WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-pertechnetate species understanding

  1. Identification of Non-Pertechnetate Species In Hanford Tank Waste, Their Synthesis, Characterization, And Fundamental Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth R. Ashely; Norman Schroeder; Jose A. Olivares; Brian Scott

    2004-12-10

    This proposal had three major goals: (1) develop capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry as a characterization technique, (2) separate a non-pertechnetate fraction from a waste sample and identify the non-pertechnetate species in it by CEMS, and (3) synthesize and characterize bulk quantities of the identified non-pertechnetate species and study their ligand substitution and redox chemistry.

  2. Oxidation, characterization, and separation of non-pertechnetate species in Hanford wastes

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    Schroeder, N.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Under DOE`s privatization initiative, Lockheed Martin and British Nuclear Fuels Limited are preparing to stabilize the caustic tank waste generated from plutonium production at the Hanford Site. Pretreatment of Hanford tank waste will separate it into low-level waste (LLW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The scope of the technetium problem is indicated by its inventory in the waste: {approximately}2000 kg. Technetium would normally exist as the pertechnetate anion, TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, in aqueous solution. However, evidence obtained at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) indicates that the combination of radiolysis, heat, organic complexants, and time may have reduced and complexed a significant fraction of the technetium in the tank waste. These species are in a form that is not amenable to current separation techniques based on pertechnetate removal. Thus, it is crucial that methods be developed to set technetium to pertechnetate so these technologies can meet the required technetium decontamination factor. If this is not possible, then alternative separation processes will need to be developed to remove these non-pertechnetate species from the waste. The simplest, most cost-effective approach to this problem is to convert the non-pertechnetate species to pertechnetate. Chemical, electrochemical, and photochemical oxidation methods, as well as hydrothermal treatment, are being applied to Hanford waste samples to ensure that the method works on the unknown technetium species in the waste. The degree of oxidation will be measured by determining the technetium distribution coefficient, {sup Tc}K{sub d}, between the waste and Reillex{trademark}-HPQ resin, and comparing it to the true pertechnetate K{sub d} value for the waste matrix. Other species in the waste, including all the organic material, could be oxidized by these methods, thus selective oxidation is desirable to minimize the cost, time, and secondary waste generation.

  3. Protocol for Identifying the Presence of and Understanding the Nature of Soluble, Non-pertechnetate Technetium in Hanford Tank Supernatants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-02-27

    The objective of this report is to propose a method to evaluate the presence and extent of soluble, non-pertechnetate Tc in Hanford tank supernatants as well as methods that might be used to gain insight as to the nature of the specie(s) that make up this fraction. This study will then provide a recommendation as to the preferred approach for identifying and quantifying the presence of Hanford tank supernatant-soluble, non-pertechnetate, technetium. The recommendation will also describe an approach to address the issue of whether inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, which is useful as a monitoring tool for Tc, may be confounded by the presence of other mass 99 species.

  4. Non-pertechnetate Technetium Sensor Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Samuel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Branch, Shirmir D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Lines, Amanda M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heineman, William R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Soderquist, Chuck Z. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Several significant uncertainties remain regarding the understanding and modeling of the fate and speciation of technicium-99 (99Tc) in Hanford waste tanks, glass, and low-temperature waste forms. A significant (2% to 25%) fraction of the 99Tc in the water-soluble portion of the tank waste may be present as one or more non pertechnetate species that have not been identified and to date, cannot be effectively separated from the wastes. This task will provide a sensor specifically tuned to detect the Tc(I)-carbonyl species believed to constitute the main fraction of the non-pertechnetate form of technetium. By direct measurement of the non-pertechnetate species, such a sensor will help reduce the uncertainties in the modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford tanks and waste forms. This report summarizes work performed in FY2016 that was sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management and demonstrates the protocol for using fluorescent Tc(I)-tricarbonyl complex as a means to detect the non-pertechnetate species within tank waste solutions. The protocol was optimized with respect to ligand concentration, solvent choice, reaction temperature and time. This work culminated in the quantitation of Tc(I)-tricarbonyl within a waste simulant, using a standard addition method for measurement. This report also summarizes the synthesis and high-yield preparation of the low-valence technetium species, [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+, which will be used as the technetium standard material for the demonstration of the non-pertechnetate species in actual wastes.

  5. Non-Pertechnetate Technetium Sensor Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Heineman, William R.; Rapko, Brian M.; Branch, Shirmir D.

    2014-10-01

    There remain several significant uncertainties in the understanding and modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford waste tanks, glass, and low-temperature waste forms. A significant (2% to 25%) fraction of the 99Tc in the water-soluble portion of the tank waste may be present as a non-pertechnetate species that has not been identified and, based on experimentation to date, cannot be effectively separated from the wastes. This task will provide a sensor specifically tuned to detect the Tc(I)-carbonyl species believed to constitute the main fraction of the non-pertechnetate form of technetium. By direct measurement of the non-pertechnetate species, such a sensor will help reduce the uncertainties in the modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford tanks and waste forms. This report summarizes work done in FY 2014 exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium species, [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Progress made in FY 2014 was sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management and is summarized in this report.

  6. Non-Pertechnetate Technetium Sensor Research and Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Samuel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crawford, Amanda D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heineman, William R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Branch, Shirmir D. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2014-09-01

    There remain several significant uncertainties in the understanding and modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford waste tanks, glass, and low-temperature waste forms. A significant (2% to 25%) fraction of the 99Tc in the water-soluble portion of the tank waste may be present as a non-pertechnetate species that has not been identified and, based on experimentation to date, cannot be effectively separated from the wastes. This task will provide a sensor specifically tuned to detect the Tc(I)-carbonyl species believed to constitute the main fraction of the non-pertechnetate form of technetium. By direct measurement of the non-pertechnetate species, such a sensor will help reduce the uncertainties in the modeling of the fate and speciation of 99Tc in Hanford tanks and waste forms. This report summarizes work done in FY 2014 exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium species, [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Progress made in FY 2014 was sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of Environmental Management and is summarized in this report.

  7. Speciation and Oxidative Stability of Alkaline Soluble, Non-Pertechnetate Technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, Amity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cho, Herman M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The long half-life, complex chemical behavior in tank waste, limited incorporation in mid- to high-temperature immobilization processes, and high mobility in subsurface environments make technetium (Tc) one of the most difficult contaminants to dispose of and/or remediate. Technetium exists predominantly in the liquid tank waste phase as the relatively mobile form of pertechnetate, TcO4-. However, based on experimentation to date a significant fraction of the soluble Tc cannot be effectively separated from the wastes and may be present as a non- pertechnetate species. The presence of a non-pertechnetate species significantly complicates disposition of low-activity waste (LAW), and the development of methods to either convert them to pertechnetate or to separate directly is needed. The challenge is the uncertainty regarding the chemical form of the alkaline-soluble low-valent non-pertechnetate species in the liquid tank waste. This report summarizes work done in fiscal year (FY) 2014 exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium(I) species, [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants.

  8. Preliminary Tests For Development Of A Non-Pertechnetate Analysis Method

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    Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-28

    The objective of this task was to develop a non-pertechnetate analysis method that 222-S lab could easily implement. The initial scope involved working with 222-S laboratory personnel to adapt the existing Tc analytical method to fractionate the non-pertechnetate and pertechnetate. SRNL then developed and tested a method using commercial sorbents containing Aliquat® 336 to extract the pertechnetate (thereby separating it from non-pertechnetate), followed by oxidation, extraction, and stripping steps, and finally analysis by beta counting and Mass Spectroscopy. Several additional items were partially investigated, including impacts of a 137Cs removal step. The method was initially tested on SRS tank waste samples to determine its viability. Although SRS tank waste does not contain non-pertechnetate, testing with it was useful to investigate the compatibility, separation efficiency, interference removal efficacy, and method sensitivity.

  9. Preliminary Tests For Development Of A Non-Pertechnetate Analysis Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-28

    The objective of this task was to develop a non-pertechnetate analysis method that 222-S lab could easily implement. The initial scope involved working with 222-S laboratory personnel to adapt the existing Tc analytical method to fractionate the non-pertechnetate and pertechnetate. SRNL then developed and tested amethod using commercial sorbents containing Aliquat® 336 to extract the pertechnetate (thereby separating it from non-pertechnetate), followed by oxidation, extraction, and stripping steps, and finally analysis by beta counting and Mass Spectroscopy. Several additional items were partially investigated, including impacts of a 137Cs removal step. The method was initially tested on SRS tank waste samples to determine its viability. Although SRS tank waste does not contain non-pertechnetate, testing with it was useful to investigate the compatibility, separation efficiency, interference removal efficacy, and method sensitivity.

  10. Development of a Chemistry-Based, Predictive Method for Determining the Amount of Non-Pertechnetate Technetium in the Hanford Tanks: FY 2012 Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Bryant, Janet L.; Chatterjee, Sayandev; Edwards, Matthew K.; Houchin, Joy Y.; Janik, Tadeusz J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Peterson, James M.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Smith, Frances N.; Wittman, Richard S.

    2013-01-30

    This report describes investigations directed toward understanding the extent of the presence of highly alkaline soluble, non-pertechnetate technetium (n-Tc) in the Hanford Tank supernatants. The goals of this report are to: a) present a review of the available literature relevant to the speciation of technetium in the Hanford tank supernatants, b) attempt to establish a chemically logical correlation between available Hanford tank measurements and the presence of supernatant soluble n-Tc, c) use existing measurement data to estimate the amount of n-Tc in the Hanford tank supernatants, and d) report on any likely, process-friendly methods to eventually sequester soluble n-Tc from Hanford tank supernatants.

  11. Spectroscopic Properties of Tc(I) Tricarbonyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Andersen, Amity [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-04

    Technetium-99 (Tc) exists predominately in soluble forms in the liquid supernatant and salt cake fractions of the nuclear tank waste stored at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site. In the strongly alkaline environments prevalent in the tank waste, its dominant chemical form is pertechnetate (TcO4-, oxidation state +7). However, attempts to remove Tc from the Hanford tank waste using ion-exchange processes specific to TcO4- only met with limited success, particularly processing tank waste samples containing elevated concentrations of organic complexants. This suggests that a significant fraction of the soluble Tc can be present as non-pertechnetate low-valent Tc (oxidation state < +7) (non-pertechnetate). The chemical identities of these non-pertechnetate species are poorly understood. Previous analysis of the SY-101 and SY-103 tank waste samples provided strong evidence that non-pertechnetate can be comprised of [Tc(CO)3]+ complexes containing Tc in oxidation state +1 (Lukens et al. 2004). During the last two years, our team has expanded this work and demonstrated that high-ionic-strength solutions typifying tank waste supernatants promote oxidative stability of the [Tc(CO)3]+ species (Rapko et al. 2013; Levitskaia et al. 2014). It also was observed that high-ionic-strength alkaline matrices stabilize Tc(VI) and potentially Tc(IV) oxidation states, particularly in presence organic chelators, suggesting that the relevant Tc compounds can serve as important redox intermediates facilitating the reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(I). Designing strategies for effective Tc processing, including separation and immobilization, necessitates understanding the molecular structure of these non-pertechnetate species and their identification in the actual tank waste samples. To-date, only limited information exists regarding the nature and characterization of the Tc(I), Tc(IV), and Tc(VI) species. One objective of this project is to

  12. Investigations Into the Nature of Alkaline Soluble, Non-Pertechnetate Technetium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bryan, Samuel A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Edwards, Matthew K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, James M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, Reid A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sinkov, Sergey I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished in fiscal year (FY) 2013, exploring the chemistry of a low-valence technetium(I) species, [Tc(CO)3(H2O)3]+, a compound of interest due to its implication in the speciation of alkaline-soluble technetium in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Various aspects of FY 2013’s work were sponsored both by Washington River Protection Solutions and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of River Protection; because of this commonality, both sponsors’ work is summarized in this report. There were three tasks in this FY 2013 study. The first task involved examining the speciation of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ in alkaline solution by 99Tc nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The second task involved the purchase and installation of a microcalorimeter suitable to study the binding affinity of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ with various inorganic and organic compounds relevant to Hanford tank wastes, although the actual measure of such binding affinities is scheduled to occur in future FYs. The third task involved examining the chemical reactivity of [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ as relevant to the development of a [(CO)3Tc(H2O)3]+ spectroelectrochemical sensor based on fluorescence spectroscopy.

  13. Oxidative Stability of Tc(I) Tricarbonyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-17

    Technetium (Tc), which exists predominately in the liquid supernatant and salt cake fractions of the nuclear tank waste stored at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site, is one of the most difficult contaminants to dispose of and/or remediate. In the strongly alkaline environments prevalent in the tank waste, its dominant chemical form is pertechnetate (TcO4-, oxidation state +7). However, based on experimentation to-date, a significant fraction of the soluble Tc cannot be effectively separated from the wastes and may be present as a non-pertechnetate species. The presence of a non pertechnetate species significantly complicates disposition of low-activity waste (LAW), and the development of methods to either convert them to pertechnetate or to separate the non-pertechnetate species directly is needed. The challenge is the uncertainty regarding the nature and stability of the alkaline-soluble, low-valence, non pertechnetate species in the liquid tank waste. One objective of the Tc management project is to address this knowledge gap. This fiscal year (FY) 2015 report summarizes experimental work exploring the oxidative stability of model low-valence Tc(I) tricarbonyl species, derived from the [Tc(CO)3]+ moiety. These compounds are of interest due to their implied presence in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Work in part was initiated in FY 2014, and a series of samples containing non-pertechnetate Tc generated ex situ or in situ in pseudo-Hanford tank supernatant simulant solutions was prepared and monitored for oxidation to Tc(VII) (Levitskaia et al. 2014). This experimentation continued in FY 2015, and new series of samples containing Tc(I) as [Tc(CO)3]+•Ligand was tested. The monitoring method used for these studies was a combination of 99Tc NMR and EPR spectroscopies.

  14. Understanding microwave vessel contamination by chloride species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Sandro; Spanu, Davide; Bianchi, Davide; Dossi, Carlo; Pozzi, Andrea; Monticelli, Damiano

    2016-10-01

    Microwaves are widely used to assist digestion, general sample treatment and synthesis. The use of aqua regia is extensively adopted for the closed vessel mineralization of samples prior to trace element detection, leading to the contamination of microwave vessels by chlorine containing species. The latter are entrapped in the polymeric matrix of the vessels, leading to memory effects that are difficult to remove, among which the risk of silver incomplete recoveries by removal of the sparingly soluble chloride is the predominant one. In the present paper, we determined by mass spectrometry that hydrogen chloride is the species entrapped in the polymeric matrix and responsible for vessel contamination. Moreover, several decontamination treatments were considered to assess their efficiency, demonstrating that several cleaning cycles with water, nitric acid or silver nitrate in nitric acid were inefficient in removing chloride contamination (contamination reduction around 90%). Better results (≈95% decrease) were achieved by a single decontamination step in alkaline environment (sodium hydroxide or ammonia). Finally, a thermal treatment in a common laboratory oven (i.e. without vacuum and ventilation) was tested: a one hour heating at 150°C leads to a 98.5% decontamination, a figure higher than the ones obtained by wet treatments which requires comparable time. The latter treatment is a major advancement with respect to existing treatments as it avoids the need of a vacuum oven for at least 17h as presently proposed in the literature.

  15. Understanding microbial multi-species symbioses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Aline Aschenbrenner

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lichens are commonly recognized as a symbiotic association of a fungus and chlorophyll containing partner, either green algae or cyanobacteria, or both. The fungus provides a suitable habitat for the partner, which provides photosynthetically fixed carbon as energy source for the system. The evolutionary result of the self-sustaining partnership is a unique joint structure, the lichen thallus, which is indispensable for fungal sexual reproduction. The classical view of a dual symbiosis has been challenged by recent microbiome research, which revealed host-specific bacterial microbiomes. The recent results about bacterial associations with lichens symbioses corroborate their notion as a multi-species symbiosis. Multi-omics approaches have provided evidence for functional contribution by the bacterial microbiome to the entire lichen meta-organism while various abiotic and biotic factors can additionally influence the bacterial community structure. Results of current research also suggest that neighboring ecological niches influence the composition of the lichen bacterial microbiome. Specificity and functions are here reviewed based on these recent findings, converging to a holistic view of bacterial roles in lichens. Finally we propose that the lichen thallus has also evolved to function as a smart harvester of bacterial symbionts. We suggest that lichens represent an ideal model to study multi-species symbiosis, using the recentily available omics tools and other cutting edge methods.

  16. From genomes to pangenomes: understanding variation among individuals and species

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Moreira, Bruno; Vinuesa, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    This tutorial illustrates how to analyze pan-genomes using GET_HOMOLOGUES and GET_HOMOLOGUES-EST. After a short introduction, where the main concepts are illustrated, the remaining sections cover the installation and typical operations required to analyze and annotate genomes and transcriptomes from a pan-genome perspective, in which individuals or species contribute genetic material to a pool.

  17. Understanding relations between breeding bird species and extreme weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, A.; Bateman, B.; Pidgeon, A. M.; Radeloff, V.; Vavrus, S. J.; Keuler, N.; Clayton, M.; Albright, T.; Thogmartin, W.; Heglund, P.

    2013-12-01

    Extreme weather events are increasing in frequency due to climate change. Extreme weather events like periods of drought or cold snaps may impose hardship on many animal and plant populations. However, little is known about biotic response to extreme events. For example, some species experience population size changes in association with extreme weather, and some do not. However the mechanisms responsible for observed declines in avian abundance following heat waves and drought are not clear. Our goal was to characterize the population changes of North American bird species in relation to temperature and precipitation extremes using North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) data. We derived standardized measures of extreme precipitation and air temperature based on phase 2 NASA Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS-2), an hourly 1/8 degree resolution land surface forcing dataset, and modeled population responses, during the breeding season, of 363 bird species. Of those species in which a change was observed, many demonstrated decreases in total population size, suggesting either mortality or reproductive failure (or both) are the causative mechanisms of this decline. A greater proportion of population changes were associated with extreme conditions in the same year than in the previous year. Some species exhibited population decreases in areas of extreme weather and increases in areas with environmental conditions more favorable to breeding while overall abundance remained relatively constant, which might indicate movement. The patterns of bird population changes in relation to extreme weather events provide insight for planners as they consider modifications to our national protected area network that will limit threats posed by climate change to bird populations.

  18. Understanding species-level primate diversity in Madagascar

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    Ian Tattersall

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past couple of decades Madagascar has witnessed an explosion in the number of primate species generally recognized. Much of this proliferation can be traced less to increasing knowledge of the lemur fauna than to the complete replacement of biological notions of the species by the Phylogenetic Species Concept (PSC, which views species as irreducible diagnosable units. The consequent focus on autapomorphy (unique possession of morphological and molecular derived features as ‘the’ criterion for species recognition has led to the almost complete disappearance of lemur subspecies from Madagascar faunal lists; yet subspecies are an expected result of the evolutionary forces that gave rise to the island’s current pattern of biodiversity. Thanks in part to the perspective introduced by the PSC, it has become clear both that there is much more species-level diversity among Madagascar’s lemurs than was evident only a couple of decades ago, and that this diversity is much more complexly structured than we had thought. But it does not appear to be aptly reflected in the hard-line procedural adoption of the PSC across the board, a move that typically results in fifty-percent inflation in species numbers relative to those yielded by biological concepts. I argue here that the reflexive wholesale application of the PSC to Madagascar’s lemurs is inappropriate from both systematic and conservation standpoints, and that a return to biological species concepts, and to the corresponding criteria for species recognition, will allow us to attain a much fuller and more nuanced appreciation of lemur diversity at low taxonomic levels. RésuméDepuis la fin du siècle dernier, nous avons été les témoins d’une explosion du nombre d’espèces de primates à Madagascar. Cette profusion découle cependant bien moins de l’évolution de nos connaissances sur les lémuriens que de la substitution des concepts biologiques de l’espèce par le Concept

  19. Forty years of experiments on aquatic invasive species: are study biases limiting our understanding of impacts?

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    Mads Thomsen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Invasions by non-native species are a threat to biodiversity because invaders can impact native populations, communities and entire ecosystems. To manage this threat, it is necessary to have a strong mechanistic understanding of how non-native species affect local species and communities. We reviewed 259 published papers (1972–2012 that described field experiments quantifying the impact of aquatic non-native species, to examine whether various types of study biases are limiting this understanding. Our review revealed that invasion impacts had been experimentally quantified for 101 aquatic non-native species, in all major freshwater and marine habitats, on all continents except Antarctica and for most higher taxonomic groupings. Over one-quarter (26% of studies included tests for impacts on local biodiversity. However, despite this extensive research effort, certain taxa, habitats and regions remain poorly studied. For example, of the over one hundred species examined in previous studies, only one was a marine fish and only six were herbivores. Furthermore, over half (53% the studies were from the USA and two-thirds (66% were from experiments conducted in temperate latitudes. By contrast, only 3% of studies were from Africa and <2% from high latitudes. We also found that one-fifth (20% of studies were conducted in estuaries, but only 1% from coral reefs. Finally, we note that the standard procedure of pooling or not reporting non-significant treatments and responses is likely to limit future synthetic advancement by biasing meta-analysis and severely limiting our ability to identify non-native species with none or negligible ecological impacts. In conclusion, a future focus on poorly-studied taxa, habitats and regions, and enhanced reporting of results, should improve our understanding and management of impacts associated with aquatic non-native species.

  20. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  1. Understanding long-term changes in species abundance using a niche-based approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Helaouët

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges to understanding population changes in ecology for assessment purposes is the difficulty in evaluating the suitability of an area for a given species. Here we used a new simple approach able to faithfully predict through time the abundance of two key zooplanktonic species by focusing on the relationship between the species' environmental preferences and their observed abundances. The approach is applied to the marine copepods Calanus finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus as a case study characterising the multidecadal dynamics of the North Sea ecosystem. We removed all North Sea data from the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR dataset and described for both species a simplified ecological niche using Sea Surface Temperature (SST and CPR Phytoplankton Colour Index (PCI. We then modelled the dynamics of each species by associating the North Sea's environmental parameters to the species' ecological niches, thus creating a method to assess the suitability of this area. By using both C. finmarchicus and C. helgolandicus as indicators, the procedure reproduces the documented switches from cold to warm temperate states observed in the North Sea.

  2. Characterizing species interactions to understand press perturbations: What is the community matrix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Mark; Yeakel, Justin D.; Noble, Andrew E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Emmerson, Mark; Estes, James A.; Jacob, Ute; Tinker, M. Tim; Wootton, J. Timothy

    2016-01-01

    The community matrix is among ecology's most important mathematical abstractions, formally encapsulating the interconnected network of effects that species have on one another's populations. Despite its importance, the term `community matrix' has been applied to matrices having differing interpretations. This has hindered the application of theory for understanding community structure and perturbation responses, particularly in the contexts of ecosystem-based management and conservation. Here we clarify the correspondence and distinctions between the Interaction matrix, the Alpha matrix and the Jacobian matrix, terms which are frequently used interchangeably and have numerous synonyms, including the term Community matrix. We illustrate how these matrices correspond to different ways of characterizing interaction strengths, how they permit insights regarding different types of press perturbations of species growth rates or abundances, and how these are related by a simple scaling relationship. Connections to additional interaction strength characterizations encapsulated by the Beta matrix, the Gamma matrix, and the Removal matrix are also discussed. Our synthesis highlights the empirical challenges that remain in using these mathematical tools to understand actual communities.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Tc(I) Carbonyl Nitrosyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste: FY 2016 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martin, Thibaut J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wall, Nathalie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-24

    Among long-lived radioactive constituents in the Hanford tank waste, Tc presents a unique challenge in that it exists predominantly in the liquid phase, generally in the anionic form of pertechnetate, TcO4-, which is highly volatile at low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification melter temperatures and mobile in the Hanford site’s subsurface environment. The complex behavior of Tc under storage, treatment, and immobilization conditions significantly affects its management options, which to-date remain uncertain. In strongly alkaline environments, Tc exists as pertechnetate, TcO4- (oxidation state +7), and in the reduced forms (oxidation state < +7) collectively known as non-pertechnetate species. Pertechnetate is a well-characterized, anionic Tc species that can be removed from LAW by anion exchange or solvent extraction methods. There is no definitive information on the origin of the non-pertechnetate Tc species, nor is there a comprehensive description of their composition and behavior. It has been recently proposed that the non-pertechnetate species can comprise Tc(I) metal center and carbonyl or mixed carbonyl nitrosyl ligands stabilizing low-valent Tc. Recent work by our group has significantly expanded this previous work, generating a series of Tc(I) carbonyl compounds and demonstrating that they can be generated from reduction of TcO4- in the simulated Hanford tank waste in presence of CO at elevated temperature (Levitskaia et al. 2014). These results are consistent with the previous proposal that [Tc(CO)3]+ species can be present in the Hanford tank waste and suggest that the low Tc(I) oxidation state is stabilized by the π-accepting ability of the CO ligands. The continuation work has been initiated to develop model Tc carbonyl nitrosyl compounds and investigate their potential presence in the Hanford tank wastes. This report summarizes our to-date results.

  4. Understanding tourists' preference for mammal species in private protected areas: is there a case for extralimital species for ecotourism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Maciejewski

    Full Text Available Private Protected Areas (PPAs often use wildlife-based ecotourism as their primary means of generating business. Achieving tourist satisfaction has become a strong driving goal in the management of many PPAs, often at the expense of biodiversity. Many extralimitral species, those which historically did not occur in an area, are stocked in PPAs with the intention of increasing ecotourism attractions. Even though the ecological and economic costs of stocking these species are high, the social benefits are not understood and little information exists globally on the ecotourism role of extralimital species. This study assessed the value of stocking extralimital species using questionnaire-based surveys and observing tourists in Shamwari Private Game Reserve in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. No difference was found between indigenous and extralimital species with regards to the tourists' weighted scoring system, average amount tourists were willing to pay, total viewing time, average viewing time or the likelihood of stopping to view species when encountered on game drives. During game drives a strong preference was found for the elephant (Loxodonta africana, lion (Panthera leo, leopard (Panthera pardus and cheetah (Acynonix jubatus. With the exception of the cheetah, these species are all members of the "big five" and are indigenous. Species availability and visibility, however, may influence the amount of time tourists spend at an animal sighting. Our analysis suggests that certain extralimital species (typically larger and charismatic species contribute to tourist satisfaction, while particularly the smaller extralimital species add little to the game viewing experience, but add to the costs and risks of the PPAs. We recommend that extralimital species introductions for ecotourism purposes should be approached with caution with regards to the risks to the sustainability of PPAs.

  5. Understanding tourists' preference for mammal species in private protected areas: is there a case for extralimital species for ecotourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Kristine; Kerley, Graham I H

    2014-01-01

    Private Protected Areas (PPAs) often use wildlife-based ecotourism as their primary means of generating business. Achieving tourist satisfaction has become a strong driving goal in the management of many PPAs, often at the expense of biodiversity. Many extralimitral species, those which historically did not occur in an area, are stocked in PPAs with the intention of increasing ecotourism attractions. Even though the ecological and economic costs of stocking these species are high, the social benefits are not understood and little information exists globally on the ecotourism role of extralimital species. This study assessed the value of stocking extralimital species using questionnaire-based surveys and observing tourists in Shamwari Private Game Reserve in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. No difference was found between indigenous and extralimital species with regards to the tourists' weighted scoring system, average amount tourists were willing to pay, total viewing time, average viewing time or the likelihood of stopping to view species when encountered on game drives. During game drives a strong preference was found for the elephant (Loxodonta africana), lion (Panthera leo), leopard (Panthera pardus) and cheetah (Acynonix jubatus). With the exception of the cheetah, these species are all members of the "big five" and are indigenous. Species availability and visibility, however, may influence the amount of time tourists spend at an animal sighting. Our analysis suggests that certain extralimital species (typically larger and charismatic species) contribute to tourist satisfaction, while particularly the smaller extralimital species add little to the game viewing experience, but add to the costs and risks of the PPAs. We recommend that extralimital species introductions for ecotourism purposes should be approached with caution with regards to the risks to the sustainability of PPAs.

  6. Understanding Noncompliance with Protected Species Regulations in the Northeast USA Gillnet Fishery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn D Bisack

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine mammals and sea turtles in the United States are protected from commercial fishery interactions under the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act. To reduce harbor porpoise bycatch in the northeast sink gillnet fishery, fishermen are mandated to attach pingers to their nets in regulated areas. Although, pinger regulations have been in place for over a decade, in practice, enforcement is weak and the penalty for a violation is almost non-existent. In this scenario, the presence of normative factors may motivate a fisherman to comply with the pinger regulation. This study considers both economic and normative factors within a probit framework to explain a fisherman’s compliance decision. Model results indicate fishermen who previously violated pinger regulations, who are not completely dependent on gillnet gear and face a lower chance of being detected by an observer, are more likely to violate. Understanding the influence of normative factors on compliance decisions is a key component for higher compliance. That is, incorporation of these factors in the design of policy instruments may achieve higher compliance rates and thus more success in protecting these species. Our model findings were ground-truthed by conducting focus group research with fishermen using pingers; some preliminary findings are shared in the discussion in support of our model results. Finally, these results also suggest observer data can be used to support compliance and enforcement mechanisms in this fishery and possibly other fisheries as well.

  7. Perception and understanding of invasive alien species issues by nature conservation and horticulture professionals in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Piqueray, Julien; Halford, Mathieu; Nulens, Greet; Vincke, Jan; Mahy, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how two professional sectors in Belgium, horticulture professionals and nature reserve managers (those directly involved in conservation), view the issues associated with invasive plant species. We developed and utilized a questionnaire that addressed the themes of awareness, concept and use of language, availability of information, impacts and, finally, control and available solutions. Using co-inertia analyses, we tested to what extent the perception of invasive alien species (IAS) was dependent upon the perception of Nature in general. Only forty-two percent of respondent horticulture professionals and eighty-two percent of nature reserve managers had a general knowledge of IAS. Many individuals in both target groups nonetheless had an accurate understanding of the scientific issues. Our results therefore suggest that the manner in which individuals within the two groups view, or perceive, the IAS issue was more the result of lack of information than simply biased perceptions of target groups. Though IAS perceptions by the two groups diverged, they were on par with how they viewed Nature in general. The descriptions of IAS by participants converged with the ideas and concepts frequently found in the scientific literature. Both managers and horticulture professionals expressed a strong willingness to participate in programs designed to prevent the spread of, and damage caused by, IAS. Despite this, the continued commercial availability of many invasive species highlighted the necessity to use both mandatory and voluntary approaches to reduce their re-introduction and spread. The results of this study provide stakeholders and conservation managers with practical information on which communication and management strategies can be based.

  8. Perception and Understanding of Invasive Alien Species Issues by Nature Conservation and Horticulture Professionals in Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Piqueray, Julien; Halford, Mathieu; Nulens, Greet; Vincke, Jan; Mahy, Grégory

    2011-03-01

    We conducted a survey to determine how two professional sectors in Belgium, horticulture professionals and nature reserve managers (those directly involved in conservation), view the issues associated with invasive plant species. We developed and utilized a questionnaire that addressed the themes of awareness, concept and use of language, availability of information, impacts and, finally, control and available solutions. Using co-inertia analyses, we tested to what extent the perception of invasive alien species (IAS) was dependent upon the perception of Nature in general. Only forty-two percent of respondent horticulture professionals and eighty-two percent of nature reserve managers had a general knowledge of IAS. Many individuals in both target groups nonetheless had an accurate understanding of the scientific issues. Our results therefore suggest that the manner in which individuals within the two groups view, or perceive, the IAS issue was more the result of lack of information than simply biased perceptions of target groups. Though IAS perceptions by the two groups diverged, they were on par with how they viewed Nature in general. The descriptions of IAS by participants converged with the ideas and concepts frequently found in the scientific literature. Both managers and horticulture professionals expressed a strong willingness to participate in programs designed to prevent the spread of, and damage caused by, IAS. Despite this, the continued commercial availability of many invasive species highlighted the necessity to use both mandatory and voluntary approaches to reduce their re-introduction and spread. The results of this study provide stakeholders and conservation managers with practical information on which communication and management strategies can be based.

  9. Local versus Generalized Phenotypes in Two Sympatric Aurelia Species: Understanding Jellyfish Ecology Using Genetics and Morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaverano, Luciano M; Bayha, Keith W; Graham, William M

    2016-01-01

    For individuals living in environmentally heterogeneous environments, a key component for adaptation and persistence is the extent of phenotypic differentiation in response to local environmental conditions. In order to determine the extent of environmentally induced morphological variation in a natural population distributed along environmental gradients, it is necessary to account for potential genetic differences contributing to morphological differentiation. In this study, we set out to quantify geographic morphological variation in the moon jellyfish Aurelia exposed at the extremes of a latitudinal environmental gradient in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). We used morphological data based on 28 characters, and genetic data taken from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1). Molecular analyses revealed the presence of two genetically distinct species of Aurelia co-occurring in the GoM: Aurelia sp. 9 and Aurelia c.f. sp. 2, named for its divergence from (for COI) and similarity to (for ITS-1) Aurelia sp. 2 (Brazil). Neither species exhibited significant population genetic structure between the Northern and the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico; however, they differed greatly in the degree of geographic morphological variation. The morphology of Aurelia sp. 9 exhibited ecophenotypic plasticity and varied significantly between locations, while morphology of Aurelia c.f. sp. 2 was geographically invariant (i.e., canalized). The plastic, generalist medusae of Aurelia sp. 9 are likely able to produce environmentally-induced, "optimal" phenotypes that confer high relative fitness in different environments. In contrast, the non-plastic generalist individuals of Aurelia c.f. sp. 2 likely produce environmentally-independent phenotypes that provide the highest fitness across environments. These findings suggest the two Aurelia lineages co-occurring in the GoM were likely exposed to different past environmental conditions (i

  10. Local versus Generalized Phenotypes in Two Sympatric Aurelia Species: Understanding Jellyfish Ecology Using Genetics and Morphometrics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano M Chiaverano

    Full Text Available For individuals living in environmentally heterogeneous environments, a key component for adaptation and persistence is the extent of phenotypic differentiation in response to local environmental conditions. In order to determine the extent of environmentally induced morphological variation in a natural population distributed along environmental gradients, it is necessary to account for potential genetic differences contributing to morphological differentiation. In this study, we set out to quantify geographic morphological variation in the moon jellyfish Aurelia exposed at the extremes of a latitudinal environmental gradient in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM. We used morphological data based on 28 characters, and genetic data taken from mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI and nuclear internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1. Molecular analyses revealed the presence of two genetically distinct species of Aurelia co-occurring in the GoM: Aurelia sp. 9 and Aurelia c.f. sp. 2, named for its divergence from (for COI and similarity to (for ITS-1 Aurelia sp. 2 (Brazil. Neither species exhibited significant population genetic structure between the Northern and the Southeastern Gulf of Mexico; however, they differed greatly in the degree of geographic morphological variation. The morphology of Aurelia sp. 9 exhibited ecophenotypic plasticity and varied significantly between locations, while morphology of Aurelia c.f. sp. 2 was geographically invariant (i.e., canalized. The plastic, generalist medusae of Aurelia sp. 9 are likely able to produce environmentally-induced, "optimal" phenotypes that confer high relative fitness in different environments. In contrast, the non-plastic generalist individuals of Aurelia c.f. sp. 2 likely produce environmentally-independent phenotypes that provide the highest fitness across environments. These findings suggest the two Aurelia lineages co-occurring in the GoM were likely exposed to different past environmental conditions

  11. Celebrity Climate Contrarians: Understanding a keystone species in contemporary climate science-policy-public interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boykoff, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Since the 1980s, a keystone species called 'climate contrarians' has emerged and thrived. Through resistance to dominant interpretations of scientific evidence, and often outlier views on optimal responses to climate threats, contrarians have raised many meta-level questions: for instance, questions involve to what extent have their varied interventions been effective in terms of sparking a new and wise Copernican revolution; or do their amplified voices instead service entrenched carbon-based industry interests while they blend debates over 'climate change' with other culture wars? While the value of their influence has generated numerous debates, there is no doubt that climate contrarians have had significant influence on climate science, policy and public communities in ways that are larger than would be expected from their relative abundance in society. As such, a number of these actors have achieved 'celebrity status' in science-policy circles, and, at times, larger public spaces. This presentation focuses on how - particularly through amplified mass media attention to their movements - various outlier interventions have demonstrated themselves to be (often deliberately) detrimental to efforts that seek to enlarge rather than constrict the spectrum of possibility for mobilizing appropriate responses to ongoing climate challenges. Also, this work analyses the growth pathways of these charismatic megafauna through interview data and participant observations completed by the author at the 2011 Heartland Institute's Sixth International Conference on Climate Change. This provides detail on how outlier perspectives characterized as climate contrarians do work in these spaces under the guise of public intellectualism to achieve intended goals and objectives. The research undertaken and related in the presentation here seeks to better understand motivations that prop up these contrarian stances, such as possible ideological or evidentiary disagreement to the orthodox

  12. An Integrative Approach for Understanding Diversity in the Punctelia rudecta Species Complex (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Alors

    Full Text Available High levels of cryptic diversity have been documented in lichenized fungi, especially in Parmeliaceae, and integrating various lines of evidence, including coalescent-based species delimitation approaches, help establish more robust species circumscriptions. In this study, we used an integrative taxonomic approach to delimit species in the lichen-forming fungal genus Punctelia (Parmeliaceae, with a particular focus on the cosmopolitan species P. rudecta. Nuclear, mitochondrial ribosomal DNA and protein-coding DNA sequences were analyzed in phylogenetic and coalescence-based frameworks. Additionally, morphological, ecological and geographical features of the sampled specimens were evaluated. Five major strongly supported monophyletic clades were recognized in the genus Punctelia, and each clade could be characterized by distinct patterns in medullary chemistry. Punctelia rudecta as currently circumscribed was shown to be polyphyletic. A variety of empirical species delimitation methods provide evidence for a minimum of four geographically isolated species within the nominal taxon Punctelia rudecta, including a newly described saxicolous species, P. guanchica, and three corticolous species. In order to facilitate reliable sample identification for biodiversity, conservation, and air quality bio-monitoring research, these three species have been epitypified, in addition to the description of a new species.

  13. Mapping the Biosphere: exploring species to understand the origin, organization, and sustainability of biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The time is ripe for a comprehensive mission to explore and document Earth’s species. We conclude that a goal to describe 10 million new species in less than 50 years is attainable based on the strength of 250 years of progress, worldwide collections, existing experts, technological innovation, and...

  14. Understanding the threats posed by non-native species: public vs. conservation managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe E Gozlan

    Full Text Available Public perception is a key factor influencing current conservation policy. Therefore, it is important to determine the influence of the public, end-users and scientists on the prioritisation of conservation issues and the direct implications for policy makers. Here, we assessed public attitudes and the perception of conservation managers to five non-native species in the UK, with these supplemented by those of an ecosystem user, freshwater anglers. We found that threat perception was not influenced by the volume of scientific research or by the actual threats posed by the specific non-native species. Media interest also reflected public perception and vice versa. Anglers were most concerned with perceived threats to their recreational activities but their concerns did not correspond to the greatest demonstrated ecological threat. The perception of conservation managers was an amalgamation of public and angler opinions but was mismatched to quantified ecological risks of the species. As this suggests that invasive species management in the UK is vulnerable to a knowledge gap, researchers must consider the intrinsic characteristics of their study species to determine whether raising public perception will be effective. The case study of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva reveals that media pressure and political debate has greater capacity to ignite policy changes and impact studies on non-native species than scientific evidence alone.

  15. Understanding the threats posed by non-native species: public vs. conservation managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozlan, Rodolphe E; Burnard, Dean; Andreou, Demetra; Britton, J Robert

    2013-01-01

    Public perception is a key factor influencing current conservation policy. Therefore, it is important to determine the influence of the public, end-users and scientists on the prioritisation of conservation issues and the direct implications for policy makers. Here, we assessed public attitudes and the perception of conservation managers to five non-native species in the UK, with these supplemented by those of an ecosystem user, freshwater anglers. We found that threat perception was not influenced by the volume of scientific research or by the actual threats posed by the specific non-native species. Media interest also reflected public perception and vice versa. Anglers were most concerned with perceived threats to their recreational activities but their concerns did not correspond to the greatest demonstrated ecological threat. The perception of conservation managers was an amalgamation of public and angler opinions but was mismatched to quantified ecological risks of the species. As this suggests that invasive species management in the UK is vulnerable to a knowledge gap, researchers must consider the intrinsic characteristics of their study species to determine whether raising public perception will be effective. The case study of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva reveals that media pressure and political debate has greater capacity to ignite policy changes and impact studies on non-native species than scientific evidence alone.

  16. Detecting forest canopy layering: applying lidar remote sensing to further understand the role of vertical structure in species habitat preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, A. S.; Dubayah, R.; Swatantran, A.

    2011-12-01

    Full waveform lidar reflects off all forest canopy elements, showing not only height, but also the structure within the canopy from the top to the forest floor, making it an ideal remote sensing technology for research in forest ecosystem dynamics. Vertical stratification or canopy layering has long been noted as an essential element in the forest ecosystem and of importance for species habitat. This project explores the utility of lidar for characterizing forest canopy layering and applying canopy layering information to better understand species habitat preference. Canopy layering will be mapped across the landscape using full-waveform lidar remote sensing data from the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS). Two methods for quantifying layering have been developed from LVIS data collected during the summer of 2009 for Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, New Hampshire. The two layering datasets (one categorical, one continuous) describe how vertical stratification varies across the forest with canopy height and elevation. The relationships between of canopy layering and avian species habitat preference will also be assessed for bird species within Hubbard Brook Experimental forest. These results will provide ecologically meaningful information and a relevant method for quantifying canopy layering at the landscape scale, which will aid in a better understanding of forest ecosystem dynamics for forest management and species habitat research.

  17. Chromosomal polymorphism in two species of Hypancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae): an integrative approach for understanding their biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maelin; Ribeiro, Emanuell D; Matoso, Daniele A; Sousa, Leandro M; Hrbek, Tomas; Py-Daniel, Lucia Rapp; Feldberg, Eliana

    2014-04-01

    Structural chromosome changes are widely described in different vertebrate groups and generate genetic, phenotypic and behavioral diversity. During the evolution of loricariids, several rearrangements (fissions, fusions, inversions) seem to have occurred. Hypancistrus, tribe Ancistrini, are highly demanded for fishkeeping around the world. In this tribe, the diploid chromosome number 2n = 52 is considered a synapomorphy, and paracentric-type inversions appear to be involved in the chromosomal evolution of the tribe. The present study investigated the karyotypes of H. zebra and H. cf. debilittera using cytogenetic, classical and molecular tools, as well as DNA barcoding. Data reveal that, although diploid number in both species corroborates the proposed synapomorphy for the tribe, there is a complex karyotype dynamics, reflected in the intense chromosomal polymorphism, resulting from rearrangements involving ribosomal regions (5S and 18S rDNA), which are suggested to be paracentric inversions. Besides, DNA barcode confirms reciprocal monophyletism between the species, validating the existence of two species, only. This scenario, coupled with genomic instability caused by exogenous sequences such as Rex-3 retrotransposons and the species' sedentary lifestyle, which helps the fast polymorphism fixation, may reflect different phenotypic color patterns in natural populations, as observed in H. cf. debilittera.

  18. Video as a Tool to Increase Understanding and Support for the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhenz, Peter N.; Parker, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Research into the effectiveness of video as a tool to educate students about environmental issues and cause a change in their attitudes toward them in a classroom setting is limited. We sought to add to this sparse body of research. We created three videos that showcased a species in a different stage of protection under the Endangered Species…

  19. Seed germination performances of Styrax species help understand their distribution in Cerrado areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Kissmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this descriptive paper, we described germination responses of Styrax pohlii, S. camporum and S. ferrugineus seeds at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 °C. We also assessed the percentage germination (%G of S. pohlii seeds with different seed water contents because, as a forest species, it seems to have recalcitrant seed behavior. Intrigued by the capacity of seeds of this species to germinate directly from puddles formed on poorly drained soils of riparian forests, where it typically occurs, we also tested the effect of de-pulping fruits on germination of S. pohlii seeds under hypoxia and normoxia conditions. In addition, we checked whether distinct concentrations of gibberellic acid (GA3 could break S. ferrugineus seed dormancy, a typical seed behavior of Cerrado species. No germination occurred at 5, 40 and 45 °C, regardless of the species. The optimal temperature for germination was 20 °C for S. pohlii and 25 °C for S. camporum. However, S. ferrugineus seeds showed a very low %G, regardless of the temperature, and GA3 could not consistently break possible physiological seed dormancy. For S. pohlii seeds, the higher the seed desiccation the lower the %G, and fruit pulp removal showed to be essential for seed germination. S. pohlii seeds germinated independently of oxygenation conditions.

  20. INTEGRATING GENOMICS AND PHYLOGENETICS IN UNDERSTANDING THE HISTORY OF TRICHINELLA SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2004, funding was received by Washington University’s Genome Sequencing Center through NHGRI, to completely sequence several nematode genomes as part of a holistic effort to advance our understanding of the human genome and evolution within the Metazoa. Trichinella spiralis was among this group o...

  1. Reduction of low temperature engine pollutants by understanding the exhaust species interactions in a diesel oxidation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, I; Herreros, J M; Tsolakis, A

    2014-02-18

    The interactions between exhaust gas species and their effect (promotion or inhibition) on the light-off and activity of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) for the removal of pollutants are studied, using actual engine exhaust gases from the combustion of diesel, alternative fuels (rapeseed methyl ester and gas-to-liquid fuel) and diesel/propane dual fuel combustion. The activity of the catalyst was recorded during a heating temperature ramp where carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) light-off curves were obtained. From the catalyst activity tests, it was found that the presence of species including CO, medium-heavy HC, alkenes, alkanes, and NOx and their concentration influence the catalyst ability to reduce CO and total HC emissions before release to the atmosphere. CO could inhibit itself and other species oxidation (e.g., light and medium-heavy hydrocarbons) while suffering from competitive adsorption with NO. Hydrocarbon species were also found to inhibit their own oxidation as well as CO through adsorption competition. On the other hand, NO2 was found to promote low temperature HC oxidation through its partial reduction, forming NO. The understanding of these exhaust species interactions within the DOC could aid the design of an efficient aftertreatment system for the removal of diesel exhaust pollutants.

  2. Using deuterated H3+ and other molecular species to understand the formation of stars and planets

    CERN Document Server

    van der Tak, Floris

    2012-01-01

    The H3+ ion plays a key role in the chemistry of dense interstellar gas clouds where stars and planets are forming. The low temperatures and high extinctions of such clouds make direct observations of H3+ impossible, but lead to large abundances of H2D+ and D2H+ which are very useful probes of the early stages of star and planet formation. Maps of H2D+ and D2H+ pure rotational line emission toward star-forming regions show that the strong deuteration of H3+ is the result of near-complete molecular depletion of CNO-bearing molecules onto grain surfaces, which quickly disappears as cores warm up after stars have formed. In the warmer parts of interstellar gas clouds, H3+ transfers its proton to other neutrals such as CO and N2, leading to a rich ionic chemistry. The abundances of such species are useful tracers of physical conditions such as the radiation field and the electron fraction. Recent observations of HF line emission toward the Orion Bar imply a high electron fraction, and we suggest that observations...

  3. Understanding the Risk to Neotropical Migrant Bird Species of Multiple Human-Caused Stressors: Elucidating Processes Behind the Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph S. Hames

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous human-caused changes to the environment act as multiple stressors for organisms in the wild, and the effects of these stressors may be synergistic, rather than merely additive, with unexpected results. However, understanding how focal organisms respond to these stressors is crucial for conservation planning for these species. We propose a paradigm that alternates extensive, broadscale data collection by volunteer collaborators to document patterns of response, with intensive fine-scale studies by professional researchers, to elucidate the processes underlying these patterns. We demonstrate this technique, building on our existing work linking patterns of population declines in the Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina to synergistic effects of acid rain and habitat fragmentation. To better understand the processes behind these patterns, we use a simple protocol to explore linkages between acid rain, leaching of calcium from the soil, and declines in the abundance of calcium-rich invertebrate prey species, which may be necessary for successful breeding by this thrush. We sampled at 40 study sites across New York that were chosen based on estimated acid deposition and soil properties. Our results show that the calcium content of the soils sampled is proportional to the soil pH, that the abundance of calcium-rich invertebrate prey tracks soil properties, and that the presence of a breeding Wood Thrush was correctly predicted in >70% of study sites by the biomass of calcium-rich prey, and in particular, the biomass of myriapods (Diplopoda. We show that a simple repeatable protocol, suitable for use by volunteers across broad geographic extents and ranges of habitat fragmentation, can help us understand the reactions of some forest birds to acid rain in combination with habitat fragmentation. We detail the development of this protocol for volunteers in the Birds in Forested Landscapes project, and describe future plans.

  4. Responses of aquatic insects to Cu and Zn in stream microcosms: understanding differences between single species tests and field responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, William H; Cadmus, Pete; Brinkman, Stephen F

    2013-07-02

    Field surveys of metal-contaminated streams suggest that some aquatic insects, particularly mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and stoneflies (Plecoptera), are highly sensitive to metals. However, results of single species toxicity tests indicate these organisms are quite tolerant, with LC50 values often several orders of magnitude greater than those obtained using standard test organisms (e.g., cladocerans and fathead minnows). Reconciling these differences is a critical research need, particularly since water quality criteria for metals are based primarily on results of single species toxicity tests. In this research we provide evidence based on community-level microcosm experiments to support the hypothesis that some aquatic insects are highly sensitive to metals. We present results of three experiments that quantified effects of Cu and Zn, alone and in combination, on stream insect communities. EC50 values, defined as the metal concentration that reduced abundance of aquatic insects by 50%, were several orders of magnitude lower than previously published values obtained from single species tests. We hypothesize that the short duration of laboratory toxicity tests and the failure to evaluate effects of metals on sensitive early life stages are the primary factors responsible for unrealistically high LC50 values in the literature. We also observed that Cu alone was significantly more toxic to aquatic insects than the combination of Cu and Zn, despite the fact that exposure concentrations represented theoretically similar toxicity levels. Our results suggest that water quality criteria for Zn were protective of most aquatic insects, whereas Cu was highly toxic to some species at concentrations near water quality criteria. Because of the functional significance of aquatic insects in stream ecosystems and their well-established importance as indicators of water quality, reconciling differences between field and laboratory responses and understanding the mechanisms responsible

  5. Structural libraries of protein models for multiple species to understand evolution of the renin-angiotensin system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokop, Jeremy W; Petri, Victoria; Shimoyama, Mary E; Watanabe, Ingrid K M; Casarini, Dulce E; Leeper, Thomas C; Bilinovich, Stephanie M; Jacob, Howard J; Santos, Robson A S; Martins, Almir S; Araujo, Fabiano C; Reis, Fernando M; Milsted, Amy

    2015-05-01

    The details of protein pathways at a structural level provides a bridge between genetics/molecular biology and physiology. The renin-angiotensin system is involved in many physiological pathways with informative structural details in multiple components. Few studies have been performed assessing structural knowledge across the system. This assessment allows use of bioinformatics tools to fill in missing structural voids. In this paper we detail known structures of the renin-angiotensin system and use computational approaches to estimate and model components that do not have their protein structures defined. With the subsequent large library of protein structures, we then created a species specific protein library for human, mouse, rat, bovine, zebrafish, and chicken for the system. The rat structural system allowed for rapid screening of genetic variants from 51 commonly used rat strains, identifying amino acid variants in angiotensinogen, ACE2, and AT1b that are in contact positions with other macromolecules. We believe the structural map will be of value for other researchers to understand their experimental data in the context of an environment for multiple proteins, providing pdb files of proteins for the renin-angiotensin system in six species. With detailed structural descriptions of each protein, it is easier to assess a species for use in translating human diseases with animal models. Additionally, as whole genome sequencing continues to decrease in cost, tools such as molecular modeling will gain use as an initial step in designing efficient hypothesis driven research, addressing potential functional outcomes of genetic variants with precompiled protein libraries aiding in rapid characterizations.

  6. Quantitative redox biology: an approach to understand the role of reactive species in defining the cellular redox environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, Garry R; Wagner, Brett A; Rodgers, Victor G J

    2013-11-01

    Systems biology is now recognized as a needed approach to understand the dynamics of inter- and intra-cellular processes. Redox processes are at the foundation of nearly all aspects of biology. Free radicals, related oxidants, and antioxidants are central to the basic functioning of cells and tissues. They set the cellular redox environment and, therefore, are the key to regulation of biochemical pathways and networks, thereby influencing organism health. To understand how short-lived, quasi-stable species, such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide, connect to the metabolome, proteome, lipidome, and genome we need absolute quantitative information on all redox active compounds as well as thermodynamic and kinetic information on their reactions, i.e., knowledge of the complete redoxome. Central to the state of the redoxome are the interactive details of the superoxide/peroxide formation and removal systems. Quantitative information is essential to establish the dynamic mathematical models needed to reveal the temporal evolution of biochemical pathways and networks. This new field of Quantitative Redox Biology will allow researchers to identify new targets for intervention to advance our efforts to achieve optimal human health.

  7. Understanding the Patterns and Causes of Variability in Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in the Alborán Sea, Western Mediterranean...changes in distribution, habitat use, abundance, survival and reproductive rates of three species of cetacean in the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean...Understanding the Patterns and Causes of Variability in Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in

  8. Exposure to early adversity: Points of cross-species translation that can lead to improved understanding of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan L

    2015-05-01

    The relationship between developmental exposure to adversity and affective disorders is reviewed. Adversity discussed herein includes physical and sexual abuse, neglect, or loss of a caregiver in humans. While these stressors can occur at any point during development, the unique temporal relationship to specific depressive symptoms was the focus of discussion. Further influences of stress exposure during sensitive periods can vary by gender and duration of abuse as well. Data from animal studies are presented to provide greater translational and causal understanding of how sensitive periods, different types of psychosocial stressors, and sex interact to produce depressive-like behaviors. Findings from maternal separation, isolation rearing, chronic variable stress, and peer-peer rearing paradigms clarify interpretation about how various depressive behaviors are influenced by age of exposure. Depressive behaviors are broken down into the following categories: mood and affect, anhedonia, energy, working memory, sleep-wake, appetite changes, suicide, and general malaise. Cross-species evidence from humans, nonhuman primates, rats, and mice within each of these categories is discussed. In conclusion, sensitive periods for affective-related behaviors (anxiety, mood, and controllability) occur earlier in life, while other aspects of depression are associated with adversity later during adolescence.

  9. Myrteae phylogeny, calibration, biogeography and diversification patterns: Increased understanding in the most species rich tribe of Myrtaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Thais N C; Proença, Carol E B; Ahmad, Berhaman; Aguilar, Daniel S; Aguilar, Reinaldo; Amorim, Bruno S; Campbell, Keron; Costa, Itayguara R; De-Carvalho, Plauto S; Faria, Jair E Q; Giaretta, Augusto; Kooij, Pepijn W; Lima, Duane F; Mazine, Fiorella F; Peguero, Brigido; Prenner, Gerhard; Santos, Matheus F; Soewarto, Julia; Wingler, Astrid; Lucas, Eve J

    2017-04-01

    Myrteae (c. 2500 species; 51 genera) is the largest tribe of Myrtaceae and an ecologically important groups of angiosperms in the Neotropics. Systematic relationships in Myrteae are complex, hindering conservation initiatives and jeopardizing evolutionary modelling. A well-supported and robust phylogenetic hypothesis was here targeted towards a comprehensive understanding of the relationships within the tribe. The resultant topology was used as a base for key evolutionary analyses such as age estimation, historical biogeography and diversification rate patterns. One nuclear (ITS) and seven chloroplast (psbA-trnH, matK, ndhF, trnl-trnF, trnQ-rps16, rpl16 and rpl32-trnL) DNA regions for 115 taxa representing 46 out of the 51 genera in the tribe were accessed and analysed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference tools for phylogenetic reconstruction. Dates of diversification events were estimated and contrasted using two distinct fossil sets (macro and pollen) in BEAST. The subsequent dated phylogenies were compared and analysed for biogeographical patterns using BioGeoBEARS and diversification rates using BAMM. Myrteae phylogeny presents strong statistical support for three major clades within the tribe: Australasian group, Myrtus group and Main Neotropical Lineage. Dating results from calibration using macrofossil are an average of 20 million years older and show an early Paleocene origin of Myrteae, against a mid-Eocene one from the pollen fossil calibration. Biogeographic analysis shows the origin of Myrteae in Zealandia in both calibration approaches, followed by a widespread distribution throughout the still-linked Gondwana continents and diversification of Neotropical endemic lineages by later vicariance. Best configuration shift indicates three points of acceleration in diversification rates, all of them occurring in the Main Neotropical Lineage. Based on the reconstructed topology, several new taxonomic placements were recovered, including: the

  10. An updated understanding of Texas bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) species presence and potential distributions in Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Texas is the second largest state in the United States of America, and the largest state in the contiguous USA at nearly 700,000 sq. km. Several Texas bumble bee species have shown evidence of declines in portions of their continental ranges, and conservation initiatives targeting these species will be most effective if species distributions are well established. To date, statewide bumble bee distributions for Texas have been inferred primarily from specimen records housed in natural history collections. To improve upon these maps, and help inform conservation decisions, this research aimed to (1) update existing Texas bumble bee presence databases to include recent (2007–2016) data from citizen science repositories and targeted field studies, (2) model statewide species distributions of the most common bumble bee species in Texas using MaxEnt, and (3) identify conservation target areas for the state that are most likely to contain habitat suitable for multiple declining species. The resulting Texas bumble bee database is comprised of 3,580 records, to include previously compiled museum records dating from 1897, recent field survey data, and vetted records from citizen science repositories. These data yielded an updated state species list that includes 11 species, as well as species distribution models (SDMs) for the most common Texas bumble bee species, including two that have shown evidence of range-wide declines: B. fraternus (Smith, 1854) and B. pensylvanicus (DeGeer, 1773). Based on analyses of these models, we have identified conservation priority areas within the Texas Cross Timbers, Texas Blackland Prairies, and East Central Texas Plains ecoregions where suitable habitat for both B. fraternus and B. pensylvanicus are highly likely to co-occur. PMID:28828241

  11. An updated understanding of Texas bumble bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) species presence and potential distributions in Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Jessica L; Atkinson, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Texas is the second largest state in the United States of America, and the largest state in the contiguous USA at nearly 700,000 sq. km. Several Texas bumble bee species have shown evidence of declines in portions of their continental ranges, and conservation initiatives targeting these species will be most effective if species distributions are well established. To date, statewide bumble bee distributions for Texas have been inferred primarily from specimen records housed in natural history collections. To improve upon these maps, and help inform conservation decisions, this research aimed to (1) update existing Texas bumble bee presence databases to include recent (2007-2016) data from citizen science repositories and targeted field studies, (2) model statewide species distributions of the most common bumble bee species in Texas using MaxEnt, and (3) identify conservation target areas for the state that are most likely to contain habitat suitable for multiple declining species. The resulting Texas bumble bee database is comprised of 3,580 records, to include previously compiled museum records dating from 1897, recent field survey data, and vetted records from citizen science repositories. These data yielded an updated state species list that includes 11 species, as well as species distribution models (SDMs) for the most common Texas bumble bee species, including two that have shown evidence of range-wide declines: B. fraternus (Smith, 1854) and B. pensylvanicus (DeGeer, 1773). Based on analyses of these models, we have identified conservation priority areas within the Texas Cross Timbers, Texas Blackland Prairies, and East Central Texas Plains ecoregions where suitable habitat for both B. fraternus and B. pensylvanicus are highly likely to co-occur.

  12. Understanding the biology and ecology of vulnerable plant species: case study with tetratheca juncea occurring over coal leases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Mulligan; Sean Bellairs; F.V. Bartier; C.L. Gross; D. Bowen

    2001-06-01

    Tetratheca juncea Smith (Tremandraceae) is a vulnerable species listed under the NSW Threatened Species Conservation Act (Schedule 2, TSC Act 1995), and in the Commonwealth Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999.Researchers at the Universities of Queensland, New England and Newcastle established A collaborative research program investigated the reproductive and establishment biology of T juncea. Breeding systems, seed biology and mycorrhizal associations were investigated to determine factors limiting the reproductive output of the species. Native bees necessary for pollination were not detected in 100 hours of observation. The three key ramifications from this study of T. juncea's ecology is that: a pollinator is required for high seed yields; fire is required for germination; and a mycorrhizal partner is required for plant longevity. These findings indicate that translocations of the species cannot be recommended as there is a lack of knowledge about many factors that are critical for the persistence of the species. A fire management plan will need to cater for all obligate ecological requirements. The results of this study have been used to develop a flowchart on the biological procedures that need to be considered when a threatened flora species is found on a site. The results from this study are also considered to be a relevant guide for managing populations of other species of Tetratheca, many of which are also rare or threatened.

  13. Wild relatives of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.: Solanaceae: new understanding of species names in a complex group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Knapp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The common or brinjal eggplant (Solanum melongena L. belongs to the Leptostemonum Clade (the "spiny" solanums of the species-rich genus Solanum (Solanaceae. Unlike most of the genus, the eggplant and its relatives are from the Old World; most eggplant wild relatives are from Africa. An informal system for naming eggplant wild relatives largely based on crossing and other biosystematics data has been in use for approximately a decade. This system recognises several forms of two broadly conceived species, S. incanum L. and S. melongena. Recent morphological and molecular work has shown that species-level differences exist between these entities, and a new species-level nomenclature has been identified as necessary for plant breeders and for the maintenance of accurately named germplasm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examined herbarium specimens from throughout the wild species ranges as part of a larger revision of the spiny solanums of Africa. Based on these morphological and molecular studies, we delimited species in the group to which the common eggplant belongs and constructed identification keys for the group. We also examined the monophyly of the group considered as the eggplant relatives by previous authors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: WE RECOGNISE TEN SPECIES IN THIS GROUP: S. aureitomentosum Bitter, S. campylacanthum A.Rich., S. cerasiferum Dunal, S. incanum L., S. insanum L., S. lichtensteinii Willd., S. linnaeanum Hepper & P.-M.L.Jaeger, S. melongena L., S. rigidum Lam. and S. umtuma Voronts. & S.Knapp. We review the history of naming and provide keys and character lists for all species. Ploidy level differences have not been investigated in the eggplant wild relatives; we identify this as a priority for improvement of crop wild relative use in breeding. The application of species-level names to these entities will help focus new collecting efforts for brinjal eggplant improvement and help facilitate information exchange.

  14. Pleistocene climate, phylogeny, and climate envelope models: an integrative approach to better understand species' response to climate change.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Michelle Lawing

    Full Text Available Mean annual temperature reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change increases at least 1.1°C to 6.4°C over the next 90 years. In context, a change in climate of 6°C is approximately the difference between the mean annual temperature of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM and our current warm interglacial. Species have been responding to changing climate throughout Earth's history and their previous biological responses can inform our expectations for future climate change. Here we synthesize geological evidence in the form of stable oxygen isotopes, general circulation paleoclimate models, species' evolutionary relatedness, and species' geographic distributions. We use the stable oxygen isotope record to develop a series of temporally high-resolution paleoclimate reconstructions spanning the Middle Pleistocene to Recent, which we use to map ancestral climatic envelope reconstructions for North American rattlesnakes. A simple linear interpolation between current climate and a general circulation paleoclimate model of the LGM using stable oxygen isotope ratios provides good estimates of paleoclimate at other time periods. We use geologically informed rates of change derived from these reconstructions to predict magnitudes and rates of change in species' suitable habitat over the next century. Our approach to modeling the past suitable habitat of species is general and can be adopted by others. We use multiple lines of evidence of past climate (isotopes and climate models, phylogenetic topology (to correct the models for long-term changes in the suitable habitat of a species, and the fossil record, however sparse, to cross check the models. Our models indicate the annual rate of displacement in a clade of rattlesnakes over the next century will be 2 to 3 orders of magnitude greater (430-2,420 m/yr than it has been on average for the past 320 ky (2.3 m/yr.

  15. Understanding the Patterns and Causes of Variability in Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Kilograms for each of the 11 main fishing ports of Andalucía including more than 150 fish, shellfish and cephalopods commercial species. The monthly...generate graphics on the fish catches evolution for each prey species. 0.00 100000.00 200000.00 300000.00 400000.00 500000.00 600000.00 e n e -0 0 a b r... Evolution 23 (4): 202-210. Navarro, A., Vázquez, A.. Macías, D. Bruno, M. and Ruiz, J. 2011. Understanding the patterns of biological response to

  16. Evidence for a multi-species coccolith volume change over the past two centuries: understanding a potential ocean acidification response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Halloran

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Major questions surround the species-specific nature of coccolithophore calcification in response to rising atmospheric CO2 levels. Here we present CaCO3 particle volume distribution data from the coccolith size-fraction of a rapidly accumulating North Atlantic sediment core. Without direct volume measurements on coccoliths produced by individual coccolithophore species, and knowledge of organic, as well as inorganic carbon production, it is not possible to state conclusively the coccolithophore calcification change at this site. However, by analysing the size distribution of CaCO3 particles in the less than 10 μm sediment fraction, we demonstrate a changing particle volume since the late 20th Century consistent with an increase in the mass of coccoliths produced by the larger coccolithophore species, and potentially a decrease in mass of coccoliths produced by the smaller species, present at this location. This finding has significant implications for the realistic representation of an assemblage-wide coccolithophore CO2-calcification response in numerical models.

  17. A biogeochemical approach to understanding the accumulation patterns of trace elements in three species of dragonfly larvae: evaluation as biomonitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavilla, Isela; Rodríguez-Liñares, Genma; Garrido, Josefina; Bendicho, Carlos

    2010-03-01

    The accumulation patterns of different trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were studied in three species of dragonfly larvae (Cordulegaster boltoni, Boyeria irene and Onychogomphus uncatus). Additionally these species were assessed as potential biomonitors in a lotic ecosystem (Louro River, Spain). Element concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in both dragonfly larvae and river sediments. The surface of the larvae was observed and analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A desorption test was used to establish the percentage of element adsorbed into the exoskeleton. Field biomonitoring studies were made considering the first part of the river as a control area in relation to the second part, which was severely polluted by industrial and domestic activities. Upon application of principal component analysis (PCA), two different element groups were found in relation to element bioaccumulation. Cu, Cd and Zn were mainly associated with the inner part of the larvae. As, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn were found on the outer body parts, related with deposition of oxyhydroxides in the hydrocycle. SEM revealed a layer of inorganic particles, similar in composition to fine bed sediments. Significant relations between the element content of this group and that of sediments at the sampling site were found. Differences in bioaccumulation for each of the three species, except for As, were observed. Dragonfly larvae revealed their ability to reflect environmental concentrations of As in freshwater media.

  18. Understanding species-microplastics interactions : a laboratory study on the effects of microplastics on the Azorean barnacle, Megabalanus azoricus

    OpenAIRE

    Hentschel, Lisa-Henrike, 1987-

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact of microplastics on the marine environment, wildlife and humans is a complex issue. Effects of contaminated microplastics (polyvinylchloride (PVC), mean size 1.5 µm) on the Azorean barnacle (Megabalanus Azoricus) were investigated within a global research project (GAME), in which akin experiments were conducted simultaneously at seven different sites worldwide in order to obtain comparable data for a range of benthic invertebrates. During a six weeks laboratory experi...

  19. Toward understanding the genetic basis of adaptation to high-elevation life in poikilothermic species: A comparative transcriptomic analysis of two ranid frogs, Rana chensinensis and R. kukunoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Weizhao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding how organisms adapt to high-elevation environments at a genome scale provides novel insights into the process of adaptive evolution. Previous studies have mainly focused on endothermic organisms, while poikilothermic species may have evolved different mechanisms to cope with high-elevation environments. In this context, we sequenced transcriptomes of a pair of closely related anuran species, Rana chensinensis and R. kukunoris, which inhabit respective low- and high-elevation habitats. By comparing the two transcriptomes, we identified candidate genes that may be involved in high-elevation adaption in poikilothermic species. Results Over 66 million sequence reads from each transcriptome were generated. A total of 41,858 and 39,293 transcripts for each species were obtained by de novo assembly. By comparing the orthologous transcripts, we identified 125 protein-coding genes that have likely experienced strong positive selection (Ka/Ks>1. In addition, 335 genes that may bear a signature of positive selection (1≥Ka/Ks>0.5 were also recognized. By considering their functions, fourteen candidate genes were determined to be likely involved in high-elevation adaptation, including two CYP genes, USP-1, and several others. Conclusions We identified a set of candidate genes that may have promoted adaptation of R. kukunoris to its high-elevation environment. These include several genes that have previously been associated with oxygen binding, response to UV radiation, and repair of free radical injury. Detailed molecular, physiological, and phenotypic studies are required to better understand the roles of these genes in improving the performance of R. kukunoris in a high-elevation environment. We have evidence for both convergent and divergent evolution between endothermic and poikilothemic species, but additional research across a wide range of organisms will be necessary to comprehend the complexity of high

  20. Light Absorption in Coralline Algae (Rhodophyta: A Morphological and Functional Approach to Understanding Species Distribution in a Coral Reef Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román M. Vásquez-Elizondo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Red coralline algae are a cosmopolitan group with the ability to precipitate CaCO3 within the walls of their vegetative cells. The resultant carbonate structure is key for explaining their ecological success, as it provides protection against herbivores and resistance to water motion. However, its potential contribution to enhance thallus light absorption efficiency through multiple light scattering on algal skeleton, similar to the effect documented for scleractinian corals, has not been yet investigated. Here, we initiate this analysis, characterizing thallus optical properties of three coralline species, which differed in pigment content and thallus mass area (TMA, gDW m−2. The three species, the rhodolith Neogoniolithon sp., the crustose coralline alga (CCA, Lithothamnion sp., and the articulated alga Amphiroa tribulus, represent the more distinctive coralline growth-forms and are able to colonize contrasting light environments in Caribbean coral reefs. The thicker thalli of the rhodoliths were the most efficient light collectors, as evidenced by their higher pigment absorption efficiency (a*Chla; m2 mgChla−1 and photosynthetic rates per unit area. This could explain rhodolith success in oligotrophic, highly illuminated reef environments. In contrast, the thinner thalli of the CCA, a low-light specialist, showed the highest metabolic rates normalized to mass and the highest light absorption efficiencies per unit mass (a*M; m2 gdw−1. Therefore, the ecological success of the CCA in cryptic habitats within the reef cannot be explained only by its low-light physiology, but also by its capacity to reduce the structural costs of their thalli, and thus of its new growth. Lastly, the ecological success of Amphiroa tribulus, which displayed intermediate values for the efficiency of light absorption, metabolic rates and TMA, was explained by its ability to construct the largest light collectors (algal canopies thanks to the presence of flexible

  1. Tool-use training in a species of rodent: the emergence of an optimal motor strategy and functional understanding.

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    Kazuo Okanoya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tool use is defined as the manipulation of an inanimate object to change the position or form of a separate object. The expansion of cognitive niches and tool-use capabilities probably stimulated each other in hominid evolution. To understand the causes of cognitive expansion in humans, we need to know the behavioral and neural basis of tool use. Although a wide range of animals exhibit tool use in nature, most studies have focused on primates and birds on behavioral or psychological levels and did not directly address questions of which neural modifications contributed to the emergence of tool use. To investigate such questions, an animal model suitable for cellular and molecular manipulations is needed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated for the first time that rodents can be trained to use tools. Through a step-by-step training procedure, we trained degus (Octodon degus to use a rake-like tool with their forelimbs to retrieve otherwise out-of-reach rewards. Eventually, they mastered effective use of the tool, moving it in an elegant trajectory. After the degus were well trained, probe tests that examined whether they showed functional understanding of the tool were performed. Degus did not hesitate to use tools of different size, colors, and shapes, but were reluctant to use the tool with a raised nonfunctional blade. Thus, degus understood the functional and physical properties of the tool after extensive training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that tool use is not a specific faculty resulting from higher intelligence, but is a specific combination of more general cognitive faculties. Studying the brains and behaviors of trained rodents can provide insights into how higher cognitive functions might be broken down into more general faculties, and also what cellular and molecular mechanisms are involved in the emergence of such cognitive functions.

  2. Integrating multiple lines of evidence to better understand the evolutionary divergence of humpback dolphins along their entire distribution range: a new dolphin species in Australian waters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Martin; Jefferson, Thomas A; Kolokotronis, Sergios-Orestis; Krützen, Michael; Parra, Guido J; Collins, Tim; Minton, Giana; Baldwin, Robert; Berggren, Per; Särnblad, Anna; Amir, Omar A; Peddemors, Vic M; Karczmarski, Leszek; Guissamulo, Almeida; Smith, Brian; Sutaria, Dipani; Amato, George; Rosenbaum, Howard C

    2013-12-01

    The conservation of humpback dolphins, distributed in coastal waters of the Indo-West Pacific and eastern Atlantic Oceans, has been hindered by a lack of understanding about the number of species in the genus (Sousa) and their population structure. To address this issue, we present a combined analysis of genetic and morphologic data collected from beach-cast, remote-biopsied and museum specimens from throughout the known Sousa range. We extracted genetic sequence data from 235 samples from extant populations and explored the mitochondrial control region and four nuclear introns through phylogenetic, population-level and population aggregation frameworks. In addition, 180 cranial specimens from the same geographical regions allowed comparisons of 24 morphological characters through multivariate analyses. The genetic and morphological data showed significant and concordant patterns of geographical segregation, which are typical for the kind of demographic isolation displayed by species units, across the Sousa genus distribution range. Based on our combined genetic and morphological analyses, there is convincing evidence for at least four species within the genus (S. teuszii in the Atlantic off West Africa, S. plumbea in the central and western Indian Ocean, S. chinensis in the eastern Indian and West Pacific Oceans, and a new as-yet-unnamed species off northern Australia).

  3. Towards Understanding the Decomposition/Isomerism Channels of Stratospheric Bromine Species: Ab Initio and Quantum Topology Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadullah G. Aziz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at a fundamental understanding of bonding characteristics of the C–Br and O–Br bonds. The target molecular systems are the isomeric CH3OBr/BrCH2OH system and their decomposition products. Calculations of geometries and frequencies at different density functional theory (DFT and Hartree–Fock/Møller–Plesset (HF/MP2 levels have been performed. Results have been assessed and evaluated against those obtained at the coupled cluster single-double (Triplet (CCSD(T level of theory. The characteristics of the C–Br and O–Br bonds have been identified via analysis of the electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO, and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM. Analysis of the electrostatic potential (ESP maps enabled the quantitative characterization of the Br σ-holes. Its magnitude seems very sensitive to the environment and the charge accumulated in the adjacent centers. Some quantum topological parameters, namely Ñ2ρ, ellipticity at bond critical points and the Laplacian bond order, were computed and discussed. The potential energy function for internal rotation has been computed and Fourier transformed to characterize the conformational preferences and origin of the barriers. NBO energetic components for rotation about the C–Br and O–Br bonds as a function of torsion angle have been computed and displayed.

  4. Towards understanding the decomposition/isomerism channels of stratospheric bromine species: ab initio and quantum topology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Saadullah G; Alyoubi, Abdulrahman O; Elroby, Shaaban A; Osman, Osman I; Hilal, Rifaat H

    2015-03-25

    The present study aims at a fundamental understanding of bonding characteristics of the C-Br and O-Br bonds. The target molecular systems are the isomeric CH3OBr/BrCH2OH system and their decomposition products. Calculations of geometries and frequencies at different density functional theory (DFT) and Hartree-Fock/Møller-Plesset (HF/MP2) levels have been performed. Results have been assessed and evaluated against those obtained at the coupled cluster single-double (Triplet) (CCSD(T)) level of theory. The characteristics of the C-Br and O-Br bonds have been identified via analysis of the electrostatic potential, natural bond orbital (NBO), and quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM). Analysis of the electrostatic potential (ESP) maps enabled the quantitative characterization of the Br σ-holes. Its magnitude seems very sensitive to the environment and the charge accumulated in the adjacent centers. Some quantum topological parameters, namely Ñ2ρ, ellipticity at bond critical points and the Laplacian bond order, were computed and discussed. The potential energy function for internal rotation has been computed and Fourier transformed to characterize the conformational preferences and origin of the barriers. NBO energetic components for rotation about the C-Br and O-Br bonds as a function of torsion angle have been computed and displayed.

  5. An in-depth understanding of the bimetallic effects and coked carbon species on an active bimetallic Ni(Co)/Al2O3 dry reforming catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xin; Gerdts, Rihards; Parker, Stewart F; Chi, Lina; Zhao, Yongxiang; Hill, Martyn; Guo, Junqiu; Jones, Martin O; Jiang, Zheng

    2016-06-29

    Ni/Al2O3, Co/Al2O3 and bimetallic Ni(Co)/Al2O3 catalysts were prepared using an impregnation method and employed in CO2 dry reforming of methane under coking-favored conditions. The spent catalysts were carefully characterized using typical characterization technologies and inelastic neutron scattering spectroscopy. The bimetallic catalyst exhibited a superior activity and anti-coking performance compared to Ni/Al2O3, while the most resistant to coking behavior was Co/Al2O3. The enhanced activity of the Ni(Co)/Al2O3 bimetallic catalyst is attributed to the reduced particle size of metallic species and resistance to forming stable filamentous carbon. The overall carbon deposition on the spent bimetallic catalyst is comparable to that of the spent Ni/Al2O3 catalyst, whereas the carbon deposited on the bimetallic catalyst is mainly less-stable carbonaceous species as confirmed by SEM, TPO, Raman and INS characterization. This study provides an in depth understanding of alloy effects in catalysts, the chemical nature of coked carbon on spent Ni-based catalysts and, hopefully, inspires the creative design of a new bimetallic catalyst for dry reforming reactions.

  6. Multiple approaches to understanding the taxonomic status of an enigmatic new scorpion species of the genus Tityus (Buthidae) from the biogeographic island of Paraje Tres Cerros (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojanguren-Affilastro, Andrés A; Adilardi, Renzo S; Cajade, Rodrigo; Ramírez, Martín J; Ceccarelli, F Sara; Mola, Liliana M

    2017-01-01

    Tityus curupi n. sp., belonging to the bolivianus complex, is described from the biogeographically distinct area of Paraje Tres Cerros in north-eastern Argentina. We also present a molecular species delimitation analysis between Tityus curupi n. sp. and its sister species Tityus uruguayensis Borelli 1901 to confirm species integrity. Furthermore, a cytogenetic analysis is presented for these two species which contain different multivalent associations in meiosis, as a consequence of chromosome rearrangements, and the highest chromosome numbers in the genus.

  7. Understanding species composition from NEON high resolution hyperspectral-LIDAR data across a heterogeneous landscape: Effects of land use, fire regime and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlman, S.; Graves, S.; Shahriari Nia, M.; Paul, G.; Leila, K.; Wang, D. Z.

    2015-12-01

    The 2014 NEON hyperspectral LIDAR data allows landscape scale analysis of how abiotic factors and management history affect ecosystem composition and function. At the Ordway Swisher Biological Station (OSBS) in Florida, the core terrestrial NEON site in the Southeast U.S., we are developing a framework applicable to all NEON sites for mapping and analyzing species composition. In this region, small changes in topography (elevation varies by only 20 m at OSBS) along with fire history are the dominant controls on tree species composition. To discriminate species, we use compare support vector machines (SVMs) with possibilistic classifiers (POCs), which may classify species as unknown and represent ambiguity among spectrally similar species better than common classifiers than (SVM). Species classification was most accurate (90%) using POC in the dominant upland longleaf pine forest type (where most trees belonged to just two species: Pinus palustris and Quercus laevis). It was lower ( 10 hardwood species commonly co-occur, including multiple Quercus). For co-occurring hardwood species that were difficult to separate spectrally, we combined the NEON hyperspectral data with additional data sets (global and regional plant trait databases, state-level maps of ecosystem type, and U.S. Forest Service inventory data) in a possibilistic framework to increase the separability of species identity. We then generate a landscape-scale map of species composition at OSBS. Combining this species map with a LIDAR-derived topography, we show that species associations vary with topography. For example, some Quercus species tend to co-occur with each other in uplands, but not in mesic hammocks. We examine potential factors causing changes in community composition, including topography, water table depth, soil type, current fire management regime, and historical land use. By combining the NEON hyperspectral and LIDAR data with detailed records prescribed fire, we also examine how fire

  8. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  9. Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding" is a 19-minute award-winning short-film about teaching at university and higher-level educational institutions. It is based on the "Constructive Alignment" theory developed by Prof. John Biggs. The film delivers a foundation for understanding what...

  10. Deconstructing the mammal species richness pattern in Europe - towards and understanding of the relative importance of climate, biogeographic history, habitat heterogeneity and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløjgaard, Camilla; Normand, Signe; Skov, Flemming;

    2011-01-01

    Aim  We deconstructed the mammal species richness pattern in Europe to assess the importance of large-scale gradients in current macroclimate relative to biogeographic history, habitat heterogeneity and human influence (HHH variables) as richness determinants for total species, and for widespread...... partitioning to assess the importance of macroclimate and HHH variables. The HHH variables included two historical factors, estimated by novel methodologies: (1) ice-age-driven dynamics, represented by accessibility to recolonization from hindcasting-estimated glacial refugia, and (2) biogeographic peninsular...... dynamics, represented by distance to the entry region for the main European faunal source in western Asia. Results  A large fraction of explained variation was shared between macroclimate and HHH in the SAR models. For total species richness, more variation could be uniquely attributed to macroclimate than...

  11. Understanding Readers' Differing Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the characteristics of reader understandings that vary from those stated in the text. Eighty-seven fourth graders orally read complex academic literary and scientific texts, followed by probed retellings. Retold ideas not directly supported by, or reflective of, the texts were identified. These differing understandings…

  12. Recent advances in the understanding of Chlamydophila pecorum infections, sixteen years after it was named as the fourth species of the Chlamydiaceae family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Khalil Yousef; Rodolakis, Annie

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydophila pecorum found in the intestine and vaginal mucus of asymptomatic ruminants has also been associated with different pathological conditions in ruminants, swine and koalas. Some endangered species such as water buffalos and bandicoots have also been found to be infected by C. pecorum. The persistence of C. pecorum strains in the intestine and vaginal mucus of ruminants could cause long-term sub-clinical infection affecting the animal's health. C. pecorum strains present many genetic and antigenic variations, but coding tandem repeats have recently been found in some C. pecorum genes, allowing C. pecorum strains isolated from sick animals to be differentiated from those isolated from asymptomatic animals. This review provides an update on C. pecorum infections in different animal hosts and the implications for animal health. The taxonomy, typing and genetic aspects of C. pecorum are also reviewed.

  13. Understanding the effect of cobalt particle size on Fischer-Tropsch synthesis: surface species and mechanistic studies by SSITKA and kinetic isotope effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jia; Tveten, Erik Z; Chen, De; Holmen, Anders

    2010-11-02

    Co/γ-Al(2)O(3) catalysts with particle sizes in the range of 4-15 nm were investigated by isothermal hydrogenation (IH), temperature programmed hydrogenation (TPH), and steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis (SSITKA). Kinetic isotope effect experiments were used to probe possible mechanisms on Co/γ-Al(2)O(3) with different particle size. It was found that CO dissociated on Co/γ-Al(2)O(3) catalysts at 210 °C. The total amount of CO(2) formed following the dissociation depends on the cobalt crystal size. O-Co binding energy was found to be highly dependent on the Co metal particle size, whereas similar C-Co binding energy was found on catalysts with different Co particle size. Very strongly bonded carbon and oxygen surface species increased with decreasing particle size and acted as site blocking species in the methanation reaction. SSITKA experiments showed that the intrinsic activity (1/τ(CH(x))) remained constant as the particle size increased from 4 to 15 nm. The number of surface intermediates (N(CH(x))) increased with increasing particle size. The apparent activation energies were found similar for these catalysts, about 85 kJ/mol. D(2)-H(2) switches further confirmed that the particle size did not change the kinetically relevant steps in the reaction. The reactivity of the active sites on the 4 nm particles was the same as those on the 8, 11, and 15 nm particles, and only the number of total available surface active sites was less on the 4 nm particles than on the others.

  14. The Psycho-Neurology of Cross-Species Affective/Social Neuroscience: Understanding Animal Affective States as a Guide to Development of Novel Psychiatric Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panksepp, Jaak

    2017-01-01

    During the past half century of research with preclinical animal models, affective neuroscience has helped identify and illuminate the functional neuroanatomies and neurochemistries of seven primary process, i.e., genetically provided emotional systems of mammalian brains. All are subcortically localized, allowing animal models to guide the needed behavioral and neuroscientific analyses at levels of detail that cannot be achieved through human research, including modern brain imaging. They consist of the following neuronal processes: SEEKING/Enthusiasm, RAGE/Anger, FEAR/Anxiety, sexual LUST/Passion, maternal CARE/Nurturance, separation-distress PANIC/Grief and PLAY/Social Joy. Several of these systems figure heavily in social bonding. I will focus here especially on the genesis of depression. Its genesis is significantly influenced by (i) sustained overactivity of the separation-distress PANIC system reflecting severed social bonds and the excessive "psychological pain" of loneliness that can, if sustained, lead to a downward cascade known as psychological despair, and (ii) the despair phase that follows the acute PANIC response, which is characterized by abnormally low activity of the SEEKING, the so-called brain reward networks, leading to amotivational states that characterize depression. Depressive affect is promoted by such brain affective mechanisms of social attachments and social loss as well as diminished arousability of the SEEKING system, leading to chronic dysphoria. To understand why depression feels so bad, we must understand the neural mechanisms that mediate such social feelings.

  15. Computational study of temporal behavior of incident species impinging on a water surface in dielectric barrier discharge for the understanding of plasma-liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Yoshiyuki; Oda, Akinori; Kato, Ryo; Yamashita, Ryuma; Tanoue, Hideto; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Tero, Ryugo

    2015-01-01

    A lipid bilayer is a basic structure of the cell membrane and is stable in liquid solution. In this study, we analyzed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) containing water on a quartz substrate using a one-dimensional fluid model. To simulate atmospheric pressure plasma for practical use, a tiny amount of N2 gas (0.5 ppm) was added to He gas ambient as an impure gas. The calculated current-voltage (I-V) characteristics reproduced the measured ones qualitatively. We focused on the behavior of DBD at the plasma-liquid interface and analyzed the temporal behavior of the electric field strength and incident fluxes of charged, excited, and radical species on the water surface. By varying the gap length, it was shown that the maximum electric field strength in an AC cycle saturated at gap lengths ≥0.15 cm. The incident fluxes of N2+ and He2+ on the water surface are almost the same and show strong correlations with the electric field in the vicinity of the water surface.

  16. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge A Wich

    Full Text Available The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km(2 (21% of Borneo's landmass and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic

  17. Understanding the impacts of land-use policies on a threatened species: is there a future for the Bornean orang-utan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Gaveau, David; Abram, Nicola; Ancrenaz, Marc; Baccini, Alessandro; Brend, Stephen; Curran, Lisa; Delgado, Roberto A; Erman, Andi; Fredriksson, Gabriella M; Goossens, Benoit; Husson, Simon J; Lackman, Isabelle; Marshall, Andrew J; Naomi, Anita; Molidena, Elis; Nardiyono; Nurcahyo, Anton; Odom, Kisar; Panda, Adventus; Purnomo; Rafiastanto, Andjar; Ratnasari, Dessy; Santana, Adi H; Sapari, Imam; van Schaik, Carel P; Sihite, Jamartin; Spehar, Stephanie; Santoso, Eddy; Suyoko, Amat; Tiju, Albertus; Usher, Graham; Atmoko, Sri Suci Utami; Willems, Erik P; Meijaard, Erik

    2012-01-01

    The geographic distribution of Bornean orang-utans and its overlap with existing land-use categories (protected areas, logging and plantation concessions) is a necessary foundation to prioritize conservation planning. Based on an extensive orang-utan survey dataset and a number of environmental variables, we modelled an orang-utan distribution map. The modelled orang-utan distribution map covers 155,106 km(2) (21% of Borneo's landmass) and reveals four distinct distribution areas. The most important environmental predictors are annual rainfall and land cover. The overlap of the orang-utan distribution with land-use categories reveals that only 22% of the distribution lies in protected areas, but that 29% lies in natural forest concessions. A further 19% and 6% occurs in largely undeveloped oil palm and tree plantation concessions, respectively. The remaining 24% of the orang-utan distribution range occurs outside of protected areas and outside of concessions. An estimated 49% of the orang-utan distribution will be lost if all forest outside of protected areas and logging concessions is lost. To avoid this potential decline plantation development in orang-utan habitats must be halted because it infringes on national laws of species protection. Further growth of the plantation sector should be achieved through increasing yields in existing plantations and expansion of new plantations into areas that have already been deforested. To reach this goal a large scale island-wide land-use masterplan is needed that clarifies which possible land uses and managements are allowed in the landscape and provides new standardized strategic conservation policies. Such a process should make much better use of non-market values of ecosystem services of forests such as water provision, flood control, carbon sequestration, and sources of livelihood for rural communities. Presently land use planning is more driven by vested interests and direct and immediate economic gains, rather than

  18. Understanding the role of the cytoskeleton in wood formation in angiosperm trees: hybrid aspen (Populus tremula x P. tremuloides) as a model species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaffey, N.; Barlow, P. [Bristol Univ., Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Long Ashton, (United Kingdom); Sundberg, B. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, Umea (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    The involvement of microfilaments (MFs) and microtubules (MTs) in the development of the radial and axial components of secondary wood in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula X P. tremuloides) was studied by indirect immunofluorescent localization techniques in order to elucidate a consensus view of the roles of the cytoskeleton during wood formation in angiosperm trees. Early and late vessel elements, axial parenchyma, normal-wood fibres and contact and isolation cells were included in addition to cambial cells. Microfilaments were found to be rare in cambial cells, but were abundant and axially arranged in their derivatives once cell elongation begun. Microtubules were randomly oriented in ray and fusiform cells of the cambial zone. Ellipses of microfilaments were associated with pit development in fiber cells and isolation ray cells. Rings of localized microtubules and microfilaments were associated with developing inter-vessel bordered pits and vessel-contact ray cell contact pits. Although only microtubules were seen in the periphery of the perforation plate of vessel elements, a prominent meshwork of microfilaments overlaid the perforation plate itself. These observations indicate that there are corresponding subcellular control points whose manipulation could lead to the development of 'designer wood'. However, such development would require a better understanding of the physiological basis for the behaviour of microtubule and microfibre cytoskeletons during wood formation. 44 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Understanding aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later).

  20. Current understanding of multi-species biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Direct observation of a wide range of natural microorganisms has revealed the fact that the majority of microbes persist as surface-attached communities surrounded by matrix materials, called biofilms. Biofilms can be formed by a single bacterial strain. However, most natural biofilms are actuall...

  1. Current understanding of multi-species biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Liang; Liu, Yang; Wu, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Direct observation of a wide range of natural microorganisms has revealed the fact that the majority of microbes persist as surface-attached communities surrounded by matrix materials, called biofilms. Biofilms can be formed by a single bacterial strain. However, most natural biofilms are actuall...

  2. Understanding hermaphrodite species through game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebir, Amira; Fefferman, Nina H; Ben Miled, Slimane

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the existence and stability of sexual strategies (sequential hermaphrodite, successive hermaphrodite or gonochore) at a proximate level. To accomplish this, we constructed and analyzed a general dynamical game model structured by size and sex. Our main objective is to study how costs of changing sex and of sexual competition should shape the sexual behavior of a hermaphrodite. We prove that, at the proximate level, size alone is insufficient to explain the tendency for a pair of prospective copulants to elect the male sexual role by virtue of the disparity in the energetic costs of eggs and sperm. In fact, we show that the stability of sequential vs. simultaneous hermaphrodite depends on sex change costs, while the stability of protandrous vs. protogynous strategies depends on competition cost.

  3. Understanding Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Teens > Understanding Dyslexia A A A ... realize is that Sarah has dyslexia. What Is Dyslexia? Dyslexia (pronounced: dis-LEK-see-uh) is a ...

  4. Understanding Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Teens > Understanding Dyslexia Print A A ... realize is that Sarah has dyslexia. What Is Dyslexia? Dyslexia (pronounced: dis-LEK-see-uh) is a ...

  5. Cytogenetic mapping of 5S and 18S rRNAs and H3 histone genes in 4 ancient Proscopiidae grasshopper species: contribution to understanding the evolutionary dynamics of multigene families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-de-Mello, D C; Martins, C; Souza, M J; Moura, R C

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the chromosomal location of 18S rRNA, 5S rRNA and H3 histone multigene families in 4 species of a relatively ancient and diversified group of grasshoppers belonging to the family Proscopiidae. The 5S rRNA and H3 histone genes were highly conserved in the number of sites and chromosomal position in the 4th chromosome pair in all species analyzed, whereas the 18S rRNA genes showed slightly more variation because they were present on one or 2 chromosome pairs, depending on the species. The 5S and 18S rRNA gene families occurred in different chromosomes; in contrast, H3 histone and 5S rRNA genes co-localized in the same chromosomal position, with an apparently interspersed organization. Considering that the Proscopiidae family is a relatively ancient group compared with the Acrididae family, the association of the H3 histone and 5S rRNA multigene families can represent a basal condition for grasshoppers, although more research is needed on other representatives of this insect group to confirm this statement. The presence of such an association of 5S rDNA and H3 histone in mussels and arthropods (beetles, grasshoppers and crustaceans) suggests that this linked configuration could represent an ancestral pattern for invertebrates. These results provide new insights into the understanding of the genome organization and the evolution of multigene families in grasshoppers and in insects as a whole. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Embodied understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  7. Understanding Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... and brain scans. No treatment so far stops Alzheimer's. However, for some in the disease's early and ...

  8. Understanding Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Understanding Chemotherapy What is chemotherapy? Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. It is also called “chemo.” Today, there are ...

  9. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  10. Understanding semantics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types.......Understanding natural language is a cognitive, information-driven process. Discussing some of the consequences of this fact, the paper offers a novel look at the semantic effect of lexical nouns and the identification of reference types....

  11. Understanding Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram; Gottlieb, Henrik; Klitgård, Ida

    Understanding Translation is designed as a textbook for courses on the theory and practice of translation in general and of particular types of translation - such as interpreting, screen translation and literary translation. The aim of the book is to help you gain an in-depth understanding of the...... - translators, language teachers, translation users and literary, TV and film critics, for instance. Discussions focus on translation between Danish and English....

  12. On Understanding and Machine Understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Chern, Tong

    2011-01-01

    In the present paper, we try to propose a self-similar network theory for the basic understanding. By extending the natural languages to a kind of so called idealy sufficient language, we can proceed a few steps to the investigation of the language searching and the language understanding of AI. Image understanding, and the familiarity of the brain to the surrounding environment are also discussed. Group effects are discussed by addressing the essense of the power of influences, and constructing the influence network of a society. We also give a discussion of inspirations.

  13. Embodied Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Leonard Johnson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Western culture has inherited a view of understanding as an intellectual cognitive operation of grasping of concepts and their relations. However, cognitive science research has shown that this received intellectualist conception is substantially out of touch with how humans actually make and experience meaning. The view emerging from the mind sciences recognizes that understanding is profoundly embodied, insofar as our conceptualization and reasoning recruit sensory, motor, and affective patterns and processes to structure our understanding of, and engagement with, our world. A psychologically realistic account of understanding must begin with the patterns of ongoing interaction between an organism and its physical and cultural environments and must include both our emotional responses to changes in our body and environment, and also the actions by which we continuously transform our experience. Consequently, embodied understanding is not merely a conceptual/propositional activity of thought, but rather constitutes our most basic way of being in, and engaging with, our surroundings in a deep visceral manner.

  14. Understanding Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Maple is a powerful symbolic computation system that is widely used in universities around the world. This short introduction gives readers an insight into the rules that control how the system works, and how to understand, fix, and avoid common problems. Topics covered include algebra, calculus, linear algebra, graphics, programming, and procedures. Each chapter contains numerous illustrative examples, using mathematics that does not extend beyond first-year undergraduate material. Maple worksheets containing these examples are available for download from the author's personal website. The book is suitable for new users, but where advanced topics are central to understanding Maple they are tackled head-on. Many concepts which are absent from introductory books and manuals are described in detail. With this book, students, teachers and researchers will gain a solid understanding of Maple and how to use it to solve complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way.

  15. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Understanding Physics - Second edition is a comprehensive, yet compact, introductory physics textbook aimed at physics undergraduates and also at engineers and other scientists taking a general physics course. Written with today's students in mind, this text covers the core material required by an introductory course in a clear and refreshing way. A second colour is used throughout to enhance learning and understanding. Each topic is introduced from first principles so that the text is suitable for students without a prior background in physics. At the same time the book is designed to enable

  16. Understanding Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Deepika; Shelby, Blake; Mattingly, Christine

    2016-01-01

    "Energy" is a term often used in everyday language. Even young children associate energy with the food they eat, feeling tired after playing soccer, or when asked to turn the lights off to save light energy. However, they may not have the scientific conceptual understanding of energy at this age. Teaching energy and matter could be…

  17. Understanding Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & ...

  18. Understanding Resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of PTSD, depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  19. Understanding resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gang; Feder, Adriana; Cohen, Hagit; Kim, Joanna J; Calderon, Solara; Charney, Dennis S; Mathé, Aleksander A

    2013-01-01

    Resilience is the ability to adapt successfully in the face of stress and adversity. Stressful life events, trauma, and chronic adversity can have a substantial impact on brain function and structure, and can result in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression and other psychiatric disorders. However, most individuals do not develop such illnesses after experiencing stressful life events, and are thus thought to be resilient. Resilience as successful adaptation relies on effective responses to environmental challenges and ultimate resistance to the deleterious effects of stress, therefore a greater understanding of the factors that promote such effects is of great relevance. This review focuses on recent findings regarding genetic, epigenetic, developmental, psychosocial, and neurochemical factors that are considered essential contributors to the development of resilience. Neural circuits and pathways involved in mediating resilience are also discussed. The growing understanding of resilience factors will hopefully lead to the development of new pharmacological and psychological interventions for enhancing resilience and mitigating the untoward consequences.

  20. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  1. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  2. Understanding Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    national character.” And although national character analysis is out of vogue in the United States, I attribute the use of the term to the...also notable counter-examples of resource benefactions: for example, Norway, Britain , and North Sea oil and gas deposits. 124 Understanding Iran...English, Farsi, Italian, and Spanish. Sadjadpour’s recent commentary, articles, and testimony include “ Britain -Iran Standoff ,” PBS’s Newshour with

  3. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been te...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself....

  4. Understanding Sociolinguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡萍萍

    2003-01-01

    Sociolinguistics has drawn more and more attention since it became an independent discipline in mid 1960s. But scholars from various disciplines look at sociolinguistics from different perspectives, and carry out sociolinguistic study in different ways. This paper tries to understand sociolinguistics in terms of its definitions and the scope of sociolinguistic study to point out the lack of comprehensiveness in Fishman's view on the definition of sociolinguistics.

  5. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  6. Understanding Magnitudes to Understand Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Fractions are known to be difficult to learn and difficult to teach, yet they are vital for students to have access to further mathematical concepts. This article uses evidence to support teachers employing teaching methods that focus on the conceptual understanding of the magnitude of fractions.

  7. The functional biogeography of species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, D.W.; Dalsgaard, B.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Biogeographical systems can be analyzed as networks of species and geographical units. Within such a biogeographical network, individual species may differ fundamentally in their linkage pattern, and therefore hold different topological roles. To advance our understanding of the relationship betw...

  8. Understanding biplots

    CERN Document Server

    Gower, John C; Le Roux, Niel J

    2010-01-01

    Biplots are a graphical method for simultaneously displaying two kinds of information; typically, the variables and sample units described by a multivariate data matrix or the items labelling the rows and columns of a two-way table. This book aims to popularize what is now seen to be a useful and reliable method for the visualization of multidimensional data associated with, for example, principal component analysis, canonical variate analysis, multidimensional scaling, multiplicative interaction and various types of correspondence analysis. Understanding Biplots: Introduces th

  9. Understanding uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Lindley, Dennis V

    2013-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""...a reference for everyone who is interested in knowing and handling uncertainty.""-Journal of Applied Statistics The critically acclaimed First Edition of Understanding Uncertainty provided a study of uncertainty addressed to scholars in all fields, showing that uncertainty could be measured by probability, and that probability obeyed three basic rules that enabled uncertainty to be handled sensibly in everyday life. These ideas were extended to embrace the scientific method and to show how decisions, containing an uncertain element, could be rationally made.

  10. Understanding ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadgil, Vaidya Dilip

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda needs to achieve its full potential both in India and globally. This requires imparting to its students full appreciation of Ayurveda's power and strength, particularly proper understanding of the advantages of applying it to treat chronic and acute diseases. To this end, we explain the necessity of learning Sanskrit as a medium of study, and the advantages of learning the Texts in the traditional way, rather than relying on translations with all the loss of meaning and precision, which that entails. We emphasize the use of Triskandhakosha as a means to fully understand Ayurveda fundamental concepts and technical terms, so that all their shades of meaning are fully understood, and all their usages given in different places in the texts. Only by such methods can full appreciation of Ayurvedic wisdom be achieved, and the full depth and power of its knowledge be applied. Only then will its true status among systems of medicine come to be appreciated, either in India or more widely in the world as a whole.

  11. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  12. Understanding physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cassidy, David; Rutherford, James

    2002-01-01

    Understanding Physics provides a thorough grounding in contemporary physics while placing physics into its social and historical context Based in large part on the highly respected Project Physics Course developed by two of the authors, it also integrates the results of recent pedagogical research The text thus - teaches about the basic phenomena in the physical world and the concepts developed to explain them - shows that science is a rational human endeavor with a long and continuing tradition, involving many different cultures and people - develops facility in critical thinking, reasoned argumentation, evaluation of evidence, mathematical modeling, and ethical values The treatment emphasizes not only what we know but also how we know it, why we believe it, and what effects that knowledge has - Why do we believe the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun? - Why do we believe that matter is made of atoms? - How do relativity theory and quantum mechanics alter our conception of Nature and in what ways do th...

  13. Understanding PISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen DOWNES

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding PISA Stephen DOWNESMoncton, CANADA ABSTRACT The headline was dramatic enough to cause a ripple in the reading public. "Students who use computers a lot at school have worse maths and reading performance," noted the BBC news article, citing a 2004 study by Ludger Woessmann and Thomas Fuchs (Fuchs and Woessman, 2004. It was not long before the blogosphere took notice. Taking the theme and running with it, Alice and Bill ask, "Computers Make School Kids Dumber?" They theorize, "If you track the admitted decline of education, you'll probably notice that it follows along with the increase of technology in the classroom." In a similar vein, James Bartholomew asks, "Do you think that the government will turn down the volume of its boasting about how it has spent billions introducing computers in schools (while keeping down the pay of teachers so much that there are shortages? Do you think it will stop sending governors of state schools glossy pamphlets about insisting that computers are used in their schools as much as possible?" In this study, therefore, PISA looks well beyond educational attainment, and also includes school demographics, such as whether it is a public or private school, has large or small classes, or has access or not to technological resources. Finally, it does measure student information-their family background, access to books and computers and parental support as well. The PISA survey departs from previous surveys in disregarding the stated curricula of the schools being measured. Therefore, the conclusion is not surprising, nor even wrong for him to consider independently of any parental or teacher support, considered without reference to the software running on it, considered without reference to student attitudes and interests, does not positively impact an education. Finally, he focus on missing the reporting of results

  14. Species concepts and species delimitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Queiroz, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    The issue of species delimitation has long been confused with that of species conceptualization, leading to a half century of controversy concerning both the definition of the species category and methods for inferring the boundaries and numbers of species. Alternative species concepts agree in treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the primary defining property of the species category, but they disagree in adopting different properties acquired by lineages during the course of divergence (e.g., intrinsic reproductive isolation, diagnosability, monophyly) as secondary defining properties (secondary species criteria). A unified species concept can be achieved by treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the only necessary property of species and the former secondary species criteria as different lines of evidence (operational criteria) relevant to assessing lineage separation. This unified concept of species has several consequences for species delimitation, including the following: First, the issues of species conceptualization and species delimitation are clearly separated; the former secondary species criteria are no longer considered relevant to species conceptualization but only to species delimitation. Second, all of the properties formerly treated as secondary species criteria are relevant to species delimitation to the extent that they provide evidence of lineage separation. Third, the presence of any one of the properties (if appropriately interpreted) is evidence for the existence of a species, though more properties and thus more lines of evidence are associated with a higher degree of corroboration. Fourth, and perhaps most significantly, a unified species concept shifts emphasis away from the traditional species criteria, encouraging biologists to develop new methods of species delimitation that are not tied to those properties.

  15. Towards a full understanding of the nature of Ni(II) species and hydroxyl groups over highly siliceous HZSM-5 zeolite supported nickel catalysts prepared by a deposition-precipitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Hui; Chao, Zi-Sheng; He, Hao; Huang, Chen; Liu, Ya-Juan; Yi, Wen-Jun; Wei, Xue-Ling; An, Jun-Fang

    2016-02-14

    Highly siliceous HZSM-5 zeolite supported nickel catalysts prepared by a deposition-precipitation (D-P) method were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2-absorption/desorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and (27)Al magic-angle nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) techniques. The results showed that the D-P of nickel species occurred predominantly on the internal surface of highly siliceous HZSM-5 zeolite, in which the internal silanol groups located on the hydroxylated mesopores or nanocavities played a key role. During the D-P process, nickel hydroxide was first deposited-precipitated via olation/polymerization of neutral hydroxoaqua nickel species over the HZSM-5 zeolite. With the progress of the D-P process, 1 : 1 nickel phyllosilicate was formed over the HZSM-5 via the hetero-condensation/polymerization between charged hydroxoaqua nickel species and monomer silicic species generated due to the partial dissolution of the HZSM-5 framework. The 1 : 1 nickel phyllosilicate could also be generated via the hydrolytic adsorption of hydroxoaqua nickel species and their subsequent olation condensation. After calcination, the deposited-precipitated nickel hydroxide was decomposed into nickel oxide, while the 1 : 1 nickel phyllosilicate was transformed into 2 : 1 nickel phyllosilicate. According to the above mechanism, Ni(ii) species were present both in the form of nickel oxide and 2 : 1 nickel phyllosilicate, which were mutually separated from each other, being highly dispersed over HZSM-5 zeolite.

  16. Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invasive species have significantly changed the Great Lakes ecosystem. An invasive species is a plant or animal that is not native to an ecosystem, and whose introduction is likely to cause economic, human health, or environmental damage.

  17. Species concepts do matter in nematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, V R

    1999-06-01

    Nematology is a taxon-based science, and a correct understanding of species and their relationships is basic to all nematological research. Modern methods of systematic analysis have reshaped issues concerning species recognition.

  18. Invasive species

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a summary of management activities and research related to invasive species on Neal Smith National Wildlife Refuge between 1992 and 2009. As part of the...

  19. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  20. Valuation of Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    An important aim for the teacher in Higher Education is that students, in order to learn, achieve understanding in terms of being able to handle knowledge in a certain way. In this paper focus will be on understanding as a phenomenon which is permeated with values of what good understanding might...... be. Understanding is to be discussed as a phenomenon which in its definition is relative to the paradigm of educational thinking in which it is embedded. Paradigms of valuation of understanding in higher education will be viewed from two perspectives: An anglosaxon curriculum studies tradition...... and a Central and Northern European ‘didaktik' tradition.  The thesis is that understanding within these traditions might be described by different images of understanding movements which express different ideals of structures of understanding. Due to these different ideals of structures of understanding...

  1. Valuation of Understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    be. Understanding is to be discussed as a phenomenon which in its definition is relative to the paradigm of educational thinking in which it is embedded. Paradigms of valuation of understanding in higher education will be viewed from two perspectives: An anglosaxon curriculum studies tradition...... valuation of understanding might be different. The difference between these two paradigms are to be discussed with specific reference to how these different ideas of ideals of structures of understanding might influence valuation of understanding and how valuation of understanding has consequences...

  2. Metaphor, skepticism, understanding Metaphor, skepticism, understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Martins

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts.

    This paper examines the idea that metaphor is a basic cognitive tool from a Wittgensteinian point of view. One specific aspect of Wittgenstein’s legacy is explored, namely his account of verbal understanding. Two interconnected and notoriously difficult features of this account are highlighted and discussed: the idea that linguistic understanding is not an event or a process, but an “abiding condition” (Philosophical Investigations, §143-84; and the idea that neither the meaning of a linguistic expression nor our understanding of it can ever go beyond our capacity of explaining it (Philosophical Investigations, §75. This perspective is shown to be particularly apt in reflecting upon the virtues of metaphor as a means of understanding, especially because it allows for the avoidance of both essentialist and skeptical accounts

  3. Understanding Dyslexia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Dyslexia A A A ... be taught to become successful readers. Reading and Dyslexia Most kids begin learning to read by learning ...

  4. Guide to Understanding Lymphedema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Understanding Lymphedema Get Support Guide to Understanding Lymphedema 2015, 5th Edition By: Robin Warshaw, Contributing Writer ... YES NO ADDITIONAL FEEDBACK Home page More In Lymphedema Breast Cancer News August 14, 2013 Extra Weight — ...

  5. Understanding in mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinska, Anna

    1994-01-01

    The concept of understanding in mathematics with regard to mathematics education is considered in this volume, the main problem for mathematics teachers being how to facilitate their students'' understanding of the mathematics being taught.

  6. Understanding Dyslexia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Understanding Dyslexia KidsHealth > For Parents > Understanding Dyslexia Print A A ... be taught to become successful readers. Reading and Dyslexia Most kids begin learning to read by learning ...

  7. For A Beffer Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余换林; 邓新华

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays there is often a lack of understanding between our parents and us. Quite a few of us. complain that parents can't understand us while parents feel sorry that children seldom listen to them. Why?

  8. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... find our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using statistics ... the best position to discuss your prognosis. Survival statistics most ... Understanding the Difference Between Cure and Remission Cure means ...

  9. New insights into the species problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Historical opinions of the "species problem" are briefly reviewed, and four salient stages are recognized according to origin of species concepts. We propose that species is the unit preserving superior gene assembly and is maintained by specific mechanisms. Based on characteristics of plant evolution, we assume that understanding plant species may include three stages, i.e. morphological recognition stage, multidisciplinary verification stage, and illuminating mechanisms preserving superior gene assembly.

  10. Memorandum of Understanding.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siple, Bud H. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A Memorandum of Understanding establishes a clear understanding of how an agreement is going to be implemented. The Memorandum of Understanding allows all involved to specifically understand that they are agreeing to the same thing and the terms are clearly identified. It also includes the clear distinction of functions and the level of involvement of the agencies involved. Specifically, a Memorandum of Understanding gives a chance to all of those involved in the agreement to see on paper as to what they all have agreed to.

  11. Humans as a Hyperkeystone Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Boris; Paine, Robert T

    2016-08-01

    Ecologists have identified numerous keystone species, defined as organisms that have outsized ecological impacts relative to their biomass. Here we identify human beings as a higher-order or 'hyperkeystone' species that drives complex interaction chains by affecting other keystone actors across different habitats. Strong indirect effects and a global reach further characterize these interactions and amplify the impacts of human activities on diverse ecosystems, from oceans to forests. We require better understanding of hyperkeystone interaction chains most urgently, especially for marine species and terrestrial large carnivores, which experience relatively higher exploitation rates than other species. This requires innovative approaches that integrate the study of human behavior with food-web theory, and which might provide surprising new insights into the complex ecology of our own species.

  12. Confronting species distribution model predictions with species functional traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marion E; Barnes, Matthew A; Jerde, Christopher L; Jones, Lisa A; Lodge, David M

    2016-02-01

    Species distribution models are valuable tools in studies of biogeography, ecology, and climate change and have been used to inform conservation and ecosystem management. However, species distribution models typically incorporate only climatic variables and species presence data. Model development or validation rarely considers functional components of species traits or other types of biological data. We implemented a species distribution model (Maxent) to predict global climate habitat suitability for Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). We then tested the relationship between the degree of climate habitat suitability predicted by Maxent and the individual growth rates of both wild (N = 17) and stocked (N = 51) Grass Carp populations using correlation analysis. The Grass Carp Maxent model accurately reflected the global occurrence data (AUC = 0.904). Observations of Grass Carp growth rate covered six continents and ranged from 0.19 to 20.1 g day(-1). Species distribution model predictions were correlated (r = 0.5, 95% CI (0.03, 0.79)) with observed growth rates for wild Grass Carp populations but were not correlated (r = -0.26, 95% CI (-0.5, 0.012)) with stocked populations. Further, a review of the literature indicates that the few studies for other species that have previously assessed the relationship between the degree of predicted climate habitat suitability and species functional traits have also discovered significant relationships. Thus, species distribution models may provide inferences beyond just where a species may occur, providing a useful tool to understand the linkage between species distributions and underlying biological mechanisms.

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our information on Coping With Cancer helpful. Understanding Statistics About Survival Doctors estimate prognosis by using statistics that researchers have collected over many years about ...

  14. Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / For Patients / Patient Information Understanding Minor Rectal Bleeding What are the possible causes of minor rectal bleeding? Hemorrhoids Anal fissures Proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about Advanced Cancer Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer What ...

  16. LISTENING TO UNDERSTAND OR READING TO UNDERSTAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    Introduction This article is based on the experience of teaching extensive reading classes for science students in our school. It describes a common model for reading classes. This model shows the disadvantage that readers tend to understand what they read mainly by way of listening to the teacher’s explanation, but not by reading for themselves. It has given rise to the particular problem of whether students need a full explanation before achieving good comprehension. The article suggests that readers have to work themselves to improve their reading ability and skills. Some techniques for teaching a reading class are suggested.

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a ... for provider care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a ... for provider care teams (PDF-210KB). Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video View this video on YouTube. Three ...

  19. Understanding cancer onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhuis, Djuke

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Malaysia analysed the genomes of people with a rare genetic disorder to better understand people’s predisposition to cancer across generations.......Researchers in Malaysia analysed the genomes of people with a rare genetic disorder to better understand people’s predisposition to cancer across generations....

  20. Parrot "Understands" Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The walnut sized brain of the African grey parrot may actually be capable of comprehending abstract mathematical concepts. The bird seems to understand a numerical concept akin to zero--an abstract notion that humans don't typically understand until they are three or four years old. Alex, the 28-year-old parrot who lives in a Brandeis University…

  1. Approaches to understand culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard; Rauner, Felix

    1996-01-01

    Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed.......Different approaches to understand the concept ofculture are presented and evaluated. The author'sconcept of culture is defined. Different aspectsof the concept are discussed....

  2. Understanding cancer onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veldhuis, Djuke

    2015-01-01

    Researchers in Malaysia analysed the genomes of people with a rare genetic disorder to better understand people’s predisposition to cancer across generations.......Researchers in Malaysia analysed the genomes of people with a rare genetic disorder to better understand people’s predisposition to cancer across generations....

  3. Understanding Generation X employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupperschmidt, B R

    1998-12-01

    Understanding Generation X employees--those born between 1961 and 1981--is essential if they are to be recruited into and retained in nursing and their potential maximized. The author discusses the times, characteristics, and work values and demands of Generation X. Armed with an enhanced understanding, nurse administrators are better prepared to maximize the potential of Generation X employees.

  4. Incorporating Context Dependency of Species Interactions in Species Distribution Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lany, Nina K; Zarnetske, Phoebe L; Gouhier, Tarik C; Menge, Bruce A

    2017-07-01

    Species distribution models typically use correlative approaches that characterize the species-environment relationship using occurrence or abundance data for a single species. However, species distributions are determined by both abiotic conditions and biotic interactions with other species in the community. Therefore, climate change is expected to impact species through direct effects on their physiology and indirect effects propagated through their resources, predators, competitors, or mutualists. Furthermore, the sign and strength of species interactions can change according to abiotic conditions, resulting in context-dependent species interactions that may change across space or with climate change. Here, we incorporated the context dependency of species interactions into a dynamic species distribution model. We developed a multi-species model that uses a time-series of observational survey data to evaluate how abiotic conditions and species interactions affect the dynamics of three rocky intertidal species. The model further distinguishes between the direct effects of abiotic conditions on abundance and the indirect effects propagated through interactions with other species. We apply the model to keystone predation by the sea star Pisaster ochraceus on the mussel Mytilus californianus and the barnacle Balanus glandula in the rocky intertidal zone of the Pacific coast, USA. Our method indicated that biotic interactions between P. ochraceus and B. glandula affected B. glandula dynamics across >1000 km of coastline. Consistent with patterns from keystone predation, the growth rate of B. glandula varied according to the abundance of P. ochraceus in the previous year. The data and the model did not indicate that the strength of keystone predation by P. ochraceus varied with a mean annual upwelling index. Balanus glandula cover increased following years with high phytoplankton abundance measured as mean annual chlorophyll-a. M. californianus exhibited the same

  5. Understanding health insurance plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000879.htm Understanding health insurance plans To use the sharing features on this ... plan for you and your family. Types of Health Insurance Plans Depending on how you get your health ...

  6. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doctor to give you an accurate prognosis. Understanding the Difference Between Cure and Remission Cure means that ... about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this video on YouTube. Andrew wants ...

  7. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  8. Understanding your hospital bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000881.htm Understanding your hospital bill To use the sharing features on this ... help you save money. Charges Listed on Your Hospital Bill A hospital bill will list the major ...

  9. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ...

  10. Facilitating Understandings of Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Christine C.; Bush, Sara

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates some learning encounters for facilitating first graders' understanding of geometry. Describes some of children's approaches using Cuisenaire rods and teacher's intervening. Presents six problems involving various combinations of Cuisenaire rods and cubes. (YP)

  11. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease will go for you is called prognosis. It can be hard to understand what prognosis means ... prognosis include: The type of cancer and where it is in your body The stage of the ...

  12. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what she'd like to know of her prognosis. Credit: National ...

  13. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources ...

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to talk about, even for doctors. Many Factors Can Affect Your Prognosis Some of the factors that ... Understanding your cancer and knowing what to expect can help you and your loved ones make decisions. ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Managing Cancer Care Finding Health Care Services Costs & Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Understanding Cancer ... Care Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types ...

  16. Thermometers: Understand the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Fever Thermometers come in a variety of styles. Understand the different types of thermometers and how ... MA. Fever in infants and children: Pathophysiology and management. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 23, ...

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disease will go for you is called prognosis. It can be hard to understand what prognosis means ... prognosis include: The type of cancer and where it is in your body The stage of the ...

  18. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... doctor to give you an accurate prognosis. Understanding the Difference Between Cure and Remission Cure means that ... about her colorectal cancer prognosis. Diving Out of the Dark View this video on YouTube. Andrew wants ...

  19. Understanding cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000759.htm Understanding cardiovascular disease To use the sharing features on this page, ... lead to heart attack or stroke. Types of Cardiovascular Disease Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common ...

  20. Understanding Sexual Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Sexual Violence Fact Sheet 2014 Sexual violence refers to any sexual activity where consent is not obtained or freely given. Anyone can experience or perpetrate sexual violence. Most ...

  1. Molecular characterisation of Brucella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, H C; Vergnaud, G

    2013-04-01

    The genus Brucella (Mayer and Shaw, 1920) currently consists often species with validly published names. Within most species further differentiation into biovars exists. Genetically, all Brucella species are highly related to each other, exhibiting sequence similarity values of 98% to 100% in aligned regions (core genome). The population structure is clonal. Despite this close genetic relatedness, the various species can be clearly distinguished from each other by application of high-resolution molecular typing tools, in addition to assessment of phenotype and host preference. Accurate species delineation can be achieved by conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) or multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA). The last is also suitable for phylogenetic reconstructions, owing to the highly clonal evolution of the different species. Highly discriminatory multilocus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) allows both species delineation and differentiation of individual isolates and thus represents a perfect first-line toolfor molecular epidemiological studies within outbreak investigations. More recently,whole genome sequencing (WGS)and the resulting global genome-wide SNP analysis have become available. These novel approaches should help in further understanding the evolution, host specificity and pathogenicity of the genus Brucella.

  2. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantely, Michaël Luciano; Le Goff, Gilbert; Boyer, Sébastien; Fontenille, Didier

    2016-01-01

    An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species). This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species), Aedes (35 species), Anopheles (26 species), Coquillettidia (3 species), Culex (at least 50 species), Eretmapodites (4 species), Ficalbia (2 species), Hodgesia (at least one species), Lutzia (one species), Mansonia (2 species), Mimomyia (22 species), Orthopodomyia (8 species), Toxorhynchites (6 species), and Uranotaenia (73 species). Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%). Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27%) with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar. © M.L. Tantely et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  3. An updated checklist of mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae from Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tantely Michaël Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated checklist of 235 mosquito species from Madagascar is presented. The number of species has increased considerably compared to previous checklists, particularly the last published in 2003 (178 species. This annotated checklist provides concise information on endemism, taxonomic position, developmental stages, larval habitats, distribution, behavior, and vector-borne diseases potentially transmitted. The 235 species belong to 14 genera: Aedeomyia (3 species, Aedes (35 species, Anopheles (26 species, Coquillettidia (3 species, Culex (at least 50 species, Eretmapodites (4 species, Ficalbia (2 species, Hodgesia (at least one species, Lutzia (one species, Mansonia (2 species, Mimomyia (22 species, Orthopodomyia (8 species, Toxorhynchites (6 species, and Uranotaenia (73 species. Due to non-deciphered species complexes, several species remain undescribed. The main remarkable characteristic of Malagasy mosquito fauna is the high biodiversity with 138 endemic species (59%. Presence and abundance of species, and their association, in a given location could be a bio-indicator of environmental particularities such as urban, rural, forested, deforested, and mountainous habitats. Finally, taking into account that Malagasy culicidian fauna includes 64 species (27% with a known medical or veterinary interest in the world, knowledge of their biology and host preference summarized in this paper improves understanding of their involvement in pathogen transmission in Madagascar.

  4. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  5. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  6. The production of understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Bruce G

    2003-12-01

    While there is little doubt that sociological theory and research has had an important impact on the way people think about health and health care, mental health and medical sociologists are often confronted with challenges concerning the utility of the work that they do. Among the doubters are deans, funding agencies and family members. We are challenged by the ascendency of biological interpretations of human behaviors, by the incompatibility between the contextual view we prefer and the very strong individualistic orientation of our culture, and by the fact that we do not have an applied arm that trains the professionals who treat health and mental-health conditions. How do we respond to this challenge? The title of this paper gives a short answer: "The Production of Understanding." I propose that a powerful but under-recognized value of our work is the generation of explanations about health and mental health matters that help people understand the other side of an "us"/"them" divide. We produce understanding in a context in which misunderstanding is regularly constructed by powerful people who offer victim-blaming explanations for the circumstances experienced by people with less power. The production of understanding serves as an important counterbalance to this tendency. Our work shapes the way people think about problems related to health and mental health, limits the power of inaccurate victim-blaming accounts and provides understanding about why health and mental health are mal-distributed among people from different social circumstances.

  7. Towards better process understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matero, Sanni Elina; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J; Poutiainen, Sami

    2013-01-01

    , current best practice to control a typical process is to not allow process-related factors to vary i.e. lock the production parameters. The problem related to the lack of sufficient process understanding is still there: the variation within process and material properties is an intrinsic feature...... and cannot be compensated for with constant process parameters. Instead, a more comprehensive approach based on the use of multivariate tools for investigating processes should be applied. In the pharmaceutical field these methods are referred to as Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools that aim...... to achieve a thorough understanding and control over the production process. PAT includes the frames for measurement as well as data analyzes and controlling for in-depth understanding, leading to more consistent and safer drug products with less batch rejections. In the optimal situation, by applying...

  8. Speak Out for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthouse, David

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a documentary film created by students with learning disabilities to share their wisdom. "Speak Out for Understanding" is a new film on learning disabilities created by a group of students at a Vermont high school. Made on a shoestring, the award-winning 32-minute documentary overturns a number of popular…

  9. Speak Out for Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthouse, David

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses a documentary film created by students with learning disabilities to share their wisdom. "Speak Out for Understanding" is a new film on learning disabilities created by a group of students at a Vermont high school. Made on a shoestring, the award-winning 32-minute documentary overturns a number of popular…

  10. Understanding Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This curriculum module is designed for students who are taking high school chemistry. Students should already have some experience with the following: (1) Understanding and reading the pH scale; (2) Knowledge of the carbon cycle; (3) Using scientific notation to express large and small values; and (4) Reading chemical equations. This curriculum…

  11. Helping Children Understand Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allers, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Children of divorced parents may bring many problems along when they come to school. Teachers can recognize these troubles and help children learn to handle them. They may be able to help children better understand their feelings about their parents' divorce. (CJ)

  12. Understanding Our Environment: Planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit places Earth in the context of its environment-the Universe-then focuses on Earth as seen from satellites. Students analyze patterns formed by the…

  13. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  14. Understanding Dyscalculia for Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sheila Rao

    2004-01-01

    Dyscalculia, a poor understanding of the number concept and the number system, is a learning problem affecting many individuals. However, less is known about this disability than about the reading disability, dyslexia, because society accepts learning problems in mathematics as quite normal. This article provides a summary of the research on…

  15. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  16. Understanding Organizational Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Linder, Stefan; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2015-01-01

    The attention-based view (ABV) of the firm highlights the role of decision makers’ attention in firm behavior. The ABV vastly improves our understanding of decision makers’ focus of attention; how that focus is situated in an organization’s procedural and communication channels; and how the distr...

  17. Mathematics for understanding disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bies, R R; Gastonguay, M R; Schwartz, S L

    2008-06-01

    The application of mathematical models to reflect the organization and activity of biological systems can be viewed as a continuum of purpose. The far left of the continuum is solely the prediction of biological parameter values, wherein an understanding of the underlying biological processes is irrelevant to the purpose. At the far right of the continuum are mathematical models, the purposes of which are a precise understanding of those biological processes. No models in present use fall at either end of the continuum. Without question, however, the emphasis in regards to purpose has been on prediction, e.g., clinical trial simulation and empirical disease progression modeling. Clearly the model that ultimately incorporates a universal understanding of biological organization will also precisely predict biological events, giving the continuum the logical form of a tautology. Currently that goal lies at an immeasurable distance. Nonetheless, the motive here is to urge movement in the direction of that goal. The distance traveled toward understanding naturally depends upon the nature of the scientific question posed with respect to comprehending and/or predicting a particular disease process. A move toward mathematical models implies a move away from static empirical modeling and toward models that focus on systems biology, wherein modeling entails the systematic study of the complex pattern of organization inherent in biological systems.

  18. Understanding palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2006-09-01

    While most pharmacists and other health care practitioners are familiar with the programs and philosophy of hospice, they may lack a clear understanding of palliative care. Because myths and misconceptions about palliative care abound, a review of the definitions and components of palliative care can enhance the practice of all practitioners who care for patients with chronic diseases.

  19. Understanding quantifiers in language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szymanik, J.; Zajenkowski, M.; Taatgen, N.; van Rijn, H.

    2009-01-01

    We compare time needed for understanding different types of quantifiers. We show that the computational distinction between quantifiers recognized by finite-automata and push-down automata is psychologically relevant. Our research improves upon hypothesis and explanatory power of recent neuroimaging

  20. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor- ... YouTube. Three cancer patients and their doctor, Anthony L. Back, M.D. -- an oncologist who is also ...

  2. Understanding medical symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Graungaard, Anette Hauskov

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present a conceptual review and analysis of symptom understanding. Subjective bodily sensations occur abundantly in the normal population and dialogues about symptoms take place in a broad range of contexts, not only in the doctor’s office. Our review of symptom unde...

  3. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staging Diagnosis and Staging Symptoms Diagnosis Staging Prognosis Questions to Ask about Your Diagnosis Research Understanding Cancer Prognosis Oncologist Anthony L. Back, M.D., a national expert on doctor-patient communications, talks with one of his patients about what ...

  4. Understanding ADHD through entification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    How do we perceive ourselves and what explanations are we drawing upon in order to understand ourselves as morally acting individuals? In this presentation, I focus on how we live with, accept, and work on parts of ourselves that we find less desirable or even pathological. Based on interviews wi...

  5. Understanding Causal Coherence Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this dissertation focuses on the cognitive processes and representations involved in understanding causal coherence relations in text. Coherence relations are the meaning relations between the information units in the text, such as Cause-Consequence. These relations can be m

  6. Understanding idiopathic intracranial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, Keira A; Mollan, Susan P; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2016-01-01

    , and back and neck pain, but the clinical presentation is highly variable. Although few studies have been done to support evidence-based management, several recent advances have the potential to enhance understanding of the causes of the disease and to guide treatment decisions. Investigators...

  7. Understanding Inclusion in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamas, Christoforos

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully…

  8. Understanding Grief and Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... faith by providing a new understanding of the meaning of life. Experiencing grief Each person experiences grief differently. Often, ... time. The grieving person’s age and gender The life history of the ... and coping style The support available from friends and family The ...

  9. Understanding Quality Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ulf Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a holistic understanding of quality in higher education which reveals the current debates about accreditation or quality process standards as insufficient, and to propose an enhanced model for quality culture in educational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework is…

  10. Understanding Quality Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ulf Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop a holistic understanding of quality in higher education which reveals the current debates about accreditation or quality process standards as insufficient, and to propose an enhanced model for quality culture in educational organisations. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework is…

  11. Proficiency: Understanding the Construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantolf, James P.; Frawley, William

    1988-01-01

    Argues against the current oral proficiency testing approach in favor of an approach in which researchers come to understand what it means for real speakers to interact with each other in the everyday world of human activity. Problematic trends are addressed, and a principled theory of oral proficiency is identified. (DJD)

  12. Understanding Stochastic Subspace Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    to follow and to understand for people with a classical background in structural dynamics. Also the connection to the classical correlation driven time domain techniques is not well established. The purpose of this paper is to explain the different steps in the SSI techniques of importance for modal...

  13. Understanding your capital options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christopher T

    2012-05-01

    When planning capital expenditures, hospitals and health systems should understand the following financing considerations: Traditional fixed-rate tax-exempt bonds; Variable-rate financing alternatives; Basel III Accord requirements; Direct tax-exempt bank loans; Total return swaps Taxable financings; Interest-rate swaps and collateral requirements

  14. Understanding Our Environment: Planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit places Earth in the context of its environment-the Universe-then focuses on Earth as seen from satellites. Students analyze patterns formed by the…

  15. Understanding Our Environment: Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callister, Jeffrey C.; Crampton, Janet Wert

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, this unit introduces students to the idea of natural resources and focuses on resources found on land: minerals such as hematite and gypsum; rocks such as granite…

  16. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems. Readers may recall the first part of the paper in October issue of Coordinates. Here is the concluding part that focuses on the changing...

  17. Understanding ADHD through entification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mikka

    with adults diagnosed with ADHD, I illustrate how the process of entification (transforming a trait, temperament, emotion, or some other psychological phenomenon into a thing or agent) can be a way to understand, accept and handle the symptoms of ADHD. In this context, ADHD is perceived on the one hand...

  18. Species accounts. Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaret K. Trani; W. Mark Ford; Brian R., eds. Chapman

    2007-01-01

    Narrative accounts for each species are presented by several authors in a consistent format to convey specific information relative to that mammal. The orders are arranged phylogenetically; families and species are arranged alphabetically to facilitate finding a particular species.

  19. Understanding the Electron

    CERN Document Server

    Knuth, Kevin H

    2015-01-01

    Well over a century after the discovery of the electron, we are still faced with serious conceptual issues regarding precisely what an electron is. Since the development of particle physics and the Standard Model, we have accumulated a great deal of knowledge about the relationships among various subatomic particles. However, this knowledge has not significantly aided in our understanding of the fundamental nature of any particular elementary subatomic particle. The fact that many particle properties, such as position, time, speed, energy, momentum, and component of spin, are observer-dependent suggests that these relevant variables do not represent properties per se, but rather the relationship between the observer and the observed. That is, they reflect details about how the electron influences the observer, and vice versa. Here we attempt to understand this by considering a simple model where particles influence one another in a discrete and direct fashion. The resulting framework, referred to as Influence...

  20. Understanding Games as Played

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leino, Olli Tapio

    2009-01-01

    Researchers interested in player’s experience would assumedly, across disciplines, agree that the goal behind enquiries into player’s experience is to understand the how games’ features end up affecting the player’s experience. Much of the contemporary interdisciplinary research into player......’s experience leans toward the empirical-scientific, in the forms (neuro)psychology, sociology and cognitive science, to name a few. In such approaches, for example demonstrating correlation between physiological symptoms and an in-game event may amount to ‘understanding’. However, the experience of computer...... game play is a viable topic also for computer game studies within the general tradition of humanities. In such context, the idea of ‘understanding an experience’ invites an approach focusing on the experienced significance of events and objects within computer game play. This focus, in turn, suggests...

  1. Understanding Video Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide Smith, Jonas; Tosca, Susana Pajares; Egenfeldt-Nielsen, Simon

    From Pong to PlayStation 3 and beyond, Understanding Video Games is the first general introduction to the exciting new field of video game studies. This textbook traces the history of video games, introduces the major theories used to analyze games such as ludology and narratology, reviews...... the economics of the game industry, examines the aesthetics of game design, surveys the broad range of game genres, explores player culture, and addresses the major debates surrounding the medium, from educational benefits to the effects of violence. Throughout the book, the authors ask readers to consider...... larger questions about the medium: * What defines a video game? * Who plays games? * Why do we play games? * How do games affect the player? Extensively illustrated, Understanding Video Games is an indispensable and comprehensive resource for those interested in the ways video games are reshaping...

  2. Fraction Sense: Foundational Understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, Francis Skip; Karp, Karen

    2016-08-09

    The intent of this commentary is to identify elements of fraction sense and note how the research studies provided in this special issue, in related but somewhat different ways, validate the importance of such understandings. Proficiency with fractions serves as a prerequisite for student success in higher level mathematics, as well as serving as a gateway to many occupations and varied contexts beyond the mathematics classroom. Fraction sense is developed through instructional opportunities involving fraction equivalence and magnitude, comparing and ordering fractions, using fraction benchmarks, and computational estimation. Such foundations are then extended to operations involving fractions and decimals and applications involving proportional reasoning. These components of fraction sense are all addressed in the studies provided in this issue, with particular consideration devoted to the significant importance of the use of the number line as a central representational tool for conceptually understanding fraction magnitude.

  3. Understanding China's Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xing

    The objective of this paper is to offer a framework of understanding the dialectical nexus between China's internal evolutions and the external influences with a focus on the century-long "challenge-response" dynamism. That is to explore how external factors helped shaping China's internal...... transformations, i.e. how generations of Chinese have been struggling in responding to the external challenges and attempting to sinicize external political ideas in order to change China from within. Likewise, it is equally important to understand how China's inner transformation contributed to reshaping...... the world. Each time, be it China's dominance or decline, the capitalist world system has to adjust and readjust itself to the opportunities and constraints brought about by the "China factors"....

  4. Students' understandings of multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Multiplicative reasoning permeates many mathematical topics, for example fractions and functions. Hence there is consensus on the importance of acquiring multiplicative reasoning. Multiplication is typically introduced as repeated addition, but when it is extended to include multi-digits and decimals a more general view of multiplication is required. There are conflicting reports in previous research concerning students’ understandings of multiplication. For example, repeated addition has bee...

  5. Understanding global security

    OpenAIRE

    Hough, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Fully revised to incorporate recent developments, this third edition of Understanding Global Security analyzes the variety of ways in which peoples lives are threatened and / or secured in contemporary global politics. The traditional focus of Security Studies texts: war, deterrence and terrorism are analyzed alongside non-military security issues such as famine, crime, disease, disasters, environmental degradation and human rights abuses to provide a comprehensive survey of how and why peopl...

  6. Understanding nuclear issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marx, G. [Department of Atomic Physics, Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-09-01

    In our days technological progress for the benefit of society is slowed down by the fact that common citizens (opinion-forming media reporters, journalists, furthermore elected decision-makers) are underinformed about basic numerical facts concerning harms and benefits of high technology. Here a comparative risk study is presented about smoking, ozone hole, global warming, and ionizing radiation. This approach has turned out to be successful in educating the youth in Hungary; because school-going teenagers do understand numbers. (author)

  7. Understanding chronic heart failure

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Matthew; Burch, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The key principles of chronic heart failure and the development of clinical management strategies are described. The physiological changes in chronic heart failure and the clinical management of children with heart failure are considered, but the treatment of heart failure related to congenital heart disease or the intensive care management of heart failure are not mentioned as both topics require consideration in their own right. A greater understanding of the maladaptive responses to chroni...

  8. Intention understanding in autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boria

    Full Text Available When we observe a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup done by another individual, we extract, according to how the motor act is performed and its context, two types of information: the goal (grasping and the intention underlying it (e.g. grasping for drinking. Here we examined whether children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD are able to understand these two aspects of motor acts. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, one group of high-functioning children with ASD and one of typically developing (TD children were presented with pictures showing hand-object interactions and asked what the individual was doing and why. In half of the "why" trials the observed grip was congruent with the function of the object ("why-use" trials, in the other half it corresponded to the grip typically used to move that object ("why-place" trials. The results showed that children with ASD have no difficulties in reporting the goals of individual motor acts. In contrast they made several errors in the why task with all errors occurring in the "why-place" trials. In the second experiment the same two groups of children saw pictures showing a hand-grip congruent with the object use, but within a context suggesting either the use of the object or its placement into a container. Here children with ASD performed as TD children, correctly indicating the agent's intention. In conclusion, our data show that understanding others' intentions can occur in two ways: by relying on motor information derived from the hand-object interaction, and by using functional information derived from the object's standard use. Children with ASD have no deficit in the second type of understanding, while they have difficulties in understanding others' intentions when they have to rely exclusively on motor cues.

  9. The Understanding of libertarianism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Staśkiewicz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This scientific article treats of libertarianism. This school of political thought is based on methodological individualism, methodological subjectivism, anti-empiricism, apriorism. Libertarian philosophers demand almost absolute freedom in every area of life and that is why they are at the opposite pole to all totalitarian ideologies. The greatest influence on the understanding of libertarianism had Carl Menger, Murray Rothbard and David Nolan.

  10. Understanding Socio Technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...

  11. Understanding ebola virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Seth; Prescott, Joseph; Munster, Vincent

    2015-02-03

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  12. Understanding Human Carboxylesterase 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lamego, Joana

    2012-01-01

    Dissertation presented to obtain the Ph.D degree in Engineering and Technology Sciences, Biotechnology The first barrier oral drugs and prodrugs encounter prior to reaching an organism’s systemic circulation is the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, specifically the intestine, which is the primary section for absorption. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the permeability of the therapeutic agent as well as its potential metabolism by human enterocytes, since biotransformatio...

  13. Understanding viruses: Philosophical investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeu, Thomas; Kostyrka, Gladys; Dupré, John

    2016-10-01

    Viruses have been virtually absent from philosophy of biology. In this editorial introduction, we explain why we think viruses are philosophically important. We focus on six issues (the definition of viruses, the individuality and diachronic identity of a virus, the possibility to classify viruses into species, the question of whether viruses are living, the question of whether viruses are organisms, and finally the biological roles of viruses in ecology and evolution), and we show how they relate to classic questions of philosophy of biology and even general philosophy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.;

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  15. Agroforestry Species Switchboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindt, R.; John, I.; Ordonez, J.

    2016-01-01

    The current version of the Agroforestry Species Switchboard documents the presence of a total of 26,135 plant species (33,813 species including synonyms) across 19 web-based databases. When available, hyperlinks to information on the selected species in particular databases are provided. In total...

  16. Understanding quantum phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Lincoln

    2010-01-01

    Quantum phase transitions (QPTs) offer wonderful examples of the radical macroscopic effects inherent in quantum physics: phase changes between different forms of matter driven by quantum rather than thermal fluctuations, typically at very low temperatures. QPTs provide new insight into outstanding problems such as high-temperature superconductivity and display fundamental aspects of quantum theory, such as strong correlations and entanglement. Over the last two decades, our understanding of QPTs has increased tremendously due to a plethora of experimental examples, powerful new numerical meth

  17. Understanding health seeking behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simmi Oberoi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaving conventional “Dai” assisted home delivery to opt for institutional delivery is not unusual followed by shift from rural to urban living. However, this case, in particular, is oddly different. Hence, a deeper insight is warranted leading to a view that is unique. While analyzing the reasons it stands as a pointer in policy formulation, a necessity to understand such cases. Health belief model is applied in arriving at the inferences. It is often not just what is offered that makes bait but how it is perceived by the recipient matters. This can be visualized by this case study.

  18. Understanding DSGE models

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Junior, Celso Jose

    2016-01-01

    While the theoretical development of DSGE models is not overly difficult to understand, practical application remains somewhat complex. The literature on this subject has some significant obscure points. This book can be thought of, firstly, as a tool to overcome initial hurdles with this type of modeling. Secondly, by showcasing concrete applications, it aims to persuade incipient researchers to work with this methodology. In principle, this is not a book on macroeconomics in itself, but on tools used in the construction of this sort of models. It strives to present this technique in a detail

  19. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  20. Understanding Homicide-Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, James L

    2016-12-01

    Homicide-suicide is the phenomenon in which an individual kills 1 or more people and commits suicide. Research on homicide-suicide has been hampered by a lack of an accepted classification scheme and reliance on media reports. Mass murder-suicide is gaining increasing attention particularly in the United States. This article reviews the research and literature on homicide-suicide, proposing a standard classification scheme. Preventive methods are discussed and sociocultural factors explored. For a more accurate and complete understanding of homicide-suicide, it is argued that future research should use the full psychological autopsy approach, to include collateral interviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Understanding MARC: Another Look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Chang

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available 無MARC format has been widely used and discussed in our profession. However, there appear to have a wide spread misunderstanding of its real structure and attributes. This article discuss the needs for us to understand it a little more. Also, it presents the general misconceptions about MARC, the compatibility of MARC, the structure of MARC, standardization and - data communication, and some major issues related to MARC format. In this library automation age, MARC is a key element in library services, and it deserves us to take another look.

  2. Understanding childhood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Das, Partha Pratim

    2007-02-01

    Major depressive disorder in children is a severe and a chronically disabling disorder. This population appears to be a special group in terms of consequences of poor psychosocial and academic outcome and increased risk of substance abuse, and suicide. Studies have revealed several major findings in genetic, familial, psychological, and biological aspects of such depression, some of which have explored into the issue of its relationship with adult depression. Considerable advances have been made now in the area of childhood depression providing a better understanding of its nature. We review literature available on historical aspect, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and aetiology of childhood depression.

  3. Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Bolstad, William M

    2011-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to computational statistics from a Bayesian point of view Providing a solid grounding in statistics while uniquely covering the topics from a Bayesian perspective, Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics successfully guides readers through this new, cutting-edge approach. With its hands-on treatment of the topic, the book shows how samples can be drawn from the posterior distribution when the formula giving its shape is all that is known, and how Bayesian inferences can be based on these samples from the posterior. These ideas are illustrated on common statistic

  4. Understanding signal integrity

    CERN Document Server

    Thierauf, Stephen C

    2010-01-01

    This unique book provides you with practical guidance on understanding and interpreting signal integrity (SI) performance to help you with your challenging circuit board design projects. You find high-level discussions of important SI concepts presented in a clear and easily accessible format, including question and answer sections and bulleted lists.This valuable resource features rules of thumb and simple equations to help you make estimates of critical signal integrity parameters without using circuit simulators of CAD (computer-aided design). The book is supported with over 120 illustratio

  5. Understanding Infusion Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Jeff E

    2017-08-30

    Infusion systems are complicated electromechanical systems that are used to deliver anesthetic drugs with moderate precision. Four types of systems are described-gravity feed, in-line piston, peristaltic, and syringe. These systems are subject to a number of failure modes-occlusion, disconnection, siphoning, infiltration, and air bubbles. The relative advantages of the various systems and some of the monitoring capabilities are discussed. A brief example of the use of an infusion system during anesthetic induction is presented. With understanding of the functioning of these systems, users may develop greater comfort.

  6. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  7. An update of the distribution of Boeckella gracilis (Daday, 1902 (Crustacea, Copepoda in the Araucania region (38°S, Chile, and a null model for understanding its species associations in its habitat Actualización de la distribución de Boeckella gracilis (Daday, 1902 (Crustacea, Copepoda en la región de la Araucanía (38°S, Chile, y un modelo nulo para comprender sus asociaciones específicas en su habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The crustacean zooplankton of Chilean inland waters are characterized by abundant calanoid copepods, mainly from the gemís Boeckella. The present study aims to update the distribution of Boeckella gracilis in the inland waters of the Araucania region (38-39°S and to use null model analysis to understand the B. gracilis species associations. In the literature for Chile, this species is reported to be found in one northern lake and in three lakes of northern Patagonia. These fmdings are complemented by reports of this species for coastal and mountain ponds and mountain lakes of the Araucania region. These results agree with descriptions of this species for South American inland waters. The results of the null model analysis reveal factors regulating the species associations, whether comparing all the inhabitats or the guild structure, although some simulations show the opposite situation due to the presence of repeated species at many sites.Los crustáceos zooplanctónicos en aguas continentales chilenas están caracterizados por la abundancia de copépodos calanoideos, principalmente del género Boeckella. El objetivo del presente trabajo es actualizar la distribución de esta especie en aguas continentales de la región de la Araucania (38-39°S, y el uso de modelos nulos para comprender sus especies asociadas. Las descripciones de la literatura indican que en Chile esta especie está en un lago del norte, y tres lagos en el norte de la Patagonia. Estos resultados están complementados con reportes de esta especie en pozas costeras, pozas y lagos de montaña en la región de la Araucania. Estos resultados concuerdan con las descripciones de esta especie para aguas continentales Sudamericanas. Los resultados del análisis de modelos nulos revelan que las asociaciones de especies tuvieron factores reguladores, ya sea comparando todos los habitantes y como estructura de gremios, aunque en algunas simulaciones se observó una situación opuesta

  8. Understanding taxi travel patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Zhan, Xiaowei; Zhu, Ji; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-09-01

    Taxis play important roles in modern urban transportation systems, especially in mega cities. While providing necessary amenities, taxis also significantly contribute to traffic congestion, urban energy consumption, and air pollution. Understanding the travel patterns of taxis is thus important for addressing many urban sustainability challenges. Previous research has primarily focused on examining the statistical properties of passenger trips, which include only taxi trips occupied with passengers. However, unoccupied trips are also important for urban sustainability issues because they represent potential opportunities to improve the efficiency of the transportation system. Therefore, we need to understand the travel patterns of taxis as an integrated system, instead of focusing only on the occupied trips. In this study we examine GPS trajectory data of 11,880 taxis in Beijing, China for a period of three weeks. Our results show that taxi travel patterns share similar traits with travel patterns of individuals but also exhibit differences. Trip displacement distribution of taxi travels is statistically greater than the exponential distribution and smaller than the truncated power-law distribution. The distribution of short trips (less than 30 miles) can be best fitted with power-law while long trips follow exponential decay. We use radius of gyration to characterize individual taxi's travel distance and find that it does not follow a truncated power-law as observed in previous studies. Spatial and temporal regularities exist in taxi travels. However, with increasing spatial coverage, taxi trips can exhibit dual high probability density centers.

  9. Understanding Lustre Internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Feiyi [ORNL; Oral, H Sarp [ORNL; Shipman, Galen M [ORNL; Drokin, Oleg [ORNL; Wang, Di [ORNL; Huang, He [ORNL

    2009-04-01

    Lustre was initiated and funded, almost a decade ago, by the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) Office of Science and National Nuclear Security Administration laboratories to address the need for an open source, highly-scalable, high-performance parallel filesystem on by then present and future supercomputing platforms. Throughout the last decade, it was deployed over numerous medium-to-large-scale supercomputing platforms and clusters, and it performed and met the expectations of the Lustre user community. As it stands at the time of writing this document, according to the Top500 list, 15 of the top 30 supercomputers in the world use Lustre filesystem. This report aims to present a streamlined overview on how Lustre works internally at reasonable details including relevant data structures, APIs, protocols and algorithms involved for Lustre version 1.6 source code base. More importantly, it tries to explain how various components interconnect with each other and function as a system. Portions of this report are based on discussions with Oak Ridge National Laboratory Lustre Center of Excellence team members and portions of it are based on our own understanding of how the code works. We, as the authors team bare all responsibilities for all errors and omissions in this document. We can only hope it helps current and future Lustre users and Lustre code developers as much as it helped us understanding the Lustre source code and its internal workings.

  10. Diversity of invasive species in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingrou Zhang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A list of invasive alien species (IAS is essential for initiating an analysis of the biological and ecological traits of such species and for improving our understanding of patterns of biological invasions. An inventory of IAS in Shanghai was prepared through a literature survey. A total of 212 IAS belonging to 63 orders and 87 families were recorded. Of these, 65% were plants, 29% were animals, and the rest were microorganisms. Dominant groups could be distinguished in both plant and animal groups. Species originating from the Americas made up 51% of the total, while 52% of plant species were introduced intentionally and 82% of animal species unintentionally. Of the invasive plants, 93% are distributed in highly disturbed habitats with rich resources, whereas 76% of invasive animals occur in storehouses and farmlands. The present information on diversity and ecological features of IAS is crucial for designing management strategies against the negative impacts of such species in Shanghai.

  11. Data and understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; White, Gilbert F.

    1956-01-01

    -finding. But it appears that an indefinite expansion of the collection of routine measurements would still leave something lacking. I draw the distinction between measurement data and understanding; between the collection of facts and knowledge of processes and interrelationships. Although we have a wealth of data, our understanding of the semi-arid environment is poor.Understanding the physical and biologic processes operating in an environment is important for living in and with the land. As an example, let us look briefly at the interrelation of the water and sediment in ephemeral streams, and the problem of valley trenching or arroyo cutting.

  12. Species-specific associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Maluf Souza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the occurrence of associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest. We identified and measured all trees of nine canopy species with diameter at breast height ≥4.8 cm in a 10.24 ha plot and recorded all individuals beneath their canopies ("understory individuals" within the same diameter class. The total density of understory individuals did not significantly differ under different overstory species. One overstory species (Ceiba speciosa showed higher understory species richness compared with five other species. There was a strong positive association between three overstory species (Esenbeckia leiocarpa, Savia dictyocarpa, and C. speciosa and the density of seven understory species (Balfourodendron riedelianum, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, E. leiocarpa, Holocalyx balansae, Machaerium stipitatum, Rhaminidium elaeocarpum, and S. dictyocarpa. These results probably reflect the outcome of a complex set of interactions including facilitation and competition, and further studies are necessary to better understand the magnitude and type of the effects of individual overstory species on understory species. The occurrence of species-specific associations shown here reinforces the importance of non-random processes in structuring plant communities and suggest that the influence of overstory species on understory species in high-diversity forests may be more significant than previously thought.

  13. Environmental factors influencing bird species diversity in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oindo, B.O.; By, de R.A.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2001-01-01

    Sustainable resource management requires understanding the factors that increase or decrease species richness. Regional species richness patterns may be predicted by analysing patterns of variation in the environment. A number of studies have shown that bird species richness at a regional scale is i

  14. Understanding Exhaustive Pattern Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Libin

    2011-01-01

    Pattern learning in an important problem in Natural Language Processing (NLP). Some exhaustive pattern learning (EPL) methods (Bod, 1992) were proved to be flawed (Johnson, 2002), while similar algorithms (Och and Ney, 2004) showed great advantages on other tasks, such as machine translation. In this article, we first formalize EPL, and then show that the probability given by an EPL model is constant-factor approximation of the probability given by an ensemble method that integrates exponential number of models obtained with various segmentations of the training data. This work for the first time provides theoretical justification for the widely used EPL algorithm in NLP, which was previously viewed as a flawed heuristic method. Better understanding of EPL may lead to improved pattern learning algorithms in future.

  15. Mentalization and social understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Recently, mentalization theory (Fonagy, Bateman) has risen to fame as a theoretical framework emphasizing social cognition as a key issue in its approach to psychotherapy and psychopathology. In this paper, I review and criticise the social-ontological assumptions made by mentalization theory......, the works of Merleau-Ponty, as well as contemporary phenomenology and enactivism (S. Gallagher, D. Hutto etc.). Since mentalization theory was originally developed as a framework for understanding Borderline Personality Disorder, the article furthermore offers a reinterpretation of the issue of social...... cognition reported in BPD through the lens of the alternative framework. Contrary to the received view, the article suggest that issues of social cognition in BPD should perhaps not be seen as primarily a lack of, or inability to mentalize, but rather as a hyper-sensitivity to the expressive dimension...

  16. Understanding engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Bill

    2001-01-01

    * Unique interactive style enables students to diagnose their strengths and weaknesses and focus their efforts where needed* Ideal for self-study and tutorial work, building from an initially supportive approach to the development of independent learning skills * Free website includes solutions to all exercises, additional topics and applications, guide to learning mathematics, and practice materialStudents today enter engineering courses with a wide range of mathematical skills, due to the many different pre-university qualifications studied. Bill Cox''s aim is for students to gain a thorough understanding of the maths they are studying, by first strengthening their background in the essentials of each topic. His approach allows a unique self-paced study style, in which students Review their strengths and weaknesses through self-administered diagnostic tests, then focus on Revision where they need it, to finally Reinforce the skills required.The book is structured around a highly successful ''transition'' ma...

  17. Understanding social motor coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, R C; Fitzpatrick, Paula; Caron, Robert; Mergeche, Joanna

    2011-10-01

    Recently there has been much interest in social coordination of motor movements, or as it is referred to by some researchers, joint action. This paper reviews the cognitive perspective's common coding/mirror neuron theory of joint action, describes some of its limitations and then presents the behavioral dynamics perspective as an alternative way of understanding social motor coordination. In particular, behavioral dynamics' ability to explain the temporal coordination of interacting individuals is detailed. Two experiments are then described that demonstrate how dynamical processes of synchronization are apparent in the coordination underlying everyday joint actions such as martial art exercises, hand-clapping games, and conversations. The import of this evidence is that emergent dynamic patterns such as synchronization are the behavioral order that any neural substrate supporting joint action (e.g., mirror systems) would have to sustain.

  18. Social understanding and language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    امین یزدی امین یزدی

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Social interaction requires the ability to understand people’s mental states (their intentions, desires and believes. The ability for attributing mental states is called “theory of mind.” Theory of mind leads the person to explain and predict behavior. Researchers showed a great interest in the relation of language and mind/language and thought. Some researchers focused on methodological concerns and explain how language influences children’s performance in the area of theory of mind. Others argue that language plays a causal role on developing mental theory reasoning. The writer of this article has discussed the theories and researches done in the area of language abilities and mental theory reasoning. Keywords: Language, mental theory, false belief

  19. Explanation and understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Frank C

    2006-01-01

    The study of explanation, while related to intuitive theories, concepts, and mental models, offers important new perspectives on high-level thought. Explanations sort themselves into several distinct types corresponding to patterns of causation, content domains, and explanatory stances, all of which have cognitive consequences. Although explanations are necessarily incomplete--often dramatically so in laypeople--those gaps are difficult to discern. Despite such gaps and the failure to recognize them fully, people do have skeletal explanatory senses, often implicit, of the causal structure of the world. They further leverage those skeletal understandings by knowing how to access additional explanatory knowledge in other minds and by being particularly adept at using situational support to build explanations on the fly in real time. Across development and cultures, there are differences in preferred explanatory schemes, but rarely are any kinds of schemes completely unavailable to a group.

  20. Understanding land administration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Williamson, Ian; Enemark, Stig; Wallace, Judy

    2008-01-01

    in contributing to sustainable development, thirdly the changing nature of ownership and the role of land markets, and lastly a land management vision that promotes land administration in support of sustainable development and spatial enablement of society. We present here the first part of the paper. The second...... part focuses on the changing  role of ownership and the role of land markets, and a land management vision will be published in November issue of Coordinates. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober......This paper introduces basic land administration theory and highlights four key concepts that are fundamental to understanding modern land administration systems - firstly the land management paradigm and its influence on the land administration framework, secondly the role that the cadastre plays...

  1. Understanding Jupiter's Interior

    CERN Document Server

    Militzer, Burkhard; Wahl, Sean M; Hubbard, William

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how models of giant planet interiors are constructed. We review measurements from past space missions that provide constraints for the interior structure of Jupiter. We discuss typical three-layer interior models that consist of a dense central core and an inner metallic and an outer molecular hydrogen-helium layer. These models rely heavily on experiments, analytical theory, and first-principle computer simulations of hydrogen and helium to understand their behavior up to the extreme pressures ~10 Mbar and temperatures ~10,000 K. We review the various equations of state used in Jupiter models and compare them with shock wave experiments. We discuss the possibility of helium rain, core erosion and double diffusive convection may have important consequences for the structure and evolution of giant planets. In July 2016 the Juno spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter, promising high-precision measurements of the gravitational field that will allow us to test our understandi...

  2. Understanding pastoral mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    2008-01-01

    Based on a case study from Sahelian Senegal, this paper analyses how various actors perceive the importance of pastoral mobility and presents issues of importance for understanding the use of mobility among Fulani of Ferlo. One knowledge system is a scientific one, the 'new rangeland paradigm......'. According to this, pastoral mobility is a means to balance variability in dryland resources; hence, 'nature' is the point of departure. Another knowledge system is local pastoral knowledge. For the pastoralists, the well-being of their animals is the point of departure and mobility is used to ensure...... that the livestock are in good condition. The paper shows that it is important to distinguish between mobility of pastoralists and of their herd; even though the pastoralists of northern Senegal have become semi-sedentary, their herds are still quite mobile. The pastoralists are willing to move around within a small...

  3. Understanding Clinical Alarm Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukasewicz, Carol L; Mattox, Elizabeth Andersson

    2015-08-01

    Patient safety organizations and health care accreditation agencies recognize the significance of clinical alarm hazards. The Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, a nonprofit organization focused on development and use of safe and effective medical equipment, identifies alarm management as a major issue for health care organizations. ECRI Institute, a nonprofit organization that researches approaches for improving patient safety and quality of care, identifies alarm hazards as the most significant of the "Top Ten Health Technology Hazards" for 2014. A new Joint Commission National Patient Safety Goal focusing on clinical alarm safety contains new requirements for accredited hospitals to be fully implemented by 2016. Through a fictional unfolding case study, this article reviews selected contributing factors to clinical alarm hazards present in inpatient, high-acuity settings. Understanding these factors improves contributions by nurses to clinical alarm safety practice.

  4. Understanding Micro Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Winter, J; Böke, M; Ellerweg, D; Hemke, T; Knake, N; Mussenbrock, T; Niermann, B; Schröder, D; der Gathen, V Schulz-von; von Keudell, A

    2011-01-01

    Micro plasmas are operated around atmospheric pressure exhibiting pronounced non-equilibrium characteristics, i.e. they possess energetic electrons while ions and neutrals remain cold. They have gained significant interest due to their enormous application potential e.g. in the biomedical, surface modification and light source areas, just to name a few. Many different configurations are in use. Their understanding and quantification is mandatory for further progress in applications. We report on recent progress in the diagnostics and simulation of the entire micro plasma system from gas introduction, via the plasma discharge up to the samples at the example of a plasma jet operated in He/O2 in an ambient air environment.

  5. Understanding Socio Technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... dimension of modularity like irrational behaviors, cultural differences, learning processes, social organization and institutional influences on modularity. The paper addresses this gab offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...

  6. Species pools, community completeness and invasion: disentangling diversity effects on the establishment of native and alien species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jonathan A; Riibak, Kersti; Kook, Ene; Reier, Ülle; Tamme, Riin; Guillermo Bueno, C; Pärtel, Meelis

    2016-12-01

    Invasion should decline with species richness, yet the relationship is inconsistent. Species richness, however, is a product of species pool size and biotic filtering. Invasion may increase with richness if large species pools represent weaker environmental filters. Measuring species pool size and the proportion realised locally (completeness) may clarify diversity-invasion relationships by separating environmental and biotic effects, especially if species' life-history stage and origin are accounted for. To test these relationships, we added seeds and transplants of 15 native and alien species into 29 grasslands. Species pool size and completeness explained more variation in invasion than richness alone. Although results varied between native and alien species, seed establishment and biotic resistance to transplants increased with species pool size, whereas transplant growth and biotic resistance to seeds increased with completeness. Consequently, species pools and completeness represent multiple independent processes affecting invasion; accounting for these processes improves our understanding of invasion.

  7. Modelling biological invasions: species traits, species interactions, and habitat heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas, Sergio A; Marco, Diana E; Páez, Sergio A

    2003-05-01

    In this paper we explore the integration of different factors to understand, predict and control ecological invasions, through a general cellular automaton model especially developed. The model includes life history traits of several species in a modular structure interacting multiple cellular automata. We performed simulations using field values corresponding to the exotic Gleditsia triacanthos and native co-dominant trees in a montane area. Presence of G. triacanthos juvenile bank was a determinant condition for invasion success. Main parameters influencing invasion velocity were mean seed dispersal distance and minimum reproductive age. Seed production had a small influence on the invasion velocity. Velocities predicted by the model agreed well with estimations from field data. Values of population density predicted matched field values closely. The modular structure of the model, the explicit interaction between the invader and the native species, and the simplicity of parameters and transition rules are novel features of the model.

  8. Tools for Understanding Identity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creese, Sadie; Gibson-Robinson, Thomas; Goldsmith, Michael; Hodges, Duncan; Kim, Dee DH; Love, Oriana J.; Nurse, Jason R.; Pike, William A.; Scholtz, Jean

    2013-12-28

    Identity attribution and enrichment is critical to many aspects of law-enforcement and intelligence gathering; this identity typically spans a number of domains in the natural-world such as biographic information (factual information – e.g. names, addresses), biometric information (e.g. fingerprints) and psychological information. In addition to these natural-world projections of identity, identity elements are projected in the cyber-world. Conversely, undesirable elements may use similar techniques to target individuals for spear-phishing attacks (or worse), and potential targets or their organizations may want to determine how to minimize the attack surface exposed. Our research has been exploring the construction of a mathematical model for identity that supports such holistic identities. The model captures the ways in which an identity is constructed through a combination of data elements (e.g. a username on a forum, an address, a telephone number). Some of these elements may allow new characteristics to be inferred, hence enriching the holistic view of the identity. An example use-case would be the inference of real names from usernames, the ‘path’ created by inferring new elements of identity is highlighted in the ‘critical information’ panel. Individual attribution exercises can be understood as paths through a number of elements. Intuitively the entire realizable ‘capability’ can be modeled as a directed graph, where the elements are nodes and the inferences are represented by links connecting one or more antecedents with a conclusion. The model can be operationalized with two levels of tool support described in this paper, the first is a working prototype, the second is expected to reach prototype by July 2013: Understanding the Model The tool allows a user to easily determine, given a particular set of inferences and attributes, which elements or inferences are of most value to an investigator (or an attacker). The tool is also able to take

  9. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  10. Advances in understanding hypopituitarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieg, Mareike R.; Renner, Ulrich; Stalla, Günter K.; Kopczak, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The understanding of hypopituitarism has increased over the last three years. This review provides an overview of the most important recent findings. Most of the recent research in hypopituitarism has focused on genetics. New diagnostic techniques like next-generation sequencing have led to the description of different genetic mutations causative for congenital dysfunction of the pituitary gland while new molecular mechanisms underlying pituitary ontogenesis have also been described. Furthermore, hypopituitarism may occur because of an impairment of the distinctive vascularization of the pituitary gland, especially by disruption of the long vessel connection between the hypothalamus and the pituitary. Controversial findings have been published on post-traumatic hypopituitarism. Moreover, autoimmunity has been discussed in recent years as a possible reason for hypopituitarism. With the use of new drugs such as ipilimumab, hypopituitarism as a side effect of pharmaceuticals has come into focus. Besides new findings on the pathomechanism of hypopituitarism, there are new diagnostic tools in development, such as new growth hormone stimulants that are currently being tested in clinical trials. Moreover, cortisol measurement in scalp hair is a promising tool for monitoring cortisol levels over time. PMID:28299199

  11. Understanding Samurai Disloyalty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Archer

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Prevailing notions of samurai loyalty remain largely unopposed by Western scholarly literature. This should not be so. Minor efforts in recent scholarship have plainly shown that the stereotypical notion of samurai loyalty is fallacious. However, despite these assertions the myth remains a powerful and popular misconception. Clearly a greater scholarly undertaking is required. Through an in-depth historical analysis of samurai disloyalty, a more realistic conception of samurai behaviour may be achieved. This article seeks to provide a foundation for further research, arguing that disloyalty was favoured among samurai to further their personal ambitions or interests. Disloyalty between medieval samurai was not always considered morally deplorable, nor was it considered divergent to ‘normal’ samurai behaviour. Moreover, it is erroneous to argue that the majority of samurai were ‘loyal,’ when in fact many were often being coerced or manipulated by those in power. Logic suggests that loyalty must be voluntary, thus the use of coercion undermines assertions of samurai loyalty. Further scholarship should not merely seek to establish the frequency of samurai disloyalty, nor should it condemn such occurrences. It must endeavour to understand how and why disloyalty occurred.

  12. Understanding autism in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The "condition of possibility" of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as "loss" and "void." I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this "void."

  13. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Ballerini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person’s being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.”

  14. Understanding the supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aćimović Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain management represents new business philosophy and includes strategically positioned and much wider scope of activity in comparison with its "older brother" - management of logistics. Philosophy of the concept of supply chain is directed to more coordination of key business functions of every link in distribution chain in the process of organization of the flow of both goods and information, while logistic managing instruments are focused on internal optimum of flows of goods and information within one company. Applying the concept of integrated supply chain among several companies makes the importance of operative logistics activity even greater on the level of one company, thus advancing processes of optimum and coordination within and between different companies and confirms the importance of logistics performances for the company’s profitability. Besides the fact that the borders between companies are being deleted, this concept of supply chain in one distribution channel influences increasing of importance of functional, i.e. traditional business managing approaches but instead it points out the importance of process managing approaches. Although the author is aware that "there is nothing harder, more dangerous and with uncertain success, but to find a way for introducing some novelties (Machiavelli, it would be even his additional stimulation for trying to bring closer the concept and goals of supply chain implementation that are identified in key, relevant, modern, theoretical and consulting approaches in order to achieve better understanding of the subject and faster implementation of the concept of supply chain management by domestic companies.

  15. Understanding Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF is a rare and a debilitating disease noted uncommonly in patients with impaired renal function when exposed to low-stability gadolinium-based contrast agents (Gd-CAs. According to experimental studies, cytokines released by the stimulation of effector cells such as skin macrophages and peripheral blood monocytes activate circulating fibroblasts which play a major role in the development of NSF lesions. The presence of permissive factors, presumably, provides an environment conducive to facilitate the process of fibrosis. Multiple treatment modalities have been tried with variable success rates. More research is necessary to elucidate the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms which could potentially target the initial steps of fibrosis in these patients. This paper attempts to collate the inferences from the in vivo and in vitro experiments to the clinical observations to understand the pathogenesis of NSF. Schematic representations of receptor-mediated molecular pathways of activation of macrophages and fibroblasts by gadolinium and the final pathway to fibrosis are incorporated in the discussion.

  16. Understanding the golden age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Nowicka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The body of the discussion is devoted to two books, critical editions of Polish translations of the works of Spanish Baroque period, that are related to theatre. The first title in question is the annotated bi-lingual edition of El principe contante by Calderon de la Barca, the drama piece known in Poland as Książe niezłomny [The Constant Prince] and brilliantly translated by Juliusz Słowacki. The other book is the annotated translation of Arte nuevo de hacer comedias en este tiempo [New art of writing plays] by Lope de Vega. Both publications not only evaluate the complex and fascinating picture of Spanish theatrical culture of the Golden Age to the Polish reader, but also substantially widen our understanding of the dependence between the type of the stage and the vision of the world constructed by a playwright and the theatre. They may also provide substantial support, and important inspiration, to theoreticians of theatre and drama, comparatists, historians of ideas, historians of mentality, etc.

  17. Understanding Autism in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballerini, Arnaldo

    2012-01-01

    Detachment from external reality, distancing from others, closure into a sort of virtual hermitage, and prevalence of inner fantasies, are the descriptive aspects of autism. However, from an anthropological-phenomenological point of view, in schizophrenia, the autistic mode of life can arise from a person's being confronted with a pathological crisis in the obviousness of the intersubjective world, essentially a crisis in the intersubjective foundation of human presence. The “condition of possibility” of the autistic way of being is the deficiency of the operation that phenomenology call empathetic-intuitive constitution of the Other, an Other which is the naturalness of evidence of being a subject like me. The theme of the Other, of intersubjectivity, has become so central in the psychopathological analysis of schizophrenic disorders because the modifications of interhuman encounter cannot be seen as the secondary consequences of symptoms but constitute the fundamental disorder of schizophrenic alienation. Revision of the concept of autism from the original definition, centered on the prevalence of inner fantasies, leads to the profound change with the vision of autism as “loss” and “void.” I call attention to possibility of phenomenological research to understand autistic world starting from this “void.” PMID:22645417

  18. Genomic understanding of dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Senjie

    2011-01-01

    The phylum of dinoflagellates is characterized by many unusual and interesting genomic and physiological features, the imprint of which, in its immense genome, remains elusive. Much novel understanding has been achieved in the last decade on various aspects of dinoflagellate biology, but most remarkably about the structure, expression pattern and epigenetic modification of protein-coding genes in the nuclear and organellar genomes. Major findings include: 1) the great diversity of dinoflagellates, especially at the base of the dinoflagellate tree of life; 2) mini-circularization of the genomes of typical dinoflagellate plastids (with three membranes, chlorophylls a, c1 and c2, and carotenoid peridinin), the scrambled mitochondrial genome and the extensive mRNA editing occurring in both systems; 3) ubiquitous spliced leader trans-splicing of nuclear-encoded mRNA and demonstrated potential as a novel tool for studying dinoflagellate transcriptomes in mixed cultures and natural assemblages; 4) existence and expression of histones and other nucleosomal proteins; 5) a ribosomal protein set expected of typical eukaryotes; 6) genetic potential of non-photosynthetic solar energy utilization via proton-pump rhodopsin; 7) gene candidates in the toxin synthesis pathways; and 8) evidence of a highly redundant, high gene number and highly recombined genome. Despite this progress, much more work awaits genome-wide transcriptome and whole genome sequencing in order to unfold the molecular mechanisms underlying the numerous mysterious attributes of dinoflagellates.

  19. Understanding anatomical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, L A; Natrajan, M; Kothari, M L

    1996-01-01

    Words are our masters and words are our slaves, all depending on how we use them. The whole of medical science owes its origin to Greco-Roman culture and is replete with terms whose high sound is not necessarily accompanied by sound meaning. This is even more the case in the initial, pre-clinical years. Anatomical terminology seems bewildering to the initiate; and maybe that is a reason why love of anatomy as a subject does not always spill over through later years. Employing certain classifications of the origin of the anatomical terms, we have prepared an anthology that we hope will ease the student's task and also heighten the student's appreciation of the new terms. This centers on revealing the Kiplingian "how, why, when, where, what, and who" of a given term. This presentation should empower students to independently formulate a wide network of correlations once they understand a particular term. The article thus hopes to stimulate students' analytic and synthetic faculties as well. A small effort can reap large rewards in terms of enjoyment of the study of anatomy and the related subjects of histology, embryology, and genetics. It is helpful to teachers and students alike. This exercise in semantics and etymology does not demand of the student or his teacher any background in linguistics, grammar, Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, anatomy, or medicine.

  20. Towards understanding oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaura, Egija; ten Cate, Jacob M

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term 'oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain microbial community stability in health. However, the oral ecosystem itself is not stable: throughout life an individual undergoes multiple physiological changes while progressing through infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood and old age. Recent discussions on the definition of general health have led to the proposal that health is the ability of the individual to adapt to physiological changes, a condition known as allostasis. In this paper the allostasis principle is applied to the oral ecosystem. The multidimensionality of the host factors contributing to allostasis in the oral cavity is illustrated with an example on changes occurring in puberty. The complex phenomenon of oral health and the processes that prevent the ecosystem from collapsing during allostatic changes in the entire body are far from being understood. As yet individual components (e.g. hard tissues, microbiome, saliva, host response) have been investigated, while only by consolidating these and assessing their multidimensional interactions should we be able to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the ecosystem, which in turn could serve to develop rational schemes to maintain health. Adapting such a 'system approach' comes with major practical challenges for the entire research field and will require vast resources and large-scale multidisciplinary collaborations.

  1. Resistance to AHAS inhibitor herbicides: current understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qin; Powles, Stephen B

    2014-09-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) inhibitor herbicides currently comprise the largest site-of-action group (with 54 active ingredients across five chemical groups) and have been widely used in world agriculture since they were first introduced in 1982. Resistance evolution in weeds to AHAS inhibitors has been rapid and identified in populations of many weed species. Often, evolved resistance is associated with point mutations in the target AHAS gene; however non-target-site enhanced herbicide metabolism occurs as well. Many AHAS gene resistance mutations can occur and be rapidly enriched owing to a high initial resistance gene frequency, simple and dominant genetic inheritance and lack of major fitness cost of the resistance alleles. Major advances in the elucidation of the crystal structure of the AHAS (Arabidopsis thaliana) catalytic subunit in complex with various AHAS inhibitor herbicides have greatly improved current understanding of the detailed molecular interactions between AHAS, cofactors and herbicides. Compared with target-site resistance, non-target-site resistance to AHAS inhibitor herbicides is less studied and hence less understood. In a few well-studied cases, non-target-site resistance is due to enhanced rates of herbicide metabolism (metabolic resistance), mimicking that occurring in tolerant crop species and often involving cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. However, the specific herbicide-metabolising, resistance-endowing genes are yet to be identified in resistant weed species. The current state of mechanistic understanding of AHAS inhibitor herbicide resistance is reviewed, and outstanding research issues are outlined.

  2. Invasive forest species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara L. Illman

    2006-01-01

    Nonnative organisms that cause a major change to native ecosystems-once called foreign species, biological invasions, alien invasives, exotics, or biohazards–are now generally referred to as invasive species or invasives. invasive species of insects, fungi, plants, fish, and other organisms present a rising threat to natural forest ecosystems worldwide. Invasive...

  3. Understanding Social Media Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José van Dijck

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, social media platforms have penetrated deeply into the mech­anics of everyday life, affecting people's informal interactions, as well as institutional structures and professional routines. Far from being neutral platforms for everyone, social media have changed the conditions and rules of social interaction. In this article, we examine the intricate dynamic between social media platforms, mass media, users, and social institutions by calling attention to social media logic—the norms, strategies, mechanisms, and economies—underpin­ning its dynamics. This logic will be considered in light of what has been identified as mass me­dia logic, which has helped spread the media's powerful discourse outside its institutional boundaries. Theorizing social media logic, we identify four grounding principles—programmabil­ity, popularity, connectivity, and datafication—and argue that these principles become increas­ingly entangled with mass media logic. The logic of social media, rooted in these grounding principles and strategies, is gradually invading all areas of public life. Besides print news and broadcasting, it also affects law and order, social activism, politics, and so forth. Therefore, its sustaining logic and widespread dissemination deserve to be scrutinized in detail in order to better understand its impact in various domains. Concentrating on the tactics and strategies at work in social media logic, we reassess the constellation of power relationships in which social practices unfold, raising questions such as: How does social media logic modify or enhance ex­isting mass media logic? And how is this new media logic exported beyond the boundaries of (social or mass media proper? The underlying principles, tactics, and strategies may be relat­ively simple to identify, but it is much harder to map the complex connections between plat­forms that distribute this logic: users that employ them, technologies that

  4. Understanding "people" people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  5. Understanding rheumatic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Pedro Ming; Pereira, Rosa Rodrigues; Guilherme, Luiza

    2012-05-01

    Through a comprehensive review of the recent findings on rheumatic fever, we intend to propose a new physiopathologic model for this disease. A Medline search was performed for all articles containing the terms rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease in title or abstract from 1970 to 2011. Best evidence qualitative technique was used to select the most relevant. The scientific interest on rheumatic fever has notably diminished throughout the twentieth century as evidenced by the comparison of the proportion of articles in which RF was a subject in 1950 (0.26%) and today (0.03%) [Pubmed]. However, RF remains a major medical and social problem in the developing world and in the so-called hotspots, where it still causes around 500.000 deaths each year, not too different from the pre-antibiotic era. The role of genetic factors in RF susceptibility is discussed. Familiar aggregation, similarity of disease patterns between siblings, identical twin, and HLA correlation studies are evidence for a genetic influence on RF susceptibility. The suspect-involved genes fall mainly into those capable of immunologic mediation. Molecular mimicry explains the triggering of RF, but an intense and sustained inflammation is needed to cause sequels. Also, RF patients vary greatly in terms of symptoms. It is likely that a genetic background directing immune response towards a predominantly Th1 or Th2 pattern contributes to these features. The recent findings on rheumatic fever provide important insight on its physiopathology that helps understanding this prototype post-infectious autoimmune disease giving insights on other autoimmune conditions.

  6. Geoparks for understanding geodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anttila-Muilu, Sirpa

    2015-04-01

    used to enhance the understanding of geodiversity - through different scales.

  7. Understanding individual routing behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Antonio; Stanojevic, Rade; Papagiannaki, Dina; Rodriguez, Pablo; González, Marta C

    2016-03-01

    Knowing how individuals move between places is fundamental to advance our understanding of human mobility (González et al. 2008 Nature 453, 779-782. (doi:10.1038/nature06958)), improve our urban infrastructure (Prato 2009 J. Choice Model. 2, 65-100. (doi:10.1016/S1755-5345(13)70005-8)) and drive the development of transportation systems. Current route-choice models that are used in transportation planning are based on the widely accepted assumption that people follow the minimum cost path (Wardrop 1952 Proc. Inst. Civ. Eng. 1, 325-362. (doi:10.1680/ipeds.1952.11362)), despite little empirical support. Fine-grained location traces collected by smart devices give us today an unprecedented opportunity to learn how citizens organize their travel plans into a set of routes, and how similar behaviour patterns emerge among distinct individual choices. Here we study 92 419 anonymized GPS trajectories describing the movement of personal cars over an 18-month period. We group user trips by origin-destination and we find that most drivers use a small number of routes for their routine journeys, and tend to have a preferred route for frequent trips. In contrast to the cost minimization assumption, we also find that a significant fraction of drivers' routes are not optimal. We present a spatial probability distribution that bounds the route selection space within an ellipse, having the origin and the destination as focal points, characterized by high eccentricity independent of the scale. While individual routing choices are not captured by path optimization, their spatial bounds are similar, even for trips performed by distinct individuals and at various scales. These basic discoveries can inform realistic route-choice models that are not based on optimization, having an impact on several applications, such as infrastructure planning, routing recommendation systems and new mobility solutions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Species choice, provenance and species trials among native Brazilian species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drumond, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Six papers from the conference are presented. Drumond, M.A., Potential of species native to the semi-arid tropics, 766-781, (Refs. 18), reports on Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Mimosa species, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Spondias tuberosa, Ziziphus joazeiro, Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus, Bursera leptophleos (leptophloeos), Tabebuia impetiginosa, Astronium urundeuva, and Mimosa caesalpinia. Monteiro, R.F.R., Speltz, R.M., Gurgel, J.T. do A.; Silvicultural performance of 24 provenances of Araucaria angustifolia in Parana, 814-824, (Refs. 8). Pires, C.L. da S., Kalil Filho, A.N., Rosa, P.R.F. da, Parente, P.R., Zanatto, A.C.S.; Provenance trials of Cordia alliodora in the State of Sao Paulo, 988-995, (Refs. 9). Nogueira, J.C.B., Siqueira, A.C.M.F., Garrido, M.A.O., Gurgel Garrido, L.M. do A., Rosa, P.R.F., Moraes, J.L. de, Zandarin, M.A., Gurgel Filho, O.A., Trials of some native species in various regions of the State of Sao Paulo, 1051-1063, (Refs. 9) describes Centrolobium tomentosum, Peltophorum dubium, Tabebuia vellosoi, Cariniana legalis, and Balfourodendron riedelianum. Batista, M.P., Borges, J.F., Franco, M.A.B.; Early growth of a native species in comparison with exotics in northeastern Para, Brazil, 1105-1110, (Refs. 3). Jacaranda copaia is compared with Gmelina arborea, Pinus caribaea various hondurensis, Eucalyptus deglupta, and E. urophylla. Lima, P.C.F., Souza, S.M. de, Drumond, M.A.; Trials of native forest species at Petrolina, Pernambuco, 1139-1148, (Refs. 8), deals with Anadenanthera macrocarpa, Piptadenia obliqua, Pithecellobium foliolosum, Astronium urundeuva, Schinopsis brasiliensis, Cassia excelsa, Caesalpinia pyramidalis, Parkia platycephala, Pseudobombax simplicifolium, Tabebuia impetiginosa, Caesalpinia ferrea, and Aspidosperma pyrifolium. 18 references.

  9. A Theory of Flagship Species Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The flagship species approach is an enduring strategy in conservation. Academic discussion on flagship species has focussed on two dimensions: on what basis should they be selected and how have they been put to use. Here we consider a third dimension, namely the manner in which flagship species act and have the capacity to galvanise and influence conservation outcomes. Drawing on concepts from the social sciences, viz. affordance, framing, and actor-networks; we discuss examples of flagship species to propose a theory of flagship species action. In brief, our theory posits that a flagship species is one with traits that afford the assembly of relatively coherent networks of associations with ideational elements located in pre-existing cultural framings. These associations give rise to opportunities to align with deep cultural frames, contemporary cultural phenomena and political economy such that when a conservation action is introduced, forms of agency cause the species and human publics to change. The species becomes re-framed (or reinvigorated as a cultural asset speaking for a wider nature, publics and political agendas. Further our theory posits that species with traits that enrol in idea networks incorporating human fears, will have limited flagship capacity. This is because the ability of the representations produced to align with frames incorporating collective aspirations is constrained. In terms of applied conservation practice, our theory suggests that: a key criteria for selecting potential flagship species is presence in existing cultural frames, that effective deployment of flagship species requires an understanding of the species′ cultural associations, and a species ability to galvanise action may be limited to certain times and places. Furthermore, once deployed conservation interests will never have full control over the flagship species: it may act in uncertain and unexpected ways.

  10. Pitfalls in quantifying species turnover: the residency effect

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Chase Burns

    2014-01-01

    The composition of ecological communities changes continuously through time and space. Understanding this turnover in species composition is a central goal in biogeography, but quantifying species turnover can be problematic. Here, I describe an underappreciated source of bias in quantifying species turnover, namely ‘the residency effect’, which occurs when the contiguous distributions of species across sampling domains are small relative to census intervals. I present the results of a simula...

  11. Beyond climate: disturbance niche shifts in invasive species

    OpenAIRE

    González-Moreno, Pablo; Diez, Jeffrey M.; Richardson, David M.; Vilà, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    Analysing how species niches shift between native and introduced ranges is a powerful tool for understanding the determinants of species distributions and for anticipating range expansions by invasive species. Most studies only consider the climatic niche, by correlating widely available presence-only data with regional climate. However, habitat characteristics and disturbance also shape species niches, thereby potentially confounding shifts attributed only to differences in climate. Here we ...

  12. Species coexistence in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eValladares

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of global change for the maintenance of species diversity will depend on the sum of each species responses to the environment and on the interactions among them. A wide ecological literature supports that these species-specific responses can arise from factors related to life strategies, evolutionary history and intraspecific variation, and also from environmental variation in space and time. In the light of recent advances from coexistence theory combined with mechanistic explanations of diversity maintenance, we discuss how global change drivers can influence species coexistence. We revise the importance of both competition and facilitation for understanding coexistence in different ecosystems, address the influence of phylogenetic relatedness, functional traits, phenotypic plasticity and intraspecific variability, and discuss lessons learnt from invasion ecology. While most previous studies have focused their efforts on disentangling the mechanisms that maintain the biological diversity in species-rich ecosystems such as tropical forests, grasslands and coral reefs, we argue that much can be learnt from pauci-specific communities where functional variability within each species, together with demographic and stochastic processes becomes key to understand species interactions and eventually community responses to global change.

  13. Geographic range size and determinants of avian species richness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jetz, Walter; Rahbek, Carsten

    2002-01-01

    Geographic patterns in species richness are mainly based on wide-ranging species because their larger number of distribution records has a disproportionate contribution to the species richness counts. Here we demonstrate how this effect strongly influences our understanding of what determines...... species richness. Using both conventional and spatial regression models, we show that for sub-Saharan African birds, the apparent role of productivity diminishes with decreasing range size, whereas the significance of topographic heterogeneity increases. The relative importance of geometric constraints...... from the continental edge is moderate. Our findings highlight the failure of traditional species richness models to account for narrow-ranging species that frequently are also threatened....

  14. Understanding STDs in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallabetta, G

    1994-11-01

    AIDS control efforts in Malawi include efforts to control other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). STD control requires a thorough understanding of specific STD prevalence, the potential for managing the STDs without laboratory diagnosis, the efficacy of various antibiotic regimens, and appropriate health-seeking behavior on the part of STD sufferers. Data from several studies were used to modify the World Health Organization STD syndrome management guidelines for use in Malawi. In one ethnographic study, 154 men and women in 2 rural towns were interviewed about their knowledge, beliefs, and experiences with STDs. They described 21 illnesses as sexually transmitted, including several with commonly recognizable biomedical aliases. The people seemed able to differentiate various STDs by their symptoms, although they often described early and late symptoms of the same disease as 2 separate diseases. Information gleaned on health-seeking behavior led to recommendations that communication efforts be undertaken to encourage abstinence during symptoms and the early seeking of treatment from biomedical personnel as well as to provide positive reinforcements of the image of biomedical healers. Another study was undertaken to determine the relative contribution of chancroid and syphilis to genital ulcer disease (GUD), to evaluate the effectiveness of 5 antibiotic therapies for GUD, and to collect data on the characteristics of 778 men presenting with GUD at an urban clinic between September 1992 and March 1993. It was found that cancroid contributed as much to GUD as syphilis in this population, and the cancroid prevalence rate was between 32.8 and 44.6%. Therefore, the researchers recommended treating patients with GUD for both syphilis and chancroid. Erythromycin and ciprofloxacin were effective treatments, whereas trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole was not. A third study assessed relative frequency of gonococcal and nongonococcal urethritis in urban men. The data from this

  15. Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer A-Z Breast Cancer Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, ... Prevention Early Detection and Diagnosis Understanding a Breast Cancer Diagnosis Treatment Breast Reconstruction Surgery Living as a Breast ...

  16. Understanding the Opioid Overdose Epidemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can happen when someone takes more than prescribed, combines opioids with depressants (such as Xanax ® ) or alcohol, ... suffering with chronic pain.” Read More "Understanding Opioids" Articles Understanding The Opioid Overdose Epidemic / Beyond Opioids: Mind ...

  17. Calculus Students' Understanding of Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorko, Allison; Speer, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have documented difficulties that elementary school students have in understanding volume. Despite its importance in higher mathematics, we know little about college students' understanding of volume. This study investigated calculus students' understanding of volume. Clinical interview transcripts and written responses to volume…

  18. Super-performance in a palm species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Merel

    2016-01-01

    The world is changing rapidly due to anthropogenic disturbance. Effects include: global warming, massive pollution, a changed global nitrogen cycle, high rates of land-use change, and exotic species spread. This has a tremendous impact on both natural and agricultural systems. To understand these im

  19. Super-performance in a palm species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Merel

    2016-01-01

    The world is changing rapidly due to anthropogenic disturbance. Effects include: global warming, massive pollution, a changed global nitrogen cycle, high rates of land-use change, and exotic species spread. This has a tremendous impact on both natural and agricultural systems. To understand these

  20. Hybridization as a facilitator of species range expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Explaining the evolution of species geographical ranges is fundamental to understanding how biodiversity is distributed and maintained. The solution to this classic problem in ecology and evolution remains elusive: we still do not fully know how species geographical ranges evolve and what factors fuel range expansions. Resolving this problem is now more crucial than ever with increasing biodiversity loss, global change and movement of species by humans. Here, we describe and evaluate the hypothesis that hybridization between species can contribute to species range expansion. We discuss how such a process can occur and the empirical data that are needed to test this hypothesis. We also examine how species can expand into new environments via hybridization with a resident species, and yet remain distinct species. Generally, hybridization may play an underappreciated role in influencing the evolution of species ranges. Whether—and to what extent—hybridization has such an effect requires further study across more diverse taxa. PMID:27683368

  1. Evaluating Hypotheses of Plant Species Invasions on Mediterranean Islands: Inverse Patterns between Alien and Endemic Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bjarnason

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien species cause major changes to ecosystem functioning and patterns of biodiversity, and the main factors involved in invasion success remain contested. Using the Mediterranean island of Crete, Greece as a case study, we suggest a framework for analyzing spatial data of alien species distributions, based on environmental predictors, aiming to gain an understanding of their spatial patterns and spread. Mediterranean islands are under strong ecological pressure from invading species due to their restricted size and increased human impact. Four hypotheses of invasibility, the “propagule pressure hypothesis” (H1, “biotic resistance hypothesis vs. acceptance hypothesis” (H2, “disturbance-mediated hypothesis” (H3, and “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” (H4 were tested. Using data from alien, native, and endemic vascular plant species, the propagule pressure, biotic resistance vs. acceptance, disturbance-mediated, and environmental heterogeneity hypotheses were tested with Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM of 39 models. Based on model selection, the optimal model includes the positive covariates of native species richness, the negative covariates of endemic species richness, and land area. Variance partitioning between the four hypotheses indicated that the biotic resistance vs. acceptance hypothesis explained the vast majority of the total variance. These results show that areas of high species richness have greater invasibility and support the acceptance hypothesis and “rich-get-richer” distribution of alien species. The negative correlation between alien and endemic species appears to be predominantly driven by altitude, with fewer alien and more endemic species at greater altitudes, and habitat richness. The negative relationship between alien and endemic species richness provides potential for understanding patterns of endemic and alien species on islands, contributing to more effective conservation

  2. Natural Constraints to Species Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewitus, Eric; Morlon, Hélène

    2016-08-01

    Identifying modes of species diversification is fundamental to our understanding of how biodiversity changes over evolutionary time. Diversification modes are captured in species phylogenies, but characterizing the landscape of diversification has been limited by the analytical tools available for directly comparing phylogenetic trees of groups of organisms. Here, we use a novel, non-parametric approach and 214 family-level phylogenies of vertebrates representing over 500 million years of evolution to identify major diversification modes, to characterize phylogenetic space, and to evaluate the bounds and central tendencies of species diversification. We identify five principal patterns of diversification to which all vertebrate families hold. These patterns, mapped onto multidimensional space, constitute a phylogenetic space with distinct properties. Firstly, phylogenetic space occupies only a portion of all possible tree space, showing family-level phylogenies to be constrained to a limited range of diversification patterns. Secondly, the geometry of phylogenetic space is delimited by quantifiable trade-offs in tree size and the heterogeneity and stem-to-tip distribution of branching events. These trade-offs are indicative of the instability of certain diversification patterns and effectively bound speciation rates (for successful clades) within upper and lower limits. Finally, both the constrained range and geometry of phylogenetic space are established by the differential effects of macroevolutionary processes on patterns of diversification. Given these properties, we show that the average path through phylogenetic space over evolutionary time traverses several diversification stages, each of which is defined by a different principal pattern of diversification and directed by a different macroevolutionary process. The identification of universal patterns and natural constraints to diversification provides a foundation for understanding the deep-time evolution of

  3. Invasive Species Science Branch: research and management tools for controlling invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Robert N.; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive, nonnative species of plants, animals, and disease organisms adversely affect the ecosystems they enter. Like “biological wildfires,” they can quickly spread and affect nearly all terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Invasive species have become one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st century in economic, environmental, and human health costs, with an estimated effect in the United States of more than $120 billion per year. Managers of the Department of the Interior and other public and private lands often rank invasive species as their top resource management problem. The Invasive Species Science Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center provides research and technical assistance relating to management concerns for invasive species, including understanding how these species are introduced, identifying areas vulnerable to invasion, forecasting invasions, and developing control methods. To disseminate this information, branch scientists are developing platforms to share invasive species information with DOI cooperators, other agency partners, and the public. From these and other data, branch scientists are constructing models to understand and predict invasive species distributions for more effective management. The branch also has extensive herpetological and population biology expertise that is applied to harmful reptile invaders such as the Brown Treesnake on Guam and Burmese Python in Florida.

  4. Predicting fish species distribution in estuaries: Influence of species' ecology in model accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Susana; Cabral, Henrique N.

    2016-10-01

    Current threats to biodiversity, combined with limited data availability, have made for species distribution models (SDMs) to be increasingly used due to their ability to predict species' potential distribution, by relating species occurrence with environmental estimates. Often used in ecology, conservation biology and environmental management, SDMs have been informing conservation strategies, and thus it is becoming crucial to understand how trustworthy their predictions are. Uncertainty in model predictions is expected, but knowing the origin of prediction errors may help reducing it. Indeed, uncertainty may be related not only with data quality and the modelling algorithm used, but also with species ecological characteristics. To investigate whether the performance of SDM's may vary with species' ecological characteristics, distribution models for 21 fish species occurring in estuaries from the Portuguese coast were examined. These models were built at two distinct spatial resolutions and seven environmental explanatory variables were used as predictors. SDMs' accuracy was assessed with the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristics (ROC) plots, sensitivity and specificity. Relationships between each measure of accuracy and species ecological characteristics were then examined. SDMs of the fish species presented small differences between the considered scales, and predictors as latitude, temperature and salinity were often selected at both scales. Measures of model accuracy presented differences between species and scales, but generally higher accuracy was obtained at smaller spatial scales. Among the ecological traits tested, species feeding mode and estuarine use functional groups were the most influential on the performance of distribution models. Habitat tolerance (number of habitat types frequented), species abundance, body size and spawning period also showed some effect. This analyses will contribute to distinguish, based on species

  5. Support your local species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stärk, Johanna

    Nearly a quarter of all animal species within the European Union are threatened with extinction. Protecting many of these species will require the full spectrum of conservation actions from in-situ to ex-situ management. Holding an estimated 44% of EU Red Listed terrestrial vertebrates, zoos hereby...

  6. The Origin of Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys

  7. The Origin of Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys

  8. Biofilms of Clostridium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaléon, Véronique; Bouttier, Sylvie; Soavelomandroso, Anna Philibertine; Janoir, Claire; Candela, Thomas

    2014-12-01

    The biofilm is a microbial community embedded in a synthesized matrix and is the main bacterial way of life. A biofilm adheres on surfaces or is found on interfaces. It protects bacteria from the environment, toxic molecules and may have a role in virulence. Clostridium species are spread throughout both environments and hosts, but their biofilms have not been extensively described in comparison with other bacterial species. In this review we describe all biofilms formed by Clostridium species during both industrial processes and in mammals where biofilms may be formed either during infections or associated to microbiota in the gut. We have specifically focussed on Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens biofilms, which have been studied in vitro. Regulatory processes including sporulation and germination highlight how these Clostridium species live in biofilms. Furthermore, biofilms may have a role in the survival and spreading of Clostridium species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Preservice Teachers' Understandings of Relational and Instrumental Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, Kim

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the responses of a cohort of preservice primary teachers to a statement about the extent to which helping children achieve relational understanding is a realistic expectation. Although the preservice teachers' course had included teaching about understanding a number of misconceptions about the meanings of relational and…

  10. Metabolomic analysis of three Mollicute species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna A Vanyushkina

    Full Text Available We present a systematic study of three bacterial species that belong to the class Mollicutes, the smallest and simplest bacteria, Spiroplasma melliferum, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Acholeplasma laidlawii. To understand the difference in the basic principles of metabolism regulation and adaptation to environmental conditions in the three species, we analyzed the metabolome of these bacteria. Metabolic pathways were reconstructed using the proteogenomic annotation data provided by our lab. The results of metabolome, proteome and genome profiling suggest a fundamental difference in the adaptation of the three closely related Mollicute species to stress conditions. As the transaldolase is not annotated in Mollicutes, we propose variants of the pentose phosphate pathway catalyzed by annotated enzymes for three species. For metabolite detection we employed high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. We used liquid chromatography method - hydrophilic interaction chromatography with silica column - as it effectively separates highly polar cellular metabolites prior to their detection by mass spectrometer.

  11. Understanding and Self-Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Natika W

    2017-01-01

    How do we manage to understand a completely novel state of affairs, such as the sudden effects of an unexpected earthquake, or the arrival of a total stranger instead of the sister we were waiting for? In each case, for a moment we might be stunned, but we are able quite quickly to fit these events into our overall framework for understanding the world. However, terrified and despairing we feel, we know what earthquakes are and this event fits that schema; in the case of the stranger we know that this kind of thing happens, and that we must ask the stranger "Who are you, and where is my sister?" This paper asks about the mechanisms by which we rapidly achieve an understanding of our world, both the unexpected changes we may experience, and the ongoing comfortable familiarity we normally have with our surroundings. We attempt a solution by means of examining fundamental questions: What is it to understand something?What sorts of things do we try to understand?Is there a conscious EXPERIENCE of understanding?Does understanding involve conscious mental images?What is self-organization? I will argue that these questions revolve around the need of a living organism to take action, and that understanding anything involves knowing how we might act relative to that thing in our environment. The experience of understanding is a feeling that the action affordances of a situation are clear and available. Action (as opposed to reaction) includes imagery, particularly motor imagery, which can be used in the guidance of action. Understanding requires a conscious process involving motor imagery of action affordances, and action can be understood only in self-organizational terms. I explain how self-organization can ground the kinds of action affordance experience needed for conscious understanding. The paper concludes that our day-to-day understanding of our environment is the result of a self-organizing process.

  12. The assessment of invasive alien plant species removal programs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusuf Adam

    socio-economic impacts such as interrupting the supply of ecosystem goods ... programs of three IAPs in two urban nature reserves within the eThekwini Municipality. ...... do we understand the impacts of alien species on ecosystem services?

  13. Species ages in neutral biodiversity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Ryan A; O'Dwyer, James P

    2014-05-01

    Biogeography seeks to understand the mechanisms that drive biodiversity across long temporal and large spatial scales. Theoretical models of biogeography can be tested by comparing their predictions of quantities such as species ages against empirical estimates. It has previously been claimed that the neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography predicts species ages that are unrealistically long. Any improved theory of biodiversity must rectify this problem, but first it is necessary to quantify the problem precisely. Here we provide analytical expressions for species ages in neutral biodiversity communities. We analyse a spatially implicit metacommunity model and solve for both the zero-sum and non-zero-sum cases. We explain why our new expressions are, in the context of biodiversity, usually more appropriate than those previously imported from neutral molecular evolution. Because of the time symmetry of the spatially implicit neutral model, our expressions also lead directly to formulas for species persistence times and species lifetimes. We use our new expressions to estimate species ages of forest trees under a neutral model and find that they are about an order of magnitude shorter than those predicted previously but still unrealistically long. In light of our results, we discuss different models of biogeography that may solve the problem of species ages.

  14. Extragastric Helicobacter species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Hynes, S.; Wadstrom, T.

    2002-01-01

    The genus Helicobacter has expanded at a rapid pace and no fewer than 31 species have been named since the proposal of the genus in 1989. Of these 31 species, 22 are principally associated with extragastric niches and there is increasing interest in the role of these taxa in diseases of humans...... and animals. Substantial evidence attests to certain species playing a role in the pathogenesis of enteric, hepatic and biliary disorders and some taxa demonstrate zoonotic potential. The importance of extragastric Helicobacters is likely to be an important topic for research in the near future. Here...

  15. The Global Distribution and Drivers of Alien Bird Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ellie E.; Cassey, Phillip; Redding, David W.; Collen, Ben; Franks, Victoria; Gaston, Kevin J.; Jones, Kate E.; Kark, Salit; Orme, C. David L.; Blackburn, Tim M.

    2017-01-01

    Alien species are a major component of human-induced environmental change. Variation in the numbers of alien species found in different areas is likely to depend on a combination of anthropogenic and environmental factors, with anthropogenic factors affecting the number of species introduced to new locations, and when, and environmental factors influencing how many species are able to persist there. However, global spatial and temporal variation in the drivers of alien introduction and species richness remain poorly understood. Here, we analyse an extensive new database of alien birds to explore what determines the global distribution of alien species richness for an entire taxonomic class. We demonstrate that the locations of origin and introduction of alien birds, and their identities, were initially driven largely by European (mainly British) colonialism. However, recent introductions are a wider phenomenon, involving more species and countries, and driven in part by increasing economic activity. We find that, globally, alien bird species richness is currently highest at midlatitudes and is strongly determined by anthropogenic effects, most notably the number of species introduced (i.e., “colonisation pressure”). Nevertheless, environmental drivers are also important, with native and alien species richness being strongly and consistently positively associated. Our results demonstrate that colonisation pressure is key to understanding alien species richness, show that areas of high native species richness are not resistant to colonisation by alien species at the global scale, and emphasise the likely ongoing threats to global environments from introductions of species. PMID:28081142

  16. The Global Distribution and Drivers of Alien Bird Species Richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ellie E; Cassey, Phillip; Redding, David W; Collen, Ben; Franks, Victoria; Gaston, Kevin J; Jones, Kate E; Kark, Salit; Orme, C David L; Blackburn, Tim M

    2017-01-01

    Alien species are a major component of human-induced environmental change. Variation in the numbers of alien species found in different areas is likely to depend on a combination of anthropogenic and environmental factors, with anthropogenic factors affecting the number of species introduced to new locations, and when, and environmental factors influencing how many species are able to persist there. However, global spatial and temporal variation in the drivers of alien introduction and species richness remain poorly understood. Here, we analyse an extensive new database of alien birds to explore what determines the global distribution of alien species richness for an entire taxonomic class. We demonstrate that the locations of origin and introduction of alien birds, and their identities, were initially driven largely by European (mainly British) colonialism. However, recent introductions are a wider phenomenon, involving more species and countries, and driven in part by increasing economic activity. We find that, globally, alien bird species richness is currently highest at midlatitudes and is strongly determined by anthropogenic effects, most notably the number of species introduced (i.e., "colonisation pressure"). Nevertheless, environmental drivers are also important, with native and alien species richness being strongly and consistently positively associated. Our results demonstrate that colonisation pressure is key to understanding alien species richness, show that areas of high native species richness are not resistant to colonisation by alien species at the global scale, and emphasise the likely ongoing threats to global environments from introductions of species.

  17. Memorandums of Understanding with Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In February 2016, U.S. EPA and the Australian Department of Agriculture and Water Resources signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Water. This was an update to the March 2011 Memorandum of Understanding on the same topic. Both documents are available bel

  18. Artistic Understanding and Motivational Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekue, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to analyse artistic understanding in primary and secondary education and the relationship between this understanding and motivational characteristics such as goal orientation, engagement in art activities and attitude to art education at school, which determine (according to prior research) learners' academic achievement, in…

  19. Understanding quantitative research: part 2

    OpenAIRE

    Hoare, Z.; Hoe, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article, which is the second in a two-part series, provides an introduction to understanding quantitative research, basic statistics and terminology used in research articles. Understanding statistical analysis will ensure that nurses can assess the credibility and significance of the evidence reported. This article focuses on explaining common statistical terms and the presentation of statistical data in quantitative research.

  20. Teaching Mathematics Understandings for Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L.; Jones, Karrie A.; Vermette, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Promoting student understanding for transfer is an illusive hallmark of effective mathematics instruction. While much research has shown the necessity of promoting understanding for transfer, less attention has been paid to actual pedagogical strategies that can be used to promote transfer of mathematical ideas. Using Fogarty et al. (1992, "How to…

  1. When Do Children Understand "Opposite"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Catherine I.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of the present research were to determine (a) the age at which children with typical development understand the concept of opposite, (b) whether this is related to other cognitive abilities or experiences, and (c) whether there is early implicit understanding of the concept. Method: Children (N = 204) between 3 and 5 years of age…

  2. How to Understand an Utterance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨开春

    2011-01-01

    1 ,Someone might claim that understanding an utterance is a simple matter of linguistic decoding. For instance, a certain politician-call her Margaret-is speaking to us in English; it might be claimed that all we need to understand her is a knowledge of E

  3. Robust Understanding of Statistical Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a framework that captures the complexity of reasoning about variation in ways that are indicative of robust understanding and describes reasoning as a blend of design, data-centric, and modeling perspectives. Robust understanding is indicated by integrated reasoning about variation within each perspective and across…

  4. Pitfalls in quantifying species turnover: the residency effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Chase Burns

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The composition of ecological communities changes continuously through time and space. Understanding this turnover in species composition is a central goal in biogeography, but quantifying species turnover can be problematic. Here, I describe an underappreciated source of bias in quantifying species turnover, namely ‘the residency effect’, which occurs when the contiguous distributions of species across sampling domains are small relative to census intervals. I present the results of a simulation model that illustrates the problem theoretically and then I demonstrate the problem empirically using a long-term dataset of plant species turnover on islands. Results from both exercises indicate that empirical estimates of species turnover may be susceptible to significant observer bias, which may potentially cloud a better understanding of how the composition of ecological communities changes through time.

  5. Threatened & Endangered Species Occurrences

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The database consists of a single statewide coverage of location records for 54 species contained in the Kansas Natural Heritage Inventory database of the Kansas...

  6. DENTURE WEARER: ALCALIGENES SPECIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated with Alcaligenes species infection in a patient using an upper single ... patient was HIV negative and VDRL screening for syphilis was also negative. ... status of denture and the underlying oral mucosal, to prevent opportunistic.

  7. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    and precipitation. Concurrently, phenological change has been recorded in a wide range of plants and animals, with climate change seemingly being the primary driver of these changes. A major concern is whether species and biological systems embrace the plasticity in their phenological responses needed for tracking...... the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...... Zackenberg Basic, a newly initiated project is focusing on how the changes and variability in the physical environment affects the species phenology and composition, population dynamics and how species specific responses at different trophic levels are carried on to the inter-trophic dynamics of consumers...

  8. Fire Management Species Profiles

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of the Fire Management Species Profile project is to identify habitat management objectives that are specific, measurable, achievable, clearly...

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation species distribution in a saltmarsh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, K.S.

    2003-01-01

    The availability of quality empirical data on vegetation species distribution is a major factor limiting the understanding, if not resolution, of many nature conservation issues. Accurate knowledge of the distribution of plant species can form a critical component for managing ecosystems and preserv

  10. Species Diversity and Growth Forms in Tropical American Palm Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Kahn, Francis; Millán, Betty;

    2011-01-01

    To advance our understanding of the processes that govern the assembly of palm communities and the local coexistence of numerous palm species, we here synthesize available information in the literature on species diversity and growth-form composition in palm communities across the Americas. Ameri...

  11. Learning about Bird Species on the Primary Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Animal species identification is often emphasized as a basic prerequisite for an understanding of ecology because ecological interactions are based on interactions between species at least as it is taught on the school level. Therefore, training identification skills or using identification books seems a worthwhile task in biology education, and…

  12. Diversity of the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovers, M.; Hagen, F.; Boekhout, T.

    2008-01-01

    More than 110 years of study of the Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii species complex has resulted in an enormous accumulation of fundamental and applied biological and clinical knowledge. Recent developments in our understanding of the diversity within the species complex are

  13. Sub specie aeternitatis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Gioeni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Per delineare il rapporto tra etica ed estetica nell'architettura e rispondere alla domanda principale «che cosa è o dovrebbe essere un buon architetto?», il saggio discute la tesi di Wittgenstein secondo cui «l'opera d'arte è l'oggetto visto sub specie aeternitatis e la vita buona è il mondo visto sub specie aeternitatis. Questa è la connessione tra arte ed etica».

  14. Trophically Unique Species Are Vulnerable to Cascading Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Petchey, Owen L.; Eklöf, Anna; Borrvall, Charlotte; Ebenman, Bo

    2008-01-01

    Understanding which species might become extinct and the consequences of such loss is critical. One consequence is a cascade of further, secondary extinctions. While a significant amount is known about the types of communities and species that suffer secondary extinctions, little is known about the consequences of secondary extinctions for biodiversity. Here we examine the effect of these secondary extinctions on trophic diversity, the range of trophic roles played by the species in a communi...

  15. Understanding understanding in secondary school science: An interpretive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Maureen Gail

    This study investigated the teaching of secondary school science with an emphasis on promoting student understanding. In particular, I focused on two research questions: What are the possible meanings of teaching for understanding? And, how might one teach secondary school science for understanding? After semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 secondary school science teachers, grounded theory methodology was used to interpret the data. As a result of the selective coding process, I was able to identify 14 connected components of teaching for understanding (TfU). The process of TfU involves: puzzle-solving, a specific pedagogy and a conscious decision. The teacher must be a reflective practitioner who has some knowledge of the facets of understanding. The teacher comes to a critical incident or crisis in his or her pedagogy and adopts a mindset which highlights TfU as a personal problematic. Teachers operate with student-centred rather than teacher-centred metaphors. TfU requires a firm belief in and passion for the process, a positive attitude and excellent pedagogical content knowledge. It hinges on a performance view of understanding and demands risk-taking in the science classroom. Abstracting these ideas to a theory led me to the notion of Purposive Teaching . In their purposive-driven role as pedagogues, these teachers have placed TfU at the core of their daily practice. Constraints and challenges facing TfU as well as implications of the findings are discussed. Keywords. science teaching, teaching for understanding, purposive teaching, constructivism, understanding, pedagogy, pedagogical content knowledge, memorization, meaningful learning, reflective practice.

  16. An Approach Toward Understanding Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvaitis, John A.; Tash, Jeffrey P.

    2008-10-01

    Among the most conspicuous environmental effects of roads are vehicle-related mortalities of wildlife. Research to understand the factors that contribute to wildlife-vehicle collisions can be partitioned into several major themes, including (i) characteristics associated with roadkill hot spots, (ii) identification of road-density thresholds that limit wildlife populations, and (iii) species-specific models of vehicle collision rates that incorporate information on roads (e.g., proximity, width, and traffic volume) and animal movements. We suggest that collision models offer substantial opportunities to understand the effects of roads on a diverse suite of species. We conducted simulations using collision models and information on Blanding’s turtles ( Emydoidea blandingii), bobcats ( Lynx rufus), and moose ( Alces alces), species endemic to the northeastern United States that are of particular concern relative to collisions with vehicles. Results revealed important species-specific differences, with traffic volume and rate of movement by candidate species having the greatest influence on collision rates. We recommend that future efforts to reduce wildlife-vehicle collisions be more proactive and suggest the following protocol. For species that pose hazards to drivers (e.g., ungulates), identify collision hot spots and implement suitable mitigation to redirect animal movements (e.g., underpasses, fencing, and habitat modification), reduce populations of problematic game species via hunting, or modify driver behavior (e.g., dynamic signage that warns drivers when animals are near roads). Next, identify those species that are likely to experience additive (as opposed to compensatory) mortality from vehicle collisions and rank them according to vulnerability to extirpation. Then combine information on the distribution of at-risk species with information on existing road networks to identify areas where immediate actions are warranted.

  17. The Particularity of "Pedagogic Understanding"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhengtao

    2006-01-01

    So far,pedagogy has not formed its own unique visual angle and thinking mode to understand humans and the world in general;consequentl,it is always counting upon other subjects,which is the root of the crisis in pedagogy.Focusing on the"visual angle"and "thinking mode".this article puts forward a new proposition"pedagogic understanding"to make a concrete analysis of a basic hypothesis,some basic problems and some research ways.The purpose is to form pedagogy'S own way of understanding on the foundation of delimitation and integration with other subjects.

  18. Assessing species boundaries using multilocus species delimitation in a morphologically conserved group of neotropical freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Poeciliidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin C Bagley

    Full Text Available Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including 'non-adaptive radiations' containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial 'major-lineages' diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the

  19. Assessing species boundaries using multilocus species delimitation in a morphologically conserved group of neotropical freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Poeciliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Justin C; Alda, Fernando; Breitman, M Florencia; Bermingham, Eldredge; van den Berghe, Eric P; Johnson, Jerald B

    2015-01-01

    Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including 'non-adaptive radiations' containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genetic markers (sequences of two mitochondrial DNA genes and five nuclear loci) from 10/15 species and genetic lineages recognized in the group support the P. sphenops species complex as monophyletic with respect to outgroups, with eight mitochondrial 'major-lineages' diverged by ≥2% pairwise genetic distances. From general mixed Yule-coalescent models, we discovered (conservatively) 10 species within our concatenated mitochondrial DNA dataset, 9 of which were strongly supported by subsequent multilocus Bayesian species delimitation and species tree analyses. Results suggested species-level diversity is underestimated or overestimated by at least ~15% in different lineages in the complex. Nonparametric statistics and coalescent simulations indicate genealogical discordance among our gene tree results has mainly derived from interspecific hybridization in the nuclear genome. However, mitochondrial DNA show little evidence for introgression, and our species delimitation results appear robust to effects of this process. Overall, our findings support the utility of combining multiple lines of genetic evidence and broad phylogeographical sampling to discover and validate species using coalescent-based methods. Our study also highlights the importance of testing for

  20. Environmental ethics: An African understanding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    perspective to environmental ethics and the people's cultural understanding of the environmental crisis, little has .... (teleologism, utilitarianism and deontologism), which form the first ..... such negligence, every business organization must be.

  1. Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Research Past Issues / Summer 2014 Table of ... project plan to address relevant challenges for rheumatoid arthritis. Read Part 1 on Lupus in MedlinePlus magazine, ...

  2. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Step in the Right Direction Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity When we eat more calories than we burn, ... prevent or delay type 2 diabetes. How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

  3. Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis is the main video in the NCI Prognosis Video Series, which offers the perspectives of three cancer patients and their doctor, an oncologist who is also a national expert in doctor-patient communication.

  4. Scientific progress: Knowledge versus understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellsén, Finnur

    2016-04-01

    What is scientific progress? On Alexander Bird's epistemic account of scientific progress, an episode in science is progressive precisely when there is more scientific knowledge at the end of the episode than at the beginning. Using Bird's epistemic account as a foil, this paper develops an alternative understanding-based account on which an episode in science is progressive precisely when scientists grasp how to correctly explain or predict more aspects of the world at the end of the episode than at the beginning. This account is shown to be superior to the epistemic account by examining cases in which knowledge and understanding come apart. In these cases, it is argued that scientific progress matches increases in scientific understanding rather than accumulations of knowledge. In addition, considerations having to do with minimalist idealizations, pragmatic virtues, and epistemic value all favor this understanding-based account over its epistemic counterpart.

  5. Language processing for speech understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, W. A.

    1983-07-01

    This report considers language understanding techniques and control strategies that can be applied to provide higher-level support to aid in the understanding of spoken utterances. The discussion is illustrated with concepts and examples from the BBN speech understanding system, HWIM (Hear What I Mean). The HWIM system was conceived as an assistant to a travel budget manager, a system that would store information about planned and taken trips, travel budgets and their planning. The system was able to respond to commands and answer questions spoken into a microphone, and was able to synthesize spoken responses as output. HWIM was a prototype system used to drive speech understanding research. It used a phonetic-based approach, with no speaker training, a large vocabulary, and a relatively unconstraining English grammar. Discussed here is the control structure of the HWIM and the parsing algorithm used to parse sentences from the middle-out, using an ATN grammar.

  6. Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Pregnancy and Birth Issues Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table ... turn Javascript on. What is a High-Risk Pregnancy? All pregnancies involve a certain degree of risk ...

  7. Know the Facts: Understand Concussion

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-17

    This podcast discusses concussions and provides information to help people better understand concussion.  Created: 3/17/2010 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 3/17/2010.

  8. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Use and Addiction Understanding Drug Use and Addiction Email Facebook Twitter Revised August 2016 Many people ... addiction and lead productive lives. What Is drug addiction? Addiction is a chronic disease characterized by drug ...

  9. Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the Right Direction Understanding Adult Overweight and Obesity When we eat more calories than we burn, ... delay type 2 diabetes. How are overweight and obesity treated? The best way to control your weight ...

  10. Understanding your breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip navigation U.S. National Library of Medicine The navigation menu has been collapsed. ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000830.htm Understanding your breast cancer risk To use the sharing features ...

  11. Understanding Latent Heat of Vaporization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Ed

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple exercise for students to do in the kitchen at home to determine the latent heat of vaporization of water using typical household materials. Designed to stress understanding by sacrificing precision for simplicity. (JRH)

  12. Understanding the stigma of leprosy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    to lack of understanding and knowledge about leprosy - which increases misconceptions ... Perceived - stigma viewed from the perspective of the patient. It ... interpersonal ... community interaction is affected, such as social relationships and.

  13. Understanding marketing decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Wierenga, Berend

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhile a whole range of factors influences the outcomes of a marketing policy, it is managerial decision-making that can really make a difference. A clearer understanding of how marketers make decisions should therefore improve their quality.

  14. Understanding ADHD: Symptoms in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Understanding ADHD Symptoms In Children Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table ... hyperactivity, and impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. It is normal for all children to be ...

  15. Understanding neutrino masses and mixings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R N Mohapatra

    2004-02-01

    We discuss ways to understand large neutrino mixings using new symmetries of quarks and leptons beyond the standard model for the three allowed patterns of neutrino masses: normal, inverted hierarchy and degenerate masses.

  16. A chemical approach to understanding oxide surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enterkin, James A.; Becerra-Toledo, Andres E.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Marks, Laurence D.

    2012-02-01

    Chemical bonding has often been ignored in favor of physics based energetic considerations in attempts to understand the structure, stability, and reactivity of oxide surfaces. Herein, we analyze the chemical bonding in published structures of the SrTiO3, MgO, and NiO surfaces using bond valence sum (BVS) analysis. These simple chemical bonding theories compare favorably with far more complex quantum mechanical calculations in assessing surface structure stability. Further, the coordination and bonding of surface structures explains the observed stability in a readily comprehensible manner. Finally, we demonstrate how simple chemical bonding models accurately predict the adsorption of foreign species onto surfaces, and how such models can be used to predict changes in surface structures.

  17. Simulation and understanding of quantum crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Cazorla, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Quantum crystals abound in the whole range of solid-state species. Below a certain threshold temperature the physical behavior of rare gases (4He and Ne), molecular solids (H2 and CH4), and some ionic (LiH), covalent (graphite), and metallic (Li) crystals can be only explained in terms of quantum nuclear effects (QNE). A detailed comprehension of the nature of quantum solids is critical for achieving progress in a number of fundamental and applied scientific fields like, for instance, planetary sciences, hydrogen storage, nuclear energy, quantum computing, and nanoelectronics. This review describes the current physical understanding of quantum crystals and the wide variety of simulation techniques that are used to investigate them. Relevant aspects in these materials such as phase transformations, energy and structural properties, elasticity, and the effects of crystalline defects and dimensionality, are discussed thoroughly. An introduction to quantum Monte Carlo techniques, which in the present context are ...

  18. Information Extraction and Webpage Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sharmila Begum

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The two most important tasks in information extraction from the Web are webpage structure understanding and natural language sentences processing. However, little work has been done toward an integrated statistical model for understanding webpage structures and processing natural language sentences within the HTML elements. Our recent work on webpage understanding introduces a joint model of Hierarchical Conditional Random Fields (HCRFs and extended Semi-Markov Conditional Random Fields (Semi-CRFs to leverage the page structure understanding results in free text segmentation and labeling. In this top-down integration model, the decision of the HCRF model could guide the decision making of the Semi-CRF model. However, the drawback of the topdown integration strategy is also apparent, i.e., the decision of the Semi-CRF model could not be used by the HCRF model to guide its decision making. This paper proposed a novel framework called WebNLP, which enables bidirectional integration of page structure understanding and text understanding in an iterative manner. We have applied the proposed framework to local business entity extraction and Chinese person and organization name extraction. Experiments show that the WebNLP framework achieved significantly better performance than existing methods.

  19. Molecular phylogenetics of geographically restricted Acropora species: implications for threatened species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Z T; Miller, D J; Wallace, C C

    2013-12-01

    To better understand the underlying causes of rarity and extinction risk in Acropora (staghorn coral), we contrast the minimum divergence ages and nucleotide diversity of an array of species with different range sizes and levels of threat. Time-calibrated Bayesian analyses based upon concatenated nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data implied contemporary range size and vulnerability are linked to species age. However, contrary to previous hypotheses that suggest geographically restricted Acropora species evolved in the Plio-Pleistocene, the molecular phylogeny depicts some Indo-Australian species have greater antiquity, diverging in the Miocene. Species age is not related to range size as a simple positive linear function and interpreting the precise tempo of evolution in this genus is greatly complicated by morphological homoplasy and a sparse fossil record. Our phylogenetic reconstructions provide new examples of how morphology conceals cryptic evolutionary relationships in this keystone genus, and offers limited support for the species groupings currently used in Acropora systematics. We hypothesize that in addition to age, other mechanisms (such as a reticulate ancestry) delimit the contemporary range of some Acropora species, as evidenced by the complex patterns of allele sharing and paraphyly we uncover. Overall, both new and ancient evolutionary information may be lost if geographically restricted and threatened Acropora species are forced to extinction. In order to protect coral biodiversity and resolve the evolutionary history of staghorn coral, further analyses based on comprehensive and heterogeneous morphological and molecular data utilizing reticulate models of evolution are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Transient Species in Plasmas Interacting with Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, S.; Schmidt-Bleker, A.; van Helden, J. H.; Jablonowski, H.; Winter, J.; Santos Sousa, J.; Gianella, M.; Ritchie, G.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2016-09-01

    Processes of non-equilibrium plasmas at gas-liquid interfaces are determined by transient species. Quantification of these species in the plasma, gas, or liquid is intricate and requires specific diagnostics. In order to study plasma-liquid interaction processes, novel diagnostic concepts need to be developed combined with simulations that allow an insight into the chemical reaction pathways. Significantly relevant transient species in plasmas operated in ambient air include HO2 and O2(a1 Δ) , which are diagnosed in this work. The aim is to link localized transient species with longer living stable species in the gas phase and in the liquid phase. Understanding reaction pathways makes it possible to control the reactive species composition generated by the cold plasmas, and further insight into plasma induced reactivity in condensed matter systems can be gained. The work shows a combination of absorption spectroscopic methods and other diagnostic techniques as well as simple kinetics modeling as a way to control the plasma chemical reactions.

  1. Understanding trade pathways to target biosecurity surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Colunga-Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Increasing trends in global trade make it extremely difficult to prevent the entry of all potential invasive species (IS. Establishing early detection strategies thus becomes an important part of the continuum used to reduce the introduction of invasive species. One part necessary to ensure the success of these strategies is the determination of priority survey areas based on invasion pressure. We used a pathway-centred conceptual model of pest invasion to address these questions: what role does global trade play in invasion pressure of plant ecosystems and how could an understanding of this role be used to enhance early detection strategies? We concluded that the relative level of invasion pressure for destination ecosystems can be influenced by the intensity of pathway usage (import volume and frequency, the number and type of pathways with a similar destination, and the number of different ecological regions that serve as the source for imports to the same destination. As these factors increase, pressure typically intensifies because of increasing a propagule pressure, b likelihood of transporting pests with higher intrinsic invasion potential, and c likelihood of transporting pests into ecosystems with higher invasibility. We used maritime containerized imports of live plants into the contiguous U.S. as a case study to illustrate the practical implications of the model to determine hotspot areas of relative invasion pressure for agricultural and forest ecosystems (two ecosystems with high potential invasibility. Our results illustrated the importance of how a pathway-centred model could be used to highlight potential target areas for early detection strategies for IS. Many of the hotspots in agricultural and forest ecosystems were within major U.S. metropolitan areas. Invasion ecologists can utilize pathway-centred conceptual models to a better understand the role of human-mediated pathways in pest establishment, b enhance current

  2. Understanding Tropospheric Ozone Variability in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Crepinsek, S.; Uttal, T.; Skov, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic is a region that has been subject to drastic changes in the climate partially due to transported pollutants which strongly impact the composition of the atmosphere and associated feedbacks. Tropospheric ozone is an atmospheric species formed by the reaction of precursor species (NOx, CO, VOC's) in the presence of UV radiation and drives complex interactions which can result in impacts on atmospheric conditions in the Arctic. As an important greenhouse gas, ozone has a significant influence on the photochemical characteristics, oxidation capacity, and radiative forcing of the atmosphere and at high levels has negative impacts on public health and overall ecosystem functioning. In the Arctic, tropospheric ozone has variable characteristics in time and space. Seasonal variation of ozone is controlled by many factors influencing the production and destruction of ozone. The arctic ozone conditions are strongly influenced by seasonal destruction events, arctic haze, transport of pollution from Asia and influence from precursor compounds released from wildfires. This study investigates long-term ozone variation, seasonal surface ozone conditions, and characterizes deviations from expected ozone levels at four arctic ozone measurement locations (Barrow Alaska, Tiksi Russia, Summit Greenland, and Villum Station Greenland). Frequency of ozone depletion events and high ozone episodes for each station over time provides a context for the changing conditions of ozone in the arctic. NOAA Hysplit back-trajectory analysis, satellite imagery, NOAA Smoke verification model, co-located carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and aerosol optical depth measurements are used to understand the dominant source of pollution, pollutant composition, and the interactions due to meteorological conditions that result in anomalies in the ozone mixing ratio records. Characterization of ozone behavior and influences on the measurement locations is essential for understanding the spatial and

  3. Concepts of keystone species and species importance in ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper discussed the keystone species concept and introduced the typical characteristics of keystone species and their identification in communities or ecosystems. Based on the research of the keystone species, the concept of species importance (SI) was first advanced in this paper. The species importance can be simply understood as the important value of species in the ecosystem, which consists of three indexes: species structural important value (SIV), functional important value (FIV) and dynamical important value (DIV). With the indexes, the evaluation was also made on species importance of arbor trees in the Three-Hardwood forests (Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, and Phellodendron amurense) ecosystem.

  4. The importance of rare species: a trait-based assessment of rare species contributions to functional diversity and possible ecosystem function in tall-grass prairies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Meha; Flynn, Dan Fb; Prager, Case M; Hart, Georgia M; Devan, Caroline M; Ahrestani, Farshid S; Palmer, Matthew I; Bunker, Daniel E; Knops, Johannes Mh; Jouseau, Claire F; Naeem, Shahid

    2014-01-01

    The majority of species in ecosystems are rare, but the ecosystem consequences of losing rare species are poorly known. To understand how rare species may influence ecosystem functioning, this study quantifies the contribution of species based on their relative level of rarity to community functional diversity using a trait-based approach. Given that rarity can be defined in several different ways, we use four different definitions of rarity: abundance (mean and maximum), geographic range, and habitat specificity. We find that rarer species contribute to functional diversity when rarity is defined by maximum abundance, geographic range, and habitat specificity. However, rarer species are functionally redundant when rarity is defined by mean abundance. Furthermore, when using abundance-weighted analyses, we find that rare species typically contribute significantly less to functional diversity than common species due to their low abundances. These results suggest that rare species have the potential to play an important role in ecosystem functioning, either by offering novel contributions to functional diversity or via functional redundancy depending on how rare species are defined. Yet, these contributions are likely to be greatest if the abundance of rare species increases due to environmental change. We argue that given the paucity of data on rare species, understanding the contribution of rare species to community functional diversity is an important first step to understanding the potential role of rare species in ecosystem functioning.

  5. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer

  6. Bounding species distribution models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN, Catherine S. JARNEVICH, Wayne E. ESAIAS,Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART and maximum entropy (Maxent models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5: 642–647, 2011].

  7. Management of invasive species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jesper Sølver; Jensen, Frank

    In this paper, we conduct a number of cost-benefit analyses to clarify whether the establishment of invasive species should be prevented or the damage of such species should be mitigated after introduction. We use the potential establishment of ragweed in Denmark as an empirical case. The main...... impact of the establishment of this invasive species is a substantial increase in the number of allergy cases, which we use as a measure of the physical damage. As valuation methods, we use both the cost-of-illness method and the benefit transfer method to quantify the total gross benefits of the two...... policy actions. Based on the idea of an invasion function, we identify the total and average net benefit under both prevention and mitigation. For both policy actions, the total and average net benefits are significantly positive irrespective of the valuation method used; therefore, both prevention...

  8. Bounding Species Distribution Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Jarnevich, Cahterine S.; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern. Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development, yet there is no recommended best practice for "clamping" model extrapolations. We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches: classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models, and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations, bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors, to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States. Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding, and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models, like those presented here, should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5): 642-647, 2011].

  9. Overview of Scorpion Species from China and Their Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Cao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scorpions are one of the most ancient groups of terrestrial animals. They have maintained a steady morphology over more than 400 million years of evolution. Their venom arsenals for capturing prey and defending against predators may play a critical role in their ancient and conservative appearance. In the current review, we present the scorpion fauna of China: 53 species covering five families and 12 genera. We also systematically list toxins or genes from Chinese scorpion species, involving eight species covering four families. Furthermore, we review the diverse functions of typical toxins from Chinese scorpion species, involving Na+ channel modulators, K+ channel blockers, antimicrobial peptides and protease inhibitors. Using scorpion species and their toxins from China as an example, we build the bridge between scorpion species and their toxins, which helps us to understand the molecular and functional diversity of scorpion venom arsenal, the dynamic and functional evolution of scorpion toxins, and the potential relationships of scorpion species and their toxins.

  10. Overview of scorpion species from China and their toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhijian; Di, Zhiyong; Wu, Yingliang; Li, Wenxin

    2014-02-26

    Scorpions are one of the most ancient groups of terrestrial animals. They have maintained a steady morphology over more than 400 million years of evolution. Their venom arsenals for capturing prey and defending against predators may play a critical role in their ancient and conservative appearance. In the current review, we present the scorpion fauna of China: 53 species covering five families and 12 genera. We also systematically list toxins or genes from Chinese scorpion species, involving eight species covering four families. Furthermore, we review the diverse functions of typical toxins from Chinese scorpion species, involving Na+ channel modulators, K+ channel blockers, antimicrobial peptides and protease inhibitors. Using scorpion species and their toxins from China as an example, we build the bridge between scorpion species and their toxins, which helps us to understand the molecular and functional diversity of scorpion venom arsenal, the dynamic and functional evolution of scorpion toxins, and the potential relationships of scorpion species and their toxins.

  11. Discovering the recondite secondary metabolome spectrum of Salinispora species: a study of inter-species diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal Bose

    Full Text Available Patterns of inter-species secondary metabolite production by bacteria can provide valuable information relating to species ecology and evolution. The complex nature of this chemical diversity has previously been probed via directed analyses of a small number of compounds, identified through targeted assays rather than more comprehensive biochemical profiling approaches such as metabolomics. Insights into ecological and evolutionary relationships within bacterial genera can be derived through comparative analysis of broader secondary metabolite patterns, and this can also eventually assist biodiscovery search strategies for new natural products. Here, we investigated the species-level chemical diversity of the two marine actinobacterial species Salinispora arenicola and Salinispora pacifica, isolated from sponges distributed across the Great Barrier Reef (GBR, via their secondary metabolite profiles using LC-MS-based metabolomics. The chemical profiles of these two species were obtained by UHPLC-QToF-MS based metabolic profiling. The resultant data were interrogated using multivariate data analysis methods to compare their (biochemical profiles. We found a high level of inter-species diversity in strains from these two bacterial species. We also found rifamycins and saliniketals were produced exclusively by S. arenicola species, as the main secondary metabolites differentiating the two species. Furthermore, the discovery of 57 candidate compounds greatly increases the small number of secondary metabolites previously known to be produced by these species. In addition, we report the production of rifamycin O and W, a key group of ansamycin compounds, in S. arenicola for the first time. Species of the marine actinobacteria harbour a much wider spectrum of secondary metabolites than suspected, and this knowledge may prove a rich field for biodiscovery as well as a database for understanding relationships between speciation, evolution and chemical

  12. A new species of Curvularia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aa, van der H.A.

    1967-01-01

    Curvularia papendorfii, isolated from South African soil, is described as a new species. This species is characterized by greater overall dimensions than in any of the known species, and a hilum to the spore that is not protuberant at all.

  13. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance....... Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...

  14. Prices and species diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Johannes

    . Based on a biologically defined species diver-sity index we incorporate biodiversity either as a desirable output or biodiversity loss as a detrimental input. Beside quantitative shadow price measures the main contribu-tion of the work is the evidence that parametric scores of environmental efficiency...... of biodiversity and the appropriate incorporation in stochastic fron-tier models to achieve more realistic measures of production efficiency. We use the empirical example of tobacco production drawing from as well as affecting species diversity in the surrounding forests. We apply a shadow profit distance...

  15. Bioterrorism and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Sun, B

    2010-08-01

    The risk of dispersing invasive species, especially human pathogens, through acts of bioterrorism, cannot be neglected. However, that risk appears quite low in comparison with the risk of dispersing animal pathogens that could dramatically burden the agricultural economy of food animal producing countries, such as Australia and countries in Europe and North and South America. Although it is not directly related to bioterrorism, the intentional release of non-native species, particularly undesired companion animals or wildlife, may also have a major economic impact on the environment and, possibly, on animal and human health, in the case of accidental release of zoonotic agents.

  16. Rocket plume tomography of combustion species

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Interest in accurate detection and targeting of aggressor missiles has received considerable interest with the national priority of developing a missile defense system. Understanding the thermal signatures of the exhaust plumes of such missiles is key to accomplishing that mission. Before signature models can be precisely developed for specific rockets, the radiation of the molecular or combustion species within those plumes must be accurately predicted. A combination translation / rotation s...

  17. Nordic-Baltic Student Teachers' Identification of and Interest in Plant and Animal Species: The Importance of Species Identification and Biodiversity for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmberg, Irmeli; Berg, Ida; Jeronen, Eila; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Norrgård-Sillanpää, Pia; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis; Yli-Panula, Eija

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of species, interest in nature, and nature experiences are the factors that best promote interest in and understanding of environmental issues, biodiversity and sustainable life. The aim of this study is to investigate how well student teachers identify common local species, their interest in and ideas about species identification, and…

  18. Nordic-Baltic Student Teachers' Identification of and Interest in Plant and Animal Species: The Importance of Species Identification and Biodiversity for Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmberg, Irmeli; Berg, Ida; Jeronen, Eila; Kärkkäinen, Sirpa; Norrgård-Sillanpää, Pia; Persson, Christel; Vilkonis, Rytis; Yli-Panula, Eija

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of species, interest in nature, and nature experiences are the factors that best promote interest in and understanding of environmental issues, biodiversity and sustainable life. The aim of this study is to investigate how well student teachers identify common local species, their interest in and ideas about species identification, and…

  19. Androgen receptor gene polymorphism in zebra species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Ito

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Androgen receptor genes (AR have been found to have associations with reproductive development, behavioral traits, and disorders in humans. However, the influence of similar genetic effects on the behavior of other animals is scarce. We examined the loci AR glutamine repeat (ARQ in 44 Grevy's zebras, 23 plains zebras, and three mountain zebras, and compared them with those of domesticated horses. We observed polymorphism among zebra species and between zebra and horse. As androgens such as testosterone influence aggressiveness, AR polymorphism among equid species may be associated with differences in levels of aggression and tameness. Our findings indicate that it would be useful to conduct further studies focusing on the potential association between AR and personality traits, and to understand domestication of equid species.

  20. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  1. Semantic Borders and Incomplete Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Waldomiro J; Dazzani, Maria Virgínia

    2016-03-01

    In this article, we explore a fundamental issue of Cultural Psychology, that is our "capacity to make meaning", by investigating a thesis from contemporary philosophical semantics, namely, that there is a decisive relationship between language and rationality. Many philosophers think that for a person to be described as a rational agent he must understand the semantic content and meaning of the words he uses to express his intentional mental states, e.g., his beliefs and thoughts. Our argument seeks to investigate the thesis developed by Tyler Burge, according to which our mastery or understanding of the semantic content of the terms which form our beliefs and thoughts is an "incomplete understanding". To do this, we discuss, on the one hand, the general lines of anti-individualism or semantic externalism and, on the other, criticisms of the Burgean notion of incomplete understanding - one radical and the other moderate. We defend our understanding that the content of our beliefs must be described in the light of the limits and natural contingencies of our cognitive capacities and the normative nature of our rationality. At heart, anti-individualism leads us to think about the fact that we are social creatures, living in contingent situations, with important, but limited, cognitive capacities, and that we receive the main, and most important, portion of our knowledge simply from what others tell us. Finally, we conclude that this discussion may contribute to the current debate about the notion of borders.

  2. [Intersubjectivity: Between Explanation and Understanding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cely Ávila, Flor Emilce

    2014-03-01

    The discussion on explanation and understanding has led to a division in the sciences, based on what is considered to be inherent to each of the domains. The task of the natural sciences would be the explanation, while that of the social sciences would be understanding or interpretation.There is a line of work that currently seeks to overcome the methodological dualism and to propose more interdisciplinary studies, such as the studies on emergence of the mental in the framework of intersubjective relationships. In particular, the concept of intersubjectivity defended by the phenomenology as an embodied practice, is being supported by the results of investigations carried out on the basis of the cognitive neuroscience and developmental psychology. Authors from different roots, such as J. Bruner and S. Gallagher propose considering these types of interdisciplinary collaboration as a possible way to integrate the traditions of the explanation and understanding. The purpose of this paper is to analyze to what extent this collaboration between phenomenology and sciences, particularly on the subject of understanding others and their relevance for the understanding of certain psychopathologies, has allowed to close the gap that had opened in the nineteenth century between these traditions.

  3. Node-based analysis of species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Rahbek, Carsten; Fjeldså, Jon;

    2014-01-01

    The integration of species distributions and evolutionary relationships is one of the most rapidly moving research fields today and has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the processes underlying biogeographical patterns. Here, we develop a set of metrics, the specific overrepre......The integration of species distributions and evolutionary relationships is one of the most rapidly moving research fields today and has led to considerable advances in our understanding of the processes underlying biogeographical patterns. Here, we develop a set of metrics, the specific...... with case studies on two groups with well-described biogeographical histories: a local-scale community data set of hummingbirds in the North Andes, and a large-scale data set of the distribution of all species of New World flycatchers. The node-based analysis of these two groups generates a set...... of intuitively interpretable patterns that are consistent with current biogeographical knowledge.Importantly, the results are statistically tractable, opening many possibilities for their use in analyses of evolutionary, historical and spatial patterns of species diversity. The method is implemented...

  4. Coevolution of Symbiotic Species

    CERN Document Server

    Leok, B T M

    1996-01-01

    This paper will consider the coevolution of species which are symbiotic in their interaction. In particular, we shall analyse the interaction of squirrels and oak trees, and develop a mathematical framework for determining the coevolutionary equilibrium for consumption and production patterns.

  5. Students' understanding of quadratic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Jonathan; Robles, Izraim; Martínez-Planell, Rafael

    2016-05-01

    Action-Process-Object-Schema theory (APOS) was applied to study student understanding of quadratic equations in one variable. This required proposing a detailed conjecture (called a genetic decomposition) of mental constructions students may do to understand quadratic equations. The genetic decomposition which was proposed can contribute to help students achieve an understanding of quadratic equations with improved interrelation of ideas and more flexible application of solution methods. Semi-structured interviews with eight beginning undergraduate students explored which of the mental constructions conjectured in the genetic decomposition students could do, and which they had difficulty doing. Two of the mental constructions that form part of the genetic decomposition are highlighted and corresponding further data were obtained from the written work of 121 undergraduate science and engineering students taking a multivariable calculus course. The results suggest the importance of explicitly considering these two highlighted mental constructions.

  6. Image understanding using sparse representations

    CERN Document Server

    Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J; Turaga, Pavan; Spanias, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Image understanding has been playing an increasingly crucial role in several inverse problems and computer vision. Sparse models form an important component in image understanding, since they emulate the activity of neural receptors in the primary visual cortex of the human brain. Sparse methods have been utilized in several learning problems because of their ability to provide parsimonious, interpretable, and efficient models. Exploiting the sparsity of natural signals has led to advances in several application areas including image compression, denoising, inpainting, compressed sensing, blin

  7. Recognising and understanding Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Sandra

    2014-09-09

    Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the northern hemisphere and its incidence is rising, leading to increased public health concerns. It is important to understand the nature of the disease because this defines the limitations of current understanding and knowledge. Significant uncertainties in diagnostics and treatment remain. There is an important role for the nurse in raising awareness, giving advice on prevention and correct tick removal, and in recognising signs of Lyme disease to assist access to prompt medical attention. Increased awareness, further research, improved diagnostics and advances in therapeutics are urgently required.

  8. Understanding quantitative research: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Juanita; Hoare, Zoë

    This article, which is the first in a two-part series, provides an introduction to understanding quantitative research, basic statistics and terminology used in research articles. Critical appraisal of research articles is essential to ensure that nurses remain up to date with evidence-based practice to provide consistent and high-quality nursing care. This article focuses on developing critical appraisal skills and understanding the use and implications of different quantitative approaches to research. Part two of this article will focus on explaining common statistical terms and the presentation of statistical data in quantitative research.

  9. Understanding Students' Beliefs about Probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konold, Clifford

    The concept of probability is not an easy concept for high school and college students to understand. This paper identifies and analyzes the students' alternative frameworks from the viewpoint of constructivism. There are various interpretations of probability through mathematical history: classical, frequentist, and subjectivist interpretation.…

  10. Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn more about trauma-informed care Understanding Traumatic Stress in Children Further Reading AIR Helps NYC Child Welfare Agency Assist Families Struggling after Hurricane Sandy Implementing a Trauma-Informed Approach for Youth Across Service Sectors Trauma-Informed Organizational Toolkit Mental ...

  11. We Need Principals Who Understand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Sharon

    1981-01-01

    Describes the need for principals to have a greater understanding both of the needs of special education students and of effective ways of handling their problems. Special education survey courses and practical experiences for administrators might help close the gap between principals and special education teachers. (WD)

  12. Students' Understanding of Trigonometric Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith

    2005-01-01

    In this article students' understanding of trigonometric functions in the context of two college trigonometry courses is investigated. The first course was taught by a professor unaffiliated with the study in a lecture-based course, while the second was taught using an experimental instruction paradigm based on Gray and Tall's (1994) notion of…

  13. Understanding pharmaceutical quality by design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lawrence X; Amidon, Gregory; Khan, Mansoor A; Hoag, Stephen W; Polli, James; Raju, G K; Woodcock, Janet

    2014-07-01

    This review further clarifies the concept of pharmaceutical quality by design (QbD) and describes its objectives. QbD elements include the following: (1) a quality target product profile (QTPP) that identifies the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the drug product; (2) product design and understanding including identification of critical material attributes (CMAs); (3) process design and understanding including identification of critical process parameters (CPPs), linking CMAs and CPPs to CQAs; (4) a control strategy that includes specifications for the drug substance(s), excipient(s), and drug product as well as controls for each step of the manufacturing process; and (5) process capability and continual improvement. QbD tools and studies include prior knowledge, risk assessment, mechanistic models, design of experiments (DoE) and data analysis, and process analytical technology (PAT). As the pharmaceutical industry moves toward the implementation of pharmaceutical QbD, a common terminology, understanding of concepts and expectations are necessary. This understanding will facilitate better communication between those involved in risk-based drug development and drug application review.

  14. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...

  15. Filipino children's understanding of peace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppenheimer, L.J.T.; Kuipers, I.

    2003-01-01

    This study reports on 10-year-old Filipino children's understanding of peace, war, and strategies to attain peace. In total, 56 children were presented with a semistructured interview consisting of free associations to peace and questions pertaining to the definitions of peace and war and strategies

  16. Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria

    2012-01-01

    With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…

  17. Methodology for understanding Indian culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Jai; Kumar, Rajesh

    2004-01-01

    Methods of understanding cultures, including Indian culture, are embedded in a broad spectrum of sociocultural approaches to human behavior in general. The approaches examined in this paper reflect evolving perspectives on Indian culture, ranging from the starkly ethnocentric to the largely...

  18. Pupils' Understanding of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Anastasia; Christidou, Vasilia

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of pupils' knowledge and understanding of atmospheric pollution. Specifically, the study is aimed at identifying: 1) the extent to which pupils conceptualise the term "air pollution" in a scientifically appropriate way; 2) pupils' knowledge of air pollution sources and air pollutants; and 3) pupils' knowledge of air…

  19. Understanding Algorithms in Different Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csernoch, Mária; Biró, Piroska; Abari, Kálmán; Máth, János

    2015-01-01

    Within the framework of the Testing Algorithmic and Application Skills project we tested first year students of Informatics at the beginning of their tertiary education. We were focusing on the students' level of understanding in different programming environments. In the present paper we provide the results from the University of Debrecen, the…

  20. Understanding, Personal Identity and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godon, Rafal

    2004-01-01

    Analysing the triad understanding-personal identity-education in three different contexts (scientism, historicism, hermeneutics) make it possible to investigate the kind of thinking that is emphasised most in each context. The implications of thinking to educational practice are stressed at each level of interpretation. The chief shortfalls in the…

  1. Language Games and Musical Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Arbo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Wittgenstein has often explored language games that have to do with musical objects of different sizes (phrases, themes, formal sections or entire works. These games can refer to a technical language or to common parlance and correspond to different targets. One of these coincides with the intention to suggest a way of conceiving musical understanding. His model takes the form of the invitation to "hear (something as (something": typically, to hear a musical passage as an introduction or as a conclusion or in a certain tonality. However one may ask to what extent or in what terms (literal or metaphorical these procedures, and usually the intervention of language games, is requested by our common ways of understanding music. This article shows through the use of some examples that aspectual perception inherent to musical understanding does not require language games as a necessary condition (although in many cases the link between them seems very strong, in contradiction with the thesis of an essential linguistic character of music. At a basic level, it seems more appropriate to insist on the notion of a game: to understand music means to enter into the orbit of "music games" which show an autonomous functioning. Language games have, however, an important function when we develop this comprehension in the light of the criteria of judgment that substantiate the manner in which music is incorporated in and operates within specific forms of life.

  2. Understanding, Personal Identity and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godon, Rafal

    2004-01-01

    Analysing the triad understanding-personal identity-education in three different contexts (scientism, historicism, hermeneutics) make it possible to investigate the kind of thinking that is emphasised most in each context. The implications of thinking to educational practice are stressed at each level of interpretation. The chief shortfalls in the…

  3. Understanding Business Majors' Learning Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, James; Rochford, Regina A.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, business education programs have experienced a decline in enrollment and an increase in attrition. To understand these issues and recommend solutions, the learning styles of 503 first-year business majors at an urban community college were examined. The results demonstrated that: (a) 94% of the participants were analytic learners; (b)…

  4. Expanding the Understanding of Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musante, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Originally designed for K-12 teachers, the Understanding Evolution (UE) Web site ("www.understandingevolution.org") is a one-stop shop for all of a teacher's evolution education needs, with lesson plans, teaching tips, lists of common evolution misconceptions, and much more. However, during the past five years, the UE project team learned that…

  5. Understanding consumers of food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    In order for food businesses, scientists and policy makers to develop successful products, services and policies, it is essential that they understand food consumers and how they decide which products to buy. Food consumer behaviour is the result of various factors, including the motivations of diff

  6. Spectroscopy, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Hal

    This booklet is one of the "Understanding the Atom" Series. The science of spectroscopy is presented by a number of topics dealing with (1) the uses of spectroscopy, (2) its origin and background, (3) the basic optical systems of spectroscopes, spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, (4) the characteristics of wave motion, (5) the…

  7. Educators' Understanding of Workplace Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, Corene

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at educators' understanding of workplace bullying through the lens of a two- dimensional model of bullying. Educators, who were furthering their studies at the University of the Free State, were invited to take part in a study on different types of bullying. Deductive, directed content analysis was used to analyse 59…

  8. Understanding the Working College Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Laura W.

    2010-01-01

    Working is now a fundamental responsibility for many undergraduates. But understanding how employment affects students' educational experiences is complicated by why students work. Many students must work to pay the costs of attending college. Some traditional-age students may use employment as a way to explore career options or earn spending…

  9. Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria

    2012-01-01

    With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…

  10. Understanding Mathematics: Some Key Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Asma Amanat; Reid, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Mathematics is well known as a subject area where there can be problems in terms of understanding as well as retaining positive attitudes. In a large study involving 813 school students (ages approximately 10-12) drawn from two different school systems in Pakistan, the effect of limited working memory capacity on performance in mathematics was…

  11. Understanding the Marketplace: A Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Carole A.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a marketplace simulation game to help students understand the role of competition and the rationale behind buying and selling food and restaurant services. Cutouts (given in the article) are used to simulate elements in the game. Emphasis is on making decisions in business operation and consumer purchases. (MF)

  12. An Exercise in Artistic Understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Rachel

    1982-01-01

    Describes an attempt to use two theories of literary criticism as a research strategy for interpreting art. Paul Ricoeur's interpretation theory and Northrup Frye's Anatomy of Criticism were adopted as approaches to the problem of understanding religious or mystical paintings by Norman Adams. (AM)

  13. Understanding and Counseling Transgender Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, James; Belovics, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Because transgender individuals experience widespread employment discrimination, counselors need to understand and be able to work with members of the gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgender communities. The aim of this article is to help counselors become more transgender literate by (a) defining gender dysphoric disorder and related terms; (b)…

  14. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  15. Moral Understanding in the Psychopath*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesti, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A pressing and difficult practical problem concerns the general issue of the right social response to offenders classified as having antisocial personality disorder. This paper approaches this general problem by focusing, from a philosophical perspective, on the still relevant but more approachable question whether psychopathic offenders are morally responsible. In particular, I investigate whether psychopaths possess moral understanding. A plausible way to approach the last question requires a satisfactory philosophical interpretation of the empirical evidence that appears to show that psychopaths fail to draw the distinction between conventional and moral norms. Specifically, I will consider a recent philosophical debate polarized between supporters of rationalist and sentimentalist accounts of moral understanding. These opponents have discussed whether the case of psychopathy offers empirical support for their account and undermine the rival view. I will argue that the available empirical data leave the outcome of this discussion indeterminate. However, this implies that both these principal theories of moral understanding, if independently motivated, would imply that psychopaths have certain deficits that might affect their moral understanding and, consequently, their moral responsibility. PMID:21151766

  16. BREATHE to Understand©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  17. Understanding the Problem of Pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Leigh Ann

    This report was written to clarify the terms often associated with pornography and to help readers understand the issue of pornography more clearly. The first chapter defines pornography, as it was defined by the United States Attorney General's Commission on Pornography, as "that material (which) is predominantly sexually explicit and intended…

  18. Understanding & Teaching Genetics Using Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Scott; Himelblau, Ed

    2013-01-01

    We present a collection of analogies that are intended to help students better understand the foreign and often nuanced vocabulary of the genetics curriculum. Why is it called the "wild type"? What is the difference between a locus, a gene, and an allele? What is the functional (versus a rule-based) distinction between dominant and…

  19. 5 Indicators of Decimal Understandings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kathleen; Monson, Debra; Ahrendt, Sue; Colum, Karen; Wiley, Bethann; Wyberg, Terry

    2015-01-01

    The authors of this article collaborated with fourth-grade teachers from two schools to support implementation of a research-based fraction and decimal curriculum (Rational Number Project: Fraction Operations and Initial Decimal Ideas). Through this study, they identified five indicators of rich conceptual understanding of decimals, which are…

  20. Flexibility in embodied language understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roel M Willems

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Do people use sensori-motor cortices to understand language? Here we review neurocognitive studies of language comprehension in healthy adults and evaluate their possible contributions to theories of language in the brain. We start by sketching the minimal predictions that an embodied theory of language understanding makes for empirical research, and then survey studies that have been offered as evidence for embodied semantic representations. We explore four debated issues: first, does activation of sensori-motor cortices during action language understanding imply that action semantics relies on mirror neurons? Second, what is the evidence that activity in sensori-motor cortices plays a functional role in understanding language? Third, to what extent do responses in perceptual and motor areas depend on the linguistic and extra-linguistic context? And finally, can embodied theories accommodate language about abstract concepts? Based on the available evidence, we conclude that sensori-motor cortices are activated during a variety of language comprehension tasks, for both concrete and abstract language. Yet, this activity depends on the context in which perception and action words are encountered. Although modality-specific cortical activity is not a sine qua non of language processing even for language about perception and action, sensori-motor regions of the brain appear to make functional contributions to the construction of meaning, and should therefore be incorporated into models of the neurocognitive architecture of language.

  1. Explanation, understanding, and unrealistic models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    2013-01-01

    How can false models be explanatory? And how can they help us to understand the way the world works? Sometimes scientists have little hope of building models that approximate the world they observe. Even in such cases, I argue, the models they build can have explanatory import. The basic idea is tha

  2. Test your knowledge and understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This quiz is designed to test your understanding of the concepts covered in this issue and to give you an opportunity to reflect on what you have learnt. These multiple true/false questions were produced in collaboration with the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO.

  3. Teachers' Understanding of Algebraic Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Casey Wayne

    Generalization has been identified as a cornerstone of algebraic thinking (e.g., Lee, 1996; Sfard, 1995) and is at the center of a rich conceptualization of K-8 algebra (Kaput, 2008; Smith, 2003). Moreover, mathematics teachers are being encouraged to use figural-pattern generalizing tasks as a basis of student-centered instruction, whereby teachers respond to and build upon the ideas that arise from students' explorations of these activities. Although more and more teachers are engaging their students in such generalizing tasks, little is known about teachers' understanding of generalization and their understanding of students' mathematical thinking in this domain. In this work, I addressed this gap, exploring the understanding of algebraic generalization of 4 exemplary 8th-grade teachers from multiple perspectives. A significant feature of this investigation is an examination of teachers' understanding of the generalization process, including the use of algebraic symbols. The research consisted of two phases. Phase I was an examination of the teachers' understandings of the underlying quantities and quantitative relationships represented by algebraic notation. In Phase II, I observed the instruction of 2 of these teachers. Using the lens of professional noticing of students' mathematical thinking, I explored the teachers' enacted knowledge of algebraic generalization, characterizing how it supported them to effectively respond to the needs and queries of their students. Results indicated that teachers predominantly see these figural patterns as enrichment activities, disconnected from course content. Furthermore, in my analysis, I identified conceptual difficulties teachers experienced when solving generalization tasks, in particular, connecting multiple symbolic representations with the quantities in the figures. Moreover, while the teachers strived to overcome the challenges of connecting different representations, they invoked both productive and unproductive

  4. Fast food in ant communities: how competing species find resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce-Duvet, Jessica M C; Moyano, Martin; Adler, Frederick R; Feener, Donald H

    2011-09-01

    An understanding of foraging behavior is crucial to understanding higher level community dynamics; in particular, there is a lack of information about how different species discover food resources. We examined the effect of forager number and forager discovery capacity on food discovery in two disparate temperate ant communities, located in Texas and Arizona. We defined forager discovery capacity as the per capita rate of resource discovery, or how quickly individual ants arrived at resources. In general, resources were discovered more quickly when more foragers were present; this was true both within communities, where species identity was ignored, as well as within species. This pattern suggests that resource discovery is a matter of random processes, with ants essentially bumping into resources at a rate mediated by their abundance. In contrast, species that were better discoverers, as defined by the proportion of resources discovered first, did not have higher numbers of mean foragers. Instead, both mean forager number and mean forager discovery capacity determined discovery success. The Texas species used both forager number and capacity, whereas the Arizona species used only forager capacity. There was a negative correlation between a species' prevalence in the environment and the discovery capacity of its foragers, suggesting that a given species cannot exploit both high numbers and high discovery capacity as a strategy. These results highlight that while forager number is crucial to determining time to discovery at the community level and within species, individual forager characteristics influence the outcome of exploitative competition in ant communities.

  5. Positive feedback in species communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerla, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Sometimes the eventual population densities in a species community depend on the initial densities or the arrival times of species. If arrival times determine species composition, a priority effect has occurred. Priority effects may occur if the species community exhibits alternative stable states (

  6. The functional biogeography of species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, D.W.; Dalsgaard, B.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    between species traits and large-scale species distribution patterns in archipelagos, we use a network approach to classify birds as one of four biogeographical species roles: peripherals, connectors, module hubs, and network hubs. These roles are based upon the position of species within the modular...

  7. Single-species microarrays and comparative transcriptomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric J J Chain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prefabricated expression microarrays are currently available for only a few species but methods have been proposed to extend their application to comparisons between divergent genomes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we demonstrate that the hybridization intensity of genomic DNA is a poor basis on which to select unbiased probes on Affymetrix expression arrays for studies of comparative transcriptomics, and that doing so produces spurious results. We used the Affymetrix Xenopus laevis microarray to evaluate expression divergence between X. laevis, X. borealis, and their F1 hybrids. When data are analyzed with probes that interrogate only sequences with confirmed identity in both species, we recover results that differ substantially analyses that use genomic DNA hybridizations to select probes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings have implications for the experimental design of comparative expression studies that use single-species microarrays, and for our understanding of divergent expression in hybrid clawed frogs. These findings also highlight important limitations of single-species microarrays for studies of comparative transcriptomics of polyploid species.

  8. Identification of Malassezia species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindo, A J; Sophia, S K C; Kalyani, J; Anandan, S

    2004-01-01

    Malassezia spp. are lipophilic unipolar yeasts recognized as commensals of skin that may be pathogenic under certain conditions. The genus Malassezia now comprises of seven species. This study was aimed at using a simple practical approach to speciate Malassezia yeasts from clinical material. Seventy skin scrapings from patients with pityriasis versicolor infection, positive in 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH), were cultured onto modified Dixon's agar (mDixon's agar) and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA) and incubated at 32 degrees C. Speciation was done on the basis of Gram stain morphology, catalase test, and utilization of Tweens. Out of 70 scrapings 48 (68.75%) showed growth on mDixon's agar. The commonest isolate was M. sympodialis (28, 58%) followed by M. globosa (19, 40%) and one isolate was (2%) of M. restricta. M. sympodialis was the commonest species affecting our population and there was no isolation of M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. pachydermatis and M. furfur.

  9. Arctic species resilience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lars O.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jeppesen, Erik

    and precipitation. Concurrently, phenological change has been recorded in a wide range of plants and animals, with climate change seemingly being the primary driver of these changes. A major concern is whether species and biological systems embrace the plasticity in their phenological responses needed for tracking......The peak of biological activities in Arctic ecosystems is characterized by a relative short and intense period between the start of snowmelt until the onset of frost. Recent climate changes have induced larger seasonal variation in both timing of snowmelt as well as changes mean temperatures...... the predicted increase in climate variability. Whereas species may show relatively high phenological resilience to climate change per se, the resilience of systems may be more constrained by the inherent dependence through consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels. During the last 15 years...

  10. Trichoderma species from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Chu-long; XU Tong

    2004-01-01

    @@ Seventeen species of Trichoderma, isolated from soil or tree bark from China are identified based on morphological and physiological characters, and from their phylogenetic position inferred from parsimony analyses of nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA cluster (ITS1 and 2) and partial sequences of translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) . There were T. citrinoviride, T. longibrachiatum, T. sinensis in section Longibrachiatum, T. atroviride, T.koningii, T. viride, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, T. erinaceum in section Trichoderma, T.harzianum (H.lixii) , T. inhamatum, T. velutinum , T. cerinum , T. strictipile , T. spirale ,T. virens, H. nigrovirens (Trichoderma sp.) in section Pachybasium. Among them four species:T. asperellum , T. velutinum , T. cerinum , T. spirale were reported firstly in China. In addition, two suspected new taxa (Trichoderma spp.) in Trichoderma section were proposed:Trichoderma sp. 1 (ZAUT261, 4, 4A, 15A, 2C), Trichoderma sp. 2 (2B, 5, 7A, 7B, 9A).Trichoderma sp. 1 was similar to T. hamatum , but the temperature optimum for mycelial growth was lower than that of T. hamatum and the species tended to form hemisphaerical pustule with Telatively larger conidia (average length 4.6 μm × 2.8 μm). Trichoderma sp. 2 was distinguished morphologically from related species T. strigosum, T. pubescens, T. erinaceum, T. hamatum and Trichoderma sp. 1 in pustules on CMD without fertile or sterile conidiophore elongation and distinctive phialide shape, the conidiophore branches similar to T. koningii, but the conidia similar to T. viride, subglobose, conspicuously tuberculate.

  11. Introduced Terrestrial Species Richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    These data represent predicted current distributions of all introduced mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and butterflies in the Middle-Atlantic region. These data are available for both 8-digit HUCs and EMAP hexagons. The data are species counts for each spatial unit. More information about these resources, including the variables used in this study, may be found here: https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/NERL/ReVA/ReVA_Data.zip.

  12. Bounding species distribution models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas J. STOHLGREN; Catherine S. JARNEVICH; Wayne E. ESAIAS; Jeffrey T. MORISETTE

    2011-01-01

    Species distribution models are increasing in popularity for mapping suitable habitat for species of management concern.Many investigators now recognize that extrapolations of these models with geographic information systems (GIS) might be sensitive to the environmental bounds of the data used in their development,yet there is no recommended best practice for “clamping” model extrapolations.We relied on two commonly used modeling approaches:classification and regression tree (CART) and maximum entropy (Maxent) models,and we tested a simple alteration of the model extrapolations,bounding extrapolations to the maximum and minimum values of primary environmental predictors,to provide a more realistic map of suitable habitat of hybridized Africanized honey bees in the southwestern United States.Findings suggest that multiple models of bounding,and the most conservative bounding of species distribution models,like those presented here,should probably replace the unbounded or loosely bounded techniques currently used [Current Zoology 57 (5):642-647,2011].

  13. Does global warning increase establishment rates of invasive alien species? A centurial time series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingcheng Huang; Robert A. Haack; Runzhi. Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The establishment rate of invasive alien insect species has been increasing worldwide during the past century. This trend has been widely attributed to increased rates of international trade and associated species introductions, but rarely linked to environmental change. To better understand and manage the bioinvasion process, it is crucial to understand the...

  14. Understanding designers designing for understanding : collaborative learning and shared understanding in video-based communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Ingrid Janita

    2004-01-01

    In this dissertation the tango metaphor is used to understand distributed ad hoc teams working together on complex tasks. A single person cannot solve these complex tasks. It is the (potential) added value of a whole team that makes a team more suitable to perform such tasks. What applies to tango d

  15. Patterns and determinants of mammal species occurrence in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karanth, K.K.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Karanth, K.U.; Christensen, N.L.

    2009-01-01

    Many Indian mammals face range contraction and extinction, but assessments of their population status are hindered by the lack of reliable distribution data and range maps. 2. We estimated the current geographical ranges of 20 species of large mammals by applying occupancy models to data from country-wide expert. We modelled species in relation to ecological and social covariates (protected areas, landscape characteristics and human influences) based on a priori hypotheses about plausible determinants of mammalian distribution patterns. 3. We demonstrated that failure to incorporate detection probability in distribution survey methods underestimated habitat occupancy for all species. 4. Protected areas were important for the distribution of 16 species. However, for many species much of their current range remains unprotected. The availability of evergreen forests was important for the occurrence of 14 species, temperate forests for six species, deciduous forests for 15 species and higher altitude habitats for two species. Low human population density was critical for the occurrence of five species, while culturally based tolerance was important for the occurrence of nine other species. 5. Rhino Rhinoceros unicornis, gaur Bos gaurus and elephant Elephas maximus showed the most restricted ranges among herbivores, and sun bear Helarctos malayanus, brown bear Ursus arctos and tiger Panthera tigris were most restricted among carnivores. While cultural tolerance has helped the survival of some mammals, legal protection has been critically associated with occurrence of most species. 6. Synthesis and applications. Extent of range is an important determinant of species conservation status. Understanding the relationship of species occurrence with ecological and socio-cultural covariates is important for identification and management of key conservation areas. The combination of occupancy models with field data from country-wide experts enables reliable estimation of species

  16. Population structure of three Psammodromus species in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose L. Horreo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of a species’ population structure is essential for the development of adequate conservation actions as well as for the understanding of its evolution. The population structure is unknown in all species of the Genus Psammodromus, including the Western Sand Racer (Psammodromus occidentalis; a recently described species, the Edward’s Sand Racer (P. edwardsianus and the Spanish Sand Racer (P. hispanicus. In this article, the genetic variability and population structure of Psammodromus edwardsianus, P. hispanicus, and P. occidentalis were studied in the Iberian Peninsula covering their natural geographic distribution. Mitochondrial DNA showed genetically different units in all species with higher genetic variability in their southern populations (latitudinal variation. Genetic differentiation was different among species and contrasted to those of species with similar characteristics. Our results therefore highlight the importance of species-specific studies analysing population structure.

  17. Characteristics of 263K scrapie agent in multiple hamster species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade-White, Kimberly D; Barbian, Kent D; Race, Brent; Favara, Cynthia; Gardner, Don; Taubner, Lara; Porcella, Stephen; Race, Richard

    2009-02-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) diseases are known to cross species barriers, but the pathologic and biochemical changes that occur during transmission are not well understood. To better understand these changes, we infected 6 hamster species with 263K hamster scrapie strain and, after each of 3 successive passages in the new species, analyzed abnormal proteinase K (PK)-resistant prion protein (PrPres) glycoform ratios, PrPres PK sensitivity, incubation periods, and lesion profiles. Unique 263K molecular and biochemical profiles evolved in each of the infected hamster species. Characteristics of 263K in the new hamster species seemed to correlate best with host factors rather than agent strain. Furthermore, 2 polymorphic regions of the prion protein amino acid sequence correlated with profile differences in these TSE-infected hamster species.

  18. Models of natural language understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M

    1995-10-24

    This paper surveys some of the fundamental problems in natural language (NL) understanding (syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and discourse) and the current approaches to solving them. Some recent developments in NL processing include increased emphasis on corpus-based rather than example- or intuition-based work, attempts to measure the coverage and effectiveness of NL systems, dealing with discourse and dialogue phenomena, and attempts to use both analytic and stochastic knowledge. Critical areas for the future include grammars that are appropriate to processing large amounts of real language; automatic (or at least semi-automatic) methods for deriving models of syntax, semantics, and pragmatics; self-adapting systems; and integration with speech processing. Of particular importance are techniques that can be tuned to such requirements as full versus partial understanding and spoken language versus text. Portability (the ease with which one can configure an NL system for a particular application) is one of the largest barriers to application of this technology.

  19. Understanding nonlinear effects and losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.

    1995-10-01

    With the planned construction of a large hadron collider (LHC) and a major upgrade of LEP (LEP-II) at CERN, a {Phi}-factory at Frascatti, and B-factories at SLAC (PEP-II) and KEK (KEK-B), we are now entering new energy and intensity regimes in both electron and proton circular colliders. Understanding and accurately estimating dynamic apertures and particle loss rates under both injection and colliding beam conditions is of primary importance. This paper summarizes discussions on Understanding Nonlinear Effects and Losses that took place in Working Group Three at the September 1994 Conference on Nonlinear Dynamics in Particle Accelerators at Arcidosso, Italy. Questions addressed were: {open_quotes}What do simulations indicate as the underlying causes of particle loss?{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Do experiments agree with simulations-and if not, why not?{close_quotes} Special attention was given to a discrepancy between dynamic aperture measurements and theoretical predictions at HERA.

  20. Placebo analgesia: understanding the mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Zev M; Colloca, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of pain relief drive placebo analgesia. Understanding how expectations of improvement trigger distinct biological systems to shape therapeutic analgesic outcomes has been the focus of recent pharmacologic and neuroimaging studies in the field of pain. Recent findings indicate that placebo effects can imitate the actions of real painkillers and promote the endogenous release of opioids and nonopioids in humans. Social support and observational learning also contribute to placebo analgesic effects. Distinct psychological traits can modulate expectations of analgesia, which facilitate brain pain control mechanisms involved in pain reduction. Many studies have highlighted the importance and clinical relevance of these responses. Gaining deeper understanding of these pain modulatory mechanisms has important implications for personalizing patient pain management.

  1. Towards better understanding of QBism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Recently I posted a paper entitled "External observer reflections on QBism". As any external observable, I was not able to reflect some features of QBism properly. Therefore comments which I received from one of its creators, C. Fuchs, are very valuable - to understand better the views of QBists. Some of QBism features are very delicate and to extract them from articles of QBists is not a simple task. Therefore I hope that the second portion of my reflection on QBism (or better to say my reflections on Fuchs' reflections on my reflections) might be interesting and useful for other experts in quantum foundations and quantum information theory (especially by taking into account my previous aggressively anti-QBism position). In the present paper I correct some of my previously posted critical comments on QBism. At the same time better understanding of QBists views on some problems leads to improvement and strengthening of other critical comments.

  2. Understanding MAOS through computational chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, P; de la Hoz, A; Díaz-Ortiz, A; Rodríguez, A M

    2017-01-23

    The importance of microwave irradiation in organic synthesis today is unquestionable, but in many cases the nature of these improvements remains unknown. Exploiting the benefits that microwave irradiation has in chemistry is still hindered by a lack of understanding of the physical principles of the interaction of microwave irradiation with the components of a reaction. Moreover, dielectric properties vary with temperature and along the reaction coordinate and this makes the situation more complex. Experimental determinations employed to date in Microwave-Assisted Organic Chemistry (MAOS) are characterized by the importance of thermal heating. In this way the separation of thermal heating from any other effect of electromagnetic radiation is completely impossible. This review provides an overview of the use of Computational Chemistry in MAOS to provide a theoretical understanding of the factors that can be used to explain the improvements in MAOS and how computational calculations can be used as a predictive tool.

  3. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration/cadastre/land r......There is a worldwide need to build understanding of the land management paradigm and for institutional development to establish sustainable national concepts. This includes creation and adoption of a policy on land development, and an approach that combines the land administration....../cadastre/land registration function with topographic mapping. The author seeks to awaken more awareness of global trends in this area, recognising that the systems design involved is always unique....

  4. Understanding the Globalization of Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "This book provides an introduction to the complexities of contemporary Western Intelligence and its dynamics during an era of globalization. Towards an understanding of the globalization of intelligence process, Svendsen focuses on the secretive phenomenon of international or foreign intelligence...... cooperation ('liaison'), as it occurs in both theory and practice. Reflecting a complex coexistence plurality of several different and overlapping concepts in action, the challenging process of the globalization of intelligence emerges as essential for complex issue management purposes during a globalized era...

  5. Placebo analgesia: understanding the mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Medoff, Zev M; Colloca, Luana

    2015-01-01

    Expectations of pain relief drive placebo analgesia. Understanding how expectations of improvement trigger distinct biological systems to shape therapeutic analgesic outcomes has been the focus of recent pharmacologic and neuroimaging studies in the field of pain. Recent findings indicate that placebo effects can imitate the actions of real painkillers and promote the endogenous release of opioids and nonopioids in humans. Social support and observational learning also contribute to placebo a...

  6. Understanding crop and farm management

    OpenAIRE

    Chongtham, Iman Raj

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture faces challenges in meeting rising demand for food, feed, fibre and fuel while coping with pressure from globalisation, limited natural resources and climate change. Farmers will choose management practices based on their goals and available resources and these practices will influence farm performance. The aim of this thesis was to understand farmers’ crop and farm management practices and their links to farm(er) characteristics, productivity, biodiversity, marketing channels and...

  7. Understanding and measuring social entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Kannampuzha, Merie Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This thesis aims to understand the phenomenon of social entrepreneurship and measure its component dimensions. In particular, the thesis addresses two research gaps in the social entrepreneurship research. The first gap addressed is the resource mobilization during marketing strategy development of a social enterprise in its start-up stage. Social entrepreneurship is a diverse concept constituting various organizational form and activities. Hence, the second research gap that this...

  8. James Peacock, Understanding Paul Auster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysavgi Papayianni

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Paul Auster’s impressive gamut of work continues to incite fascination and controversy. Indeed, his compelling storytelling style taken together with his mixing of crime fiction and absurdism has made his readers and critics vacillate between praise and condemnation. James Peacock’s Understanding Paul Auster, sheds new light to otherwise obscure aspects of Auster’s novels, films, and other works undermining in this way the negative criticism of the past and thus creating a new appreciation fo...

  9. Understanding Core-Collapse Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Burrows, A

    2004-01-01

    I summarize, in the form of an extended abstract, the ongoing efforts at the University of Arizona (and in collaboration) to understand core-collapse supernovae theoretically. Included are short discussions of 1D (SESAME) and 2D (VULCAN/2D) codes and results, as well as discussions of the possible role of rotation. Highlighted are recent developments in multi-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics and the essential physics of the neutrino-driven mechanism.

  10. RPC understanding and future perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Santonico, R

    2004-01-01

    The understanding of the long-term behavior of the RPCs developed as dedicated muon trigger detectors at LHC and presently in construction, is analyzed. The main aging mechanisms are reviewed. The gas contamination by the hydrofluoric acid is analyzed as a possible aging cause and a method for measuring the fluorine concentration in the exhaust gas is described. Finally, the use of RPCs for the detection of Cosmic Ray Extensive Air Showers and their imaging capabilities are briefly discussed.

  11. Public understanding of sustainable tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, G; Rathouse, K; Scarles, C; Holmes, K.; Tribe, J

    2010-01-01

    If tourism is to become part of a more sustainable lifestyle, changes are needed to the patterns of behaviour adopted by the public. This paper presents the results of research conducted amongst members of the public in England on their understanding of sustainable tourism; their response to four desired tourism behaviour goals, and expectations about the role of government and the tourism industry in encouraging sustainable tourism. The research shows a lack of awareness of tourism’s impact ...

  12. Action understanding as inverse planning

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Christopher Lawrence; Saxe, Rebecca R.; Joshua B Tenenbaum

    2009-01-01

    Humans are adept at inferring the mental states underlying other agents’ actions, such as goals, beliefs, desires, emotions and other thoughts. We propose a computational framework based on Bayesian inverse planning for modeling human action understanding. The framework represents an intuitive theory of intentional agents’ behavior based on the principle of rationality: the expectation that agents will plan approximately rationally to achieve their goals, given their beliefs about the world. ...

  13. Bilingualism Accentuates Children's Conversational Understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Siegal; Luca Surian; Ayumi Matsuo; Alessandra Geraci; Laura Iozzi; Yuko Okumura; Shoji Itakura

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although bilingualism is prevalent throughout the world, little is known about the extent to which it influences children's conversational understanding. Our investigation involved children aged 3-6 years exposed to one or more of four major languages: English, German, Italian, and Japanese. In two experiments, we examined the children's ability to identify responses to questions as violations of conversational maxims (to be informative and avoid redundancy, to speak the truth, be...

  14. Integrating population and genetic monitoring to understand changes in the abundance of a threatened seabird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Vásquez-Carrillo; R. William Henry; Laird Henkel; M. Zachariah. Peery

    2013-01-01

    Population monitoring programs for threatened species are rarely designed to disentangle the effects of movements from changes in birth and death rates on estimated trends in abundance. Here, we illustrate how population and genetic monitoring can be integrated to understand the cause of large changes in the abundance of a threatened species of seabird, the Marbled...

  15. Strong species-environment feedback shapes plant community assembly along environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    An aim of community ecology is to understand the patterns of competing species assembly along environmental gradients. All species interact with their environments. However, theories of community assembly have seldom taken into account the effects of species that are able to engineer the environment. In this modeling study, we integrate the species' engineering trait together with processes of immigration and local dispersal into a theory of community assembly. We quantify the species' engineering trait as the degree to which it can move the local environment away from its baseline state towards the optimum state of the species (species-environment feedback). We find that, in the presence of immigration from a regional pool, strong feedback can increase local species richness; however, in the absence of continual immigration, species richness is a declining function of the strength of species-environment feedback. This shift from a negative effect of engineering strength on species richness to a positive effect, as immigration rate increases, is clearer when there is spatial heterogeneity in the form of a gradient in environmental conditions than when the environment is homogeneous or it is randomly heterogeneous. Increasing the scale over which local dispersal occurs can facilitate species richness when there is no species-environment feedback or when the feedback is weak. However, increases in the spatial scale of dispersal can reduce species richness when the species-environment feedback is strong. These results expand the theoretical basis for understanding the effects of the strength of species-environment feedback on community assembly.

  16. An Evolutionary Modelling Approach To Understanding The Factors Behind Plant Invasiveness And Community Susceptibility To Invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warren, John; Topping, Christopher John; James, Penri

    2011-01-01

    Ecologists have had limited success in understanding which introduced species may become invasive. An evolutionary model is used to investigate which traits are associated with invasiveness. Translocation experiments were simulated in which species were moved into similar but evolutionary younger...... observed to be species and community combination specific. This evolutionary study represents a novel in silico attempt to tackle invasiveness in an experimental framework, and may provide a new methodology for tackling these issues....

  17. Patterns of selectivity in introductions of mammal species worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim M. Blackburn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans have an extremely long history of transporting and introducing mammal species outside their native geographic ranges. The characteristics of the species introduced (taxonomy, life-history, ecology, environment can all influence which traits are available (and selected for establishment, and subsequent invasive spread. Understanding the non-randomness in species introductions is therefore key to understanding invasions by alien species. Here, we test for selectivity in the identities and traits of mammal species introduced worldwide. We compiled and analysed a comprehensive database of introduced mammal species, including information on a broad range of life history, ecological, distributional and environmental variables that we predicted to differ between introduced and non-introduced mammal species. Certain mammal taxa are much more likely to have been introduced than expected, such as Artiodactyls in the families Bovidae and Cervidae. Rodents and bats were much less likely to have been introduced than expected. Introduced mammal species have significantly larger body masses, longer lifespans and larger litter sizes than a random sample of all mammal species. They also have much larger native geographic ranges than expected, originate from significantly further north, from cooler areas, and from areas with higher human population densities, than mammal species with no recorded introductions. The traits and distributions of species help determine which have been introduced, and reflect how the evolutionary history of mammals has resulted in certain species with certain traits being located in the way of human histories of movement and demands for goods and services. The large amount of unexplained variation is likely to relate to the intrinsically stochastic nature of this human-driven process.

  18. Effectiveness of Reptile Species Identification--A Comparison of a Dichotomous Key with an Identification Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph; Zehender, Irene

    2006-01-01

    Species identification tasks are a prerequisite for an understanding of biodiversity. Here, we focused on different educational materials to foster the identification of six European reptile species. Our educational training unit was based on natural plastic models of six species and pupils either used an illustrated identification book or a…

  19. Seeing the forest and the trees: multilevel models reveal both species and community patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Jackson; Monica G. Turner; Scott M. Pearson; Anthony R. Ives

    2012-01-01

    Studies designed to understand species distributions and community assemblages typically use separate analytical approaches (e.g., logistic regression and ordination) to model the distribution of individual species and to relate community composition to environmental variation. Multilevel models (MLMs) offer a promising strategy for integrating species and community-...

  20. Understanding the toxicity of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Yuliang; Sun, Baoyun; Chen, Chunying

    2013-03-19

    Because of their unique physical, chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted a great deal of research interest and have many potential applications. As large-scale production and application of CNTs increases, the general population is more likely to be exposed to CNTs either directly or indirectly, which has prompted considerable attention about human health and safety issues related to CNTs. Although considerable experimental data related to CNT toxicity at the molecular, cellular, and whole animal levels have been published, the results are often conflicting. Therefore, a systematic understanding of CNT toxicity is needed but has not yet been developed. In this Account, we highlight recent investigations into the basis of CNT toxicity carried out by our team and by other laboratories. We focus on several important factors that explain the disparities in the experimental results of nanotoxicity, such as impurities, amorphous carbon, surface charge, shape, length, agglomeration, and layer numbers. The exposure routes, including inhalation, intravenous injection, or dermal or oral exposure, can also influence the in vivo behavior and fate of CNTs. The underlying mechanisms of CNT toxicity include oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, malignant transformation, DNA damage and mutation (errors in chromosome number as well as disruption of the mitotic spindle), the formation of granulomas, and interstitial fibrosis. These findings provide useful insights for de novo design and safe application of carbon nanotubes and their risk assessment to human health. To obtain reproducible and accurate results, researchers must establish standards and reliable detection methods, use standard CNT samples as a reference control, and study the impact of various factors systematically. In addition, researchers need to examine multiple types of CNTs, different cell lines and animal species, multidimensional evaluation methods, and

  1. Understanding tantalum-catalyzed ethylene trimerization: When things go wrong

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Yin

    2013-06-07

    Ethylene oligomerization to linear low-molecular-mass α-olefins is an open industrial challenge. Ta-based catalysts are promising systems, but the unclear understanding of their behavior prevents systematic advances in the field. We demonstrate here that a well-defined (î -SiO)3Ta III species is able to promote ethylene oligo-/polymerization without any cocatalyst, confirming that the active species in Ta systems corresponds to a TaIII species. DFT calculations on a series of Ta systems ranging from ethylene trimerization to ethylene polymerization catalysts highlight the key factors controlling their experimental behavior. Comparison of these Ta systems allows one to set general rules for the rational development of new ethylene Ta oligomerization catalysts. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Chromatographic analysis of the acidic and basic species of recombinant monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yi; Walsh, Alison; Ehrick, Robin; Xu, Wei; May, Kimberly; Liu, Hongcheng

    2012-01-01

    The existence of multiple variants with differences in either charge, molecular weight or other properties is a common feature of monoclonal antibodies. These charge variants are generally referred to as acidic or basic compared with the main species. The chemical nature of the main species is usually well-understood, but understanding the chemical nature of acidic and basic species, and the differences between all three species, is critical for process development and formulation design. Complete understanding of acidic and basic species, however, is challenging because both species are known to contain multiple modifications, and it is likely that more modifications may be discovered. This review focuses on the current understanding of the modifications that can result in the generation of acidic and basic species and their affect on antibody structure, stability and biological functions. Chromatography elution profiles and several critical aspects regarding fraction collection and sample preparations necessary for detailed characterization are also discussed.

  3. Genomics of Bacillus Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Økstad, Ole Andreas; Kolstø, Anne-Brit

    Members of the genus Bacillus are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes, the low G+C gram-positive bacteria. The Bacillus genus was first described and classified by Ferdinand Cohn in Cohn (1872), and Bacillus subtilis was defined as the type species (Soule, 1932). Several Bacilli may be linked to opportunistic infections. However, pathogenicity among Bacillus spp. is mainly a feature of bacteria belonging to the Bacillus cereus group, including B. cereus, Bacillus anthracis, and Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we review the genomics of B. cereus group bacteria in relation to their roles as etiological agents of two food poisoning syndromes (emetic and diarrhoeal).

  4. Vestibular animal models: contributions to understanding physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Hans; Zwergal, Andreas; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2016-04-01

    Our knowledge of the vestibular sensory system, its functional significance for gaze and posture stabilization, and its capability to ensure accurate spatial orientation perception and spatial navigation has greatly benefitted from experimental approaches using a variety of vertebrate species. This review summarizes the attempts to establish the roles of semicircular canal and otolith endorgans in these functions followed by an overview of the most relevant fields of vestibular research including major findings that have advanced our understanding of how this system exerts its influence on reflexive and cognitive challenges encountered during daily life. In particular, we highlight the contributions of different animal models and the advantage of using a comparative research approach. Cross-species comparisons have established that the morpho-physiological properties underlying vestibular signal processing are evolutionarily inherent, thereby disclosing general principles. Based on the documented success of this approach, we suggest that future research employing a balanced spectrum of standard animal models such as fish/frog, mouse and primate will optimize our progress in understanding vestibular processing in health and disease. Moreover, we propose that this should be further supplemented by research employing more "exotic" species that offer unique experimental access and/or have specific vestibular adaptations due to unusual locomotor capabilities or lifestyles. Taken together this strategy will expedite our understanding of the basic principles underlying vestibular computations to reveal relevant translational aspects. Accordingly, studies employing animal models are indispensible and even mandatory for the development of new treatments, medication and technical aids (implants) for patients with vestibular pathologies.

  5. Intraguild interactions implicating invasive species: Harmonia axyridis as a model species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms that result in the success of exotic species will contribute to predicting future invasions and managing invaded systems. Exotic animal species, whether introduced accidentally or deliberately, may impact communities of native species through different intraguild interactions. As an effective generalist predator of aphids and other soft-body pests the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas has been a successful biological control agent. This species was deliberately introduced into several countries for biological control of different arthropods pests, but it was also introduced accidentally into several other countries. It became an invasive species, affecting the dynamic and composition of several guilds through direct or indirect interactions. In this paper we will specifically review the existing data on mechanisms of intraguild interactions, within exotic guilds, that result in the success of H. axyridis as an invasive alien. We will use these studies to interpret the observed population declines in predator diversity in the field, and predict species at risk in regions not yet invaded. Finally, we will review the available data on the impact of intraguild interactions implicating H. axyridis on pest biocontrol.

  6. Why species tell more about traits than traits about species: predictive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James S

    2016-08-01

    Trait analysis aims to understand relationships between traits, species diversity, and the environment. Current methods could benefit from a model-based probabilistic framework that accommodates covariance between traits and quantifies contributions from inherent trait syndromes, species interactions, and responses to the environment. I develop a model-based approach that separates these effects on trait diversity. Application to USDA Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data in the eastern United States demonstrates an apparent paradox, that the analysis of species better explains and predicts traits than does direct analysis of the traits themselves; trait data contain less, not more, information than species on environmental responses. Whereas variation in some traits is dominated by inherent syndromes (tendency for certain traits to be associated with others within an individual and species), others are strongly controlled by variation in species diversity. There is substantial variation in environmental control on trait patterns, between traits and regionally. In terms of environmental response traits do not aggregate into defined plant functional types, as would be desirable for models.

  7. Students' Progression in Understanding the Matter Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadenfeldt, Jan Christoph; Neumann, Knut; Bernholt, Sascha; Liu, Xiufeng; Parchmann, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    This study presents our attempt to elicit students' progression in understanding the matter concept. Past work has identified the big ideas about matter students need to understand, the many everyday understandings students hold about these ideas, and levels of understanding through which students progress in developing understanding of the big…

  8. The species concept as an emergent property of population biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Michael W

    2011-03-01

    Resurgent interest in the genetics of population divergence and speciation coincides with recent critical evaluation of species concepts and proposals for species delimitation. An important result of these parallel trends is a slight but important conceptual shift in focus away from species diagnoses based on prior species concepts or definitions, and toward analyses of the processes acting on lineages of metapopulations that eventually lead to differences recognizable as species taxa. An advantage of this approach is that it identifies quantitative metapopulation differences in continuous variables, rather than discrete entities that do or do not conform to a prior species concept, and species taxa are recognized as an emergent property of population-level processes. The tension between species concepts and diagnosis versus emergent recognition of species taxa is at least as old as Darwin, and is unlikely to be resolved soon in favor of either view, because the products of both approaches (discrete utilitarian taxon names for species, process-based understanding of the origins of differentiated metapopulations) continue to have important applications.

  9. Ecological niche transferability using invasive species as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Fernández

    Full Text Available Species distribution modeling is widely applied to predict invasive species distributions and species range shifts under climate change. Accurate predictions depend upon meeting the assumption that ecological niches are conserved, i.e., spatially or temporally transferable. Here we present a multi-taxon comparative analysis of niche conservatism using biological invasion events well documented in natural history museum collections. Our goal is to assess spatial transferability of the climatic niche of a range of noxious terrestrial invasive species using two complementary approaches. First we compare species' native versus invasive ranges in environmental space using two distinct methods, Principal Components Analysis and Mahalanobis distance. Second we compare species' native versus invaded ranges in geographic space as estimated using the species distribution modeling technique Maxent and the comparative index Hellinger's I. We find that species exhibit a range of responses, from almost complete transferability, in which the invaded niches completely overlap with the native niches, to a complete dissociation between native and invaded ranges. Intermediate responses included expansion of dimension attributable to either temperature or precipitation derived variables, as well as niche expansion in multiple dimensions. We conclude that the ecological niche in the native range is generally a poor predictor of invaded range and, by analogy, the ecological niche may be a poor predictor of range shifts under climate change. We suggest that assessing dimensions of niche transferability prior to standard species distribution modeling may improve the understanding of species' dynamics in the invaded range.

  10. Understanding Athletic Pubalgia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Brian; Kleinhenz, Dominic; Schiller, Jonathan; Tabaddor, Ramin

    2016-10-04

    Athletic Pubalgia, more commonly known as sports hernia, is defined as chronic lower abdominal and groin pain without the presence of a true hernia. It is increasingly recognized in athletes as a source of groin pain and is often associated with other pathology. A comprehensive approach to the physical exam and a strong understanding of hip and pelvic anatomy are critical in making the appropriate diagnosis. Various management options are available. We review the basic anatomy, patholophysiology, diagnostic approach and treatment of athletic pubalgia as well as discuss associated conditions such as femoroacetabular impingement. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2016-10.asp].

  11. Understanding computer and information technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Cheol; Han, Tack Don; Im, Sun Beom

    2009-01-15

    This book consists of four parts. The first part describes IT technology and information community understanding of computer system, constitution of software system and information system and application of software. The second part is about computer network, information and communication, application and internet service. The third part contains application and multi media, application of mobile computer, ubiquitous computing and ubiquitous environment and computer and digital life. The last part explains information security and ethics of information-oriented society, information industry and IT venture, digital contents technology and industry and the future and development of information-oriented society.

  12. Understanding the LHC Controls Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Van den Eynden, M

    2000-01-01

    The analysis, design and construction of the LHC control system is a complex problem which will challenge CERN's capability to provide a modern controls infrastructure fulfilling the stringent operational requirements of this machine. The first part of this talk will review the present LHC project context in which several controls initiatives have already been taken. The second part will try to highlight the important technical aspects and engineering steps involved in the process of defining a control system architecture. The importance of understanding the major LHC operational challenges will be stressed along with some practical proposals and examples on how to conduct such activity with all stakeholders.

  13. In Search of Deeper Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei

    2011-01-01

    CHINA and Africa share a friendship that goes back to the early 1950s,steeped in past struggles for national liberation and the battle for independence.Forged by economic and trade cooperation in the 1980s,through to the launch of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in 2000, a platform and mechanism established to strengthen cooperation,the relationship has reached a critical phase.Role players are now asking whether mutual understanding between China and Africa is enough to sustain the relationship going forward.

  14. Advances in understanding illness anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Kelli J; Skritskaya, Natalia; Doherty, Emily; Fallon, Brian A

    2008-08-01

    Illness anxiety, also known in its more severe form as hypochondriasis, is a debilitating and chronic condition in which normal bodily symptoms are misinterpreted as signs of serious medical illness. Patients suffer with the fear that they are ill despite reassurance to the contrary and often overuse medical services in the process. This article critically evaluates the recent literature on illness anxiety and related, medically unexplained symptoms, highlighting new and interesting findings in the areas of prevalence, classification/diagnosis, management, and evidence-based treatment and new frontiers in understanding illness anxiety, such as brain imaging, neuroimmunology, and cyberchondria.

  15. Understanding the adoption of TELEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen; Nyvang, Tom

    2006-01-01

    For a TELE to become adopted by the vast majority of individual learners as a tool for learning, adoption at the institutional level must be considered, because the vast majority of a population of technology users depends on external stimuli to adopt the technology. This article analyses a case...... a systemic, Bateson-inspired, understanding of learning and based on data from observation, qualitative interviews, and surveys, a number of barriers to adoption at the organisational level are identified, all requiring management initiatives if the application is to fully unfold its potential....

  16. Understanding change and curriculum implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Gayle Marie

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation is a qualitative case study that examined perceptions of teachers in 2 schools about the process of change used in the implementation of a hands-on science program. Many change initiatives have failed in their implementation, and it may not necessarily be attributed to their quality. A countless number of promising programs have been derailed by a poor understanding of the process of change. This study looks first at the history of science reform to illustrate first the importance of hands-on inquiry as an effective instructional strategy. Then the process of change and its relationship to the implementation of a hands-on science curriculum was examined. The Hands on Science Program (HASP) is modular based and relies heavily on inquiry teaching. The project had been underway in these schools for about 5 years, and the districts are ready to evaluate its success. An interview with the original Project Director and information obtained from a summative evaluation helped explain the HASP. The Project Director shared the thinking that was involved in the program's inception, and the evaluation report served as a summary of the project's progress. Two schools were selected to examine the status of the program. The Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire and the Organizational Health Inventory developed by Hoy and Tarter (1997) were used to enrich the description of the school. Five teachers from each school, who have had leading roles in the implementation, were interviewed in an attempt to understand the insider's view of the change process used in the implementation of the HASP in their schools. Achievement data from the Stanford Achievement Test-9 was also used to provide some additional information. Interviews were used to understand teacher perceptions in each school and then compared in a cross-ease analysis. The results of this study could be used as planning suggestions for educational leaders designing change initiatives, although it

  17. Understand electrical and electronics maths

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    1993-01-01

    Understand Electrical and Electronics Maths covers elementary maths and the aspects of electronics. The book discusses basic maths including quotients, algebraic fractions, logarithms, types of equations and balancing of equations. The text also describes the main features and functions of graphs and the solutions to simpler types of electronics problems. The book then tackles the applications of polar coordinates in electronics, limits, differentiation and integration, and the applications of maths of rates of change in electronics. The activities of an electronic circuit; techniques of math

  18. Understanding Creativity Methods in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biskjaer, Michael Mose; Dalsgaard, Peter; Halskov, Kim

    2017-01-01

    by significant experience with creativity methods in design. We propose that nine concepts are relevant for analyzing creativity methods in design: process structure, materials, tools, combination, metaphor, analogy, framing, divergence, and convergence. To test their relevance as components of an analytical......This paper contributes an analytical framework to improve understanding of the composition of recognized creativity methods used in design. Based on an extensive literature review, our framework synthesizes key concepts from design and particularly creativity research, and is further supported...... are composed, how and why they work, and how they potentially may be tweaked or refined for enhanced deployment in design....

  19. Understanding and designing computer networks

    CERN Document Server

    King, Graham

    1995-01-01

    Understanding and Designing Computer Networks considers the ubiquitous nature of data networks, with particular reference to internetworking and the efficient management of all aspects of networked integrated data systems. In addition it looks at the next phase of networking developments; efficiency and security are covered in the sections dealing with data compression and data encryption; and future examples of network operations, such as network parallelism, are introduced.A comprehensive case study is used throughout the text to apply and illustrate new techniques and concepts as th

  20. Understanding the physiology of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Brian

    2013-03-01

    The physiology of schizophrenia includes complex genetic and environmental interactions. Current treatment largely focuses on positive symptoms, but many patients with schizophrenia present with additional symptoms and conditions that hinder their social and occupational functioning. The study of the physiology of this disorder has expanded beyond dopamine dysfunction to include the glutamate, serotonin, and nicotinic/acetylcholine systems, as well as physiologic abnormalities such as diabetes and inflammation. Clinicians who understand these additional problem areas can incorporate them into their assessment and treatment plans for patients with schizophrenia. © Copyright 2013 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  1. Understanding Biofilms in Chronic Sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajudeen, Bobby A; Schwartz, Joseph S; Palmer, James N

    2016-02-01

    Chronic sinusitis is a burdensome disease that has substantial individual and societal impact. Although great advances in medical and surgical therapies have been made, some patients continue to have recalcitrant infections. Microbial biofilms have been implicated as a cause of recalcitrant chronic sinusitis, and recent studies have tried to better understand the pathogenesis of chronic sinusitis as it relates to microbial biofilms. Here, we provide an overview of biofilms in chronic sinusitis with emphasis on pathogenesis, treatment, and future directions. In addition, recent evidence is presented, elucidating the role of bitter taste receptors as a possible key factor leading to biofilm formation.

  2. Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Halal Lifestyle: Understanding Muslim Consumers November 25th, 2013 Parallel Session 1C Hall C my talk starts at: 16:15-25:00 my answers start at 42:20 [to questions starting at 36:30] The Global Islamic Economy Summit 2013 was organized by Dubai Chamber of Commerce & Industry and Thomson Reuters, held on 25th-26th November, 2013 at Madinat Jumeirah, Dubai, UAE under the patronage of HH Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Vice President and Prime Minister of the UAE a...

  3. Understanding broadband over power line

    CERN Document Server

    Held, Gilbert

    2006-01-01

    Understanding Broadband over Power Line explores all aspects of the emerging technology that enables electric utilities to provide support for high-speed data communications via their power infrastructure. This book examines the two methods used to connect consumers and businesses to the Internet through the utility infrastructure: the existing electrical wiring of a home or office; and a wireless local area network (WLAN) access point.Written in a practical style that can be understood by network engineers and non-technologists alike, this volume offers tutorials on electric utility infrastru

  4. Identification of malassezia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindo A

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia spp. are lipophilic unipolar yeasts recognized as commensals of skin that may be pathogenic under certain conditions. The genus Malassezia now comprises of seven species. This study was aimed at using a simple practical approach to speciate Malassezia yeasts from clinical material. Seventy skin scrapings from patients with pityriasis versicolor infection, positive in 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH, were cultured onto modified Dixon′s agar (mDixon′s agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA and incubated at 32ºC. Speciation was done on the basis of Gram stain morphology, catalase test, and utilization of Tweens. Out of 70 scrapings 48 (68.75% showed growth on mDixon′s agar. The commonest isolate was M. sympodialis (28, 58% followed by M. globosa (19, 40% and one isolate was (2% of M. restricta. M. sympodialis was the commonest species affecting our population and there was no isolation of M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. pachydermatis and M. furfur.

  5. Save Our Species: Protecting Endangered Species from Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…

  6. Away from ethnocentrism and anthropocentrism: towards a scientific understanding of "what makes us human".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe

    2010-06-01

    The quest to understand "what makes us human" has been heading towards an impasse, when comparative psychology compares primarily individuals that are not representative of their species. Captives experience such divergent socioecological niches that they cannot stand for their wild counterparts. Only after removing ethnocentrism and anthropocentrism will we be able to progress in our understanding of "what makes us human."

  7. Deconstructing responses of dragonfly species richness to area, nutrients, water plant diversity and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Merja; Sorjanen, Aili-Maria; Mönkkönen, Mikko

    2011-06-01

    Understanding large-scale variation in species richness in relation to area, energy, habitat heterogeneity and anthropogenic disturbance has been a major task in ecology. Ultimately, variation in species richness results from variation in individual species occupancies. We studied whether the individual species occupancy patterns are determined by the same candidate factors as total species richness. We sampled 26 boreal forest ponds for dragonflies (Odonata) and studied the effects of shoreline length, water vascular plant species density (WVPSD), availability of nutrients, intensity of forestry, amount of Sphagnum peat cover and pH on dragonfly species richness and individual dragonfly species. WVPSD and pH had a strong positive effect on species richness. Removal of six dragonfly species experiencing strongest responses to WVPSD cancelled the relationship between species richness and WVPSD. By contrast, removal of nine least observed species did not affect the relationship between WVPSD and species richness. Thus, our results showed that relatively common species responding strongly to WVPSD shaped the observed species richness pattern whereas the effect of least observed, often rare, species was negligible. Also, our results support the view that, despite of the great impact of energy on species richness at large spatial scales, habitat heterogeneity can still have an effect on species richness in smaller scales, even overriding the effects of area.

  8. AFLP variation in 25 Avena species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yong-Bi; Williams, David J

    2008-08-01

    Current molecular characterization of ex situ plant germplasm has placed more emphasis on cultivated gene pools and less on exotic gene pools representing wild relative species. This study attempted to characterize a selected set of germplasm accessions representing various Avena species with the hope to establish a reference set of exotic oat germplasm for oat breeding and research. The amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was applied to screen 163 accessions of 25 Avena species with diverse geographic origins. For each accession, 413 AFLP polymorphic bands detected by five AFLP primer pairs were scored. The frequencies of polymorphic bands ranged from 0.006 to 0.994 and averaged 0.468. Analysis of molecular variance revealed 59.5% of the total AFLP variation resided among 25 oat species, 45.9% among six assessed sections of the genus, 36.1% among three existing ploidy levels, and 50.8% among eight defined genome types. All the species were clustered together according to their ploidy levels. The C genome diploids appeared to be the most distinct, followed by the Ac genome diploid A. canariensis. The Ac genome seemed to be the oldest in all the A genomes, followed by the As, Al and Ad genomes. The AC genome tetraploids were more related to the ACD genome hexaploids than the AB genome tetraploids. Analysis of AFLP similarity suggested that the AC genome tetraploid A. maroccana was likely derived from the Cp genome diploid A. eriantha and the As genome diploid A. wiestii, and might be the progenitor of the ACD genome hexaploids. These AFLP patterns are significant for our understanding of the evolutionary pathways of Avena species and genomes, for establishing reference sets of exotic oat germplasm, and for exploring new exotic sources of genes for oat improvement.

  9. Understanding SARS with Wolfram Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-WeiLI; Yu-XiPAN; YunDUAN; Zhen-DeHUNG; Ming-QingXU; LinHE

    2004-01-01

    Stepping acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as another type of disease has been threatening mankind since late last year. Many scientists worldwide are making great efforts to study the etiology of this disease with different approaches. 13 species of SARS virus have been sequenced. However, most people still largely rely on the traditional methods with some disadvantages. In this work, we used Wolfram approach to study the relationship among SARS viruses and between SARS viruses and other types of viruses, the effect of variations on the whole genome and the advantages in the analysis of SARS based on this novel approach. As a result, the similarities between SARS viruses and other coronaviruses are not really higher than those between SARS viruses and non-coronaviruses.

  10. Understanding suicide in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Guido R; Wick, Jeannette Y

    2010-02-01

    One suicide occurs every 16 minutes. Intentionally killing oneself is distinctly human; other species don't commit suicide. Suicide is an exceedingly complex phenomenon stemming from intolerable stress and the inability to cope. Elders tend to plan their suicides well, choose means of killing themselves that are more violent than younger people do, and are less likely to survive the attempt than others. Numerous factors increase risk for elder suicide: recent bereavement, pain, chronic illness, hopelessness, and despair. Identifying and treating depression early is essential to avoid tragedy. Regardless, many elders are treated with anxiolytics and analgesics in lieu of antidepressants, and some medications may increase suicide risk. Consultant pharmacists need to be aware that suicide is a serious concern for elders. When depression seems to be worsening in an elder, aggressive action is needed.

  11. Understanding Cognitive Language Learning Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Over time, definitions and taxonomies of language learning strategies have been critically examined. This article defines and classifies cognitive language learning strategies on a more grounded basis. Language learning is a macro-process for which the general hypotheses of information processing are valid. Cognitive strategies are represented by the pillars underlying the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. In order to understand the processes taking place on these three dimensions, a functional model was elaborated from multiple theoretical contributions and previous models: the Smart Processing Model. This model operates with linguistic inputs as well as with any other kind of information. It helps to illustrate the stages, relations, modules and processes that occur during the flow of information. This theoretical advance is a core element to classify cognitive strategies. Contributions from cognitive neuroscience have also been considered to establish the proposed classification which consists of five categories. Each of these categories has a different predominant function: classification, preparation, association, elaboration and transfer-practice. This better founded taxonomy opens the doors to potential studies that would allow a better understanding of the interdisciplinary complexity of language learning. Pedagogical and methodological implications are also discussed. Keywords: cognitive processes, cognitive neuroscience, information processing, second and foreign language acquisition, Smart Processing Model

  12. Figuring out a scientific understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Clive

    1993-12-01

    This article attempts to place analogy and metaphor within the wider context of all figurative language, and to trace the relationship between that kind of expression and the supposedly literal and direct accounts of nature that scientists have built up.I explore the functions of figures of speech in the development of new scientific ideas, and trace how they fade or die as each area of scientific knowledge matures. What we then take to be the literal words of scientific description are in effect the remnants of old figures of speech that have grown so familiar that their earlier metaphorical quality is easily overlooked. The conventional separation of figurative and literal cannot be sustained, and a new understanding of their relationship is needed.The practical implications of this analysis are to do with how we can reactivate the dormant metaphors in ordinary scientific language, so that learners may hear again the human voice of scientists who developed the ways of talking we now take for granted. To reactivate the system of thought behind any established way of talking, we must be able to get the learners to understand that language works as a medium of interpretation and persuasion, and not simply a system of descriptive labeling. These two views of language are compared and contrasted.

  13. Older Norwegians' understanding of loneliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solveig Hauge

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This interpretive study explored older people's understanding of loneliness and what they considered appropriate and effective ways of dealing with it. Thirty elderly people were interviewed in-depth; 12 described themselves as “lonely” and 18 as “not lonely.” We found a striking difference in the way “lonely” and “not lonely” people talked about loneliness. The “not lonely” participants described loneliness as painful, caused by the person's negative way of behaving and a state they should pull themselves out of. The “lonely” participants also described loneliness as painful, and gave more detailed descriptions of loneliness as disconnection from others, from their former home and from today's society. The “lonely” participants were more reserved and subdued in trying to explain loneliness, attributing it partly to themselves, but mostly to the lack of social contact with important others. Some felt able to handle their loneliness, while others felt unable to cope. This study underlines the importance of subjective experiences in trying to understand a phenomenon like loneliness and of developing support for lonely older people unable to cope on their own.

  14. Public understanding of drug therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herxheimer, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Knowing some basic principles about medicines would help patients to understand drug therapy and to help and encourage them to use it well. These principles relate to the categories and names of drugs, their different uses, how they reach the site of action (absorption, distribution, fate), how they produce their effects, both beneficial and harmful, the time courses of drug actions, how the pattern and intensity of the effects of a drug depend on dose and timing, drug interactions, how drug effects are demonstrated and investigated and sources of information and their trustworthiness. These basic principles are an essential part of health literacy and understanding them would enable individuals to comprehend better the information that they are likely to receive about medicines that they will take. Different populations need different types of education. For schoolchildren, the principles could fit into biology and domestic science teaching, starting in the later years of primary school or early in secondary school. A teaching package would also be needed for their teachers. For adults, web-based learning seems the most practical option. Web-based programmes could be supported by the NHS and professional bodies and through public libraries and local community health services. Specific groups for targeting could include young mothers and carers of chronically ill people. For retired people, one could envisage special programmes, perhaps in collaboration with the University of the Third Age. Conversations between patients and professionals would then become more effective and help shared decision making.

  15. How to Understand Custodial Belonging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Game

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Debates about ecological responsibility are interested in different forms of belonging. This article develops an understanding of a custodial form of belonging based on the logic of relation, which we distinguish from a proprietorial form of belonging based on the logic of identity. Theorists working on questions of belonging use a language of custodianship when describing a sense of responsibility and care that arises through connection or relation. We argue, however, that the full significance of custodial belonging cannot be appreciated when understandings of connection are derived from within the terms of identity logic. In other words, when belonging is understood in terms of identity and identification, custodianship is inadvertently reduced to a proprietorial form of responsibility and care. We develop this argument by addressing Australian research on custodial belonging. Focusing on the influential work of Deborah Bird Rose, we argue that there are tensions between, on the one hand, her attempts to recognise connected forms of belonging, and, on the other, her conceptual reliance on the assumptions of identity logic. Our primary concern here is to indicate relational possibilities in her work precluded by the language of identity. In particular, we suggest that the concept of ecological being allows for a specificity and inclusiveness that are not recognised by Rose’s concept of the ‘ecologically emplaced self’.

  16. Understanding vaccines: a public imperative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federman, Ross S

    2014-12-01

    Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating.

  17. Towards a better understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species in legume root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is carried out exclusively by prokaryotes, either in the free-living form or in mutualistic symbioses with green algae, legumes and actinorhizal plants. The most agronomica1ly relevant symbiosis is, by fàr, that formed between soil rhizobia and legume roots. In addition, the

  18. Towards a better understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species in legume root nodules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Escribano, J.

    2004-01-01

    Biological N2 fixation is carried out exclusively by prokaryotes, either in the free-living form or in mutualistic symbioses with green algae, legumes and actinorhizal plants. The most agronomica1ly relevant symbiosis is, by fàr, that formed between soil rhizobia and legume roots. In addition, the i

  19. Influences on Understanding and Belief About the Origin of Species in Chinese and American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin Irene

    Although beliefs about origins and evolutionary knowledge have been considered independent, research has suggested that both are influenced by cognitive constraints of psychological essentialism and teleology. Most research supporting these claims has been conducted with children from Western cultures; little is known about the psychological processes underpinning beliefs and knowledge about the natural world outside Western contexts or during adolescence. Claims about the universality of beliefs, knowledge, and the possible relationship between should be made after examining samples that differ in theoretically relevant ways from a typical Western sample, such as a Chinese sample in which religious explanations are rare or an adolescent sample in which brain development promotes the coordination of conflicting information. To examine how belief and knowledge are related in Western- and non-Western samples, as well as the factors that predict both independently, 238 Chinese (M = 15.85 years old, SD = .85 years; 36.6% male) and 277 American adolescents (M = 15.80 years, SD = 1.34 years; 51.6% male) were recruited from their high schools to participate. Adolescents completed a survey measuring beliefs about the origin of living and non-living exemplars, evolutionary knowledge, and variables that were likely to influence belief and knowledge such as science preference, epistemology, psychological essentialism, teleological reasoning, and religious beliefs. American adolescents were more creationist than Chinese adolescents. Chinese adolescents displayed more sophisticated evolutionary knowledge than American adolescents although overall performance was low. Finally, there was no relationship between belief and knowledge for American adolescents yet there was a small, positive relationship for Chinese adolescents such that adolescents who believed in creation also tended to demonstrate more evolutionary knowledge. Additional analyses employed mediation techniques to explain why cultural differences in creation belief and evolutionary knowledge exist. Age was unrelated to belief and to knowledge. The discussion focuses on the aspects of cultural membership that contribute to belief and evolutionary knowledge. Additional discussion highlights the role of classroom curriculum, curriculum testing, and focusing on uncovering variables and techniques that promote evolutionary learning.

  20. Endangered Species Act Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Critical habitat (CH) is designated for the survival and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Critical...

  1. New species of Malaysian ferns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1962-01-01

    The present paper includes descriptions of several new species of ferns found among recent collections from various parts of Malaysia; also two new combinations of names of species which are of interest on account of their taxonomic history.

  2. Functions of Cognitive Context in Utterance Understanding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢胡卓越; 李美涵

    2015-01-01

    Utterance understanding is a two-way activity which includes the generation and reception of information,in the process of utterance understanding,cognitive context functions utterance understanding from three aspects.

  3. Unpacking the species conundrum: philosophy, practice and a way forward

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KARTIK SHANKER; S. P. VIJAYAKUMAR; K. N. GANESHAIAH

    2017-07-01

    The history of ecology and evolutionary biology is rife with attempts to define and delimit species. However, there has been confusion between concepts and criteria, which has led to discussion, debate, and conflict, eventually leading to lack of consistency in delimitation. Here, we provide a broad review of species concepts, a clarification of category versus concept, an account of the general lineage concept (GLC), and finally a way forward for species discovery and delimitation. Historically, species were considered as varieties bound together by reproduction. After over 200 years of uncertainty, Mayr attempted to bring coherence to the definition of species through the biological species concept (BSC). This has, however, received much criticism, and the last half century has spawned at least 20 other concepts. A central philosophical problem is that concepts treat species as ‘individuals’ while the criteria for categorization treats them as ‘classes’. While not getting away from this problem entirely, the GLC attempts to provide a framework where lineage divergence is influenced by a number of different factors (and correlated to different traits) which relate to the different species concepts. We also introduce an ‘inclusive’ probabilistic approach for understanding and delimiting species. Finally, we provide aWallacean (geography related) approach to the Linnaean problem of identifying and delimiting species, particularly for cases of allopatric divergence, and map this to the GLC. Going one step further, we take a morphometric terrainapproach to visualizing and understanding differences between lineages. In summary, we argue that while generalized frameworks may work well for concepts of what species are, plurality and ‘inclusive’ probabilistic approaches may work best for delimitation.

  4. Contrasting phenotypic plasticity in the photoprotective strategies of the invasive species Carpobrotus edulis and the coexisting native species Crithmum maritimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenollosa, Erola; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Pintó-Marijuan, Marta

    2017-06-01

    Photoprotective strategies vary greatly within the plant kingdom and reflect a plant's physiological status and capacity to cope with environment variations. The plasticity and intensity of these responses may determine plant success. Invasive species are reported to show increased vigor to displace native species. Describing the mechanisms that confer such vigor is essential to understanding the success of invasive species. We performed an experiment whereby two species were monitored: Carpobrotus edulis, an aggressive invasive species in the Mediterranean basin, and Crithmum maritimum, a coexisting native species in the Cap de Creus Natural Park (NE Spain). We analyzed their photoprotective responses to seasonal environmental dynamics by comparing the capacity of the invader to respond to the local environmental stresses throughout the year. Our study analyses ecophysiological markers and photoprotective strategies to gain an insight into the success of invaders. We found that both species showed completely different but effective photoprotective strategies: in summer, C. edulis took special advantage of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the success of C. maritimum in summer stemmed from morphological changes and alterations on β-carotene content. Winter also presented differences between the species, as the native showed reduced Fv /Fm ratios. Our experimental design allowed us to introduce a new approach to compare phenotypic plasticity: the integrated phenotypic plasticity index (PPint ), defined as the maximum Euclidian distance between phenotypes, using a combination of different variables to describe them. This index revealed significantly greater phenotypic plasticity in the invasive species compared to the native species. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Competition between species can stabilize public-goods cooperation within a species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiker, Hasan; Gore, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    Competition between species is a major ecological force that can drive evolution. Here, we test the effect of this force on the evolution of cooperation within a species. We use sucrose metabolism of budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model cooperative system that is subject to social parasitism by cheater strategies. We find that when cocultured with a bacterial competitor, Escherichia coli, the frequency of cooperator phenotypes in yeast populations increases dramatically as compared with isolated yeast populations. Bacterial competition stabilizes cooperation within yeast by limiting the yeast population density and also by depleting the public goods produced by cooperating yeast cells. Both of these changes induced by bacterial competition increase the cooperator frequency because cooperator yeast cells have a small preferential access to the public goods they produce; this preferential access becomes more important when the public good is scarce. Our results indicate that a thorough understanding of species interactions is crucial for explaining the maintenance and evolution of cooperation in nature.

  6. Novel cooperation experimentally evolved between species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcombe, William

    2010-07-01

    Cooperation violates the view of "nature red in tooth and claw" that prevails in our understanding of evolution, yet examples of cooperation abound. Most work has focused on maintenance of cooperation within a single species through mechanisms such as kin selection. The factors necessary for the evolutionary origin of aiding unrelated individuals such as members of another species have not been experimentally tested. Here, I demonstrate that cooperation between species can be evolved in the laboratory if (1) there is preexisting reciprocation or feedback for cooperation, and (2) reciprocation is preferentially received by cooperative genotypes. I used a two species system involving Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium and an Escherichia coli mutant unable to synthesize an essential amino acid. In lactose media Salmonella consumes metabolic waste from E. coli, thus creating a mechanism of reciprocation for cooperation. Growth in a spatially structured environment assured that the benefits of cooperation were preferentially received by cooperative genotypes. Salmonella evolved to aid E. coli by excreting a costly amino acid, however this novel cooperation disappeared if the waste consumption or spatial structure were removed. This study builds on previous work to demonstrate an experimental origin of interspecific cooperation, and to test the factors necessary for such interactions to arise.

  7. Recent advances in understanding apicomplexan parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Frank; Steinfelder, Svenja

    2016-01-01

    Intracellular single-celled parasites belonging to the large phylum Apicomplexa are amongst the most prevalent and morbidity-causing pathogens worldwide. In this review, we highlight a few of the many recent advances in the field that helped to clarify some important aspects of their fascinating biology and interaction with their hosts. Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria, and thus the recent emergence of resistance against the currently used drug combinations based on artemisinin has been of major interest for the scientific community. It resulted in great advances in understanding the resistance mechanisms that can hopefully be translated into altered future drug regimens. Apicomplexa are also experts in host cell manipulation and immune evasion. Toxoplasma gondii and Theileria sp., besides Plasmodium sp., are species that secrete effector molecules into the host cell to reach this aim. The underlying molecular mechanisms for how these proteins are trafficked to the host cytosol ( T. gondii and Plasmodium) and how a secreted protein can immortalize the host cell ( Theileria sp.) have been illuminated recently. Moreover, how such secreted proteins affect the host innate immune responses against T. gondii and the liver stages of Plasmodium has also been unraveled at the genetic and molecular level, leading to unexpected insights. Methodological advances in metabolomics and molecular biology have been instrumental to solving some fundamental puzzles of mitochondrial carbon metabolism in Apicomplexa. Also, for the first time, the generation of stably transfected Cryptosporidium parasites was achieved, which opens up a wide variety of experimental possibilities for this understudied, important apicomplexan pathogen. PMID:27347391

  8. Current Understandings of Plant Nonhost Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Hye-Young; Seo, Eunyoung; Lee, Joohyun; Kim, Saet-Byul; Oh, Soohyun; Choi, Eunbi; Choi, Eunhye; Lee, So Eui; Choi, Doil

    2017-01-01

    Nonhost resistance, a resistance of plant species against all nonadapted pathogens, is considered the most durable and efficient immune system of plants but yet remains elusive. The underlying mechanism of nonhost resistance has been investigated at multiple levels of plant defense for several decades. In this review, we have comprehensively surveyed the latest literature on nonhost resistance in terms of preinvasion, metabolic defense, pattern-triggered immunity, effector-triggered immunity, defense signaling, and possible application in crop protection. Overall, we summarize the current understanding of nonhost resistance mechanisms. Pre- and postinvasion is not much deviated from the knowledge on host resistance, except for a few specific cases. Further insights on the roles of the pattern recognition receptor gene family, multiple interactions between effectors from nonadapted pathogen and plant factors, and plant secondary metabolites in host range determination could expand our knowledge on nonhost resistance and provide efficient tools for future crop protection using combinational biotechnology approaches. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 International license .

  9. Epigenetics: Its Understanding Is Crucial to a Sustainable Healthcare System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Thunders

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular impact of lifestyle factors has never been so important; a period in time where there are so many adults above retirement age has been previously unknown. As a species, our life expectancy is increasing yet the period of our lives where we enjoy good health is not expanding proportionately. Over the next 50 years we will need to almost double the percentage of GDP spent on health care, largely due to the increasing incidence of obesity related chronic diseases. A greater understanding and implementation of an integrated approach to health is required. Research exploring the impact of nutritional and exercise intervention on the epigenetically flexible genome is up front in terms of addressing healthy aging. Alongside this, we need a greater understanding of the interaction with our immune and nervous systems in preserving and maintaining health and cognition.

  10. Enhancer evolution across 20 mammalian species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villar, Diego; Berthelot, Camille; Aldridge, Sarah;

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian radiation has corresponded with rapid changes in noncoding regions of the genome, but we lack a comprehensive understanding of regulatory evolution in mammals. Here, we track the evolution of promoters and enhancers active in liver across 20 mammalian species from six diverse orders...... by profiling genomic enrichment of H3K27 acetylation and H3K4 trimethylation. We report that rapid evolution of enhancers is a universal feature of mammalian genomes. Most of the recently evolved enhancers arise from ancestral DNA exaptation, rather than lineage-specific expansions of repeat elements....... In contrast, almost all liver promoters are partially or fully conserved across these species. Our data further reveal that recently evolved enhancers can be associated with genes under positive selection, demonstrating the power of this approach for annotating regulatory adaptations in genomic sequences...

  11. Araneae Sloveniae: a national spider species checklist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Kostanjšek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The research of the spider fauna of Slovenia dates back to the very beginning of binomial nomenclature, and has gone through more and less prolific phases with authors concentrating on taxonomy, faunistics, ecology and zoogeographic reviews. Although the body of published works is remarkable for a small nation, the faunistic data has remained too scattered for a thorough understanding of regional biotic diversity, for comparative and ecological research, and for informed conservation purposes. A national checklist is long overdue. Here, a critical review of all published records in any language is provided. The species list currently comprises 738 species, is published online at http://www.bioportal.si/katalog/araneae.php under the title Araneae Sloveniae, and will be updated in due course. This tool will fill the void in cataloguing regional spider faunas and will facilitate further araneological research in central and southern Europe.

  12. Timeless standards for species delimitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Dalton S; Santos, Charles Morphy D; Krell, Frank-Thorsten; Dubois, Alain; Nihei, Silvio S; Oliveira, Otto M P; Pont, Adrian; Song, Hojun; Verdade, Vanessa K; Fachin, Diego A; Klassa, Bruna; Lamas, Carlos José E; Oliveira, Sarah S; Carvalho, Claudio J B De; Mello-Patiu, Cátia A; Hajdu, Eduardo; Couri, Márcia S; Silva, Vera C; Capellari, Renato S; Falaschi, Rafaela L; Feitosa, Rodrigo M; Prendini, Lorenzo; Pombal, José P Jr; Fernández, Fernando; Rocha, Rosana M; Lattke, John E; Caramaschi, Ulisses; Duarte, Marcelo; Marques, Antonio Carlos; Reis, Roberto E; Kurina, Olavi; Takiya, Daniela M; Tavares, Marcos; Fernandes, Daniel Silva; Franco, Francisco Luís; Cuezzo, Fabiana; Paulson, Dennis; Guénard, Benoit; Schlick-Steiner, Birgit C; Arthofer, Wolfgang; Steiner, Florian M; Fisher, Brian L; Johnson, Robert A; Delsinne, Thibaut Dominique; Donoso, David A; Mulieri, Pablo Ricardo; Patitucci, Luciano Damián; Carpenter, James M; Herman, Lee; Grimaldi, David

    2016-07-08

    Recently a new species of bombyliid fly, Marleyimyia xylocopae, was described by Marshall & Evenhuis (2015) based on two photographs taken during fieldwork in the Republic of South Africa. This species has no preserved holotype. The paper generated some buzz, especially among dipterists, because in most cases photographs taken in the field provide insufficient information for properly diagnosing and documenting species of Diptera.

  13. Electrosmog and species conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balmori, Alfonso, E-mail: abalmorimartinez@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Despite the widespread use of wireless telephone networks around the world, authorities and researchers have paid little attention to the potential harmful effects of mobile phone radiation on wildlife. This paper briefly reviews the available scientific information on this topic and recommends further studies and specific lines of research to confirm or refute the experimental results to date. Controls must be introduced and technology rendered safe for the environment, particularly, threatened species. - Highlights: • Studies have shown effects in both animals and plants. • Two thirds of the studies reported ecological effects. • There is little research in this area and further research is needed. • The technology must be safe. • Controls should be introduced to mitigate the possible effects.

  14. RFRP neurons - the doorway to understanding seasonal reproduction in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Beldring Henningsen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal control of reproduction is critical for the perpetuation of species living in temperate zones that display major changes in climatic environment and availability of food resources. In mammals, seasonal cues are mainly provided by the annual change in the 24h light/dark ratio (i.e. photoperiod, which is translated into the nocturnal production of the pineal hormone melatonin. The annual rhythm in this melatonin signal acts as a synchronizer ensuring that breeding occurs when environmental conditions favor survival of the offspring. Although specific mechanisms might vary among seasonal species, the hypothalamic RF (Arg-Phe amide-related peptides (RFRP-1 and -3 are believed to play a critical role in the central control of seasonal reproduction and in all seasonal species investigated, the RFRP system is persistently inhibited in short photoperiod. Central chronic administration of RFRP-3 in short day-adapted male Syrian hamsters fully reactivates the reproductive axis despite photoinhibitory conditions, which highlights the importance of the seasonal changes in RFRP expression for proper regulation of the reproductive axis. The acute effects of RFRP peptides, however, depend on species, photoperiod and recent studies point towards a different role of RFRP in regulating female reproductive activity. In this review we summarize the recent advances made to understand the role and underlying mechanisms of RFRP in the seasonal control of reproduction, primarily focusing on mammalian species.

  15. Mangrove species' responses to winter air temperature extremes in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luzhen; Wang, Wenqing; Li, Qingshun Q.; Zhang, Yihui; Yang, Shengchang; Osland, Michael J.; Huang, Jinliang; Peng, Congjiao

    2017-01-01

    The global distribution and diversity of mangrove forests is greatly influenced by the frequency and intensity of winter air temperature extremes. However, our understanding of how different mangrove species respond to winter temperature extremes has been lacking because extreme freezing and chilling events are, by definition, relatively uncommon and also difficult to replicate experimentally. In this study, we investigated species-specific variation in mangrove responses to winter temperature extremes in China. In 10 sites that span a latitudinal gradient, we quantified species-specific damage and recovery following a chilling event, for mangrove species within and outside of their natural range (i.e., native and non-native species, respectively). To characterize plant stress, we measured tree defoliation and chlorophyll fluorescence approximately one month following the chilling event. To quantify recovery, we measured chlorophyll fluorescence approximately nine months after the chilling event. Our results show high variation in the geographic- and species-specific responses of mangroves to winter temperature extremes. While many species were sensitive to the chilling temperatures (e.g., Bruguiera sexangula and species in the Sonneratia and Rhizophora genera), the temperatures during this event were not cold enough to affect certain species (e.g., Kandelia obovata, Aegiceras corniculatum, Avicennia marina, and Bruguiera gymnorrhiza). As expected, non-native species were less tolerant of winter temperature extremes than native species. Interestingly, tidal inundation modulated the effects of chilling. In comparison with other temperature-controlled mangrove range limits across the world, the mangrove range limit in China is unique due to the combination of the following three factors: (1) Mangrove species diversity is comparatively high; (2) winter air temperature extremes, rather than means, are particularly intense and play an important ecological

  16. Eco-evolutionary feedbacks drive species interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Domínguez, Andrés; Salazar, Emmanuel; Vargas-Lagunas, María del Carmen; Kolter, Roberto; Encarnación, Sergio

    2014-05-01

    In the biosphere, many species live in close proximity and can thus interact in many different ways. Such interactions are dynamic and fall along a continuum between antagonism and cooperation. Because interspecies interactions are the key to understanding biological communities, it is important to know how species interactions arise and evolve. Here, we show that the feedback between ecological and evolutionary processes has a fundamental role in the emergence and dynamics of species interaction. Using a two-species artificial community, we demonstrate that ecological processes and rapid evolution interact to influence the dynamics of the symbiosis between a eukaryote (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and a bacterium (Rhizobium etli). The simplicity of our experimental design enables an explicit statement of causality. The niche-constructing activities of the fungus were the key ecological process: it allowed the establishment of a commensal relationship that switched to ammensalism and provided the selective conditions necessary for the adaptive evolution of the bacteria. In this latter state, the bacterial population radiates into more than five genotypes that vary with respect to nutrient transport, metabolic strategies and global regulation. Evolutionary diversification of the bacterial populations has strong effects on the community; the nature of interaction subsequently switches from ammensalism to antagonism where bacteria promote yeast extinction. Our results demonstrate the importance of the evolution-to-ecology pathway in the persistence of interactions and the stability of communities. Thus, eco-evolutionary dynamics have the potential to transform the structure and functioning of ecosystems. Our results suggest that these dynamics should be considered to improve our understanding of beneficial and detrimental host-microbe interactions.

  17. Rare species support vulnerable functions in high-diversity ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mouillot

    Full Text Available Around the world, the human-induced collapses of populations and species have triggered a sixth mass extinction crisis, with rare species often being the first to disappear. Although the role of species diversity in the maintenance of ecosystem processes has been widely investigated, the role of rare species remains controversial. A critical issue is whether common species insure against the loss of functions supported by rare species. This issue is even more critical in species-rich ecosystems where high functional redundancy among species is likely and where it is thus often assumed that ecosystem functioning is buffered against species loss. Here, using extensive datasets of species occurrences and functional traits from three highly diverse ecosystems (846 coral reef fishes, 2,979 alpine plants, and 662 tropical trees, we demonstrate that the most distinct combinations of traits are supported predominantly by rare species both in terms of local abundance and regional occupancy. Moreover, species that have low functional redundancy and are likely to support the most vulnerable functions, with no other species carrying similar combinations of traits, are rarer than expected by chance in all three ecosystems. For instance, 63% and 98% of fish species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions in coral reef ecosystems are locally and regionally rare, respectively. For alpine plants, 32% and 89% of such species are locally and regionally rare, respectively. Remarkably, 47% of fish species and 55% of tropical tree species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions have only one individual per sample on average. Our results emphasize the importance of rare species conservation, even in highly diverse ecosystems, which are thought to exhibit high functional redundancy. Rare species offer more than aesthetic, cultural, or taxonomic diversity value; they disproportionately increase the potential breadth of functions provided by

  18. Rare species support vulnerable functions in high-diversity ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouillot, David; Bellwood, David R; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jerome; Galzin, Rene; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Kulbicki, Michel; Lavergne, Sebastien; Lavorel, Sandra; Mouquet, Nicolas; Paine, C E Timothy; Renaud, Julien; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Around the world, the human-induced collapses of populations and species have triggered a sixth mass extinction crisis, with rare species often being the first to disappear. Although the role of species diversity in the maintenance of ecosystem processes has been widely investigated, the role of rare species remains controversial. A critical issue is whether common species insure against the loss of functions supported by rare species. This issue is even more critical in species-rich ecosystems where high functional redundancy among species is likely and where it is thus often assumed that ecosystem functioning is buffered against species loss. Here, using extensive datasets of species occurrences and functional traits from three highly diverse ecosystems (846 coral reef fishes, 2,979 alpine plants, and 662 tropical trees), we demonstrate that the most distinct combinations of traits are supported predominantly by rare species both in terms of local abundance and regional occupancy. Moreover, species that have low functional redundancy and are likely to support the most vulnerable functions, with no other species carrying similar combinations of traits, are rarer than expected by chance in all three ecosystems. For instance, 63% and 98% of fish species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions in coral reef ecosystems are locally and regionally rare, respectively. For alpine plants, 32% and 89% of such species are locally and regionally rare, respectively. Remarkably, 47% of fish species and 55% of tropical tree species that are likely to support highly vulnerable functions have only one individual per sample on average. Our results emphasize the importance of rare species conservation, even in highly diverse ecosystems, which are thought to exhibit high functional redundancy. Rare species offer more than aesthetic, cultural, or taxonomic diversity value; they disproportionately increase the potential breadth of functions provided by ecosystems across

  19. Understanding the land management paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2006-01-01

    structures by identifying an ideal and historically neutral LAS model for: servicing the needs of governments, business and the public; utilising the latest technologies; servicing rights, responsibilities, restrictions and risks in relation to land; and delivering much broader information about sustainable......Land management is the process by which the resources of land are put into good effect. Land management encompasses all activities associated with the management of land and natural resources that are required to achieve sustainable development. Land Administration Systems (LAS) are institutional...... frameworks complicated by the tasks they must perform, by national cultural, political and judicial settings, and by technology. This paper facilitates an overall understanding of the land management paradigm. This paper assists sharing LAS among countries with diverse legal systems and institutional...

  20. Understanding advertising in pet nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R G

    1994-04-01

    Advertising is part of the effort to attract attention of consumers to products, in this case, pet foods. It is generally benign in its effect, but it can be misleading, although rarely deliberately so. It uses a specialized vocabulary, which must be mastered if one is to understand what is intended. For all of the expense and effort, advertising figures directly in relatively few decisions to purchase. Its main intention is to call our attention to a particular pet food and to give that product an image. If the pet food does not perform in the consumer's hands, then all of the advertising on earth will not be persuasive. On the other hand, if a product performs well, the word-of-mouth will be positive and that mode of advertising is one of the most effective.