dry land, wetlands, grassland, and forestland. The average total phosphorus load intensity of different soil types can be ranked in descending order: paddy soil, bog soil, planosol, meadow soil, black soil, and dark brown earth. The dry land and paddy fields account for the majority of total phosphorus load in the study area. This is mainly caused by extensive use of phosphate fertilizer on the

  9. 拉萨河流域非点源污染输出风险评估%Risk assessment of non-point source pollution export in Lasahe basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方广玲; 香宝; 杜加强; 王宝良; 张立坤; 胡钰; 徐杰

    2015-01-01

    was closely related with slope, the risk enhanced as the slope increased, and moderate risk, higher risk and highest risk mainly distributed in the area with slope greater than 15 degree. Compared with 1996, the area that non-point source pollution degree of risk transformation from lowest and lower level to higher and highest level in 2010 was about 6674.3km2. Lasahe basin non-point source pollution risk probability was medium risk level, and degree of risk decreased in the local scope. And the area of highest risk reduced, and the area of low risk increased, but the area of medium and higher risk had a tendency to increase. Land use change, agricultural production and water-soil erosion are the material cause of the basin non-point source pollution. Areas characterized by conversion from grassland to farmland and from grassland to unused land showed markedly changes in risk probability of non-point source pollution. These results would offer useful information for limiting non-point pollution and helping promote better water quality in the Lhasa River basin. The risk assessment of non-point source pollution provide an easy, verifiable, viable way to identify areas prone to non-point source pollution, supporting to design and apply adaptive management strategies. Therefore, it needs to strengthen the ecological environment comprehensive treatment results, tackle non-point source pollution in advance, formulate plans for the development of ecological agriculture, and build controlling non-point source pollution migration vegetation buffer.%有效识别流域非点源污染高风险区,对污染控制与管理以及水环境质量改善具有重要意义。该研究以拉萨河流域为研究对象,构建包括降雨、地形和施肥影响因子的输出风险模型,识别流域各级非点源污染输出风险的地域单元。结果表明:1996年和2010年,非点源污染输出风险概率分别为50.0%和46.3%;非点源污染风险处于较高以上

  10. Controlling Non-Point Source Pollution in Australian Agricultural Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. GOURLEY; A. RIDLEY

    2005-01-01

    The Australian farming sector is continuing to intensify, particularly within 300 km of the east and southern coastlines.In the future there will be fewer and larger farms, which will use more fertilizer, support more stock, grow more monoculture crops, and utilise more marginal soils. This is likely to increase the major environmental impacts of soil degradation, salt,nutrient and sediment contamination of waterways, and greenhouse gas emissions. Australian national water policy continues to focus on land, stream and groundwater salinity issues, although there is now a greater recognition of the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus losses from agriculture. The general philosophy of policy for dealing with nonpoint source pollution has been towards a voluntary rather than regulatory approach, with state and national governments supporting a range of programs to encourage sustainable agricultural practices. A catchment (watershed) based approach,through the use of integrated catchment management plans, is the primary way that non-point source pollution is addressed at the farm and local level. At an industry level, cotton, grains, meat, sugarcane and dairy amongst others, as well as the Australian fertilizer industry, have responded to non-point source issues by investing in research and development, and developing codes of practice aimed at abating these environmental impacts. Understanding the economic, social, political and cultural contexts of farming as well as the environmental impacts of agriculture are very important in determining the appropriateness of policy responses for Australian farming systems.

  11. Reducing non-point source pollution with enhancing infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Huan-zhen; ZHENG Tao; HUANG Yan-chu; ZHANG Chun-ping; LIU Chen

    2006-01-01

    The rainfall system was set up on a slope land, which was used with some materials to enhance soil infiltration. The results showed that it was effective to enhance the infiltration of rainwater in soil and reduce the pollutants of surface runoff. After the soil meliorated by the lignin polymer and zeolite, runoff was delayed about 10 min and reduced by 44.40%-50.00%, synchronously, the pollutant loads, such as total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand by ditromate (CODCr), total nitroger (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were reduced on averages by 44.58%, 37.80%, 51.62% and 44.11%, respectively. It is an available technique to control the pollution of non-point source from sources.

  12. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanwen; ZHANG; Xinli; MOU; Hui; XIE; Hong; LU; Xingyun; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model,for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural nonpoint source pollution evaluation index system model framework,combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues,we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system,and then study the agricultural system pressure,agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories,develope an agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index consisting of 3 criteria indicators and 19 indicators. As can be seen from the analysis,pressures and responses tend to increase and decrease linearly,state and complex have large fluctuations,and their fluctuations are similar mainly due to the elimination of pressures and impact,increasing the impact for agricultural non-point source pollution.

  13. Assessment and Strategies for Watershed Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Control%集水区农业非点源污染之评估及控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林昭远; 陈键鑫; 颜正平

    2001-01-01

    Improper agricultural activities accelerate soil loss and water pollution. An assessment system for agricultural non-point source pollution estimation was developed in this study. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) couples with non-point source pollution models were applied in the system to discuss the efficiency of non-point pollution control in a watershed. Concepts of sediment delivery ratio (SDR) and placement of riparian buffer strips couples with the analysis of topography and hydrology for the watersheds of interest to classify the sensitive zone could effectively monitor and control watershed agricultural non-point-source pollution.%集水区内不当之农业活动,加速集水区土壤流失及水库水质恶化。本研究利用数值地形模型(Digital Elevation Model, DEM)、配合遥感探测 (Remote Sensing, RS)与地理信息系统(Geographic Information Systems, GIS)等技术,撰写程序建立集水区农业非点源污染评估系统,探讨集水区农业非点源污染控制之成效。利用泥砂递移率与植生缓冲带区位检视集水区内之农业非点源污染源,划定集水区环境敏感区位,针对敏感区回收造林,可有效控制集水区农业非点源污染。

  14. Spatial Quantification of Non-Point Source Pollution in a Meso-Scale Catchment for an Assessment of Buffer Zones Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Piniewski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to spatially quantify diffuse pollution sources and estimate the potential efficiency of applying riparian buffer zones as a conservation practice for mitigating chemical pollutant losses. This study was conducted using a semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model that underwent extensive calibration and validation in the Sulejów Reservoir catchment (SRC, which occupies 4900 km2 in central Poland. The model was calibrated and validated against daily discharges (10 gauges, NO3-N and TP loads (7 gauges. Overall, the model generally performed well during the calibration period but not during the validation period for simulating discharge and loading of NO3-N and TP. Diffuse agricultural sources appeared to be the main contributors to the elevated NO3-N and TP loads in the streams. The existing, default representation of buffer zones in SWAT uses a VFS sub-model that only affects the contaminants present in surface runoff. The results of an extensive monitoring program carried out in 2011–2013 in the SRC suggest that buffer zones are highly efficient for reducing NO3-N and TP concentrations in shallow groundwater. On average, reductions of 56% and 76% were observed, respectively. An improved simulation of buffer zones in SWAT was achieved through empirical upscaling of the measurement results. The mean values of the sub-basin level reductions are 0.16 kg NO3/ha (5.9% and 0.03 kg TP/ha (19.4%. The buffer zones simulated using this approach contributed 24% for NO3-N and 54% for TP to the total achieved mean reduction at the sub-basin level. This result suggests that additional measures are needed to achieve acceptable water quality status in all water bodies of the SRC, despite the fact that the buffer zones have a high potential for reducing contaminant emissions.

  15. The Roles of Countrywomen in Controlling Non-point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Zhou Yuanfang; Lu Genfa

    2006-01-01

    The main causes of non-point source pollution in Taihu Lake are the improper ways of crop production, animal husbandry, and daily runoff. The paper discusses the relationship between countrywomen and non-point source pollution control by 731 questionnaires in Weidu village and 466 questionnaires in Dapu Town. The roles of countrywomen have changed in families and they have close relationship with non-point source pollution. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility and methods of organizing countrywomen in non-point source pollution control.

  16. [A landscape ecological approach for urban non-point source pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Ma, Keming; Zhao, Jingzhu; Yang, Liu; Yin, Chengqing

    2005-05-01

    Urban non-point source pollution is a new problem appeared with the speeding development of urbanization. The particularity of urban land use and the increase of impervious surface area make urban non-point source pollution differ from agricultural non-point source pollution, and more difficult to control. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are the effective practices commonly applied in controlling urban non-point source pollution, mainly adopting local repairing practices to control the pollutants in surface runoff. Because of the close relationship between urban land use patterns and non-point source pollution, it would be rational to combine the landscape ecological planning with local BMPs to control the urban non-point source pollution, which needs, firstly, analyzing and evaluating the influence of landscape structure on water-bodies, pollution sources and pollutant removal processes to define the relationships between landscape spatial pattern and non-point source pollution and to decide the key polluted fields, and secondly, adjusting inherent landscape structures or/and joining new landscape factors to form new landscape pattern, and combining landscape planning and management through applying BMPs into planning to improve urban landscape heterogeneity and to control urban non-point source pollution.

  17. Response of non-point source pollutant loads to climate change in the Shitoukoumen reservoir catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Lu, Wenxi; An, Yonglei; Li, Di; Gong, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads in the Shitoukoumen reservoir catchment are predicted by combining a general circulation model (HadCM3) with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. A statistical downscaling model was used to generate future local scenarios of meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation. Then, the downscaled meteorological variables were used as input to the SWAT hydrological model calibrated and validated with observations, and the corresponding changes of future streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads in Shitoukoumen reservoir catchment were simulated and analyzed. Results show that daily temperature increases in three future periods (2010-2039, 2040-2069, and 2070-2099) relative to a baseline of 1961-1990, and the rate of increase is 0.63°C per decade. Annual precipitation also shows an apparent increase of 11 mm per decade. The calibration and validation results showed that the SWAT model was able to simulate well the streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads, with a coefficient of determination of 0.7 and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of about 0.7 for both the calibration and validation periods. The future climate change has a significant impact on streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads. The annual streamflow shows a fluctuating upward trend from 2010 to 2099, with an increase rate of 1.1 m(3) s(-1) per decade, and a significant upward trend in summer, with an increase rate of 1.32 m(3) s(-1) per decade. The increase in summer contributes the most to the increase of annual load compared with other seasons. The annual NH (4) (+) -N load into Shitoukoumen reservoir shows a significant downward trend with a decrease rate of 40.6 t per decade. The annual TP load shows an insignificant increasing trend, and its change rate is 3.77 t per decade. The results of this analysis provide a scientific basis for effective support of decision

  18. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-01-01

    This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  19. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  20. [Zoning planning in non-point source pollution control in Hanyang district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Ke-Ming; Guo, Qing-Hai; Zhao, Jing-Zhu; Luo, Yong-Feng

    2006-01-01

    It is most important for managing urban non-point source (NPS) pollution, actualizing the urban sustainable development as well, that zoning planning of urban NPS pollution control is studied. A case study on principles and methods of zoning planning in urban NPS pollution is carried out. Principles of urban sustainable development, priority of urban NPS pollution sensitivity, similarity of urban NPS control direction and region conjugate are put forward. Besides, it is for the first time that a more quantitive method is presented, in the case of Hanyang district, Wuhan city, which is based on L-THIA model and spatial analysis technique in GIS. Assessment of NPS pollution status quo, as well as analysis of NPS sensitivity, is the kernel component of the quantitive method. Hanyang might be divided into four NPS pollution control zones. It is helpful for decision-making of regional NPS pollution control.

  1. mpacts of Agricultural Non-point Pollution on Water-source Area in Songhua Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research impacts of agricultural non-point pol- lution on water-source region in Songhua Dam, laying foundation for control of water pollution and scientific protection of water-source region. [Method] Water in Muyang River, lengshui River and Zizania aquatica region were sampled to measure content of pollutants in water and conclude relation between water contamination and agri- cultural non-point pollution to find the major cause of pollution. [Result] Organic pollu- tant in Muyang River was higher; N and P contents in Lengshui River were higher; the measured indices in Zizania aquatica region excessively exceeded related stan- dard. [Conclusion] The chemical fertilizers and pesticides are the toxic materials lead- ing to water contamination and constitute a major cause of pollution in Songhua Dam water-source region. Agricultural non-point pollution should be controlled in a scientific way.

  2. Estimation of Non-point Source Pollution Loads Under Uncertain Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruzhong

    2008-01-01

    Many kinds of uncertainties are involved, such as random, fuzzy, grey, unascertained property and so on, in soil erosion process. To exactly predict the non-point source pollution loads, some uncertainties should be taken into consideration. Aiming at the deficiency of present blind number theory being helpless for fuzziness, a novel blind number, i.e. extended-blind number, was introduced by substituting a set of triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs), ex-pressed as α-cuts, for interval values in present blind number, and the expected value of extended-blind number was also brought forward by referring to the current blind number theory. On the basis of denoting the parameters of Uni-versal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) as extended-blind parameters, a novel USLE model was established for quantita-tively evaluating soil erosion loss and non-point source pollution loads. As a case, the uncertain USLE was employed for predicting the soil erosion loss and non-point source pollution loads of absorbed nitrogen and phosphorus in a dis-trict in the Hangbu-Fengle River basin, in the upstream of Chaohu Lake watershed. The results show that it is feasible in theory to extend blind number into fuzzy environment and reliable on conclusion to apply extended-blind number theory for predicting non-point source pollution loads.

  3. Another Look at the Income Elasticity of Non-point Source Air Pollutants: A Semiparametric Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, N.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a semiparametric model is used to examine the relationship between pollution and income for three non-point source pollutants. Statistical tests reject the quadratic specification in favor of the semiparametric model in all cases. However, the results do not support the inverted-U hyp

  4. Loss coefficient of nitrogenous non-point source pollution under various precipitation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study,calibrations of non-point source (NPS) pollution models are performed based on Black River basin historical real-time runoff data,sedimentation record data,and NPS sources survey information.The concept of NPS loss coefficient for the watershed or the loss coefficients (LC) for simplicity is brought up by examining NPS build-up and migration processes along riverbanks in natural river systems.The historical data is used for determining the nitrogenous NPS loss coefficient for five land use types including farmland,urban land,grassland,shrub land,and forest under different precipitation conditions.The comparison of outputs from Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and coefficient export method showed that both methods could obtain reasonable LC.The high Pearson correlation coefficient (0.94722) between those two sets of calculation results justified the consistency of those two models.Another result in the study is that different combinations of precipitation condition and land use types could significantly affect the calculated loss coefficient.As for the adsorptive nitrogen,the order of impact on LC for different land use types can be sorted as:farm land > urban land > grassland > shrub land > forest while the order was farmland > grass land > shrub land > forest > urban land for soluble nitrogen.

  5. Mapping the scientific research on non-point source pollution: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Beibei; Huang, Kai; Sun, Dezhi; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to examine the progress and future research trends of non-point source (NPS) pollution during the years 1991-2015 based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) of Web of Science (WoS). The publications referencing NPS pollution were analyzed including the following aspects: document type, publication language, publication output and characteristics, subject category, source journal, distribution of country and institution, author keywords, etc. The results indicate that the study of NPS pollution demonstrated a sharply increasing trend since 1991. Article and English were the most commonly used document type and language. Environmental sciences and ecology, water resources, and engineering were the top three subject categories. Water science and technology ranked first in distribution of journal, followed by Science of the total environment and Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. The USA took a leading position in both quantity and quality, playing an important role in the research field of NPS pollution, followed by the UK and China. The most productive institution was the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Acad Sci), followed by Beijing Normal University and US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS). The analysis of author keywords indicates that the major hotspots of NPS pollution from 1991 to 2015 contained "water," "model," "agriculture," "nitrogen," "phosphorus," etc. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of NPS pollution research and help readers to establish the future research directions.

  6. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL EROSION AND NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION BASED ON GIS IN ERLONG LAKE WATERSHED, JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning; ZHANG Hong-yan; WANG Hui-lian; ZHANG Zheng-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Data collection, factor composition, nappe analysis and integrative simulation of natural geographical factors in Erlong Lake watershed have been carried out based on GIS. The risk areas where non-point source pollution may occur were compartmentalized and assessed, and the total soil erosion and the runoffs of N and P with rainfall in this valley were worked out by experiment and GIS mapping. The study indicated that the main type of soil in dry land with variable slope east of the lake and the middle-south parts of steep slope mountainous region (erosion source pollution (NSP) of nitrogen and phosphorus loss was corresponded with the soil erosion. Spatial distribution and the reasons of the distribution difference have been presented and it was emphasized that the human activities among the influence factors was the most important. It surely offers a scientific basis to control and prevent non-point source pollution in the watershed.

  7. Relationship Between Non-Point Source Pollution and Korean Green Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Chul Lee; In-Hyeok Park; Byung Sik Kim; and Sung Ryong Ha

    2015-01-01

    In determining the relationship between the rational event mean concentration (REMC) which is a volume-weighted mean of event mean concentrations (EMCs) as a non-point source (NPS) pollution indicator and the green factor (GF) as a low impact development (LID) land use planning indicator, we constructed at runoff database containing 1483 rainfall events collected from 107 different experimental catchments from 19 references in Korea. The collected data showed that EMCs were not correlated wit...

  8. THE METHOD OF CAR HEADLIGHTS LUMINOUS INTENSITY MEASURING FOR NON-POINT SOURCES OF LIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kupko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the measurements of luminous intensity of car headlights luminous intensity for non-point sources have pecularities. A simplified method for correction the luminous intensity at various distances is developed. The applicability of the given method with possible measurement errors is studied. The results were obtained, using a stand of the National Scientific Center “Institute of Metroligy”.

  9. Parameter uncertainty analysis of non-point source pollution from different land use types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhen-yao; Hong, Qian; Yu, Hong; Niu, Jun-feng

    2010-03-15

    Land use type is one of the most important factors that affect the uncertainty in non-point source (NPS) pollution simulation. In this study, seventeen sensitive parameters were screened from the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for parameter uncertainty analysis for different land use types in the Daning River Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. First-Order Error Analysis (FOEA) method was adopted to analyze the effect of parameter uncertainty on model outputs under three types of land use, namely, plantation, forest and grassland. The model outputs selected in this study consisted of runoff, sediment yield, organic nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (TP). The results indicated that the uncertainty conferred by the parameters differed among the three land use types. In forest and grassland, the parameter uncertainty in NPS pollution was primarily associated with runoff processes, but in plantation, the main uncertain parameters were related to runoff process and soil properties. Taken together, the study suggested that adjusting the structure of land use and controlling fertilizer use are helpful methods to control the NPS pollution in the Daning River Watershed.

  10. A distributed non-point source pollution model: calibration and validation in the Yellow River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang-hua; Zhang, Xue-song; Yang, Zhi-feng

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of a non-point source pollution model--SWAT(soil and water assessment tools) in a large river basin with high sediment runoff modulus(770 t/km2 in the Yellow River) was examined. The basic database, which includes DEM, soil and landuse map, weather data, and land management data, was established for the study area using GIS. A two-stage "Brute Force" optimization method was used to calibrate the parameters with the observed monthly flow and sediment data from 1992 to 1997. In the process of calibration automated digital filter technique was used to separate direct runoff and base flow. The direct runoff was firstly calibrated, and the base flow, then the total runoff was matched. The sediment yield was calibrated to match well. Keeping input parameters set during the calibration process unchanged, the model was validated with 1998--1999's observed monthly flow and sediment. The evaluation coefficients for simulated and observed flow and sediment showed that SWAT was successfully applied in the study area: relative error was within 20%, coefficient of determination and Nash-Suttcliffe simulation efficiency were all equal to or above 0.70 during calibration and validation period.

  11. 潮河流域非点源污染关键区识别及其管理措施研究%IDENTIFICATION OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION AND ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT MEASURES IN THE CHAO RIVER BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳芳; 徐宗学; 徐华山

    2012-01-01

    选取SWAT模型,对潮河流域径流、泥沙及非点源污染过程进行模拟.在对模型进行率定和验证的基础上,参照土壤侵蚀模数与国家地表水环境质量标准对土壤侵蚀及总氮污染关键区进行识别.最后分别在土壤侵蚀和总氮污染关键区设置污染控制情景,对控制措施成效进行模拟和评价.结果表明,SWAT模型可以较好地模拟潮河流域水文过程和污染物迁移转化过程;流域20.9%的区域为轻度土壤侵蚀区,39.8%的区域为总氮风险区;梯田、等高耕作、退耕还林还草和减少化肥施用量等措施都不同程度地对非点源污染负荷起到一定的削减效果.%Chao River basin is one of the most important surface water sources for drinking water in Beijing.In recent years,the Chao River basin is facing water scarcity and water quality problem due to the impact of human activities,development of local economy and climate change.The Chao River basin was selected as the study area in this investigation.SWAT model was applied to simulate hydrological cycle and process of nutrient movements and transformation in the Chao River basin.Then critical source areas of soil erosion were identified according to soil erosion modulus,and critical source areas of TN concentration were identified based on the National Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water.Finally,several scenarios to control non-point source pollution on critical source areas of soil erosion and TN concentration were proposed.Data showed that the performance of calibration and validation for runoff,sediments and nutrients were satisfactory.Mild soil erosion area was 1260.657 km2,accounting for 20.9% of the total basin area,while critical source area of TN was 2405.1 km2,accounting for 39.8% of the total area.Data also showed that the measures including terraces,contour farming,turning farm into forest and grasslands and fertilizer reduction played different reduction role on controlling

  12. Agricultural non-point source pollution of glyphosate and AMPA at a catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Elena; Perez, Debora; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    Information on the actual input of pesticides into the environment is crucial for proper risk assessment and the design of risk reduction measures. The Crespo basin is found within the Balcarce County, located south-east of the Buenos Aires Province. The whole basin has an area of approximately 490 km2 and the river has a length of 65 km. This study focuses on the upper basin of the Crespo stream, covering an area of 226 km2 in which 94.7% of the land is under agricultural production representing a highly productive area, characteristic of the Austral Pampas region. In this study we evaluated the levels of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in soils; and the non-point source pollution of surface waters, stream sediments and groundwater, over a period of one year. Stream water samples were taken monthly using propylene bottles, from the center of the bridge. If present, sediment samples from the first 5 cm were collected using cylinder samplers. Groundwater samples were taken from windmills or electric pumps from different farms every two months. At the same time, composite soil samples (at 5 cm depth) were taken from an agricultural plot of each farm. Samples were analyzed for detection and quantification of glyphosate and AMPA using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). The limit of detection (LD) in the soil samples was 0.5 μg Kg-1 and the limit of quantification (LQ) was 3 μg Kg-1, both for glyphosate and AMPA. In water samples the LD was 0.1 μg L-1 and the LQ was 0.5 μg L-1. The results showed that the herbicide dispersed into all the studied environmental compartments. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were detected in 34 and 54% of the stream water samples, respectively. Sediment samples had a higher detection frequency (>96%) than water samples, and there was no relationship between the presence in surface water with the detection in sediment samples. The presence in sediment samples

  13. Impacts of DEM uncertainties on critical source areas identification for non-point source pollution control based on SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Dong, Guangxia; Wang, Qingrui; Liu, Lumeng; Yu, Wenwen; Men, Cong; Liu, Ruimin

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of different digital elevation model (DEM) resolutions, sources and resampling techniques on nutrient simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivities of DEM resolutions (from 30 m to 1000 m), sources (ASTER GDEM2, SRTM and Topo-DEM) and resampling techniques (nearest neighbor, bilinear interpolation, cubic convolution and majority) to identification of non-point source (NPS) critical source area (CSA) based on nutrient loads using the SWAT model. The Xiangxi River, one of the main tributaries of Three Gorges Reservoir in China, was selected as the study area. The following findings were obtained: (1) Elevation and slope extracted from the DEMs were more sensitive to DEM resolution changes. Compared with the results of the 30 m DEM, 1000 m DEM underestimated the elevation and slope by 104 m and 41.57°, respectively; (2) The numbers of subwatersheds and hydrologic response units (HRUs) were considerably influenced by DEM resolutions, but the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads of each subwatershed showed higher correlations with different DEM sources; (3) DEM resolutions and sources had larger effects on CSAs identifications, while TN and TP CSAs showed different response to DEM uncertainties. TN CSAs were more sensitive to resolution changes, exhibiting six distribution patterns at all DEM resolutions. TP CSAs were sensitive to source and resampling technique changes, exhibiting three distribution patterns for DEM sources and two distribution patterns for DEM resampling techniques. DEM resolutions and sources are the two most sensitive SWAT model DEM parameters that must be considered when nutrient CSAs are identified.

  14. Uncertainty Analysis of non-point source pollution control facilities design techniques in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Okjeong, L.; Gyeong, C. B.; Park, M. W.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The design of non-point sources control facilities in Korea is divided largely by the stormwater capture ratio, the stormwater load capture ratio, and the pollutant reduction efficiency of the facility. The stormwater capture ratio is given by a design formula as a function of the water quality treatment capacity, the greater the capacity, the more the amount of stormwater intercepted by the facility. The stormwater load capture ratio is defined as the ratio of the load entering the facility of the total pollutant load generated in the target catchment, and is given as a design formula represented by a function of the stormwater capture ratio. In order to estimate the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio, a lot of quantitative analysis of hydrologic processes acted in pollutant emission is required, but these formulas have been applied without any verification. Since systematic monitoring programs were insufficient, verification of these formulas was fundamentally impossible. However, recently the Korean ministry of Environment has conducted an long-term systematic monitoring project, and thus the verification of the formulas became possible. In this presentation, the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio are re-estimated using actual TP data obtained from long-term monitoring program at Noksan industrial complex located in Busan, Korea. Through the re-estimated process, the uncertainty included in the design process that has been applied until now will be shown in a quantitative extent. In addition, each uncertainty included in the stormwater capture ratio estimation and in the stormwater load capture ratio estimation will be expressed to quantify the relative impact on the overall non-point pollutant control facilities design process. Finally, the SWMM-Matlab interlocking module for model parameters estimation will be introduced. Acknowledgement This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non-point

  15. The removal of nutrients from non-point source wastewater by a hybrid bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Linzhang; Graham, Bruce; Kerr, Philip G

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this project was to establish an economical and environmentally benign biotechnology for removing nutrients from non-point source wastewater. The proposal involves a hybrid bioreactor comprised of sequential anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic (A(2)/O) processes and an eco-ditch being constructed and applied in a suburban area, Kunming, south-western China, where wastewater was discharged from an industrial park and suburban communities. The results show that the hybrid bioreactor fosters heterotrophic and autotrophic microorganisms. When the hydraulic load is 200 m(3) per day with the running mode in 12h cycles, the removal efficiencies of the nutrients were 81% for TP, 74% for TDP, 82% for TN, 79% for NO(3)-N and 86% for NH(4)-N. The improved bacterial community structure and bacterial habitats further implied enhanced water quality and indicates that the easily-deployed, affordable and environmentally-friendly hybrid bioreactor is a promising bio-measure for removing high loadings of nutrients from non-point source wastewater.

  16. The Degree of Farmers’ Cognition on Non-point Source Pollution:Based on the Statistical Analysis of 453 Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; BI; Huaiye; WANG; Jue; PENG

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern agriculture,agricultural non-point source pollution becomes increasingly serious in China,improving farmers’ environmental protection consciousness plays a very important role in the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution.Therefore,this investigation and study chooses rural areas of five counties from Chongqing city and Zhejiang province as our samples,our investigation and statistical analysis includes the following four aspects:farmers’ cognition on non-point source pollution concept,farmers’ cognition to rural environment satisfaction,farmers’ cognition on non-point source pollution in agricultural production and farmers’ cognition on the consequences of agricultural non-point source pollution and the effects on ecological environment.The analysis and conclusions of farmers’ consciousness cognition on agricultural non-point source pollution,provides the supports in theory and practice for optimizing the behavior of farmers,promoting the management of agricultural non-point source pollution and implementing new rural construction goal.

  17. A method to analyze "source-sink" structure of non-point source pollution based on remote sensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengzhen; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Qinghui

    2013-11-01

    With the purpose of providing scientific basis for environmental planning about non-point source pollution prevention and control, and improving the pollution regulating efficiency, this paper established the Grid Landscape Contrast Index based on Location-weighted Landscape Contrast Index according to the "source-sink" theory. The spatial distribution of non-point source pollution caused by Jiulongjiang Estuary could be worked out by utilizing high resolution remote sensing images. The results showed that, the area of "source" of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiulongjiang Estuary was 534.42 km(2) in 2008, and the "sink" was 172.06 km(2). The "source" of non-point source pollution was distributed mainly over Xiamen island, most of Haicang, east of Jiaomei and river bank of Gangwei and Shima; and the "sink" was distributed over southwest of Xiamen island and west of Shima. Generally speaking, the intensity of "source" gets weaker along with the distance from the seas boundary increase, while "sink" gets stronger.

  18. Modelling of point and non-point source pollution of nitrate with SWAT in the river Dill, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    T. Pohlert; J. A. Huisman; L. Breuer; Frede, H.-G.

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate point and non-point source pollution of nitrate in a mesoscale mountainous catchment. The results show that the model efficiency for daily discharge is 0.81 for the calibration period (November 1990 to December 1993) and 0.56 for the validation period (April 2000 to January 2003). The model efficiency for monthly nitrate load is 0.66 and 0.77 for the calibration period (April 2000 to March 2002) and validati...

  19. [L-THIA-based management design for controlling urban non-point source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing-Hai; Yang, Liu; Ke-Ming, Ma

    2007-11-01

    L-THIA Model was used to simulate the amounts of NPS pollutants in 2 catchments of Sanjiao watershed (Sj1, Sj2) in Hanyang district, and the total simulated amount of NPS loads in Sj1 and Sj2 were 1.82 x 10(4) kg, 1.38 x 10(5) kg, respectively. Based on the theory of resource-sink" and interaction of pattern with process, a series of BMPs, including green roof, grassland, porous pavement, infiltration trench, vegetative filter strip and wet pond, were optimized, and effects of BMPs were simulated along the surface runoff pathway. The results show that total pollutants outputs entering Sj1 and Sj2 account for 14.65% and 6.57%, respectively. Combining L-THIA model and BMPs in series is a proper measure for non-point source pollution control and urban development planning at watershed or region scale.

  20. Modified Weighting for Calculating the Average Concentration of Non-Point Source Pollutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟瑞芳

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of runoff depends upon that of soil loss and the latter is assumed to be linear to the value of EI that equals the product of total storm energy E times the maximum 30-min intensity I30 for a given rainstorm. Usually, the maximum accumulative amount of rain for a rainstorm might bring on the maximum amount of runoff, but it does not equal the maximum erosion and not always lead the maximum concentration. Thus, the average concentration weighted by amount of runoff is somewhat unreasonable. An improvement for the calculation method of non-point source pollution load put forward by professor Li Huaien is proposed. In replacement of the weight of runoff, EI value of a single rainstorm is introduced as a new weight. An example of Fujing River watershed shows that its application is effective.

  1. Isotopic Tracers for Delineating Non-Point Source Pollutants in Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L

    2001-03-01

    This study tested whether isotope measurements of surface water and dissolved constituents in surface water could be used as tracers of non-point source pollution. Oxygen-18 was used as a water tracer, while carbon-14, carbon-13, and deuterium were tested as tracers of DOC. Carbon-14 and carbon-13 were also used as tracers of dissolved inorganic carbon, and chlorine-36 and uranium isotopes were tested as tracers of other dissolved salts. In addition, large databases of water quality measurements were assembled for the Missouri River at St. Louis and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California to enhance interpretive results of the isotope measurements. Much of the water quality data has been under-interpreted and provides a valuable resource to investigative research, for which this report exploits and integrates with the isotope measurements.

  2. Investigation and Analysis of Guangzhou Nansha Coast Park Point Source Pollution and Non-point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruijie; YANG; Huanghuang; ZENG; Budan; CHEN; Fang; CHEN; Shikai; WU

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]To find out the situation of Nansha Coast Park point and non-point source pollution.[Method]By investigating the park water environment,analysis of point and non-point source pollutants contribution rate,setting up water quality monitoring sites for basic data related indicators and then using national water quality standards to evaluate water quality.[Result]The Coast Park point source pollution mainly comes from the campus greeting fertilizer spraying.The COD of lakes and river outside the park and ammonia mean concentration belong to grade III.The total nitrogen of lake belongs to grade III.The total phosphorus belongs to grade IV.The total nitrogen of river is the worst.The total phosphorus is grade V.[Conclusion] The lake water quality is highly affected by the point and non-point source pollution,the quality of the river is worse than that of the lake in the park,and it needs powerful governance.

  3. [Impacts of the urbanization on waters non-point source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Ke-Ming; Guo, Qing-hai; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-11-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the prominent source of water pollution in many countries, included America and China, of the world. Urban NPS pollution was attached little importance for long, compared with agriculture NPS pollution. While urbanization is the dominant form of land-use change in terms of impacts on water quality, the hydrology, other physical properties of watersheds as well as their NPS pollution potential at present. The formation of urban NPS pollution of water could be described by "source-process-sink". Urbanization has changed the source, process and sink of urban NPS pollution. A review was conducted on the international researches of urbanization impacts on NPS pollution in urban water environment from the point of view of "describe-predict and evaluation-application". The studies of urbanization impacts on urban NPS pollution were focused on modeling the process of urban NPS pollution by hydrologic model, predicting the pollutants load of NPS pollution. It is a fresh methodology that the relationship between urbanization and urban NPS pollution of water was analyzed by the method of landscape change and ecological process. The research on temporal-spatial comprehensive impacts of landscape pattern changes, led by urbanization, on the urban NPS pollution will be one of the hotspots.

  4. Modelling of point and non-point source pollution of nitrate with SWAT in the river Dill, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pohlert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT to simulate point and non-point source pollution of nitrate in a mesoscale mountainous catchment. The results show that the model efficiency for daily discharge is 0.81 for the calibration period (November 1990 to December 1993 and 0.56 for the validation period (April 2000 to January 2003. The model efficiency for monthly nitrate load is 0.66 and 0.77 for the calibration period (April 2000 to March 2002 and validation period (April 2002 to January 2003, respectively. However, the model efficiency for daily loads is low (0.15, which cannot only be attributed to the quality of input data of point source effluents. An analysis of the internal fluxes and cycles of nitrogen pointed out considerable weaknesses in the models conceptualisation of the nitrogen modules which will be improved in future research.

  5. Optimization strategy integrity for watershed agricultural non-point source pollution control based on Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study has established a set of methodological systems by simulating loads and analyzing optimization strategy integrity for the optimization of watershed non-point source pollution control. First, the source of watershed agricultural non-point source pollution is divided into four aspects, including agricultural land, natural land, livestock breeding, and rural residential land. Secondly, different pollution control measures at the source, midway and ending stages are chosen. Thirdly, the optimization effect of pollution load control in three stages are simulated, based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The method described above is applied to the Ashi River watershed in Heilongjiang Province of China. Case study results indicate that the combined three types of control measures can be implemented only if the government promotes the optimized plan and gradually improves implementation efficiency. This method for the optimization strategy integrity for watershed non-point source pollution control has significant reference value.

  6. Application of a constructed wetland for non-point source pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Wang, J Y; Lee, H Y; Wen, C K

    2001-01-01

    In Taiwan, non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the major causes of impairment of surface waters. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using constructed wetlands on NPS pollutant removal and water quality improvements. A field-scale constructed wetland system was built inside the campus of National Sun Yat-Sen University (located in southern Taiwan) to remove (1) NPS pollutants due to the stormwater runoff, and (2) part of the untreated wastewater from school drains. The constructed wetland was 40 m (L) x 30 m (W) x 1 m (D), which received approximately 85 m3 per day of untreated wastewater from school drainage pipes. The plants grown on the wetland included floating (Pistia stratiotes L.) and emergent (Phragmites communis L.) species. One major storm event and baseline water quality samples were analyzed during the monitoring period. Analytical results indicate that the constructed wetland removed a significant amount of NPS pollutants and wastewater constituents. More than 88% of nitrogen, 81% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 85% of heavy metals, and 60% of the total suspended solids (TSS) caused by the storm runoff were removed by the wetland system before discharging. Results from this study may be applied to the design of constructed wetlands for NPS pollution control and water quality improvement.

  7. Pollution of surface waters by metalaxyl and nitrate from non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Fernández-Calviño, David; Álvarez-Enjo, Manuel Ali; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The mobility of contaminants in soil is highly dependent upon the characteristics of the contaminant chemical and the properties of the soil. In order to explore these relationships, the district of A Limia (Galicia, NW Spain) was selected as the study area--a cropland devoted to growing potatoes, where the soil had been managed intensively over the last 50 years. The soil was characterised by low slopes with the water table located very close to the soil surface. Our aim was to study the influence of high and intensive crop production on the water bodies and non-point source contamination, with a particular focus on metalaxyl and nitrate. The highest concentrations of metalaxyl occurred when rainfalls were low and in zones of the study area where natural hydrology was significantly altered by numerous drainage canals. The spatial and temporal distributions of the nitrate also showed a high variability, with the interaction between seasons and sampling area being the most significant factor in explaining the levels found. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Model AVSWAT apropos of simulating non-point source pollution in Taihu lake basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-Ling; Chen, Ying-Xu; Jilani, Ghulam; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Yu, Qiao-Gang

    2010-02-15

    Accelerated eutrophication and nutrient loads in the lakes are of major concern for human health and environment. This study was undertaken for modeling the non-point source pollution of Taihu lake basin in eastern China. The SWAT model having an interface in ArcView GIS was employed. Model sensitive parameters related to hydrology and water quality were obtained by sensitivity analysis, and then calibrated and validated by comparing model predictions with field data. The GIS showed good potential for parameterization of hill-slopes, channels, and representative slope profiles for SWAT model simulations. In a monthly and daily time step, the model's Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (E) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) indicated that values of simulated runoff, NH(4)(+)-N and total phosphorus were acceptably closer to the measured data. Surface water parameters especially CN, Soil-AWC and ESCO were the most sensitive and had more recognition in the model. It is concluded that runoff carrying N and P nutrients from chemical fertilizer inputs in agricultural areas is the major contributor to NPSP in the lake basin. So, decrease in excessive use of N and P fertilizers and their synergism with organic manures is recommended that would significantly reduce nutrient pollution in the lake ecosystem.

  9. Reducing future non-point source sediment and phosphorus loading under intensifying agricultural production in the Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogus, Mamaru; Schmitter, Petra; Tilahun, Seifu; Steenhuise, Tammo

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture will bring along non-point source pollution in the Ethiopian highlands resulting in eutrophication of lakes. The first signs of eutrophication have been observed already in Lake Tana. The lake it supports the lives of millions in the surrounding through fishing, tourism, transportation and hydropower.Presently, information on non-point source pollution is lacking in the Ethiopian highlands. There are few studies carried out in the highlands on the extent and the source areas of pollution, and models are not available for predicting sediment and phosphorus loading other than those developed for temperate climates. The objective of this chapter is to review existing non-point source studies, report on our findings of sediment and phosphorus sources that are related the non-point source pollution of Lake Tana and to present a non-point source model for the Ethiopian highland based on the Parameter Efficient Semi-distributed Watershed Hydrology Model (PED-WHM).In our research we have found that the saturation excess runoff from valley bottoms and from degraded lands are prevalent in the Ethiopia highlands. The periodically runoff source areas are also the sources for the non-point source pollution and by concentrating best management practices in these source areas we expect that we can reduce pollution without affecting the profitability of the existing farms. The water balance component of the non-point source model has been performing well in predicting both the discharge and the location of the runoff source areas. Sediment and phosphorus prediction models have been developed and are currently being tested for the 7km2Awramba watershed and the 1350 km2Gumara basin. Initial results indicate that 11.2 ton/ha/year sediment load and an accumulation rate of 17.3 mg/kg/year of dissolved phosphorus from Gumara watershed joining the lake. By developing best management practices at this time before non-point source pollution is rampant and

  10. Relationship Between Non-Point Source Pollution and Korean Green Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In determining the relationship between the rational event mean concentration (REMC which is a volume-weighted mean of event mean concentrations (EMCs as a non-point source (NPS pollution indicator and the green factor (GF as a low impact development (LID land use planning indicator, we constructed at runoff database containing 1483 rainfall events collected from 107 different experimental catchments from 19 references in Korea. The collected data showed that EMCs were not correlated with storm factors whereas they showed significant differences according to the land use types. The calculated REMCs for BOD, COD, TSS, TN, and TP showed negative correlations with the GFs. However, even though the GFs of the agricultural area were concentrated in values of 80 like the green areas, the REMCs for TSS, TN, and TP were especially high. There were few differences in REMC runoff characteristics according to the GFs such as recreational facilities areas in suburbs and highways and trunk roads that connect to major roads between major cities. Except for those areas, the REMCs for BOD and COD were significantly related to the GFs. The REMCs for BOD and COD decreased when the rate of natural green area increased. On the other hand, some of the REMCs for TSS, TN, and TP were still high where the catchments encountered mixed land use patterns, especially public facility areas with bare ground and artificial grassland areas. The GF could therefore be used as a major planning indicator when establishing land use planning aimed at sustainable development with NPS management in urban areas if the weighted GF values will be improved.

  11. Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Xixi Watershed of Jinjiang Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun RONG; Jiqiang ZHANG; Yang SHI

    2016-01-01

    The SWAT model was applied to analyze the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of non-point source pollution loads and the difference of pollution loads of different land use types in Xixi Watershed of Jinjiang Basin. The results showed that both yearly nitrogen and phosphorus pollution loads were evenly distributed during 1973 to 1979,the annual TN pollution from non-point source was 1530 t,or 6. 3 kg / ha,and the annual TP pollution from non-point source was 270 t,or 1. 1 kg / ha during 1973 to 1979 in the watershed. Considerable differences were identified on both monthly nitrogen and phosphorus pollution loads. The TN and TP pollution loads during the flood season( from April to September) accounted for 76. 2% and 75. 8% of the annual load respectively. There were great differences in both TN and TP pollution loads of different land use types in the study area,and the pollution load of both farmland and orchard was higher than that of the other land use types. TN and TP pollution loads of farmland accounted for 66% and 83% of total watershed. There was a great spatial difference in the nonpoint source pollution load of the study area. The critical source areas of non-point source pollution are mainly located at Guanqiao Town,Longmen Town,Changkeng Town,Shangqing Town and Dapu Town,where the efforts of controlling pollution should be made.

  12. The Treatment Train approach to reducing non-point source pollution from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, N.; Reaney, S. M.; Barker, P. A.; Benskin, C.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Haygarth, P.; Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Surridge, B.; Quinn, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental approach has been applied to an agricultural catchment in NW England, where non-point pollution adversely affects freshwater ecology. The aim of the work (as part of the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment project) is to develop techniques to manage agricultural runoff whilst maintaining food production. The approach used is the Treatment Train (TT), which applies multiple connected mitigation options that control nutrient and fine sediment pollution at source, and address polluted runoff pathways at increasing spatial scale. The principal agricultural practices in the study sub-catchment (1.5 km2) are dairy and stock production. Farm yards can act as significant pollution sources by housing large numbers of animals; these areas are addressed initially with infrastructure improvements e.g. clean/dirty water separation and upgraded waste storage. In-stream high resolution monitoring of hydrology and water quality parameters showed high-discharge events to account for the majority of pollutant exports ( 80% total phosphorus; 95% fine sediment), and primary transfer routes to be surface and shallow sub-surface flow pathways, including drains. To manage these pathways and reduce hydrological connectivity, a series of mitigation features were constructed to intercept and temporarily store runoff. Farm tracks, field drains, first order ditches and overland flow pathways were all targeted. The efficacy of the mitigation features has been monitored at event and annual scale, using inflow-outflow sampling and sediment/nutrient accumulation measurements, respectively. Data presented here show varied but positive results in terms of reducing acute and chronic sediment and nutrient losses. An aerial fly-through of the catchment is used to demonstrate how the TT has been applied to a fully-functioning agricultural landscape. The elevated perspective provides a better understanding of the spatial arrangement of mitigation features, and how they can be

  13. Long-term vegetation landscape pattern with non-point source nutrient pollution in upper stream of Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Hao, F.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland, forest, and farmland are the dominant land covers in upper catchments of the Yellow River and their landscape status has direct connection with dynamics of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Understanding the correlations between landscape variables and different formats of NPS nutrients p

  14. Long-term vegetation landscape pattern with non-point source nutrient pollution in upper stream of Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Hao, F.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland, forest, and farmland are the dominant land covers in upper catchments of the Yellow River and their landscape status has direct connection with dynamics of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Understanding the correlations between landscape variables and different formats of NPS nutrients p

  15. [Spatial discharge characteristics and total load control of non-point source pollutants based on the catchment scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-Hui; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Qing-Zhong; Wang, Bo; Yao, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Hui-Yuan; Huang, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. Based on the analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics and intensity of major pollutants from the agricultural pollution source, the establishment of spatial management subzones for controlling agricultural non-point pollution and a design of a plan for total load control of pollutants from each subzone is an important way to improve the efficiency of control measures. In this paper the Four Lake basin in Hubei Province is adopted as the research case region and a systematic research of the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point pollution based on the catchment scale is carried out. The results shows that in the Four Lake basin, the COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen load of the water environment are mainly caused by agricultural non-point pollution. These four kinds of non-point source pollutants respectively account for 67.6%, 82.2%, 84.7% and 50.9% of the total pollutant discharge amount in the basin. The analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics of non-point source pollutants in the Four Lake basin shows that the major contributor source regions of non-point source pollutant in the basin are the four counties, including Honghu, Jianli, Qianjiang and Shayang where the aquatic and livestock production are relatively developed. According to the spatial discharge characteristics of the pollutants and the evaluation of the discharge intensity of pollutants, the Four Lake basin is divided into three agricultural non-point pollution management subzones, which including Changhu upstream aquatic and livestock production pollution control subzone, Four-lake trunk canal rural non-point source pollution control subzone and Honghu aquatic production pollution control subzone. Specific pollution control measures are put forward for each subzone. With a comprehensive consideration of the water quality amelioration and the

  16. Long-term agricultural non-point source pollution loading dynamics and correlation with outlet sediment geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Jiao, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Giubilato, Elisa; Critto, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Some agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollutants accumulate in sediments in the outlet sections of watersheds. It is crucial to evaluate the historical interactions between sediment properties and watershed NPS loading. Therefore, a sediment core from the outlet of an agricultural watershed was collected. The core age was dated using the 210Pb method, and sedimentation rates were determined using the constant rate of supply (CRS) model. The total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cr accumulations in the sediment generally showed fluctuating increases, with the highest sedimentation fluxes all occurring in approximately 1998. The measurement of specific mass sedimentation rates reflected a record of watershed soil erosion dynamics. Using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate long-term watershed agricultural NPS pollution loadings, the historical interactions between sediment properties and NPS loadings were further evaluated. The N leaching process weakened these interactions, but the historical accumulations of TP and heavy metals in sediments generally correlated well with watershed NPS TP loading. The regression analysis suggested that Pb and Cr were the most suitable indexes for assessing long-term NPS TN and TP pollution, respectively. Assessing the NPS loading dynamics using the vertical characteristics of sediment geochemistry is a new method.

  17. [Three patterns of interaction between soil and non-point source P-pollutants in agricultural watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-hui; Yin, Cheng-qing; Yan, Xiao; Shan, Bao-qing; Wang, Wei-dong

    2004-07-01

    Typical agricultural watershed was selected to study the interactions between soil matrix and non-point source P-pollutants in surface runoff under simulative conditions. The soil samples were taken in different spatial locations in this watershed and were under different degree of human disturbance. The results showed that the interactions between different soil matrix and phosphorus could be divided into three patterns:retention, release and combination of retention and release. Soil of retention pattern has strong adsorption capacity of phosphate and will retain phosphorus from polluted runoff. Soil of release pattern has significant desorption capacity of phosphate and will release phosphorus to the runoff. Soil of retention and release combination pattern will retain or release phosphorus according to the phosphate concentration in the polluted runoff. These results showed that soil matrix in different spatial locations in the agricultural watershed have different ecological functions and environmental values under the processing of natural conditions and human disturbance. From the view of occurrence of non-point source pollution, these soils could become the sink of pollutants as well as the source of pollutants. Under some conditions, there has a conversion between sink and source of them. These results are valuable for control of non-point source pollution on watershed level, identification of key source area of pollutants and improvement of efficiency of control measures.

  18. The non-point source (NPS) information system based on remote sensing and GIS and its preliminary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A non-point source information system (NPSIS) has been constructed by use of remote sensing and GIS technology, and a construction method of NPSlS introduced with Shenzhen as an example. With the remote sensing land-using images as an environment unit, the analysis modules based on NPSIS are built through combining the NPS model with NPSIS, and the preliminary NPS calculation and analysis performed.

  19. A distributed non-point source pollution model:calibration and validation in the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Fang-bua; ZHANG Xue-song; YANG Zhi-feng

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of a non-point source pollution model-SWAT(soil and water assessment tools) in a large river basin with high sediment runoff modulus(770 t/km2 in the Yellow River) was examined. The basic database,which includes DEM, soil and landuse map, weather data, and land management data, was established for the study area using GIS. A two-stage "Brute Force" optimization method was used to calibrate the parameters with the observed monthly flow and sediment data from 1992 to 1997. In the process of calibration automated digital filter technique was used to separate direct runoff and base flow. The direct runoff was firstly calibrated, and the base flow, then the total runoff was matched. The sediment yield was calibrated to match well. Keeping input parameters set during the calibration process unchanged, the model was validated with 1998-1999's observed monthly flow and sediment. The evaluation coefficients for simulated and observed flow and sediment showed that SWAT was successfully applied in the study area: relative error was within 20%, coefficient of determination and Nash-Suttcliffe simulation efficiency were all equal to or above 0.70 during calibration and validation period.

  20. Distributed Simulation of Non-Point Source Pollution in Ashi River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Ma; Xiaofeng Jiang; Li Wang; Zhe Li; Xiongwei Liang

    2015-01-01

    In order to get a thorough understanding of non⁃point source pollution, it is essential to examine its temporal and spatial distribution. A physically⁃based distributed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool ( SWAT) , was used in this research, to quantitatively estimate the NPS load and analyze the temporal and spatial distributions of NPS pollution in Ashi River Basin. The results indicated that SWAT was suitable to simulate stream⁃flow and water quality in Ashi River Basin. Total Nitrogen which was contributed by NPS (NPS⁃TN) accounted for 32�47%-62�61%, and Total Phosphorus which was contributed by NPS (NPS⁃TP) accounted for 22�30%-57�85% of the total load respectively. In inter⁃annual timescale, both NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP were influenced by stream⁃flow and fertilizer. However, when compared with fertilizer, NPS pollution was more directly affected by stream⁃flow. In annual timescale, NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP mainly occurred in flood season (from May to September). In the aspect of space, spatial differences of NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP were extremely significant. The spatial variations of NPS pollution were mainly influenced by land use, precipitation, soil and slope.

  1. Role of rural solid waste management in non-point source pollution control of Dianchi Lake catchments, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjing LU; Hongtao WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, with control of the main municipal and industrial point pollution sources and implementation of cleaning for some inner pollution sources in the water body, the discharge of point source pollution decreased gradually, while non-point source pollution has become increasingly distressing in Dianchi Lake catchments. As one of the major targets in non-point source pollution control, an integrated solid waste controlling strategy combined with a technological solution and management system was proposed and implemented based on the waste disposal situation and characteristics of rural solid waste in the demonstration area. As the key technoogy in rural solid waste treatment, both centralized plantscale composting and a dispersed farmer-operated waste treating system showed promise in rendering timely benefits in efficiency, large handling capacity, high quality of the end product, as well as good economic return. Problems encountered during multi-substrates co-com-posting such as pathogens, high moisture content, asyn-chronism in the decomposition of different substrates, and low quality of the end product can all be tackled. 92.5% of solid waste was collected in the demonstration area, while the treating and recycling ratio reached 87.9%, which pre-vented 32.2 t nitrogen and 3.9 t phosphorus per year from entering the water body of Dianchi Lake after imple-mentation of the project.

  2. Non-point source analysis of a railway bridge area using statistical method: case study of a concrete road-bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Kyungik; Im, Jiyeol

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to protect the quality of the water system, interest in non-point source pollution is increasing. Recently, studies of non-point sources pollution are continuing in relation to various land-use areas, but such studies have not been fully conducted in railway facility sites. Using monitoring data of railway bridge area with concrete road-bed, the runoff characteristics, pollutant unit loads, and first flush criteria were assessed. Railway bridge area with concrete road-bed typically show the first flush effect, and the pollutant unit load was determined to be higher than other public facilities areas. Further, the first flush criteria show an effective rainfall amount of 7 mm. In other words, from the runoff of railway facilities, considerable amounts of non-point source pollutants are occurred, indicating the need to create best management practices which are adequate for railway facility sites. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 农业非点源污染研究进展和趋势%The Progress and Trends of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽华; 李强坤

    2014-01-01

    根据国内外农业非点源污染研究现状,本文在探讨农业非点源污染内涵及其特征的基础上,简要总结了农业非点源污染负荷的估算模型,列举区域农业非点源污染风险评估的手段和方法,从不同角度归纳了农业非点源污染的控制技术,并提出了近期农业非点源污染急需研究的热点和趋势,以期为进一步的农业非点源污染管理和控制提供参考。%According to the current research on agricultural non-point source pollution at home and abroad, the connotation and feature of a-gricultural non-point source pollution were explored in this paper, and then the estimating model of pollution load was concluded briefly. Meanwhile, the paper also listed the means and methods of risk assessment of regional agricultural non-point source pollution and summed up the control technologies from different angles. Finally, the recent much-needed research hotspots and trends were put forward in order to provide reference for further management and control of agricultural non-point source pollution.

  4. Anthropogenic point-source and non-point-source nitrogen inputs into Huai River basin and their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. S.; Swaney, D. P.; Li, X. Y.; Hong, B.; Howarth, R. W.; Ding, S. H.

    2015-07-01

    This study provides a new approach to estimate both anthropogenic non-point-source and point-source nitrogen (N) inputs to the landscape, and determines their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen (AN) flux, providing a foundation for further exploration of anthropogenic effects on N pollution. Our study site is Huai River basin of China, a water-shed with one of the highest levels of N input in the world. Multi-year average (2003-2010) inputs of N to the watershed are 27 200 ± 1100 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources comprised about 98 % of total N input, and only 2 % of inputs are directly added to the aquatic ecosystem as point sources. Fertilizer application was the largest non-point source of new N to the Huai River basin (69 % of net anthropogenic N inputs), followed by atmospheric deposition (20 %), N fixation in croplands (7 %), and N content of imported food and feed (2 %). High N inputs showed impacts on riverine AN flux: fertilizer application, point-source N input, and atmospheric N deposition were proved as more direct sources to riverine AN flux. Modes of N delivery and losses associated with biological denitrification in rivers, water consumption, interception by dams may influence the extent of export of riverine AN flux from N sources. Our findings highlight the importance of anthropogenic N inputs from both point sources and non-point sources in heavily polluted watersheds, and provide some implications for AN prediction and management.

  5. Study on the Control Model of Rural Non-point Source Pollution——Taking Ninghe County in Tianjin as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the control model of rural non-point source pollution.[Method] Taking Ninghe County(a typical agricultural county in Tianjin) as an example,the current development of local economy and society and characteristics of rural non-point source pollution were studied firstly,then the control model of rural non-point source pollution suitable for Ninghe County was constructed,and its environmental and economic benefits were analyzed finally.[Result] According to the sources of non-...

  6. User's Guide for the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) Pollution Model Data Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Michael P.; Scheidt, Douglas J.; Jaromack, Gregory M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Throughout this user guide, we refer to datasets that we used in conjunction with developing of this software for supporting cartographic research and producing the datasets to conduct research. However, this software can be used with these datasets or with more 'generic' versions of data of the appropriate type. For example, throughout the guide, we refer to national land cover data (NLCD) and digital elevation model (DEM) data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at a 30-m resolution, but any digital terrain model or land cover data at any appropriate resolution will produce results. Another key point to keep in mind is to use a consistent data resolution for all the datasets per model run. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed the Agricultural Nonpoint Source (AGNPS) pollution model of watershed hydrology in response to the complex problem of managing nonpoint sources of pollution. AGNPS simulates the behavior of runoff, sediment, and nutrient transport from watersheds that have agriculture as their prime use. The model operates on a cell basis and is a distributed parameter, event-based model. The model requires 22 input parameters. Output parameters are grouped primarily by hydrology, sediment, and chemical output (Young and others, 1995.) Elevation, land cover, and soil are the base data from which to extract the 22 input parameters required by the AGNPS. For automatic parameter extraction, follow the general process described in this guide of extraction from the geospatial data through the AGNPS Data Generator to generate input parameters required by the pollution model (Finn and others, 2002.)

  7. Search for the northwest passage: the assignation of NSP (non-point source pollution) rights in nutrient trading programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collentine, D

    2002-01-01

    The search for solutions to the problem of non-point source pollution (NSP) includes alternatives based on theories associated with the use of tradable pollution permits. Tradable permit programs have received significant support as a promising policy for the reduction of effluent discharges but programs in practice have not been regarded as successful. The lack of success is ascribed to the design of the programs. However, this may be a design problem which is insurmountable due to the nature of the NSP problem. Tradable permit solutions are based on an assumption that the assignation of quantifiable rights to both point and nonpoint sources, based on some predetermined ambient water quality measure, is possible. The conclusion here is that there are significant features particular to NSP that hinder the introduction of rights and significantly decrease the utility of tradable permit solutions.

  8. The Non-point Source Pollution Effects of Pesticides Based on the Survey of 340 Farmers in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianchao; YU; Limeng; GU; Qian; BI

    2015-01-01

    Using the survey data on 340 farmers in Chongqing City,this paper performs an empirical analysis of the factors influencing the non-point source pollution of pesticides. The results show that the older householders will apply more pesticides,which may be due to the weak physical strength and weak ability to accept the concept of advanced cultivation; the householders with high level of education will choose to use less pesticides; the pesticide application rate is negatively correlated with whether farmers have participated in agricultural technology training,that is,the farmers having participated in agricultural technology training have stronger ability to scientifically apply pesticides,and in-depth understanding of advanced agricultural production technology and positive and negative effects of pesticides,so they often choose to reduce the application rate of pesticide; the cognitive factor on the role of pesticides in better promoting the growth of crops is significant,which requires the government and relevant departments to carry out concrete publicity of effectiveness and negative impact of different pesticides during the popularization of agricultural science knowledge,to prompt farmers to have a systematic and in-depth understanding of the agricultural nonpoint source pollution caused by pesticides.

  9. Landscape planning for agricultural non-point source pollution reduction. II. Balancing watershed size, number of watersheds, and implementation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T; Diebel, Matthew W; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs--i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds--have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from $2 to $200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km(2); and optimal expenditure ranged from $21,000 to $35,000/km(2). The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km(2). These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  10. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay( WTP ) for Reducing Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution: Based on the Empirical Analysis of 453 Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; BI; Huaiye; WANG; Yongyan; ZUO

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern agriculture,agricultural non-point source pollution becomes increasingly serious in China,improving farmers’ environmental protection consciousness plays a very important role in the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution,and the WTP of Farmers for controlling agricultural non-point source pollution strongly reflects the strength of their environmental protection consciousness. Therefore,this investigation and study choose rural areas of five counties from Chongqing city and Zhejiang province as our sample,respectively make interview survey with the WTP(money or voluntary work) of farmers for improving local water and soil quality. Based on the statistical analysis of survey data,this study also takes empirical test and analysis with the influence factors on the WTP of farmers for reducing agricultural non-point source pollution. The analysis and conclusions of this research provides the supports in theory and practice for optimizing farmers’ behavior,promoting the management of agricultural non-point source pollution and implementing new rural construction goal.

  11. ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF NITROGEN EMISSION FROM AGRICULTURAL NON-POINT SOURCE IN THE URBAN AGGLOMERATION IN THE MIDDLE-LOWER YANGTZE RIVER BELT%长江中下游城市群农业面源污染氮排放评价及调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖敏; 王伟力; 郭灵辉

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is an important component of protein and essential element for the growth of aquatic biomass. Excessive nitrogen input to natural water bodies leads to huge ecological pressure and environmental pollutions such as eutrophication. As point source pollution got effective control in the socio-economic system, agricultural non-point source pollution has become the main cause of eutrophication. Quantifying and regulating the agricultural non-point source pollution emissions throughout the entire socio-economic system is crucial to mitigate or avoid pro-ducing water pollution. Based on the inventory analysis method and emission coefficient method, this paper calcu-lated the nitrogen emission from the agricultural non-point source for the Urban Agglomeration in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Belt. The results showed that the total nitrogen emission from the agricultural non -point source in the whole area was 128. 27 × 104 t in 2011, of which agricultural emission accounted for 58. 92%, and e-mission from livestock and poultry was 33 . 53%. The sensitivity analysis method and scenario analysis method were then applied to simulate the emission situation during 2011 to 2020 and 2020 to 2030 . Some conclusions were drawn as follows:Under scenario 1, if more stringent pollution control efforts were not implemented, the nitrogen e-mission from the agricultural non-point source would increase 16 . 29% during 2011 to 2020 , and 18 . 78% during 2020 to 2030. Under scenario 2 and scenario 3, by contrast, the total nitrogen emission of the four urban agglomer-ations would be 15% fewer in 2020 than in 2011 , and 25% fewer in 2030 than in 2011 . The nitrogen emission re-duction effect in scenario 2 was better than that in scenario 3;Scenario 3 was considered to be more conducive to couple the relationship between regional economic growth and environmental protection. Finally, some recommen-dations were put forward to regional emission reduction, including reducing

  12. 非点源污染负荷模型的研究进展%Research Progress of Non-point Source Pollution Models in Water Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚瑞华; 王东; 赵越; 张晶

    2012-01-01

    Based on non-point source load model research at home and abroad, in accordance of the agriculture, urban and mixed non-point source models, the main conditions for the application model were summarized, and the development of non-point source model was prospected.%基于国内外非点源负荷污染模型的研究现状,针对农业、城市和混合三种类型非点源模型,总结并梳理了主要模型的适用条件,并对非点源模型的发展趋势进行了展望.

  13. Assessment of point and non-point pollution associated with the power generation sector in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, H D; Heath, R G

    2007-01-01

    Access to water and water availability remains a key factor in ensuring the sustainability of development in Southern Africa. The need for guidelines to improve management of this valuable resource, and to regulate pollutant discharge, is therefore of national interest. A new and growing threat to our natural water resources is non-point source (NPS) pollution. The important distinction between point pollution and NPS pollution is that the latter is difficult to identify and the entry point of contamination to resources is diffuse and not limited to a single location. NPS pollution associated with power generation includes, but is not limited to, atmospheric deposition resulting from emissions (air and water), leachate from coal storage piles and runoff from impervious areas which are covered with dust fallout from coal and ash handling operations. Emissions of primary concern are sulfur, nitrogen and mercury.

  14. [Analysis on nitrogen and phosphorus loading of non-point sources in Shiqiao river watershed based on L-THIA model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zeng, Fan-Tang; Fang, Huai-Yang; Lin, Shu

    2013-11-01

    Based on the Long-term Hydrological Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model, the effect of land use and rainfall change on nitrogen and phosphorus loading of non-point sources in Shiqiao river watershed was analyzed. The parameters in L-THIA model were revised according to the data recorded in the scene of runoff plots, which were set up in the watershed. The results showed that the distribution of areas with high pollution load was mainly concentrated in agricultural land and urban land. Agricultural land was the biggest contributor to nitrogen and phosphorus load. From 1995 to 2010, the load of major pollutants, namely TN and TP, showed an obviously increasing trend with increase rates of 17.91% and 25.30%, respectively. With the urbanization in the watershed, urban land increased rapidly and its area proportion reached 43.94%. The contribution of urban land to nitrogen and phosphorus load was over 40% in 2010. This was the main reason why pollution load still increased obviously while the agricultural land decreased greatly in the past 15 years. The rainfall occurred in the watershed was mainly concentrated in the flood season, so the nitrogen and phosphorus load of the flood season was far higher than that of the non-flood season and the proportion accounting for the whole year was over 85%. Pearson regression analysis between pollution load and the frequency of different patterns of rainfall demonstrated that rainfall exceeding 20 mm in a day was the main rainfall type causing non-point source pollution.

  15. Estimation of contribution from non-point sources to perfluorinated surfactants in a river by using boron as a wastewater tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikoori, Hiroshi; Murakami, Michio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    The contribution of non-point sources to perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in a river was evaluated by estimating their fluxes and by using boron (B) as a tracer. The utility of PFSs/B as an indicator for evaluating the impact of non-point sources was demonstrated. River water samples were collected from the Iruma River, upstream of the intake of drinking water treatment plants in Tokyo, during dry weather and wet weather, and 13 PFSs, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and B were analyzed. Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) were detected on all sampling dates. The concentrations and fluxes of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, e.g. PFOA and PFNA) were higher during wet weather, but those of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs, e.g. PFHxS and PFOS) were not. The wet/dry ratios of PFSs/B (ratios of PFSs/B during wet weather to those during dry weather) agreed well with those of PFS fluxes (ratios of PFS fluxes during wet weather to those during dry weather), indicating that PFSs/B is useful for evaluating the contribution from non-point sources to PFSs in rivers. The wet/dry ratios of PFOA and PFNA were higher than those of other PFSs, DOC, and TN, showing that non-point sources contributed greatly to PFOA and PFNA in the water. This is the first study to use B as a wastewater tracer to estimate the contribution of non-point sources to PFSs in a river.

  16. Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution and Countermeasures in Yunnan%云南省农业面源污染及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱成

    2014-01-01

    云南省主要农业环境污染问题包括:化肥使用量不断增加;地膜使用量及其覆盖面积不断增加;农药使用量不断增加;畜禽粪便污染日益加重。分析了问题产生的原因,提出了防治农业污染的建议。%Environmental problems are emerging due to agricultural non -point source pollution in Yunnan.The most serious problems are as follows:an increasing usage of chemical fertilizers and plastics in farm field,a rising release of pesticide,and a growing amount of waste from livestock and poultry.Agricultural non-point sources in Yunnan were identified.Suggestions were put forward to control agricultural pollution.

  17. Using a constructed wetland for non-point source pollution control and river water quality purification: a case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C Y; Kao, C M; Lin, C E; Chen, C W; Lai, Y C

    2010-01-01

    The Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland, which was commissioned in 2004, is one of the largest constructed wetlands in Taiwan. This multi-function wetland has been designed for the purposes of non-point source (NPS) pollutant removal, wastewater treatment, wildlife habitat, recreation, and education. The major influents of this wetland came from the local drainage trench containing domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters, and effluents from the wastewater treatment plant of a paper mill. Based on the quarterly investigation results from 2007 to 2009, more than 96% of total coliforms (TC), 48% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and 40% of nutrients (e.g. total nitrogen, total phosphorus) were removed via the constructed wetland system. Thus, the wetland system has a significant effect on water quality improvement and is capable of removing most of the pollutants from the local drainage system before they are discharged into the downgradient water body. Other accomplishments of this constructed wetland system include the following: providing more green areas along the riversides, offering more water assessable eco-ponds and eco-gardens for the public, and rehabilitating the natural ecosystem. The Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland has become one of the most successful multi-function constructed wetlands in Taiwan. The experience obtained from this study will be helpful in designing similar natural treatment systems for river water quality improvement and wastewater treatment.

  18. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution.

  19. The simulation research of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution in Xiao-Jiang watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Long, Tian-Yu; Li, Chong-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Xiao-jiang, with a basin area of almost 5,276 km(2) and a length of 182.4 km, is located in the center of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and is the largest tributary of the central section in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, farmland accounts for a large proportion of Xiao-jiang watershed, and the hilly cropland of purple soil is much of the farmland of the watershed. After the second phase of water storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the majority of sub-rivers in the reservoir area experienced eutrophication phenomenon frequently, and non-point source (NPS) pollution has become an important source of pollution in Xiao-jiang Watershed. Because dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution are related to surface runoff and interflow, using climatic, topographic and land cover data from the internet and research institutes, the Semi-Distributed Land-use Runoff Process (SLURP) hydrological model was introduced to simulate the complete hydrological cycle of the Xiao-jiang Watershed. Based on the SLURP distributed hydrological model, non-point source pollution annual output load models of land use and rural residents were respectively established. Therefore, using GIS technology, considering the losses of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the course of transport, a dissolved non-point source pollution load dynamic model was established by the organic coupling of the SLURP hydrological model and land-use output model. Through the above dynamic model, the annual dissolved non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution output as well as the load in different types were simulated and quantitatively estimated from 2001 to 2008, furthermore, the loads of Xiao-jiang Watershed were calculated and expressed by temporal and spatial distribution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The simulation results show that: the temporal changes of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus load in the watershed are close to the inter-annual changes of rainfall runoff, and the

  20. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  1. Trends of nitrogen and phosphorus input into Lake Neusiedl from wastewater treatment plants and non-point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Paul; Heiss, Gerhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Lake Neusiedl (Austria) is a mesotrophic to eutrophic shallow steppe lake. Due to its low water volume and the lack of a natural outflow, excessive nutrient input is a special risk for this lake. In recent years, improved waste water treatment technologies have reduced the N and P loads of the inflows although all municipalities surrounding Lake Neusiedl (with one exception) and the cities and municipalities within the catchment area of the river Wulka discharge their (treated) wastewater into Lake Neusiedl. The amount of wastewater in 2010 was more than 22 x 106 m3. Although the amount of wastewater increased by more than 70 % in the last 30 years, it was possible to reduce the ammonium load from 38 t/a to 8 t/a (as NH4-N), the nitrate load from 83 t/a to 34 t/a (as NO3-N), the phosphate load from 8 t/a to 3 t/a (as PO4-P) and the total phosphorus load from 11 t/a to 6 t/a (comparison of the average annual loads of 1982 and 2010). Another environmental risk for Lake Neusiedl is the nitrogen input due to agricultural activities. Therefore a pilot action within the EULAKES-project focused on the nitrate levels during annual cycles (2011-2012) in groundwater as well as in selected rivers, channels and ditches discharging into Lake Neusiedl. The monitoring programme demonstrated clearly that the major contribution of the total nitrogen load discharged by surface water into Lake Neusiedl originated from River Wulka. For a general assessment of the influence of surface water discharge into Lake Neusiedl it is necessary to investigate the data of River Wulka for a longer period. Therefore data at the monitoring station Schützen were analysed for the period 1992-2010. Evaluation of the monitoring data showed that due to the higher nitrogen concentrations at higher average annual discharges the inorganic nitrogen load was about 6.5 times higher in 2010 (average discharge of Wulka 2.1 m3/s) than in the year 2001 (average discharge of Wulka 0.56 m3/s). The total inorganic

  2. Non-point Source Pollution Modeling Using Geographic Information System (GIS for Representing Best Management Practices (BMP in the Gorganrood Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pasandidehfard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important pollutants that cause water pollution are nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural runoff called Non-Point Source Pollution (NPS. To solve this problem, management practices known as BMPs or Best Management Practices are applied. One of the common methods for Non-Point Source Pollution prediction is modeling. By modeling, efficiency of many practices can be tested before application. In this study, land use changes were studied from the years 1984 till 2010 that showed an increase in agricultural lands from 516908.52 to 630737.19 ha and expansion of cities from 5237.87 to 15487.59 ha and roads from 9666.07 to 11430.24 ha. Using L-THIA model (from nonpoint source pollution models for both land use categories, the amount of pollutant and the volume of runoff were calculated that showed high growth. Then, the seventh sub-basin was recognized as a critical zone in terms of pollution among the sub-basins. In the end, land use change was considered as a BMP using Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE based on which a more suitable land use map was produced. After producing the new land use map, L-THIA model was run again and the result of the model was compared to the actual land use to show the effect of this BMP. Runoff volume decreased from 367.5 to 308.6 M3/ha and nitrogen in runoff was reduced from 3.26 to 1.58 mg/L and water BOD from 3.61 to 2.13 mg/L. Other pollutants also showed high reduction. In the end, land use change is confirmed as an effective BMP for Non-Point Source Pollution reduction.

  3. Detection of spatial fluctuations of non-point source fecal pollution in coral reef surrounding waters in southwestern Puerto Rico using PCR-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkosky, M; Hernández-Delgado, E A; Sandoz, B; Robledo, I E; Norat-Ramírez, J; Mattei, H

    2009-01-01

    Human fecal contamination of coral reefs is a major cause of concern. Conventional methods used to monitor microbial water quality cannot be used to discriminate between different fecal pollution sources. Fecal coliforms, enterococci, and human-specific Bacteroides (HF183, HF134), general Bacteroides-Prevotella (GB32), and Clostridium coccoides group (CP) 16S rDNA PCR assays were used to test for the presence of non-point source fecal contamination across the southwestern Puerto Rico shelf. Inshore waters were highly turbid, consistently receiving fecal pollution from variable sources, and showing the highest frequency of positive molecular marker signals. Signals were also detected at offshore waters in compliance with existing microbiological quality regulations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most isolates were of human fecal origin. The geographic extent of non-point source fecal pollution was large and impacted extensive coral reef systems. This could have deleterious long-term impacts on public health, local fisheries and in tourism potential if not adequately addressed.

  4. Screening and identification of early warning algal species for metal contamination in fresh water bodies polluted from point and non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita; Shukla, O P; Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, R D

    2008-09-01

    The water bodies of Lucknow, Unnao and Kanpur (U.P.), India polluted through various point and non point sources were found to be either eutrophic or oligotrophic in nature. These water bodies supported a great number of algal diversity, which varied seasonally depending upon the physico-chemical properties of water. Further, the water bodies polluted through non point sources supports diverse algal species, while the water bodies polluted through point sources supports growth of tolerant blue green algae. High biomass producing algal species growing in these water bodies have accumulated significant amount of metals in their tissues. Maximum amount of Fe was found accumulated by species of Oedogonium sp. II (20,523.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Spirogyra sp. I (4,520.00 microg g(-1) dw), while maximum Chromium (Cr) was found accumulated in Phormedium bohneri (2,109.00 microg g(-1) dw) followed by Oscillatoria nigra (1,957.88 microg g(-1) dw) and Oedogonium sp. I (156.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Ni in Ulothrix sp. (495.00 microg g(-1) dw). Results showed that some of these forms growing in polluted environment and accumulating high amounts of toxic metals may be used as bioindicator species, however, their performance in metal contaminated water under different ecological niche is to be ascertained.

  5. Study on agricultural structure and non-point source pollution: a case in Dapu Town of Yixing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Xiyuan; Liu Minghui; Lu Genfa

    2006-01-01

    The water body of Taihu Lake has been eutrophicated because of area-source pollution. 83% of the total nitrogen and 84% of the total phosphorus of the pollutant that have washed into Taihu Lake originated from the fertilizer of crop land, rural animal husbandry and living sewage and rubbish in rural area. The goal of adjusting agricultural structure is to improve agricultural development, and to increase the peasants income by planting non-grain crop,centralizing animal husbandry, and intensifying aquaculture, etc, It is necessary to research on the influences of agriculture industrial structure on area-source pollution, This paper studies a case of Dapu Town in Yixing City, which is a typical drainage place beside Taihu Lake. On the basis of the analysis on the status quo of area-source pollution and agriculture industrial structure in Dapu Town, the conflicts between them are discussed. Non-grain crop production with a great deal of fertilizer and developing aquaculture with a great deal of organic pollutant, which are directly discharged,make area-source pollution more serious and accelerate the eutrophication in Taihu Lake. This paper suggests taking corresponding technological measures and policies, which have been tested in Dapu Town and demonstrated in Taihu Lake area.

  6. A dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic model for water resources management and non-point source pollution mitigation under multiple uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Tan, Q.; Huang, G.-H.; Cai, Y.-P.

    2014-05-01

    In this research, a dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic programming (DIFSP) method was developed for supporting the planning of water and farmland use management system considering the non-point source pollution mitigation under uncertainty. The random boundary interval (RBI) was incorporated into DIFSP through integrating fuzzy linear programming (FLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP) approaches within an interval linear programming (ILP) framework. This developed method could effectively tackle the uncertainties expressed as intervals and fuzzy sets. Moreover, the lower and upper bounds of RBI are continuous random variables, and the correlation existing between the lower and upper bounds can be tackled in RBI through the joint probability distribution function. And thus the subjectivity of decision making is greatly reduced, enhancing the stability and robustness of obtained solutions. The proposed method was then applied to solve a water and farmland use planning model (WFUPM) with non-point source pollution mitigation. The generated results could provide decision makers with detailed water supply-demand schemes involving diversified water-related activities under preferred satisfaction degrees. These useful solutions could allow more in-depth analyses of the trade-offs between humans and environment, as well as those between system optimality and reliability. In addition, comparative analyses on the solutions obtained from ICCP (Interval chance-constraints programming) and DIFSP demonstrated the higher application of this developed approach for supporting the water and farmland use system planning.

  7. Study on Control Countermeasures of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Lakeside Belt of Poyang Lake——Taking Duchang Section in the Lower Reaches of Poyang Lake as Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point source pollution in lakeside belt of Poyang Lake.[Method] The current situation of water quality of Poyang Lake was analyzed firstly,then the causes of agricultural non-point source pollution in Duchang section of Poyang Lake were studied,finally corresponding control countermeasures were put forward.[Result] Agricultural non-point source pollution in Duchang section of Poyang Lake was mainly related to the rapid developm...

  8. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  9. Combination system of full-scale constructed wetlands and wetland paddy fields to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from rural unregulated non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Yu, Zhimin; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Shi, Weiming

    2013-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used effectively to remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from non-point sources. Effluents of some CWs were, however, still with high N and P concentrations and remained to be pollution sources. Widely distributed paddy fields can be exploited to alleviate this concern. We were the first to investigate a combination system of three-level CWs with wetland paddy fields in a full scale to remove N and P from rural unregulated non-point sources. The removal efficiencies (REs) of CWs reached 57.3 % (37.4-75.1 %) for N and 76.3 % (62.0-98.4 %) for P. The CWs retained about 1,278 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 121 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). There was a notable seasonal change in REs of N and P, and the REs were different in different processing components of CWs. The removal rates of wetland paddy fields adopt "zero-drainage" water management according to local rainfall forecast and physiological water demand of crop growth reached 93.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 5.4 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). The rice season had higher potential in removing N and P than that in the wheat season. The whole combined system (0.56 ha CWs and 5.5 ha wetland paddy fields) removed 1,790 kg N year(-1) and 151 kg P year(-1), which were higher than those from CWs functioned alone. However, another 4.7-ha paddy fields were needed to fully remove the N and P in the effluents of CWs. The combination of CWs and paddy fields proved to be a more efficient nutrient removal system.

  10. Linking monitoring and modelling for river basin management:Danish experience with combating nutrient loadings to the aquatic environment from point and non-point sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KRONVANG; Brian; WINDOLF; JФrgen; GRANT; Ruth; ANDERSEN; Hans; E; THODSEN; Hans; OVESEN; Niels; B; LARSEN; SФren; E

    2009-01-01

    Nationwide monitoring of the aquatic environment was initiated in 1988 in Denmark as a means to follow the outcome of the Action Plans for nutrient pollution of the aquatic environment. Five Action Plans have been adopted by the Danish Parliament since 1985 and the nationwide monitoring programme can be used to quantify the outcome as shown by reductions in nutrient discharges from both point and non-point sources. Moreover, the empirical experience gathered from nearly 20 years of monitoring is assisting the development and calibration of models for simulation of nitrogen leaching, nitrogen removal in groundwater and surface waters and the establishment of a P-index all covering the entire land area of Denmark.

  11. Linking monitoring and modelling for river basin man-agement: Danish experience with combating nutrient loadings to the aquatic environment from point and non-point sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KRONVANG Brian; WINDOLF J(φ)rgen; GRANT Ruth; ANDERSEN Hans E; THODSEN Hans; OVESEN Niels B; LARSEN S(φ)ren E

    2009-01-01

    Nationwide monitoring of the aquatic environment was initiated in 1988 in Denmark as a means to fol-low the outcome of the Action Plans for nutrient pollution of the aquatic environment.Five Action Plans have been adopted by the Danish Parliament since 1985 and the nationwide monitoring programme can be used to quantify the outcome as shown by reductions in nutrient discharges from both point and non-point sources.Moreover, the empirical experience gathered from nearly 20 years of monitoring is assisting the development and calibration of models for simulation of nitrogen leaching, nitrogen re-moval in groundwater and surface waters and the establishment of a P-index all covering the entire land area of Denmark.

  12. Impact of Point and Non-point Source Pollution on Coral Reef Ecosystems In Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii based on Water Quality Measurements and Benthic Surveys in 1993-1994 (NODC Accession 0001172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effects of both point and non-point sources of pollution on coral reef ecosystems in Mamala Bay were studied at three levels of biological organization; the...

  13. Long-term variation (1960-2003) and causal factors of non-point-source nitrogen and phosphorus in the upper reach of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Ding, Xiaowen; Hong, Qian; Liu, Ruimin

    2013-05-15

    The knowledge of long-term variation and causal factors of non-point source (NPS) pollution in large-scale watersheds is helpful in the development of water quality control programs. In this study, the Improved Export Coefficient Model and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation were combined to estimate the temporal and spatial variations (1960-2003) of NPS pollution in the upper reach of the Yangtze River (URYR). Two change points for NPS pollution were successfully detected. In the URYR, the dissolved nitrogen (DN) and dissolved phosphorus (DP) increased before 2000 and decreased after 2000, whereas the inflection points from increase to decline were around 1980 for the adsorbed N (AN) and adsorbed P (AP). The results also indicated that the dissolved pollutants were mainly contributed by the anthropogenic factors, while the adsorbed pollutants were primarily exported by the natural factors. By comparing the load intensities from each source, it revealed that for the dissolved pollutants, the major source of the high load intensity transferred from urban land to dry land after 1980. Simultaneously, the high load intensity areas of the adsorbed pollutants transferred from forest to orchard around 1980, which was mainly attributed to the increasing fertilizer application. These results may be useful for planning and management of the URYR and other large-scale watersheds.

  14. 河流污染的点源和非点源负荷分割研究%The Segmentation of the Point Source and Non-point Source Pollution Load of Rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔继平; 代俊峰

    2015-01-01

    Non-point source pollution has become the major source of pollution of water environment .Point source pollution and non-point source pollution of river water environmental monitoring to distinguish sections is very necessary .This paper mainly intro‐duces the research progress at home and abroad about non point source pollution .This paper focuses on the pollution load partition of Nanliu River Basin in Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone .The segmentation of point source pollution and non-point source pollution of potassium permanganate index ,total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen are made based on the hydrological estimation method and the digital filtering method .The hydrological estimation method results show that three indexes of non-point source pollution the to‐tal pollution load ratio is 0 .77 ,0 .74 and 0 .76 .And the digital filtering method results show that they are 0 .59 ,0 .64 and 0 .66 .Di‐viding two methods of non-point source is close to the result ,Nanliu River Basin is more serious .%非点源污染已经成为水环境的主要污染源,区分河流水环境监测断面的点源污染与非点源污染显得十分必要。以广西入海河流南流江为研究背景,采用数字滤波法和水文估算法进行点源与非点源污染负荷的分割。分析结果显示,基于水文估算法计算的2003-2011年多年平均高锰酸盐指数、总磷、氨氮的非点源污染负荷占总负荷的比例分别为0.77、0.74、0.76;采用数字滤波法计算的2003-2011年多年平均高锰酸盐指数、总磷、氨氮的非点源污染负荷占总负荷的比例分别为0.59、0.64、0.66。结果表明,两种方法分割的非点源结果的变幅趋势相同,南流江的非点源污染在总污染负荷中的比例较高。

  15. Spatial-temporal characteristics of phosphorus in non-point source pollution with grid-based export coefficient model and geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Dong, Guangxia; Xu, Fei; Wang, Xiujuan; He, Mengchang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial changes and trends in non-point source (NPS) total phosphorus (TP) pollution were analyzed by land and non-land uses in the Songliao River Basin from 1986 to 2000 (14 years). A grid-based export coefficient model was used in the process of analysis based on to a geographic information system. The Songliao Basin is divided in four regions: Liaoning province, Jilin province (JL), Heilongjiang province and the eastern part of the Inner Mongolia (IM) Autonomous Region. Results indicated that the NPS phosphorus load caused by land use and non-land use increased steadily from 3.11×10(4) tons in 1986 to 3.49×10(4) tons in 2000. The southeastern region of the Songliao Plain was the most important NPS pollution contributor of all the districts. Although the TP load caused by land use decreased during the studied period in the Songliao River Basin, the contribution of land use to the TP load was dominant compared to non-land uses. The NPS pollution caused by non-land use steadily increased over the studied period. The IM Autonomous Region and JL province had the largest mean annual rate of change among all districts (more than 30%). In this area, livestock and poultry breeding had become one of the most important NPS pollution sources. These areas will need close attention in the future.

  16. Evaluating the Effects of Land Use Planning for Non-Point Source Pollution Based on a System Dynamics Approach in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Peng; Li, Wei; Liu, Nianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is proceeding rapidly in several developing countries such as China. This accelerating urbanization alters the existing land use types in a way that results in more Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution to local surface waters. Reasonable land use planning is necessary. This paper compares seven planning scenarios of a case study area, namely Wulijie, China, from the perspective of NPS pollution. A System Dynamics (SD) model was built for the comparison to adequately capture the planning complexity. These planning scenarios, which were developed by combining different land use intensities (LUIs) and construction speeds (CSs), were then simulated. The results show that compared to scenario S1 (business as usual) all other scenarios will introduce more NPS pollution (with an incremental rate of 22%-70%) to Wulijie. Scenario S6 was selected as the best because it induced relatively less NPS pollution while simultaneously maintaining a considerable development rate. Although LUIs represent a more critical factor compared to CSs, we conclude that both LUIs and CSs need to be taken into account to make the planning more environmentally friendly. Considering the power of SD in decision support, it is recommended that land use planning should take into consideration findings acquired from SD simulations.

  17. {sup 37}Cl, {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C isotopic analysis of common agro-chemicals for identifying non-point source agricultural contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annable, W.K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)]. E-mail: wkannabl@uwaterloo.ca; Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shouakar-Stash, O. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shanoff, T. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Drimmie, R.J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Harvey, F.E. [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0517 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The isotopic compositions of commercially available herbicides were analyzed to determine their respective {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C and {sup 37}Cl signatures for the purposes of developing a discrete tool for tracing and identifying non-point source contaminants in agricultural watersheds. Findings demonstrate that of the agrochemicals evaluated, chlorine stable isotopes signatures range between {delta}{sup 37}Cl = -4.55 per mille and +3.40 per mille , whereas most naturally occurring chlorine stable isotopes signatures, including those of road salt, sewage sludge and fertilizers, vary in a narrow range about the Standard Mean Ocean Chloride (SMOC) between -2.00 per mille and +1.00 per mille . Nitrogen stable isotope values varied widely from {delta}{sup 15}N = -10.86 per mille to +1.44 per mille and carbon stable isotope analysis gave an observed range between {delta}{sup 13}C = -37.13 per mille and -21.35 per mille for the entire suite of agro-chemicals analyzed. When nitrogen, carbon and chlorine stable isotope analyses were compared in a cross-correlation analysis, statistically independent isotopic signatures exist suggesting a new potential tracer tool for identifying herbicides in the environment.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of non-point sources in a water quality model applied to a dammed low-flow-reach river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nayana G M; von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    Downstream of Capim Branco I hydroelectric dam (Minas Gerais state, Brazil), there is the need of keeping a minimum flow of 7 m3/s. This low flow reach (LFR) has a length of 9 km. In order to raise the water level in the low flow reach, the construction of intermediate dikes along the river bed was decided. The LFR has a tributary that receives the discharge of treated wastewater. As part of this study, water quality of the low-flow reach was modelled, in order to gain insight into its possible behaviour under different scenarios (without and with intermediate dikes). QUAL2E equations were implemented in FORTRAN code. The model takes into account point-source pollution and diffuse pollution. Uncertainty analysis was performed, presenting probabilistic results and allowing identification of the more important coefficients in the LFR water-quality model. The simulated results indicate, in general, very good conditions for most of the water quality parameters The variables of more influence found in the sensitivity analysis were the conversion coefficients (without and with dikes), the initial conditions in the reach (without dikes), the non-point incremental contributions (without dikes) and the hydraulic characteristics of the reach (with dikes).

  19. 植草沟技术在面源污染控制中的研究进展%Advance on Grassed Swales Technology in Non-point Source Pollution Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 尹炜; 叶闽; 雷阿林; 李思敏

    2011-01-01

    Current research advances of non-point source pollution, especially urban non-point source pollution were introduced. Research advances and applications of grassed swales technology in non-point source pollution control were expounded. Main problems and application prospects of grassed swales technology in actual engineering were discussed as well. Coupling of grassed swales technology and other non-point source pollution control technology are proposed to be considered as a development direction in urban non-point source pollution control.%文章介绍了面源污染,尤其是城市面源污染的现状及其控制技术研究进展,并论述了植草沟技术的国内外研究进展及应用现状,讨论了其在工程中需解决的问题及应用前景,提出了植草沟技术与其他面源污染控制单项技术有机耦合是城市面源污染控制的一个发展方向.

  20. Export of non-point source suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus from sloping highland agricultural fields in the East Asian monsoon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Arif; Eum, Jaesung; Jung, Sungmin; Choi, Youngsoon; Owen, Jeffrey S; Kim, Bomchul

    2016-12-01

    Excess sediment and nutrient export from agricultural fields with steep slopes is a major concern linked to surface water quality in Korea. In this study, the export of suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) and their event mean concentrations (EMCs) in surface runoff from a highland mixed land use (61% forested, 30% cropped, 9% other) watershed were quantified. In 2007, the Korean Ministry of Environment (MoE) declared the study area as a priority region for non-point source (NPS) pollution management and initiated various best management practices (BMPs) in the study watershed. SS, TN, and TP concentrations in Mandae Stream were monitored for 5 years (2009-2013) to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs. Average EMCs for SS, TN, and TP were as high as 986, 3.4 and 0.8 mg/L, respectively. The agricultural export coefficients of agricultural land in the study watershed for SS, TN, and TP were 5611, 171, and 6.83 kg/ha/year, respectively. A comparison with results from other studies shows that both EMCs and agricultural export coefficients in the study watershed were much higher than most of the results reported for watersheds in other regions. The results show that sediment and nutrient export from intensive agriculture areas with steep slopes continue to be a major concern for the downstream reservoir, Lake Soyang. Remedial strategies should be directed towards controlling sources of SS, TN, and TP to improve downstream water quality in sloping highland agricultural areas in Korea.

  1. Application of modified export coefficient method on the load estimation of non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of soil and water loss in semiarid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Gao, Jian-en; Ma, Xiao-yi; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Loess Plateau is considered as one of the most serious soil loss regions in the world, its annual sediment output accounts for 90 % of the total sediment loads of the Yellow River, and most of the Loess Plateau has a very typical characteristic of "soil and water flow together", and water flow in this area performs with a high sand content. Serious soil loss results in nitrogen and phosphorus loss of soil. Special processes of water and soil in the Loess Plateau lead to the loss mechanisms of water, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus are different from each other, which are greatly different from other areas of China. In this study, the modified export coefficient method considering the rainfall erosivity factor was proposed to simulate and evaluate non-point source (NPS) nitrogen and phosphorus loss load caused by soil and water loss in the Yanhe River basin of the hilly and gully area, Loess Plateau. The results indicate that (1) compared with the traditional export coefficient method, annual differences of NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load after considering the rainfall erosivity factor are obvious; it is more in line with the general law of NPS pollution formation in a watershed, and it can reflect the annual variability of NPS pollution more accurately. (2) Under the traditional and modified conditions, annual changes of NPS TN and TP load in four counties (districts) took on the similar trends from 1999 to 2008; the load emission intensity not only is closely related to rainfall intensity but also to the regional distribution of land use and other pollution sources. (3) The output structure, source composition, and contribution rate of NPS pollution load under the modified method are basically the same with the traditional method. The average output structure of TN from land use and rural life is about 66.5 and 17.1 %, the TP is about 53.8 and 32.7 %; the maximum source composition of TN (59 %) is farmland; the maximum source

  2. Spatio-temporal variation of erosion-type non-point source pollution in a small watershed of hilly and gully region, Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Xia; Ma, Xiao-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in the hilly and gully region of Chinese Loess Plateau not only decreases the utilization rate of fertilizer but also is a potential threat to aquatic environments. In order to explore the process of erosion-type non-point source (NPS) pollution in Majiagou watershed of Loess Plateau, a distributed, dynamic, and integrated NPS pollution model was established to investigate impacts of returning farmland on erosion-type NPS pollution load from 1995 to 2012. Results indicate that (1) the integrated model proposed in this study was verified to be reasonable; the general methodology is universal and can be applicable to the hilly and gully region, Loess Plateau; (2) the erosion-type NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load showed an overall decreasing trend; the average nitrogen and phosphorus load modulus in the last four years (2009-2012) were 1.23 and 1.63 t/km(2) · a, respectively, which were both decreased by about 35.4 % compared with the initial treatment period (1995-1998); and (3) The spatial variations of NPS pollution are closely related to spatial characteristics of rainfall, topography, and soil and land use types; the peak regions of TN and TP loss mainly occurred along the main river banks of the Yanhe River watershed from northeast to southeast, and gradually decreased with the increase of distance to the left and right river banks, respectively. Results may provide scientific basis for the watershed-scale NPS pollution control of the Loess Plateau.

  3. Contingent Valuation of Residents' Attitudes and Willingness-to-Pay for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study in AL-Prespa, Southeastern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2015-07-01

    Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods—dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was €6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas.

  4. The urban atmosphere as a non-point source for the transport of MTBE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCS) to shallow groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, J.F.; Thomson, N.R.; Johnson, R.L.; Baehr, A.L.; Zogorski, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    all no- net recharge cases. The mechanism responsible for this effect was the dispersion acting on each downward infiltration event, and also on the ET-induced flow. The ability of MTBE to reach groundwater in cases 2-5 is taken as evidence of the potential importance of urban air as a non-point source for VOCs in shallow urban groundwater. Two subcases were run for both case 4 and case 5: subcase a (water and VOCs move with ET) and subcase b (water only moves with ET).Numerical simulations were conducted using a 1-D model domain set in medium sand to provide a test of whether methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other atmospheric volatile organic compounds could move to shallow groundwater within the 10-15 y time frame over which MTBE was used in large amounts. The gasoline additive MTBE is of special interest because of its: current levels in some urban air; strong partitioning from air into water; resistance to degradation; use as an octane-booster since the 1970s; rapidly increasing use in the 1990s to reduce CO and O3 in urban air; and its frequent detection at low microgram per liter levels in shallow urban groundwater.

  5. Discussion on the Green Tax Stimulation Measure of Nitrogen Fertilizer Non-Point Source Pollution Control - Taking the Dongting Lake Area in China as a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Ping-an; ZHOU Yan; HUANG Huang; ZHENG Hua

    2007-01-01

    A study on designing the tax of nitrogen fertilizer can provide a new method for controlling nitrogen fertilizer non-point source pollution. The tax design of nitrogen fertilizer was discussed by utilizing the external theory and the demand elasticity theory. The results indicated that the coefficient of price elasticity of nitrogen fertilizer demand is -0.21, which instructed that the market demand is in lack of elasticity in the short period and the impact of nitrogen fertilizer manufacturers is subtle. The 11 counties (cities and boroughs) in the Dongting Lake area in China, where the farmland nitrogen application surpassed the average ecological fertilization dosage, is listed to the taxation scope of nitrogen fertilizer tax. The environment loss will reduce 0.07 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.89 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The loss, which was brought by the decreasing food supplies production, will be 0.58 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.38 hundred million RMB yuan following revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.49%. The variation scope of the income of farmers will range from -8.41 to 6.44%. The 5 areas, Yunxi Borough, Junshan Borough, Hanshou County, Jinshi City, and Ziyang Borough, had an increase in food supplies production after the revenue collection. The environment loss will reduce 0.01 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.16 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The economic benefits, which was brought by the increasing cereals production, will be 0.67 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.84 hundred million RMB yuan after revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.06%. The variation scope of the increasing income of farmers will

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of heavy metals in streams of the Flint Creek and Flint River Watersheds from non-point sources

    OpenAIRE

    I. Abdi; T. Tsegaye; Silitonga, M.; Tadesse, W

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the United States, non-point pollution is responsible for large quantities of heavy metals entering bodies of water. Pollution as a result of heavy metals can impact drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and aquatic species. Presence of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), in surface water may pose great risks to human health as well as to aquatic animals. In order to understand water quality changes due to heavy metal element...

  7. Spatial and temporal variability of heavy metals in streams of the Flint Creek and Flint River Watersheds from non-point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, W; Silitonga, M.; I. Abdi; T. Tsegaye

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the United States, non-point pollution is responsible for large quantities of heavy metals entering bodies of water. Pollution as a result of heavy metals can impact drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and aquatic species. Presence of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), in surface water may pose great risks to human health as well as to aquatic animals. In order to understand water quality changes due to heavy metal elements and pH as a resu...

  8. Spatial Distribution Pattern of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Jiangxi Province%江西省农业面源污染空间分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文东; 许仕; 庐俊

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural non-point source pollution is becoming an increasingly important eco-envjonrmental problem, il is difficult lo control due lo its dispersive and extensive characteristics. Jiangxi Province is still at ihe initial stage ai agricultural modernization, bul its agricultural non-point source pollution is exacerbating. According to the investigation on the pollution sources of planting, animal husbandry and aq-uaculture in Jiangs i Province, the ArcGIS software was adopted to analyze the spatial and digital features of agricultural non-point source pollution. As indicated by the results, the principal pollution source is animal husbandry, then followed by planting, ihe pollution from aquarulture is becoming more and more serious. The study provided scientific basis for the evaluation of agricultural non-point source pollution in Jiangxi Province.%农业面源污染正成为生态环境的主要问题,但其分散性、广泛性等特点又决定了其治理难度较大.江西目前仍处于农业现代化的起点阶段,农业面源污染日益严重:该研究通过对江西省农业的种植业、畜禽业和水产养殖业的污染源进行调查,利用ArcGIS软件,对江西省农业面源污染进行了空间化和数字化处理.结果表明,江西省农业污染源主要是畜禽养殖业,其次是种植业,水产养殖业污染日趋严重.该研究为江西省农业面源污染评估提供了科学依据.

  9. Status of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollu-tion in China and Com-prehensive Treatment%我国农业面源污染现状及综合治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓俐

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is worsening in China, mainly due to excessive and irrational use of pesticides, excessive use of fertil-izers, plastic sheeting pollution, straw pollution, intensive breeding farms pol-lution,etc. Agricultural non-point source pollution is harmful to water, atmosphere and soil,so the comprehensive treatment measures were put forward.%我国农业面源污染日益严重,主要原因是过量且不合理地使用农药,过量使用化肥,农膜污染、秸秆污染、集约化养殖场污染等。农业面源污染对水体、大气、土壤等造成严重危害,故提出综合治理措施。

  10. 卫星遥感技术在农业非点源污染评价中的应用分析%Analysis of Satellite Remote Sensing Technology in the Evaluation of Agricultural Non- point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 胡勇; 巩彩兰

    2011-01-01

    Non - point source pollution is an important source of water pollution, thus constituting one of the decisive factors affecting water environment. The commonly used agricultural non - point source pollution evaluation methods include statistical models and physical models of the computer. No matter what kind of modeling the researchers adopt, a variety of data acquisition types and the evaluation of the accuracy of the verification results make up the main bottleneck. In order to make people aware of the importance of satellite remote sensing technology in agricultural non - point source pollution evaluation, this paper made an application analysis of the access capability and feasibility of the satellite remote sensing technology from the angle of data types required by the study of the non - point source pollution, and also forecast the application potential of the satellite remote sensing technology in the precision verification of the agricultural non - point source pollution evaluation results.%非点源污染物是水污染的重要来源,已成为影响水环境状况的决定性因素之一.目前常用的农业非点源污染评价模型包括统计模型和机理模型两大类,而无论采用哪种建模方法,多类型数据的获取和评价结果的精度验证都是研究的主要瓶颈.为了使人们对卫星遥感技术在农业非点源污染评价中的应用有所了解,从非点源污染研究所需数据种类的角度,对卫星遥感技术的获取能力和可行性进行了应用分析,并对卫星遥感技术在农业非点源污染评价结果的精度验证中的应用潜力进行了展望.

  11. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  12. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  13. 基于农业面源污染控制的三峡库区种植业结构优化%Planting structure optimization based on agricultural non-point source pollution control in Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖新成; 谢德体; 何丙辉; 魏朝富; 倪九派

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution has gradually become a major pollution source of lake eutrophication and deterioration of water quality in recent years. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region is both an important sensitive eco-economy area and a typical poverty-stricken mountain area. However, its unique geographical location, its irrational agricultural structure and its increasing serious agricultural non-point source pollution problems challenge the environment in this region. Hence, it is a necessity to take controlling agricultural non-point source pollution from the source as one of the most effective approaches. In current research, agricultural non-point source pollution control excessively depends on engineering and technology. Anyhow, the roles of agricultural planting structure adjustment and agricultural cleaner production which can reduce non-point source pollution should not be ignored. Promoting the adjustment of planting structure, reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and adopting agricultural cleaner production technologies not only help improve the land production capacity and agricultural products quality, but also effectively reduce the agricultural non-point source pollution. By these important measures for energy saving and emission reduction can be realized in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Based on the dual goals of the optimal agricultural economic benefits and non-point source pollution emission reduction, the linear programming model was used to optimize the planting structure and clean agricultural production in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. The optimization results showed that the optimal paths to maximize the crop net income were as follows: The land area for grain production should cover 119.16×104hm2but cleaner production area of rice-wheat, corn, soybean and tuber crops needs 31.91×104, 18.69×104, 6.79×104and 19.55×104 hm2; the land area for vegetables planting should be 33.25×104hm2 and its cleaner

  14. A novel modelling framework to prioritize estimation of non-point source pollution parameters for quantifying pollutant origin and discharge in urban catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, I; Charters, F J; O'Sullivan, A D; Cochrane, T A

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater runoff in urban catchments contains heavy metals (zinc, copper, lead) and suspended solids (TSS) which can substantially degrade urban waterways. To identify these pollutant sources and quantify their loads the MEDUSA (Modelled Estimates of Discharges for Urban Stormwater Assessments) modelling framework was developed. The model quantifies pollutant build-up and wash-off from individual impervious roof, road and car park surfaces for individual rain events, incorporating differences in pollutant dynamics between surface types and rainfall characteristics. This requires delineating all impervious surfaces and their material types, the drainage network, rainfall characteristics and coefficients for the pollutant dynamics equations. An example application of the model to a small urban catchment demonstrates how the model can be used to identify the magnitude of pollutant loads, their spatial origin and the response of the catchment to changes in specific rainfall characteristics. A sensitivity analysis then identifies the key parameters influencing each pollutant load within the stormwater given the catchment characteristics, which allows development of a targeted calibration process that will enhance the certainty of the model outputs, while minimizing the data collection required for effective calibration. A detailed explanation of the modelling framework and pre-calibration sensitivity analysis is presented.

  15. 兰州农村面源污染现状及防治对策分析%The Analysis of the Rural Non-point Source Pollution Situation and Countermeasures in Lan Zhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂洪杰; 赵军平; 杜海霞; 张君弟; 刘佳

    2011-01-01

    文中在兰州统计年鉴的基础上,根据面源污染来源,分析了农业、畜牧业、生产和生活活动的危害,初步估算了主要面源污染物的流失量。并根据兰州市农村具体情况提出了相应的保护和控制措施,旨在为解决农村面源污染问题和保护农村生态环境提供借鉴。%In this paper,on the basis of Lan Zhou statistical yearbook,We analyzed the dangers of agriculture,animal husbandry,production activities and life activities according to the sources of rural non-point pollution,and then,we preliminary estimate the loss of the main non-point pollutant.In order to Provide reference for solving the problem of non-point pollution and the rural ecological environment protection,we put forward the corresponding protection and control measures,according to the specific situation of Lan Zhou countryside.

  16. SWAT模型在大洋河流域非点源污染模拟中的运用研究%The application of the SWAT model in a non-point source pollution in the Dayang River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓哲

    2015-01-01

    Based on the SWAT model to Ocean River watershed for the study, quantitative modeling of the ocean River 2000 - -2010 Pollution, the results show that non-point source: SWAT model is appropriate for non-point source pollu-tion ocean river basin model parameters of periodic and verification simulation of total nitrogen and total phosphorus relative er-ror is less than 30%, the simulation uncertainty factor of 0. 5 or more, to meet the non-point source pollution simulation ac-curacy; total nitrogen and total phosphorus peak ocean River mainly 7 - September. Research for Ocean River water environ-mental protection and governance provide a reference value.%基于SWAT模型,以大洋河流域为研究流域,定量模拟了大洋河流域2000 -2010 年非点源污染,研究结果表明:SWAT模型适合于大洋河流域的非点源污染模拟,模型在参数率定期和验证模拟总氮和总磷相对误差均小于30%,模拟确定性系数达到0. 5 以上,满足流域非点源污染模拟精度要求;大洋河流域总氮和总磷峰值主要集中在7 -9 月份. 研究成果对于大洋河流域水环境保护和治理提供参考价值.

  17. A review on Non-point Source Nutrient Pollution of Irrigation Plain Areas%平原灌区农田养分非点源污染研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    平原灌区作为农业规模化生产的基地,在农业乃至经济社会发展中起到了重要作用,但是随着农业的发展,平原灌区农田非点源污染问题日益严重,研究平原灌区农田非点源污染具有重要意义。文章以平原灌区污染物随水文循环迁移过程为基础对平原灌区养分非点源污染研究进行综述。(1)平原灌区农田非点源污染的主要来源是过量的化肥施用,农药和农膜,秸秆等农作物的降解,牲畜粪便,污水灌溉,灌溉引起的盐渍化以及大气的干湿沉降等;产生及影响因素主要有土壤的理化性质,水分的输入方式和人为管理措施等。(2)降雨径流及灌溉排水条件下污染物在多级渠系中的迁移规律和灌区地表水与地下水的交互耦合作用决定了平原灌区农田非点源污染的输送途径与特征。(3)在监测资料比较缺乏时,采用输出系数法进行负荷估算;在监测资料充足情况下,采用针对灌区特殊的水文特征而改进的经典水文模型对平原灌区农田非点源污染的负荷进行估算。(4)新型肥料、配方施肥、合理的耕作措施及生态沟渠的设置有利于平原灌区农田非点源污染的控制,TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Loads)为平原灌区农田非点源污染控制提供可靠的依据。针对平原灌区非点源污染研究现状,提出了中国开展平原灌区农田非点源污染研究的重点,包括养分污染物在多级沟渠中的迁移,灌区地表与地下水水量水质耦合模型的建立,分级控制单元与TMDL的制定以及多模型结合模拟等,可望在控制农业非点源污染方面起到指导作用。%Plain irrigation areas as the basis of agricultural large-scale production played an important role in agricultural, economic and social development. However, the seriousness of non-point source pollution in plain irrigation areas is increasing with the

  18. Calculation and discussion of non-point source pollution loads in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area%丹江口水库入库非点源污染负荷的计算与讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艳霞; 程超; 辛小康

    2015-01-01

    正确估算丹江口水库入库非点源污染负荷对于水源区水环境保护具有重要意义. 根据丹江口库区6条主要入库河流汉江、天河、堵河、丹江、老灌河、淇河控制水文站2013年逐日流量数据,采用数字滤波法对基流进行了分割. 以逐日流量、河川基流量和代表污染物(CODMn和TP)2013年逐月浓度监测值为基础,采用通量法计算了背景污染负荷和点源污染负荷、非点源污染负荷. 结果表明:(1) 6条河流入库流量占总入库流量的95. 9%,非点源污染已成为丹江口水库水质变化的主导因素. (2) 汉江是入库污染负荷的最大来源,其次是堵河. (3) 由于非点源污染伴随降雨汇入河道,水库污染负荷主要集中于丰水期,2013年度丰水期CODMn和TP的比例分别达到了80. 8%和90. 9%.%Correctly estimating the non-point source pollution loads in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area is important to the envi-ronmental protection of the water source area. The Digital Filter method is used to separate the base flows of Hanjiang River, Tianhe River, Duhe River, Danjiang River, Laoguan River and Qihe River in the reservoir basin according to the daily discharge data. Based on the daily flow, the base flow and monthly typical pollutant concentration in 2013, a flux model is set up to calcu-late the background pollution loads, point-source pollution loads and non-point source pollution loads respectively. The calcu-lation results show that in 2013, the inflow discharge of the 6 rivers accounted for 95. 9% of the total inflow, and the total pollu-tion loads of CODMn and TP from the 6 rivers are 58. 2 thousand t and 1. 86 thousand t, while the non-point source pollution loads are 39. 82 thousand t and 1. 544 thousand t, so the non-point source pollution is the decisive factor;Hanjiang River is the largest pollutants contributor to Danjiangkou Reservoir and followed by Duhe River; the non-point source pollution enters into the river channel

  19. 宁夏黄河灌区农业非点源污染损失估算%Economic loss caused by non-point source pollution ——A case study of Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨引禄; 冯永忠; 杨世琦; 曹艳春; 刘强; 杨改河

    2011-01-01

    Non-point source pollution have become more and more serious and brought enormous danger to water environment in Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District, so it has important significance for ecological security to esti-mate the economic value of losses of pollution load in this area. In this paper, according to the JOHNES export coefficient method, calculation is made of non-point source pollution load in'Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District, and the methoddology of enxironmental economics is used to reckon quantitatively economic loss caused by agricultural non-point source pollution. The results showed that the livestock breeding pollution contributed 41.27% to the pollution load of the area, and 37.25 % to the TN and 4.03 % to the TP pollution load of the area. The planting was the second and the rural domestic waste was the lowest proportion in non-point source pollution load, which was 34.54% and 24.2% to the pollution load of the area. The economic loss caused by the regional non-point source pollution was calculated at about 548.741 million RMB in total, of which about 40.97% was coutributed by livestock breeding pollution, while the planting and the rural areaa domestic waste respectively 35.6% and 23.4% to the all economic loss. This results illuminate that only the control of livestock breeding pollution can reduce economic loss caused by agricultural ono-point source pollution in Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District.%以宁夏黄河灌区为研究区,在充分利用JOHNES输出系数法计算灌区非点源污染负荷的基础上,应用环境经济学中的恢复防护费用法对灌区农业非点源污染产生的负荷转化为经济损失进行估算.结果表明:宁夏黄河灌区禽畜养殖产生的污染负荷最高,占灌区污染负荷的41.27%,其中全氮排放占整个区域污染负荷的37.25%,全磷排放占整个区域污染负荷的4.03%,种植业产生的氮磷污染负荷次之,居民生活

  20. AnnAGNPS – A United States Department of Agriculture Watershed Conservation Management Planning Tool for Non-Point Source Pollution Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    A watershed scale assessment of the effect of conservation practices on the environment is critical when recommending best management practices to agricultural producers. The environmental benefits of these practices have not been widely quantified at the watershed scale, which would require extens...

  1. Present Situation and Countermeasures of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Wuhan City%武汉市农业面源污染现状及治理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪坤乾; 张凯; 苏斌; 夏杏明; 汤少云

    2014-01-01

    从化肥施用、农药使用、农膜使用现状3个方面阐述了武汉市农业面源污染现状和为害性,分析了武汉市农业面源污染产生的原因,提出了建立政府主导的农业面源污染治理机制、应用化肥减量化技术、应用农药减量化和残留控制技术、推广可降解地膜等治理面源污染的对策。%We pointed out the status and harmfulness of agricultural non-point source pollution in Wuhan from the three aspects, including the application of chemical fertilizer, pesticide and agricultural film, and analyzed the factors that caused the problem, in addition, we put forward related countermeasures, including establishing the government leading mechanism to control agricultural non-point source pollution, using chemical fertilizer reduction technology, applying pesticide reduction and residue control technology, and using biodegradable plastic film.

  2. Incorporation of Complex Hydrological and Socio-economic Factors for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study at the Yincungang Canal, the Lake Tai Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Luo, X.; Zheng, Z.

    2012-04-01

    It is increasingly realized that non-point pollution sources contribute significantly to water environment deterioration in China. Compared to developed countries, non-point source pollution in China has the unique characteristics of strong intensity and composition complexity due to its special socioeconomic conditions. First, more than 50% of its 1.3 billion people are rural. Sewage from the majority of the rural households is discharged either without or only with minimal treatment. The large amount of erratic rural sewage discharge is a significant source of water pollution. Second, China is plagued with serious agricultural pollution due to widespread improper application of fertilizers and pesticides. Finally, there lack sufficient disposal and recycling of rural wastes such as livestock manure and crop straws. Pollutant loads from various sources have far exceeded environmental assimilation capacity in many parts of China. The Lake Tai basin is one typical example. Lake Tai is the third largest freshwater lake in China. The basin is located in the highly developed and densely populated Yangtze River Delta. While accounting for 0.4% of its land area and 2.9% of its population, the Lake Tai basin generates more than 14% of China's Gross Domestic Production (GDP), and the basin's GDP per capita is 3.5 times as much as the state average. Lake Tai is vital to the basin's socio-economic development, providing multiple services including water supply for municipal, industrial, and agricultural needs, navigation, flood control, fishery, and tourism. Unfortunately, accompanied with the fast economic development is serious water environment deterioration in the Lake Tai basin. The lake is becoming increasingly eutrophied and has frequently suffered from cyanobacterial blooms in recent decades. Chinese government has made tremendous investment in order to mitigate water pollution conditions in the basin. Nevertheless, the trend of deteriorating water quality has yet to

  3. Development and application of a coupled bio-geochmical and hydrological model for point and non-point source river water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlert, T.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present recent developments of an integrated water- and N-balance model for the assessment of land use changes on water and N-fluxes for meso-scale river catchments. The semi-distributed water-balance model SWAT was coupled with algorithms of the bio-geochemical model DNDC as well as the model CropSyst. The new model that is further denoted as SWAT-N was tested with leaching data from a long- term lysimeter experiment as well as results from a 5-years sampling campaign that was conducted at the outlet of the meso-scale catchment of the River Dill (Germany). The model efficiency for N-load as well as the spatial representation of N-load along the river channel that was tested with results taken from longitudinal profiles show that the accuracy of the model has improved due to the integration of the aforementioned process-oriented models. After model development and model testing, SWAT-N was then used for the assessment of the EU agricultural policy (CAP reform) on land use change and consequent changes on N-fluxes within the Dill Catchment. giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2007/4531/

  4. 西充河流域(西充县境内)面源污染现状与防治措施%Non-point Source Pollution and Control Measures of Xichong River Basin (Xi-chong Territory)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小霞; 黎小东; 张洪波; 刘星; 吴碧琼

    2015-01-01

    Taking for example the 23 towns ,in Xichong River Basin (Xi-chong territory) ,the output coefficient method is used to e‐valuate the rural non-point source pollution comprehensively from the perspective of the various sources and different towns and put forward some corresponding control measures .The results show that the main pollution in the research area is the rural non-point source pollution :①83 .3% of the pollution load comes from chemical fertilizer pollution ,rural residents living sewage and backyard poultry ;②The pollution in Hong-xi River is more serious than Longtan River;③The most polluted village is Jin-cheng Town .Ac‐cording to the results of this evaluation ,this paper puts forward the corresponding comprehensive control of non-point source pollu‐tion in engineering and non-engineering measures and suggestions .%以西充河流域(西充县境内)的23个乡镇为例,采用输出系数法,从各个污染源和不同乡镇的角度出发,对西充县境内的农村面源污染进行了综合评价,并提出相应的防治措施。结果表明:研究区内的主要污染为农村面源污染:①83.3%的污染负荷来源于为化肥污染、农村居民生活污水和散养畜禽;②虹溪河支流与龙滩河相比,污染较严重;③污染最严重的乡镇为晋城镇。根据评估结果,本文提出了相应的面源污染综合治理的工程及非工程措施和建议。

  5. Non-pointSource Pollution Control Policy under the Perspective of Experimental Economics:A Review%实验经济学视角下的非点源污染控制政策研究:一个文献综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Dan; Zhang weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Non-point source pollution has become an important source of water pollution for many countries including China. Used for the design and evaluation of non-point pollution control policy recently,experimental economics has made remarkable achievements in this field. In contrast,related research has not been published in China so far. This paper tries to anatomize and conclude the experimental economics on non-point source control policy by summarizing it as two categories,that is,individual -performance -based and collective -performance -based, from which some enlightenment are obtained and some preliminary research ideas are put forward.

  6. Source Apportionment of Non-point Source Nitrogen Pollution in Ashi River Basin Usingδ15N Technique%阿什河流域非点源氮污染的δ15N源解析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡钰; 王业耀; 滕彦国; 香宝; 马广文; 方广玲

    2015-01-01

    crop farming on water nitro-gen pollution were dependent on river water seasonal periods and farming cycles. During the normal water period, non-point nitrogen pollu-tion by crop farming occurred mainly in the midstream and downstream sections, with δ15N value ranging from 0.46%to 0.77%. The pollu-tion sources were primarily artificial chemical fertilizers and farmland water recession. During the high water period, the pollution from non-point nitrogen extended to the upstream area, withδ15N range of 0.19%~0.4%. The main pollution source was artificial chemical fertilizers in the upstream area, while it was soil organic nitrogen via soil erosion caused by rainfall and irrigation in the midstream and downstream. Dur-ing the low water period, however, artificial chemical fertilizers were still the main contributor of non-point nitrogen pollution, with δ15N val-ues of 0.11%to 0.39%. This was resulted from the feedback of the nitrite-nitrogen from artificial chemical fertilizers that were applied and infiltrated in the ground during the monsoon.

  7. 重庆市四面山4种森林群落面源污染控制功能分析%The non-point source pollution control function of four forest communities in Simian Mountains, Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣文卓; 张洪江; 杜仕才; 程金花; 王伟; 李根平; 古德洪

    2009-01-01

    Selecting canopy interception rate, capillary porosity,non-capillary porosity and soil anti-erosion coefficient as analysis indices, the function of non-point source pollution control of four forest communities in Simian Mountains of Chongqing were ana-lyzed by Grey Relational Grade Analiysis. The results show that the grey correlation degree of natural Phyllostachys pubescens for-est is 0.887 7, hgher than other three communities, which means that the function of non-point source pollution control of Phyl-lostachys pubescens forest is the best. In the planatations types, the grey correlation degree of broadleaf forest is the highest, 0.779 4, followed by mixed broadleaf-conifer forest (0.699 2). The grey correlation degree of coniferous forest is the lowest, 0.636 1. Which means it has the lowest function for non-point source pollution control.%以重庆市四面山4种森林群落为研究对象,选取林冠截留率、林地土壤毛管孔隙度、林地土壤非毛管孔隙度和林地0~20 cm土壤抗冲刷系数为分析指标,运用灰色关联度法对4种森林群落的面源污染控制功能进行研究.结果表明:在4种森林群落中作为天然林的楠竹林灰关联度值最大为0.887 7,面源污染控制功能最好,其次是人工阔叶林(0.7794)和人工混交林(0.6992),人工针叶林(0.636 1)面源污染防控能力相对较弱.在人工林方面,阔叶林灰关联度值最大为0.7794,面源污染防控能力最好,其次是针阔混交林(0.699 2),针叶林灰关联度值最低为0.636 1,其面源污染防控能力较弱.

  8. Agriculture Non-Point Source Pollution Control

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest and historically most productive estuary in the United States. It is approximately 200 miles long and 35 mile wide at it broadest point. The Bay's watershed includes parts of six states (Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the entire District of Columbia. This area encompasses 64,000 square-miles, 150 major rivers and s...

  9. 国内外遥感技术在非点源污染模拟中的应用%Application of Remote Sensing Technology in Non-point Source Pollution Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天培

    2011-01-01

    综述了遥感技术在土壤类型和性质、植被类型和性质、水文气象以及土地利用等直接影响非点源污染产生的因素中的应用,以期为模型模拟与遥感技术联合研究非点源污染提供借鉴.%The application of remote sensing technology on the main factors, including soil types and properties, characteristics of vegetation,hydrological process, meteorological information, land use and so on were discussed in this paper so as to provide references for using modelsimulation and remote sensing technology to study the non-point source pollution.

  10. 英国农业面源污染防控对我国的启示%Prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollutions in UK and suggestions to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤; 任天志; 吴文良; 孟凡乔; Jessica Bellarby; Laurence Smith

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the world is facing challenges of maintaining food production growth while improving agricultural ecological environ-mental quality. The prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, a key component of these challenges, is a systematic program which integrates many factors such as technology and its extension, relevant regulation and policies. In the project of UK-China Sustainable Agriculture Innovation Network, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the prevention and control technology, technology extension systems and related policy measures of agricultural non-point source pollution in UK. We then proposed the promotion of preven-tion and control of agricultural non-point source pollution in China. Considering the current agricultural resources and environment counter-measures of“one control”(control over the total quantity of the agricultural water and agricultural water environment pollution),“two re-duction”(reduction in quantities of fertilizers and pesticides), and “three basic countermeasures”(resource utilization, recycling, and disharm treatment of livestock and poultry wastes, agricultural plastic films and crop straws), we suggested that in the near future source control and process prevention should be technical priorities. Optimzation and reduction of chemical fertilizer, combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers, land utilization management, agricultural sector adjustment and integration of crop production with animal husbandry should be the key technologies. The role of non-governmental technical service should be promoted. Government subsidies, ecological com-pensations and other forms of economic means could be used to encourage famers actively participate in the prevention and control of nitro-gen and phosphorus losses and pollution in soil and water systems. Related technical documents and regulations should be more specific, clear, and practical. Collection, transmission and analysis of

  11. Nitrogen Non-Point Source Pollution Identification Based on ArcSWAT in Changle River%基于ArcSWAT模型的长乐江流域非点源氮素污染源识别和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓欧平; 孙嗣旸; 吕军

    2013-01-01

    The ArcSWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was adopted for Non-point source ( NPS) nitrogen pollution modeling and nitrogen source apportionment for the Changle River watershed, a typical agricultural watershed in Southeast China. Water quality and hydrological parameters were monitored, and the watershed natural conditions (including soil, climate, land use, etc) and pollution sources information were also investigated and collected for SWAT database. The ArcSWAT model was established in the Changle River after the calibrating and validating procedures of the model parameters. Based on the validated SWAT model, the contributions of different nitrogen sources to river TN loading were quantified, and spatial-temporal distributions of NPS nitrogen export to rivers were addressed. The results showed that in the Changle River watershed, Nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen air deposition and nitrogen soil pool were the prominent pollution sources, which contributed 35% , 32% and 25% to the river TN loading, respectively. There were spatial-temporal variations in the critical sources for NPS TN export to the river. Natural sources, such as soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the rainy seasons. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the crop growing season. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application, soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition were the main sources for TN exported from the garden plot, forest and residential land, respectively. However, they were the main sources for TN exported both from the upland and paddy field. These results revealed that NPS pollution controlling rules should focus on the spatio-temporal distribution of NPS pollution sources.%本研究以我国东南沿海地区的典型农业流域——长乐江流域为对象,通过实地调查、数据收集和分析,

  12. Investigation on Present Xingtai Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution and Preventive Countermeasures%邢台市农业面源污染现状及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈计兵

    2014-01-01

    Xingtai has a large population, with a serious contradiction between demand for food and land supply. The development of agriculture has brought about some pollution, and agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control is the basic guarantee to realize agricultural sustainable development. Xingtai agricultural non-point source pollution is serious. The pollutants mainly include chemical fertilizer, chemical pesticide, agricultural plastic films, livestock and poultry breeding wastes and life wastes. The pollution has caused the decrease of the farmland quality, the degradation of the quality of agricultural products and water, the damage of the ecological balance. The countermeasures include technical measures, management measures, publicity and education measures, etc.%邢台市人口数量大、粮食需求、土地供给矛盾突出,在农业发展中,产生了一些不可忽视的污染现象,而农业面源污染的防治是实现农业可持续发展的基本保障。邢台市农业面源污染比较严重,污染源主要包括化学肥料污染、化学农药污染、农膜污染、畜禽养殖业污染和生活废弃物污染;污染带来耕地质量下降、农产品和水质质量变差、破坏生态平衡等危害;防治对策包括技术措施、管理措施及宣传教育措施等。

  13. 模拟排水沟渠非点源溶质氮迁移实验研究%Transformation of Non-point Source Soluble Nitrogen in Simulated Drainage Ditch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强坤; 宋常吉; 胡亚伟; 彭聪; 马强; 姜正曦; 琚艺萌

    2016-01-01

    The drainage ditch has a compound ecosystem structure consisting of water, sediment and plants. Migration and transformation of the non-point source solute is important to study interception, control and management of agricultural non-point source pollution in the drainage ditch. Based on the experiment on static simulation of drainage ditches, the article used typical non-point source soluble nitrogen as an example to analyze the changing process of nitrogen content in water, sediment and reeds, and to study the effects of the sediment adsorption and desorption, reeds growth and death in different periods on nitrogen concentration in water. The article discussed nitrogen migration in water-sediment- reeds compound ecosystem and its influence on nitrogen concentration in water. The results showed that both adsorption and desorption in sediment and absorption and assimilation of reeds growth had effect on nitrogen concentration in water. The effect before October was reducing the nitrogen concentration in water, which was the process of nitrogen purification in water. After October, the nitrogen concentration in water increased and made it easy to form secondary nitrogen pollution. Meanwhile, the migration in the water-sediment-seeds ecosystem in simulated drainage ditch had close ties, any migration and transformation of nitrogen in a single medium or between different mediums would cause adjustment of nitrogen concentration in water.%农田排水沟渠是由水-底泥-植物组成的复合生态结构,其间非点源溶质的迁移转化对研究沟渠拦截、控制和管理农业非点源污染具有重要意义。本研究以模拟排水沟渠静态实验为基础,以典型非点源溶质氮素为例,分析了实验期内水体、底泥及芦苇不同介质内氮含量变化过程,分析了底泥吸附与解析、芦苇生长与衰败等年内不同时期对水体中氮素浓度的影响,探讨了水-底泥-芦苇复合生态体内氮迁移及对水体中氮

  14. Research Progress on Guangdong Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Control-Conservation Agriculture Project%广东农业面源污染治理保护性耕作项目研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小平; 区颖刚; 杨丹彤; 唐湘如; 胡建广

    2015-01-01

    广东省属于农业大省,近年来随着人口增加和农村经济快速发展,农业面源污染形势十分严峻.广东省承担的世界银行农业面源污染治理保护性耕作项目,通过在省内的项目示范区域进行水稻和甜玉米的示范试验,探索保护性耕作减少农业面源污染源的作用和方法.项目组设计了免耕和少耕插秧、免耕和少耕直播4种主要模式,投入了50多台套农业机械,经过4个试验点1年的试验,初步结果表明,南方高温潮湿地区水稻和甜玉米生产采用保护性耕作技术是有效果的,所选的农机具大多数是适用的,部分北方旱地机械还需要改进.讨论了广东保护性耕作存在的问题和改进的意见.%Guangdong province is an important agricultural province. The agricultural non-point source pollution situation is very grim in recent years as the population increases and the rural economy grows rapidly. Explo-ration, supported by the world bank agriculture non-point source pollution control-conservation tillage project, has been undertaken in Guangdong province to discover the roles and methods for reducing agricultural non-point source pollution by conservation tillage. The project is conducted in four paddy rice and sweet corn demonstration and experimental sites in the province. Four main models, the no-till and less-till transplanting, no-till and less-till direct seeding, have been designed by the project team. More than 50 sets of agricultural machines have been put into the experiments. After one year's experiments conducted in four sites, prelimi-nary results show that the conservation tillage technology is effective in the paddy rice and sweet corn produc-tion in southern area with high temperature and wet conditions. Most of the selected farm machines are appli-cable. Some of the northern dryland machines need to be improved. The paper discussed the problems and im-provement opinions existing in the Guangdong conservation

  15. Review of green roof in controlling unban non-point source pollution%绿色屋顶技术控制城市面源污染应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书敏; 于慧; 张彬; 邵磊

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely adopted abroad that green roof is an effective mode in controlling Urban Non-point Source Pollution(UNSP),which still belongs to new research fields in China.Based on studies in recent years home and abroad,highlight is given about green roof in controlling unban non-point source pollution from three aspects(i.e.,the reduction and retention of runoff volume,water quality from green roof and the installation method of green roof).Results show that further study is needed for a long time in order to establish the function between stormwater runoff reduction volume and influencing factors;the physical and chemical properties of plants growth media is the key problem affecting runoff water quality.It should follow a wide rang of purposes to install green roofs at home,and the design guidance for green roofs should also be made according to domestic environmental background.The plants growth substrate and the choice of plants are primary problems to be ascertained.%应用绿色屋顶技术控制城市面源污染在欧美国家已得到广泛认同和应用,但在国内尚处于起步阶段.根据国内外最近几年的研究情况,从绿色屋顶消减暴雨径流、绿色屋顶径流水质、绿色屋顶构建方法等方面详细介绍了绿色屋顶技术在控制城市面源污染中的应用研究情况.研究结果表明,建立绿色屋顶暴雨径流消减量与影响因子的映射关系仍需要大量的、长期的研究;植物生长介质的理化性质是影响绿色屋顶径流水质的关键.在国内构建绿色屋顶,应遵循构建目的多元化的原则,逐步建立起适合国内国情的新的绿色屋顶构建导则,其中,植物生长基质搭配方式和植物选取是需要重点明确的问题.

  16. Application of SWMM in the Simulation of Non-Point Source Pollution Load in Urban Residential Area%SWMM模型应用于城市住宅区非点源污染负荷模拟计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓宇; 朱元励; 梅琨; 张艳军; 张明华

    2012-01-01

    This study was focused on the non-point source pollution loading in a typical urban residential area in Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province. Based on the SWMM principle, parameters from the literature and field experiments were integrated, and a non-point source pollution calibration model was constructed. Four different rainfall scenarios were designed to analyze the pollution loads and the accumulation process of total suspended solids (TSS) , chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) , total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus ( TP). The results showed that the simulated data matched the field-monitored data satisfactorily. The relative errors between the simulated and the true values of all the four parameters were less than 10%. Under' the four rainfall conditions: 1) the highest concentrations of the pollutants were observed within 30-40 minutes; the heavier the rain, the earlier their highest concentrations appeared; 2) higher-intensity rainfall caused more serious pollution to the receiving water bodies than the low-intensity rainfall did.%以温州市典型住宅区非点源污染为对象,基于SWMM(storm water management model)模型的模拟机理,借鉴国内外相关研究的模型参数,结合降雨径流实测数据率定模型参数,将模型“本地化”,构建了基于SWMM模型的研究区非点源污染负荷计算模型,并设计了4种不同降雨情景,分析在不同降雨条件下研究区非点源污染固体悬浮物(TSS)、CODCr、TN和TP的污染负荷量及其累积变化过程.结果表明,构建的SWMM模型的模拟值可以较好地与实测值相吻合,4种污染物模拟的相对误差均小于10%.在设计的4种降雨情景下:①污染物浓度峰值出现在降雨30~40 min内,降雨强度越大,出现浓度峰值的时间越早;②高强度降雨较低强度降雨可对受纳水体造成更大的污染.

  17. 我国农业面源污染现状及其对策研究%Review of the current situation and control countermeasures in agricultural non-point source pollution control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自林

    2013-01-01

    随着我国经济的快速发展,农业面源污染已成为我国环境污染的主要原因之一。农业面源污染制约农业可持续发展,已成为亟待解决的环境问题。目前,造成农业面源污染的原因主要是化肥农药的过量施用和流失,畜禽和水产养殖业污染,水土流失,作物秸秆大量废弃以及农膜污染。农业面源污染具有分散性、广泛性、随机性等特征,对土壤、水体、大气造成负面影响。本文针对农业面源污染问题,从生物、物理、化学以及农业管理等角度提出了相应的防治对策及措施,以期有效治理农业面源污染,保护环境,促进农业可持续发展。%Agricultural non-point source pollution is the main factor to the environmental pollution in rural China now with the development of economy in China .It has gained the attention of the government and scientist in the country , and also is the main factor to restrain the agricultural sustainable development .At present ,the reasons are list as follow :chemical fertilizer and pesticide and excessive application ;Livestock and aquatic products pollution ;soil erosion ;a ma-jority of strews abandoned ;agricultural plastic film pollution .It has the characteristics of dispensability ,universality and randomness ,which have negative effects on soil ,water and air .In terms of biological chemistry and physics and agricul-tural management ,this paper proposes countermeasures to control agricultural non -point source pollution ,protect the environment ,and promote the sustainable development of agriculture .

  18. 流域非点源污染景观源汇格局遥感解析%Remote sensing parsing on non-point pollution landscape source and assembly pattern in river basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新; 程熙; 李万庆; 罗雷

    2014-01-01

    流域非点源污染景观源汇格局解析是流域水质污染物产生、输运机理认知与有效防治措施制定的重要科学理论基础。该文以充分挖掘流域遥感数据多时空尺度的特征与优势为目标,制定了流域非点源污染景观源汇类型界定方案,提出了像元级、亚像元级以及时序更新的流域非点源污染景观源汇格局遥感解析方法。在此基础上,以福建省九龙江流域为例,对不透水面这一典型流域非点源污染“源”景观2010年空间格局进行了信息提取,并对2000、2005年对应信息进行了时序更新与空间特征分析,结果显示2000-2010年间九龙江流域内不透水面覆盖面积增长了33.38%。该研究可为中国流域非点源污染研究、生态管理与建设提供参考。%The non-point pollution landscape source and assembly pattern of a river basin and its spatio-temporal process analysis are the scientific theoretical bases for studying the pollution, production, transport, prevention, and policy of river water. In this paper, to mine the spatio-temporal character and advantages of remote sensing data, the definition schedule of the landscape of the river basin non-point pollution source and assembly was introduced. The first types of landscape in the river basin included the impervious surface area (ISA) and the pervious surface area. The second types of landscapes in the river basin consisted of 14 different types, including woodland, orchard, road, rural area, town, and paddy field, etc. The river basin non-point pollution landscape source and assembly pattern remote sensing parsing method was subsequently presented at the pixel, sub-pixel, and time-renewing levels. (1) A “globe-local” coupling information extraction model for ISA at the pixel level was established. Through the mining and integration of the spatial information in a local image area, the spectral instability of the whole scale was optimized. The

  19. 苏州市农业面源污染现状与控制研究%Current situation and control recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution in Suzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵龙; 秦伟; 管永祥; 邱丹; 杨殿林; 赵建宁

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of national survey of pollution sources, the production and emission characteristics of pollutants from agricultural activities and the major control measures of agricultural non-point source pollution in Suzhou along the Yangtze River, Taihu Lake and Yangchenghu Lake were analyzed and demonstrated. The results showed that among the non-point source pollutants, the totalamount of nitrogen and phosphorus emitted were 11 878.9 and 1 343.8 t respectively, pesticides loss was 28.0 t, plastic membrane residual was 203.9 t, the volume of straw burned was 214 000 t, total amount of COD emitted by livestock breeding, aquaculture and rural community was 92 360.3 t; The emission amount of nitrogen and phosphorus along the Yangtze River was the largest followed by Taihu Lake, along the Yangcbenghu Lake the lowest. According to the analysis of the total amount of N and P emitted, the ranking of pollutant resource was as below: rural community > livestock breeding >aquaculture > planting; The pollution intensity caused by the four sources were different. The three watershed, the pollution intensity of farming, animal husbandry and rural communities was greater in the Yangtze River, but the pollution intensity of aquaculture was greater in Taihu Lake Therefore,in guiding concept for the prevention and control of no point source pollution, the government should pay close attention to the Yangtze River, give more weight to domestic pollution sources. In view of the above -mentioned facts,to control agricultural non-point source pollution. Some proposals were offered as follows, concentrating superior resources to dispose rural sewage, optimizing the agricultural industry structure, strengthening the ecological construction, comprehensively treating livestock pollution, promoting the utilization of crop straw resources,and reasonably planning aquaculture etc.%利用提供的区城产排污系数,对苏州市沿长江、太湖和阳澄湖流域农业面

  20. SWAT模型在洱海流域面源污染评价中的应用%Application of SWAT Model in Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Investigation in Lake Erhai Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟玥; 尚晓; 沈剑; 王欣泽

    2012-01-01

    重点污染区域和污染因子的识别是面源污染控制的基础.通过将物理过程模拟及排污系数法计算进行整合,建立了SWAT模型,以描述农业生产活动与污染入湖量之间的关联关系,并以云南洱海流域总氮污染为例,使用验证后的SWAT模型模拟计算不同空间单元和不同农业生产活动对入湖TN的污染贡献系数,定量分析流域内各区域的农业面源污染源结构,识别洱海流域重点农业污染源和农业污染村镇.结果表明,奶牛养殖、生猪养殖和大蒜种植是目前洱海流域内入湖TN污染的最重要农业污染源,占流域总污染负荷的66.12%.对入湖TN污染贡献最大的6个村镇为江尾、右所、三营、玉湖、凤仪和喜洲,占流域总污染负荷的63.41%.%The identification of key polluted areas and factors is the basis of non-point source pollution control. Based on physical processes simulation and the discharge coefficient method, the SWAT model was established to describe the relationship between agricultural production activities and pollution load into a lake. Lake Erhai watershed in Yunnan province was selected as the research area, and TN variation in the lake was calculated. The contribution coefficients of TN nonpoint source pollution to the lake by different spatial areas and different agricultural production activities were calculated with the verified SWAT model, and the pollution source composition in each spatial unit was calculated quantitatively. The key pollution sources and Bpatial units ( administrative village in this study) were identified. The results showed that dairy cattle breeding, pig farming and garlic planting were the major agricultural pollution sources, contributing 66.12% of TN load to the lake. Six villages - Jiangwei, Yousuo, Sanying, Yuhu, Fengyi and Xizhou - contributed most to TN pollution in the lake, accounting for 63.41% of the watershed total pollution load.

  1. Yield calculation of agricultural non-point source pollutants in Huntai River Basin based on SWAT model%基于SWAT模型的浑太河流域农业面源污染物产生量估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付意成; 臧文斌; 董飞; 付敏; 张剑

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of non-point source pollutants output load model under the mode of rainfall-runoff and land use, the analog calculation of agricultural non-point source pollutants in the process of migration and transformation, and the systematic analysis of non-point source pollutants discharge quantity, distribution and composition characteristics are based on actual monitoring data, calibration and validation model, in consideration of underlying surface, hydrology and meteorology, and physical features of Huntai River basin. The areas 1 km away from each side of master stream Huntai River, Taizihe River and Daliaohe River and 5 km away from reservoir were defined as buffer zone, where the mode of land use was transformed so as to restore the natural ecosystem. The process of pollutant migration and conversion was simulated based on the calibration of key hydrological parameters, and the causes as well as the migratory features of non-point source pollution were investigated. The primary area of water environment pollution was mainly distributed along both sides of the water channel of the mainstreams of Huntai River. The point-source pollutant was mainly related to the distribution of industry and the amount of discharged wastewater. The risk of non-point pollution was mainly related to the pattern of agricultural plantation and farmland utilization. The secondary area of water environment pollution was mainly distributed along both sides of the water channel of tributaries. Therefore, the situation of pollutant production corresponding to the intra-regional regulation of industrial structure, land utilization pattern surrounding the water channel should be highlighted. The non-point pollution in Huntai watershed was dominated by farmland pollution, and the main indices of pollutants were total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P). The contribution rate of pollutants was farmland runoff > livestock and poultry breeding > urban runoff > water and soil erosion

  2. 生态景观型灌排系统面源污染防治试验及生态响应%Non-point source pollution control experiment and ecological response of ecological landscape type irrigation and drainage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅杰; 邵庆军; 李海彩; 叶梁倩; 姚星; 胡将军

    2015-01-01

    The current irrigation and drainage system in land renovation was mainly designed and constructed to heighten efficiency of irrigation and drainage, structure safety and convenient management, which, however, somewhat neglected ecological landscape design, exerting an inappropriate influence on the biological habitat and agricultural non-point source pollution. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to design an ecological landscape irrigation and drainage system and realize more comprehensive benefits. First of all, originated from the traditional agricultural drainage and irrigation system, irrigation and drainage with an ecological ring-ditch was designed by using the principle of mutually-beneficial symbiosis of paddy, red duckweed, fish and vegetable planting plates, which realized the multifunctional stereo development of rice paddy pisciculture, vegetable planting and so on. Meanwhile, the roundabout biochemical pond was designed at the ecological ring-ditch drainage sluice, which was used as the treatment device of agricultural non-point source pollution. Then, ecological landscape lateral canal and lateral ditch was designed, which was made up of vegetation type diaphragm blocks, hornworts, vegetable planting plates, fish, Jumping type antiskid ecological plate and plant ecological community. What is more, by using the land reclamation project in shanghai as the experimental area, the rice growth cycle (6-10 months) as study period, the COD, NH4+-N, TN and TP as test indicators, and three monitoring sections as monitoring points, experimental of non-point source pollution prevention effects were made comparisons between system 1, system 2 and system3. The system 1 was constituted by the irrigation and drainage system using ecological ring-ditch, roundabout biochemical pond and lateral ditch wetlands. The system 2 was constituted by the irrigation and drainage system using underground pipe and current lateral ditch. And the system 3 was constituted by the

  3. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  4. 宁夏农村面源污染现状调查分析结果初报%Preliminary Report on Investigation and Analysis Result of Current Situation of Rural Non-point Source Pol ution in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓娟; 靳军良; 王金保

    2014-01-01

    通过调查监测,宁夏农村面源污染的主要来源集中体现在化肥污染、农药污染、畜禽粪便污染、农膜污染及农村生活污染5个方面,但其影响和污染主要表现在对水环境和土壤环境的污染上。其中,对水环境的污染形式则是通过地表径流和地下淋溶把过剩的氮、磷、有机农药、无机盐等带到地表水和地下水中,致使地表水富营养化,破环水生态环境,鱼虾难以生存。对土壤环境的污染形式是通过农业投入品超量施入,在改变土壤物理性状、破环土壤通透性、造成土壤板结、粘结的同时,造成重金属离子和病原菌的积累,给农产品质量安全带来危害。%Based on an investigation and monitoring,the main sources of Ningxia rural non-point source pollution includes the five aspects of chemical fertilizer pollution, pesticide pollution, livestock and poultry manure pollution, agricultural plastic film pollution and rural domestic pollution. But the impact and pollution were mainly manifested in the pollution of water envi-ronment and soil environment. The form of pollution of the water environment was bringing excess nitrogen, phosphorus, or-ganic pesticides and inorganic salt to the surface water and underground water by the surface runoff and underground leach-ing,it caused the surface water eutrophication,the destruction of the aquatic ecological environment and made the fish and shrimp hard to survive. The form of pollution of the soil environment was changing the soil physical characteristic, destroying the soil permeability, causing soil compaction and bond,and causing the accumulation of heavy metal ions and pathogenic bacteria by excessive application of agricultural inputs, and it brought harms to the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  5. Reduction rate of nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution under different riparian buffer restoring strategies%不同河岸带修复策略对氮磷非点源污染的净化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 胡艳芳; 林峻宇

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted along Liuxi River watershed, a main branch of Beijiang River, in Guangdong Province. Based on the non-point source (NPS) pollution and riparian buffer’s reduction in current situations of the Liuxi River Basin, the differences of NPS pollution reduction improvement of different restoration strategies were investigated by scenario simulations. In order to compare the efficiency of different restoration strategies, the relationships between the improvement of NPS reduction rate and the increase of buffer area were interpreted by benefit-cost index. The results showed the NPS reduction rate performed remarkable spatial variation. Each scenario had improved the NPS reduction rates to varying degrees (TN: 23.36%~30.72%; TP: 27.19%~39.86%). The relationships between buffer areas and NPS reduction rate of each scenario were fitted well by the logarithmic function (P<0.05). The strategy with restoring the sub-basins of prior riparian buffer restoration, which integrated NPS loading and riparian buffers conditions, could reach the best benefit-cost index (1.19%).%选择北江的重要支流流溪河流域为研究对象,基于现有河岸带对非点源污染削减作用的模拟结果,采用情景分析法,预测不同河岸带修复策略对非点源污染的削减作用,使用效益-成本指数表征 TN 和 TP 削减率提高幅度与增加河岸带面积的关系,比较不同河岸带修复策略的效率.结果表明:河岸带对TN和TP的削减能力具有较大的空间差异性.各修复情景都在不同程度上提高了河岸带对TN和TP的削减率(TN:23.36%~30.72%;TP:27.19%~39.86%),河岸带增加总面积与削减率呈现对数增长关系(P<0.05).选择综合考虑了流域非点源负荷量以及河岸带状况的优先修复子流域进行河岸带修复时,效益-成本指数达最高为1.19%.

  6. 林带对太湖地区农业非点源的控制效应研究%Controlling effects of forest belts on non-point source pollution of agricultural lands in Taihu Lake area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金林; 侍璐璐; 张爱国

    2002-01-01

    in water, crops and underground of forest, the transfer and loss of N and P (main water pollutants) in faming ecosystem were studied, and the effects of forest belts on non-point source pollution of agricultural lands was analyzed. The results indicated that the transfer and loss of N and P vary with means of rotation, types of crops and the amount of fertilizer application. Buffering forest belts betweens farmlands and ditches can effectively stop and purify such elements as N and P in soil runoffs, thus controlling non-point source pollution of agricultural lands. When the width ratio of farmland to forest belt is 100 to 40, 50.05% losing N, 29.37% losing P can be absorbed by forest under rape-rice rotation and 30.98% N, 86.73% P can be absorbed by forest under wheat-rice rotation. When the width ratio of farmland to forest belt is 150 to 40, 33.37% losing N, 19.58% losing P can be absorbed by the forest under rape-rice rotation, and under wheat-rice rotation 20.65% lost N and 57.82% lost P can be absorbed. There is only some purification effect when the width ration of farmland to forest belt is 200 to 40. Based on model of buffering forest belts, the width ratio of farmland to forest is determined between 100 to 40 and 150 to 40, because it not only can purify water, but also occupy less farmland. It is suggested that Poplars, with the characteristics of fast-growing and high value, are suitable to be planted as shelter-forest in Taihu Lake Watershed.

  7. 苏州市东山镇池塘养蟹面源污染现状及控制%Current status and control strategies of non-point source pollution from pond aquaculture in Dongshan town of Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋学宏; 郭培红; 孙丽萍; 朱江

    2011-01-01

    结合全国污染源普查活动,以苏州市养殖老区东山镇养殖池塘为典型,调查其现行养殖模式、经济效益、养殖污染状况.调查结果显示,东山镇现有养殖面积为2253.33hm2,主养品种为河蟹.1个养殖周期中,养殖池塘通过沟渠排入外界的TN、TP含量分别平均为21.25kg/hm2、2.34kg/hm2;密度为9000只/hm2的低密度养殖池外排的TN含量为16.79kg/hm2,而无TP排出.分析苏州地区池塘养殖产生水环境污染的主要原因,从池塘管理体制改革、科学生态养殖技术及养殖尾水处理等方面探讨池塘养殖污水零排放技术,为苏州市养殖业面源污染的控制提供对策和措施.%Combining with national census of pollution sources and using large-scale pond aquaculture in Dongshan town in Suzhou as a case study, the current cultural modes, economic benefits, and aquaculture pollution were surveyed. The results showed that there were 2 253.33 hm2 of aquaculture in Dongshan town, and the Chinese mitten crab was the main specie. In a single aquaculture period, the discharged total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from pounds to outside through canals and ditches were on average 21.25 kg/hm2 and 2.34 kg/hm2 respectively. However, in a lowdensity crab raising pond of 9000 ind/hm2, the discharged TN was 16.79 kg/hm2, and no TP was found to be discharged.Based on the case study, the main reasons for the water environment pollution by pond aquaculture were analyzed, and the zero discharge technologies for the waste water of pond aquaculture were discussed from aspects of the management system reform for pond, the scientific and ecological raising technique, and the aquaculture wastewater treatment. The possible strategies and countermeasures for controlling the aquacultural non-point source pollution in Suzhou were also provided.

  8. 农业面源污染治理的政策效用评估以江苏省海安县的测土配方施肥推广为例%Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Controlling Policy's Utility Evaluation Based on Environmental Cost:A Case Study of Soil Testing and Fertilizer Recommendation Technology in Hai'an County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    为衡量农业面源污染治理政策的作用效果,文章基于环境成本的视角,探索了农业面源污染治理政策效用评估的一般方法与步骤。首先,结合农业化肥的环境污染特点,利用输出系数模型以实现对区域内农业化肥造成的总氮TN、总磷TP排放量的合理测算。然后,建立了基于能值分析法的环境成本估计模型,并结合经济成本和经济收益,构建了基于成本-收益分析的农业面源污染治理政策效用评估的一般模型。最后,以江苏省海安县的测土配方施肥技术的推广为例,对海安县测土配方施肥节本增收效果进行综合评价,并探索了江苏省实现测土配方施肥全覆盖时的总体效果,为面源污染治理政策的评估提供思路。%In order to assess the policy effect of controlling agricultural non-point source pollution ,this paper ,based on the perspec‐tive of environmental cost ,explores the general methods and steps for utility evaluation of agricultural non-point source pollution's treatment measures .First of all ,combined with the characteristics of environmental pollution caused by agricultural fertilizer ,this paper chooses a rational export coefficient model to calculate total nitrogen (TN) ,total phosphorus (TP) emissions caused by agri‐cultural fertilizer in the region .Then ,targeted at soil testing and fertilizer recommendation technology ,this paper constructs envi‐ronmental cost estimation model based on energy analysis and general utility evaluation model based on cost-benefit analysis .Finally , this paper takes Hai'an County's promotion of soil testing and fertilizer recommendation in Jiangsu Province for example ,the synthe‐sized evaluation of the technology is achieved in saving costs and increasing income .Further ,this paper explores the beneficial se‐quence when the technology is spread to the whole Jiangsu Province ,which will provide ways to better choose

  9. Spatial-temporal Variation of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Based on GIS Technology in Guangdong Province, China%基于GIS的广东省农业面源污染的时空分异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶延琼; 章家恩; 李逸勉; 李韵; 吴睿珊

    2013-01-01

    近年来,广东省化肥、农药等农用化学品的投入量大增,农业面源污染问题日趋严重.采用历年统计数据以及GIS技术,对广东省农业面源污染的时空分异性进行了分析.结果表明,全省化肥、农药使用量均呈逐年增加态势,化肥使用量由1990年的162.41万t增加到2010年的237.29万t,农药由1990年的7.95万t增加到2010年的10.44万t.畜禽粪尿排放量则由2000年的339.34亿t减少到2010年的222.08亿t;在空间分布上,全省化肥投入强度超过400 kg· hm-2的县(市)由1995年的35个增加到2010年的61个,粤西、粤东全部,珠三角大部以及粤北部分地区均属化肥严重污染区,其原因主要在于对农作物产量增加的追求.农药投入强度超过30 kg· hm-2的县(市)由1995年的10个增加到2010年的27个,这主要是由于广东的气候条件及种植结构改变造成的.畜禽粪尿排放污染情况相对较好,但因粤西的雷州半岛地区以水稻生产为主,大牲畜牛的养殖规模较大,因此畜禽粪尿重度污染主要集中在这一地区.GIS空间分析的运用,能直观地反映各地区农业面源污染的时空动态变化情况,为有针对性地开展污染治理提供依据.%Agriculture non-point source pollution (ANSP) is becoming a serious environmental concern in Guangdong Province due to the increased applications of agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides in recent years. This study investigated the spatial-temporal variation of ANSP using the historical statistical data and GIS technology. Results showed that the fertilizer, pesticide and other agrochemical applications in Guangdong Province were increased and reached quite a high level in order to secure food supply. The total amount of chemical fertilizer application increased from 1.62x1061 in 1990 to 2.73x1061 in 2010 and the total amount of pesticide application elevated from 7.95X1041 to 10.04X1041, while the total amount of animal manure

  10. “双重失灵”视角下我国农业面源污染的法律规制%Legal Regulation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in the Perspective of “Double Failure”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝创杰

    2016-01-01

    来自化肥、农药、农膜、畜禽养殖等污染源的农业面源污染已经成为我国水污染的最大污染源。现行立法对农业面源污染的规制在指导思想、具体内容和立法技术等方面仍存在一些不足,而这些不足又是忽略或缺乏经济法的思维方式所致。我国农业面源污染恶化是市场失灵和政府失灵共同作用的结果。克服“双重失灵”,有效规制面源污染,可以通过完善环境税收体系,增设生态税、建立排污权交易制度等经济法的调整手段实现。%The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution (ANPSP),which is caused by pollution source like chemical fertilizers,pesticides,agricultural film and livestock breeding,has already be-come the largest source of pollution of our country's water pollution.The regulation of The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution given by current legislation still has some deficiencies in guiding ideology, concrete content and legislative technique.This is caused by neglecting or lacking the thinking mode of economic law.The root cause of the deterioration of The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in China is the combined action of market failure and government failure.The task of overcoming “double failure”and controlling The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution can be finished by using adjust-ment methods of economic law.The methods may include improving the environmental tax system, adding ecological taxation and establishing emission trading system.

  11. Optimization of Policy and Management Service System on Control of Rural Non-Point Source Pollution-A Case Study of the Rural Area of Shanghai%农村面源污染治理的政策与管理服务体系优化——以上海郊区农村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文芳; 沈哲

    2012-01-01

    It is a common view that control of rural non-point source pollution is not only a technology issue, but also a management system issue. So hard currently it has become a hot spot and a hard nut as well to probe and consummate the policy, management and service system for control of rural non-point source pollution. Selecting the rural suburbs of Shanghai for case study, the status quo of the rural non-point source pollution and its management have been analyzed and summarized. While affirming the effect of the current work on pollution management, the limitations of the work are discerned and it was pointed out that inharmony between the agriculture development policy and the environmental protection policy and the lag of the management mechanism and service system behind the change in the rural development model are the basic causes. To counter the major contributors of the rural non-point source pollution, i. e. chemical fertilizers, pesticides , livestock excretes and rural domestic sewage, countermeasures and suggestions are presented for management of the pollution from the aspects of modification of the agricultural subsidization system, reconfiguration and implementation of the rural multi-value system and consummation of agricultural production service system.%农村面源污染控制不仅是技术问题,也是管理体制与机制问题,探讨并完善农村面源污染治理的政策、管理与服务体系已成为当前研究的热点与难点.以上海郊区农村为例,梳理总结农村面源污染及其控制现状;在肯定当前治理效果的同时,识别其局限性,指出农业政策与环境保护政策的不协调、农村发展模式转变下制度与服务体系的相对滞后是根本原因;针对当前农村面源污染重要的贡献者——化肥、农药、畜禽粪便以及农村生活污水,分别从改革农业补贴制度、重构实现农村多重价值的制度以及完善农业生产服务体系等方面给出了治理的对策与建议.

  12. Assessing the influence of different plant species in drainage ditches on mitigation of non-point source pollutants (N, P, and sediments) in the Purple Sichuan Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwimba, Mathieu Nsenga; Zhu, Bo; Muyembe, Diana Kavidia

    2017-06-01

    Three different types of ditches, each 300 m in length, were employed in this study. One vegetated constructed ditch (VCD), three natural vegetated soil ditches (NVSD), and three constructed ditches left unvegetated (UCD) as controls were investigated using simple in/out mass balances and uptake by plant species with a potential for phytoremediation and their mechanisms. Significant differences in the ditches were observed, suggesting the importance of plant species in nutrient mitigation. The removal rates of TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) were 64.28 and 58.02, 31.16 and 27.49, and 3.91 and 2.97%, respectively, in the VCD, NVSD, and UCD. Canna indica (45.12 g m(-2)) and Oenanthe javanica (21.48 g m(-2)) had the highest total N and P storage in the VCD and NVSD. Furthermore, species C. indica possessed the highest annual N and P uptake in the VCD (216.59 kg N/ha/yr and 30.73 kg P/ha/yr). In the NVSD, species O. javanica had the greatest annual N and P uptake (96.66 kg N/ha/yr and 7.94 kg P/ha/yr). Both VCD and NVSD were found to have a reasonably good outcome compared to UCD. Retention of nutrients by ditch sediments was probably the major attenuation mechanism, with subsequent plant uptake and microbial nitrification-denitrification of the nutrients as secondary removal mechanisms. Results of this study highlight the importance of taking actions for establishment of appropriate plant species inside the ditches in order to enhance its direct and indirect roles and maximize purification rate in aquatic environments.

  13. Advances on agricultural non-point source pollution and the control in regions around Hung-tse Lake%环洪泽湖区域农业面源污染特征及控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇峰; 陈子鹏; 吴翼; 朱咏莉; 李萍萍

    2016-01-01

    Hung⁃tse Lake, located in the northwest of Jiangsu Province, is the fourth largest freshwater lake in China. It is also one of the key hinge lakes in the east route of the south⁃to⁃north water transfer project. However, the water quality for the lake was worse than grade Ⅴ according to the Environmental Quality Standard of Surface Water of the People�s Republic of China. Non⁃point source pollution around the lake was considered one of the main reasons. In the present study, the feature, sources, inducement, control and management of agricultural non⁃point pollution around the lake were reviewed. We held that the unreasonable application of chemical fertilizer was the largest source of the pollution. Aquaculture pollution was substantially increasing due to the facts of the ineffective management to enclosure culture and the abuse of exogenous diets. In addition, the emissions of livestock and poultry breeding, rural sewage and unordered waste management were the main contributors of the pollution. Therefore, the control strategies for the agricultural non⁃point source pollution in the regions should focused on ① developing ecological agriculture with reasonable applications of fertilizer and pesticides,②integrating and optimizing the aquaculture,③improving the treatment of rural sewage and recycling of agricultural wastes,④ reducing pollution by enhancing the land use among farmlands, woodlands and wet⁃lands.%洪泽湖是位于江苏省西北部的我国第四大淡水湖泊,同时是南水北调东线工程的重要节点湖泊。然而,目前洪泽湖水质总体状况仍呈下降趋势,其中面源污染是重要原因之一。笔者对环洪泽湖地区农业面源污染的特点、来源与诱因以及控制技术等进行系统评述,分析认为:不合理的化肥施用是该区域第一大面源污染来源;围网养殖区无序规划及大量外源性饵料的投加,使得水产养殖的污染排放呈现增加趋

  14. The Empirical Analysis of EKC on Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution in Chongqing%重庆市农业面源污染源的 EKC实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志欣; 邵景安; 李阳兵

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Environmental Kuznets Curve theory and the data from 2000-2012 of Chongqing , five indexes ,w hich are related to the agricultural non‐point source pollution ,are selected as variances and the Environmental Kuznets Curve model are established to analyze the relationship between agricultural non‐point source pollution and the agricultural economic growth .Meanwhile ,use the software of Eviews 7 .0 and SPSS 17 .0 to estimate the parameters .The conclusions can be drawn as follows :1) The chemical fertilizer application level ,the pesticide application level and the emission density of crop residues exhibited typical inverted‐U shaped curve relations with the per capita agricultural net income of farmers .And the chemical fertilizer application level ,pesticide application level and the emission density of crop residues have reduced with the agricultural economic grow th .2) During the study period ,the agricultural films ap‐plication level exhibited liner relations with the per capita agriculture net income of farmers .With the grow th of agricultural economy ,the environmental pressure caused by agricultural films will be further in‐creased .3) The pig droppings equivalent emission density of livestock and poultry manure with the per ca‐pita agricultural net income of farmers exhibited “N”shaped curve characteristics ,the curve exists two in‐flection points .Currently it’s on the right side of the second inflection point and it indicates that the envi‐ronmental pressure caused by livestock and poultry manure pollution will deteriorate again with the devel‐opment of agricultural economy .The government should take effective measures to strengthen the agricul‐tural non‐point source pollution control .%基于环境库兹涅茨曲线理论,根据重庆市2000-2012年的时序数据,选取5个与农业面源污染有关的指标作为污染变量,分析农业面源污染与农业经济增长的关系,并利用EVIEWS7.0

  15. Review on super absorbent polymer application for improving fertilizer efficiency and controlling agricultural non-point source pollutions%高吸水树脂保水剂提高肥效及减少农业面源污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖人宽; 杨培岭; 任树梅

    2012-01-01

    Super absorbent polymer (SAP) is a new type of multifunctional material in drought resistant and pollution control. SAP can quickly absorb water and fertilizer for increasing soil crumb structure and porosity, restraining soil evaporation, promoting crop physiological function and reducing fertilizer loss, so as to result in significant improvement of water and fertilizer use efficiency and marked reduction in fertilizer pollution. In recent years, SAP has been widely used in agricultural nonpoint source pollution control as a chemical product of absorbing and storing water and fertilizer. The paper expounds its acting mechanism and efficiency in controlling pollution, introduces the researches on its main antifouling function, and emphatically summarizes the researches of SAP application in agricultural production and the development of agricultural antifouling absorbent agent. In the end, the problems existing in the field are discussed and the future research fields are proposed.%高吸水树脂(保水剂)是一种新型多功能抗旱、防污材料,能够快速吸持水肥,增加土壤团粒结构和孔隙度,抑制土面蒸发,提升作物生理机能,减少养分淋失,从而达到提高水肥利用效率和减少肥料污染的作用.近年来,保水剂在农业面源污染防治方面得到了越来越广泛的应用.该文阐述了保水剂的防污作用机理及效能,介绍了保水剂主要防污作用方面的研究,重点对保水剂在农业生产上的防污应用及农用防污型保水剂的研制进行了综述,最后分析了保水剂在农业防污应用和研究过程中存在的问题,提出了保水剂未来进行防污应用的研究方向.

  16. Characterization of non point source pollutants and their dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 5(2), pp. ... wet season increases the concentrations of ammonia, phosphorus, nitrites and nitrates. Ammonia .... sampling coordinates were stored in a GPS and later traced during ..... threats, impacts and conservation strategies in the African Great,. Lakes.

  17. 基于改进USLE模型的北运河流域非点源污染潜在敏感区分析%Potential Sensitive Areas Analysis of Non-Point Source Pollution in North Canal Basin based on Improved USLE Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳美珠; 张晓惠; 袁雪竹

    2012-01-01

    Based on the universal soil loss equation (USLE), the model of demarcation of sensitive areas of the non-point pollution in North Canal basin is developed. With the database of TM remote sensing images, digital elevation model (DEM), and the map of soil use type in research area in 2009, distribution map of sensitive areas of non-point source in North Canal basin is produced by the model. Base on the simulation, the three risk areas (high, medium and low) and safe areas are identified. Results show that improved model can be effectively used in the analysis of sensitive areas of non-point source pollution.%基于通用土壤流失方程(USLE)建立北运河流域非点源污染敏感区的划分模型,以2009年研究区域TM遥感影像、数字高程模型(DEM)、研究区土壤利用类型图等为数据基础,在GIS9.3和ERDAS9.2平台上通过对各模型因子进行栅格运算生成北运河流域非点源污染潜在敏感区分布图,在此基础上划分了高、中、低三个风险区以及安全区.鉴于我国与美国不同的自然条件,以及土壤流失与固体垃圾的扩散之间所存在的差异,在引进和应用该模型时,对方程中各因子的算法和参数做了一定的调整和改进,结果表明改进后的模型可以有效的运用于非点源污染敏感区的分析.

  18. SIMULATION OF NON-POINT POLLUTANTS EVOLUTION IN COASTAL PLAIN ISLAND-A CASE STUDY OF CHONGMING ISLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hai-long; JIANG Wen-yan; LI Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    The coastal plain region usually shows the agricultural dominated industry mode, so more and more attention is paid to non-point pollutants discharge. In this study, the method for assessing the influence of non-point pollutants discharge on river water quality is probed which is concluded as follows: (1) Considering the costal plain island is characterized as nearly even elevation, the conventional gravitational runoff confluence method based on eight-point gravitational flowing directions (D8) is unable to compute the runoff confluence received by the surrounding rivers, so a new method of triangular confluence based on three-points of grid center and the river segments is presented. Further the equations of non-point pollutants loads estimation and non-point pollutants confluence on rivers are presented. (2) The integration mode of non-point pollutants model and river water quality model is presented so as to further assess the non-point pollutants contribution to river water quality. (3) With the Chongming Island, the third largest island in China, as an example, the above-mentioned equations are specified. For this island, the non-point pollutants loads are estimated and linked to the developed water quality model of the river network in the island, and further the non-point pollution evolution in river network is simulated. In this scenario, the non-point pollution contribution to river water quality over the whole island is clearly displayed, and the area where the river water quality is seriously influenced by non-point pollutants discharge is distinctly depicted. This scenario also shows the water quality contribution ratio of non-point pollution to point pollution can be in the range of 55.5% to 44.5% which proves the importance of non-point pollution control in costal plain islands.

  19. Source apportionment and spatial heterogeneity of agricultural non-point source pollution based on water environmental function zoning%基于水环境功能区划的农业面源污染源解析及其空间异质性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓雍; 沈根祥; 郭春霞; 顾海蓉; 朱英; 王振旗

    2011-01-01

    Taking township as basic unit, the inventory analysis method and equivalent standard method were conducted to determine the discharge amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from different types of agricultural non-point sources, including chemical fertilizer application, animal manure application, crop straws, animal husbandry, aquaculture and rural sewage. The impact of agricultural non-point source pollution (ANPSP) on water environment and its spatial heterogeneity were analyzed based on water environmental function zoning at the scales of county and town. The results indicated that, the absolute discharge amount of COD, TN and TP from ANPSP were 4.42× 104,1.13× 104, 0.44× 104 t/a respectively, and the discharge amount in equivalent standard were 0.16× 104, 0.93 × 104, 1.65× 104 m3/a respectively. The primary pollution source was animal husbandry, which load ratio in equivalent standard reached 66.31%, and the primary pollutant was TP, which load ratio in equivalent standard reached 60.32%. Discharge concentration of COD, TN and TP caused by ANPSP in different districts were in the range of 4.16-40.91, 1.30-8.71, 0.23-4.94 mg/L respectively, while the average water quality index ranged from 0.67 to 5.91. From the point view of town-based pollution stress, the pollution extent of the towns in South Shanghai and Chongming Island was much higher, which had greater agriculture productive value and located near the water conservation area with stricter water quality standards.%通过清单分析方法和等标污染负荷法,以乡镇为单元研究了上海市化肥施用、有机肥施用、农作物秸秆、畜禽养殖、水产养殖、农村生活污水等农业面源污染来源化学需氧量(COD)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)等污染物的排放量及其贡献率,并根据各区域水环境功能区划分别在区县尺度和乡镇尺度分析了农业面源污染程度及其区域分布.结果表明,上

  20. Proceedings from the Workshop on Research Needs for Assessment and Management of Non-Point Air Emissions from Department of Defense Activities held in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina on 19-21 February 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    paint LCA life cycle assessment LIDAR Laser Imaging Detection and Ranging LPG liquid propane gas MACT Maximum Achievable Control Technology MDC...term alternatives to OB/OD (e.g., hydrochloride [HCl] from large solid- rocket motors ) – Identify additives to put in OB/OD pits to act as sponge to...processes – Determine liquid losses versus VOC emissions • Perform life-cycle assessment ( LCA )—from the time DoD gains possession of fuel until it is

  1. 东江源山地果畜结合区面源污染生态化控制模式与效果分析%Study on ecological control mode of non-point source pollution from the system of orchard linked with animal husbandry in the valley of Dongjiang River Headwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席运官; 刘明庆; 王磊; 汪贞; 李德波; 王宏燕

    2013-01-01

    The paper studied the structure and functions of pig-biogas-fruit-fish eco-agricultural mode in the headwater of Dongjiang River based on the Xinglin farm in Dingnan County, analyzed the controlling effect in quality and quantity to the water pollution nutrition through source controlling, drainage reducing and cleaning, and tested the draining water of Xinglin farm showing that draining water quality was better than the Ⅳ level standard of surface water. It proved that this model had the features of opearational, extentional and low input, and could be the important mode for controlling the non-point source pollution in the headwater of Dongjiang River.%  分析东江源山地果畜结合区“猪-沼-果-鱼”生态农业模式的结构与功能,定性和定量分析农庄采用生态化技术对水体污染物控源、减排、净化的效果,跟踪采样分析农庄排水水质,结果表明,农庄排水全年优于地表水Ⅳ类水标准,该模式兼具可操作、可推广、低投入特性,是东江源控制农业面源污染的重要模式。

  2. Bio-Economic Strategy to Combat Non-Point Pollution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yong-Ping; CHEN De-Li; B.DAVIDSON; R.E.WHITE

    2005-01-01

    While non-point pollution from agriculture has become an increasingly serious problem in China, some progress has been made in studying the causal biophysical processes. However, few studies have assessed the economic consequences of non-point pollution in China or the policy options that could be employed to combat it. In this work a sustainable strategy to control non-point pollution from crop production, which involved taxing excessive inputs of irrigation water and fertilizer, was proposed. The approach taken to assess these measures combined biophysical and economic models,having a trade-off between economic returns and an improved environment. A proven and practical spatially referenced water and nutrient management model was used to determine the quantities of excessive irrigation water and fertilizer for specific soil and land use. Also, a set of indicators were proposed for evaluating the effects of agricultural economic output and agricultural practices on the environment.

  3. 基于排水过程分析的水稻灌区农田面源污染模拟%Simulation of agricultural non-point source pollution from paddy rice irrigation district based on analyses of drainage processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会; 王康; 周祖昊

    2012-01-01

    对前郭灌区主要面源污染物迁移、转化及汇集过程开展了2a的系统试验与监测,模拟了灌区面源污染水质水量过程,分析了灌区农田面源污染形成机制.水均衡测定结果表明,灌区排水主要由灌溉退水、稻田地表弃水和稻田渗流排水3部分组成,采用马斯京根法和连续分段马斯京根法能够有效地模拟各级排水沟道的排水过程.主要面源污染物随水体发生迁移及掺混,采用一级动力学方法描述污染物转化过程,模拟的灌区水质水量过程与实际过程符合较好,稻田地表退水主要影响水稻抽穗前的面源污染入河过程,而渗流排水则在抽穗后灌区排水水质中起主要作用.结果表明水稻灌区中地表排水和稻田渗漏排水对于面源污染过程起主要作用.%The transport and transformation processes of non-point source pollutions form paddy rice field to the main drainage canal through lateral and branch drainage canals were monitored in the Qianguo irrigation district during the rice growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. Water balance were measured in lateral canal in the controlled irrigation region. Results showed that the drainage water were composed of the rice field surface returned water, the irrigation returned water and the seepage from rice field to the drainage canals. Drainage processes in branch and main canal were simulated using the Muskingum method and the Muskingum segmentation flow routing method, respectively. The transport processes of chemical concentrations were determined by the mix and convection of water flow and the transformation processes were described using the first order kinetic equation. Drainage processes and contaminant concentration simulated showed good agreements with the measured values. The returned water and seepage from rice field played key roles in the process of agricultural non point pollution into the river. This research suggested the surface drainage and seepage

  4. 引导农户施肥行为在农业面源污染治理中的影响--基于中英项目调查分析%The Effects from Guidance of FarmersˊBehavior for Fertilizer Using in the Regulation of Agricultural Non -point Source Pollution:Based on the Survey of China -UK Educational Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华春林; 陆迁; 姜雅莉

    2015-01-01

    Based on the implementation of the China -UK educational program,this paper empirically analyzes the effects from guidance of farmersˊbehavior for fertilizer using with the survey data of 331 farmers in Yangling Demonstration Zone and Wugong County of Shaanxi Province.The result indicates that the amount of farmersˊfertilizer using is significantly re-duced by correct guidance.During the process of constructing the governance micro -mechanism of agricultural non -point source pollution,it is necessary to seriously consider the guiding function of educational program.%基于中英项目实施情况,利用陕西省杨凌示范区及泾阳县331份农户实地调查数据,实证分析引导农户化肥施用行为在污染治理中的影响。分析结果表明对农户化肥施用行为的正确引导会减少化肥量的投入,最终影响我国农业面源污染的治理效果。因此,在构建我国农业面源污染微观治理机制时,要重视具有引导农户生产行为作用的治理手段。

  5. 基于“压力-响应”机制的江苏省农业面源污染源解析及其空间特征%Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Source Origin of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Jiangsu Province Based on Pressure-response System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆尤尤; 胡清宇; 段华平; 卞新民

    2012-01-01

    运用清单分析、等标负荷和聚类分析等方法,对江苏省农业面源污染源、影响因子、空间分布特征等进行了分析与评价.结果表明:江苏省农业面源污染化学需氧量(COD)、全氮(TN)、全磷(TP)绝对实物排放量分别为155.23×104 t/a、62.34×104 t/a、9.05×104t/a,相应的绝对等标排放量分别为7.76×104 t/a、62.34×104 t/a、45.23×104t/a.农业面源污染造成的COD、TN、TP的平均排放浓度分别为6.25 mg/L、2.53mg/L、0.36 mg/L,排放浓度地区差异显示苏北>苏中>苏南.农业面源污染综合水质指数显示,江苏省均值为2.10,达到中度污染水平.其中徐州、连云港、宿迁处于严重污染状态;淮安、盐城、泰州处于中度污染状态;南通、扬州处于轻度污染状态;南京处于警戒状态;无锡、常州、苏州、镇江处于安全状态.主要污染物依次是TN、TP,其贡献率分别为54.71%和38.86%;主要污染源依次是化肥施用、畜禽养殖、人粪尿、水产养殖,其贡献率分别为30.75%、24.94%、16.85%、15.28%;在国土面积、农业产值和农村人口几大因子中,农业产值是与污染物排放量相关性程度最高的因子.通过对”压力-响应”的表征量进行聚类分析得出江苏省农业面源污染的空间分布特征,其压力和响应基本一致.%The primary source, influence factors, and spatial distribution characteristics of agricultural non-point source pollution (NPSP) in Jiangsu Province were analyzed by inventory analysis, equivalent standard load, and cluster analysis methods. Results showed that the absolute real emissions of COD, TN and TP from NPSP were 155.23× 104t/a, 62.34×l04t/a and 9.05×l04t/a respectively. And the related standard emissions were 7.76×104 t/a, 62.34×104t/a and 45.23×104 t/a. The average concentrations of COD, TN and TP emitted from NPSP were 6.25 mg/L, 2.53 mg/L, 0.36 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of these

  6. 考虑面源污染的中国苹果全要素生产率及其空间集聚特征分析%Total factor productivity of apple industry in China considering non-point source pollution and its spatial concentration analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓龙; 霍学喜

    2015-01-01

    Apple industry has become a major industry of rural economy in most of the north region in China, which plays an important role on the adjustment of agricultural structure, the increase of farmer’s income and the export. But overall, the development of apple industry still has belonged to the traditional production style depending on fertilizer and pesticide; on one side it has brought high economic benefits for farmers, and on the other side it has been the main reason to agricultural non-point source pollution. There is no doubt that this production style has exacerbated the contradiction between the development of apple industry and the ecological environment in China. Therefore, in order to achieve the sustainable development of apple industry, the transformation of the development mode of apple industry, the improvement of resource use efficiency and the effective control of non-point source pollution in apple production should be taken into account urgently. And to achieve these goals are closely dependent on the contribution of apple total factor productivity to industry development, the reasonable estimation of apple total factor productivity, and thus the guide of the correct policy. Using the unit investigation and evaluation model, this paper calculates the non-point source pollution from apple industry, which is taken as non-ideal output and integrated into the model of total factor productivity, then analyzes the total factor productivity of apple industry under the constraint of environment of 21 provinces in China from 1994 to 2013 by applying the Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index, and finally tests the spatial autocorrelation of total factor productivity of apple industry by using Moran’s index. The results show as follows: 1) Apple total factor productivity index under the constraint of environment is lower than that without this constraint, implying that environment pollution has obvious negative effects on apple productivity in China

  7. Life cycle assessment of renewable energy sources

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Anoop; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2013-01-01

    Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and impor

  8. Evaluating Urbanization Impacts from Non-Point Stormwater Runoff using Geospatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovich, B. R.; Mays, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Sediments, nutrients and other chemical impairments caused by urbanization continue to deteriorate natural ecosystem processes, resulting in the current degraded state of urban surface waters. Understanding non-point source impacts on these natural ecosystems has become a prevalent topic in sustainable urban infrastructure design as efforts to restore the urban hydrologic regime continue to drive engineers, planners, and environmentalists to develop optimal design practices for rapidly expanding built environments. To best understand how and where these impairments are received, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other organizations have adopted urban runoff programs to identify contributions from non-point sources. This presentation provides a geospatial analysis method for identifying non-point source watersheds, and associated sub-basins, that contribute the highest loads of pollutants to receiving urban streams and lakes. This method, using a form of linear matrix inversion, is an area-averaged weighting method for non-point pollutants that corresponds to a geospatial land cover analysis. This two-phase analysis can be used to aid all parties in understanding how different land use types affect urban stream systems and processes. Optimal locations for water quality features (i.e., best management practices) can be evaluated in order to reduce, capture, and treat stormwater runoff as close to the source as possible. These best management practices have the ability to operate most effectively when located properly, because their ability to act as a minor treatment and prevention system is of great important for the restoration of the urban hydrologic regime.

  9. 坡耕地不同物种植物篱对面源污染物的拦截效率及影响因素%Effects of Different Plant Species Hedgerows on Interception of Non- point Source Pollutants in Sloping Cultivated Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田潇; 周运超; 蔡先立; 马礼平; 刘晓芸

    2015-01-01

    Hedgerows play important roles in control over the spread of pollutants in the environment. To investigate the effect of plant species of hedgerows on the intercepting efficiency of non-point source pollutants, a field experiment was conducted in a sloping cultivated land in the upstream of Hongfeng Lake, Guizhou. Thirty runoff plots(20 m long × 5 m width)with three banded hedgerows at equal distance were established in 15 degree sloping cultivated land. The hedgerows was planted in a criss-crossed double rows with 5 m length and 0.15 m width. Quantity of surface runoff, silt and nutrient was monitored in each runoff plot under natural raining in 2010. Results showed that there were only five surface runoffs observed after rainfall in 2010, of which two were stronger while three weaker but lasted for longer time. The greatest runoff interception was observed in the plot with Tephrosia purpurea(L.)Pers. hedgerows, with relative surface runoff intercep-tion rate of 91.75%, and the greatest silt interception was found in the plot of Medicago sativa L. hedgerows, with relative interception rate of 69.25%. Tephrosia purpurea(L.)Pers. could effectively reduce N and P loss, with interception rate about 70.08% for N(283.03 g·hm-2) and 80.21%for P(185.92 g·hm-2). However, the greatest K interception was measured in the plot with Lespedeza bicolor Turcz and fol-lowed by Tephrosia purpurea(L.)Pers. Their relative interception rates were 86.08%(135.11 g·hm-2)and 79.72%(125.13 g·hm-2), re-spectively. The present results show that hedgerows would be of great significance in controlling non-point source pollution in sloping farm-ing area.%在红枫湖上游15°的坡耕地上设置30个植物篱径流小区,小区水平投影面积100 m2,顺坡长20 m,横坡宽5 m。在小区内横坡等距种植三带植物篱,植物篱带呈双行“品”字型种植模式,带长5 m,带宽0.15 m。通过监测该年度天然降雨下每个径流小区产生的地表径流、

  10. Demonstration and Effects of Best Management Practices Applied to Control of Rural Non-point Source Pollution in Poyang Lake Area%鄱阳湖区农村面源污染控制中最佳管理措施示范研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万金保; 孙蕾; 刘峰; 汤爱萍

    2012-01-01

    Water environment security in rural areas around Poyang Lake has been threatened by increasingly severe non-point source pollution(NPS pollution).Combined with the features of NPS pollution in the areas,the structural best management practices(BMPs) are established in the demonstration area of Xingzi County to control the rural NPS pollution.Monitoring results show that in the monitoring period,the removal amounts of COD,TP and TN by the BMPs are 568.25,3.06 and 26.90 kg,respectively.Constructed wetland maintains the better and more stable pollutant removal capability and the removal amounts of COD,TP and TN per unit area are about 40,0.4 and 3.0 g/m2,respectively.The removal amounts of the pollutants per unit area by ecological ditch vary greatly.Ecological ditch has better removal ability per unit area than constructed wetland,but has poor stability.In consideration of the advantages of ecological ditch and tri-class surface flow constructed wetland(3-SFW),the plants suitable to ecological ditch are recommended to improve its stability in pollutant removal.%鄱阳湖区农村面源污染问题日益严峻,已威胁到湖泊的水环境安全。结合该区域农村面源污染自身的变化特征,在星子县示范区内构建结构性最佳管理措施BMPs(best management practices)系统对区域内农村面源污染进行控制。结果表明,在监测期间该BMPs系统对COD,TP和TN的削减量分别为568.25,3.06和26.90kg。其中人工湿地对COD,TP和TN的单位面积削减量约达40,0.4和3.0g/m2,有较稳定的污染物去除能力;生态沟渠对各污染物单位面积削减量变化较大,与人工湿地相比虽有更强的污染物削减能力,但稳定性较弱。结合生态沟渠和三级表面流人工湿地的特点,建议通过引入适宜的植物至生态沟渠提高其处理污染物的稳定性。

  11. Effects of Grass Hedges and No-tillage Practice Oil the Removing of Typical Agricultural Non-point Source Pollutants from Runoff%免耕和草篱措施对径流中典型农业面源污染物的去除效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 陶梅; 肖波; 王庆海; 陈建平

    2011-01-01

    Chemical fertilizer and herbicide are widely used in agricultural production. These chemical substances not only significantly increase crop yields but also result in serious water pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three practices (no-tillage, grass hedges, no-tillage and grass hedges) on the loss of nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine with runoff. The results showed that no-tillage and grass hedges significantly reduced agricultural non-point source pollution. As compared to the control, the total nitrogen, total phosphorus and atrazine loss in the plots with no-tillage were decreased by 53%, 51% and 56%, respectively; reductions by the grass hedges were 68%, 61% and 90%, respectively; the decreases due to no-tillage and grass hedges were 77%, 76% and 92%, respectively. Moreover, the regression results showed that the losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine with runoff were positively correlated to the surface runoff. From these results could be concluded that both of no-tillage and grass hedges could significantly reduce nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine loss with runoff, and the integration of these two practices was proved to be much more effective than their individual effects.%大量施用农业化学物质在提高作物产量的同时,也导致了严重的水体污染.在北京地区不同坡度的径流小区上,通过人工模拟降雨试验,研究免耕、草篱、以及免耕与草篱复合3种措施对农田径流中氮、磷、阿特拉津3种典型农业面源污染物的去除效果.结果表明:免耕措施可减少53%的总氮、51%的总磷和56%的阿特拉津流失;草篱措施可减少68%的总氮、61%的总磷和90%的阿特拉津流失;而免耕与草篱复合措施可减少77%的总氮、76%的总磷和92%的阿特拉津流失.另外,总氯、总磷和阿特拉津流失量均与径流量呈显著的线性正相关关系.本研究证实,免耕和草篱措施均能有效防止氮、磷以及阿特拉津随农

  12. Application of Potential Non-Point Pollution Index For An Urban Watershed: Istanbul, Kucukcekmece Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaoglu, N.; Dikerler, T.; Seker, D. Z.; Ustun, B.

    2011-12-01

    Istanbul is a major city with more than 15 million population and limited water resources. Besides, its urbanized area has been rapidly expanding for more than 30 years. Küçükçekmece Lagoon, as a potential RAMSAR site with its rich natural diversity and housing asset for birds, has been suffering from urbanization and industrial stress. With Sazlidere Dam constructed on the Lagoon's most important creek which supplies fresh water, Küçükçekmece Basin has almost 600 km2 wide area. Due to dam operation which cuts fresh water input down, water quality of the Küçükçekmece Lagoon has been deteriorating, as well as other antropogenic impacts. Potential non-point pollution index (or PNPI) is based on land use, soil and topographic data and aims to highlight the potentially polluting areas in a watershed. Denoting those areas, PNPI puts an assessment of the pressure exerted on the water bodies by different land uses. This index calculates different layers in order to represent run-off, land cover effect, and the distance of each polluting source (or pixels) in the study area. By the multiplication of those layers under GIS, a new data layer is produced showing the polluting potential of each pixel on the study area. For by Küçükçekmece Basin, Landsat ETM satellite images have been taken and its land use produced by unsupervised classification. Using this updated data, land use - land cover indicator has been calculated for the basin. Topography is another fact that is needed to produce both run-off indicator and distance indicator and it is generated by elevation data with 5m resolution. By integrating these indicator layers, PNPI analysis layer has been produced for Küçükçekmece Lagoon watershed.

  13. Eutrophication assessment and management methodology of multiple pollution sources of a landscape lake in North China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanxi; Niu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Hongwei

    2013-06-01

    Landscape lakes in the city suffer high eutrophication risk because of their special characters and functions in the water circulation system. Using a landscape lake HMLA located in Tianjin City, North China, with a mixture of point source (PS) pollution and non-point source (NPS) pollution, we explored the methodology of Fluent and AQUATOX to simulate and predict the state of HMLA, and trophic index was used to assess the eutrophication state. Then, we use water compensation optimization and three scenarios to determine the optimal management methodology. Three scenarios include ecological restoration scenario, best management practices (BMPs) scenario, and a scenario combining both. Our results suggest that the maintenance of a healthy ecosystem with ecoremediation is necessary and the BMPs have a far-reaching effect on water reusing and NPS pollution control. This study has implications for eutrophication control and management under development for urbanization in China.

  14. Including non-point sfources in a water quality trading permit program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collentine, D

    2005-01-01

    There has been overwhelming interest in addressing water quality issues through the use of economic instruments. Much of this attention has focused on the cost efficiencies offered by Transferable Discharge Permit (TDP) systems. Unfortunately, the attempts to start up permit markets which are able to exploit abatement cost differences between sources have not met with the success expected. Two of the reasons for the lack of success that have been taken up in analysis of these programs have been the problem of transaction costs and in the case of non-point sources (NPS), undefined property rights. The composite market design is a proposal for a TDP system which specifically includes agricultural non-point source (NPS) dischargers and addresses both property rights and transaction cost problems. The composite market consists of three interrelated markets each serving a particular function. When the composite market is mature, the total number of permits issued represents the cap on discharges allowed in the catchment. The structure of the composite market allows this system to be phased in over time with existing institutions and limited demands on financing.

  15. An integrated approach to assess heavy metal source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Ying; Li, Tingqiang; Wu, Chengxian [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); He, Zhenli [University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Indian River Research and Education Center, Fort Pierce, FL 34945 (United States); Japenga, Jan; Deng, Meihua [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yang, Xiaoe, E-mail: xeyang@zju.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Ecological Health, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Heavy metal source apportionment was conducted in peri-urban agricultural areas. • Precise and quantified results were obtained by using isotope ratio analysis. • The integration of IRA, GIS, PCA, and CA was proved to be more reliable. • Hg pollution was from the use of organic fertilizers in this area. - Abstract: Three techniques (Isotope Ratio Analysis, GIS mapping, and Multivariate Statistical Analysis) were integrated to assess heavy metal pollution and source apportionment in peri-urban agricultural soils. The soils in the study area were moderately polluted with cadmium (Cd) and mercury (Hg), lightly polluted with lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr). GIS Mapping suggested Cd pollution originates from point sources, whereas Hg, Pb, Cr could be traced back to both point and non-point sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated aluminum (Al), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni) were mainly inherited from natural sources, while Hg, Pb, and Cd were associated with two different kinds of anthropogenic sources. Cluster analysis (CA) further identified fertilizers, waste water, industrial solid wastes, road dust, and atmospheric deposition as potential sources. Based on isotope ratio analysis (IRA) organic fertilizers and road dusts accounted for 74–100% and 0–24% of the total Hg input, while road dusts and solid wastes contributed for 0–80% and 19–100% of the Pb input. This study provides a reliable approach for heavy metal source apportionment in this particular peri-urban area, with a clear potential for future application in other regions.

  16. 紫色丘陵区典型小流域非点源磷迁移特征%Characteristics of Non-point-source Phosphorus Losses in Some Representative Land-use Sub-catchments in the Hilly Area of Purple Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈茜; 唐家良; 朱波

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus forms and fluxes via hydrological pathways in typical rainfall events from different land uses in the hilly area of purple soil had been conducted by in-situ monitoring in some sub-catchments so as to understand“hotspot”and “critical time”for control of non-point-source pollution of phosphorus in a catchment.Rainfall-run-off process along with sediment yield,total phosphorus (TP),dissolved phosphorus (DP)and particulate phos-phorus (PP)concentrations and loadings were monitored in representative rain (small,medium,heavy and storm) events from sub-catchment of residence,forestland and cropland.The results showed that rainfall-runoff processes responded with land uses.In the residence sub-catchment,runoff started while rainfall reached 4mm,whereas, that started in much higher rainfall (20 mm)in the forestland and cropland sub-catchment,respectively.Runoff responded to rainfall rapidly at almost the same peak in the residence sub-catchment in medium,heavy and storm rain,while runoff delayed 20 -90 and 20 -120 min after rainfall in cropland and forestland sub-catchment,re-spectively.The mean runoff depth,runoff coefficient and sediment yield from residence sub-catchment were 22.4 mm,0.36 and 136.2 kg/hm2;while those were 9.5 mm,0.09 and 48.6 kg/hm2 from forestland and 12.3mm, 0.17 and 73.5 kg/hm2 from cropland,respectively.The water and soil loss from the residence is the most serious in the hilly area of purple soil.The concentration of total P (TP)and particulate phosphorus (PP)of runoff water from the residence and forestland sub-catchment reached peak quickly and decreased sharply,whereas,TP and PP of runoff water from cropland turned into a process with multi-peaks.The concentration of dissolved P (DP)of run-off water from the residence sub-catchment decreased when runoff discharge increased.DP of runoff water from the forestland sub-catchment increased during the runoff process.DP and phosphate (PO3-4 -P)concentrations of run-off from cropland

  17. Mobile sources critical review: 1998 NARSTO assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, R. F.; Harley, R. A.; Cadle, S. H.; Norbeck, J. M.; Slott, R.; Bravo, H. A.

    Mobile sources of air pollutants encompass a range of vehicle, engine, and fuel combinations. They emit both of the photochemical ozone precursors, hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen. The most important source of hydrocarbons and oxides of nitrogen are light- and heavy-duty on-road vehicles and heavy-duty off-road vehicles, utilizing spark and compression ignition engines burning gasoline and diesel respectively. Fuel consumption data provide a convenient starting point for assessing current and future emissions. Modern light-duty, gasoline vehicles when new have very low emissions. The in-use fleet, due largely to emissions from a small "high emitter" fraction, has significantly larger emissions. Hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are higher than reported in current inventories. Other gasoline powered mobile sources (motorcycles, recreational vehicles, lawn, garden, and utility equipment, and light aircraft) have high emissions on a per quantity of fuel consumed basis, but their contribution to total emissions is small. Additional uncertainties in spatial and temporal distribution of emissions exist. Heavy-duty diesel vehicles are becoming the dominant mobile source of oxides of nitrogen. Oxides of nitrogen emissions may be greater than reported in current inventories, but the evidence for this is mixed. Oxides of nitrogen emissions on a fuel-consumed basis are much greater from diesel mobile sources than from gasoline mobile sources. This is largely the result of stringent control of gasoline vehicle emissions and a lesser (heavy-duty trucks) or no control (construction equipment, locomotives, ships) of heavy-duty mobile sources. The use of alternative fuels, natural gas, propane, alcohols, and oxygenates in motor vehicles is increasing but remains small. Vehicles utilizing these fuels can be but are not necessarily cleaner than their gasoline or diesel counterparts. Historical vehicle kilometers traveled growth rates of about 2% annually in both the United States

  18. Expert assessment of advanced power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C.L. [March Scientific Ltd., Dunrobin, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    The technology trends to year 2020 in advanced power sources were identified by Defence Research and Development Canada (DRDC) in a comprehensive technical report dated August 2001, in which research and development opportunities were prioritized. However, due to heightened national security adopted by the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) following September 11, 2001, developments in power source technology have proceeded at an accelerated pace. In response to this rapid development in the field of advanced power sources, the 2001 report has been updated to reexamine the advanced power source area. This report described the results of this update. Eight power source technologies were selected for study, notably batteries; fuel cells; microengines; pulse power; energy harvesting; small nuclear reactors; radioisotopic power sources; hybrid systems and power management. A questionnaire was distributed to technical experts on each power source technology in order to gather information. The experts were asked specifically what role nanotechnology is expected to play in the development of advanced power sources. March Scientific Ltd. also surveyed the various power source areas independently. The ability of the various power sources to meet the requirements of important military applications was analyzed with reference to total system weight, state-of-development and supply logistics. A Technology Readiness Level document was subsequently prepared for each of the power source technology areas. 62 refs., 21 tabs., 16 figs.

  19. Ictal Magnetic Source Imaging in Presurgical Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badier, Jean-Michel; Bénar, Christian-George; Woodman, Michael; Cruto, Catarina; Chauvel, Patrick; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Gavaret, Martine

    2016-01-01

    Ictal MEG recordings constitute rare data. The objective of this study was to evaluate ictal magnetic source localization (MSI), using two algorithms: linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV), a beamforming technique and equivalent current dipole (ECD). Ictal MSI was studied in six patients. Three of them were undergoing post-operative re-evaluation. For all patients, results were validated by the stereoelectroencephalographic (SEEG) definition of the epileptogenic zone (EZ). EZ was quantified using the epileptogenicity index (EI) method, which accounts for both the propensity of a brain area to generate rapid discharges and the time for this area to become involved in the seizure. EI values range from 0 (no epileptogenicity) to 1 (maximal epileptogenicity). Levels of concordance between ictal MSI and EZ were determined as follows: A: ictal MSI localized the site whose value EI = 1, B: MSI localized a part of the EZ (not corresponding to the maximal value of EI = 1), C: a region could be identified on ictal MSI but not on SEEG, D: a region could be identified on SEEG but not on MSI, E: different regions were localized on MSI and SEEG. Ictal MEG pattern consisted of rhythmic activities between 10 and 20 Hz for all patients. For LCMV (first maxima), levels of concordance were A (two cases), B (two cases) and E (two cases). For ECD fitted on each time point separately (location characterized by the best goodness-of-fit value), levels of concordance were A (one case), B (one case), D (three cases) and E (one case). For ECD calculated for the whole time window, levels of concordance were A (two cases) and D (four cases). Source localization methods performed on rhythmic patterns can localize the EZ as validated by SEEG. In terms of concordance, LCMV was superior to ECD. In some cases, LCMV allows extraction of several maxima that could reflect ictal dynamics. In a medial temporal lobe epilepsy case, ictal MSI indicated an area of delayed propagation and was non

  20. ERIC-PCR Fingerprinting of Fecal Escherichia Coli and Microbial Source Tracking in Non-point Pollution of the Shellfish Culture Area of East China Sea%大肠埃希氏菌ERIC-PCR指纹图谱构建及贝类污染微生物源示踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何力; 傅玲琳; 冯立芳; 励建荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to establish a host-orign fecal E. Coli DNA fingerprint library by rep-PCR method using ERIC primers from livestock and poultry farms in the shellfish culture area of East China Sea. Moreover, the efficacy of microbial source tracking (MST) based on ERIC-PCR for differentiating host sources of E. Coli from shellfish and their growing waters is also evaluated. Methods: fecal samples of poultry and livestock were obtained as cloacal swabs from different farm sites in Xiangshan Bay. E. Coli isolates were purified from the fecal samples by selective cultivation and API 20E tests. The genomic DNA of E. Coli isolates was extracted by bacterial genomic DNA purification kit and fingerprinted by ERIC-PCR. InfoQuestFPTM software was used to analyze the similarities, rate of correct classification(RCC) and the stability of library. Finally, host sources of E. Coli obtained from shellfish and shellfish growing waters were predicted using MST method by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS). Results: cluster analysis of ERIC-PCR DNA fingerprints of 216 E. Coli isolates revealed 37 clusters. Jack-knife analysis revealed high rate of correct classification(RCC) with 91.7%, 76.9%, 100% and 94.4% of swine, chicken, duck and goose E. Coli isolates classified into the correct host source, respectively. In addition, based on the above host-origin library by discriminant analysis, 12 unknown source strains from shellfish and growing waters were successfully discriminanted with RCC value of 78.8%. Conclusion: this work suggests that ERIC-PCR fingerprinting can be a promising genotypic tool applied in the shellfish growing water management on East Chi na Sea for source identification of fecal pollution.%目的:采用rep-PCR的ERIC引物(ERIC-PCR)构建象山港周边粪污染指示因子大肠埃希氏菌(E.coli)的DNA指纹图谱库,并根据所建DNA指纹图谱库对贝类产品污染进行微生物源示踪(Microbial Source Tracking,MST).方法:在选定的贝类养殖区域周

  1. Anthropogenic point and non-point nitrogen inputs into Huai River Basin and their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. S.; Swaney, D. P.; Li, X. Y.; Hong, B.; Howarth, R. W.; Ding, S. H.

    2015-02-01

    This study provides a new approach to estimate both anthropogenic non-point and point nitrogen (N) inputs to the landscape, and determines their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen (AN) flux, providing a foundation for further exploration of anthropogenic effects on N pollution. Our study site is Huai River Basin of China, a watershed with one of the highest levels of N input in the world. Multi-year average (2003-2010) inputs of N to the watershed are 27 200 ± 1100 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources comprised about 98% of total N input and only 2% of inputs are directly added to the aquatic ecosystem as point sources. Fertilizer application was the largest non-point source of new N to the Huai River Basin (69% of net anthropogenic N inputs), followed by atmospheric deposition (20%), N fixation in croplands (7%), and N content of imported food and feed (2%). High N inputs showed impacts on riverine AN flux: fertilizer application, point N input and atmospheric N deposition were proved as more direct sources to riverine AN flux. Modes of N delivery and losses associated with biological denitrification in rivers, water consumption, interception by dams influenced the extent of export of riverine AN flux from N sources. Our findings highlight the importance of anthropogenic N inputs from point and non-point sources in heavily polluted watersheds, and provide some implications for AN prediction and management.

  2. Assessed Clean Water Act 305(b) Water Sources of Impairment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Identifies the sources of impairment for assessed waters under the Clean Water Act 305(b) program. This view can be used for viewing the details at the assessment...

  3. Assessing noise sources at synchrotron infrared ports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, Ph; Dumas, P; Schilcher, T; Nadji, A; Luedeke, A; Hubert, N; Cassinari, L; Boege, M; Denard, J-C; Stingelin, L; Nadolski, L; Garvey, T; Albert, S; Gough, Ch; Quack, M; Wambach, J; Dehler, M; Filhol, J-M

    2012-01-01

    Today, the vast majority of electron storage rings delivering synchrotron radiation for general user operation offer a dedicated infrared port. There is growing interest expressed by various scientific communities to exploit the mid-IR emission in microspectroscopy, as well as the far infrared (also called THz) range for spectroscopy. Compared with a thermal (laboratory-based source), IR synchrotron radiation sources offer enhanced brilliance of about two to three orders of magnitude in the mid-IR energy range, and enhanced flux and brilliance in the far-IR energy range. Synchrotron radiation also has a unique combination of a broad wavelength band together with a well defined time structure. Thermal sources (globar, mercury filament) have excellent stability. Because the sampling rate of a typical IR Fourier-transform spectroscopy experiment is in the kHz range (depending on the bandwidth of the detector), instabilities of various origins present in synchrotron radiation sources play a crucial role. Noise recordings at two different IR ports located at the Swiss Light Source and SOLEIL (France), under conditions relevant to real experiments, are discussed. The lowest electron beam fluctuations detectable in IR spectra have been quantified and are shown to be much smaller than what is routinely recorded by beam-position monitors.

  4. Assessing the colour quality of LED sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost-Boissard, S.; Avouac, P.; Fontoynont, Marc

    2015-01-01

    sources and especially some LEDs. In this paper, several aspects of perceived colour quality are investigated using a side-by-side paired comparison method, and the following criteria: naturalness of fruits and vegetables, colourfulness of the Macbeth Color Checker chart, visual appreciation...... by the CIECAM02 Uniform Colour Space. Naturalness is better described by fidelity indices even if they did not give perfect predictions for all differences between LED light sources. Colourfulness is well described by gamut-based indices and attractiveness was found to correlate best with gamut-based indices...

  5. [Regional atmospheric environment risk source identification and assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Chun; Chen, Wei-Ping; Ma, Chun; Zhan, Shui-Fen; Jiao, Wen-Tao

    2012-12-01

    Identification and assessment for atmospheric environment risk source plays an important role in regional atmospheric risk assessment and regional atmospheric pollution prevention and control. The likelihood exposure and consequence assessment method (LEC method) and the Delphi method were employed to build a fast and effective method for identification and assessment of regional atmospheric environment risk sources. This method was applied to the case study of a large coal transportation port in North China. The assessment results showed that the risk characteristics and the harm degree of regional atmospheric environment risk source were in line with the actual situation. Fast and effective identification and assessment of risk source has laid an important foundation for the regional atmospheric environmental risk assessment and regional atmospheric pollution prevention and control.

  6. A case study on non-point source pollution and environmental carrying capacity of animal raising industry in subtropical watershed%亚热带流域氮磷排放与养殖业环境承载力实例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟岑; 李裕元; 许晓光; 高茹; 王毅; 张满意; 吴金水

    2013-01-01

    畜禽养殖业粪便排放已经成为我国农村地区主要的农业面源污染源之一,也是制约养殖业良性发展的主要瓶颈.本文以湖南省长沙县典型亚热带流域为研究单元,基于流域水环境定位观测、耕地氮(N)磷(P)消纳能力以及养殖业调查和土壤分析资料,初步分析了亚热带丘陵区的面源污染现状及畜禽养殖业的环境承载力.结果表明,研究区金井河流域134.4 km2范围内N、P年负荷分别为N 2.72 t·km-2和P0.11t·km-2,其中养殖粪便对水体总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)负荷的贡献率分别约为42.2%和62.0%.区内平均畜禽养殖密度为3.46 AU·hm-2(相当于流域内年出栏生猪24.39万头),显著高于现有化肥用量条件下流域的实际承载力1.13 AU·hm-2(相当于流域内年出栏生猪6.35万头),因此养殖密度过高是导致研究区水体NP负荷较高的主要原因.区内N、P盈余量分别为N 35.8 kg·hm-2、P 18.61 kg·hm-2.研究区基本不施用化肥条件下畜禽养殖业的最大环境承载力为7.26 AU·hm-2,在有机肥占合理施肥量30%条件下,当地畜禽养殖业的环境承载力为2.74AU·hm-2(相当于流域内年出栏生猪19.50万头).降低养殖密度、调整养殖业空间布局以及提高养殖废弃物的资源化利用率是防治当前面源污染的有效途径.%The discharge of faeces from animal production is a major source of nitrogen ( N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants in the subtropical region of China. To quantify the N and F load from animal production to hydro-systems in the region, surveys on pig density and N,P inputs to farmlands, soil N and P contents, and annual observations of the N and P flows in the streams and the terminal river were carried out in a hilly watershed (134.4 km2 ) in Changsha County, Hunan Province. It was showed that the total NP loads from the watershed to the terminal river was 2.72 t and 0. 11 t·km-2·a-1, respectively ; within which 42. 2% of the N and 62. 0% of

  7. [Use of ionizing radiation sources in metallurgy: risk assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giugni, U

    2012-01-01

    Use of ionizing radiation sources in the metallurgical industry: risk assessment. Radioactive sources and fixed or mobile X-ray equipment are used for both process and quality control. The use of ionizing radiation sources requires careful risk assessment. The text lists the characteristics of the sources and the legal requirements, and contains a description of the documentation required and the methods used for risk assessment. It describes how to estimate the doses to operators and the relevant classification criteria used for the purpose of radiation protection. Training programs must be organized in close collaboration between the radiation protection expert and the occupational physician.

  8. Finding and using readily available sources of assessment data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Eric G

    2008-10-15

    This paper provides the rationale for, examples of, and the collection and general uses of currently available, potentially underutilized academic program assessment data. Academic program assessment is essential for program improvement and accreditation, but commonly used assessment methods may not fully meet these needs. General assessment references, pharmacy education literature, and prior experiences were used to identify and discuss sources of potentially underutilized assessment data. Pre-course assessments, graded assignments, examinations, pharmacy experience evaluations, scoring rubrics, portfolios, progress testing, self-assessments, and classroom assessment techniques are potential sources of assessment data. Course evaluations and grades may also be useful. Selection should be based on need, availability, strength, and concerns. Challenges in data management may be best met through a centralized, integrated database. Careful selection of specific embedded and other assessments can be utilized to complete the development of a comprehensive, meaningful, and efficient program assessment plan.

  9. Expert Assessment of Advanced Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Batteries had to be air lifted from US depots to Iraq and round the clock production of new inventories had to be initiated with six manufacturers...phones and laptop computers and military interest as a high energy density power source for the S MTI Micro, Toshiba and Samsung . Under the DARPA...batteries are fully developed and are already in the CF inventory . The energy density of these batteries falls far short of the 600 Wh/kg target for

  10. Non-Point Pollution from Crop Production: Global,Regional and National Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.NORSE

    2005-01-01

    China is now the world's largest producer and user of industrial fertilizers and manures. Consequently China plays a substantial role in global N cycle dynamics and in man's disruption of the nitrogen cycle though there are still significant uncertainties about the size and importance of emission and leaching rates. A major cause of 1China's global role is the overuse of nitrogen fertilizers, which is most serious with intensive vegetable production where application rates can be up to 50% greater than crop needs, but is also a problem with wheat, rice and maize.China's overuse of nitrogen fertiliser over the past 10-20 years has resulted in non-point source (NPS) pollution from crop production becoming a major cause of water pollution, and the situation is projected to get worse. In contrast, water pollution from point sources such as intensive livestock production and urban or industrial development is being brought more under control. The consequences for air pollution are equally serious. Emissions of nitrous oxide from fertilizers and manures may be so large that China could be responsible for 25-30% of global emissions of this damaging greenhouse gas and of the global warming resulting from it.The main national and local issues relate particularly to low fertilizer use efficiency and the losses of ammonia and NOx that lead to acid precipitation, and leaching and run-off losses that result in high nitrate levels in groundwater and eutrophication of rivers and lakes. The reasons why farmers overuse nitrogen fertilizer are complex and not fully understood. They involve agro-climate differences between provinces and counties, farming systems and farm income structures. Although there is a wide range of institutional and technological improvements that can greatly reduce this overuse rapid progress in reducing NPS is unlikely.

  11. Watershed Management Tool for Selection and Spacial Allocation of Non-Point Source Pollution Control Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distributed-parameter watershed models are often utilized for evaluating the effectiveness of sediment and nutrient abatement strategies through the traditional {calibrate→ validate→ predict} approach. The applicability of the method is limited due to modeling approximations. In ...

  12. CARBOOCEAN -marine carbon sources and sinks assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volbers, A.; Heinze, C.; de Baar, H.; CARBOOCEAN Consortium

    2009-04-01

    CARBOOCEAN is the European contribution to the global observation and modelling network on marine carbon. It is an FP6 Integrated Project funded over a five year period (2005-2009) with 14.5 million € and combines the key European experts of 35 contracting partners from 14 countries, including the USA. The project provides a description and quantification of the CO2 air-sea exchange ranging from a seasonal to interannual time scale up to a decadal to centennial time scale for the Atlantic Ocean and the Southern Ocean, involving also the sub-surface and deep waters. Special focus is given to the quantification of carbon sources and sinks at a regional scale and the identification and understanding of biogeochemical feedback mechanisms which control marine carbon uptake and release. The new data and knowledge is integrated into the prognostic modeling framework. One of the project highlights is the North Atlantic Observing Network which employs voluntary observing ships (VOS). The Air-sea fluxes of CO2 show a high temporal and spatial variation as a result of variability in climate, biological activity and ocean circulation. Latest data indicate that the North Atlantic and Southern Ocean both show at least transient decrease in uptake strength for CO2. The anthropogenic carbon uptake by the oceans is dominated by physical-chemical buffering but biological and biogeochemical effects cannot be neglected. Findings from data analysis, forward and inverse modeling indicate that the oceanic water column burden of anthropogenic carbon has a maximum in the northern North Atlantic close to the areas of deep convection but also the Southern Ocean carries significant amounts of anthropogenic carbon. These carbon sink areas of vertical water mass transfer are vulnerable to climate change.

  13. Assessment of contamination sources of trace metals in wastewater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of contamination sources of trace metals in wastewater irrigated vegetable garden soils of Kano, Northern Nigeria. ... Heavy metal pollution is on the increase especially in urban centers where there were proliferation of industrial ...

  14. Disentangling Sources of Differential Item Functioning in Multilanguage Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercikan, Kadriye

    2002-01-01

    Disentangled sources of differential item functioning (DIF) in a multilanguage assessment for which multiple factors were expected to be causing DIF. Data for the Third International Mathematics and Science study for four countries and two languages (3,000 to 11,000 cases in each comparison group) reveal amounts and sources of DIF. (SLD)

  15. Source Text Borrowing in an Integrated Reading/Writing Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigle, Sara Cushing; Parker, Keisha

    2012-01-01

    Source-based writing is becoming more common in tests of academic English, in part to make tests more reflective of authentic academic writing. However, the concern has been raised that over-reliance on language from the source texts in essays may mask gaps in proficiency and thus lead to an inaccurate assessment of writing skill. In this paper,…

  16. Integrated Assessment of National Power Sources Using AHP Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Ho; Kim, Tae Woon; Ha, Jae Joo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon H. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Here, various national power sources including conventional as well as renewable energy systems are comparatively assessed in view of multicriteria decisionmaking (MCDM) spaces. The main objectives of this work are to understand priority of power sources and to figure out nuclear power's synergetic role in the national energy sector.

  17. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...

  18. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Kapil K; Gosain, A K

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11,600 km(2) with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO3) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO3 transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash-Sutcliffe and R(2) correlations greater than +0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO3 removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO3 concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the century. Water yield estimates under

  19. Assessment of relative error sources in IR DIAL measurement accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menyuk, N.; Killinger, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment is made of the role the various error sources play in limiting the accuracy of infrared differential absorption lidar measurements used for the remote sensing of atmospheric species. An overview is presented of the relative contribution of each error source including the inadequate knowledge of the absorption coefficient, differential spectral reflectance, and background interference as well as measurement errors arising from signal fluctuations.

  20. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Gårn Hansen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system can be the core element of a close to efficient regulatory policy....

  1. Assessment of alternative power sources for mobile mining machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairelli, J. E.; Tomazic, W. A.; Evans, D. G.; Klann, J. L.

    1981-12-01

    Alternative mobile power sources for mining applications were assessed. A wide variety of heat engines and energy systems was examined as potential alternatives to presently used power systems. The present mobile power systems are electrical trailing cable, electrical battery, and diesel - with diesel being largely limited in the United States to noncoal mines. Each candidate power source was evaluated for the following requirements: (1) ability to achieve the duty cycle; (2) ability to meet Government regulations; (3) availability (production readiness); (4) market availability; and (5) packaging capability. Screening reduced the list of candidates to the following power sources: diesel, stirling, gas turbine, rankine (steam), advanced electric (batteries), mechanical energy storage (flywheel), and use of hydrogen evolved from metal hydrides. This list of candidates is divided into two classes of alternative power sources for mining applications, heat engines and energy storage systems.

  2. Assessing the Open Source Development Processes Using OMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etiel Petrinja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of development practices in Free Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS projects can contribute to the improvement of the development process by identifying poor practices and providing a list of necessary practices. Available assessment methods (e.g., Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI do not address sufficiently FLOSS-specific aspects (e.g., geographically distributed development, importance of the contributions, reputation of the project, etc.. We present a FLOSS-focused, CMMI-like assessment/improvement model: the QualiPSo Open Source Maturity Model (OMM. OMM focuses on the development process. This makes it different from existing assessment models that are focused on the assessment of the product. We have assessed six FLOSS projects using OMM. Three projects were started and led by a software company, and three are developed by three different FLOSS communities. We identified poorly addressed development activities as the number of commit/bug reports, the external contributions, and the risk management. The results showed that FLOSS projects led by companies adopt standard project management approaches as product planning, design definition, and testing, that are less often addressed by community led FLOSS projects. The OMM is valuable for both the FLOSS community, by identifying critical development activities necessary to be improved, and for potential users that can better decide which product to adopt.

  3. Offshore Dredger Sounds: Source Levels, Sound Maps, and Risk Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Christ A F; Ainslie, Michael A; Heinis, Floor; Janmaat, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    The underwater sound produced during construction of the Port of Rotterdam harbor extension (Maasvlakte 2) was measured, with emphasis on the contribution of the trailing suction hopper dredgers during their various activities: dredging, transport, and discharge of sediment. Measured source levels of the dredgers, estimated source levels of other shipping, and time-dependent position data from a vessel-tracking system were used as input for a propagation model to generate dynamic sound maps. Various scenarios were studied to assess the risk of possible effects of the sound from dredging activities on marine fauna, specifically on porpoises, seals, and fish.

  4. Source specific risk assessment of indoor aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, A.J.

    2013-05-15

    In the urban environment, atmospheric aerosols consist mainly of pollutants from anthropogenic sources. The majority of these originate from traffic and other combustion processes. A fraction of these pollutants will penetrate indoors via ventilation. However, indoor air concentrations are usually predominated by indoor sources due to the small amount of dilution air. In modern societies, people spend most of their time indoors. Thus, their exposure is controlled mainly by indoor concentrations from indoor sources. During the last decades, engineering of nanosized structures has created a new field of material science. Some of these materials have been shown to be potentially toxic to human health. The greatest potential for exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) occurs in the workplace during production and handling of ENMs. In an exposure assessment, both gaseous and particulate matter pollutants need to be considered. The toxicities of the particles usually depend on the source and age. With time, particle morphology and composition changes due to their tendency to undergo coagulation, condensation and evaporation. The PM exposure risk is related to source specific emissions, and thus, in risk assessment one needs to define source specific exposures. This thesis describes methods for source specific risk assessment of airborne particulate matter. It consists of studies related to workers' ENM exposures during the synthesis of nanoparticles, packing of agglomerated TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles, and handling of nanodiamonds. Background particles were distinguished from the ENM concentrations by using different measurement techniques and indoor aerosol modelings. Risk characterization was performed by using a source specific exposure and calculated dose levels in units of particle number and mass. The exposure risk was estimated by using non-health based occupational exposure limits for ENMs. For the nanosized TiO{sub 2}, the risk was also assessed from dose

  5. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Kapil K., E-mail: kkn2104@columbia.edu [Columbia Water Center (India Office), Columbia University, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Gosain, A.K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11 600 km{sup 2} with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO{sub 3}) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO{sub 3} transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash–Sutcliffe and R{sup 2} correlations greater than + 0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO{sub 3} removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO{sub 3} concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the

  6. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  7. [Non-point loads of soluble cadmium by in situ field experiment with different landuses, in central Hunan province mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Chen, Zhe; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Ye, Chang-cheng

    2013-09-01

    Non-point source loads of heavy metals from contaminated soil has increasingly become the major cause of heavy metal concentrations of rivers and lakes surpassed the limitation value, while only few studies had focused on quantitative monitoring of soil heavy metal transportation to water, in situ field conditions. As reported, agricultural farmland heavy metal contamination was the major contamination problem, especially for cadmium (Cd) pollution in middle and downstream of Xiangjiang River. This study selected the typical Cd polluted agricultural watershed for a case study, three typical landuse types of rice, dry farmland and unused grassland with three replicate quadrates were carried out for natural rainfall runoff hydrology processes monitoring, from 2011-2012. Results showed that, precipitation pH value increased from spring to summer, soluble Cd concentration of spring runoff was significantly higher than that of summer rainfall runoff, which presented an obviously seasonal heterogeneity and had a negative correlation with rainfall pH value, and rainfall pH value can obviously impact soil soluble Cd transportation into surface runoff charge. In the same rainfall event, soluble Cd concentration and non-point load of rice were significantly lower than those of dry land and unused grassland, while no obviously seasonal trend was found for non-point load of Cd from three typical landuse types because of the rainfall depth variance, which needs more researches and concerns in the future. These results can provide valuable data and scientific supports for watershed scale's heavy metal non-point source load quantitative estimation and water environment management and water quality diagnosis and early warning.

  8. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, G.

    2003-03-17

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead

  9. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system may be close to efficient, or in other cases must be supplemented with subsidy and manure reallocation schemes....

  10. Source processes for the probabilistic assessment of tsunami hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Lynett, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of tsunami hazard assessment has increased in recent years as a result of catastrophic consequences from events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Japan tsunamis. In particular, probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) methods have been emphasized to include all possible ways a tsunami could be generated. Owing to the scarcity of tsunami observations, a computational approach is used to define the hazard. This approach includes all relevant sources that may cause a tsunami to impact a site and all quantifiable uncertainty. Although only earthquakes were initially considered for PTHA, recent efforts have also attempted to include landslide tsunami sources. Including these sources into PTHA is considerably more difficult because of a general lack of information on relating landslide area and volume to mean return period. The large variety of failure types and rheologies associated with submarine landslides translates to considerable uncertainty in determining the efficiency of tsunami generation. Resolution of these and several other outstanding problems are described that will further advance PTHA methodologies leading to a more accurate understanding of tsunami hazard.

  11. Can non-point phosphorus emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Bloch; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterised by the presence of large...... stocking capacities for phosphorus in farm soils and long time-lags between applications and emission. This makes it important to understand the dynamics of the phosphorus emission problem when designing regulatory systems. Using a model that reflects these dynamics, we evaluate alternative regulatory...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system may be close to efficient, or in other cases must be supplemented with subsidy and manure reallocation schemes....

  12. Polluted dust derived from long-range transport as a major end member of urban aerosols and its implication of non-point pollution in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y; Sun, Y B; Weiss, D; Liang, L J; Chen, H Y

    2015-02-15

    The contribution of polluted dust transported from local and distal sources remains poorly constrained due to their similar geophysical and geochemical properties. We sampled aerosols in three cities in northern China (Xi'an, Beijing, Xifeng) during the spring of 2009 to determine dust flux, magnetic susceptibility and elemental concentrations. Combining dust fluxes with wind speed and regional visibility records enabled to differentiate between dust transported from long range and derived from local sources, while the combination of magnetic susceptibility and enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn) allowed to distinguish natural aerosols from polluted ones. Our results indicate that polluted dust from long-range transport became a major end member of urban dust aerosols. Human settlements as its potential sources were confirmed by a pollutant enriched regional dust event originating from populated areas to the south as inferred by back trajectory modeling, implying their non-point source nature of dust pollution.

  13. Environmental assessment for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for radioisotope heat source fuel processing and fabrication involving existing facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The proposed action is needed to provide Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) CRAF and Cassini Missions. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. 30 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Application of Oligonucleotide Microarrays for Bacterial Source Tracking of Environmental Enterococcus sp. Isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Furey, John S.; Kelley Betts; Indest, Karl J.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort towards adapting new and defensible methods for assessing and managing the risk posed by microbial pollution, we evaluated the utility of oligonucleotide microarrays for bacterial source tracking (BST) of environmental Enterococcus sp. isolates derived from various host sources. Current bacterial source tracking approaches rely on various phenotypic and genotypic methods to identify sources of bacterial contamination resulting from point or non-point pollution. For this study Ent...

  15. Use assessment of electronic power sources for SMAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scotti, A.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to assess the efficacy of the use of modern technologies for power supplies in Shielded Metal Are Welding (SMAW. Coupon tests were welded by using a series of five different classes of commercial electrodes, covering their current ranges. Both a conventional electromagnetic and an electronic (inverter power sources were employed. Fusion rate, deposition efficiency, bead finish and weld geometry were measured at each experiment. Current and voltage signals were acquired at a high rate to evaluate the dynamic behavior of the power sources. The static performances of both power sources were also determined. The results showed that despite the remarkable differences between the power supplies, based on static and dynamic characterizations, no significant difference was noticed in the operational behavior of the electrodes, in the given conditions, apart from a better anti-stick performance obtained with the electronic power source.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia del uso de tecnologías modernas para fuentes de energía en soldaduras con electrodo revestido (Shielded Metal Are Welding -SMAW-. Los materiales de ensayo se soldaron usando una serie de cinco clases diferentes de electrodos comerciales, cubriendo sus rangos de corriente. Para esto se utilizó una fuente de energía electromagnética convencional y una fuente de energía electrónica (inversora. La tasa de fusión, eficiencia de deposición, terminación del cordón así como el diseño de la soldadura se midieron en cada experimento. Las señales de corriente y voltaje se obtuvieron a una proporción alta para evaluar el comportamiento dinámico de las fuentes de energía. También se determinó la actuación estática de ambas fuentes. Los resultados mostraron que a pesar de las diferencias notables entre los suministros de energía, no se nota diferencia alguna significante en la conducta de trabajo de los electrodos, en

  16. Neutron source capability assessment for cumulative fission yields measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Descalle, M A; Dekin, W; Kenneally, J

    2011-04-06

    A recent analysis of high-quality cumulative fission yields data for Pu-239 published in the peer-reviewed literature showed that the quoted experimental uncertainties do not allow a clear statement on how the fission yields vary as a function of energy. [Prussin2009] To make such a statement requires a set of experiments with well 'controlled' and understood sources of experimental errors to reduce uncertainties as low as possible, ideally in the 1 to 2% range. The Inter Laboratory Working Group (ILWOG) determined that Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) would benefit from an experimental program with the stated goal to reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Following recent discussions between Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), there is a renewed interest in developing a concerted experimental program to measure fission yields in a neutron energy range from thermal energy (0.025 eV) to 14 MeV with an emphasis on discrete energies from 0.5 to 4 MeV. Ideally, fission yields would be measured at single energies, however, in practice there are only 'quasi-monoenergetic' neutrons sources of finite width. This report outlines a capability assessment as of June 2011 of available neutron sources that could be used as part of a concerted experimental program to measure cumulative fission yields. In a framework of international collaborations, capabilities available in the United States, at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) in the United Kingdom and at the Commissariat Energie Atomique (CEA) in France are listed. There is a need to develop an experimental program that will reduce the measurement uncertainties significantly in order to make a definitive statement of the relationship of energy dependence to the cumulative fission yields. Fission and monoenergetic neutron sources

  17. Continuous 'Passive' Registration of Non-Point Contaminant Loads Via Agricultural Subsurface Drain Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Jansen, S.; de Jonge, H.; Lindblad Vendelboe, A.

    2014-12-01

    Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of agricultural subsurface tube drain systems is important for adequate water quality management. For example, previous work in lowland agricultural catchments has shown that subsurface tube drain effluent contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90-92% of the annual NO3 loads from agricultural fields towards the surface water. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tube drains are expensive and labor-intensive. Therefore, despite the unambiguous relevance of this transport route, tube drain monitoring data are scarce. The presented study aimed developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor loads from tube drains. We are now ready to introduce the Flowcap that can be attached to the outlet of tube drains and is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads, and flow-averaged concentrations. The Flowcap builds on the existing SorbiCells, a modern passive sampling technique that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various substances. By mounting SorbiCells in our Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drain effluent is sampled from the main stream. Laboratory testing yielded good linear relations (R-squared of 0.98) between drainage flow rates and sampling rates. The Flowcap was tested in practice for measuring NO3 loads from two agricultural fields and one glasshouse in the Netherlands. The Flowcap registers contaminant loads from tube drains without any need for housing, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of non-point contaminant loads via tube drains, which would facilitate the improvement of contaminant transport models and would yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.

  18. Use of an alternative light source to assess strangulation victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Debra S; Jackson, M Christine

    2013-01-01

    Alternative light sources (ALSs) are commonly used at crime scenes and in forensic laboratories to collect evidence such as latent fingerprints, body fluids, hair, and fibers. This article describes the use of this technology to reveal soft tissue injuries that are not visible to the naked or unaided eye in patients who report strangulation. The value of this information to the medical, nursing, and judicial systems is discussed. The records of the 172 strangulation patients seen in our forensic nurse examiner program between 2009 and 2010 were reviewed. The SPEX Crimescope (SPEX Forensics, Edison, New Jersey) was used during the assessment of all of them. Ninety-three percent of the patients had no visible evidence of external injuries on physical examination. The ALS revealed positive findings of intradermal injuries in 98% of that group. Information obtained with ALS devices helps medical and nursing practitioners understand the gravity of patients' injuries, influences medical treatment decisions and follow-up care, and supports the prosecution of the perpetrators of crimes of violence. Educational programs about the application of ALS and the interpretation of its findings are valuable for medical, nursing, and other forensic disciplines.

  19. Advanced neutron source reactor probabilistic flow blockage assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsey, C.T.

    1995-08-01

    The Phase I Level I Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of the conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor identified core flow blockage as the most likely internal event leading to fuel damage. The flow blockage event frequency used in the original ANS PRA was based primarily on the flow blockage work done for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) PRA. This report examines potential flow blockage scenarios and calculates an estimate of the likelihood of debris-induced fuel damage. The bulk of the report is based specifically on the conceptual design of ANS with a 93%-enriched, two-element core; insights to the impact of the proposed three-element core are examined in Sect. 5. In addition to providing a probability (uncertainty) distribution for the likelihood of core flow blockage, this ongoing effort will serve to indicate potential areas of concern to be focused on in the preliminary design for elimination or mitigation. It will also serve as a loose-parts management tool.

  20. Free and Open Source Software for land degradation vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbrenda, Vito; Calamita, Giuseppe; Coluzzi, Rosa; D'Emilio, Mariagrazia; Lanfredi, Maria Teresa; Perrone, Angela; Ragosta, Maria; Simoniello, Tiziana

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays the role of FOSS software in scientific research is becoming increasingly important. Besides the important issues of reduced costs for licences, legality and security there are many other reasons that make FOSS software attractive. Firstly, making the code opened is a warranty of quality permitting to thousands of developers around the world to check the code and fix bugs rather than rely on vendors claims. FOSS communities are usually enthusiastic about helping other users for solving problems and expand or customize software (flexibility). Most important for this study, the interoperability allows to combine the user-friendly QGIS with the powerful GRASS-GIS and the richness of statistical methods of R in order to process remote sensing data and to perform geo-statistical analysis in one only environment. This study is focused on the land degradation (i.e. the reduction in the capacity of the land to provide ecosystem goods and services and assure its functions) and in particular on the estimation of the vulnerability levels in order to suggest appropriate policy actions to reduce/halt land degradation impacts, using the above mentioned software. The area investigated is the Basilicata Region (Southern Italy) where large natural areas are mixed with anthropized areas. To identify different levels of vulnerability we adopted the Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs) model, based on the combination of indicators related to soil, climate, vegetation and anthropic stress. Such indicators were estimated by using the following data-sources: - Basilicata Region Geoportal to assess soil vulnerability; - DESERTNET2 project to evaluate potential vegetation vulnerability and climate vulnerability; - NDVI-MODIS satellite time series (2000-2010) with 250m resolution, available as 16-day composite from the NASA LP DAAC to characterize the dynamic component of vegetation; - Agricultural Census data 2010, Corine Land Cover 2006 and morphological information to assess

  1. The non-point output of different agriculture landuse types in Zhexi hydraulic region of Taihu Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIHengpeng; LIUXiaomei; HUANGWenyu

    2004-01-01

    This paper takes Zhexi hydraulic region in Taihu Basin as a study area. On the basis of hydraulic analysis function of Arcgis8.3, the drainages were delineated by selecting the monitoring points and discharge stations as outlets. The landuse map were finished by denoting the TM/ETM image. The precipitation map was finished by spatial interpolation according to the rainfall monitoring records. Overlaying the drainage boundary, landuse map and precipitation map, the rainfall, different landuse type area, and runoff pollution concentration and runoff were calculated. Based on these data in different sub-watersheds, by Origin7.0 regression tool, an equation is established to predict runoff using the relationships between runoff, precipitation depth and land use patterns in each of the sub-watersheds. Selecting the sub-watershed which is mainly composed of forest landuse type, the mean runoff concentration (MRC) from sub-watershed has been estimated. The mean runoff concentration of farmland has been estimated by the same methods after the contribution of forestlanduse type was removed. The results are" for the forest landuse type, the mean runoff concentrationsof COD, BOD, Total N and Total P are 2.95 mg/l, 1.080 mg/l, 0.715 mg/l, and 0.039 mg/l,respectively; for the farmland, the mean runoff concentrations of COD, BOD, Total N and Total P are 5.721 rag/l, 3.097 rag/l, 2.092 rag/l, and 0.166 rag/l, respectively. By using these results, the agriculture non-point pollution loads have been assessed. The loads of COD, BOD, Total N and Total P in Zhexi region are 14,631.69 t/a, 6401.93 t/a, 4281.753 t/a and 287.67 t/a, respectively.

  2. REUSABILITY ASSESSMENT OF OPEN SOURCE COMPONENTS FOR SOFTWARE PRODUCT LINES

    OpenAIRE

    Fazal-e- Amin; Ahmad Kamil Mahmood; Alan Oxley

    2011-01-01

    Software product lines and open source software are two emerging paradigms in software engineering. A common theme in both of these paradigms is „reuse‟. Software product lines are a reuse centered approach that makes use of existing assets to develop new products. At the moment, a motivation for using open source software is so as to gain access to source code, which can then be reused. The product line community is being attracted to open source components. The use of open source softwa...

  3. A repeated-measures study of recreational water exposure, non-point source pollution, and risk of illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discharge of stormwater runoff onto beaches is a major cause of beach closings and advisories in the United States. Prospective studies of recreational water quality and health have often been limited to two time points (baseline and follow-up). Little is known about the risk of ...

  4. Seasonal change of non-point source pollution-induced bioavailable phosphorus loss: A case study of Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yafeng

    2012-02-01

    SummaryBioavailable phosphorus (P) losses due to agriculture activity in a purple soil watershed in the Sichuan Basin of Southwestern China were monitored to define the hydrological controls of P transport. Our results indicate that the proportion of P that was transported in particulate form increased in the rainy season, and that the mass of total bioavailable P (BAP) loads exhibited seasonal fluctuations, wherein the majority (over 90%) was observed to have been exported between June and September. The proportion of bioavailable dissolved P (BDP) in the BAP discharge budget in the watershed varied between 11% and 15% during the monitoring period. The bioavailable particulate P (BPP) and BDP concentrations of stream water under rainstorm events increased by over 40% in comparison to their annual mean concentrations, and the annual BAP load was primarily dominated by the loads that occurred during rainstorm events in the study year. BAP concentration in groundwater significantly fluctuated with the seasons, and the ratio of total BAP in groundwater to that in surface water gradually increased during the rainy season. Thus, the impact of agriculture on the water quality of this watershed becomes clearly evident.

  5. WA - Impacts of non-point source pollution on the health of salmonids in urban and urbanizing watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — By the Services conducting this off-refuge EC investigation and jointly publishing the results in the two aforementioned manuscripts [see notes section of ProCite...

  6. Impacts of DNAPL Source Treatment: Experimental and Modeling Assessment of the Benefits of Partial DNAPL Source Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    term research plan. At many hazardous waste sites contaminants reside in the subsurface as separate dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). These...2006). Using Multilevel Samplers to Assess Ethanol Flushing and Enhanced Bioremediation at Former Sages Drycleaners. M.S. Thesis, University of... nuclear industry for conducting performance assessment calculations. The analytical FORTRAN code for the DNAPL source function, REMChlor, was

  7. Effects of Forest Ecosystems on Non-point Pollution Control%森林生态系统对非点源污染的控制机理与效果及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灿强; 张彪; 李文华; 杨艳刚; 王斌

    2011-01-01

    Non-point source pollution, particularly agricultural non-point source pollution, has become a major contributor of water pollution in many countries during recent years. Major lakes and rivers in China have suffered from serious eutrophication problems, e.g., five lakes (Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake, Taihu Lake, Hongze Lake, and Chaohu Lake), the Three Gorges Reservoir,Baiyangdian Lake, Nansi Lake, and Yilong Lake. The contribution rate of non-point pollution to eutrophication has been found to be much higher than point source pollution. Although tremendous efforts have been made to control non-point pollution, they seem to be far from effective due to uncertain emissions of the non-point pollutants. As such, people are resorting to purifying natural ecosystems, e.g., forest riparian buffer has been recommended as one of the Best Management Practices (BMP) for non-point source pollutant control in the United States. The authors comprehensively summarized studies associated with the effects of forest ecosystems on non-point source pollution control. Forest ecosystems have been shown to be of the capacity to adsorb and purify non-point source pollutants mainly through plants, canopy, ground litter, and soil layers.Plant uptake is one of important mechanisms of nutrients control. Part of pollutions carried by rainfall can be intercepted by canopy, while the nutrient content will increase because of eluviations. However, the non-point pollution can be greatly reduced after runoff flow through ground cover and soil layer. Numerous studies show that forests could reduce about 60~90% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus from upper farming areas. Non-point source pollution control is generally affected by many factors. The forest belt width has an impact on the effect of non-point source pollution reduction, and therefore the width needs to be adjusted appropriately. Different tree species show varying absorption capacities of non-point source pollutants; therefore the

  8. A Study on the Mechanism of Emission Trading between Industrial Point Pollution and Agriculture Non-Point Pollution%工业点源-农业面源排污权交易的机制创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇; 王会; 陈海丹; 詹贤达

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture non-point pollution has been one of the most important sources of the water pollution in China.Compared with industrial point pollution, the emission reduction cost of agriculture non-point pollution is lower, which make the emission trade feasible. First, the characteristics of agriculture non-point pollution were recognized as that agriculture non-point pollution had many sources, uncertainty in occurring, difficulty to supervise. Then, two emission trade mechanisms had been built, one of which was that farmers changed production behavior uniformly and the other was that industrial point pollution built public pollution eliminating infrastructures. Finally, some key problem in the emission trading between industrial point pollution and agriculture non-point pollution were discussed.%当前,农业面源污染已经成为我国水环境污染的主要来源.相比较于大型工业点源,农业面源污染减排成本较低的状况为二者进行排污权交易提供了有利条件.在分析面源污染具有涉及个体多、发生不确定性强、减排结果监测困难等特征的基础上,提出了工业点源与农业面源排污权交易的两种机制:基于污染产生的"农户统一行动交易机制"和基于污染治理的"农业公共治理设施建设交易机制".最后,针对工业点源-农业面源排污权交易中存在的一些问题进行了初步探讨.

  9. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2012-01-01

    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  10. Simulations as Active Assessment?: Typologizing by Purpose and Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollars, Nina A.; Rosen, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment through simulation is something that political science pedagogy has yet to explore in a robust manner. This article advances analysis of social science simulation and assessment by laying out a typology of active-learning activities that isolates and examines their potential for assessment. In short, we argue that there are essentially…

  11. Expert assessment of advanced power sources. Contract report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, C.L. [March Scientific Ltd., Dunrobin, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-15

    Although DRDC published an exhaustive technical report (in August 2001) on technology trends in advanced power sources projected out to the year 2020, the terrorist attacks on the US on September 11, 2001 (and the consequent, augmented and more broadly-based defence and national security posture adopted by the CF/DND), together with rapid developments in power source technologies over the past five years, internationally, prompted DRDC to update the 2001 report, on a selected number of power source technologies or applications and to provide further guidance to DRDC's Advanced Power Source R and D program. Eight wide-ranging, power source technologies or applications were investigated, using the technique of 'expert elicitation' (that is, using independent experts in the various and diverse technological fields), based on a standardized questionnaire, augmented by the contractor's own expertise (and his overall analysis of the experts' responses) in these diverse areas. In addition, each expert was asked about his/her view on the likely role of nanotechnology in each technological area or application. Following collection and analysis of all the data, the contractor made recommendations on the ability of each power source to meet the future requirements of the CF/DND, taking into account the Technology Readiness Level, for each technology or application.

  12. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745/sup 0/C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945/sup 0/C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of /sup 238/Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass.

  13. The European nitrogen assessment: sources, effects, and policy perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    "Presenting the first continental-scale assessment of reactive nitrogen in the environment, this book sets the related environmental problems in context by providing a multidisciplinary introduction...

  14. Regulation og non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    . Once a soil is highly enriched it will become a significant source of P losses for a long time. In Denmark, application of manure is primarily determined by nitrogen (N) crop nutrition, implying that livestock farmers are not motivated to further reduce their surplus P applications. The high costs...

  15. Assessing Sources of Human Methylmercury Exposure Using Stable Mercury Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Miling; Sherman, Laura S; Blum, Joel D

    2014-01-01

    Seafood consumption is the primary route of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure for most populations. Inherent uncertainties in dietary survey data point to the need for an empirical tool to confirm exposure sources. We therefore explore the utility of Hg stable isotope ratios in human hair as a new...... method for discerning MeHg exposure sources. We characterized Hg isotope fractionation between humans and their diets using hair samples from Faroese whalers exposed to MeHg predominantly from pilot whales. We observed an increase of 1.75‰ in δ(202)Hg values between pilot whale muscle tissue and Faroese...... whalers' hair but no mass-independent fractionation. We found a similar offset in δ(202)Hg between consumed seafood and hair samples from Gulf of Mexico recreational anglers who are exposed to lower levels of MeHg from a variety of seafood sources. An isotope mixing model was used to estimate individual...

  16. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF):A green fertilizer for controlling non-point contamination in agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Xiao-yun; SUN Ke-jun; WANG De-han; LIAO Zong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Fertilizers contribute greatly to high yields but also result in environmental non-point contamination, including the emission of greenhouse gas(N2O) and eutrophication of water bodies. How to solve this problem has become a serious challenge, especially for China as its high ecological pressure. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF) has been developed to minimize the contamination while keeping high yield and has become a green fertilizer for agriculture. Several CRFs made with special coating technology were used for testing the fertilizer effects in yield and environment through pot experiment and field trial. The result indicated that the CRFs had higher N use efficiency, thus reducing N loss through leaching and volatilization while keeping higher yields. Comparing with imported standard CRFs,the test on CRFs showed similar fertilizer effect but with much lower cost. CRFs application is becoming a new approach for minimizing non-point contamination in agriculture.

  17. A Source Water Assessment of the INEEL: Conjunctive Delineation of a Large Scale Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald; Andersen, Bradley Don

    2003-01-01

    Presently, the INEEL operates and monitors 12 Public Water Systems that pump water from 22 wells for at the Site (Table 1). The source of water for each of these facilities is the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Because the INEEL operates Public Water Systems, it is required to conduct source water assessments for those facilities and to develop a Source Water Management Program.

  18. Google vs. the Library (Part III): Assessing the Quality of Sources Found by Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the quality of sources found by undergraduate students when doing research using both Google and a library (federated) search tool. Thirty undergraduates were asked to find four sources (one book, two articles, and one additional source of their choosing) related to a selected research topic. Students used both…

  19. Google vs. the Library (Part III): Assessing the Quality of Sources Found by Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgas, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the quality of sources found by undergraduate students when doing research using both Google and a library (federated) search tool. Thirty undergraduates were asked to find four sources (one book, two articles, and one additional source of their choosing) related to a selected research topic. Students used both…

  20. The European nitrogen assessment: sources, effects, and policy perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sutton, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    .... The five key societal threats posed by reactive nitrogen are assessed, providing a framework for joined-up management of the nitrogen cycle in Europe, including the first cost-benefit analysis...

  1. Integrating Data Sources for Process Sustainability Assessments (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To perform a chemical process sustainability assessment requires significant data about chemicals, process design specifications, and operating conditions. The required information includes the identity of the chemicals used, the quantities of the chemicals within the context of ...

  2. Wetlands Assessment for site characterization, Advanced Neutron Source (ANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, M.C.; Socolof, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.; Rosensteel, B.; Awl, D. [JAYCOR, Vienna, VA (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This Wetlands Assessment has been prepared in accordance with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR 1022, Compliance with Floodplain/Wetlands Environmental Review Requirements, which established the policy and procedure for implementing Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands. The proposed action is to conduct characterization activities in or near wetlands at the ANS site. The proposed action will covered under a Categorical Exclusion, therefore this assessment is being prepared as a separate document [10 CFR 1022.12(c)]. The purpose of this Wetlands Assessment is to fulfill the requirements of 10 CFR 1022.12(a) by describing the project, discussing the effects of the proposed action upon the wetlands, and considering alternatives to the proposed action.

  3. Determining the sources of fine-grained sediment using the Sediment Source Assessment Tool (Sed_SAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman Sanisaca, Lillian E.; Gellis, Allen C.; Lorenz, David L.

    2017-07-27

    A sound understanding of sources contributing to instream sediment flux in a watershed is important when developing total maximum daily load (TMDL) management strategies designed to reduce suspended sediment in streams. Sediment fingerprinting and sediment budget approaches are two techniques that, when used jointly, can qualify and quantify the major sources of sediment in a given watershed. The sediment fingerprinting approach uses trace element concentrations from samples in known potential source areas to determine a clear signature of each potential source. A mixing model is then used to determine the relative source contribution to the target suspended sediment samples.The computational steps required to apportion sediment for each target sample are quite involved and time intensive, a problem the Sediment Source Assessment Tool (Sed_SAT) addresses. Sed_SAT is a user-friendly statistical model that guides the user through the necessary steps in order to quantify the relative contributions of sediment sources in a given watershed. The model is written using the statistical software R (R Core Team, 2016b) and utilizes Microsoft Access® as a user interface but requires no prior knowledge of R or Microsoft Access® to successfully run the model successfully. Sed_SAT identifies outliers, corrects for differences in size and organic content in the source samples relative to the target samples, evaluates the conservative behavior of tracers used in fingerprinting by applying a “Bracket Test,” identifies tracers with the highest discriminatory power, and provides robust error analysis through a Monte Carlo simulation following the mixing model. Quantifying sediment source contributions using the sediment fingerprinting approach provides local, State, and Federal land management agencies with important information needed to implement effective strategies to reduce sediment. Sed_SAT is designed to assist these agencies in applying the sediment fingerprinting

  4. Vulnerability Assessment of Open Source Wireshark and Chrome Browser

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    and, when available, the developers. While FPVA is certainly a labor -intensive approach to vulnerability assessment, it is effective in real systems...Elisa Heymann, Eduardo Cesar and Barton P. Miller, “Automating Threat Modeling through the Software Development Life-Cycle”, XXIII Jornadas de

  5. An Open-Source Learning Content Management and Assessment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Cruz, Émerson

    In this paper, we describe the development and functionality of the LearningOnline Network with CAPA (LON-CAPA; http://www.lon-capa.org/) system. We summarize published findings obtained over the years regarding its content sharing and online assessment features, and present some new findings on gender differences in the usage of online homework.

  6. A review of international sources for road safety measures assessment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yannis, G. Weijermars, W. & Kauppila, J.

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency assessment of road safety measures is considered to be an extremely useful tool in decision making; in particular, cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses are carried out in several countries, in a more or less systematic way. The objective of this paper is to present findings fr

  7. Regulation og non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    in the effort to reduce agricultural P runoff. Continued application of P in excess of crop requirements causes P stocks to build up in fields and, over time, this increases the risk of losing P to the aquatic environment through surface runoff and erosion and through leaching via the soil matrix or macropores...... of transporting and applying manure to fields means that increasing mineral-fertilizer prices does not generate a sufficient incentive for farmers to reallocate all P surpluses generated by livestock between farms and fields. The aim of the thesis is to increase the understanding of the long-term impacts....... Once a soil is highly enriched it will become a significant source of P losses for a long time. In Denmark, application of manure is primarily determined by nitrogen (N) crop nutrition, implying that livestock farmers are not motivated to further reduce their surplus P applications. The high costs...

  8. Effects of Climate Change on Non-Point Pollution in Huaibei Region and Comprehensive Regulation Strategies%气候变化对淮北地区面源污染的影响及综合调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王刚; 严登华; 尹军; 翁白莎

    2011-01-01

    分析了安徽省淮北地区面源污染的现状与压力,从污染物的产生、迁移、转化与汇聚的机理讨论气候变化对面源污染的影响机制,最后从源头控制、途径控制、末端治理、调控机制建设4个层面提出综合调控措施.%In this study, the situation and pressure of non-point pollution in Huaibei region of Anhui province were analyzed. The influence mechanism of climate change on non-point pollution was discussed from mechanism of generation, migration, conversion, and aggregation of contaminants. In the end, comprehensive coping strategies were put forward from four levels: source control, process control, end treatment and construction of regulation mechanism.

  9. Health risk assessment of jobs involving ionizing radiation sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Tišma Vera D.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included 75 subjects exposed to low doses of external ionizing radiation and 25 subjects from the control group, all male. The first group (A consisted of 25 subjects employed in the production of technetium, with an average job experience of 15 years. The second group (B consisted of 25 subjects exposed to ionizing radiation from enclosed sources, working in jobs involving the control of X-ray devices and americium smoke detectors, their average work experience being 18.5 years. The third group (C consisted of 25 subjects involved in the decontamination of the terrain at Borovac from radioactive rounds with depleted uranium left over after the NATO bombing of Serbia in 1999, their average job experience being 18.5 years. The control group (K consisted of 25 subjects who have not been in contact with sources of ionizing radiation and who hold administrative positions. Frequencies of chromosome aberrations were determined in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and compared to the control group. The average annual absorbed dose determined by thermoluminescent dosimeters for all three groups did not exceed 2 mSv. In the present study, the largest number of observed changes are acentric fragments and chromosome breaks. The highest occupational risk appears to involve subjects working in manufacturing of the radio-isotope technetium.

  10. Individual Performance: From Common Source Bias to Institutionalized Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Heinesen, Eskil; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    of the assessment. Our investigated explanatory variables are intrinsic motivation, public service motivation, and job satisfaction. Combining survey and administrative data for 747 lower secondary school teachers (teaching 5,679 students in 85 schools), we analyze 4 different measures of the same performance...... dimension for the same teachers: the teachers’ self-reported contributions to students’ academic skills, the students’ marks for the year’s work given by the teacher, marks in oral exams with one external examiner and the teacher, and marks in written exams with at least one external examiner...

  11. BioGeochemistry of antimony, Sources, Transfers, Impacts and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Gael; Pinelli, Eric; Hedde, Mickael; Guiresse, Maritxu; De Vleeschouwer, François; Silvestre, Jérôme; Enrico, Maxime; Gandois, Laure; Monna, Fabrice; Gers, Charles; Probst, Anne

    2013-04-01

    BioGeoSTIB is a project funded by ADEME (French Environmental Protection Agency). Its aim is to provide a better understanding of biogeochemical cycle disturbances of antimony by man. Specifically, it is focused on the atmosphere-soil-organism interfaces. Based on a multi-scale approach, the impact of antimony on organisms and organism communities and the factors of Sb dispersion in the environment aim to better characterized. This report gives the main results of 2 and 1 -2 years of research. Using peat bogs as environmental archives, we show that Sb contamination in soils date back to the beginning of the metallurgy. Atmospheric deposition of Sb largely increased by 100 times during the Industrial Revolution compared to natural levels (~0,001-0,01 mg m-2 an-1) estimated in the deepest peat layers. This disturbance in the antimony geochemical cycle modified its concentrations in soils. One main source of present Sb contamination is automotive traffic due to Sb in braking lines. This emerging contamination was characterized close to a roundabout. This additional source of Sb does not seem to impact soil fauna but Sb concentrations in soil solutions exceed 1 μg L-1. Genotoxicity tests have been performed on the model plant Vicia faba and show that antimony is genotoxic at its lowest concentrations and that there is a synergistic effect lead, a trace metal frequently found in association with antimony in the environment. It is a main issue to determine Sb critical loads in the environment but main identified lacks are thermodynamic data, which are not available yet, to model the behavior of Sb in soil solutions and the fact the antimony is always associated with other anthropogenic trace metals like lead. Critical thresholds of Sb have been determined for the first time based on genotoxicity experiment. Simulations show that these thresholds can be exceeded in the future, whereas present limits for invertebrates (US-EPA) are and will not be reached. However

  12. Environmental risk assessment and prevention of drinking water source of Hongfeng Lake in Guizhou%贵州省红枫湖饮用水源地环境风险评价与防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨通铨; 喻阳华; 刘鸿雁

    2015-01-01

    采用定性评价评分值叠加法,在红枫湖饮用水源地环境现状调查的基础上,从固定源、流动源和非点源三方面风险源对红枫湖饮用水源地环境风险进行识别与分析,并进行环境风险评价,提出了水源地风险防范对策建议.评价结果表明,红枫湖的整体环境风险水平较高,固定源、流动源和非点源总分值分别为21、19和15.其中:船舶的风险值为3,在环境风险可接受范围;加油站为6,应做好储油罐及管道防腐防渗等防范措施;尾矿库、陆运和非点源分别为15、16和15,应采取加大尾矿库资源综合利用,强化陆运危化品管理,加强面源污染治理等风险应急措施,保障水源地环境安全.%in this paper,we identified and analyzed environmental risk from stationary,mobile and non-points sources for drinking water source in Hongfeng Lake based on survey on environmental status quo in given areas. And an environmental risk assessment was further conducted based on a qualitative approach of risk scores superposition. The results show that the overall level of environ-mental risk in Hongfeng Lake is relatively high ,of which the total points of stationary source,mobile source and non-point source are 21,19 and 15 respectively. The risk scores for ships are 3,indica-ting an acceptable risk level,while the risk scores of gas station are 6,implying that measures should be taken to treat the corrosion and seepage of oil tanks and pipelines. The risk scores of tailings, land transportation and non-point source are 15,16 and 15 respectively,which represent a warning level,indicating that to ensure the safety of water environment,it is urgent to improve the compre-hensive utilization level for tailings resources,to strengthen the management on land transportation of dangerous chemicals,and to intensify the risk emergency measures on non-point source pollution.

  13. Sources of innovation: an assessment of intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinch, Michael S; Raffo, Julio

    2015-05-01

    An analysis of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved new molecular entities (NMEs) reveals dynamism in terms of new innovation. An assessment of the first patent for each drug shows that the pharmaceutical industry, particularly large, established companies in North America, tend to dominate the field. Over the past 10-15 years, European and Asian organizations have begun to close the gap. A dynamic inventive environment in drug discovery is suggested by the fact that NMEs for biologics or awarded to biotechnology companies often have inventors from the pharmaceutical and academic sectors. Whereas inventors continue to found biotechnology companies at a steady rate, recent trends suggest these inventors more often come from the private sector.

  14. Human-Scale Sustainability Assessment of Urban Intersections Based upon Multi-Source Big Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuhuan Zhang; Huapu Lu; Shengxi Luo; Zhiyuan Sun; Wencong Qu

    2017-01-01

    .... Based on technologies such as street view picture crawling, image segmentation, and edge detection, GIS spatial data analysis, a rapid automated assessment method, and a corresponding multi-source...

  15. Probabilistic assessment of seawater intrusion under multiple sources of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, M.; Guadagnini, A.; Dell'Oca, A.

    2015-01-01

    Coastal aquifers are affected by seawater intrusion (SWI) on a worldwide scale. The Henry's problem has been often used as a benchmark to analyze this phenomenon. Here, we investigate the way an incomplete knowledge of the system properties impacts the assessment of global quantities (GQs) describing key characteristics of the saltwater wedge in the dispersive Henry's problem. We recast the problem in dimensionless form and consider four dimensionless quantities characterizing the SWI process, i.e., the gravity number, the permeability anisotropy ratio, and the transverse and longitudinal Péclet numbers. These quantities are affected by uncertainty due to the lack of exhaustive characterization of the subsurface. We rely on the Sobol indices to quantify the relative contribution of each of these uncertain terms to the total variance of each of the global descriptors considered. Such indices are evaluated upon representing the target GQs through a generalized Polynomial Chaos Expansion (gPCE) approximation. The latter also serves as a surrogate model of the global system behavior. It allows (a) computing and analyzing the joint and marginal probability density function (pdf) of each GQ in a Monte Carlo framework at an affordable computational cost, and (b) exploring the way the uncertainty associated with the prediction of these global descriptors can be reduced by conditioning of the joint pdf on available information. Corresponding analytical expressions of the marginal pdfs of the variables of interest are derived and analyzed.

  16. Preliminary Assessment of the Interfacial Source Terms in SPACE Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sun Won; Kim, Jeong Woo; Kim, Su Hyong; Kim, Kyung Du [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    The development program for a nuclear reactor safety analysis code which will be used by utility bodies has been launched supported by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy. The code, named as SPACE, has been designed to solve the multi-dimensional 3-field 2 phase equations. The target power plant type is restricted to PWR's and does not include advanced reactor types, like gas cooled or liquid metal reactors. KAERI, KOPEC, KNF, KEPRI and KHNP are participated in the development project. KAERI has been assigned to develop the physical models and correlations which are required as the closure relationships. The assigned work can be divided into four parts, i.e, (i) the flow regime determination, (ii) the wall heat transfer, (iii) the wall and interfacial friction, and (iv) the interfacial heat and mass transfer. The interfacial heat and mass transfer correlations used in RELAP5, TRAC-M, CATHARE, etc. are reviewed with respect to the simplicity and the range of validity. The recent suggestions are also reviewed. The intellectual property ownerships are proved before an adaptation to the development of the SPACE code. The selected models and correlations are already represented by reference. This paper shows the preliminary assessment results obtained by using the SPACE code.

  17. Advanced Reactor PSA Methodologies for System Reliability Analysis and Source Term Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabaskas, D.; Brunett, A.; Passerini, S.; Grelle, A.; Bucknor, M.

    2017-06-26

    Beginning in 2015, a project was initiated to update and modernize the probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of the GE-Hitachi PRISM sodium fast reactor. This project is a collaboration between GE-Hitachi and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and funded in part by the U.S. Department of Energy. Specifically, the role of Argonne is to assess the reliability of passive safety systems, complete a mechanistic source term calculation, and provide component reliability estimates. The assessment of passive system reliability focused on the performance of the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) and the inherent reactivity feedback mechanisms of the metal fuel core. The mechanistic source term assessment attempted to provide a sequence specific source term evaluation to quantify offsite consequences. Lastly, the reliability assessment focused on components specific to the sodium fast reactor, including electromagnetic pumps, intermediate heat exchangers, the steam generator, and sodium valves and piping.

  18. Drawing and Writing in Digital Science Notebooks: Sources of Formative Assessment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Angi; Smith, Andrew; Wiebe, Eric; Behrle, Courtney; Sirkin, Ruth; Lester, James

    2016-01-01

    Formative assessment strategies are used to direct instruction by establishing where learners' understanding is, how it is developing, informing teachers and students alike as to how they might get to their next set of goals of conceptual understanding. For the science classroom, one rich source of formative assessment data about scientific…

  19. Chemometric Analysis for Pollution Source Assessment of Harbour Sediments in Arctic Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristine B.; Lejon, Tore; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2015-01-01

    Pollution levels, pollutant distribution and potential source assessments based on multivariate analysis (chemometrics) were made for harbour sediments from two Arctic locations; Hammerfest in Norway and Sisimiut in Greenland. High levels of heavy metals were detected in addition to organic...... pollutants. Preliminary assessments based on principal component analysis (PCA) revealed different sources and pollutant distribution in the sediments of the two harbours. Tributyltin (TBT) was, however, found to originate from point source(s), and the highest concentrations of TBT in both harbours were...... indicated relation primarily to German, Russian and American mixtures in Hammerfest; and American, Russian and Japanese mixtures in Sisimiut. PCA was shown to be an important tool for identifying pollutant sources and differences in pollutant composition in relation to sediment characteristics....

  20. Risk-based prioritisation of point sources through assessment of the impact on a water supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overheu, Niels D.; Tuxen, Nina; Troldborg, Mads

    2011-01-01

    A large number of point sources threaten groundwater resources. A tool is presented which enables a uniform and transparent risk assessment and prioritisation of these point sources at the catchment scale with respect to the needs of further investigation or remediation. The tool integrates aquifer...... vulnerability mapping, site-specific mass flux estimates on a local scale from all the sources, and 3-D catchment-scale fate and transport modelling. It handles sources at various knowledge levels and accounts for uncertainties. The tool estimates the impacts on the water supply in the catchment and provides...

  1. Examining trends in general fecal indicator bacteria and microbial source tracking genetic markers at non-point source impacted Chicago beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Chicago area, treated wastewater and storm water flow through the engineered Chicago River system to the Mississippi River, with the goal to protect Lake Michigan from urban discharges. Therefore, under dry weather conditions, nearby Lake Michigan recreational beaches shou...

  2. Integrated societal risk assessment framework for nuclear power and renewable energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hun Lee

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the estimation of the social cost of energy sources has been emphasized as various novel energy options become feasible in addition to conventional ones. In particular, the social cost of introducing measures to protect power-distribution systems from power-source instability and the cost of accident-risk response for various power sources must be investigated. To account for these risk factors, an integrated societal risk assessment framework, based on power-uncertainty analysis and accident-consequence analysis, is proposed. In this study, we applied the proposed framework to nuclear power plants, solar photovoltaic systems, and wind-turbine generators. The required capacity of gas-turbine power plants to be used as backup power facilities to compensate for fluctuations in the power output from the main power source was estimated based on the performance indicators of each power source. The average individual health risk per terawatt-hours (TWh of electricity produced by each power source was quantitatively estimated by assessing accident frequency and the consequences of specific accident scenarios based on the probabilistic risk assessment methodology. This study is expected to provide insight into integrated societal risk analysis, and can be used to estimate the social cost of various power sources.

  3. [Establishment of Method for Health Risk Assessment of Pollutants from Fixed Sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qiang; Wu, Huan-bo

    2016-05-15

    A health risk assessment method of pollutants from fixed sources was developed by applying AERMOD model in the health risk assessment. The method could directly forecast the health risks of toxic pollutants from source by some exposure pathway. Using the established method, in combination with the data of sources and traditional health risk assessment method as well as the measured data of PAHs in inhalation particle matter (PM₁₀) in Lanzhou, the health risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzo [a] pyrene (BaP) in PM₁₀ from the three fire power plants and the health risk of PAHs and BaP in PM₁₀ at the receptor point by inhalation exposure in heating and non-heating seasons was calculated, respectively. Then the contribution rates of the health risk caused by the three fire power plants to the health risk at the receptor point were calculated. The results showed that the contribution rates were not associated with sex and age, but were associated with time period and risk types. The contribution rates in the non-heating seasons were greater than those in heating seasons, and the contribution rates of the carcinogenic risk index were greater than those of the cancer risk value. The reliability of the established method was validated by comparing with the traditional method. This method was applicable to health risk assessment of toxic pollutants from all fixed sources and environmental risk assessment of environmental impact assessment.

  4. TRIANGULATION OF INSTRUMENTATION AND DATA SOURCE: A STRONGER METHOD IN ASSESSING ENGLISH LANGUAGE NEEDS

    OpenAIRE

    Meedy Nugraha

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes the importance of multiple instrumentation and data source (triangulation) in a needs analysis. Various data gathering methods developed in assessing learners' English language needs are reviewed. The justification of employing more than a single data gathering method and data source in a needs analysis is also presented by examining the strengths and weaknesses of each method and evaluating previous needs analyses carried out in some Asian countries. Highlights are then g...

  5. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Zeyuan

    2013-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs) have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMP...

  6. Source term model evaluations for the low-level waste facility performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, M.S.; Su, S.I. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The estimation of release of radionuclides from various waste forms to the bottom boundary of the waste disposal facility (source term) is one of the most important aspects of LLW facility performance assessment. In this work, several currently used source term models are comparatively evaluated for the release of carbon-14 based on a test case problem. The models compared include PRESTO-EPA-CPG, IMPACTS, DUST and NEFTRAN-II. Major differences in assumptions and approaches between the models are described and key parameters are identified through sensitivity analysis. The source term results from different models are compared and other concerns or suggestions are discussed.

  7. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  8. An Applied Framework for Incorporating Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in Fisheries Stock Assessments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finlay Scott

    Full Text Available Estimating fish stock status is very challenging given the many sources and high levels of uncertainty surrounding the biological processes (e.g. natural variability in the demographic rates, model selection (e.g. choosing growth or stock assessment models and parameter estimation. Incorporating multiple sources of uncertainty in a stock assessment allows advice to better account for the risks associated with proposed management options, promoting decisions that are more robust to such uncertainty. However, a typical assessment only reports the model fit and variance of estimated parameters, thereby underreporting the overall uncertainty. Additionally, although multiple candidate models may be considered, only one is selected as the 'best' result, effectively rejecting the plausible assumptions behind the other models. We present an applied framework to integrate multiple sources of uncertainty in the stock assessment process. The first step is the generation and conditioning of a suite of stock assessment models that contain different assumptions about the stock and the fishery. The second step is the estimation of parameters, including fitting of the stock assessment models. The final step integrates across all of the results to reconcile the multi-model outcome. The framework is flexible enough to be tailored to particular stocks and fisheries and can draw on information from multiple sources to implement a broad variety of assumptions, making it applicable to stocks with varying levels of data availability The Iberian hake stock in International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES Divisions VIIIc and IXa is used to demonstrate the framework, starting from length-based stock and indices data. Process and model uncertainty are considered through the growth, natural mortality, fishing mortality, survey catchability and stock-recruitment relationship. Estimation uncertainty is included as part of the fitting process. Simple model

  9. An Applied Framework for Incorporating Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in Fisheries Stock Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Finlay; Jardim, Ernesto; Millar, Colin P; Cerviño, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Estimating fish stock status is very challenging given the many sources and high levels of uncertainty surrounding the biological processes (e.g. natural variability in the demographic rates), model selection (e.g. choosing growth or stock assessment models) and parameter estimation. Incorporating multiple sources of uncertainty in a stock assessment allows advice to better account for the risks associated with proposed management options, promoting decisions that are more robust to such uncertainty. However, a typical assessment only reports the model fit and variance of estimated parameters, thereby underreporting the overall uncertainty. Additionally, although multiple candidate models may be considered, only one is selected as the 'best' result, effectively rejecting the plausible assumptions behind the other models. We present an applied framework to integrate multiple sources of uncertainty in the stock assessment process. The first step is the generation and conditioning of a suite of stock assessment models that contain different assumptions about the stock and the fishery. The second step is the estimation of parameters, including fitting of the stock assessment models. The final step integrates across all of the results to reconcile the multi-model outcome. The framework is flexible enough to be tailored to particular stocks and fisheries and can draw on information from multiple sources to implement a broad variety of assumptions, making it applicable to stocks with varying levels of data availability The Iberian hake stock in International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) Divisions VIIIc and IXa is used to demonstrate the framework, starting from length-based stock and indices data. Process and model uncertainty are considered through the growth, natural mortality, fishing mortality, survey catchability and stock-recruitment relationship. Estimation uncertainty is included as part of the fitting process. Simple model averaging is used to

  10. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  11. Information sources in biomedical science and medical journalism: methodological approaches and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Giovanna F; Vercellesi, Luisa; Bruno, Flavia

    2004-09-01

    Throughout the world the public is showing increasing interest in medical and scientific subjects and journalists largely spread this information, with an important impact on knowledge and health. Clearly, therefore, the relationship between the journalist and his sources is delicate: freedom and independence of information depend on the independence and truthfulness of the sources. The new "precision journalism" holds that scientific methods should be applied to journalism, so authoritative sources are a common need for journalists and scientists. We therefore compared the individual classifications and methods of assessing of sources in biomedical science and medical journalism to try to extrapolate scientific methods of evaluation to journalism. In journalism and science terms used to classify sources of information show some similarities, but their meanings are different. In science primary and secondary classes of information, for instance, refer to the levels of processing, but in journalism to the official nature of the source itself. Scientists and journalists must both always consult as many sources as possible and check their authoritativeness, reliability, completeness, up-to-dateness and balance. In journalism, however, there are some important differences and limits: too many sources can sometimes diminish the quality of the information. The sources serve a first filter between the event and the journalist, who is not providing the reader with the fact, but with its projection. Journalists have time constraints and lack the objective criteria for searching, the specific background knowledge, and the expertise to fully assess sources. To assist in understanding the wealth of sources of information in journalism, we have prepared a checklist of items and questions. There are at least four fundamental points that a good journalist, like any scientist, should know: how to find the latest information (the sources), how to assess it (the quality and

  12. Assessment on security system of radioactive sources used in hospitals of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jitbanjong, Petchara, E-mail: petcharajit@gmail.com; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, 254 Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-01-22

    Unsecured radioactive sources have caused deaths and serious injuries in many parts of the world. In Thailand, there are 17 hospitals that use teletherapy with cobalt-60 radioactive sources. They need to be secured in order to prevent unauthorized removal, sabotage and terrorists from using such materials in a radiological weapon. The security system of radioactive sources in Thailand is regulated by the Office of Atoms for Peace in compliance with Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI), U.S. DOE, which has started to be implemented since 2010. This study aims to perform an assessment on the security system of radioactive sources used in hospitals in Thailand and the results can be used as a recommended baseline data for development or improvement of hospitals on the security system of a radioactive source at a national regulatory level and policy level. Results from questionnaires reveal that in 11 out of 17 hospitals (64.70%), there were a few differences in conditions of hospitals using radioactive sources with installation of the security system and those without installation of the security system. Also, personals working with radioactive sources did not clearly understand the nuclear security law. Thus, government organizations should be encouraged to arrange trainings on nuclear security to increase the level of understanding. In the future, it is recommended that the responsible government organization issues a minimum requirement of nuclear security for every medical facility using radioactive sources.

  13. Integrating water quality modeling with ecological risk assessment for nonpoint source pollution control: A conceptual framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Y.D.; McCutcheon, S.C.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Nutter, W.L.; Carsel, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The historical development of water quality protection goals and strategies in the United States is reviewed. The review leads to the identification and discussion of three components (i.e., management mechanism, environmental investigation approaches, and environmental assessment and criteria) for establishing a management framework for nonpoint source pollution control. Water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment are the two most important and promising approaches to the operation of the proposed management framework. A conceptual framework that shows the general integrative relationships between water quality modeling and ecological risk assessment is presented. (Copyright (c) 1993 IAWQ.)

  14. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X.; Tatano, H.

    2015-08-01

    Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  15. A rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment: considering multiple flood sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Information about the spatial distribution of flood risk is important for integrated urban flood risk management. Focusing on urban areas, spatial flood risk assessment must reflect all risk information derived from multiple flood sources: rivers, drainage, coastal flooding etc. that may affect the area. However, conventional flood risk assessment deals with each flood source independently, which leads to an underestimation of flood risk in the floodplain. Even in floodplains that have no risk from coastal flooding, flooding from river channels and inundation caused by insufficient drainage capacity should be considered simultaneously. For integrated flood risk management, it is necessary to establish a methodology to estimate flood risk distribution across a floodplain. In this paper, a rainfall design method for spatial flood risk assessment, which considers the joint effects of multiple flood sources, is proposed. The concept of critical rainfall duration determined by the concentration time of flooding is introduced to connect response characteristics of different flood sources with rainfall. A copula method is then adopted to capture the correlation of rainfall amount with different critical rainfall durations. Rainfall events are designed taking advantage of the copula structure of correlation and marginal distribution of rainfall amounts within different critical rainfall durations. A case study in the Otsu River Basin, Osaka prefecture, Japan was conducted to demonstrate this methodology.

  16. Comparative Assessment of Stormwater and Nonpoint Source Pollution Best Management Practices in Suburban Watershed Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeyuan Qiu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management are two objectives in managing mixed land use watersheds like those in New Jersey. Various best management practices (BMPs have been developed and implemented to achieve both objectives. This study assesses the cost-effectiveness of selected BMPs for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and stormwater management in the Neshanic River watershed, a typical mixed land use watershed in central New Jersey, USA. The selected BMPs for nonpoint source pollution control include cover crops, prescribed grazing, livestock access control, contour farming, nutrient management, and conservation buffers. The selected BMPs for stormwater management are rain gardens, roadside ditch retrofitting, and detention basin retrofitting. Cost-effectiveness is measured by the reduction in pollutant loads in total suspended solids and total phosphorus relative to the total costs of implementing the selected BMPs. The pollution load reductions for these BMPs are based on the total pollutant loads in the watershed simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool and achievable pollutant reduction rates. The total implementation cost includes BMP installation and maintenance costs. The assessment results indicate that the BMPs for the nonpoint source pollution control are generally much more cost-effective in improving water quality than the BMPs for stormwater management.

  17. Affordable non-traditional source data mining for context assessment to improve distributed fusion system robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Christopher; Haith, Gary; Steinberg, Alan; Morefield, Charles; Morefield, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This paper describes methods to affordably improve the robustness of distributed fusion systems by opportunistically leveraging non-traditional data sources. Adaptive methods help find relevant data, create models, and characterize the model quality. These methods also can measure the conformity of this non-traditional data with fusion system products including situation modeling and mission impact prediction. Non-traditional data can improve the quantity, quality, availability, timeliness, and diversity of the baseline fusion system sources and therefore can improve prediction and estimation accuracy and robustness at all levels of fusion. Techniques are described that automatically learn to characterize and search non-traditional contextual data to enable operators integrate the data with the high-level fusion systems and ontologies. These techniques apply the extension of the Data Fusion & Resource Management Dual Node Network (DNN) technical architecture at Level 4. The DNN architecture supports effectively assessment and management of the expanded portfolio of data sources, entities of interest, models, and algorithms including data pattern discovery and context conformity. Affordable model-driven and data-driven data mining methods to discover unknown models from non-traditional and `big data' sources are used to automatically learn entity behaviors and correlations with fusion products, [14 and 15]. This paper describes our context assessment software development, and the demonstration of context assessment of non-traditional data to compare to an intelligence surveillance and reconnaissance fusion product based upon an IED POIs workflow.

  18. Source apportionment and health risk assessment of trace metals in surface soils of Beijing metropolitan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Lu, Sijin; Wang, Yeyao; Wu, Jin; Wang, Jinsheng

    2016-02-01

    Understanding the exposure risks of trace metals in contamination soils and apportioning their sources are the basic preconditions for soil pollution prevention and control. In this study, a detailed investigation was conducted to assess the health risks of trace metals in surface soils of Beijing which is one of the most populated cities in the world and to apportion their potential sources. The data set of metals for 12 elements in 240 soil samples was collected. Pollution index and enrichment factor were used to identify the general contamination characteristic of soil metals. The probabilistic risk model was employed for health risk assessment, and a chemometrics technique, multivariate curve resolution-weighted alternating least squares (MCR-WALS), was applied to apportion sources. Results suggested that the soils in Beijing metropolitan region were contaminated by Hg, Cd, Cu, As, and Pb in varying degree, lying in the moderate pollution level. As a whole, the health risks posed by soil metals were acceptable or close to tolerable. Comparatively speaking, children and adult females were the relatively vulnerable populations for the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks, respectively. Atmospheric deposition, fertilizers and agrochemicals, and natural source were apportioned as the potential sources determining the contents of trace metals in soils of Beijing area with contributions of 15.5%-16.4%, 5.9%-7.7% and 76.0%-78.6%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. [Nonpoint source pollution model, AnnAGNPS, assessment for a mixed forested watershed in Three Gorges Reservoir area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi-lin; Tian, Yao-wu; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zeng, Li-xiong; Ma, De-ju

    2009-10-15

    Watershed models provide a cost-effective and efficient means of estimating the pollutant loadings entering surface waters, especially when combined with traditional water quality sampling and analyses. But there have often been questions about the accuracy or certainty of models and their predictions. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of AnnAGNPS (Annualized AGricultural NonPoint Source)Pollution Model, in simulating runoff, sediment loading and nutrient loadings under Three Gorges Reservoir area. Most of model input parameters were sourced from Zigui Forest Ecology Station in Three Gorges Reservoir area, State Forestry Administration. Data year 2003 was used for calibration while data year 2004 was used for validation of the model. The whole evaluation consisted of determining the coefficient of determination (R2), Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient of efficiency (E), and the percentage volume error (VE). Results showed that the model predicted the daily runoff volume within the range of acceptable accuracy. The runoff on a daily basis was underpredicted by 5.0% with R2 of 0.93 (p mixed types of land uses and steep slopes.

  20. Assessment of the impact that individual voltage source has on a generator’s stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrova, Evgeniya; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for splitting equivalent Thevenin voltage into components induced by each voltage source in the reduced grid. Thevenin equivalent representation of the system is sometimes used for stability assessment of a given generator, where the Thevenin voltage is one...... of the key variables affecting the stability conditions. Thevenin voltage is formed by components induced by each voltage source in the grid, while depending on topology and system parameters, the impact of these components on the equivalent Thevenin voltage Eth might vary considerably. This paper...

  1. Recommendations for a uniform assessment of publication bias related to funding source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lent, Marlies; Overbeke, John; Out, Henk J

    2013-09-30

    Numerous studies on publication bias in clinical drug research have been undertaken, particularly on the association between sponsorship and favourable outcomes. However, no standardized methodology for the classification of outcomes and sponsorship has been described. Dissimilarities and ambiguities in this assessment impede the ability to compare and summarize results of studies on publication bias. To guide authors undertaking such studies, this paper provides recommendations for a uniform assessment of publication bias related to funding source. As part of ongoing research into publication bias, 472 manuscripts on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with drugs, submitted to eight medical journals from January 2010 through April 2012, were reviewed. Information on trial results and sponsorship was extracted from manuscripts. During the start of this evaluation, several problems related to the classification of outcomes, inclusion of post-hoc analyses and follow-up studies of RCTs in the study sample, and assessment of the role of the funding source were encountered. A comprehensive list of recommendations addressing these problems was composed. To assess internal validity, reliability and usability of these recommendations were tested through evaluation of manuscripts submitted to journals included in our study. The proposed recommendations represent a first step towards a uniform method of classifying trial outcomes and sponsorship. This is essential to draw valid conclusions on the role of the funding source in publication bias and will ensure consistency across future studies.

  2. The Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS){reg_sign}: Source-term release formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streile, G.P.; Shields, K.D.; Stroh, J.L.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Whelan, G.; McDonald, J.P.; Droppo, J.G.; Buck, J.W.

    1996-11-01

    This report is one of a series of reports that document the mathematical models in the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). Developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the US Department of Energy, MEPAS is an integrated impact assessment software implementation of physics-based fate and transport models in air, soil, and water media. Outputs are estimates of exposures and health risk assessments for radioactive and hazardous pollutants. Each of the MEPAS formulation documents covers a major MEPAS component such as source-term, atmospheric, vadose zone/groundwater, surface water, and health exposure/health impact assessment. Other MEPAS documentation reports cover the sensitivity/uncertainty formulations and the database parameter constituent property estimation methods. The pollutant source-term release component is documented in this report. MEPAS simulates the release of contaminants from a source, transport through the air, groundwater, surface water, or overland pathways, and transfer through food chains and exposure pathways to the exposed individual or population. For human health impacts, risks are computed for carcinogens and hazard quotients for noncarcinogens. MEPAS is implemented on a desktop computer with a user-friendly interface that allows the user to define the problem, input the required data, and execute the appropriate models for both deterministic and probabilistic analyses.

  3. Source-water susceptibility assessment in Texas—Approach and methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Randy L.; Meyer, John E.; Andren, Robert W.; Newson, Jeremy K.

    2011-01-01

    Public water systems provide potable water for the public's use. The Safe Drinking Water Act amendments of 1996 required States to prepare a source-water susceptibility assessment (SWSA) for each public water system (PWS). States were required to determine the source of water for each PWS, the origin of any contaminant of concern (COC) monitored or to be monitored, and the susceptibility of the public water system to COC exposure, to protect public water supplies from contamination. In Texas, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) was responsible for preparing SWSAs for the more than 6,000 public water systems, representing more than 18,000 surface-water intakes or groundwater wells. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) worked in cooperation with TCEQ to develop the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) approach and methodology. Texas' SWAP meets all requirements of the Safe Drinking Water Act and ultimately provides the TCEQ with a comprehensive tool for protection of public water systems from contamination by up to 247 individual COCs. TCEQ staff identified both the list of contaminants to be assessed and contaminant threshold values (THR) to be applied. COCs were chosen because they were regulated contaminants, were expected to become regulated contaminants in the near future, or were unregulated but thought to represent long-term health concerns. THRs were based on maximum contaminant levels from U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)'s National Primary Drinking Water Regulations. For reporting purposes, COCs were grouped into seven contaminant groups: inorganic compounds, volatile organic compounds, synthetic organic compounds, radiochemicals, disinfection byproducts, microbial organisms, and physical properties. Expanding on the TCEQ's definition of susceptibility, subject-matter expert working groups formulated the SWSA approach based on assumptions that natural processes and human activities contribute COCs in quantities that vary in space

  4. Open source database of images DEIMOS: extension for large-scale subjective image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítek, Stanislav

    2014-09-01

    DEIMOS (Database of Images: Open Source) is an open-source database of images and video sequences for testing, verification and comparison of various image and/or video processing techniques such as compression, reconstruction and enhancement. This paper deals with extension of the database allowing performing large-scale web-based subjective image quality assessment. Extension implements both administrative and client interface. The proposed system is aimed mainly at mobile communication devices, taking into account advantages of HTML5 technology; it means that participants don't need to install any application and assessment could be performed using web browser. The assessment campaign administrator can select images from the large database and then apply rules defined by various test procedure recommendations. The standard test procedures may be fully customized and saved as a template. Alternatively the administrator can define a custom test, using images from the pool and other components, such as evaluating forms and ongoing questionnaires. Image sequence is delivered to the online client, e.g. smartphone or tablet, as a fully automated assessment sequence or viewer can decide on timing of the assessment if required. Environmental data and viewing conditions (e.g. illumination, vibrations, GPS coordinates, etc.), may be collected and subsequently analyzed.

  5. An eighth-scale speech source for subjective assessments in acoustic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, R. J.

    1981-08-01

    The design of a source is described which is suitable for making speech recordings in eighth-scale acoustic models of auditoria. An attempt was made to match the directionality of the source with the directionality of the human voice using data reported in the literature. A narrow aperture was required for the design which was provided by mounting an inverted conical horn over the diaphragm of a high frequency loudspeaker. Resonance problems were encountered with the use of a horn and a description is given of the electronic techniques adopted to minimize the effect of these resonances. Subjective and objective assessments on the completed speech source have proved satisfactory. It has been used in a modelling exercise concerned with the acoustic design of a theatre with a thrust-type stage.

  6. Assessment of ifsh coproductsSardina pilchardus as the source of lactic acid bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamza Belkhodja; Mohamed Allam; Fatima Sahnouni; Ouardia Boukhari

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To recover the waste (edges, heads and guts) of a species of pelagic fishSardina pilchardus as a source of lactic bacteria. Methods:The microbiological control of the fish waste was carried out. Then, the fish waste was assessed as a source of bacteria of industrial interest among other lactic bacteria. The standard protocol for researches of these microorganisms was adopted which comprised enrichment, isolation, identification, purification and conservation. Results:The results of the microbiological control indicated the presence of some species as part of the normal flora of the fish. The physiological and biochemical characterization has presented 2 different groups of lactic bacteria:Lactobacillus fermentum andLactobacillusspp. Conclusions:The assessment of fish waste can give us the opportunity to obtain different species of useful bacteria.

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    traditional pretreatment method using a screw press. The inventory of the technologies was constructed including the mass balance, amount of biogas produced, nutrient recovery rates, and produced biomass quality. The technologies were modelled in the LCA-model EASETECH and the potential environmental impacts......The environmental performance of two pretreatment technologies for source-separated organic waste was compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). An innovative pulping process where source-separated organic waste is pulped with cold water forming a volatile solid rich biopulp was compared to a more...... including a number of non-toxic and toxic impact categories were assessed. No big difference in the overall performance of the two technologies was observed. The difference for the separate life cycle steps was, however, more pronounced. More efficient material transfer in the scenario with waste pulping...

  8. Development of visible spectroscopy diagnostics for W sources assessment in WEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, O.; Jones, O. M.; Giacalone, J. C.; Pascal, J. Y.; Raulin, D.; Xu, H.; Aumeunier, M. H.; Baude, R.; Escarguel, A.; Gil, C.; Harris, J. H.; Hatchressian, J.-C.; Klepper, C. C.; Larroque, S.; Lotte, Ph.; Moreau, Ph.; Pégourié, B.; Vartanian, S.

    2016-11-01

    The present work concerns the development of a W sources assessment system in the framework of the tungsten-W environment in steady state tokamak project that aims at equipping the existing Tore Supra device with a tungsten divertor in order to test actively cooled tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) in view of preparing ITER operation. The goal is to assess W sources and D recycling with spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution adapted to the PFCs observed. The originality of the system is that all optical elements are installed in the vacuum vessel and compatible with steady state operation. Our system is optimized to measure radiance as low as 1016 Ph/(m2 s sr). A total of 240 optical fibers will be deployed to the detection systems such as the "Filterscope," developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (USA) and consisting of photomultiplier tubes and filters, or imaging spectrometers dedicated to Multiview analysis.

  9. An interdisciplinary assessment of regional-scale nonpoint source ground-water vulnerability; theory and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernknopf, Richard L.; Dinitz, Laura B.; Loague, Keith

    2001-01-01

    An integrated earth science-economics model, developed within a geographic information system (GIS), combines a regional-scale nonpoint source vulnerability assessment with a specific remediation measure to avoid unnecessary agricultural production costs associated with the use of agrochemicals in the Pearl Harbor basin on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. This approach forms the core of a risk-based regulation for the application of agrochemicals and estimates the benefits of an information-based approach to decisionmaking.

  10. Aggregates from natural and recycled sources; economic assessments for construction applications; a materials flow study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, David R.; Goonan, Thomas G.

    1998-01-01

    Increased amounts of recycled materials are being used to supplement natural aggregates (derived from crushed stone, sand and gravel) in road construction. An understanding of the economics and factors affecting the level of aggregates recycling is useful in estimating the potential for recycling and in assessing the total supply picture of aggregates. This investigation includes a descriptive analysis of the supply sources, technology, costs, incentives, deterrents, and market relationships associated with the production of aggregates.

  11. Assessing TCE source bioremediation by geostatistical analysis of a flux fence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zuansi; Wilson, Ryan D; Lerner, David N

    2012-01-01

    Mass discharge across transect planes is increasingly used as a metric for performance assessment of in situ groundwater remediation systems. Mass discharge estimates using concentrations measured in multilevel transects are often made by assuming a uniform flow field, and uncertainty contributions from spatial concentration and flow field variability are often overlooked. We extend our recently developed geostatistical approach to estimate mass discharge using transect data of concentration and hydraulic conductivity, so accounting for the spatial variability of both datasets. The magnitude and uncertainty of mass discharge were quantified by conditional simulation. An important benefit of the approach is that uncertainty is quantified as an integral part of the mass discharge estimate. We use this approach for performance assessment of a bioremediation experiment of a trichloroethene (TCE) source zone. Analyses of dissolved parent and daughter compounds demonstrated that the engineered bioremediation has elevated the degradation rate of TCE, resulting in a two-thirds reduction in the TCE mass discharge from the source zone. The biologically enhanced dissolution of TCE was not significant (~5%), and was less than expected. However, the discharges of the daughter products cis-1,2, dichloroethene (cDCE) and vinyl chloride (VC) increased, probably because of the rapid transformation of TCE from the source zone to the measurement transect. This suggests that enhancing the biodegradation of cDCE and VC will be crucial to successful engineered bioremediation of TCE source zones.

  12. Water Quality Assessment of Various Sources in Rural Areas in the Lowveld Region of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Olutola Fadiran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses water quality levels of sources used by rural communities in the lowveld region of Swaziland. The water quality assessments are based on household perceptions about water quality and laboratory water quality analyses which were carried out on selected water quality parameters. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed and in addition water samples from 13 locations were analysed. The parameters considered were physical factors including pH, colour, taste and odour. Results of pH tests indicated that 23.1% of the water sources were acidic, 7.7% were neutral and 69.2% were alkaline. Water collected from the unprotected wells tested acidic, had a pH of 5.96, implying that it is corrosive and might present health risks to humans and livestock. Sources with highly alkaline water were the borehole, spring, hot spring standpipes, and rivers. Survey findings show that colour, taste, smell and turbidity are the quality parameters mostly used by rural households to determine water suitability for domestic use. Most ground water sources were found to have saline water due to low ground water recharge in the area. Water quality remains a sustainable development challenge in the rural areas of Swaziland.

  13. Assessing ongoing sources of dissolved-phase polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David M.; Lee, Cindy M.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies assess the potential of ongoing sources of “fresh” polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to aquatic systems when direct discharge to the environment has been eliminated. In the present study, the authors used single-layered, low-density polyethylene samplers (PEs) to measure total PCB concentrations, congener profiles, and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) in a contaminated stream and to provide multiple lines of evidence for assessing ongoing inputs of PCB. Concentrations were well above background levels that have been monitored for years. Concentrations significantly increased with distance, the farthest downstream PE concentrations being almost five times greater than those at 79 m downstream of a historical point source. The PCBs in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the contamination source were dominated by low KOW congeners, similar to those in the mixture of Aroclors 1016 and 1254 (4:1 v/v) historically released from the former capacitor manufacturer. The only two chiral congeners detected in the PEs downstream were PCBs 91 and 95. The EF values were nonracemic for PCB 91, while the values were either racemic or near racemic for PCB 95. Increased PCB concentrations with distance and a congener composition of predominantly low-weight congeners in the PEs at 79 m downstream of the plant site suggested an ongoing PCB source from the plant site. Chiral signatures suggested aerobic biotransformation of dissolved PCBs but did not shed any light on possible ongoing PCB inputs.

  14. Analysis of source term modeling for low-level radioactive waste performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icenhour, A.S.

    1995-03-01

    Site-specific radiological performance assessments are required for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at both commercial and US Department of Energy facilities. This work explores source term modeling of LLW disposal facilities by using two state-of-the-art computer codes, SOURCEI and SOURCE2. An overview of the performance assessment methodology is presented, and the basic processes modeled in the SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 codes are described. Comparisons are made between the two advective models for a variety of radionuclides, transport parameters, and waste-disposal technologies. These comparisons show that, in general, the zero-order model predicts undecayed cumulative fractions leached that are slightly greater than or equal to those of the first-order model. For long-lived radionuclides, results from the two models eventually reach the same value. By contrast, for short-lived radionuclides, the zero-order model predicts a slightly higher undecayed cumulative fraction leached than does the first-order model. A new methodology, based on sensitivity and uncertainty analyses, is developed for predicting intruder scenarios. This method is demonstrated for {sup 137}Cs in a tumulus-type disposal facility. The sensitivity and uncertainty analyses incorporate input-parameter uncertainty into the evaluation of a potential time of intrusion and the remaining radionuclide inventory. Finally, conclusions from this study are presented, and recommendations for continuing work are made.

  15. Distribution, sources and health risk assessment of mercury in kindergarten dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangyi; Li, Zhonggen; Bi, Xiangyang; Chen, Yupeng; Lu, Shuangfang; Yuan, Xin

    2013-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination in urban area is a hot issue in environmental research. In this study, the distribution, sources and health risk of Hg in dust from 69 kindergartens in Wuhan, China, were investigated. In comparison with most other cities, the concentrations of total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) were significantly elevated, ranging from 0.15 to 10.59 mg kg-1 and from 0.64 to 3.88 μg kg-1, respectively. Among the five different urban areas, the educational area had the highest concentrations of THg and MeHg. The GIS mapping was used to identify the hot-spot areas and assess the potential pollution sources of Hg. The emissions of coal-power plants and coking plants were the main sources of THg in the dust, whereas the contributions of municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills and iron and steel smelting related industries were not significant. However, the emission of MSW landfills was considered to be an important source of MeHg in the studied area. The result of health risk assessment indicated that there was a high adverse health effect of the kindergarten dust in terms of Hg contamination on the children living in the educational area (Hazard index (HI) = 6.89).

  16. Assessment of nonpoint-source runoff in a stream using in situ and laboratory approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, K.A.; Burton, G.A. Jr.

    1999-12-01

    Anthropogenic activities that change a watershed can cause adverse impacts to receiving water. Agricultural and urban runoff are the two leading causes of surface-water impairment in the US. When assessing pollutant sources and their effects on aquatic ecosystems, and prior to implementing source controls, it is necessary to define the systems stressors and receptors of exposure. Toxicity assays are a key component to integrative assessments that include habitat (physical), chemical, and indigenous community characterization. Traditional toxicity assay methods and the use of water-quality criteria are often inappropriate because of exposure design and effect assumptions. Hyalella azteca and Chironomus tentans were exposed in situ for varying time periods during both low- and high-flow conditions to determine the effect of urban and agricultural runoff. Short-term chronic and acute toxicity of urban and agricultural runoff was then measured in the laboratory and related to in situ test results. Nonpoint-source (NPS) runoff from urban areas was often more acutely toxic to organisms in the laboratory as compared to in situ results. Conversely, toxicity to the organisms was greater at the agricultural site during in situ exposures when compared to laboratory. In situ assays were an essential and integral component of NPS runoff assessments. They provided unique information that complemented laboratory toxicity, habitat, benthic community, and physicochemical characterizations.

  17. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment at Seaside, Oregon, for near- and far-field seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    GonzáLez, F. I.; Geist, E. L.; Jaffe, B.; KâNoǧLu, U.; Mofjeld, H.; Synolakis, C. E.; Titov, V. V.; Arcas, D.; Bellomo, D.; Carlton, D.; Horning, T.; Johnson, J.; Newman, J.; Parsons, T.; Peters, R.; Peterson, C.; Priest, G.; Venturato, A.; Weber, J.; Wong, F.; Yalciner, A.

    2009-11-01

    The first probabilistic tsunami flooding maps have been developed. The methodology, called probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA), integrates tsunami inundation modeling with methods of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Application of the methodology to Seaside, Oregon, has yielded estimates of the spatial distribution of 100- and 500-year maximum tsunami amplitudes, i.e., amplitudes with 1% and 0.2% annual probability of exceedance. The 100-year tsunami is generated most frequently by far-field sources in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone and is characterized by maximum amplitudes that do not exceed 4 m, with an inland extent of less than 500 m. In contrast, the 500-year tsunami is dominated by local sources in the Cascadia Subduction Zone and is characterized by maximum amplitudes in excess of 10 m and an inland extent of more than 1 km. The primary sources of uncertainty in these results include those associated with interevent time estimates, modeling of background sea level, and accounting for temporal changes in bathymetry and topography. Nonetheless, PTHA represents an important contribution to tsunami hazard assessment techniques; viewed in the broader context of risk analysis, PTHA provides a method for quantifying estimates of the likelihood and severity of the tsunami hazard, which can then be combined with vulnerability and exposure to yield estimates of tsunami risk.

  18. Probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment at Seaside, Oregon, for near-and far-field seismic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Geist, E.L.; Jaffe, B.; Kanoglu, U.; Mofjeld, H.; Synolakis, C.E.; Titov, V.V.; Areas, D.; Bellomo, D.; Carlton, D.; Horning, T.; Johnson, J.; Newman, J.; Parsons, T.; Peters, R.; Peterson, C.; Priest, G.; Venturato, A.; Weber, J.; Wong, F.; Yalciner, A.

    2009-01-01

    The first probabilistic tsunami flooding maps have been developed. The methodology, called probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA), integrates tsunami inundation modeling with methods of probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA). Application of the methodology to Seaside, Oregon, has yielded estimates of the spatial distribution of 100- and 500-year maximum tsunami amplitudes, i.e., amplitudes with 1% and 0.2% annual probability of exceedance. The 100-year tsunami is generated most frequently by far-field sources in the Alaska-Aleutian Subduction Zone and is characterized by maximum amplitudes that do not exceed 4 m, with an inland extent of less than 500 m. In contrast, the 500-year tsunami is dominated by local sources in the Cascadia Subduction Zone and is characterized by maximum amplitudes in excess of 10 m and an inland extent of more than 1 km. The primary sources of uncertainty in these results include those associated with interevent time estimates, modeling of background sea level, and accounting for temporal changes in bathymetry and topography. Nonetheless, PTHA represents an important contribution to tsunami hazard assessment techniques; viewed in the broader context of risk analysis, PTHA provides a method for quantifying estimates of the likelihood and severity of the tsunami hazard, which can then be combined with vulnerability and exposure to yield estimates of tsunami risk. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Assessment of Eutrophication in Estuaries: Pressure-State-Response and Nitrogen Source Apportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitall, David; Bricker, Suzanne; Ferreira, Joao; Nobre, Ana M.; Simas, Teresa; Silva, Margarida

    2007-10-01

    A eutrophication assessment method was developed as part of the National Estuarine Eutrophication Assessment (NEEA) Program. The program is designed to improve monitoring and assessment of eutrophication in the estuaries and coastal bays of the United States with the intent to guide management plans and develop analytical and research models and tools for managers. These tools will help guide and improve management success for estuaries and coastal resources. The assessment method, a Pressure-State-Response approach, uses a simple model to determine Pressure and statistical criteria for indicator variables (where applicable) to determine State. The Response determination is mostly heuristic, although research models are being developed to improve that component. The three components are determined individually and then combined into a single rating. Application to several systems in the European Union (E.U.), specifically in Portugal, shows that the method is transferable, and thus is useful for development of management measures in both the Unites States and E.U. This approach identifies and quantifies the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources to estuaries so that management measures can target inputs for maximum effect. Because nitrogen is often the limiting nutrient in estuarine systems, examples of source identification and quantification for nitrogen have been developed for 11 coastal watersheds on the U.S. east coast using the WATERSN model. In general, estuaries in the Northeastern United States receive most of their nitrogen from human sewage, followed by atmospheric deposition. This is in contrast to some watersheds in the Mid-Atlantic (Chesapeake Bay) and South Atlantic (Pamlico Sound), which receive most of their nitrogen from agricultural runoff. Source identification is important for implementing effective management measures that should be monitored for success using assessment methods, as described herein. For instance, these results suggest that

  20. A Methodology for a Comprehensive Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Multiple Sources and Short-Term Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grezio Anita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a methodological approach for a comprehensive and total probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (TotPTHA, in which many different possible source types concur to the definition of the total tsunami hazard at given target sites. In a multi-hazard and multi-risk perspective, the approach allows us to consider all possible tsunamigenic sources (seismic events, slides, volcanic eruptions, asteroids, etc.. In this respect, we also formally introduce and discuss the treatment of interaction/cascade effects in the TotPTHA analysis and we demonstrate how the triggering events may induce significant temporary variations in short-term analysis of the tsunami hazard. In two target sites (the city of Naples and the island of Ischia in Italy we prove the feasibility of the TotPTHA methodology in the multi—source case considering near submarine seismic sources and submarine mass failures in the study area. The TotPTHA indicated that the tsunami hazard increases significantly by considering both the potential submarine mass failures and the submarine seismic events. Finally, the importance of the source interactions is evaluated by applying a triggering seismic event that causes relevant changes in the short-term TotPTHA.

  1. Assessing the Emission Sources of Atmospheric Mercury in Wet Deposition Across Illinois, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gratz L. E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available From August 2007 to August 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg and trace element analysis at four sites in Illinois, USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify the levels of Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. The measurement sites were located in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. We were not able to identify a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition among the sites. At all four locations we frequently observed Hg concentrations in precipitation > 25 ng/L, while each site received > 10 μg/m2 of Hg wet deposition annually, suggesting a substantial impact from local and regional anthropogenic emission sources. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. The results suggested that 60-83% of total Hg deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. Although we identified other source signatures in the precipitation composition, including cement manufacturing, metal smelting / waste incineration, and iron-steel production, these sources contributed substantially less to the measured amounts of Hg wet deposition. We also applied the hybrid receptor model Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA to the Hg wet deposition data from each site to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. Results suggested that sources in the Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and Ohio River Valley urban/industrial areas had a substantial impact on Hg wet deposition, strongly supporting the conclusion that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois.

  2. Sources

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    SOURCES MANUSCRITES Archives nationales Rôles de taille 1768/71 Z1G-344/18 Aulnay Z1G-343a/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-340/01 Ivry Z1G-340/05 Orly Z1G-334c/09 Saint-Remy-lès-Chevreuse Z1G-344/18 Sevran Z1G-340/05 Thiais 1779/80 Z1G-391a/18 Aulnay Z1G-380/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-385/01 Ivry Z1G-387b/05 Orly Z1G-388a/09 Saint-Remy-lès-Chevreuse Z1G-391a/18 Sevran Z1G-387b/05 Thiais 1788/89 Z1G-451/18 Aulnay Z1G-452/21 Chennevières Z1G-443b/02 Gennevilliers Z1G-440a/01 Ivry Z1G-452/17 Noiseau Z1G-445b/05 ...

  3. Accounting for multiple sources of uncertainty in impact assessments: The example of the BRACE study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    Assessing climate change impacts often requires the use of multiple scenarios, types of models, and data sources, leading to a large number of potential sources of uncertainty. For example, a single study might require a choice of a forcing scenario, climate model, bias correction and/or downscaling method, societal development scenario, model (typically several) for quantifying elements of societal development such as economic and population growth, biophysical model (such as for crop yields or hydrology), and societal impact model (e.g. economic or health model). Some sources of uncertainty are reduced or eliminated by the framing of the question. For example, it may be useful to ask what an impact outcome would be conditional on a given societal development pathway, forcing scenario, or policy. However many sources of uncertainty remain, and it is rare for all or even most of these sources to be accounted for. I use the example of a recent integrated project on the Benefits of Reduced Anthropogenic Climate changE (BRACE) to explore useful approaches to uncertainty across multiple components of an impact assessment. BRACE comprises 23 papers that assess the differences in impacts between two alternative climate futures: those associated with Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. It quantifies difference in impacts in terms of extreme events, health, agriculture, tropical cyclones, and sea level rise. Methodologically, it includes climate modeling, statistical analysis, integrated assessment modeling, and sector-specific impact modeling. It employs alternative scenarios of both radiative forcing and societal development, but generally uses a single climate model (CESM), partially accounting for climate uncertainty by drawing heavily on large initial condition ensembles. Strengths and weaknesses of the approach to uncertainty in BRACE are assessed. Options under consideration for improving the approach include the use of perturbed physics

  4. Considering potential seismic sources in earthquake hazard assessment for Northern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahzadeh, Gholamreza; Sazjini, Mohammad; Shahaky, Mohsen; Tajrishi, Fatemeh Zahedi; Khanmohammadi, Leila

    2014-07-01

    Located on the Alpine-Himalayan earthquake belt, Iran is one of the seismically active regions of the world. Northern Iran, south of Caspian Basin, a hazardous subduction zone, is a densely populated and developing area of the country. Historical and instrumental documented seismicity indicates the occurrence of severe earthquakes leading to many deaths and large losses in the region. With growth of seismological and tectonic data, updated seismic hazard assessment is a worthwhile issue in emergency management programs and long-term developing plans in urban and rural areas of this region. In the present study, being armed with up-to-date information required for seismic hazard assessment including geological data and active tectonic setting for thorough investigation of the active and potential seismogenic sources, and historical and instrumental events for compiling the earthquake catalogue, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is carried out for the region using three recent ground motion prediction equations. The logic tree method is utilized to capture epistemic uncertainty of the seismic hazard assessment in delineation of the seismic sources and selection of attenuation relations. The results are compared to a recent practice in code-prescribed seismic hazard of the region and are discussed in detail to explore their variation in each branch of logic tree approach. Also, seismic hazard maps of peak ground acceleration in rock site for 475- and 2,475-year return periods are provided for the region.

  5. Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: a case study in the Yellow River wetland in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongqian; Xu, Huashan; He, Yuxiao; Tai, Chao; Meng, Hongqi; Zeng, Fanfu; Xing, Menglin

    2009-01-01

    Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Linn, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Linn, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K(15)NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. communis Trin, 68.75% for T. angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. communis Trin, 72.22% for S. triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. communis Trin (9.731 mg/g) > old P. communis Trin (4.939 mg/g) > S. triqueter (0.620 mg/g) > T. angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution.

  6. Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: A case study in the Yellow River wetland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tongqian; XU Huashan; HE Yuxiao; TAI Chao; MENG Hongqi; ZENG Fanfu; XING Menglin

    2009-01-01

    Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Lima, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Liun, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K15NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. Communis Trin, 68.75% for T. Angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. Triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. Communis Trin, 72.22% for S. Triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. Communis Trin (9.731 mg/g)>old P. Communis Trin (4.939 mg/g)>S. Triqueter (0.620 mg/g)>T. Angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution.

  7. Human-Scale Sustainability Assessment of Urban Intersections Based upon Multi-Source Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhuan Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the sustainability of an enormous number of urban intersections, a novel assessment model is proposed, along with an indicator system and corresponding methods to determine the indicators. Considering mainly the demands and feelings of the urban residents, the three aspects of safety, functionality, and image perception are taken into account in the indicator system. Based on technologies such as street view picture crawling, image segmentation, and edge detection, GIS spatial data analysis, a rapid automated assessment method, and a corresponding multi-source database are built up to determine the indicators. The improved information entropy method is applied to obtain the entropy weights of each indicator. A case study shows the efficiency and applicability of the proposed assessment model, indicator system and algorithm.

  8. Assessing the pollution risk of a groundwater source field at western Laizhou Bay under seawater intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiankui; Wu, Jichun; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Xiaobin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal areas have great significance for human living, economy and society development in the world. With the rapid increase of pressures from human activities and climate change, the safety of groundwater resource is under the threat of seawater intrusion in coastal areas. The area of Laizhou Bay is one of the most serious seawater intruded areas in China, since seawater intrusion phenomenon was firstly recognized in the middle of 1970s. This study assessed the pollution risk of a groundwater source filed of western Laizhou Bay area by inferring the probability distribution of groundwater Cl(-) concentration. The numerical model of seawater intrusion process is built by using SEAWAT4. The parameter uncertainty of this model is evaluated by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation, and DREAM(ZS) is used as sampling algorithm. Then, the predictive distribution of Cl(-) concentration at groundwater source field is inferred by using the samples of model parameters obtained from MCMC. After that, the pollution risk of groundwater source filed is assessed by the predictive quantiles of Cl(-) concentration. The results of model calibration and verification demonstrate that the DREAM(ZS) based MCMC is efficient and reliable to estimate model parameters under current observation. Under the condition of 95% confidence level, the groundwater source point will not be polluted by seawater intrusion in future five years (2015-2019). In addition, the 2.5% and 97.5% predictive quantiles show that the Cl(-) concentration of groundwater source field always vary between 175mg/l and 200mg/l. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of carbon sources on nutrient removal in A(2)/O-MBRs: Availability assessment of internal carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongle; Fan, Yaobo; Wei, Yuansong; Wang, Yawei; Luo, Nan; Yang, Min; Yuan, Xing; Yu, Rong

    2016-10-01

    Both internal carbon source and some external carbon sources were used to improve the nutrient removal in Anaerobic-Anoxic-Oxic-Membrane Bioreactor (A(2)/O-MBRs), and their technical and cost analysis was investigated. The experimental results showed that the nutrient removals were improved by all the carbon source additions. The total nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiency were higher in the experiments with external carbon source additions than that with internal carbon source addition. It was found that pathways of nitrogen and phosphorus transform were different dependent on different carbon source additions by the mass balance analysis. With external carbon source addition, the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification occurred in aerobic zone, and the P-uptake in aerobic phase was evident. Therefore, with addition of C-MHP (internal carbon source produced from sludge pretreatment by microwave-H2O2 process), the denitrification and phosphorus-uptake in anoxic zone was notable. Cost analysis showed that the unit nitrogen removal costs were 57.13CNY/kg N of C-acetate addition and 54.48CNY/kgN of C-MHP addition, respectively. The results indicated that the C-MHP has a good technical and economic feasibility to substitute external carbon sources partially for nutrient removal.

  10. Source term assessment with ASTEC and associated uncertainty analysis using SUNSET tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier-Jabet, K., E-mail: karine.chevalier-jabet@irsn.fr; Cousin, F.; Cantrel, L.; Séropian, C.

    2014-06-01

    Several accidental scenarios have been simulated using the ASTEC integral IRSN-GRS code for a French 1300 MWe PWR, including several break sizes or locations, highlighting the effect of safety systems and of iodine chemistry in the reactor coolant system (RCS) and in the containment on iodine source term evaluations. Iodine chemistry in the RCS and in the containment is still subject to significant uncertainties and it is thus studied in on-going R and D programs. To assess the impact of uncertainties, ASTEC has been coupled to the IRSN uncertainty propagation and sensitivity analysis tool SUNSET. Focusing on a loss of feed-water of steam generator accident, ASTEC/SUNSET calculations have been performed to assess the effect of remaining uncertainties relative to iodine behaviour on the source term. Calculations show that the postulated lack of knowledge may impact the iodine source term in the environment by at least one decade, confirming the importance of the on-going R and D programs to improve the knowledge on iodine chemistry.

  11. Assessing the emission sources of atmospheric mercury in wet deposition across Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Lynne E; Keeler, Gerald J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Dvonch, J Timothy

    2013-03-15

    From August 4, 2007 to August 31, 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg) and trace element analyses at four sites in Illinois (IL), USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. Monitoring sites were located, from north to south, in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. Measurements from these four sites demonstrated that a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition was not evident across the state. Each site received>10μgm(-2) of Hg wet deposition annually, and these observed values were comparable to annual Hg wet deposition measurements from other event-based precipitation monitoring sites in source-impacted areas of the Midwestern U.S. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v3.0), to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. Results suggested that 50% to 74% of total Hg wet deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. The other source signatures identified in the precipitation compositions included cement manufacturing, mixed metal smelting/waste incineration, iron-steel production, and a phosphorus source. We also applied a hybrid receptor model, Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA), to the Hg wet deposition datasets to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. The calculated QTBA probability fields suggested that transport from urban/industrial areas, such as Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and the Ohio River Valley, resulted in some of the highest estimated event-based Hg wet deposition amounts at the four sites (potential mass transfer of up to 0.32μgm(-2)). The combined application of PMF and QTBA supported the hypothesis that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois.

  12. A systematic literature review of open source software quality assessment models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, Adewole; Misra, Sanjay; Omoregbe, Nicholas; Crawford, Broderick; Soto, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Many open source software (OSS) quality assessment models are proposed and available in the literature. However, there is little or no adoption of these models in practice. In order to guide the formulation of newer models so they can be acceptable by practitioners, there is need for clear discrimination of the existing models based on their specific properties. Based on this, the aim of this study is to perform a systematic literature review to investigate the properties of the existing OSS quality assessment models by classifying them with respect to their quality characteristics, the methodology they use for assessment, and their domain of application so as to guide the formulation and development of newer models. Searches in IEEE Xplore, ACM, Science Direct, Springer and Google Search is performed so as to retrieve all relevant primary studies in this regard. Journal and conference papers between the year 2003 and 2015 were considered since the first known OSS quality model emerged in 2003. A total of 19 OSS quality assessment model papers were selected. To select these models we have developed assessment criteria to evaluate the quality of the existing studies. Quality assessment models are classified into five categories based on the quality characteristics they possess namely: single-attribute, rounded category, community-only attribute, non-community attribute as well as the non-quality in use models. Our study reflects that software selection based on hierarchical structures is found to be the most popular selection method in the existing OSS quality assessment models. Furthermore, we found that majority (47%) of the existing models do not specify any domain of application. In conclusion, our study will be a valuable contribution to the community and helps the quality assessment model developers in formulating newer models and also to the practitioners (software evaluators) in selecting suitable OSS in the midst of alternatives.

  13. Watershed Assessment with Beach Microbial Source Tracking and Outcomes of Resulting Gull Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Kelly D; Gruber, Steve; Vondrak, Mary; Crumpacker, Andrea

    2016-09-20

    Total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation at a southern California beach involved ultraviolet treatment of watershed drainage that provided >97% reduction in fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) concentrations. However, this pollutant control measure did not provide sufficient improvement of beach water quality, prompting further assessment. Investigation included microbial source tracking (MST) for human, gull, and canine fecal sources, monitoring of enterococci and fecal coliform, and measurement of chemical and physical water quality parameters for samples collected from watershed, groundwater, and beach sites, including a beach scour pond and tidal creek. FIB variability remained poorly modeled in regression analysis. However, MST revealed correlations between FIB and gull source tracking markers, leading to recommendations to manage gulls as a pollutant source. Beach conditions were followed for three years after implementation of a best management practice (BMP) to abate gulls using a falconry program for the beach and an upland landfill. The gull abatement BMP was associated with improved beach water quality, and this appears to be the first report of falconry in the context of TMDL implementation. Overall, MST data enabled management action despite an inability to fully model FIB dynamics in the coupled watershed-beach system.

  14. A Comprehensive Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment: Multiple Sources and Short-Term Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anita, G.; Selva, J.; Laura, S.

    2011-12-01

    We develop a comprehensive and total probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (TotPTHA), in which many different possible source types concur to the definition of the total tsunami hazard at given target sites. In a multi-hazard and multi-risk perspective, such an innovative approach allows, in principle, to consider all possible tsunamigenic sources, from seismic events, to slides, asteroids, volcanic eruptions, etc. In this respect, we also formally introduce and discuss the treatment of interaction/cascade effects in the TotPTHA analysis. We demonstrate how external triggering events may induce significant temporary variations in the tsunami hazard. Because of this, such effects should always be considered, at least in short-term applications, to obtain unbiased analyses. Finally, we prove the feasibility of the TotPTHA and of the treatment of interaction/cascade effects by applying this methodology to an ideal region with realistic characteristics (Neverland).

  15. Ecological risk assessment and sources of heavy metals in sediment from Daling River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Mi, Dong; Chen, Yifu; Wang, Luo; Sun, Yeqing

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the distribution, source, and ecological risk of heavy metals in Daling River basin, 28 surface sediments collected in this region were analyzed by experimental and theoretical methods. Seven heavy metals, including Pb, Cr, Hg, Cu, As, Cd, and Zn, were detected in all samples. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the ecological risks of these heavy metals. It was found that the pollution of Cd was the most serious; the ecological risks in Daling River and Bohai Bay were significantly higher than those in estuary, Bohai Sea, and wetland, but overall, the ecological risks of these heavy metals were low to aquatic organisms in Daling River basin at present. Correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis showed that these heavy metals might originate from the same pollution sources located near Daling River and Bohai Bay.

  16. Exploring REACH as a potential data source for characterizing ecotoxicity in life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Nienke; de Zwart, Dick; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    , such as the European Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation, and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) database. The present study explored REACH as a potential data source for LCIA based on matching reported ecotoxicity data for substances that are currently also included in the United Nations Environment Programme......Toxicity models in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) currently only characterize a small fraction of marketed substances, mostly because of limitations in the underlying ecotoxicity data. One approach to improve the current data situation in LCIA is to identify new data sources....../Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (UNEP/SETAC) scientific consensus model USEtox for characterizing toxicity impacts. Data are evaluated with respect to number of data points, reported reliability, and test duration, and are compared with data listed in USEtox at the level of hazardous concentration for 50...

  17. Source apportionment and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheric environment of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairy, Mohammed A; Lohmann, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    In this study, three receptor models [factor analysis/multiple linear regression (FA/MLR), positive matrix factorization (PMF) and UNMIX] were applied seasonally to investigate the source apportionment of PAHs in the atmospheric environment of Alexandria, and a lifetime cancer risk was assessed. ∑44 (gas+particle) PAH concentrations varied from 330 to 1770ngm(-3) and 170-1290ngm(-3) in the summer and winter seasons respectively. PAH concentrations at the industrial sites were significantly higher than at the traffic and residential sites during the winter season (p<0.001). Summer PAH concentrations were significantly higher than the winter season at the traffic sites (p=0.027). Results obtained from the three receptor models were comparable. Vehicle emissions, both diesel and gasoline contributed on average 36.0-49.0% and 19.0-34.0% respectively, natural gas combustion 11.0-27.0% and, during the summer only, also evaporative/uncombusted petroleum sources 8.00-18.0%. Seasonal trends were found for the gasoline emission source. Overall, PMF and UNMIX models afforded better source identification than did FA/MLR. The lifetime cancer risk assessment showed that incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILTCRs) were greater than the acceptable level of 10(-6) through dermal and ingestion routes at all the investigated sites and through the inhalation route at the industrial and traffic sites only. Total ILTCRs (6.64×10(-3)-4.42×10(-2)) indicated high potential risks to the local residents.

  18. Performance assessment of the BEBIG MultiSource high dose rate brachytherapy treatment unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Antony; Mzenda, Bongile

    2009-12-21

    A comprehensive system characterisation was performed of the Eckert & Ziegler BEBIG GmbH MultiSource High Dose Rate (HDR) brachytherapy treatment unit with an (192)Ir source. The unit is relatively new to the UK market, with the first installation in the country having been made in the summer of 2009. A detailed commissioning programme was devised and is reported including checks of the fundamental parameters of source positioning, dwell timing, transit doses and absolute dosimetry of the source. Well chamber measurements, autoradiography and video camera analysis techniques were all employed. The absolute dosimetry was verified by the National Physical Laboratory, UK, and compared to a measurement based on a calibration from PTB, Germany, and the supplied source certificate, as well as an independent assessment by a visiting UK centre. The use of the 'Krieger' dosimetry phantom has also been evaluated. Users of the BEBIG HDR system should take care to avoid any significant bend in the transfer tube, as this will lead to positioning errors of the source, of up to 1.0 mm for slight bends, 2.0 mm for moderate bends and 5.0 mm for extreme curvature (depending on applicators and transfer tube used) for the situations reported in this study. The reason for these errors and the potential clinical impact are discussed. Users should also note the methodology employed by the system for correction of transit doses, and that no correction is made for the initial and final transit doses. The results of this investigation found that the uncorrected transit doses lead to small errors in the delivered dose at the first dwell position, of up to 2.5 cGy at 2 cm (5.6 cGy at 1 cm) from a 10 Ci source, but the transit dose correction for other dwells was accurate within 0.2 cGy. The unit has been mechanically reliable, and source positioning accuracy and dwell timing have been reproducible, with overall performance similar to other existing HDR equipment. The unit is capable of high

  19. Distance education course on spatial multi-hazard risk assessment, using Open Source software

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Westen, C. J.; Frigerio, S.

    2009-04-01

    As part of the capacity building activities of the United Nations University - ITC School on Disaster Geo-Information Management (UNU-ITC DGIM) the International Institute for Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation (ITC) has developed a distance education course on the application of Geographic Information Systems for multi-hazard risk assessment. This course is designed for academic staff, as well as for professionals working in (non-) governmental organizations where knowledge of disaster risk management is essential. The course guides the participants through the entire process of risk assessment, on the basis of a case study of a city exposed to multiple hazards, in a developing country. The courses consists of eight modules, each with a guide book explaining the theoretical background, and guiding the participants through spatial data requirements for risk assessment, hazard assessment procedures, generation of elements at risk databases, vulnerability assessment, qualitative and quantitative risk assessment methods, risk evaluation and risk reduction. Linked to the theory is a large set of exercises, with exercise descriptions, answer sheets, demos and GIS data. The exercises deal with four different types of hazards: earthquakes, flooding, technological hazards, and landslides. One important consideration in designing the course is that people from developing countries should not be restricted in using it due to financial burdens for software acquisition. Therefore the aim was to use Open Source software as a basis. The GIS exercises are written for the ILWIS software. All exercises have also been integrated into a WebGIS, using the Open source software CartoWeb (based on GNU License). It is modular and customizable thanks to its object-oriented architecture and based on a hierarchical structure (to manage and organize every package of information of every step required in risk assessment). Different switches for every component of the risk assessment

  20. Assessment of exposure to indoor air contaminants from combustion sources: methodology and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaderer, B P; Zagraniski, R T; Berwick, M; Stolwijk, J A

    1986-08-01

    A methodology for assessing indoor air pollutant exposures is presented, with specific application to unvented combustion by-products. This paper describes the method as applied to a study of acute respiratory illness associated with the use of unvented kerosene space heaters in 333 residences in the New Haven, Connecticut, area from September 1982 to April 1983. The protocol serves as a prototype for a nested design of exposure assessment which could be applied to large-scale field studies of indoor air contaminant levels. Questionnaires, secondary records, and several methods of air monitoring offer a reliable method of estimating environmental exposures for assessing associations with health effects at a reasonable cost. Indoor to outdoor ratios of NO2 concentrations were found to be 0.58 +/- 0.31 for residences without known sources of NO2. Levels of NO2 were found to be comparable for homes with a kerosene heater only and those with a gas cooking stove only. Homes with a kerosene heater and a gas stove had average two-week NO2 levels approximately double those with only one source. Presence of tobacco smokers had a small but significant impact on indoor NO2 levels. Two-week average levels of indoor NO2 were found to be excellent predictors of total personal NO2 exposure for a small sample of adults. Residences with kerosene space heaters had SO2 levels corresponding to the number of hours of heater use and the sulfur content of the fuel. Formaldehyde levels were found to be low and not related to unvented combustion sources. NO2, SO2, and CO2 levels measured in some of the residences were found to exceed those levels specified in current national health standards.

  1. Tsunami hazard assessment in Nice, France, and influence of uncertainties in source parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Agathe; Loevenbruck, Anne; Heinrich, Philippe; Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène

    2015-04-01

    Although the tsunami hazard on the French Mediterranean coast is still poorly known, potential tsunamigenic sources exist in the Western Mediterranean basin. Even though the water heights are moderate, generated waves and currents could reach busy beaches, harbors and other coastal structures. The European project ASTARTE aims at reaching a higher level of tsunami resilience in the North-East Atlantic and Mediterranean region (called NEAM by IOC-UNESCO). In this context, ASTARTE proposes to improve the knowledge of tsunami generation, develop methods for hazard, vulnerability and risk assessment, better understand local coastal effects and enhance tools for early warning system. 9 test sites, including Nice for the French coasts, have been selected all over the NEAM area. Nice is the largest city of the French Riviera and welcomes a very large number of tourists every year, notably for seaside activities. Moreover its waterfront hosts the second French airport and many other facilities. Our work focuses on the tsunami hazard assessment related to seismic sources. This study, based on a worst-case scenarios approach, is carried out using multigrid numerical simulations. Seismic sources are computed through the Okada elastic dislocation model and constrained with the seismological parameters of the rupture. The coseismic deformation provides the initial condition to solve the shallow water equations on which the tsunami propagation simulation is based. Nested computational grids allow taking into account the shoaling effect for the Nice area as well as the potential inundation. The French Litto3D project, led by SHOM (Service Hydrographique et Oceanographique de la Marine) and IGN (Institut National de l'Information Geographique et Forestiere) provides high resolution bathymetric and topographic data (1 to 5 meters of resolution) along the coastline. Our modeling thus gives detailed estimation of the wave impacts on Nice with a particular focus on three critical

  2. Assessment of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels in Crete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zografakis, Nikolaos [Regional Energy Agency of Crete, Region of Crete, 71202 Heraklion (Greece); Gillas, Konstantinos; Pollaki, Antrianna; Profylienou, Maroulitsa; Bounialetou, Fanouria [Department of Economics, University of Crete, University Campus, 74100 Rethymno (Greece); Tsagarakis, Konstantinos P. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2011-05-15

    This study aims to assess the state of the art of practices and technologies of energy saving and renewable energy sources in hotels. This will contribute to determining the potential of efficient and sustainable energy technologies integration. Hotel managers were interviewed face to face and information sessions were provided. Special energy and environmental awareness campaigns, sectoral tourism programs for climate change mitigation and adaptation, supportive policies and hotel energy investments and renovation programs are some recommendations elicited from the results of this study. (author)

  3. Primary calibrations of radionuclide solutions and sources for the EML quality assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisenne, I.M. [Dept. of Energy, New York, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The quality assurance procedures established for the operation of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Environmental Measurements Laboratory (DOE-EML`s) Quality Assessment Program (QAP) are essentially the same as those that are in effect for any EML program involving radiometric measurements. All these programs have at their core the use of radionuclide standards for their instrument calibration. This paper focuses on EML`s approach to the acquisition, calibration and application of a wide range of radionuclide sources that are required to meet its programmatic needs.

  4. Assessment of Alder Tree Bark Potential as a Renewable Source of Proanthocyanidins in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janceva Sarmīte

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to assess potential of alder tree bark as a renewable source of bioactive polyphenolic compounds, antioxidant properties of hydrophilic extracts and proanthocyanidins (PAC isolated from bark of two alder species (grey alder and black alder growing in Latvia have been examined employing two test systems, ABTS●+, DPPH● assays. In the tests the high free radical scavenging capacities of the PAC were demonstrated. The polyphenolic nature of the bark PAC opens the possibility of its application as food additive. The PAC has good potential as an antioxidant for mayonnaise.

  5. Characterizing the Source Water for Montane Meadows to Assess Resiliency under Changing Hydroclimatic Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarnell, S. M.; Peek, R.; Bell, A.; Weixelman, D.; Viers, J. H.

    2015-12-01

    Ecologically and hydrologically functioning montane meadows provide a variety of ecosystem services and create biological hotspots in high-elevation landscapes. They serve as wetlands that filter water, attenuate floods, sequester carbon, sustain downstream flows, and provide high productivity habitat in typically lower productivity mountain regions. Their importance to watershed quality and health is well recognized, and restoration of meadows is a high priority for resource management agencies and non-governmental organizations. Yet many meadow restoration projects have limited outcomes or fail to achieve the desired effects due to a lack of understanding the underlying hydrological and geomorphic processes inherent to meadows that contribute to their resiliency. Few studies exist on how meadows are sustained through time despite various land use impacts or how the origin of water supplying the meadow (snowmelt-dominated versus regional groundwater-dominated) may influence meadow conditions. Furthermore, as climate conditions continue to change, questions remain regarding which meadows will be most resistant to and resilient from climate warming and thus have the highest potential for successful and sustainable restoration of meadow processes. We discuss these concepts and present two methods for assessing the regional and local contributions of source water to meadows as an indicator of resiliency. On a broad scale, comparisons of satellite imagery using metrics such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for regions with meadows may be useful to detect inter-annual and seasonal variations in meadow wetness and thus indicate meadow sites with larger groundwater sources that are more resilient over time. Locally, use of a hydrogeomorphic typing key that relates water source, geomorphic position, groundwater table elevation, and plant species composition may be useful to detect local groundwater sources that provide greater consistency of conditions and

  6. Tracing Back Clinical Campylobacter jejuni in the Northwest of Italy and Assessing Their Potential Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giannatale, Elisabetta; Garofolo, Giuliano; Alessiani, Alessandra; Di Donato, Guido; Candeloro, Luca; Vencia, Walter; Decastelli, Lucia; Marotta, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Food-borne campylobacteriosis is caused mainly by the handling or consumption of undercooked chicken meat or by the ingestion of contaminated raw milk. Knowledge about the contributions of different food sources to gastrointestinal disease is fundamental to prioritize food safety interventions and to establish proper control strategies. Assessing the genetic diversity among Campylobacter species is essential to our understanding of their epidemiology and population structure. We molecularly characterized 56 Campylobacter jejuni isolates (31 from patients hospitalized with gastroenteritis, 17 from raw milk samples, and 8 from chicken samples) using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in order to trace the source of the disease. We also used a population genetic approach to investigate the source of the human cases from six different reservoirs of infection. MLST identified 25 different sequence types and 11 clonal complexes (CCs) (21, 658, 206, 353, 443, 48, 61, 257, 1332, 354, 574) and these included several alleles not cited previously in the PubMLST international database. The most prevalent CCs were 21, 206, and 354. PFGE showed 34 pulsotypes divided between 28 different clusters. At the fine scale, by means of PFGE and MLST, only two human cases were linked to raw milk, while one case was linked to chicken meat. The investigation revealed the presence of several genotypes among the human isolates, which probably suggests multiple foci for the infections. Finally, the source attribution model we used revealed that most cases were attributed to chicken (69.75%) as the main reservoir in Italy, followed to a lesser extent by the following sources: cattle (8.25%); environment (6.28%); wild bird (7.37%); small ruminant (5.35%), and pork (2.98%). This study confirms the importance of correlating epidemiological investigations with molecular epidemiological data to better understand the dynamics of infection. PMID:27379033

  7. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ELSaidy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1 received farm tap water; (T2 received filtered tap water (T3 received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4 received underground (well water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05 for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2 group showed higher records for body weight (BWT, BWT gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G, albumin (A and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI, WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw

  8. The impact of different sources of body mass index assessment on smoking onset: An application of multiple-source information models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Maria Paola; Bellocco, Rino; Galanti, Maria Rosaria; Horton, Nicholas J

    2011-01-01

    Multiple-source data are often collected to provide better information of some underlying construct that is difficult to measure or likely to be missing. In this article, we describe regression-based methods for analyzing multiple-source data in Stata. We use data from the BROMS Cohort Study, a cohort of Swedish adolescents who collected data on body mass index that was self-reported and that was measured by nurses. We draw together into a single frame of reference both source reports and relate these to smoking onset. This unified method has two advantages over traditional approaches: 1) the relative predictiveness of each source can be assessed and 2) all subjects contribute to the analysis. The methods are applicable to other areas of epidemiology where multiple-source reports are used.

  9. Rockfall hazard assessment integrating probabilistic physically based rockfall source detection (Norddal municipality, Norway).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yugsi Molina, F. X.; Oppikofer, T.; Fischer, L.; Hermanns, R. L.; Taurisano, A.

    2012-04-01

    Traditional techniques to assess rockfall hazard are partially based on probabilistic analysis. Stochastic methods has been used for run-out analysis of rock blocks to estimate the trajectories that a detached block will follow during its fall until it stops due to kinetic energy loss. However, the selection of rockfall source areas is usually defined either by multivariate analysis or by field observations. For either case, a physically based approach is not used for the source area detection. We present an example of rockfall hazard assessment that integrates a probabilistic rockfall run-out analysis with a stochastic assessment of the rockfall source areas using kinematic stability analysis in a GIS environment. The method has been tested for a steep more than 200 m high rock wall, located in the municipality of Norddal (Møre og Romsdal county, Norway), where a large number of people are either exposed to snow avalanches, rockfalls, or debris flows. The area was selected following the recently published hazard mapping plan of Norway. The cliff is formed by medium to coarse-grained quartz-dioritic to granitic gneisses of Proterozoic age. Scree deposits product of recent rockfall activity are found at the bottom of the rock wall. Large blocks can be found several tens of meters away from the cliff in Sylte, the main locality in the Norddal municipality. Structural characterization of the rock wall was done using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point clouds in the software Coltop3D (www.terranum.ch), and results were validated with field data. Orientation data sets from the structural characterization were analyzed separately to assess best-fit probability density functions (PDF) for both dip angle and dip direction angle of each discontinuity set. A GIS-based stochastic kinematic analysis was then carried out using the discontinuity set orientations and the friction angle as random variables. An airborne laser scanning digital elevation model (ALS-DEM) with 1 m

  10. Synthesis of lignin-based copolymer LSAA and the application on controlling non-point source pollution (NPS) resulted from surface runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chen; WU Guangxia; MU Huanzhen; YUAN Zonghuan; TANG Lianyi; LIN Xiangwei

    2008-01-01

    In this article, alkali lignin separated from paper pulp waste was grafted into a novel copolymer LSAA (a copolymer of lignin, starch, acrylamide and acrylic acid). Its practical application effect and environmental safety were studied. The results of field simulation experiment indicated that the application of LSAA significantly affected the output of the runoff and pollutants. The runoff quantity was decreased by 16.67%-47.00% and the loads of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were reduced by 17.78%-62.14%, 26.32%-59.91%, 26.67%-42.86%, and 22.18%-52.78%, respectively. Tests on its environmental safety showed that LSAA did no harm the soil. Compared with polyacrylamide (PAM), a dominant product in this field, LSAA exhibited similar effects and cheap cost. Thus, this study not only created a new product for controlling runoff water quality but also offered a beneficial application for industrial paper waste.

  11. Bibliometric analysis on literatures of Non-Point Source Pollution at A Watershed Scale%流域非点源污染文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鑫; 闫铁柱; 曹洪涛; 陈少波

    2014-01-01

    非点源污染成为制约中国社会经济和环境可持续发展的重要因素.为了准确掌握流域非点源污染研究的全球状况和前沿动态,客观反映相关国家或地区在该领域的科学能力和科学影响,采用ISI Web of Knowlere的Web of Science引文数据库,选用基本检索方式,以流域非点源的相关术语作为主题检索词,对1900年-2012年之间该库收录的此领域的相关文献进行计量分析.结果表明:从发文量、研究机构和研究人员、高被引文献分析可以看出,美国在此领域成绩卓越,领先于其他国家;在典型机理模型运用方面,SWAT的发文量最多,占模型运用相关文献发文量的52%;国际上该领域最主要的期刊有Journal of The American Water Resources Association、Science of The Total Environment、Journal of Hydrology和Journal of Environmental Quality;中国科学院、北京师范大学和浙江大学的流域非点源污染领域发文量在中国位居前3位.

  12. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghafghazi, Saeed [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these

  13. Evaluation of global left ventricular function assessment by dual-source computed tomography compared with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vleuten, Pieter A. van der; Tio, Rene A.; Zijlstra, Felix [University Medical Centre Groningen, Thoraxcenter, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 30001, Groningen (Netherlands); Jonge, Gonda J. de; Lubbers, Daniel D.; Willems, Tineke P.; Oudkerk, Matthijs [University Medical Centre Groningen, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-02-15

    Left ventricular (LV) function assessment by dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) was compared with the reference standard method using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Accurate assessment of LV function is essential for the prediction of prognosis in cardiac disease. Thirty-four patients undergoing DSCT examination of the heart for various clinical indications underwent MRI after DSCT. Short-axis cine images were reconstructed from the DSCT datasets and were analyzed using a dedicated post-processing software-tool to generate global left ventricular function parameters. Five DSCT datasets were considered to be of insufficient image quality. DSCT showed a small overestimation of end-diastolic and end-systolic volumes of 11.0 ml and 3.5 ml, nrespectively. Myocardial mass assessed by DSCT showed an average underestimation of 0.2 g. DSCT showed a small overestimation of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) of 0.4%-point with a Bland-Altman interval of [-8.67 (0.40) 9.48]. Global LV functional parameters calculated from DSCT datasets acquired in daily clinical practice correlated well with MRI and may be considered interchangeable. However, visual assessment of the image quality of the short-axis cine slices should be performed to detect any artifacts in the DSCT data which could influence accuracy. (orig.)

  14. Cancer Fatalism and Preferred Sources of Cancer Information: an Assessment Using 2012 HINTS Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinky, Tassnym H; Faith, Jennifer; Lindly, Olivia; Thorburn, Sheryl

    2016-09-20

    Cancer fatalism is associated with lower participation in cancer screening, nonadherence to cancer screening guidelines, and avoidance of medical care. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between cancer fatalism and health information seeking. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between endorsement of fatalistic beliefs regarding cancer and preferred sources of cancer information. We analyzed data from the Health Information National Trends Survey 4 Cycle 2, which were collected in late 2012 and early 2013 (N = 3630). When weighted, the data are representative of the non-institutionalized US population aged 18 or older. In bivariate and multivariate analyses, we assessed three cancer fatalism beliefs as predictors of preferred use of healthcare provider versus preferred use of the Internet for cancer information. Results indicate the majority of US adults endorse one or more fatalistic beliefs about cancer. Unadjusted results indicate endorsing the fatalistic belief that "there's not much you can do to lower your chances of getting cancer" was significantly associated with lower odds of preferring the Internet (versus healthcare providers) as the source of cancer information (OR: 0.70; CI: 0.50, 0.98). In the adjusted model, however, none of the three cancer fatalism measures were significantly associated with preferred source of cancer information. In conclusion, fatalistic beliefs about cancer are common, and further research is warranted to understand cancer fatalism and whether and how it may impact health information-seeking behaviors.

  15. PAHs in aquatic sediment in Hangzhou, China: analytical methods, pollution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li-zhong; Cai, Xue-fen; Wang, Jing

    2005-01-01

    Eleven surface sediment samples, from Hangzhou section of Qiantang River and Jinghang Canal, west Lake the inland river were collected to investigate 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in aquatic sediments of Hangzhou. Accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) was used to extract PAHs from sediments with satisfactory recoveries. It was found that the total PAHs in the sediments ranged from 308.4 to 3037 ng/g dw, and PAHs pollution in sediments from Jinghang Canal were the heaviest. Lowest effect level (LEL) and severe effect level (SEL) sediment quality guidelines were introduced to perform risk assessment for PAHs pollution in aquatic sediments. Only one sample in Jinghang Canal had adverse impact on benthic organism. 2-3 ring PAHs had a noticeable contribution to total PAHs, especially NA, PHEN. A quantity method was used to determine the major source, the results showed petroleum origin was the chief source to PAHs pollution in all sediments with the exception of sediments from Jinghang Canal where combustion sources had a larger contribution.

  16. PAHs in aquatic sediment in Hangzhou, China: Analytical methods, pollution pattern, risk assessment and sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Li-zhong; CAI Xue-fen; WANG Jing

    2005-01-01

    Eleven surface sediment samples, from Hangzhou section of Qiantang River and Jinghang Canal, west Lake the inland river were collected to investigate 17 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs) pollution in aquatic sediments of Hangzhou. Accelerated solvent extraction(ASE) was used to extract PAHs from sediments with satisfactory recoveries. It was found that the total PAHs in the sediments ranged from 308.4 to 3037 ng/g dw, and PAHs pollution in sediments from Jinghang Canal were the heaviest. Lowest effect level(LEL)and severe effect level (SEL) sediment quality guidelines were introduced to perform risk assessment for PAHs pollution in aquatic sediments. Only one sample in Jinghang Canal had adverse impact on benthic organism. 2-3 ring PAHs had a noticeable contribution to total PAHs, especially NA, PHEN. A quantity method was used to determine the major source, the results showed petroleum origin was the chief source to PAHs pollution in all sediments with the exception of sediments from Jinghang Canal where combustion sources had a larger contribution.

  17. [Assessment of frequency of consumption of selected sources of dietary fibre by students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Głodek, Elzbieta; Gil, Marian; Rudy, Mariusz; Pawlos, Małgorzata

    2011-01-01

    The study deals with the evaluation of the frequency of food products consumption that are a source of dietary fiber in the diet of students. Survey was conducted in May 2010 among 96 second-year students of 'Food Processing Technology and Human Nutrition' at the University of Rzeszow. The Block's questionnaire was used to assess the frequency of consumption of selected sources of dietary fiber. In order to determine the frequency of consumption of fruits, fruit juices, salads, potatoes, legumes, white bread, dark bread and other cereal products the 5-degree scale with verbal terms (less than once per week--0 points, roughly once a week--1 point, 2-3 times per week - 2 points, 4-6 times per week--3 points, every day--4 points) was used. It was found that none of the examined persons, both women and men, had a sufficient consumption of fiber in the diet. The main source of dietary fiber in the diet of the examined students were white and dark bread and potatoes. A small percentage of the examined persons consume fruits and vegetables in their daily diet.

  18. Assessment of sewer source contamination of drinking water wells using tracers and human enteric viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J; Borchardt, Mark A; Richards, Kevin D; Spencer, Susan K

    2010-10-15

    This study investigated the source, transport, and occurrence of human enteric viruses in municipal well water, focusing on sanitary sewer sources. A total of 33 wells from 14 communities were sampled once for wastewater tracers and viruses. Wastewater tracers were detected in four of these wells, and five wells were virus- positive by qRT-PCR. These results, along with exclusion of wells with surface water sources, were used to select three wells for additional investigation. Viruses and wastewater tracers were found in the groundwater at all sites. Some wastewater tracers, such as ionic detergents, flame retardants, and cholesterol, were considered unambiguous evidence of wastewater. Sampling at any given time may not show concurrent virus and tracer presence; however, given sufficient sampling over time, a relation between wastewater tracers and virus occurrence was identified. Presence of infectious viruses at the wellhead demonstrates that high-capacity pumping induced sufficiently short travel times for the transport of infectious viruses. Therefore, drinking-water wells are vulnerable to contaminants that travel along fast groundwater flowpaths even if they contribute a small amount of virus-laden water to the well. These results suggest that vulnerability assessments require characterization of "low yield-fast transport" in addition to traditional "high yield-slow transport", pathways.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediment from Yangpu Bay, China: Distribution, sources and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Diao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Yu; Xie, Yanli; Yang, Fei; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Wang, Fuqiang; Cheng, Huamin; Wang, Haihua

    2015-10-15

    The study investigated the occurrence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediment from eleven sites in Yangpu Bay, China in December 2013 (winter) and July 2014 (summer). The 16 US EPA priority PAHs were found in the range of 1583.2-5701.7 ng/g dry weights with an average of 3134.7 ± 1241.3 ng/g in winter and ranged from 2161.8 to 4527.2 ng/g with an average of 3016.6 ± 748.0 ng/g in summer, respectively. The concentrations of the PAHs tended to be relatively high in comparison with other areas from the literatures. The identification using molecular indices analysis indicated that the PAHs originated mainly from pyrogenic and petrogenic sources in most of the sites. According to principle component analysis-multiple linear regression (PCA/MLR) for their source apportionment, the main sources of PAHs were vehicle emissions, petroleum products and biomass combustion. The risk assessment using international sediments quality guidelines and sediments quality criteria indicated that several PAHs, such as Nap, Flu, Phe, Ace, Acy and BghiP in most of the sites would potentially affect organisms in Yangpu Bay.

  20. Near-field hazard assessment of March 11, 2011 Japan Tsunami sources inferred from different methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Titov, V.V.; Newman, A.; Hayes, G.; Tang, L.; Chamberlin, C.

    2011-01-01

    Tsunami source is the origin of the subsequent transoceanic water waves, and thus the most critical component in modern tsunami forecast methodology. Although impractical to be quantified directly, a tsunami source can be estimated by different methods based on a variety of measurements provided by deep-ocean tsunameters, seismometers, GPS, and other advanced instruments, some in real time, some in post real-time. Here we assess these different sources of the devastating March 11, 2011 Japan tsunami by model-data comparison for generation, propagation and inundation in the near field of Japan. This study provides a comparative study to further understand the advantages and shortcomings of different methods that may be potentially used in real-time warning and forecast of tsunami hazards, especially in the near field. The model study also highlights the critical role of deep-ocean tsunami measurements for high-quality tsunami forecast, and its combination with land GPS measurements may lead to better understanding of both the earthquake mechanisms and tsunami generation process. ?? 2011 MTS.

  1. Assessing anthropogenic sources of mercury in soil in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhihui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jingfu; Jiang, Taiming; Xiao, Houjun; Li, Yu; Wang, Xun; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-11-01

    Long-term mining and smelting activities brought a series of environmental issues into soils in Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area (WMMA), Guizhou, China. Several studies have been published on the concentrations of Hg in local soils, but a comprehensive assessment of the mass of Hg in soil induced by anthropogenic activities, as presented in this paper, has not been previously conducted. Three districts of WMMA were chosen as the study areas. We summarized previous published data and sampled 14 typical soil profiles to analyze the spatial and vertical distributions of Hg in soil in the study areas. The regional geologic background, direct and indirect Hg deposition, and Hg-polluted irrigation water were considered as the main sources of Hg contaminations in local soils. Furthermore, the enrichment factor (EF) method was applied to assess the extent of anthropogenic input of Hg to soil. Titanium (Ti) was chosen to be the reference element to calculate the EF. Generally, the elevated values of EF were observed in the upper soil layers and close to mine wastes. The total budget of Hg in soil contributed from anthropogenic sources was estimated to be 1,227 t in arable soil and 75 t in natural soil. Our data showed that arable soil was the major sink of anthropogenic Hg in the study area.

  2. Health risk assessment for arsenic in water sources of cankiri province of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caylak, Emrah [Department of Biochemistry, School of Health, Karatekin University, Cankiri (Turkey)

    2012-07-15

    To investigate the levels of arsenic (As) in the water sources of Cankiri Province, the samples were collected from the stations of central Cankiri (n = 27) and Kursunlu town (n = 12) during 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of As were analyzed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and then compared with permissible limit, 10 {mu}g/L in drinking water, by Turkish legislation and World Health Organization (WHO). The As levels were higher than this limit (mean value 10-30 {mu}g/L in 26 stations), whereas, they were found to be >30 {mu}g/L in 12 sampling points. The water sources were categorized for health risk assessment such as reservoir, tap, well, and spring, and then chronic daily intake for oral and dermal exposure to As via drinking water, hazard quotient (HQ), and hazard index were calculated by using indices. The HQ values were found to be >1 in all samples of Cankiri Province. The effects of As on human health were then evaluated using carcinogenic risk (CR). CR values for As were also estimated to be >10{sup -5} in drinking water samples of Cankiri Province and might exert potential CR for people. These assessments would point out required drinking water treatment strategy to ensure safety of consumers. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Variational Iterative Refinement Source Term Estimation Algorithm Assessment for Rural and Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Monache, L.; Rodriguez, L. M.; Meech, S.; Hahn, D.; Betancourt, T.; Steinhoff, D.

    2016-12-01

    It is necessary to accurately estimate the initial source characteristics in the event of an accidental or intentional release of a Chemical, Biological, Radiological, or Nuclear (CBRN) agent into the atmosphere. The accurate estimation of the source characteristics are important because many times they are unknown and the Atmospheric Transport and Dispersion (AT&D) models rely heavily on these estimates to create hazard assessments. To correctly assess the source characteristics in an operational environment where time is critical, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) has developed a Source Term Estimation (STE) method, known as the Variational Iterative Refinement STE algorithm (VIRSA). VIRSA consists of a combination of modeling systems. These systems include an AT&D model, its corresponding STE model, a Hybrid Lagrangian-Eulerian Plume Model (H-LEPM), and its mathematical adjoint model. In an operational scenario where we have information regarding the infrastructure of a city, the AT&D model used is the Urban Dispersion Model (UDM) and when using this model in VIRSA we refer to the system as uVIRSA. In all other scenarios where we do not have the city infrastructure information readily available, the AT&D model used is the Second-order Closure Integrated PUFF model (SCIPUFF) and the system is referred to as sVIRSA. VIRSA was originally developed using SCIPUFF 2.4 for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency and integrated into the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability and Joint Program for Information Systems Joint Effects Model. The results discussed here are the verification and validation of the upgraded system with SCIPUFF 3.0 and the newly implemented UDM capability. To verify uVIRSA and sVIRSA, synthetic concentration observation scenarios were created in urban and rural environments and the results of this verification are shown. Finally, we validate the STE performance of uVIRSA using scenarios from the Joint Urban 2003 (JU03

  4. The assessment of data sources for influenza virologic surveillance in New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escuyer, Kay L; Waters, Christine L; Gowie, Donna L; Maxted, Angie M; Farrell, Gregory M; Fuschino, Meghan E; St George, Kirsten

    2017-03-01

    Following the 2013 USA release of the Influenza Virologic Surveillance Right Size Roadmap, the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) embarked on an evaluation of data sources for influenza virologic surveillance. To assess NYS data sources, additional to data generated by the state public health laboratory (PHL), which could enhance influenza surveillance at the state and national level. Potential sources of laboratory test data for influenza were analyzed for quantity and quality. Computer models, designed to assess sample sizes and the confidence of data for statistical representation of influenza activity, were used to compare PHL test data to results from clinical and commercial laboratories, reported between June 8, 2013 and May 31, 2014. Sample sizes tested for influenza at the state PHL were sufficient for situational awareness surveillance with optimal confidence levels, only during peak weeks of the influenza season. Influenza data pooled from NYS PHLs and clinical laboratories generated optimal confidence levels for situational awareness throughout the influenza season. For novel influenza virus detection in NYS, combined real-time (rt) RT-PCR data from state and regional PHLs achieved ≥85% confidence during peak influenza activity, and ≥95% confidence for most of low season and all of off-season. In NYS, combined data from clinical, commercial, and public health laboratories generated optimal influenza surveillance for situational awareness throughout the season. Statistical confidence for novel virus detection, which is reliant on only PHL data, was achieved for most of the year. © 2016 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Multi-Scale Monitoring and Assessment of Nonpoint Source Pollution in Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harter, T.; Vanderschans, M.; Leijnse, A.; Mathews, M. C.; Meyer, R. D.

    2003-04-01

    The California dairy industry produces 20% of US milk and is the largest animal industry in the state. Many of the dairy facilities are located in low-relief valleys and basins with vulnerable groundwater resources. The continued influx of dairies into California's Central Valley has raised critical questions regarding their environmental performance, in particular with respect to groundwater quality impacts. While animal farming systems are considered among the leading sources of groundwater nitrate,little is known about the actual impact of dairy farming practices on groundwater quality in the extensive alluvial aquifers underlying the Central Valley. With our work we attempt to characterize and assess shallow groundwater underneath dairies in a relatively vulnerable hydrogeologic region and to discern the impact from various individual sources and management practices within dairies. An extensive shallow groundwater monitoring network was installed on five representative dairy operations in the northeastern San Joaquin Valley, California. The monitoring network spans all dairy management units: manure water lagoons, corrals, storage areas, and manure treated forage fields under various management practices. We recently also surveyed production well water quality. Water quality is found to be highly variable, both in time and space. We propose that a meaningful interpretation of these (nonpoint source pollution) data is only possible by explicitly considering the various scales affiliated with groundwater measurement, pollution source management, regulatory control, and beneficial use. Using statistical analysis and innovative modeling tools, we provide an interpretation of the observed data that is meaningful at the field scale (the scale unit of management decisions), the farm scale (considered to be a regulatory and planning unit), and the regional scale (considered to be a planning unit).

  6. Toward Transparent and Reproducible Science: Using Open Source "Big Data" Tools for Water Resources Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buytaert, W.; Zulkafli, Z. D.; Vitolo, C.

    2014-12-01

    Transparency and reproducibility are fundamental properties of good science. In the current era of large and diverse datasets and long and complex workflows for data analysis and inference, ensuring such transparency and reproducibility is challenging. Hydrological science is a good case in point, because the discipline typically uses a large variety of datasets ranging from local observations to large-scale remotely sensed products. These data are often obtained from various different sources, and integrated using complex yet uncertain modelling tools. In this paper, we present and discuss methods of ensuring transparency and reproducibility in scientific workflows for hydrological data analysis for the purpose of water resources assessment, using relevant examples of emerging open source "big data" tools. First, we discuss standards for data storage, access, and processing that allow improving the modularity of a hydrological analysis workflow. In particular standards emerging from the Open Geospatial Consortium, such as the Sensor Observation Service, the Web Coverage Service, hold promise. However, some bottlenecks such as the availability of data models and the ability to work with spatio-temperal subsets of large datasets, need further development. Next, we focus on available methods to build transparent data processing workflows. Again, standards such as OGC's Web Processing Service are being developed to facilitate web-based analytics. Yet, in practice, the experimental nature of these standards and web services in general often requires a more pragmatic approach. The availability of web technologies in popular open source data analysis environments such as R and Python often makes them an attractive solution for workflow creation and sharing. Lastly, we elaborate on the potential of open source solutions hold in the context of participatory approaches to data collection and knowledge generation. Using examples from the tropical Andes and the Himalayas, we

  7. Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water. These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml. The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that

  8. Healthcare Databases in Thailand and Japan: Potential Sources for Health Technology Assessment Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saokaew, Surasak; Sugimoto, Takashi; Kamae, Isao; Pratoomsoot, Chayanin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn

    2015-01-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) has been continuously used for value-based healthcare decisions over the last decade. Healthcare databases represent an important source of information for HTA, which has seen a surge in use in Western countries. Although HTA agencies have been established in Asia-Pacific region, application and understanding of healthcare databases for HTA is rather limited. Thus, we reviewed existing databases to assess their potential for HTA in Thailand where HTA has been used officially and Japan where HTA is going to be officially introduced. Existing healthcare databases in Thailand and Japan were compiled and reviewed. Databases' characteristics e.g. name of database, host, scope/objective, time/sample size, design, data collection method, population/sample, and variables were described. Databases were assessed for its potential HTA use in terms of safety/efficacy/effectiveness, social/ethical, organization/professional, economic, and epidemiological domains. Request route for each database was also provided. Forty databases- 20 from Thailand and 20 from Japan-were included. These comprised of national censuses, surveys, registries, administrative data, and claimed databases. All databases were potentially used for epidemiological studies. In addition, data on mortality, morbidity, disability, adverse events, quality of life, service/technology utilization, length of stay, and economics were also found in some databases. However, access to patient-level data was limited since information about the databases was not available on public sources. Our findings have shown that existing databases provided valuable information for HTA research with limitation on accessibility. Mutual dialogue on healthcare database development and usage for HTA among Asia-Pacific region is needed.

  9. Scenario Based Approach for Multiple Source Tsunami Hazard Assessment for Sines, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronna, Martin; Omira, Rachid; Baptista, Maria Ana

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present a scenario-based approach for tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal one the test-sites of project ASTARTE. Sines holds one of the most important deep-water ports which contains oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid bulk, coal and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures are facing the ocean to the southwest facing the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, a total of five scenarios were selected to assess tsunami impact at the test site. These scenarios correspond to the worst-case credible scenario approach based upon the largest events of the historical and paleo tsunami catalogues. The tsunami simulations from the source area towards the coast is carried out using NSWING a Non-linear Shallow Water Model With Nested Grids. The code solves the non-linear shallow water equations using the discretization and explicit leap-frog finite difference scheme, in a Cartesian or Spherical frame. The initial sea surface displacement is assumed to be equal to the sea bottom deformation that is computed by Okada equations. Both uniform and non-uniform slip conditions are used. The presented results correspond to the models using non-uniform slip conditions. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages MLLW (mean lower low water) MSL (mean sea level) and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, inundation is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawdown, run-up and inundation distance. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gages at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results consist of Aggregate Scenario Maps presented for the different inundation parameters. This work is funded by ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839

  10. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, we selected a total of six scenarios to assess the tsunami impact at the test site. The tsunami simulations are computed using NSWING, a Non-linear Shallow Water model wIth Nested Grids. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages: MLLW (mean lower low water), MSL (mean sea level), and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, the tsunami hazard is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawback, maximum inundation area and run-up. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gauges at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results describe the impact at the Sines test site considering the single scenarios at mean sea level, the aggregate scenario, and the influence of the tide on the aggregate scenario. The results confirm the composite source of Horseshoe and Marques de Pombal faults as the worst-case scenario, with wave heights of over 10 m, which reach the coast approximately 22 min after the rupture. It dominates the aggregate scenario by about 60 % of the impact area at the test site, considering maximum wave height and maximum flow depth. The HSMPF scenario inundates a total area of 3.5 km2.

  11. Radiological Assessment for the Vance Road Facility Source Vault, Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. R. Morton

    2000-09-01

    From the 1950s, the Vance Road laboratories had been used for a broad range of nuclear medicine research involving numerous radionuclides. These radionuclides were stored in the a source vault located on the first floor of the facility. The Environmental Survey and Site Assessment Program (ESSAP) of ORISE performed a radiological assessment survey of the source vault after it had been remediated and in preparation for converting the area to office space.

  12. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-04-01

    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  13. Quantitative assessment of scatter correction techniques incorporated in next generation dual-source computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobberley, Sean David

    Accurate, cross-scanner assessment of in-vivo air density used to quantitatively assess amount and distribution of emphysema in COPD subjects has remained elusive. Hounsfield units (HU) within tracheal air can be considerably more positive than -1000 HU. With the advent of new dual-source scanners which employ dedicated scatter correction techniques, it is of interest to evaluate how the quantitative measures of lung density compare between dual-source and single-source scan modes. This study has sought to characterize in-vivo and phantom-based air metrics using dual-energy computed tomography technology where the nature of the technology has required adjustments to scatter correction. Anesthetized ovine (N=6), swine (N=13: more human-like rib cage shape), lung phantom and a thoracic phantom were studied using a dual-source MDCT scanner (Siemens Definition Flash. Multiple dual-source dual-energy (DSDE) and single-source (SS) scans taken at different energy levels and scan settings were acquired for direct quantitative comparison. Density histograms were evaluated for the lung, tracheal, water and blood segments. Image data were obtained at 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp in the SS mode (B35f kernel) and at 80, 100, 140, and 140-Sn (tin filtered) kVp in the DSDE mode (B35f and D30f kernels), in addition to variations in dose, rotation time, and pitch. To minimize the effect of cross-scatter, the phantom scans in the DSDE mode was obtained by reducing the tube current of one of the tubes to its minimum (near zero) value. When using image data obtained in the DSDE mode, the median HU values in the tracheal regions of all animals and the phantom were consistently closer to -1000 HU regardless of reconstruction kernel (chapters 3 and 4). Similarly, HU values of water and blood were consistently closer to their nominal values of 0 HU and 55 HU respectively. When using image data obtained in the SS mode the air CT numbers demonstrated a consistent positive shift of up to 35 HU

  14. Cognitive Readiness Assessment and Reporting: An Open Source Mobile Framework for Operational Decision Support and Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heric, Matthew; Carter, Jenn

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive readiness (CR) and performance for operational time-critical environments are continuing points of focus for military and academic communities. In response to this need, we designed an open source interactive CR assessment application as a highly adaptive and efficient open source testing administration and analysis tool. It is capable…

  15. Sources of Life Strengths Appraisal Scale: A Multidimensional Approach to Assessing Older Adults’ Perceived Sources of Life Strengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem S. Fry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both cognitive and psychosocial theories of adult development stress the fundamental role of older adults’ appraisals of the diverse sources of cognitive and social-emotional strengths. This study reports the development of a new self-appraisal measure that incorporates key theoretical dimensions of internal and external sources of life strengths, as identified in the gerontological literature. Using a pilot study sample and three other independent samples to examine older adults’ appraisals of their sources of life strengths which helped them in their daily functioning and to combat life challenges, adversity, and losses, a psychometric instrument having appropriate reliability and validity properties was developed. A 24-month followup of a randomly selected sample confirmed that the nine-scale appraisal measure (SLSAS is a promising instrument for appraising older adults’ sources of life strengths in dealing with stresses of daily life’s functioning and also a robust measure for predicting outcomes of resilience, autonomy, and well-being for this age group. A unique strength of the appraisal instrument is its critically relevant features of brevity, simplicity of language, and ease of administration to frail older adults.

  16. Sources of life strengths appraisal scale: a multidimensional approach to assessing older adults' perceived sources of life strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Prem S; Debats, Dominique L

    2014-01-01

    Both cognitive and psychosocial theories of adult development stress the fundamental role of older adults' appraisals of the diverse sources of cognitive and social-emotional strengths. This study reports the development of a new self-appraisal measure that incorporates key theoretical dimensions of internal and external sources of life strengths, as identified in the gerontological literature. Using a pilot study sample and three other independent samples to examine older adults' appraisals of their sources of life strengths which helped them in their daily functioning and to combat life challenges, adversity, and losses, a psychometric instrument having appropriate reliability and validity properties was developed. A 24-month followup of a randomly selected sample confirmed that the nine-scale appraisal measure (SLSAS) is a promising instrument for appraising older adults' sources of life strengths in dealing with stresses of daily life's functioning and also a robust measure for predicting outcomes of resilience, autonomy, and well-being for this age group. A unique strength of the appraisal instrument is its critically relevant features of brevity, simplicity of language, and ease of administration to frail older adults. Dedicated to the memory of Shanta Khurana whose assistance in the pilot work for the study was invaluable.

  17. Drawing and Writing in Digital Science Notebooks: Sources of Formative Assessment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Angi; Smith, Andrew; Wiebe, Eric; Behrle, Courtney; Sirkin, Ruth; Lester, James

    2016-06-01

    Formative assessment strategies are used to direct instruction by establishing where learners' understanding is, how it is developing, informing teachers and students alike as to how they might get to their next set of goals of conceptual understanding. For the science classroom, one rich source of formative assessment data about scientific thinking and practice is in notebooks used during inquiry-oriented activities. In this study, the goal was to better understand how student knowledge was distributed between student drawings and writings about magnetism in notebooks, and how these findings might inform formative assessment strategies. Here, drawing and writing samples were extracted and evaluated from our digital science notebook, with embedded content and laboratories. Three drawings and five writing samples from 309 participants were analyzed using a common ten-dimensional rubric. Descriptive and inferential statistics revealed that fourth-grade student understanding of magnetism was distributed unevenly between writing and drawing. Case studies were then presented for two exemplar students. Based on the rubric we developed, students were able to articulate more of their knowledge through the drawing activities than through written word, but the combination of the two mediums provided the richest understanding of student conceptions and how they changed over the course of their investigations.

  18. Projection of needs for gamma radiation sources and other radioisotopes and assessment of alternatives for providing radiation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Jensen, G.A.; Clark, L.L.; Eakin, D.E.; Jarrett, J.H.; Katayama, Y.B.; McKee, R.W.; Morgan, L.G.; Nealey, S.M.; Platt, A.M.; Tingey, G.L.

    1989-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the projected uses and demands for a variety of nuclear byproducts. Because the major large-scale near-term demand is for gamma irradiation sources, this report concentrates on the needs for gamma sources and evaluates the options for providing the needed material. Projections of possible growth in the irradiation treatment industry indicate that there will be a need for 180 to 320 MCi of /sup 60/Co (including /sup 137/Cs equivalent) in service in the year 2000. The largest current and projected use of gamma irradiation is for the sterilization of medical devices and disposable medical supplies. Currently, 40% of US disposable medical products are treated by irradiation, and within 10 years it is expected that 90% will be treated in this manner. Irradiation treatment of food for destruction of pathogens or parasites, disinfestation, or extension of allowable storage periods is estimated to require an active inventory of 75 MCi of /sup 60/Co-equivalent gamma source in about a decade. 90 refs., 7 figs., 25 tabs.

  19. Assessment of general public exposure to LTE and RF sources present in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Wout; Verloock, Leen; Goeminne, Francis; Vermeeren, Günter; Martens, Luc

    2010-10-01

    For the first time, in situ electromagnetic field exposure of the general public to fields from long term evolution (LTE) cellular base stations is assessed. Exposure contributions due to different radiofrequency (RF) sources are compared with LTE exposure at 30 locations in Stockholm, Sweden. Total exposures (0.2-2.6 V/m) satisfy the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reference levels (from 28 V/m for frequency modulation (FM), up to 61 V/m for LTE) at all locations. LTE exposure levels up to 0.8 V/m were measured, and the average contribution of the LTE signal to the total RF exposure equals 4%.

  20. Trace metals in the surface sediments of the intertidal Jiaozhou Bay, China: Sources and contamination assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fangjian; Qiu, Longwei; Cao, Yingchang; Huang, Jingli; Liu, Zhaoqing; Tian, Xu; Li, Anchun; Yin, Xuebo

    2016-03-15

    The major (Al) and trace metal (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, and As) concentrations in 29 surface sediment samples from the intertidal Jiaozhou Bay (JZB) are evaluated to assess the contamination level. The results show that the overall sediment quality in the area has been obviously impacted by trace metal contamination. The geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor values indicate that no Cr or Cu contamination has occurred on the whole, only a few stations have been polluted by As, and some areas have been polluted by Cd, Pb, and Zn. Principal component analysis suggests that the Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd are derived from anthropogenic inputs and that Cr, As, Cu, and Zn are influenced by natural weathering processes. Cu and Zn may originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. The contamination in the northeastern JZB is higher than that in other areas of the bay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sources of information for assessing human papillomavirus vaccination history among young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niccolai, Linda M; McBride, Vanessa; Julian, Pamela R

    2014-05-23

    Assessing history of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is important for monitoring vaccine uptake, impact, and effectiveness. Based on data collected from 1720 women with high-grade cervical lesions reported to a statewide surveillance system in Connecticut, we found that available medical records did not contain HPV vaccination information for 34% of women, and 43% of women could not be reached for interview. When both were used for data collection, concordance of vaccination history (83%) and sensitivity of self-report (96%) were both high. Reviewing medical records based on self-reported information about vaccine providers increased confirmation of vaccination histories in this sample by 18%. The vaccine registry in Connecticut is not currently utilized for HPV vaccinations, but efforts to increase use for adolescent vaccines could be useful in the future to overcome limitations of other sources.

  2. Quantitative assessment of upstream source influences on total gaseous mercury observations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Hourly total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations at three monitoring sites (receptors in Ontario were predicted for four selected periods at different seasons in 2002 using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT model, which transports Lagrangian air parcels backward in time from the receptors to provide linkages to the source region in the upwind area. The STILT model was modified to deal with Hg deposition and high stack Hg emissions. The model-predicted Hg concentrations were compared with observations at three monitoring sites. Estimates of transport errors (uncertainties in simulated concentrations due to errors in wind fields are also provided that suggest such errors can reach approximately 10% of simulated concentrations. Results from a CMAQ chemical transport model (CTM simulation in which the same emission and meteorology inputs were used are also reported. The comparisons show that STILT-predicted Hg concentrations usually agree better with observations than CMAQ except for a subset of cases that are subject to biases in the coarsely resolved boundary conditions. In these comparisons STILT captures high frequency concentration variations better than the Eulerian CTM, likely due to its ability to account for the sub-grid scale position of the receptor site and to minimize numerical diffusion. Thus it is particularly valuable for the interpretation of plumes (short-term concentration variations that require the use of finer mesh sizes or controls on numerical diffusion in Eulerian models. We report quantitative assessments of the relative importance of different upstream sources for the selected episodes, based on emission fluxes and STILT footprints. The STILT simulations indicate that natural sources (which include re-emission from historical anthropogenic activities contribute much more than current-day anthropogenic emissions to the Hg concentrations observed at the three sites.

  3. Quantitative assessment of upstream source influences on total gaseous mercury observations in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Wen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hourly total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations at three monitoring sites (receptors in Ontario were predicted for four selected periods at different seasons in 2002 using the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT model, which transports Lagrangian air parcels backward in time from the receptors to provide linkages to the source region in the upwind area. The STILT model was modified to deal with Hg deposition and high stack Hg emissions. The model-predicted Hg concentrations were compared with observations at three monitoring sites. Estimates of transport errors (uncertainties in simulated concentrations due to errors in wind fields are also provided that suggest such errors can reach approximately 10% of simulated concentrations. Results from a CMAQ chemical transport model (CTM simulation in which the same emission and meteorology inputs were used are also reported. The comparisons show that STILT-predicted Hg concentrations usually agree better with observations than CMAQ except for a subset of cases that are subject to biases in the coarsely resolved boundary conditions. STILT captures high frequency concentration variations better than the Eulerian CTM, due to its ability to account for near-field influences that are not resolved by typical grid sizes in Eulerian CTMs. Thus it is particularly valuable for the interpretation of plumes (short-term concentration variations that require complex sub-grid treatments in Eulerian models. We report quantitative assessments of the relative importance of different upstream sources for the selected episodes, based on emission fluxes and STILT footprints. The STILT simulations indicate that natural sources (which include re-emission from historical anthropogenic activities contribute much more than current-day anthropogenic emissions to the Hg concentrations observed at the three sites.

  4. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-05-01

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50% when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25% when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30%, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50%) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the use of resolution

  5. Assessment of the sources of error affecting the quantitative accuracy of SPECT imaging in small animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joint Graduate Group in Bioengineering, University of California, San Francisco and University of California, Berkeley; Department of Radiology, University of California; Gullberg, Grant T; Hwang, Andrew B.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Gullberg, Grant T.; Hasegawa, Bruce H.

    2008-02-15

    Small animal SPECT imaging systems have multiple potential applications in biomedical research. Whereas SPECT data are commonly interpreted qualitatively in a clinical setting, the ability to accurately quantify measurements will increase the utility of the SPECT data for laboratory measurements involving small animals. In this work, we assess the effect of photon attenuation, scatter and partial volume errors on the quantitative accuracy of small animal SPECT measurements, first with Monte Carlo simulation and then confirmed with experimental measurements. The simulations modeled the imaging geometry of a commercially available small animal SPECT system. We simulated the imaging of a radioactive source within a cylinder of water, and reconstructed the projection data using iterative reconstruction algorithms. The size of the source and the size of the surrounding cylinder were varied to evaluate the effects of photon attenuation and scatter on quantitative accuracy. We found that photon attenuation can reduce the measured concentration of radioactivity in a volume of interest in the center of a rat-sized cylinder of water by up to 50percent when imaging with iodine-125, and up to 25percent when imaging with technetium-99m. When imaging with iodine-125, the scatter-to-primary ratio can reach up to approximately 30percent, and can cause overestimation of the radioactivity concentration when reconstructing data with attenuation correction. We varied the size of the source to evaluate partial volume errors, which we found to be a strong function of the size of the volume of interest and the spatial resolution. These errors can result in large (>50percent) changes in the measured amount of radioactivity. The simulation results were compared with and found to agree with experimental measurements. The inclusion of attenuation correction in the reconstruction algorithm improved quantitative accuracy. We also found that an improvement of the spatial resolution through the

  6. Investigation of outdoor BTEX: Concentration, variations, sources, spatial distribution, and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad; Rostami Aghdam Shendi, Maryam; Ghaffari, Hamid Reza; Ebrahimi Aval, Hamideh; Ahmadi, Ehsan; Taban, Ebrahim; Gholizadeh, Abdolmajid; Yazdani Aval, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Amir; Azari, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to measure BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) concentrations in the ambient air of Tehran, the capital of Iran, and investigate their seasonal variations, probable sources, spatial mapping, and risk assessment. The concentrations of BTEX were measured using a continuous monitoring device installed in seven stations around the city. Spatial mapping procedure was conducted using the inverse distance weighting (IDW) method. Monte Carlo simulation was used to assess the carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks imposed by BTEX. The highest and lowest annual mean concentrations of toluene and ethylbenzene were recorded as 16.25 and 3.63 μg m(-3), respectively. The maximum (6.434) and minimum (3.209) toluene/benzene (T/B) ratio was observed in summer and winter, respectively. The spatial distribution of BTEX pollution indicated that the highest concentrations were found along the major roads because of heavy traffic. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and concentration ratios showed that BTEX were produced by the multiemission sources. The mean of inhalation lifetime cancer risk (LTCR) for benzene was 3.93 × 10(-7), which is lower than the limits recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO). The hazard quotient (HQ), noncarcinogenic risk index, for all BTEX compounds was <1. The obtained results showed no threat of BTEX concentrations to human health. However, as the concentrations of BTEX will increase due to the rapid growth of vehicles and industrial activities, much effort is required to control and manage the levels of these compounds in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Climate modeling - a tool for the assessment of the paleodistribution of source and reservoir rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roscher, M.; Schneider, J.W. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie; Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany). Referat Organische Geochemie/Kohlenwasserstoff-Forschung

    2008-10-23

    In an on-going project of BGR and TU Bergakademie Freiberg, numeric paleo-climate modeling is used as a tool for the assessment of the paleo-distribution of organic rich deposits as well as of reservoir rocks. This modeling approach is based on new ideas concerning the formation of the Pangea supercontinent. The new plate tectonic concept is supported by paleo- magnetic data as it fits the 95% confidence interval of published data. Six Permocarboniferous time slices (340, 320, 300, 290, 270, 255 Ma) were chosen within a first paleo-climate modeling approach as they represent the most important changes of the Late Paleozoic climate development. The digital maps have a resolution of 2.8 x 2.8 (T42), suitable for high-resolution climate modeling, using the PLASIM model. CO{sub 2} concentrations of the paleo-atmosphere and paleo-insolation values have been estimated by published methods. For the purpose of validation, quantitative model output, had to be transformed into qualitative parameters in order to be able to compare digital data with qualitative data of geologic indicators. The model output of surface temperatures and precipitation was therefore converted into climate zones. The reconstructed occurrences of geological indicators like aeolian sands, evaporites, reefs, coals, oil source rocks, tillites, phosphorites and cherts were then compared to the computed paleo-climate zones. Examples of the Permian Pangea show a very good agreement between model results and geological indicators. From the modeling approach we are able to identify climatic processes which lead to the deposition of hydrocarbon source and reservoir rocks. The regional assessment of such atmospheric processes may be used for the identification of the paleo-distribution of organic rich deposits or rock types suitable to form hydrocarbon reservoirs. (orig.)

  8. Reactor units for power supply to the Russian Arctic regions: Priority assessment of nuclear energy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel'nikov N. N.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Under conditions of competitiveness of small nuclear power plants (SNPP and feasibility of their use to supply power to remote and inaccessible regions the competition occurs between nuclear energy sources, which is caused by a wide range of proposals for solving the problem of power supply to different consumers in the decentralized area of the Russian Arctic power complex. The paper suggests a methodological approach for expert assessment of the priority of small power reactor units based on the application of the point system. The priority types of the reactor units have been determined based on evaluation of the unit's conformity to the following criteria: the level of referentiality and readiness degree of reactor units to implementation; duration of the fuel cycle, which largely determines an autonomy level of the nuclear energy source; the possibility of creating a modular block structure of SNPP; the maximum weight of a transported single equipment for the reactor unit; service life of the main equipment. Within the proposed methodological approach the authors have performed a preliminary ranking of the reactor units according to various criteria, which allows quantitatively determining relative difference and priority of the small nuclear power plants projects aimed at energy supply to the Russian Arctic. To assess the sensitivity of the ranking results to the parameters of the point system the authors have observed the five-point and ten-point scales under variations of importance (weights of different criteria. The paper presents the results of preliminary ranking, which have allowed distinguishing the following types of the reactor units in order of their priority: ABV-6E (ABV-6M, "Uniterm" and SVBR-10 in the energy range up to 20 MW; RITM-200 (RITM-200M, KLT-40S and SVBR-100 in the energy range above 20 MW.

  9. Vanishing Springs in Nepalese Mountains: Assessment of Water Sources, Farmers' Perceptions, and Climate Change Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durga D. Poudel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Thulokhola watershed of the Nuwakot district in the midhills region of Nepal can be considered typical of climate change-related stresses in the region. To assess the status of water resources and document farmers' perceptions of and adaptation to climate change impacts in this watershed, we invited community groups to monitor water quality and conducted 6 focus group meetings, 3 participatory rural appraisals, and spring and household surveys in 2011 and 2012. Historical precipitation data from a nearby weather station and discharge data for the Tadi Khola, the nearest major river, were also analyzed. The spring survey results confirmed farmers' perceptions and showed that 73.2% of the springs used as water sources had a decreased flow and 12.2% had dried up over the past 10 or more years, as recognized by local residents. In response to the severe decline of precipitation and the drying up of springs, local communities have implemented some climate change adaptation measures, such as constructing water tanks at water sources, using pipes to transport drinking water, diverting water from other springs, digging deeper wells, and traveling farther to wash clothes and fetch drinking water. To enhance drinking water supplies and ensure the agricultural, ecological, and environmental integrity of the watershed, initiatives such as comprehensive research on springs and groundwater hydrology, a spring rejuvenation program, and community capacity building for water sustainability and climate change adaptation are suggested.

  10. Feasibility Assessment of Thermal Management System for Green Power Sources Using Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal management system using alumina (Al2O3/water as the nanofluid for green power sources was experimentally assessed in this paper. Basic thermal principles and formulas were utilized to evaluate the performance of an air-cooled heat exchanger. The Al2O3/water nanofluid was produced at the concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%. The testing conditions of this experiments were above three concentrations, five coolant flow rates (0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 L/min., and three heating powers (50, 100, and 150 W. Firstly, basic properties of nanoparticles were analyzed. Fundamental relationships of the Al2O3/water nanofluid with respect to temperatures and concentrations were measured such as: viscosity, density, and specific heat. Next, an innovative concept named efficiency factor (EF was proposed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal system performance. The enhancement of thermal system performance compared with distilled water was then defined as an efficiency factor ratio (REF. The experimental results demonstrated that the efficiency factor ratios were optimal at low flow rate (0.8 L/min. and low concentration (0.5%. Values of REF were all below 1.0 at high flow rates (1.2–2.4 L/min.. This research points out the direction of optimizing a thermal management system for green energy sources in the near future.

  11. Assessment of pollution aerosols sources above the Straits of Dover using lead isotope geochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboudt, K; Flament, P; Weis, D; Mennessier, J P; Maquinghen, P

    1999-09-15

    We assess the capability of lead isotopes to study the transport of pollution aerosols above the Straits of Dover by collecting atmospheric aerosols above the Eastern Channel and the Southern Bight of the North Sea. During the same period, we characterized the lead isotopic signature of the main industrial sources on the French coast near the Straits of Dover. Urban and automobile-derived aerosols were also collected. Due to the phasing out of lead in gasoline, the urban isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb = 1.158 +/- 0.003) has become more radiogenic, although it is highly variable. On a regional scale, major industrial emissions have a well-defined isotopic composition (1.13 isotopic compositions, it can be shown that lead aerosols originating from eastern Europe have an isotopic signature (1.145 isotopic composition of west-European lead aerosols (1.111 < 206Pb/207Pb < 1.142). The influence of remote North American sources is suggested, with caution, due to uncertainties in meteorological calculations.

  12. Spatiotemporal Modeling for Assessing Complementarity of Renewable Energy Sources in Distributed Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camargo, L.; Zink, R.; Dorner, W.

    2015-07-01

    Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES) have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP). This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS) processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  13. Assessing the influence of local sources on POPs in atmospheric depositions and sediments near Trento (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argiriadis, E.; Rada, E. C.; Vecchiato, M.; Zambon, S.; Ionescu, G.; Schiavon, M.; Ragazzi, M.; Gambaro, A.

    2014-12-01

    The content of five classes of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the atmospheric depositions and sediments of an area interested by a steelmaking plant, a state highway and urban settlements were investigated. Samples were collected through a wet and dry sampler onto the roof of a primary school or core drilled from the sediments of a nearby pond and analyzed for PCDD/Fs, PCBs, PAHs, PBDEs and PCNs in order to assess the role of different sources on direct emissions in atmosphere and transfer to other environmental compartments. The method was tested with reference materials, laboratory and field blanks. The results show higher fluxes of POPs in winter depositions, with PAH levels up to 6500 ng m-2 d-1. Patterns and diagnostic ratios suggest that the main sources are fuel and wood combustion. PCDD/Fs are present at background level, with maximum total fluxes of 17 pg m-2 d-1 in depositions and concentrations of 7 pg g-1 in sediments. All concentrations peak at mid-level in the sediment core and then decrease towards surface, as an effect of regulatory limitations and update to modern industrial technologies.

  14. Dust-Metal Sources in an Urbanized Arid Zone: Implications for Health-Risk Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rico, Leticia; Meza-Figueroa, Diana; Gandolfi, A Jay; Del Río-Salas, Rafael; Romero, Francisco M; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes

    2016-04-01

    The available information concerning metal pollution in different dust sources and the health effects in children remains limited in Mexico. This study focuses on Hermosillo, which is an urbanized area located in the Sonoran Desert in which soil resuspension and dust emission processes are common. The metal content of arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), and lead (Pb) were determined in three dust sources (playgrounds, roofs, and roads), each representing different exposure media (EM) for these elements. The metal levels in dust were found in the order of Mn > Cr > Pb > As with the highest metal content found in road dust. Despite the similar average metal distributions, principal component analysis shows a clear separation of the three EM with playground dust related to Cr and Mn and road dust to As and Pb. However, the geoaccumulation index results indicate that dust samples are uncontaminated to moderately polluted, except for Pb in road dust, which is considerably high. In addition, the enrichment factor suggests an anthropogenic origin for all of the studied metals except for Mn. In this context, the hazard index (HI) for noncarcinogenic risk is >1 in this population and thus represents a potential health risk. The spatial distribution for each metal on EM and the HI related to the marginality index could represent a more accurate decision-making tool in risk assessment studies.

  15. Assessment of In Situ Time Resolved Shock Experiments at Synchrotron Light Sources*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belak, J.; Ilavsky, J.; Hessler, J. P.

    2005-07-01

    Prior to fielding in situ time resolved experiments of shock wave loading at the Advanced Photon Source, we have performed feasibility experiments assessing a single photon bunch. Using single and poly-crystal Al, Ti, V and Cu shock to incipient spallation on the gas gun, samples were prepared from slices normal to the spall plane of thickness 100-500 microns. In addition, single crystal Al of thickness 500 microns was shocked to incipient spallation and soft recovered using the LLNL e-gun mini-flyer system. The e-gun mini-flyer impacts the sample target producing a 10's ns flat-top shock transient. Here, we present results for imaging, small-angle scattering (SAS), and diffraction. In particular, there is little SAS away from the spall plane and significant SAS at the spall plane, demonstrating the presence of sub-micron voids. * Use of the Advanced Photon Source was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, under Contract No. W-31-109-Eng-38 and work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract W-7405-Eng-48.

  16. SPATIOTEMPORAL MODELING FOR ASSESSING COMPLEMENTARITY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramirez Camargo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP. This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  17. Variation in the Profile of Anxiety Disorders in Boys with an ASD According to Method and Source of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsika, Vicki; Sharpley, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    To determine any variation that might occur due to the type of assessment and source used to assess them, the prevalence of 7 anxiety disorders were investigated in a sample of 140 boys with an Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and 50 non-ASD (NASD) boys via the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory and the KIDSCID Clinical Interview. Boys with an…

  18. In-Season Assessment of Rabi Crop Progression and Condition from Multi Source Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, B.; Ramana, K. V.; Chandrsekar, K.; Biswal, A.; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; Rao, S. V. C. K.

    2014-11-01

    Timely and accurate information on periodic crop progress and condition is essential to an agricultural country like India. The current study has been carried out with the objective of monitoring the timelines of the sowing of rabi crops viz. wheat and mustard, their progression and condition assessment using data from multiple sources viz. a set of indices derived from remote sensing, meteorological parameters and crop simulation modeling. The study area consists of six districts with significant wheat and mustard crops namely Patiala, Bhiwani, Agra, Bharatpur, Morena and Rohtas, and has been done for three years (2008-09, 2012-13 and 2013-14). The methodology consists of analysis of multi-temporal AWiFS and MODIS datasets of historical and current seasons for the period October to March covering rabi season. Crop simulation for wheat was carried out using DSSAT-CERES crop growth model for assessing crop growth. The results were discussed in terms of crop progression, start-of-the-season and crop condition. As a future scope of this study, thermal indices can be incorporated for further refinement and the same can be extended to larger areas.

  19. Swept source optical coherence tomography for quantitative and qualitative assessment of dental composite restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr, Alireza; Shimada, Yasushi; Mayoral, Juan Ricardo; Hariri, Ilnaz; Bakhsh, Turki A.; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this work was to explore the utility of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for quantitative evaluation of dental composite restorations. The system (Santec, Japan) with a center wavelength of around 1300 nm and axial resolution of 12 μm was used to record data during and after placement of light-cured composites. The Fresnel phenomenon at the interfacial defects resulted in brighter areas indicating gaps as small as a few micrometers. The gap extension at the interface was quantified and compared to the observation by confocal laser scanning microscope after trimming the specimen to the same cross-section. Also, video imaging of the composite during polymerization could provide information about real-time kinetics of contraction stress and resulting gaps, distinguishing them from those gaps resulting from poor adaptation of composite to the cavity prior to polymerization. Some samples were also subjected to a high resolution microfocus X-ray computed tomography (μCT) assessment; it was found that differentiation of smaller gaps from the radiolucent bonding layer was difficult with 3D μCT. Finally, a clinical imaging example using a newly developed dental SS-OCT system with an intra-oral scanning probe (Panasonic Healthcare, Japan) is presented. SS-OCT is a unique tool for clinical assessment and laboratory research on resin-based dental restorations. Supported by GCOE at TMDU and NCGG.

  20. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  1. Assessment of heat sources on the control of fast flow of Vestfonna Ice Cap, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schäfer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic regime of Svalbard's Nordaustlandet ice caps is dominated by fast flowing outlet glaciers, making assessment of their response to climate change challenging. A key element of the challenge lies in the fact that the motion of fast outlet glaciers occurs largely through basal sliding, and is governed by physical processes at the glacier bed, processes that are difficult both to observe and to simulate. Up to now, most of the sliding laws used in ice flow models were based on uniform parameters with a condition on temperature to identify regions of basal sliding. However these models are usually not able to reproduce observed velocities with sufficient accuracy. With the development of inverse methods, it is now common to infer a spatially varying field of sliding parameters from surface ice-velocity observations. These parameter distributions usually reflect a high spatial variability and represent valuable information to understand and test various hypotheses on physical processes involved in sliding. However, in these models, basal sliding is uncoupled from the thermal regime of basal ice and the evolution of the sliding parameters in prognostic simulations remains problematic. Here we explore the role of different heat sources (friction heating, strain heating and latent heat through percolation of melt water on the development of sliding and fast flow through thermomechanical coupling on Nordaustlandet outlet glaciers. We focus on Vestfonna with a special emphasis on Franklinbreen, a fast flowing outlet glacier which has been observed to accelerate between 1995 and 2008 and possibly already prior to 1995. We try to reconcile the impacts of temperature and heat sources on basal friction coefficients inferred from observed surface velocities during these two periods. Our simulations reproduce a temperature profile from borehole measurements, allowing an interpretation of the vertical temperature structure in terms of temporal

  2. RADON AND PROGENY SOURCED DOSE ASSESSMENT OF SPA EMPLOYEES IN BALNEOLOGICAL SITES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, Sefa Kemal; Demiröz, Işık

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted in the scope of IAEA project with the name 'Establishing a Systematic Radioactivity Survey and Total Effective Dose Assessment in Natural Balneological Sites' (TUR/9/018), at the Health Physics department of Sarayköy Nuclear Research and Training Center (SANAEM). The aim of this study is estimation of radon and progeny sourced effective dose for the people who are working at the spa facilities by measuring radon activity concentration (RAC) at the ambient air of indoor spa pools and dressing rooms. As it is known, the source of the radon gas is the radium content of the earth crust. Therefore, thermal waters coming from ground may contain dissolved radon and the radon can diffuse water to air. So the ambient air of spa pools can contain serious RAC that depends on a lot of parameters. In this regard, RAC measurements were executed at the 70 spa facilities in Turkey. The measurements were done with both active and passive methods at ambient air of spa pools and dressing rooms. Thus, active measurements were carried out by using the Alphaguard(®) with diffusion mode during half an hour, and passive measurements were carried out by using the humidity resistive CR-39 radon detectors during 2 months. Results show that RAC values at ambient air of spa pools varies between 13 Bq m(-3) and 10 kBq m(-3) Because long-term measurements are more reliable, if it is available, for dose calculations passive radon measurements (with CR-39 detectors) at ambient air of spa pools and dressing rooms were used, otherwise active measurement results were used. With the measurement by the conversion coefficients of ICRP 65 and occupational data of the employees has got from questionary forms, effective dose values were calculated. According to the calculations, spa employees are exposed to annual average dose between 0.05 and 29 mSv because of radon and progeny.

  3. Assessment of open source software for CBCT in detecting additional mental foramina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oséas Santos Junior

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate which post-processing imaging protocol would be better to analyze the additional mental foramen (AMF in preoperative planning with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT exams, and to test reproducibility of measurements, using open source software (OsiriX. The software was used to detect the cases of AMF from among 58 exams for dental implant planning in edentulous mandible areas-three cases were found. The case images were submitted to qualitative analysis using 2D orthogonal MPR, 3D-MPR and 3D volume rendering protocols by two oral and maxillofacial radiologists. Quantitative analysis used the 3D-MPR protocol; the closed polygon tool measured the mental foramen (MF and the AMF areas; the length tool measured the distance between foramina. The measurements were performed independently by the examiners, at two different times. Intra- and interexaminer agreement was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient. The panoramic view did not show the MF and the AMF clearly. The AMF could be detected in the parasagittal view. 2D Orthogonal MPR was effective to observe the AMF in some cases. The 3D-MPR and 3D view protocols were the most effective to locate and analyze the AMF. In conclusion, a 3D view improves visualization when anatomical points are not clearly visible. 3D-MPR was considered a more effective post-processing imaging protocol to observe foramina relationships. The high reproducibility of measurements for anatomical MF variations was established using specific tools featured in open source software for CBCT. OsiriX is realistic and recommended for preoperative planning.

  4. Waste Area Grouping 2 Remedial Investigation Phase 1 Seep Task data report: Contaminant source area assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the findings of the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2, Phase 1 Remedial Investigation (RI) Seep Task efforts during 1993 and 1994 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The results presented here follow results form the first year of sampling, 1992, which are contained in the Phase 1 RI report for WAG 2 (DOE 1995a). The WAG 2 Seep Task efforts focused on contaminants in seeps, tributaries, and main streams within the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed. This report is designed primarily as a reference for contaminants and a resource for guiding remedial decisions. Additional in-depth assessments of the Seep Task data may provide clearer understandings of contaminant transport from the different source areas in the WOC watershed. WAG 2 consists of WOC and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, and the associated flood plains and subsurface environment. The WOC watershed encompasses ORNL and associated WAGs. WAG 2 acts as an integrator for contaminant releases from the contaminated sites at ORNL and as the conduit transporting contaminants to the Clinch River. The main objectives of the Seep Task were to identify and characterize seeps, tributaries and source areas that are responsible for the contaminant releases to the main streams in WAG 2 and to quantify their input to the total contaminant release from the watershed at White Oak Dam (WOD). Efforts focused on {sup 90}Sr, {sup 3}H, and {sup 137}Cs because these contaminants pose the greatest potential human health risk from water ingestion at WOD. Bimonthly sampling was conducted throughout the WOC watershed beginning in March 1993 and ending in August 1994. Samples were also collected for metals, anions, alkalinity, organics, and other radionuclides.

  5. Assessment of natural and synthetic wollastonite as source for bioceramics preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrodeguas, R G; De Aza, A H; De Aza, P N; Baudín, C; Jiménez, J; López-Bravo, A; Pena, P; De Aza, S

    2007-11-01

    Pseudowollastonite ceramics (beta-CaSiO3) from synthetic and natural sources were assessed with regard to their properties relevant to biomedical applications. Synthetic and natural CaSiO3 powders, with average particle size of 1.6 and 13.2 microm, respectively, were first employed. Powders were pressed and sintered at 1400 degrees C for 2 h. Pseudowollastonite was the only crystalline phase in sintered materials. Glassy phase, eight times more abundant in sintered natural wollastonite (SNW) than in the synthetic one (SSW), was observed in grain boundaries and in triple points. Larger grains and bigger and more abundant pores were present in SNW, resulting in lower diametral tensile strength (26 MPa), than in SSW (42 MPa). However, by milling the natural wollastonite starting powder to a particle size of 2.0 microm and sintering (SNW-M), the microstructure became finer and less porous, and diametral tensile strength increased (48 MPa). Weibull modulus of SNW and SNW-M samples was twice that of the SSW. All the samples released Si and Ca ions, and removed phosphate ions from simulated body fluid in similar amounts and were completely coated by apatite-like spherules after soaking in simulated body fluid for 3 wk. The aqueous extracts from all samples studied were not cytotoxic in a culture of human fibroblastic cells. No differences in fibroblast-like human cells adhesion and proliferation were observed between samples. According to the obtained results, properly processed pseudowollastonite bioceramics, obtained from the natural source, exhibit the same in vitro behavior and better performance in terms of strength and reliability than do the more expensive synthetic materials. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Modelling fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the Meuse catchment to assess the contribution of different pollution sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Nele; Seuntjens, Piet

    2013-04-01

    Large river basins have multiple sources of pesticides and usually the pollution sources are spread over the entire catchment. The cumulative effect of pesticides entering the river system in upstream areas and the formation of persistent degradation products can compromise downstream water use e.g. raw water quality for drinking water abstractions. For assessments at catchment scale pesticide fluxes coming from different sources and sub basins need to be taken into account. To improve management strategies, a sound understanding of the sources, emission routes, transport, environmental fate and conversion of pesticides is needed. In the Netherlands, the Meuse river basin is an important source for drinking water production. The river suffers from elevated concentrations of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). For AMPA it is rather unclear to what extent the pollution is related to glyphosate degradation and what is the contribution of other sources, especial phosphonates in domestic and industrial waste water. Based on the available monitoring data only it is difficult to distinguish between AMPA sources in such a large river basin. This hampers interpretation and decision making for water quality management in the Meuse catchment. Here, application of water quality models is very useful to obtain complementary information and insights. Modelling allows accounting for temporal and spatial variability in discharge and concentrations as well as distinguishing the contribution from conversion processes. In this study, a model for the river Meuse was developed and applied to assess the contribution of tributary and transnational influxes, glyphosate degradation and other sources to the AMPA pollution.

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of carvone, considering all sources of exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Scientific Committee (SC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Carvone occurs naturally as dextrorotatory (d- and levorotatory (l- enantiomers in several food items; these may also be used as a pesticide, food flavouring, feed flavouring, in feed additive, in personal care products and as (veterinary medicine. In order to improve coherence regarding the risk assessment of carvone in the different food and feed sector areas, EFSA asked its Scientific Committee to establish a single ADI for carvone, estimate the overall exposure of European consumers, and quantify the contribution for each source of exposure to the overall exposure of carvone. Having reviewed the information available the Scientific Committee decided to address d-carvone and l-carvone separately and limit its assessment to the oral intake of d- and l-carvone. The Scientific Committee established an ADI of 0.6 mg/kg bw/day for d-carvone, based on the BMDL10 of 60 mg/kg bw/day for an increase in relative liver weight in the rat 90-day studies and an uncertainty factor of 100. The Scientific Committee could not establish an ADI for l-carvone because of a lack of toxicological data for this enantiomer. The highest level of aggregated exposure to d-carvone is estimated to be 0.60 mg/kg bw/day, i.e. is at the level of the ADI established for d-carvone. The highest level of aggregated exposure to l-carvone is three-fold that of d-carvone. In view of key uncertainties 1 on the toxicity of l-carvone, 2 on the biological relevance of the endpoint selected to establish the ADI for d-carvone and its use as a surrogate for the observed lethality in tested animals, 3 whether d- and l-carvone should be considered together for possible combined effects and 4 in the aggregated exposure assessments to d- and to l-carvone, the Scientific Committee recommended generating additional data to refine the current risk assessment.

  8. Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facilities for disused sealed radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seunghee; Kim, Juyoul, E-mail: gracemi@fnctech.com

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Post-closure safety assessment of near surface disposal facility for DSRS was performed. • Engineered vault and rock-cavern type were considered for normal and well scenario. • {sup 14}C, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 241}Am were primary nuclides contributing large portion of exposure dose. • Near surface disposal of DSRSs containing {sup 14}C, {sup 226}Ra and {sup 241}Am should be restricted. - Abstract: Great attention has been recently paid to the post-closure safety assessment of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal facility for disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRSs) around the world. Although the amount of volume of DSRSs generated from industry, medicine and research and education organization was relatively small compared with radioactive wastes from commercial nuclear power plants, some DSRSs can pose a significant hazard to human health due to their high activities and long half-lives, if not appropriately managed and disposed. In this study, post-closure safety assessment was carried out for DSRSs generated from 1991 to 2014 in Korea in order to ensure long-term safety of near surface disposal facilities. Two kinds of disposal options were considered, i.e., engineered vault type disposal facility and rock-cavern type disposal facility. Rock-cavern type disposal facility has been under operation in Gyeongju city, republic of Korea since August 2015 and engineered vault type disposal facility will be constructed until December 2020 in the vicinity of rock-cavern disposal facility. Assessment endpoint was individual dose to the member of critical group, which was modeled by GoldSim, which has been widely used as probabilistic risk analysis software based on Monte Carlo simulation in the area of safety assessment of radioactive waste facilities. In normal groundwater scenario, the maximum exposure dose was extremely low, approximately 1 × 10{sup −7} mSv/yr, for both disposal options and satisfied the regulatory limit

  9. Assessment of Impact of Monoenergetic Photon Sources on Prioritized Nonproliferation Applications: Simulation Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geddes, Cameron [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ludewigt, Bernhard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Valentine, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Quiter, Brian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Descalle, Marie-Anne [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Warren, Glen [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kinlaw, Matt [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Scott [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chichester, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Miller, Cameron [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Pozzi, Sara [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-12-30

    Near-monoenergetic photon sources (MPSs) have the potential to improve sensitivity at greatly reduced dose in existing applications and enable new capabilities in other applications. MPS advantages include the ability to select energy, energy spread, flux, and pulse structures to deliver only the photons needed for the application, while suppressing extraneous dose and background. Some MPSs also offer narrow divergence photon beams which can target dose and/or mitigate scattering contributions to image contrast degradation. Current broad-band, bremsstrahlung photon sources (e.g., linacs and betatrons) deliver unnecessary dose that in some cases also interferes with the signature to be detected and/or restricts operations, and must be collimated (reducing flux) to generate narrow divergence beams. While MPSs can in principle resolve these issues, they are technically challenging to produce. Candidate MPS technologies for nonproliferation applications are now being developed, each of which have different properties (e.g. broad divergence vs. narrow). Within each technology, source parameters trade off against one another (e.g. flux vs. energy spread), representing a large operation space. To guide development, requirements for each application of interest must be defined and simulations conducted to define MPS parameters that deliver benefit relative to current systems. The present project conducted a broad assessment of potential nonproliferation applications where MPSs may provide new capabilities or significant performance enhancement (reported separately), which led to prioritization of several applications for detailed analysis. The applications prioritized were: cargo screening and interdiction of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM), detection of hidden SNM, treaty/dismantlement verification, and spent fuel dry storage cask content verification. High resolution imaging for stockpile stewardship was considered as a sub-area of the treaty topic, as it is also of

  10. {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents Sea Regions. Sources and radioecological assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iosjpe, Mikhail [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway)

    2014-07-01

    The radioecological assessment for {sup 239+240}Pu in the Barents sea regions was made using the compartment modelling approach. The following sources of radioactive contamination were under consideration: global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, transport of {sup 239+240}Pu from the Sellafield and La Hauge nuclear plants and underwater testing of nuclear weapons in Chernaya Bay, Novaya Zemlya. The box model developed at NRPA uses a modified approach for compartmental modeling, which takes into account the dispersion of radionuclides over time. The box structures for surface, mid-depth and deep water layers have been developed based on the description of polar, Atlantic and deep waters in the Arctic Ocean and the Northern Seas, as well as site-specific information for the boxes. The volume of the three water layers in each box has been calculated using detailed bathymetry together with Geographical Information Systems. The box model includes the processes of advection of radioactivity between compartments, sedimentation, diffusion of radioactivity through pore water in sediments, resuspension, mixing due to bioturbation, particle mixing and a burial process for radionuclides in deep sediment layers. Radioactive decay is calculated for all compartments. The contamination of biota is further calculated from the known radionuclide concentrations in filtered seawater in the different water regions. Doses to man are calculated on the basis of seafood consumptions, in accordance with available data for seafood catches and assumptions about human diet in the respective areas. Dose to biota are determined on the basis of calculated radionuclide concentrations in marine organisms, water and sediment, using dose conversion factors. Results of the calculations show that atmospheric deposition is the dominant source for the Barents Sea, except for the Chernaya Bay region. It is also demonstrated that the impact of the Sellafield nuclear facilities has

  11. Assessing Model Characterization of Single Source Secondary Pollutant Impacts Using 2013 SENEX Field Study Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kirk R; Woody, Matthew C

    2017-03-15

    Aircraft measurements made downwind from specific coal fired power plants during the 2013 Southeast Nexus field campaign provide a unique opportunity to evaluate single source photochemical model predictions of both O3 and secondary PM2.5 species. The model did well at predicting downwind plume placement. The model shows similar patterns of an increasing fraction of PM2.5 sulfate ion to the sum of SO2 and PM2.5 sulfate ion by distance from the source compared with ambient based estimates. The model was less consistent in capturing downwind ambient based trends in conversion of NOX to NOY from these sources. Source sensitivity approaches capture near-source O3 titration by fresh NO emissions, in particular subgrid plume treatment. However, capturing this near-source chemical feature did not translate into better downwind peak estimates of single source O3 impacts. The model estimated O3 production from these sources but often was lower than ambient based source production. The downwind transect ambient measurements, in particular secondary PM2.5 and O3, have some level of contribution from other sources which makes direct comparison with model source contribution challenging. Model source attribution results suggest contribution to secondary pollutants from multiple sources even where primary pollutants indicate the presence of a single source.

  12. Quantitative assessment of pure aortic valve regurgitation with dual-source CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z., E-mail: lzlcd01@126.com [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China); Huang, L.; Chen, X.; Xia, C.; Yuan, Y.; Shuai, T. [Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, 37 Guo Xue Xiang, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Aim: To assess the severity of pure aortic regurgitation by measuring regurgitation volumes (RV) and fractions (RF) with dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) as compared to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and echocardiography. Materials and methods: Thirty-eight patients (15 men, 23 women; mean age 46 {+-} 11 years) with isolated aortic valve regurgitation underwent retrospectively electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated DSCT, echocardiography, and MRI. Stroke volumes of the left and right ventricles were measured at DSCT and MRI. Thus, RVs and RFs were calculated and compared. The agreement between DSCT and MRI was tested by intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analyses. Spearman's rank order correlation and weighted {kappa} tests were used for testing correlations of AR severity between DSCT results and corresponding echocardiographic grades. Results: The RV and RF measured by DSCT were not significantly different from those measured using MRI (p = 0.71 and 0.79). DSCT correlated well with MRI for the measurement of RV (r{sub I} = 0.86, p<0.001) and calculation of the RF (r{sub I} =0.90, p<0.001). Good agreement between the techniques was obtained by using Bland-Altman analyses. The severity of regurgitation estimated by echocardiography correlated well with DSCT (r{sub s} = 0.95, p<0.001) and MRI (r{sub s} = 0.95, p<0.001). Inter-technique agreement between DSCT and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2DTTE) regarding the grading of the severity of AR was excellent ({kappa} = 0.90), and good agreement was also obtained between MRI and 2DTTE assessments of the severity of AR ({kappa} = 0.87). Conclusion: DSCT using a volume approach can be used to quantitatively determine the severity of pure aortic regurgitation when compared with MRI and echocardiography.

  13. Exposure of children to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Mexico: assessment of multiple sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Salinas, Rebeca I; Elena Leal, M; Batres-Esquivel, Lilia E; Domínguez-Cortinas, Gabriela; Calderón, Jacqueline; Díaz-Barriga, Fernando; Pérez-Maldonado, Iván N

    2010-08-01

    Biological monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has expanded rapidly since urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was suggested as a biological index for pyrene. Taking into account that pyrene is often present in PAHs mixtures, 1-OHP has also been considered an indirect indicator of exposure to these mixtures. Sources of PAHs in developing countries are numerous; however, exposure of children to PAHs has not been studied in detail. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess exposure of children to PAHs in different scenarios: (a) children living next to highways with heavy traffic; (b) sanitary landfill; (c) brick kiln communities and (d) children exposed to biomass combustion. A total of 258 children (aged 3-13) participated in the study. The analyses were performed by HPLC with fluorescence detector. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations were then adjusted by urinary creatinine. The highest levels of 1-OHP in this study were found in children exposed to biomass combustion (mean value 3.25 micromol/mol creatinine), but exposure was also detected in children living in communities with brick kiln industry (mean 0.35 micromol/mol creatinine), or in a community next to a sanitary landfill (with waste combustion) (0.30 micromol/mol creatinine) and in children exposed to traffic (mean value 0.2 micromol/mol creatinine and 0.08 micromol/mol creatinine). Considering our results and taking into account that millions of children in Mexico are living in scenarios similar to those studied in this work, the assessment of health effects in children exposed to PAHs is urgently needed; furthermore, PAHs have to be declared contaminants of concern at a national level.

  14. Upper Water Column Dimethylated Sulfur Biogeochemical Cycling in the Sargasso Sea - Assessing the Oceanic DMS Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, D. A.; Dacey, J. W.; Bates, N. R.; Levine, N. M.; Neeley, A.

    2008-12-01

    Once ventilated to the atmosphere, the oxidation products of biologically produced DMS are non sea salt sulfate and methane sulfonate aerosols which potentially exert considerable control on the global climate via alterations in radiative properties, acid-base chemistry, halogen cycles, and aerosol iron availability. The most significant obstacle to assessing and quantifying any associated climate feedbacks, beyond uncertainties associated with flux parameterizations, is the lack of understanding of the mechanisms that regulate oceanic near surface DMS concentrations. To assess the seasonal variability in the oceanic DMS source, monthly vertical profiles of DMS and particulate and dissolved DMSP (DMSPp and DMSPd) concentrations and biogeochemical cycling rates were sampled in the Sargasso Sea commencing in September 2005 at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study site (BATS). Clear seasonal cycles are evident for DMS and DMSPp concentrations, although they are poorly correlated to available biomass indicators. DMSPd was consistently low and did not exhibit a clear seasonality. Biological DMS consumption is characterized by seasonal minima and maxima observed above and below the mixed layer depth respectively during strong summertime stratification. No clear seasonal cycles are evident in microbial DMSPd consumption rates or DMS yield but they vary within a relatively narrow range. Modeled phytoplankton DMS production rates are extremely large, negatively correlated to phytoplankton biomass indicators, and peak in the summer confirming that DMS concentrations and turnover processes are also affected by the physical dynamics of the surface mixed layer and by meteorological forcing such as total solar radiation, UV radiation, and wind speed. This research provides the first time-series of open-ocean organic sulfur cycling rates which will not only refine our understanding of the controlling mechanisms but will also serve as a basis for future oceanic and atmospheric

  15. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of salmonella contamination in pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häggblom Per

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of salmonella contaminated feed ingredients on the risk for spreading salmonella to pigs was assessed in response to two incidences when salmonella was spread by feed from two feed mills to 78 swine producing herds. Methods The assessment was based on results from the salmonella surveillance of feed ingredients before introduction to feed mills and from HACCP - based surveillance of the feed mills. Results from the mills of the Company (A that produced the salmonella contaminated feed, were by the Chi. Square test compared to the results from all the other (B - E feed producers registered in Sweden. Isolated serovars were compared to serovars from human cases of salmonellosis. Results Salmonella (28 serovars was frequently isolated from imported consignments of soybean meal (14.6% and rape seed meal (10.0%. Company A largely imported soybean meal from crushing plants with a history of unknown or frequent salmonella contamination. The risk for consignments of vegetable proteins to be salmonella contaminated was 2.4 times (P Conclusions Salmonella contaminated feed ingredients are an important source for introducing salmonella into the feed and food chain. Effective HACCP-based control and associated corrective actions are required to prevent salmonella contamination of feed. Efforts should be taken to prevent salmonella contamination already at the crushing plants. This is challenge for the EU - feed industry due to the fact that 98% of the use of soybean/meal, an essential feed ingredient, is imported from crushing plants of third countries usually with an unknown salmonella status.

  16. Assessment of Research Needs for Oil Recovery from Heavy-Oil Sources and Tar Sands (FERWG-IIIA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.

    1982-03-01

    The Fossil Energy Research Working Group (FERWG), at the request of J.W. Mares (Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy) and A.W. Trivelpiece (Director, Office of Energy Research), has reviewed and evaluated the U.S. programs on oil recovery from heavy oil sources and tar sands. These studies were performed in order to provide an independent assessment of research areas that affect the prospects for oil recovery from these sources. This report summarizes the findings and research recommendations of FERWG.

  17. Assessing soil erosion risk using RUSLE through a GIS open source desktop and web application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, L; Teodoro, A C; Gonçalves, J A; Soares, D; Cunha, M

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion is a serious environmental problem. An estimation of the expected soil loss by water-caused erosion can be calculated considering the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). Geographical Information Systems (GIS) provide different tools to create categorical maps of soil erosion risk which help to study the risk assessment of soil loss. The objective of this study was to develop a GIS open source application (in QGIS), using the RUSLE methodology for estimating erosion rate at the watershed scale (desktop application) and provide the same application via web access (web application). The applications developed allow one to generate all the maps necessary to evaluate the soil erosion risk. Several libraries and algorithms from SEXTANTE were used to develop these applications. These applications were tested in Montalegre municipality (Portugal). The maps involved in RUSLE method-soil erosivity factor, soil erodibility factor, topographic factor, cover management factor, and support practices-were created. The estimated mean value of the soil loss obtained was 220 ton km(-2) year(-1) ranged from 0.27 to 1283 ton km(-2) year(-1). The results indicated that most of the study area (80 %) is characterized by very low soil erosion level (web and the desktop application are freely available.

  18. LORETA current source density for duration mismatch negativity and neuropsychological assessment in early schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Miyanishi

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with schizophrenia elicit cognitive decline from the early phase of the illness. Mismatch negativity (MMN has been shown to be associated with cognitive function. We investigated the current source density of duration mismatch negativity (dMMN, by using low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (LORETA, and neuropsychological performance in subjects with early schizophrenia. METHODS: Data were obtained from 20 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizophreniform disorder, and 20 healthy control (HC subjects. An auditory odd-ball paradigm was used to measure dMMN. Neuropsychological performance was evaluated by the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia Japanese version (BACS-J. RESULTS: Patients showed smaller dMMN amplitudes than those in the HC subjects. LORETA current density for dMMN was significantly lower in patients compared to HC subjects, especially in the temporal lobes. dMMN current density in the frontal lobe was positively correlated with working memory performance in patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to identify brain regions showing smaller dMMN current density in early schizophrenia. Further, poor working memory was associated with decreased dMMN current density in patients. These results are likely to help understand the neural basis for cognitive impairment of schizophrenia.

  19. Assessment of Choroidal Thickness in Healthy and Glaucomatous Eyes Using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunwei; Tatham, Andrew J.; Medeiros, Felipe A.; Zangwill, Linda M.; Yang, Zhiyong; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate choroidal thickness (CT) in healthy and glaucomatous eyes using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT). Methods A cross-sectional observational study of 216 eyes of 140 subjects with glaucoma and 106 eyes of 67 healthy subjects enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. CT was assessed from wide-field (12×9 mm) SS-OCT scans. The association between CT and potential confounding variables including age, gender, axial length, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness and ocular perfusion pressure was examined using univariable and multivariable regression analyses. Results Overall CT was thinner in glaucomatous eyes with a mean (± standard deviation) of 157.7±48.5 µm in glaucoma compared to 179.9±36.1 µm in healthy eyes (Pchoroid was thinner in both the peripapillary and macular regions in glaucoma compared to controls. Mean peripapillary CT was 154.1±44.1 µm and 134.0±56.9 µm (Pchoroid and when differences in age and axial length between glaucomatous and healthy subjects were accounted for, glaucoma was not significantly associated with CT. There was also no association between glaucoma severity and CT. Conclusions Glaucoma was not associated with CT measured using SS-OCT; however, older age and longer axial length were associated with thinner choroid so should be considered when interpreting CT measurements. PMID:25295876

  20. Heavy metals in surface sediments along the Weihai coast, China: Distribution, sources and contamination assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongmei; Kang, Xuming; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Qiang; Song, Jinming; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Yongyu

    2017-02-15

    The Weihai coast is a representative zone with fifty-year history of mariculture in China. Algae and shellfish are the main cultured species, other species including fish and sea cucumber are also cultivated. In this study, heavy metals in surface sediments, sampled along the Weihai coast during May yearly between 2009 and 2013 were investigated in terms of their contents and spatiotemporal variation. The contents of Zn, Cr, Cu, Cd, Pb and As showed different spatiotemporal variations and ranged between 11.6 and 115.9, 4.15-51.3, 5.2-21.9, 0.02-0.33, 6.0-54.2, and 2.9-18.7μgg(-1), respectively. Among them, Zn, Cu and As declined during the five years. Ecological risk assessment revealed that Cd posed a moderate risk, as compared to other five elements, which were relatively low risks in surface sediments. Source analysis revealed that Zn, Cr and Cd were mainly from lithogenic contribution, while As was likely from anthropogenic discharges.

  1. Development of type transfer functions for regional-scale nonpoint source groundwater vulnerability assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Iris T.; Loague, Keith

    2003-12-01

    Groundwater vulnerability assessments of nonpoint source agrochemical contamination at regional scales are either qualitative in nature or require prohibitively costly computational efforts. By contrast, the type transfer function (TTF) modeling approach for vadose zone pesticide leaching presented here estimates solute concentrations at a depth of interest, only uses available soil survey, climatic, and irrigation information, and requires minimal computational cost for application. TTFs are soil texture based travel time probability density functions that describe a characteristic leaching behavior for soil profiles with similar soil hydraulic properties. Seven sets of TTFs, representing different levels of upscaling, were developed for six loam soil textural classes with the aid of simulated breakthrough curves from synthetic data sets. For each TTF set, TTFs were determined from a group or subgroup of breakthrough curves for each soil texture by identifying the effective parameters of the function that described the average leaching behavior of the group. The grouping of the breakthrough curves was based on the TTF index, a measure of the magnitude of the peak concentration, the peak arrival time, and the concentration spread. Comparison to process-based simulations show that the TTFs perform well with respect to mass balance, concentration magnitude, and the timing of concentration peaks. Sets of TTFs based on individual soil textures perform better for all the evaluation criteria than sets that span all textures. As prediction accuracy and computational cost increase with the number of TTFs in a set, the selection of a TTF set is determined by a given application.

  2. Assessing the Impact of Active Land Management in Mitigating Wildfire Threat to Source Water Supply Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bladon, K. D.; Silins, U.; Emelko, M. B.; Flannigan, M.; Dupont, D.; Robinne, F.; Wang, X.; Parisien, M. A.; Stone, M.; Thompson, D. K.; Tymstra, C.; Schroeder, D.; Kienzle, S. W.; Anderson, A.

    2014-12-01

    The vast majority of surface water supplies in Alberta originates in forested regions of the province, and supports approximately 94 municipal utilities, 208 communities, and 67% of the provincial population. These surface water supplies are highly vulnerable to contamination inputs and changing water conditions associated with wildfires. A provincial scale risk analysis framework is being used to investigate the magnitude and likelihood of wildfire occurrence in source water regions to evaluate the potential for altered water quality and quantity. The initial analysis identified which forested regions and which municipal drinking water treatment facilities are most at risk from wildfire. The efficacy of several current and potential landscape treatments to mitigate wildfire threats, along with the likely outcome of these treatments on mitigation of potential impacts of wildfire to drinking water treatment, are being modeled. A Monte Carlo modeling approach incorporating wildfire regime characteristics is used to simulate the ignition and growth of wildfires and generate outcome distributions for the different mitigation strategies. Cumulative changes in water quality at large river basin scales are being modeled and linked to water treatment impacts with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). A critical foundation of this approach is the close interaction of a large, trans-disciplinary team of researchers capable of integrating highly diverse issues of landscape wildfire dynamics, cross-scale water supply issues, and their linkage to downstream risks to drinking water treatment engineering.

  3. e-Assessment in a Limited-Resources Dental School Using an Open-Source Learning Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tantawi, Maha M A; Abdelsalam, Maha M; Mourady, Ahmed M; Elrifae, Ismail M B

    2015-05-01

    e-Assessment provides solutions to some problems encountered in dental students' evaluation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the experience of a limited-resources dental school with e-assessment provided through an open-source learning management system (LMS). Data about users' access and types of e-assessment activities at the Faculty of Dentistry, Alexandria University, Egypt, were obtained from the web-based LMS Moodle. A questionnaire developed to assess students' perceptions of the e-assessment was also sent to students registered in two courses (undergraduate and postgraduate) with the same instructor. The results showed that most e-courses at the school had one form of e-assessment (82%) and, of these, 16.7% had summative assessment activities. There were significant differences among departments in the number of e-courses with e-assessment. One-quarter of e-courses with e-assessment used Moodle quizzes. Of 285 students registered in the two courses that included the questionnaire, 170 responded (response rate=59.6%). The responding students positively perceived the impact of e-assessment on learning and its reliability and security, whereas technical issues and related stresses were negatively perceived. This study suggests that e-assessment can be used at minimal cost in dental schools with limited resources and large class sizes with the least demands on faculty members and teaching staff time. For these schools, an open-source LMS such as Moodle provides formative e-assessment not available otherwise and accommodates various question formats and varying levels of instructors' technical skills. These students seemed to have a positive impression of the e-assessment although technical problems and related stresses are issues that need to be addressed.

  4. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Gómez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, Í.; Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, O. Q.; Larreynaga, J.; González, M.; Castro, M.; Gavidia, F.; Aguirre-Ayerbe, I.; González-Riancho, P.; Carreño, E.

    2013-11-01

    El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has an approximate length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there were 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and resulting in hundreds of victims. Hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached through both probabilistic and deterministic methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold: on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high-resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps, and from the elevation in the near shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific Basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences-finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the linear and non-linear shallow water equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake-generated tsunami scenarios. Our results show that at the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results

  5. Tsunami hazard assessment in El Salvador, Central America, from seismic sources through flooding numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Álvarez-Gómez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America; its coast has approximately a length of 320 km, 29 municipalities and more than 700 000 inhabitants. In El Salvador there have been 15 recorded tsunamis between 1859 and 2012, 3 of them causing damages and hundreds of victims. The hazard assessment is commonly based on propagation numerical models for earthquake-generated tsunamis and can be approached from both Probabilistic and Deterministic Methods. A deterministic approximation has been applied in this study as it provides essential information for coastal planning and management. The objective of the research was twofold, on the one hand the characterization of the threat over the entire coast of El Salvador, and on the other the computation of flooding maps for the three main localities of the Salvadorian coast. For the latter we developed high resolution flooding models. For the former, due to the extension of the coastal area, we computed maximum elevation maps and from the elevation in the near-shore we computed an estimation of the run-up and the flooded area using empirical relations. We have considered local sources located in the Middle America Trench, characterized seismotectonically, and distant sources in the rest of Pacific basin, using historical and recent earthquakes and tsunamis. We used a hybrid finite differences – finite volumes numerical model in this work, based on the Linear and Non-linear Shallow Water Equations, to simulate a total of 24 earthquake generated tsunami scenarios. In the western Salvadorian coast, run-up values higher than 5 m are common, while in the eastern area, approximately from La Libertad to the Gulf of Fonseca, the run-up values are lower. The more exposed areas to flooding are the lowlands in the Lempa River delta and the Barra de Santiago Western Plains. The results of the empirical approximation used for the whole country are similar to the results obtained

  6. Assessment of source probabilities for potential tsunamis affecting the U.S. Atlantic coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, E.L.; Parsons, T.

    2009-01-01

    Estimating the likelihood of tsunamis occurring along the U.S. Atlantic coast critically depends on knowledge of tsunami source probability. We review available information on both earthquake and landslide probabilities from potential sources that could generate local and transoceanic tsunamis. Estimating source probability includes defining both size and recurrence distributions for earthquakes and landslides. For the former distribution, source sizes are often distributed according to a truncated or tapered power-law relationship. For the latter distribution, sources are often assumed to occur in time according to a Poisson process, simplifying the way tsunami probabilities from individual sources can be aggregated. For the U.S. Atlantic coast, earthquake tsunami sources primarily occur at transoceanic distances along plate boundary faults. Probabilities for these sources are constrained from previous statistical studies of global seismicity for similar plate boundary types. In contrast, there is presently little information constraining landslide probabilities that may generate local tsunamis. Though there is significant uncertainty in tsunami source probabilities for the Atlantic, results from this study yield a comparative analysis of tsunami source recurrence rates that can form the basis for future probabilistic analyses.

  7. Soil Monitor: an open source web application for real-time soil sealing monitoring and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, Giuliano; Basile, Angelo; Giannecchini, Simone; Iamarino, Michela; Munafò, Michele; Terribile, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    Soil sealing is one of the most important causes of land degradation and desertification. In Europe, soil covered by impermeable materials has increased by about 80% from the Second World War till nowadays, while population has only grown by one third. There is an increasing concern at the high political levels about the need to attenuate imperviousness itself and its effects on soil functions. European Commission promulgated a roadmap (COM(2011) 571) by which the net land take would be zero by 2050. Furthermore, European Commission also published a report in 2011 providing best practices and guidelines for limiting soil sealing and imperviousness. In this scenario, we developed an open source and an open source based Soil Sealing Geospatial Cyber Infrastructure (SS-GCI) named as "Soil Monitor". This tool merges a webGIS with parallel geospatial computation in a fast and dynamic fashion in order to provide real-time assessments of soil sealing at high spatial resolution (20 meters and below) over the whole Italy. Common open source webGIS packages are used to implement both the data management and visualization infrastructures, such as GeoServer and MapStore. The high-speed geospatial computation is ensured by a GPU parallelism using the CUDA (Computing Unified Device Architecture) framework by NVIDIA®. This kind of parallelism required the writing - from scratch - all codes needed to fulfil the geospatial computation built behind the soil sealing toolbox. The combination of GPU computing with webGIS infrastructures is relatively novel and required particular attention at the Java-CUDA programming interface. As a result, Soil Monitor is smart because it can perform very high time-consuming calculations (querying for instance an Italian administrative region as area of interest) in less than one minute. The web application is embedded in a web browser and nothing must be installed before using it. Potentially everybody can use it, but the main targets are the

  8. Assessment of choroidal thickness in healthy and glaucomatous eyes using swept source optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunwei Zhang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate choroidal thickness (CT in healthy and glaucomatous eyes using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-OCT. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study of 216 eyes of 140 subjects with glaucoma and 106 eyes of 67 healthy subjects enrolled in the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. CT was assessed from wide-field (12×9 mm SS-OCT scans. The association between CT and potential confounding variables including age, gender, axial length, intraocular pressure, central corneal thickness and ocular perfusion pressure was examined using univariable and multivariable regression analyses. RESULTS: Overall CT was thinner in glaucomatous eyes with a mean (± standard deviation of 157.7±48.5 µm in glaucoma compared to 179.9±36.1 µm in healthy eyes (P<0.001. The choroid was thinner in both the peripapillary and macular regions in glaucoma compared to controls. Mean peripapillary CT was 154.1±44.1 µm and 134.0±56.9 µm (P<0.001 and macular CT 199.3±46.1 µm and 176.2±57.5 µm (P<0.001 for healthy and glaucomatous eyes respectively. However, older age (P<0.001 and longer axial length (P<0.001 were also associated with thinner choroid and when differences in age and axial length between glaucomatous and healthy subjects were accounted for, glaucoma was not significantly associated with CT. There was also no association between glaucoma severity and CT. CONCLUSIONS: Glaucoma was not associated with CT measured using SS-OCT; however, older age and longer axial length were associated with thinner choroid so should be considered when interpreting CT measurements.

  9. Non-carcinogenic risk assessment of eight metals in the source groundwater of Shaying River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Tian-hua; Diao, Wei-ping; Xu, Jian-gang; Liu, Ning

    2011-07-01

    Because of serious pollution of river water, people living along the Shaying River in China exploit the groundwater as a drinking water resource. Various pollutants including heavy metals have been detected in the groundwater at depths up to 200 m. To perform a non-carcinogenic risk assessment, the hazard index (HI) was determined for several metals present in the groundwater. High resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy were used to measure the levels of Hg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb in source groundwater of eight tap water treatment plants (WTPs) during a 3-year period (2007-2009). Zn was present at the highest concentration of up to 101.2 μg l(-1) and Cd contributed the most (57.8%) to the HI in the WTPs, followed by Mn (14.3%) and Cr (13.1%). Both hazard quotients of individual metals and HI of total non-carcinogenic risk in each WTP were below 1.0, suggesting that the water posed negligible health risk on local residents. Temporal and spatial comparisons showed that high HIs tend to occur in low water periods (i.e., summer), and the City Pressure Station (Fuyang City) had the highest HI, followed by Yingnan Pressure Station (Yingnan Country) and Taihe WTP (Taihe Country). This study provides benchmark information useful for regulatory authorities to control the discharge of metals into the Shaying River Basin, and serves as a basis for comparison to other river systems in the world.

  10. NO{sub 2} and CO nonattainment areas: a pragmatic approach to source reduction assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cernuschi, S.; Giugliano, M.; Marzolo, F. [D.I.I.A.R. - Politecnico di Milano, Milan (Italy). Environmental Section

    1995-12-31

    Many Italian large conurbations have CO and NO{sub 2} air quality standards exceeded and, consequently, require control enforcement plans to attain and maintain regulations not respected. In planning the interventions to be undertaken a fundamental issue is represented by the relationships between active emission sources and air quality, commonly described through mathematical models for evaluating the expected effects of the different reduction scenarios. This approach, relatively feasible for slightly or non reactive pollutants like CO, becomes not as easy to be applied for secondary pollutants, like NO{sub 2}, mainly for the complex photo chemical reaction systems involved in their atmospheric presence and the consequent modeling difficulties related either to the description of the system itself than to the detail in input data required. A practicable alternative in this framework relies in the utilization of statistical models for deriving, through the empirical description of the relationships between the parameters of interest, the reduction levels required for complying with the standards. Following an approach already applied with useful results to the same area, present work reports on the development and application to Milan urban area of statistical models for describing the relationships between CO and NO{sub x} annual concentration averages and the corresponding air quality standard parameters (number of standard exceedances for CO and 98th percentile of hourly concentrations for NO{sub 2}). The models are utilised upstream to simple roll-back models for the assessment of the reduction in emissions strength required for attaining air quality standards for the area. (author)

  11. Quality assessment of dried okara as a source of production of gluten-free flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann-Porcel, María V; Rinaldoni, Ana N; Rodriguez-Furlán, Laura T; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2017-07-01

    Okara is a by-product of soymilk and of tofu elaboration that is rich in protein, fiber and vegetable oils as a source of gluten-free flour. In order to take advantage of the nutritional characteristics of okara and to be able to determine an appropriate drying methodology, microwave, rotary dryer and freeze-drying were assessed. Furthermore, flour with an enzymatic treatment was characterized as well as its functional, physicochemical, and textural properties. The results showed that the physiochemical characteristics of the flour were affected by the drying process, reaching adequate water content, and high protein and fiber content. The freeze-drying process produced clearer flours with porous structure and high water absorption capacity, and with a higher protein denaturation. Okara dried by microwave and rotary dryer exhibited a denser structure with similar functional properties and improved textural characteristics such as firmness and consistency. The microwave-produced flour was darker due to the non-enzymatic browning reactions. The enzymatic treatment employed improved the consistency of the flour. It was possible to choose the drying process to be applied according to the feasible use of the flour, intended to preserve the favorable nutritional aspects of the okara flour. Based on the results, it can be affirmed that the physicochemical properties and attributes of okara are influenced by the drying process employed. Okara dried by freeze-drying resulted in a better product because it had a low final moisture content and the highest whiteness index. The flour presented a porous structure with high solubility, which is an indicator of potential applications in foods developments. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Atmospheric moisture transports to the Arctic from different reanalyses: comparative assessment and analysis of source terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Ambroise; Zolina, Olga; Gulev, Sergey

    2014-05-01

    Accurate knowledge of the Arctic heat and moisture balances is critically important for understanding mechanisms of polar climate change and the observed amplification of the Arctic warming. Basic characteristics of the atmosphere in the Arctic region have quite a large spread in the modern era and first generation reanalyses, thus preventing effective use of reanalyses for the assessment of atmospheric moisture and heat transports and analysis of variability in the source terms. We used Eulerian approach to derive and intercompare to each other estimates of the moisture transports in the atmosphere from 5 reanalyses (ERA-Interim, MERRA, NCEP-CFSR, JRA-25, NCEP-1). Computational procedure involved decomposition of the velocity and moisture fields into mean conditions and variations around the mean. This concept allowed for the further association of the mean and eddy transports with large scale circulation modes (mean component) and synoptic transients (eddy component). The latter was associated with the characteristics of cyclone activity derived from the same reanalyses using state of the art numerical algorithm for cyclone identification and tracking. Atmospheric moisture transport is most intense over the GIN Sea and the North European basin, however over this area of the most intense transports, the contributions from the eddy and mean transport components are not correlated hinting on different pattern of variability in moisture fluxes due to cyclone activity and mean circulation. Decadal scale variability in the atmospheric moisture transports has been further associated with the Arctic-scale and regional differences between local precipitation and evaporation as well as with the magnitude of the storage terms. Potential mechanisms of variability in these terms are discussed.

  13. Assessing the sources and bioaccessibility of Lead in Soils from London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Mark R.; Wragg, Joanna; Chenery, Simon

    2013-04-01

    The lead content of soil is important since it is toxic to humans and particularly because children tend to more readily absorb lead than do adults: children absorb up to 40% into the bloodstream from ingested or inhaled lead, versus 5-15% in adults. Studies have shown that relatively low concentrations of lead in blood can lead to significant decrease in IQ of children (e.g. Jakubowski, 2011) leading to neuropathy and hypertension in adults. The British Geological Survey has recently completed a systematic high-density geochemical soil survey of the Greater London Area (GLA) in which over 6000 surface soil samples were collected and analysed for 50 elements. The Pb content of the soils range from 11 mg/kg to greater than 10000 mg/kg with mean and median values of 301 and 185 mg/kg, respectively. The ingestion bioaccessible fraction of Pb was measured using an in-vitro bioaccessibility test showing that 68% of the total Pb in London soils is bioaccessible. Measurement of Pb isotopic ratios in selected soils matched with those found in London air particulates and, to a lesser extent, with petrol lead. Self modelling mixture resolution of the 50 element geochemical data set was used to identify geochemically distinct components in the data with Pb being associated with 11 of the components which were of both natural and anthropogenic origin. Relationships between the soil components, the bioaccessible fraction and the Pb isotope ratios provided an indication of the sources of mobile lead in the London soils. References JAKUBOWSKI, M. 2011. Low-level environmental lead exposure and intellectual impairment in children - the current concepts of risk assessment. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Vol. 24, 1-7. APPLETON, J D, CAVE, M R, and WRAGG, J. 2012. Modelling lead bioaccessibility in urban topsoils based on data from Glasgow, London, Northampton and Swansea, UK. Environmental Pollution, Vol. 171, 265-272.

  14. Assessing the applicability of currently available methods for attributing foodborne disease to sources, including food and food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Sara M

    2013-03-01

    A variety of approaches to attribute foodborne diseases to specific sources are available, including hazard occurrence analysis, epidemiological methods, intervention studies, and expert elicitations. The usefulness of each method to attribute disease caused by a foodborne hazard depends on the public health question being addressed, on the data requirements, on advantages and limitations of the method, and on the data availability of the country or region in question. Previous articles have described available methods for source attribution, but have focused only on foodborne microbiological hazards. These articles have described strengths and weaknesses of each method, but no guidance on how to choose the most appropriate tool to address different public health questions has thus far been provided. We reviewed available source attribution methods; assessed their applicability to attribute illness caused by enteric, parasitic, and chemical foodborne hazards to the responsible sources; and renamed some of the approaches. The main objective was to make recommendations on the most appropriate method(s) to attribute human disease caused by different foodborne hazards. We concluded that the proportion of disease that can be attributed to specific foods items or transmission routes may be estimated for the majority of the evaluated hazards by applying one or more of the source attribution methods assessed. It was also recognized that the use of source attribution methods may be limited to specific countries, reflecting the data availability.

  15. ASSESSMENT OF FECAL POLLUTION SOURCES IN PLUM CREEK WATERSHED USING PCR AND PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSES OF BACTEROIDETES 16S RDNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional methods for assessing fecal pollution in environmental systems, such as monitoring for fecal coliforms are not capable of discriminating between different sources fecal pollution. Recently, 16S rDNA Bacteroidetes-targeted PCR assays were developed to discriminate betw...

  16. Assessing the Differences in Public Health Impact of Salmonella Subtypes Using a Bayesian Microbial Subtyping Approach for Source Attribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pires, Sara Monteiro; Hald, Tine

    2010-01-01

    Salmonella is a major cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. To prioritize interventions and assess the effectiveness of efforts to reduce illness, it is important to attribute salmonellosis to the responsible sources. Studies have suggested that some Salmonella subtypes have a higher health...

  17. Assessment of control technology for stationary sources. Volume II: control technology data tables. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Herther, M.; Babb, L.; Kuby, W.

    1980-02-01

    This report, the Control Technology Data Tables, is the second volume of the three-volume final report for the contract. It presents in tabular format, qualitative descriptions of control options for the various sources and quantitative information on control technology cost, efficiency, reliability, energy consumption, other environmental impacts and application status. Also included is a code list which classifies the stationary sources examined by industry, process, and emission source.

  18. GIS-based predicative modelling of agricultural non point pollution. A case study; Modellazione previsionale GIS-based dell'inquinamento di origine diffusa da fonti agricole. Un caso di studio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistocchi, A. [Studio di Ingegneria per l' Ambiente e il Territorio, Cesena (Italy); Bettini, S.; Miserocchi, R. [Geaprogetti Ambiente e Territorio, Ravenna (Italy)

    2000-01-01

    A mathematical modelling approach is presented for agricultural non point source pollution, based on a GIS paradigm. The capability of GIS technology is exploited so to achieve a detailed description of the study area via simple mathematical relations. The features that make the approach preferable for land use management and planning are highlighted. An application to a case study is also given that shows how the model can be set up using currently available cartography. [Italian] Viene presentato un approccio alla modellazione matematica dell'inquinamento di origine diffusa da fonti agricole, che si basa sul paradigma dei sistemi informativi geografici e sulla possibilita' di descrivere i fenomeni idrologici mediante relazioni matematiche semplici e una quantita' di dati capillarmente distribuiti. Vengono messe in evidenza le caratteristiche che rendono questo tipo di approccio preferibile alla modellazione classica per quanto riguarda la pianificazione territoriale. Si illustra l'applicazione al caso di studio del bacino del fiume Savio in Emilia Romagna, mostrando l'applicabilita' del metodo a partire dalle conoscenze rappresentate nella cartografia corrente.

  19. Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan

    2009-05-30

    An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions.

  20. Open-Source web-based geographical information system for health exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Barry; Sabel, Clive E

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible...

  1. Curriculum-Guided Crowd Sourcing of Assessments in a Developing Country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zualkernan, Imran A.; Raza, Anjana; Karim, Asad

    2012-01-01

    Success of Wikipedia has opened a number of possibilities for crowd sourcing learning resources. However, not all crowd sourcing initiatives are successful. For developing countries, adoption factors like lack of infrastructure and poor teacher training can have an impact on success of such systems. This paper presents an exploratory study to…

  2. Assessment of image quality of 64-row Dual Source versus Single Source CT coronary angiography on heart rate: A phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikkers, R. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: r.dikkers@rad.umcg.nl; Greuter, M.J.W. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.w.greuter@rad.umcg.nl; Kristanto, W. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: w.kristanto@rad.umcg.nl; Ooijen, P.M.A. van [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: p.m.a.van.ooyen@rad.umcg.nl; Sijens, P.E. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: p.e.sijens@rad.umcg.nl; Willems, T.P. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: t.p.willems@rad.umcg.nl; Oudkerk, M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, 9700 RB Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.oudkerk@rad.umcg.nl

    2009-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the influence of temporal resolution on image quality of computed tomographic (CT) coronary angiography by comparing 64-row Dual Source CT (DSCT) and Single Source CT (SSCT) at different heart rates. Methods: An anthropomorphic moving heart phantom was scanned at rest, and at 50 beats per minute (bpm) up to 110 bpm, with intervals of 10 bpm. 3D volume rendered images and curved multi-planar reconstructions (MPRs) were acquired and image quality of the coronary arteries was rated on a 5-points scale (1 = poor image quality with many artefacts, 5 = excellent image quality) for each heart rate and each scanner by 3 observers. Paired sample t-test and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test were used to assess clinically relevant differences between both modalities. Results: The mean image quality scores at 70, 100 and 110 bpm were significantly higher for DSCT compared to SSCT. The overall mean image quality scores for DSCT (4.2 {+-} 0.6) and SSCT (3.0 {+-} 1.1) also differed significantly (p < 0.001). Conclusion: These initial results show a clinically relevant overall higher image quality for DSCT compared to SSCT, especially at heart rates of 70, 100 and 110 bpm. With its comparatively high image quality and low radiation dose, DSCT appears to be the method of choice in CT coronary angiography at heart rates above 70 bpm.

  3. Web-Based Portfolio Assessment: Validation of an Open Source Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Regina; Elliot, Norbert; Klobucar, Andrew; Deek, Fadi P.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of educational outcomes through purchased tests is commonplace in the evaluation of individual student ability and of educational programs. Focusing on the assessment of writing performance in a longitudinal study of first-time, full-time students (n = 598), this research describes the design, use, and assessment of an open-source…

  4. Web-Based Portfolio Assessment: Validation of an Open Source Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Regina; Elliot, Norbert; Klobucar, Andrew; Deek, Fadi P.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of educational outcomes through purchased tests is commonplace in the evaluation of individual student ability and of educational programs. Focusing on the assessment of writing performance in a longitudinal study of first-time, full-time students (n = 598), this research describes the design, use, and assessment of an open-source…

  5. Assessment of left ventricular function and mass in dual-source computed tomography coronary angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Christoph J., E-mail: c.jensen@contilia.d [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Jochims, Markus [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Hunold, Peter; Forsting, Michael; Barkhausen, Joerg [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University of Essen (Germany); Sabin, Georg V.; Bruder, Oliver [Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital, Essen (Germany); Schlosser, Thomas [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, University of Essen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Purpose: To quantify left ventricular (LV) function and mass (LVM) derived from dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) and the influence of beta-blocker administration compared to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). Methods: Thirty-two patients undergoing cardiac DSCT and CMR were included, where of fifteen received metoprolol intravenously before DSCT. LV parameters were calculated by the disc-summation method (DSM) and by a segmented region-growing algorithm (RGA). All data sets were analyzed by two blinded observers. Interobserver agreement was tested by the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results.: 1. Using DSM LV parameters were not statistically different between DSCT and CMR in all patients (DSCT vs. CMR: EF 63 {+-} 8% vs. 64 {+-} 8%, p = 0.47; EDV 136 {+-} 36 ml vs. 138 {+-} 35 ml, p = 0.66; ESV 52 {+-} 21 ml vs. 52 {+-} 22 ml, p = 0.61; SV 83 {+-} 22 ml vs. 87 {+-} 19 ml, p = 0.22; CO 5.4 {+-} 0.9 l/min vs. 5.7 {+-} 1.2 l/min, p = 0.09, LVM 132 {+-} 33 g vs. 132 {+-} 33 g, p = 0.99). 2. In a subgroup of 15 patients beta-blockade prior to DSCT resulted in a lower ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO) and increase in end systolic volume (ESV) in DSCT (EF 59 {+-} 8% vs. 62 {+-} 9%; SV 73 {+-} 17 ml vs. 81 {+-} 15 ml; CO 5.7 {+-} 1.2 l/min vs. 5.0 {+-} 0.8 l/min; ESV 52 {+-} 27 ml vs. 57 {+-} 24 ml, all p < 0.05). 3. Analyzing the RGA parameters LV volumes were not significantly different compared to DSM, whereas LVM was higher using RGA (177 {+-} 31 g vs. 132 {+-} 33 g, p < 0.05). Interobserver agreement was excellent comparing DSM values with best agreement between RGA calculations. Conclusion: Left ventricular volumes and mass can reliably be assessed by DSCT compared to CMR. However, beta-blocker administration leads to statistically significant reduced EF, SV and CO, whereas ESV significantly increases. DSCT RGA reliably analyzes LV function, whereas LVM is overestimated compared to DSM.

  6. Regional assessments of the Nation's water quality—Improved understanding of stream nutrient sources through enhanced modeling capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephen D.; Alexander, Richard B.; Woodside, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed assessments of stream nutrients in six major regions extending over much of the conterminous United States. SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes) models were developed for each region to explain spatial patterns in monitored stream nutrient loads in relation to human activities and natural resources and processes. The model information, reported by stream reach and catchment, provides contrasting views of the spatial patterns of nutrient source contributions, including those from urban (wastewater effluent and diffuse runoff from developed land), agricultural (farm fertilizers and animal manure), and specific background sources (atmospheric nitrogen deposition, soil phosphorus, forest nitrogen fixation, and channel erosion).

  7. Vulnerability Assessment of Groundwater Resources by Nutrient Source Apportionment to Individual Groundwater Wells: A Case Study in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, R.; Obenour, D. R.; Keyworth, A. J.; Genereux, D. P.; Mahinthakumar, K.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater contamination by nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) is a major concern in water table aquifers that underlie agricultural areas in the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain of the United States. High nutrient concentrations leaching into shallow groundwater can lead to human health problems and eutrophication of receiving surface waters. Liquid manure from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) stored in open-air lagoons and applied to spray fields can be a significant source of nutrients to groundwater, along with septic waste. In this study, we developed a model-based methodology for source apportionment and vulnerability assessment using sparse groundwater quality sampling measurements for Duplin County, North Carolina (NC), obtained by the NC Department of Environmental Quality (NC DEQ). This model provides information relevant to management by estimating the nutrient transport through the aquifer from different sources and addressing the uncertainty of nutrient contaminant propagation. First, the zones of influence (dependent on nutrient pathways) for individual groundwater monitoring wells were identified using a two-dimensional vertically averaged groundwater flow and transport model incorporating geologic uncertainty for the surficial aquifer system. A multiple linear regression approach is then applied to estimate the contribution weights for different nutrient source types using the nutrient measurements from monitoring wells and the potential sources within each zone of influence. Using the source contribution weights and their uncertainty, a probabilistic vulnerability assessment of the study area due to nutrient contamination is performed. Knowledge of the contribution of different nutrient sources to contamination at receptor locations (e.g., private wells, municipal wells, stream beds etc.) will be helpful in planning and implementation of appropriate mitigation measures.

  8. Assessment of control technology for stationary sources. Volume I: technical discussion. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minicucci, D.; Herther, M.; Babb, L.; Kuby, W.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a reference document for use by the Air Resources Board, local air pollution control districts, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency that describes technological options available for the control of emissions from stationary sources located in California. Control technologies were examined for 10 industry groups and six air pollutants. Volume I, Technical Discussion, includes an overall introduction to the project, descriptions of its major elements, background information for each industry group addressed, and the project bibliography. In Volume II, Control Technology Data Tables, qualitative descriptions of control options for the various sources and quantitative information on control technology cost, efficiency, reliability, energy consumption, other environmental impacts, and application status are presented in tabular format. Also included is a code list that classifies the stationary sources examined by industry, process and emission source.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coastal sediment of klang strait, Malaysia: distribution pattern, risk assessment and sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany

    Full Text Available Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia. The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions, with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait.

  10. Assessment of lunar sources of He-3 for use on earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Robert E.

    1988-09-01

    As a gross measure of the economics of mining lunar sources of He-3, the energy densities (GJ/ton) of lunar soils were compared with the energy densities of various existing and future terrestrial sources of energy. On this basis, only the very richest lunar ores appear competitive with coal. Future lunar exploration might emphasize identification of lunar soils having higher concentrations of He-3.

  11. Open-Source web-based geographical information system for health exposure assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Barry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible to develop a customisable web based GIS application that provides functions necessary to convey health and environmental data to experts and non-experts alike without the requirement of proprietary software.

  12. Open-Source web-based Geographical Information System for health exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barry; Sabel, Clive E

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of an open source web-based Geographical Information System allowing users to visualise, customise and interact with spatial data within their web browser. The developed application shows that by using solely Open Source software it was possible to develop a customisable web based GIS application that provides functions necessary to convey health and environmental data to experts and non-experts alike without the requirement of proprietary software.

  13. Assessment of the neutron cross section database for mercury for the ORNL spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal, L.C.; Spencer, R.R.; Ingersoll, D.T.; Gabriel, T.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-06-01

    Neutron source generation based on a high energy particle accelerator has been considered as an alternative to the canceled Advanced Neutron Source project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed technique consists of a spallation neutron source in which neutrons are produced via the interaction of high-energy charged particles in a heavy metal target. Preliminary studies indicate that liquid mercury bombarded with GeV protons provides an excellent neutron source. Accordingly, a survey has been made of the available neutron cross-section data. Since it is expected that spectral modifiers, specifically moderators, will also be incorporated into the source design, the survey included thermal energy, resonance region, and high energy data. It was found that data of individual isotopes were almost non-existent and that the only evaluation found for the natural element had regions of missing data or discrepant data. Therefore, it appears that to achieve the desired degree of accuracy in the spallation source design it is necessary to re-evaluate the mercury database including making new measurements. During the presentation the currently available data will be presented and experiments proposed which can lead to design quality cross sections.

  14. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Dagang Oilfield (China: Distribution, Sources, and Risk Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihua Jiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were investigated in 27 upper layer (0–25 cm soil samples collected from the Dagang Oilfield (China in April 2013 to estimate their distribution, possible sources, and potential risks posed. The total concentrations of PAHs (∑PAHs varied between 103.6 µg·kg−1 and 5872 µg·kg−1, with a mean concentration of 919.8 µg·kg−1; increased concentrations were noted along a gradient from arable desert soil (mean 343.5 µg·kg−1, to oil well areas (mean of 627.3 µg·kg−1, to urban and residential zones (mean of 1856 µg·kg−1. Diagnostic ratios showed diverse source of PAHs, including petroleum, liquid fossil fuels, and biomass combustion sources. Combustion sources were most significant for PAHs in arable desert soils and residential zones, while petroleum sources were a significant source of PAHs in oilfield areas. Based ontheir carcinogenity, PAHs were classified as carcinogenic (B or not classified/non-carcinogenic (NB. The total concentrations of carcinogenic PAHs (∑BPAHs varied from 13.3 µg·kg−1 to 4397 µg·kg−1 across all samples, with a mean concentration of 594.4 µg·kg−1. The results suggest that oilfield soil is subject to a certain level of ecological environment risk.

  15. Heavy metals in road dust from Xiandao District, Changsha City, China: characteristics, health risk assessment, and integrated source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei; Zhang, Jingdong; Huang, Jinhui; Huang, Dawei; Yang, Jun; Song, Yongwei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-07-01

    The physicochemical properties and the contents of metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Fe) in 51 road dust samples from Xiandao District (XDD) were investigated. Enrichment factor (EF), multivariate statistics, geostatistics, and health risk assessment model were adopted to study the spatial pollution pattern and to identify the priority pollutants and regions of concern and sources of studied metals. The mean EFs revealed the following order: Cd > Zn ≈ Pb ≈ Cu > Cr. For non-carcinogenic effects, the exposure pathway which resulted in the highest levels of exposure risk for children and adults was ingestion, followed by dermal contact and inhalation. Hazard index (HI) values for the studied metals at each site were within the safe level of 1 except maximum HI Cr (1.08) for children. The carcinogenic risk (CR) for Cd and Cr at each site was within the acceptable risk level (1E-06) except CR Cr (1.08E-06) for children in the road intersection between the Changchang highway and the Yuelin highway. Cr was identified as the priority pollutant followed by Pb and Cd with consideration of the local population distribution. Spatially, northwest and northeast of XDD were regarded as the priority regions of concern. Results based on the proposed integrated source identification method indicated that Pb was probably sourced from traffic-related sources, Cd was associated with the dust organic material mainly originated from industrial sources, and Cr was mainly derived from both sources.

  16. Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans - a life cycle assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis G A B Oonincx

    Full Text Available The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.

  17. Integrity of central nervous function in diabetes mellitus assessed by resting state EEG frequency analysis and source localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøkjær, Jens B; Graversen, Carina; Brock, Christina;

    2016-01-01

    localization analysis identified sources with reduced activity in the left postcentral gyrus for the gamma band and in right superior parietal lobule for the alpha1 (8-10Hz) band. DM patients with clinical signs of autonomic dysfunction and gastrointestinal symptoms had evidence of altered resting state......Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with structural and functional changes of the central nervous system. We used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess resting state cortical activity and explored associations to relevant clinical features. Multichannel resting state EEG was recorded in 27...... healthy controls and 24 patients with longstanding DM and signs of autonomic dysfunction. The power distribution based on wavelet analysis was summarized into frequency bands with corresponding topographic mapping. Source localization analysis was applied to explore the electrical cortical sources...

  18. Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans - a life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oonincx, Dennis G A B; de Boer, Imke J M

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified and compared to conventional sources of animal protein. Production of one kg of edible protein from milk, chicken, pork or beef result in higher greenhouse gas emissions, require similar amounts of energy and require much more land. This study demonstrates that mealworms should be considered a more sustainable source of edible protein.

  19. Distribution, sources, and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Nantong Coast, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Li, Xian; Zhang, Daolai; Liu, Qiang; Xiang, Lihui; Liu, Ke; Yan, Dongyun; Li, Yue

    2017-01-15

    The distribution, sources, and ecological risk assessment of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surface sediments from the Nantong coast in China were investigated. The results indicated that the total concentrations of the 16 PAHs in the surface sediments from the study area ranged from 1.4 to 87.1ngg(-1) dw (mean value 19.9ngg(-1) dw), which were generally low compared to the adjacent offshore area and other coastal zones around the world. The selected PAH ratios and the principal components analysis for each site showed that petroleum combustion and petrogenic pollution (mainly caused by petroleum spills) were the dominant PAHs sources in the surface sediments of the coast. The ecological risk assessment indicated that most of the individual PAHs had few negative effects in this area.

  20. Comparison of Oleo- vs Petro-Sourcing of Fatty Alcohols via Cradle-to-Gate Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Jignesh; Arslan, Erdem; Cirucci, John; O’Brien, Julie; Moss, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates surfactants are produced via ethoxylation of fatty alcohol (FA) with ethylene oxide. The source of FA could be either palm kernel oil (PKO) or petrochemicals. The study aimed to compare the potential environmental impacts for PKO-derived FA (PKO-FA) and petrochemicals-derived FA (petro-FA). Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment has been performed for this purpose because it enables understanding of the impacts across the life cycle and impact categories. The results show th...

  1. Environmental Impact of the Production of Mealworms as a Protein Source for Humans – A Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The demand for animal protein is expected to rise by 70-80% between 2012 and 2050, while the current animal production sector already causes major environmental degradation. Edible insects are suggested as a more sustainable source of animal protein. However, few experimental data regarding environmental impact of insect production are available. Therefore, a lifecycle assessment for mealworm production was conducted, in which greenhouse gas production, energy use and land use were quantified...

  2. Biomass burning in the Amazon region: Aerosol source apportionment and associated health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Alves, Nilmara; Brito, Joel; Caumo, Sofia; Arana, Andrea; de Souza Hacon, Sandra; Artaxo, Paulo; Hillamo, Risto; Teinilä, Kimmo; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina; de Castro Vasconcellos, Pérola

    2015-11-01

    The Brazilian Amazon represents about 40% of the world's remaining tropical rainforest. However, human activities have become important drivers of disturbance in that region. The majority of forest fire hotspots in the Amazon arc due to deforestation are impacting the health of the local population of over 10 million inhabitants. In this study we characterize western Amazonia biomass burning emissions through the quantification of 14 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Organic Carbon, Elemental Carbon and unique tracers of biomass burning such as levoglucosan. From the PAHs dataset a toxic equivalence factor is calculated estimating the carcinogenic and mutagenic potential of biomass burning emissions during the studied period. Peak concentration of PM10 during the dry seasons was observed to reach 60 μg m-3 on the 24 h average. Conversely, PM10 was relatively constant throughout the wet season indicating an overall stable balance between aerosol sources and sinks within the filter sampling resolution. Similar behavior is identified for OC and EC components. Levoglucosan was found in significant concentrations (up to 4 μg m-3) during the dry season. Correspondingly, the estimated lung cancer risk calculated during the dry seasons largely exceeded the WHO health-based guideline. A source apportionment study was carried out through the use of Absolute Principal Factor Analysis (APFA), identifying a three-factor solution. The biomass burning factor is found to be the dominating aerosol source, having 75.4% of PM10 loading. The second factor depicts an important contribution of several PAHs without a single source class and therefore was considered as mixed sources factor, contributing to 6.3% of PM10. The third factor was mainly associated with fossil fuel combustion emissions, contributing to 18.4% of PM10. This work enhances the knowledge of aerosol sources and its impact on climate variability and local population, on a site representative of the

  3. Physics-Based Hazard Assessment for Critical Structures Near Large Earthquake Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, L.; Mert, A.; Fahjan, Y.; Novikova, T.; Golara, A.; Miah, M.; Fergany, E.; Foxall, W.

    2017-06-01

    We argue that for critical structures near large earthquake sources: (1) the ergodic assumption, recent history, and simplified descriptions of the hazard are not appropriate to rely on for earthquake ground motion prediction and can lead to a mis-estimation of the hazard and risk to structures; (2) a physics-based approach can address these issues; (3) a physics-based source model must be provided to generate realistic phasing effects from finite rupture and model near-source ground motion correctly; (4) wave propagations and site response should be site specific; (5) a much wider search of possible sources of ground motion can be achieved computationally with a physics-based approach; (6) unless one utilizes a physics-based approach, the hazard and risk to structures has unknown uncertainties; (7) uncertainties can be reduced with a physics-based approach, but not with an ergodic approach; (8) computational power and computer codes have advanced to the point that risk to structures can be calculated directly from source and site-specific ground motions. Spanning the variability of potential ground motion in a predictive situation is especially difficult for near-source areas, but that is the distance at which the hazard is the greatest. The basis of a "physical-based" approach is ground-motion syntheses derived from physics and an understanding of the earthquake process. This is an overview paper and results from previous studies are used to make the case for these conclusions. Our premise is that 50 years of strong motion records is insufficient to capture all possible ranges of site and propagation path conditions, rupture processes, and spatial geometric relationships between source and site. Predicting future earthquake scenarios is necessary; models that have little or no physical basis but have been tested and adjusted to fit available observations can only "predict" what happened in the past, which should be considered description as opposed to prediction

  4. Assessment of muscular strength with the modified sphygmomanometer test: what is the best method and source of outcome values?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas A. C. Souza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tests that are usually employed for the clinical assessment of muscular strength have notable disadvantages. The Modified Sphygmomanometer Test (MST is a promising method because it is low-cost and provides objective measures. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the most adequate method and sources of outcome values for the assessment of strength with the MST. METHOD: Methodological study with 40 healthy adults (22.98±2.26 years, who did not practice physical activity regularly. The strength of the flexors and extensors of the elbow and knee, the handgrip of the dominant side and anterior trunk flexors were randomly assessed with portable dynamometers and the MST (bag and cuff adaptations, and sphygmomanometer without adaptation by a single examiner. An independent examiner read and recorded the values. The sources of the investigated outcome values were the first trial and the means of two and three trials. One-way ANOVAs and Pearson Correlation Coefficients were used for the analyses (α=0.05. RESULTS: For the MST methods applied to assess all muscular groups, similar values were found for all sources of outcome values (0.01assessment of strength in healthy individuals, and after familiarization, only one trial was sufficient to provide reliable measures. The sphygmomanometer without adaptation is not time consuming, compared to the other adaptations, and showed the capability of measuring higher values of strength. The bag method was easily trained to be used and stabilized.

  5. Assessment of muscular strength with the modified sphygmomanometer test: what is the best method and source of outcome values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Lucas A C; Martins, Júlia C; Moura, Juliana B; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F; De Paula, Fátima V R; Faria, Christina D C M

    2014-01-01

    Tests that are usually employed for the clinical assessment of muscular strength have notable disadvantages. The Modified Sphygmomanometer Test (MST) is a promising method because it is low-cost and provides objective measures. To investigate the most adequate method and sources of outcome values for the assessment of strength with the MST. Methodological study with 40 healthy adults (22.98 ± 2.26 years), who did not practice physical activity regularly. The strength of the flexors and extensors of the elbow and knee, the handgrip of the dominant side and anterior trunk flexors were randomly assessed with portable dynamometers and the MST (bag and cuff adaptations, and sphygmomanometer without adaptation) by a single examiner. An independent examiner read and recorded the values. The sources of the investigated outcome values were the first trial and the means of two and three trials. One-way ANOVAs and Pearson Correlation Coefficients were used for the analyses (α=0.05). For the MST methods applied to assess all muscular groups, similar values were found for all sources of outcome values (0.01assessment of strength in healthy individuals, and after familiarization, only one trial was sufficient to provide reliable measures. The sphygmomanometer without adaptation is not time consuming, compared to the other adaptations, and showed the capability of measuring higher values of strength. The bag method was easily trained to be used and stabilized.

  6. Impact of Alzheimer's-Type Dementia and Information Source on the Assessment of Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilley, David W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    The level of agreement between the patient and a collateral source with regard to depressive symptomatology was compared for 185 patients with Alzheimer's-type dementia (AD), 57 patients with Parkinson's disease, and 54 nondemented geriatric referrals. Findings highlight the potential insensitivity of patient report in AD. (SLD)

  7. Offshore dredger sound: source levels, sound maps and risk assessment (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.; Heinis, F.; Janmaat, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Port of Rotterdam is expanding to meet the growing demand to accommodate large cargo vessels. One of the licensing conditions was the monitoring of the underwater sound produced during its construction, with an emphasis on the establishment of acoustic source levels of the Trailing Suction Hoppe

  8. Assessment of the manganese content of the drinking water source in Yancheng, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinnan; Li, Aimin; Wang, Qiongjie; Zhou, Yang; Fu, Lichun; Li, Yan

    2010-10-15

    Excessive intake of manganese can damage the nervous system of the human body. In August 2009, the manganese content of the drinking water source in Yancheng exceeded the national standard of drinking water source, which influenced the daily life of the local residents. The aim of this study was to investigate the factors leading to the manganese content of river water in Yancheng exceeding the national standard. To the data, the manganese content of surface water in Yancheng already met the national standard of drinking water source in September 2009, but the manganese content of river sediment was relatively high, especially in Mangshe River and Tongyu River. It was worthwhile to note that the soluble manganese content of the sediment in Mangshe River was even as high as 270 mg kg(-1), which suggested that the release of manganese from the sediment was the major cause of the pollution. The manganese content of the soil near the rivers was also determined, and the results indicated that the wastewater and waste slag discharged by the stainless steel factories nearby were the main pollution sources of manganese. Furthermore, the environmental factors affecting the release of manganese from the sediment were also investigated. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. 76 FR 44374 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment to Source...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... license amendment to Source Materials License No. SMB- 141. This license is held by the Department of the... amendment request, resulting in release of the Building 1103A area for unrestricted use. License No. SMB-141... termination of License No. SMB-141, the Licensee will be required to show that all licensed areas and...

  10. Assessment of the risks associated with Iodine-125 handling production sources for brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daiane C.B.; Rostelato, Maria Elisa C.; Vicente, Roberto; Zeituni, Carlos A.; Tiezzi, Rodrigo; Costa, Osvaldo L.; Souza, Carla D.; Peleias Junior, Fernando S.; Rodrigues, Bruna T.; Souza, Anderson S.; Batista, Talita Q.; Melo, Emerson R.; Camargo, Anderson R., E-mail: dcsouza@usp.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Karam Junior, Dib, E-mail: dib.karam@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In Brazil, prostate cancer is the second most frequent disease, with an estimated 68,800 new cases in 2013. This type of cancer can be treated with brachytherapy, which uses sealed sources of Iodine-125 implanted permanently in the prostate. These sources are currently imported at a high cost, making public treatment in large scale impractical. To reduce costs and to meet domestic demand, the laboratory for production of brachytherapy sources at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN) is currently nationalizing the production of this radioisotope. Iodine is quite volatile making the handling of its radioactive isotopes potentially dangerous. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the risks to which workers are exposed during the production and handling of the sources. The research method consisted initially of a literature review on the toxicity of iodine, intake limits, related physical risks, handling of accidents, generation of radioactive wastes, etc. The results allowed for establishing safety and radioprotection policies in order to ensure efficient and safe production in all stages and the implementation of good laboratory practices. (author)

  11. Sources of Evidence-of-Learning: Learning and Assessment in the Era of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Bill; Kalantzis, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This article sets out to explore a shift in the sources of evidence-of-learning in the era of networked computing. One of the key features of recent developments has been popularly characterized as "big data". We begin by examining, in general terms, the frame of reference of contemporary debates on machine intelligence and the role of…

  12. "Political Risk": Sources that Assess or Advise on Risks in Foreign Country Business or Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need for data on political risk or country risk among business library patrons and describes some of the factors and methods used in foreign country risk analysis. Also provides an annotated list of political risk sources, including paper and electronic resources. (LRW)

  13. An assessment of open source promotion in addressing ICT acceptance challenges in Tanzania

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kinyondo, J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available . Worldwide Open Source (OS) is regarded as a technology that could foster and support ICT development, due to various factors such as cost of adoption. Several OS communities have been formed to create awareness of OS and the potential OS has to address ICT...

  14. A Preliminary Assessment of Google Scholar as a Source of EAP Students' Research Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms-Park, Rena; Radia, Pavlina; Stapleton, Paul

    2007-01-01

    While the use of a search engine to find secondary sources is now a commonplace practice among undergraduate writers, recent studies show that students' online searches often lead to materials that are wholly or partially unsuitable for academic purposes. Accordingly, this project set out to determine whether using a more specialized search…

  15. Sources of Evidence-of-Learning: Learning and Assessment in the Era of Big Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Bill; Kalantzis, Mary

    2015-01-01

    This article sets out to explore a shift in the sources of evidence-of-learning in the era of networked computing. One of the key features of recent developments has been popularly characterized as "big data". We begin by examining, in general terms, the frame of reference of contemporary debates on machine intelligence and the role of…

  16. Performance Availability Assessment of Combined Multi Power Source Traction Drive Considering Real Operational Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenkel Ilia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the vehicle’s traction electric drive, consisting of several various electric power sources. One of the main requirements for such systems are the safety and sustainable operations, achieved largely the implementation of an uninterrupted supply of the vehicle’s propulsion system with an electric power.

  17. "Political Risk": Sources that Assess or Advise on Risks in Foreign Country Business or Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanne, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the need for data on political risk or country risk among business library patrons and describes some of the factors and methods used in foreign country risk analysis. Also provides an annotated list of political risk sources, including paper and electronic resources. (LRW)

  18. 3D computational and experimental radiation transport assessments of Pu-Be sources and graded moderators for parcel screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghita, Gabriel; Sjoden, Glenn; Baciak, James; Huang, Nancy

    2006-05-01

    The Florida Institute for Nuclear Detection and Security (FINDS) is currently working on the design and evaluation of a prototype neutron detector array that may be used for parcel screening systems and homeland security applications. In order to maximize neutron detector response over a wide spectrum of energies, moderator materials of different compositions and amounts are required, and can be optimized through 3-D discrete ordinates and Monte Carlo model simulations verified through measurement. Pu-Be sources can be used as didactic source materials to augment the design, optimization, and construction of detector arrays with proper characterization via transport analysis. To perform the assessments of the Pu-Be Source Capsule, 3-D radiation transport computations are used, including Monte Carlo (MCNP5) and deterministic (PENTRAN) methodologies. In establishing source geometry, we based our model on available source schematic data. Because both the MCNP5 and PENTRAN codes begin with source neutrons, exothermic (α,n) reactions are modeled using the SCALE5 code from ORNL to define the energy spectrum and the decay of the source. We combined our computational results with experimental data to fully validate our computational schemes, tools and models. Results from our computational models will then be used with experiment to generate a mosaic of the radiation spectrum. Finally, we discuss follow-up studies that highlight response optimization efforts in designing, building, and testing an array of detectors with varying moderators/thicknesses tagged to specific responses predicted using 3-D radiation transport models to augment special nuclear materials detection.

  19. Hazard and risk assessment in a complex multi-source volcanic area: the example of the Campania Region, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lirer, L.; Petrosino, P.; Alberico, I.

    2010-05-01

    In order to zone the territory of Campania Region (southern Italy) with regard to the hazard related to future explosive activity of Somma-Vesuvio, Campi Flegrei, and Ischia Island, we drew a multi-source hazard map for tephra and pyroclastic flows. This map, which merges the areas possibly endangered by the three volcanic sources, takes into account a large set of tephra fall and pyroclastic flow events that have occurred in the last 10 ka. In detail, for fall products at Campi Flegrei and Somma-Vesuvio we used the dispersal of past eruption products as deduced by field surveys and their recurrence over the whole area. For pyroclastic flows, the field data were integrated with VEI = 4 simulated events; about 100 simulations sourcing from different points of the area were performed, considering the different probability of vent opening. The spatial recurrence of products of both past eruptions and simulated events was used to assign a weight to the area endangered by the single volcanic sources. The sum of these weights in the areas exposed to the activity of two sources and/or to different kinds of products was used to draw a hazard map, which highlights the spatial trend and the extent of the single equivalent classes at a regional scale. A multi-source risk map was developed for the same areas as the graphic result of the product of volcanic hazard and exposure, assessed in detail from a dasymetric map. The resulting multi-source hazard and risk maps are essential tools for communication among scientists, local authorities, and the public, and may prove highly practical for long-term regional-scale mitigation planning.

  20. Challenges in seismic hazard assessment: Analyses of ground motion modelling and seismotectonic sources

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Mathilde Bøttger

    2006-01-01

    Seismic hazard assessment has an important societal impact in describing levels of ground motions to be expected in a given region in the future. Challenges in seismic hazard assessment are closely associated with the fact that different regions, due to their differences in seismotectonics setting (and hence in earthquake occurrence) as well as socioeconomic conditions, require different and innovative approaches. One of the most important aspects in this regard is the seismici...

  1. Fine particulate matter in the tropical environment: monsoonal effects, source apportionment, and health risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. F.; Latif, M. T.; Saw, W. H.; Amil, N.; Nadzir, M. S. M.; Sahani, M.; Tahir, N. M.; Chung, J. X.

    2016-01-01

    The health implications of PM2.5 in the tropical region of Southeast Asia (SEA) are significant as PM2.5 can pose serious health concerns. PM2.5 concentration and sources here are strongly influenced by changes in the monsoon regime from the south-west quadrant to the north-east quadrant in the region. In this work, PM2.5 samples were collected at a semi-urban area using a high-volume air sampler at different seasons on 24 h basis. Analysis of trace elements and water-soluble ions was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Apportionment analysis of PM2.5 was carried out using the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) positive matrix factorization (PMF) 5.0 and a mass closure model. We quantitatively characterized the health risks posed to human populations through the inhalation of selected heavy metals in PM2.5. 48 % of the samples collected exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) 24 h PM2.5 guideline but only 19 % of the samples exceeded 24 h US EPA National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). The PM2.5 concentration was slightly higher during the north-east monsoon compared to south-west monsoon. The main trace metals identified were As, Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, V, and Cr while the main ions were SO42-, NO3-, NH4+, and Na. The mass closure model identified four major sources of PM2.5 that account for 55 % of total mass balance. The four sources are mineral matter (MIN) (35 %), secondary inorganic aerosol (SIA) (11 %), sea salt (SS) (7 %), and trace elements (TE) (2 %). PMF 5.0 elucidated five potential sources: motor vehicle emissions coupled with biomass burning (31 %) were the most dominant, followed by marine/sulfate aerosol (20 %), coal burning (19 %), nitrate aerosol (17 %), and mineral/road dust (13 %). The hazard quotient (HQ) for four selected metals (Pb, As, Cd, and Ni) in PM2.5 mass was highest in PM2.5 mass from the coal burning source and least in PM2.5 mass

  2. Spatial, temporal and source contribution assessments of black carbon over the northern interior of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euphinia Chiloane, Kgaugelo; Beukes, Johan Paul; Gideon van Zyl, Pieter; Maritz, Petra; Vakkari, Ville; Josipovic, Miroslav; Derick Venter, Andrew; Jaars, Kerneels; Tiitta, Petri; Kulmala, Markku; Wiedensohler, Alfred; Liousse, Catherine; Vuyisile Mkhatshwa, Gabisile; Ramandh, Avishkar; Laakso, Lauri

    2017-05-01

    After carbon dioxide (CO2), aerosol black carbon (BC) is considered to be the second most important contributor to global warming. This paper presents equivalent black carbon (eBC) (derived from an optical absorption method) data collected from three sites in the interior of South Africa where continuous measurements were conducted, i.e. Elandsfontein, Welgegund and Marikana, as well elemental carbon (EC) (determined by evolved carbon method) data at five sites where samples were collected once a month on a filter and analysed offline, i.e. Louis Trichardt, Skukuza, Vaal Triangle, Amersfoort and Botsalano.Analyses of eBC and EC spatial mass concentration patterns across the eight sites indicate that the mass concentrations in the South African interior are in general higher than what has been reported for the developed world and that different sources are likely to influence different sites. The mean eBC or EC mass concentrations for the background sites (Welgegund, Louis Trichardt, Skukuza, Botsalano) and sites influenced by industrial activities and/or nearby settlements (Elandsfontein, Marikana, Vaal Triangle and Amersfoort) ranged between 0.7 and 1.1, and 1.3 and 1.4 µg m-3, respectively. Similar seasonal patterns were observed at all three sites where continuous measurement data were collected (Elandsfontein, Marikana and Welgegund), with the highest eBC mass concentrations measured from June to October, indicating contributions from household combustion in the cold winter months (June-August), as well as savannah and grassland fires during the dry season (May to mid-October). Diurnal patterns of eBC at Elandsfontein, Marikana and Welgegund indicated maximum concentrations in the early mornings and late evenings, and minima during daytime. From the patterns it could be deduced that for Marikana and Welgegund, household combustion, as well as savannah and grassland fires, were the most significant sources, respectively.Possible contributing sources were

  3. An Assessment of Global Net Irrigation Water Requirements from Various Water Supply Sources to Sustain Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Cho, Jail; Yamada, Hannah; Khajuria, Anupam; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2014-05-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply source