WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-pathological flat foot

  1. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yifang Fan

    Full Text Available There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF of plantar and the rate of change of footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1 in stance phase, there is a significant difference (p<0.01 in the distributions of VGRF of plantar; (2 in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (p<0.01 in the rate of change of footprint area. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension to the flat-footed while a smaller rate of change of footprint area brings greater stability to the high-arched.

  2. Natural gaits of the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yifang; Li, Zhiyu; Lv, Changsheng; Luo, Donglin

    2010-01-01

    There has been a controversy as to whether or not the non-pathological flat foot and high-arched foot have an effect on human walking activities. The 3D foot scanning system was employed to obtain static footprints from subjects adopting a half-weight-bearing stance. Based upon their footprints, the subjects were divided into two groups: the flat-footed and the high-arched. The plantar pressure measurement system was used to measure and record the subjects' successive natural gaits. Two indices were proposed: distribution of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) of plantar and the rate of the footprint areas. Using these two indices to compare the natural gaits of the two subject groups, we found that (1) in stance phase, there is a significant difference (p<0.01) in the distributions of VGRF of plantar; (2) in a stride cycle, there is also a significant difference (p<0.01) in the rates of the footprint areas. Our analysis suggests that when walking, the VGRF of the plantar brings greater muscle tension...

  3. Prevalence of flat foot in preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Martin; Kotz, Rainer; Ledl, Thomas; Hauser, Gertrude; Sluga, Maria

    2006-08-01

    Our aim with this study was to establish the prevalence of flat foot in a population of 3- to 6-year-old children to evaluate cofactors such as age, weight, and gender and to estimate the number of unnecessary treatments performed. A total of 835 children (411 girls and 424 boys) were included in this study. The clinical diagnosis of flat foot was based on a valgus position of the heel and a poor formation of the arch. Feet of the children were scanned (while they were in a standing position) by using a laser surface scanner, and rearfoot angle was measured. Rearfoot angle was defined as the angle of the upper Achilles tendon and the distal extension of the rearfoot. Prevalence of flexible flat foot in the group of 3- to 6-year-old children was 44%. Prevalence of pathological flat foot was flat foot decreases significantly with age: in the group of 3-year-old children 54% showed a flat foot, whereas in the group of 6-year-old children only 24% had a flat foot. Average rearfoot angle was 5.5 degrees of valgus. Boys had a significant greater tendency for flat foot than girls: the prevalence of flat foot in boys was 52% and 36% in girls. Thirteen percent of the children were overweight or obese. Significant differences in prevalence of flat foot between overweight, obese, and normal-weight children were observed. This study is the first to use a three-dimensional laser surface scanner to measure the rearfoot valgus in preschool-aged children. The data demonstrate that the prevalence of flat foot is influenced by 3 factors: age, gender, and weight. In overweight children and in boys, a highly significant prevalence of flat foot was observed; in addition, a retarded development of the medial arch in the boys was discovered. At the time of the study, > 90% of the treatments were unnecessary.

  4. Flat foot: a comparison of surgical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villani, C; Chiozzi, F; Persiani, P; Costantini, A

    2003-01-01

    The authors present a comparative review of cases concerning the results obtained in the treatment of idiopathic flat foot: the methods compared were Castaman exosinotarsal arthrorisis and Giannini endosinotarsal arthrorisis. Between 1990 and 1198 a total of 80 patients, of which 40 with calcaneo-stop, and 40 with Giannini screws, were submitted to surgery at the Orthopaedic and Traumatology Department of the University of Rome "La Sapienza". The clinical, radiographic and functional results were classified as good, fair and poor. The authors agree on the effectiveness of both methods based on the results obtained and the facility of implantation techniques, however emphasizing the minor injury of the anatomical structures of the subtalar joint when the calcaneo-stop method with Castaman conical screws was used.

  5. Relationship between flexible flat foot and developmental hip dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce de León Samper, M C; Herrera Ortiz, G; Castellanos Mendoza, C

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the possible relationship between flexible flat foot and developmental hip dysplasia in children between six and 15 years of age. Cross-sectional study including 65 patients that had undergone surgery due to residual hip dysplasia or hip dislocation and compared against 75 healthy patients. Flexible flat foot prevalence was measured in each group, with the results showing that 61% of the group with residual hip dysplasia or hip dislocation had this condition, vs. 12% in the healthy group. The statistical analysis shows that the chances of suffering from flexible flat foot, are five times greater in the hip dysplasia or hip dislocation group, than in the healthy group. There is no evidence in the literature showing a relationship between these two conditions, even though they have a common etiology. This study shows a potential measurable relation between this two conditions. Patients with hip dysplasia or dislocation may have a higher chance of presenting flexible flat foot during late childhood, adolescence and adulthood, a fact that suggests a relationship between these two pathologies. Also, patients who seek assistance for the first time because of a flexible flat foot condition without having been evaluated during the first year of life for hip dysplasia, would be better off if evaluated for residual hip dysplasia. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between Nutritional Status and Flat Foot in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce Phua Pau Fung; Yoyos Dias Ismiarto; Wulan Mayasari

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pediatric flatfoot has been reported as the highest clinical complains for foot problems in pediatric department. Nutritional status has showed great influence on the occurrence of flat foot. There are many debates regarding whether underweight or overweight children are more prone to flatfoot. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between nutritional status and flatfoot in children. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from July to October 2015 in 3 ...

  7. Effect of Custom-Molded Foot Orthoses on Foot Pain and Balance in Children With Symptomatic Flexible Flat Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Jae; Lim, Kil-Byung; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Tae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of custom-molded foot orthoses on foot pain and balance in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot 1 month and 3 months after fitting foot orthosis. Method A total of 24 children over 6 years old with flexible flat feet and foot pain for at least 6 months were recruited for this study. Their resting calcaneal stance position and calcaneal pitch angle were measured. Individual custom-molded rigid foot orthoses were prescribed using inverted orthotic technique to control foot overpronation. Pain questionnaire was used to obtain pain sites, degree, and frequency. Balancing ability was determined using computerized posturography. These evaluations were performed prior to custom-molded foot orthoses, 1 month, and 3 months after fitting foot orthoses. Result Of 24 children with symptomatic flexible flat feet recruited for this study, 20 completed the study. Significant (p<0.001) improvements in pain degree and frequency were noted after 1 and 3 months of custom-molded foot orthoses. In addition, significant (p<0.05) improvement in balancing ability was found after 3 months of custom-molded foot orthoses. Conclusion Short-term use of custom-molded foot orthoses significantly improved foot pain and balancing ability in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot. PMID:26798604

  8. Relationship between Nutritional Status and Flat Foot in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Phua Pau Fung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pediatric flatfoot has been reported as the highest clinical complains for foot problems in pediatric department. Nutritional status has showed great influence on the occurrence of flat foot. There are many debates regarding whether underweight or overweight children are more prone to flatfoot. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between nutritional status and flatfoot in children. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted from July to October 2015 in 3 primary schools in Kecamatan Jatinangor. There were 259 children of grade 4 to 5 included in this study. Flatfoot screening was based on measurement of footprint and calculation using Chippaux-smirak index (CSI. The height and weight of children were measured to obtain their Body Mass Index (BMI. Nutritional status was classified based on CDC BMI-for-age growth charts. Analysis was done using chi-square test. Results: There was significant association between nutritional status and flatfoot with p value<0.001.The prevalence of flatfoot in children grade 4to5is40%. When compared to the normal weight children, the overweight children showed prevalence ratio of 1.97(95% CI:1.47 to 2.64 while the underweight children showed prevalence ratio of 1.34 (95% CI:1.78 to 2.25.This stated that the risk of developing flat foot was higher in overweight children. Conclusions: There is significant association between nutritional status with children grade4 to 5. Overweight children are more prone to flat foot.

  9. The influence of foot orthoses on foot mobility magnitude and arch height index in adults with flexible flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheykhi-Dolagh, Roghaye; Saeedi, Hassan; Farahmand, Behshid; Kamyab, Mojtaba; Kamali, Mohammad; Gholizadeh, Hossein; Derayatifar, Amir A; Curran, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Flexible flat foot is described as a reduction in the height of the medial longitudinal arch and may occur from abnormal foot pronation. A foot orthosis is thought to modify and control excessive pronation and improve arch height. To compare the immediate effect of three types of orthoses on foot mobility and the arch height index in subjects with flexible flat feet. A quasi-experimental study. The dorsal arch height, midfoot width, foot mobility and arch height index were assessed in 20 participants with flexible flat feet (mean age = 23.2 ± 3 years) for three different foot orthosis conditions: soft, semi-rigid and rigid University of California Biomechanics Laboratory (UCBL). Maximum midfoot width at 90% with arch mobility in the coronal plane was shown in the semi-rigid orthosis condition. The semi-rigid orthosis resulted in the highest mean foot mobility in 90% of weight bearing, and the rigid orthosis (UCBL) had the lowest mean foot mobility. The soft orthosis resulted in foot mobility between that of the rigid and the semi-rigid orthosis. UCBL orthosis showed the highest arch height index, and the semi-rigid orthosis showed the lowest mean arch height index. Due to its rigid structure and long medial-lateral walls, the UCBL orthosis appears to limit foot mobility. Therefore, it is necessary to make an orthosis that facilitates foot mobility in the normal range of the foot arch. Future studies should address the dynamic mobility of the foot with using various types of foot orthoses. Although there are many studies focussed on flat foot and the use of foot orthoses, the mechanism of action is still unclear. This study explored foot mobility and the influence of foot orthoses and showed that a more rigid foot orthosis should be selected based on foot mobility. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  10. Flat foot and associated factors among primary school children: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Ezema, MSc, MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of flat foot and its associated personal characteristics among public primary school students was investigated. This cross-sectional study involved 474 public primary school students (253 females and 221 males between the ages of 6 and 10 years. Flat foot diagnosis was made using Staheli plantar index (PI, where values >1.15 were indicative of flat foot. The number of children diagnosed with flat foot was 106, yielding a prevalence rate of 22.4%. Flexible flat foot accounted for 93 (87.7% of the positive diagnoses, whereas bilateral flat foot was present in 97 (91.5% of the cases. There was a significant relationship between higher prevalence of pes planus and older age, with the 6-year-old group showing the highest prevalence. Boys were twice as likely to be diagnosed with flat foot as girls, and obese participants were three and a half times more likely to have flat foot compared with those of normal weight. In summary, about one in every five public primary school children aged 6–10 years would be diagnosed with flat foot anomaly, and obesity further increased the risk. Preregistration flat foot screening, and periodic observation for onset of symptoms of progression, should be made available for primary school children.

  11. Effect of Custom-Molded Foot Orthoses on Foot Pain and Balance in Children With Symptomatic Flexible Flat Feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Jae; Lim, Kil-Byung; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yoon, Sung-Won; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Tae-Ho

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of custom-molded foot orthoses on foot pain and balance in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot 1 month and 3 months after fitting foot orthosis. A total of 24 children over 6 years old with flexible flat feet and foot pain for at least 6 months were recruited for this study. Their resting calcaneal stance position and calcaneal pitch angle were measured. Individual custom-molded rigid foot orthoses were prescribed using inverted orthotic technique to control foot overpronation. Pain questionnaire was used to obtain pain sites, degree, and frequency. Balancing ability was determined using computerized posturography. These evaluations were performed prior to custom-molded foot orthoses, 1 month, and 3 months after fitting foot orthoses. Of 24 children with symptomatic flexible flat feet recruited for this study, 20 completed the study. Significant (pfoot orthoses. In addition, significant (pfoot orthoses. Short-term use of custom-molded foot orthoses significantly improved foot pain and balancing ability in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot.

  12. From flat foot to fat foot: structure, ontogeny, function, and evolution of elephant "sixth toes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, John R; Delmer, Cyrille; Miller, Charlotte E; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Pitsillides, Andrew A; Boyde, Alan

    2011-12-23

    Several groups of tetrapods have expanded sesamoid (small, tendon-anchoring) bones into digit-like structures ("predigits"), such as pandas' "thumbs." Elephants similarly have expanded structures in the fat pads of their fore- and hindfeet, but for three centuries these have been overlooked as mere cartilaginous curiosities. We show that these are indeed massive sesamoids that employ a patchy mode of ossification of a massive cartilaginous precursor and that the predigits act functionally like digits. Further, we reveal clear osteological correlates of predigit joint articulation with the carpals/tarsals that are visible in fossils. Our survey shows that basal proboscideans were relatively "flat-footed" (plantigrade), whereas early elephantiforms evolved the more derived "tip-toed" (subunguligrade) morphology, including the predigits and fat pad, of extant elephants. Thus, elephants co-opted sesamoid bones into a role as false digits and used them for support as they changed their foot posture.

  13. ANALYSIS OF ANKLE ALIGNMENT ABNORMALITIES AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PEDIATRIC FLEXIBLE FLAT FOOT

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Ajai Singh; Dr. Ashish Kumar; Dr. Santosh Kumar; Dr. R N Srivastava; Dr. O P Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Majority of paediatric flat feet are flexible and asymptomatic; less than 0.1% of all flat feet are rigid. If these can be diagnosed and managed early, then various complications can be prevented and they will remain asymptomatic. This study was conducted to analyse the ankle rotational mal-alignments in the natural course of flexible flat foot in children. Seventy-six patients of flexible flat foot and one hundred controls were included in this study. The height of foot arches was judged cli...

  14. The paediatric flat foot and general anthropometry in 140 Australian school children aged 7 - 10 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans Angela M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have found a positive relationship between increased body weight and flat foot posture in children. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample of 31 children with flat feet was identified by screening with the FPI-6. Basic anthropometric measures were compared between subjects with and without flat feet as designated. Results The results of this study, in contrast to many others, question the association of flat feet and heavy children. A significant relationship between foot posture and weight (FPI (L r = -0.186 (p Conclusions This study presents results which conflict with those of many previous investigations addressing the relationship between children's weight and foot posture. In contrast to previous studies, the implication of these results is that heavy children have less flat feet. Further investigation is warranted using a standardized approach to assessment and a larger sample of children to test this apparent contradiction.

  15. Effects of a flat prosthetic foot rocker section on balance and mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Hansen, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the effective rocker shape of the physiologic ankle-foot system during standing and fore-aft swaying is much flatter than that used during walking, which indicates a more stable base of support for the standing/swaying activity. Previous work suggests that flat regions within the effective rocker shapes of prosthetic ankle-foot systems could provide enhanced stability for standing balance tasks. An experimental prosthetic foot was altered to provide three different flat region lengths within its effective rocker shape. It was hypothesized that longer flat regions of the effective rocker shape would lead to improved standing balance outcomes and reduced walking performance for unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. However, no significant changes were seen in the balance and mobility outcomes of 12 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users when using the three prosthetic foot conditions. Subjects in the study significantly preferred prosthetic feet with relatively low to moderate flat regions over those with long flat regions. All the subjects without loss of light touch or vibratory sensation selected the prosthetic foot with the shortest flat region. More work is needed to investigate the effects of prosthetic foot properties on balance and mobility of prosthesis users.

  16. Effects of a flat prosthetic foot rocker section on balance and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Andrew; Nickel, Eric; Medvec, Joseph; Brielmaier, Steven; Pike, Alvin; Weber, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the effective rocker shape of the physiologic ankle-foot system during standing and fore-aft swaying is much flatter than that used during walking, which indicates a more stable base of support for the standing/swaying activity. Previous work suggests that flat regions within the effective rocker shapes of prosthetic ankle-foot systems could provide enhanced stability for standing balance tasks. An experimental prosthetic foot was altered to provide three different flat region lengths within its effective rocker shape. It was hypothesized that longer flat regions of the effective rocker shape would lead to improved standing balance outcomes and reduced walking performance for unilateral transtibial prosthesis users. However, no significant changes were seen in the balance and mobility outcomes of 12 unilateral transtibial prosthesis users when using the three prosthetic foot conditions. Subjects in the study significantly preferred prosthetic feet with relatively low to moderate flat regions over those with long flat regions. All the subjects without loss of light touch or vibratory sensation selected the prosthetic foot with the shortest flat region. More work is needed to investigate the effects of prosthetic foot properties on balance and mobility of prosthesis users.

  17. Flat foot functional evaluation using pattern recognition of ground reaction data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertani, A; Cappello, A; Benedetti, M G; Simoncini, L; Catani, F

    1999-08-01

    Main purpose of this study was to apply quantitative gait analysis and statistical pattern recognition as clinical decision-making aids in flat foot diagnosis and post-surgery monitoring. Statistical pattern recognition techniques were applied to discriminate between normal and flat foot populations through ground reaction force measurements; ground reaction forces time course was assumed as a sensible index of the foot function. Gait analysis is becoming recognized as an important clinical tool in orthopaedics, in pre-surgery planning, post-surgery monitoring and in a posteriori evaluation of different treatment techniques. Statistical pattern recognition techniques have been utilized with success in this field to identify the most significant variables of selected motor functions in different pathologies, and to design classification rules and quantitative evaluation scores. Ground reaction forces were recorded during free speed barefoot walks on 28 healthy subjects, and 28 symptomatic flexible flat foot children selected for surgical intervention. A new feature selection algorithm, based on heuristic optimization, was applied to select the most discriminant ground reaction forces time samples. A two-stage pattern recognition system, composed by three linear feature extractors, one for each ground reaction force component, and a linear classifier, was designed to classify the feet of each subject using the selected features. The output of the classifier was used to define a functional score. The classifier assigned the ground reaction force patterns performed by each subject into the right class with an estimated error of 15%, corresponding to an assignment error for each subject's foot of 9%. The most discriminant ground reaction forces time samples selected are in full agreement with the pathophysiology of the symptomatic flexible flat foot. The obtained score was utilized to monitor the 1 and 2 years post-operative functional recovery of two differently

  18. Quantitative estimation of foot-flat and stance phase of gait using foot-worn inertial sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Benoit; Rouhani, Hossein; Crevoisier, Xavier; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-02-01

    Time periods composing stance phase of gait can be clinically meaningful parameters to reveal differences between normal and pathological gait. This study aimed, first, to describe a novel method for detecting stance and inner-stance temporal events based on foot-worn inertial sensors; second, to extract and validate relevant metrics from those events; and third, to investigate their suitability as clinical outcome for gait evaluations. 42 subjects including healthy subjects and patients before and after surgical treatments for ankle osteoarthritis performed 50-m walking trials while wearing foot-worn inertial sensors and pressure insoles as a reference system. Several hypotheses were evaluated to detect heel-strike, toe-strike, heel-off, and toe-off based on kinematic features. Detected events were compared with the reference system on 3193 gait cycles and showed good accuracy and precision. Absolute and relative stance periods, namely loading response, foot-flat, and push-off were then estimated, validated, and compared statistically between populations. Besides significant differences observed in stance duration, the analysis revealed differing tendencies with notably a shorter foot-flat in healthy subjects. The result indicated which features in inertial sensors' signals should be preferred for detecting precisely and accurately temporal events against a reference standard. The system is suitable for clinical evaluations and provides temporal analysis of gait beyond the common swing/stance decomposition, through a quantitative estimation of inner-stance phases such as foot-flat.

  19. The paediatric flat foot proforma (p-FFP: improved and abridged following a reproducibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson Hollie

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concern about a child's flat foot posture is a common reason for frequent clinical consultations for an array of health care and medical professionals. The recently developed paediatric flatfoot clinical-care pathway (FFP has provided an evidence based approach to diagnosis and management. The intra and inter-rater/measurer reliability of the FFP has been investigated in this study. Methods From a study population of 140 children aged seven to 10 years, a sample with flat feet was identified by screening with the Foot posture index (FPI-6. Subjects who scored ≥ 6 on the FPI-6 for both feet became the study's flat foot sample. A same subject, repeated measure research design was used for this study which examined the reliability of the FFP in 31 children aged seven to 10 years, as rated by three examiners. Results Approximately half of the items of the FFP showed less-than-desirable inter-rater reliability, arbitrarily set at the conventional 0.7 level (intra-class correlations. Removal of the unreliable items has produced a shorter; more relevant instrument designated the paediatric flat foot proforma (p-FFP. Conclusion The p-FFP is a reliable instrument for the assessment and resulting treatment actions for children with flat feet. Findings indicate that the simplified p-FFP is a reproducible instrument for the clinical assessment of flat foot in mid-childhood.

  20. ANALYSIS OF ANKLE ALIGNMENT ABNORMALITIES AS A RISK FACTOR FOR PEDIATRIC FLEXIBLE FLAT FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ajai Singh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Majority of paediatric flat feet are flexible and asymptomatic; less than 0.1% of all flat feet are rigid. If these can be diagnosed and managed early, then various complications can be prevented and they will remain asymptomatic. This study was conducted to analyse the ankle rotational mal-alignments in the natural course of flexible flat foot in children. Seventy-six patients of flexible flat foot and one hundred controls were included in this study. The height of foot arches was judged clinically by inspecting the height of the medial arch and by measuring the arch index on weight-bearing podograms. Tibial torsion and bimalleolar angle were assessed in all subjects. Tibial torsion was assessed in the first twenty subjects (ten cases and ten controls both by clinical methods (foot-thigh angle and CT. As no statistical difference in the two methods was observed, tibial torsion was measured by clinical methods only in the remaining subjects. Bimalleolar angle was measured on weight-bearing podograms in all subjects. For a minimum of two years, cases were followed up regularly with a standard conservative protocol and the height of the arches observed. Majority of cases of flexible flat foot were found to have increased tibial torsion and increased foot-bimalleolar angle (high talar spin. The severity of collapse of the medial arch and the response to conservative treatment was found to correlate with these rotational mal-alignments of the ankle. Ankle rotational mal-alignments were seen to make these flexible flat foot deformities more complex and less responsive to conservative treatment.

  1. The Effect of Foot Orthoses on Energy Consumption in Runners with Flat Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Farmani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Foot orthosis is used as protective treatment in people with flatfoot. This study aimed at assessing the effects of Foot orthosis on energy consumption in 20 runners with flat feet.Methods: In this study a treadmill and a Quark b2 were used to measure oxygen consumption. For each patient, a pair of foot orthosis with the appropriate size was prepared. The maximum running Heart rate, vo2 max and vo2 of the subjects were measured and calculated with and without foot orthoses. The data were compared through paired T-test.Results: In this study, after using the foot orthoses, the mean VO2 (ML/M, theVO2 max (ML/M for each Kg of body weight and the maximum heart rate respectively reduced from 4504.6 to 4488.3, from 63.6 to 63.4 and from 168.7 to 168.0, all of which indicating a significant observed reduction (P<0.05.Conclusion: Foot support devices (orthoses result in realignment of lower extremity joints in patients with flat feet, thus length- tension relationship of muscles improve. This prevents muscle fatigue in long- distance running. Finally, when suitable foot orthoses was applied energy consumption during running decreased.

  2. The efficacy of nonsurgical interventions for pediatric flexible flat foot: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane MacKenzie, Angela; Rome, Keith; Evans, Angela Margaret

    2012-12-01

    The pediatric flat foot frequently presents as a common parental concern in the health care setting. Foot orthoses are often used, yet benefits are uncertain and disputed, having been variably investigated. A recent Cochrane review cites limited evidence for nonsurgical interventions. This critical and structured review evaluates the effect of pediatric foot orthoses from assessment of the current literature. A systematic search of the following electronic databases: Medline, CINAHL, AMED, and SPORTDiscus, using an array of search terms. A further search was also performed on relevant reference listings. Inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed journal articles, publication date from 1970 onwards, in the English language. Exclusion criteria were surgery interventions, adult subjects, rigid flat foot, articles based on opinion. A structured Quality Index was used to evaluate the research quality of articles. Three reviewers independently assessed the studies with disputes resolved by majority consensus. Studies were then grouped according to the outcome measures used. Thirteen articles, from an initial 429, met the criteria for quality evaluation. The mean Quality Index score was 35% (range: 13% to 81%), indicative of generally poor and varying methodological quality. The low quality of the studies negates definitive conclusions. Only 3/13 quality evaluations scored > 50%; hence, evidence for efficacy of nonsurgical interventions for flexible pediatric flat feet is very limited. Future research needs validated foot type assessment, applicable outcome measures for the intervention, the use of control groups, allowance for independent effects of footwear, age range comparisons, larger samples, and prospective, longer follow-up. There is very limited evidence for the efficacy of nonsurgical interventions for children with flexible flat feet. Clinicians need to consider the lack of good-quality evidence in their decision-making for the management of pediatric flat foot.

  3. The influence of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot on the biomechanics characteristics of foot of children of pre-school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychuk I.O.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the article is defined linear and angular biomechanics descriptions of children's foot of senior preschool age. It is analysed the dynamics and increase of the explored indexes during realization of the program of prophylaxis of flat foot in the teaching process. In experiment took part teachers and instructors of physical culture; control and experimental group consist of 20 children at the age of 5-6 years old. Efficiency of the offered program of prophylaxis of flat foot is proved.

  4. A protocol for classifying normal- and flat-arched foot posture for research studies using clinical and radiographic measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several clinical and radiological methods available to classify foot posture in research, however there is no clear strategy for selecting the most appropriate measurements. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a foot screening protocol to distinguish between participants with normal- and flat-arched feet who would then subsequently be recruited into a series of laboratory-based gait studies. Methods The foot posture of ninety-one asymptomatic young adults was assessed using two clinical measurements (normalised navicular height and arch index and four radiological measurements taken from antero-posterior and lateral x-rays (talus-second metatarsal angle, talo-navicular coverage angle, calcaneal inclination angle and calcaneal-first metatarsal angle. Normative foot posture values were taken from the literature and used to recruit participants with normal-arched feet. Data from these participants were subsequently used to define the boundary between normal- and flat-arched feet. This information was then used to recruit participants with flat-arched feet. The relationship between the clinical and radiographic measures of foot posture was also explored. Results Thirty-two participants were recruited to the normal-arched study, 31 qualified for the flat-arched study and 28 participants were classified as having neither normal- or flat-arched feet and were not suitable for either study. The values obtained from the two clinical and four radiological measurements established two clearly defined foot posture groups. Correlations among clinical and radiological measures were significant (p r = 0.24 to 0.70. Interestingly, the clinical measures were more strongly associated with the radiographic angles obtained from the lateral view. Conclusion This foot screening protocol provides a coherent strategy for researchers planning to recruit participants with normal- and flat-arched feet. However, further research is

  5. Tribological Behavior of Gampsocleis Gratiosa Foot Pad Against Vertical Flat Surfaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dong-hui; Tong Jin; Sun Ji-yu; Ren Lu-quan

    2005-01-01

    Some tribological behavior between mature Gampsocleis gratiosa foot pads and vertical flats of different materials were studied in this work. stereomieroscope (SMS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to measure the morphology of the Gampsocleis gratiosa foot pads. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the morphologies of the surfaces of glass and a wall doped with calcium carbonate material. The attaching behavior of Gampsocleis gratiosa feet on the two vertical surfaces was observed. The attaching force (perpendicular to the vertical surface) and the static frictional force (along the direction of gravitation) of Gampsocleis gratiosa foot pads on a vertical glass were measured. It was shown that the average attaching force is 50.59 mN and the static frictional force is 259.10 mN. The physical models of the attaching interface between Gampsocleis gratiosa foot pads and the two vertical surfaces were proposed. It was observed that the foot pads are smooth in macroscale; however, the pad surface is composed by approximate hexagonal units with sizes of 3 μm to 7 μm in microscale; the adjacent units are separated by nanoscale grooves. The Observations showed that the Gampsocleis gratiosa can not climb the vertical calcium carbonate wall; in contrast, they can easily climb the vertical glass surface. Based on the features of the geometrical morphologies of the foot pads and the glass surface, we speculate that the attaching force and strong static frictional force are attributed to the interinlays between the deformable Gampsocleis gratiosa foot pads and the nanoscale sharp tips of the glass surface.

  6. Nonoperative treatment of adult acquired flat foot with the Arizona brace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Jeffrey F; Lin, Sheldon S; Berberian, Wayne S; Johnson, Jeffrey E

    2003-09-01

    Nonoperative treatment of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction can be successful with the Arizona AFO brace, particularly when treatment is initiated in the early stages of the disease. This mandates that the orthopedist has a high index of suspicion when evaluating patients to make an accurate diagnosis. Although there is a role for surgical management of acquired flat feet, a well-fitted, custom-molded leather and polypropylene orthosis can be effective at relieving symptoms and either obviating or delaying any surgical intervention. In today's climate of patient satisfaction directed health care, a less invasive treatment modality that relieves pain may prove to be more valuable than similar pain relief that is obtained after surgery. Questions regarding the long-term results of bracing remain unanswered. Future studies are needed to determine if disease progression and arthrosis occur despite symptomatic relief with a brace. Furthermore, age- and disease stage-matched control groups who are randomized to undergo surgery or bracing are necessary to compare these different treatment modalities. At this time, the Arizona AFO brace can be a useful weapon in the orthopedist's armamentarium for treating acquired flat foot deformity.

  7. [Posterior tibial tendon dysfunction: what other structures are involved in the development of acquired adult flat foot?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herráiz Hidalgo, L; Carrascoso Arranz, J; Recio Rodríguez, M; Jiménez de la Peña, M; Cano Alonso, R; Álvarez Moreno, E; Martínez de Vega Fernández, V

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the association of posterior tibial tendon dysfunction and lesions of diverse ankle structures diagnosed at MRI with radiologic signs of flat foot. We retrospectively compared 29 patients that had posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (all 29 studied with MRI and 21 also studied with weight-bearing plain-film X-rays) with a control group of 28 patients randomly selected from among all patients who underwent MRI and weight-bearing plain-film X-rays for other ankle problems. In the MRI studies, we analyzed whether a calcaneal spur, talar beak, plantar fasciitis, calcaneal bone edema, Achilles' tendinopathy, spring ligament injury, tarsal sinus disease, and tarsal coalition were present. In the weight-bearing plain-film X-rays, we analyzed the angle of Costa-Bertani and radiologic signs of flat foot. To analyze the differences between groups, we used Fisher's exact test for the MRI findings and for the presence of flat foot and analysis of variance for the angle of Costa-Bertani. Calcaneal spurs, talar beaks, tarsal sinus disease, and spring ligament injury were significantly more common in the group with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (P<.05). Radiologic signs of flat foot and anomalous values for the angle of Costa-Bertani were also significantly more common in the group with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (P<.001). We corroborate the association between posterior tibial tendon dysfunction and lesions to the structures analyzed and radiologic signs of flat foot. Knowledge of this association can be useful in reaching an accurate diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. [Lengthening Osteotomy of the Calcaneus in the Treatment of the Flat Foot in Children - Short-term Results.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomiak, J; Dungl, P; Adamec, O; Hart, R

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this communication is to provide both clinical and radiological evaluation of short-term results of the lengthening osteotomy of the anterior part of the calcaneus after Evans in the treatment of the flat foot in children and determine indication criteria of this operation. In the 1996-1999 period 35 feet were operated on in 23 children (13 boys, 10 girls), 12 children underwent bilateral surgery in the interval of 6-12 months. The average age at the time of surgery was 10,5 years and the age range 4,3-18,5. Most operations were performed in the age range of 11-15 years (16 operations). Indication to the operation was a symptomatic flexible pes planus (29 times), the flat foot with a neurogenic defect twice, with talus obliquus twice, deformity after the treatment of pes equinovarus congenitus once and the flat foot after a burn injury once. The period of postoperative follow-up ranged between 3 months and 2,5 years. The evaluation focussed on subjective complaints, clinical finding, plantogram and radiological indicators of flat foot. For the purpose of the objectivization of the shortening of the lateral pillar of the foot the so called talocalcanear differential index was monitored under weightbearing from the lateral radiograph. This index was calculated on the basis of the difference of the distance between the distal edge of talus and the calcaneus against the length of the medial pillar of the foot. The postoperative monitoring did not record any infection complications or failure of the surgical technique. Based on the subjective evaluation the condition in 21 patients with the operation of 32 feet (91 %) improved after the surgery and in 2 patients with the operation of 3 feet (9 %) the condition did not improve. In no patient the complaints were worse. Valgus position of the heel of all patients was corrected after the surgery to the normal. There was no functional limitation of the ankle and subtalar joints in any of the patients. Plantograms

  9. Opto-electronic system for detection of flat foot by using estimation techniques: study and approach of design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Luis A; García, Daniel O; Villavicencio, Emilio A; Torres, Miguel A; Nakamura, Orlando K; Huamani, Robinson; Yabar, Leopoldo F

    2010-01-01

    Distribution of Foot Pressure reflects the deformations of body biomechanical design. They are caused by different reasons: degenerative, by trauma, etc., being flat foots a common pathology in Peru with high incidence. However there isn't the properly technology to detect properly this disease because is detected by a non-reliable visual way using pedoscopes. Flat foot is the degree of internal plantar arch lack and is well observed in foot pressure distribution. This distribution can be obtained by optical or electronic systems. The most required, by their accuracy, are the electronic ones but sensor manufacturing process increases its price, meanwhile optics provides an indirect optical solution whose price depends on scanners resolution. Therefore, this paper takes advantage of both systems: a direct pressure value from electronics and no problems calibration from optical systems. In regard of these reasons, prototype will use a webcam and twelve FSR (Force sensing resistor) sensors including estimation techniques, and thus obtain the foot pressure distribution. Accordingly, the present study is looking for providing to the specialist with an efficient tool to generate better diagnostics in Perú.

  10. Foot pressure analysis of adults with flat and normal feet at different gait speeds on an ascending slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted to determine the difference in foot pressures between flat and normal feet at different gait speeds on an ascending slope. [Subjects] This study enrolled 30 adults with normal (n=15) and flat feet (n=15), with ages from 21 to 30 years old, who had no history of neurological disorders or gait problems. A treadmill was used for the analysis of kinematic features during gait, using a slope of 10%, and gait velocities of slow, normal, and fast. [Methods] A foot pressure analyzer was used to measure changes in foot pressure. [Results] Compared to the normal subjects, the foot pressure of the flatfoot subjects showed a significant increase in the 2–3rd metatarsal region with increasing gait speed, whereas there were significant decreases in the 1st toe and 1st metatarsal regions with increasing gait speed. [Conclusion] The body weight of adults with flatfoot was concentrated on the 2–3rd metatarsal region during the stance phase and increased with walking speed on the ascending slope due to weakening of function of the medial longitudinal arch. PMID:26834348

  11. Talonavicular arthrodesis for the treatment of neurological flat foot deformity in pediatric patients: clinical and radiographic evaluation of 29 feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coulon, Geraldo; Turcot, Katia; Canavese, Federico; Dayer, Romain; Kaelin, Andre; Ceroni, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Patients with cerebral palsy, syndromes, myopathies, and other forms of neurological impairment can develop planovalgus foot deformity of variable degrees of severity. Several techniques have already been described to resolve the deformity with variable results. Talonavicular arthrodesis is a well-known technique in adult patients, but to our knowledge, it has not been described in children with neurological impairment. We performed a retrospective chart and radiographic review of 18 neurological patients (10 boys, 8 girls) with a mean age of 11.3 ± 2.6 years (range, 7 to 19 y) who underwent talonavicular arthrodesis for flat foot deformity between 1998 and 2009, at our center. Of a total of 29 feet, talonavicular arthrodesis was judged satisfactory in 28 feet, whereas 1 had unsatisfactory results according to the Yoo clinical outcome scoring scale. Subjective observations reported that 3 feet from 2 patients were painful preoperatively and none after last follow-up. Functionally, 2 of 13 patients were able to stop using braces after surgery. The significant improvement achieved postoperatively in radiographic measurement angles was maintained at last follow-up without any loss of angle correction. Talonavicular arthrodesis seems to achieve a reliable hind foot fixation in flat foot in patients with neurological impairment. Case series.

  12. The efficacy of foot orthoses on alteration to center of pressure displacement in subjects with flat and normal feet: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboutorabi, Atefe; Arazpour, Mokhtar; Hutchins, Stephen William; Curran, Sarah; Maleki, Maryam

    2014-04-29

    Abstract Purpose: The aim of this review was to evaluate and compare the effect of foot orthoses on center of pressure (CoP) displacement in healthy patients and those with flat foot. Method: The search strategy was based on the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome (PICO) method. A search was performed in PubMed, Science Direct, Google scholar and ISI web of knowledge databases by using selected keywords. Seventeen articles were selected for final evaluation. The procedure was followed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method. Result: The results of the literature review demonstrated that there is lack of evidence to show that FOs improve CoP displacement in subjects with flat foot. Conclusion: There is no consistent evidence to prove the efficacy of FOs on altering CoP displacement in healthy subjects but in those with flat foot, FOs decreased CoP excursion. Implications for Rehabilitation Foot orthoses (FOs) have become an integral part of the treatment of injuries of the foot, ankle, and lower extremity. Assessment of FOs effect on the COP displacement can help to provide a better understanding of the body's compensatory mechanisms and their therapeutic effects. There is no consistent evidence to prove the efficacy of FOs on CoP displacement in healthy subjects but in flat foot subjects foot orthoses decreased CoP excursion has been demonstrated.

  13. Radiographic Correction Following Reconstruction of Adult Acquired Flat Foot Deformity Using the Cotton Medial Cuneiform Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyer, Amiethab; Dall, Graham F; Shub, Jeffrey; Myerson, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    The Cotton osteotomy has been used to correct residual forefoot supination in flexible flatfoot deformity reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to delineate the radiographic effects of the Cotton osteotomy by controlling for concomitant procedures used for deformity correction. We retrospectively analyzed 67 patients who underwent a Cotton osteotomy as part of a flatfoot reconstructive procedure. We evaluated 12 radiographic parameters including the articular surface angles of the foot, Meary angle, and a newly defined medial arch sag angle (MASA). Twenty-eight of these patients were matched to a cohort that did not undergo a Cotton osteotomy. In all patients who underwent a Cotton osteotomy, there were statistically significant changes in the articular surface angles and medial arch height (P osteotomy did not improve Meary angle but provided an additional 6.5 degrees correction of the MASA (P = .002). After reliability testing, the intraclass correlation coefficient was found to be substantial for the MASA compared to Meary angle. The data suggest that the MASA was a useful radiographic tool for assessing midfoot collapse in the setting of pes planovalgus. The current study demonstrated the corrective capacity of the Cotton osteotomy on the MASA; at final follow-up, there was no evidence of radiographic instability. This is suggestive that a naviculocuneiform arthrodesis may not be warranted for medial column stabilization in the setting of flatfoot reconstruction. Level III, case control study. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Proximal oblique-domed osteotomy of the first metatarsal for the treatment of hallux valgus associate with flat foot: effect to the correction of the longitudinal arch of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Masato; Komatsu, Fumito; Oae, Kazunori; Miyamoto, Wataru; Uchio, Yuji; Ochi, Mitsuo; Matsushita, Takashi

    2007-10-01

    Flat foot and/or metatarsal primus varus are the major causes of hallux valgus, and it is important to correct these deformities in order to prevent the recurrence of this condition. We demonstrate the clinical and radiological assessment of the correction of hallux valgus, metatarsal primus varus, and flat foot after proximal oblique-domed osteotomy of the metatarsus with distal soft tissue reconstruction. Twenty-seven feet of 22 patients with moderate or severe hallux valgus who had undergone proximal oblique-domed osteotomy were studied. After the adductor hallucis tendon was cut at the attachment of the proximal phalanx and at the sesamoid bone, the osteotomy was performed 3 cm dorsal-distal to the metatarsocuneiform joint to transfer distal fragment approximately 5 mm in the plantar direction, and rotated laterally decreasing the first-second intermetatarsal angle to 5 degrees. The mean AOFAS score was 54.1 +/- 2.8 points at pre-operation and 92.8 +/- 4.8 points at the most recent follow-up (P surgery and at one year after surgery. The average improvement of the talar pitch and calcaneal plantar angle was 2.6 +/- 1.4 and 2.4 +/- 1.5 degrees, respectively. This study suggest that proximal oblique-domed osteotomy of the metatarsal as a surgical procedure for the treatment of moderate or severe hallux valgus with flat foot can be recommended to correct the longitudinal arch of the foot and the first-second intermetatarsal angle.

  15. Interference screw for fixation of FDL transfer in the treatment of adult acquired flat foot deformity stage II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charwat-Pessler, Christoph Georg; Hofstaetter, Stefan Gerhard; Jakubek, Doris Elvira; Trieb, Klemens

    2015-10-01

    Flexor digitorum longus transfer and medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy have shown favourable results in the treatment of adult acquired flat foot deformity stage 2. Little is known about the resorbable interference screw for tendon fixation and postoperative patient satisfaction though. Moreover possible changes of radiographic parameters at final follow-up, possible implant-associated complications and differences concerning clinical results at final follow-up to other studies using bone tunnel techniques for fixation of the FDL tendon were investigated. 21 feet in 21 patients with a mean age of 51 years were evaluated pre- and postoperatively after a standardised operative procedure using MDCO and FDL transfer with interference screw fixation. Patients were evaluated with the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Hindfoot Score and the Visual Analogue Scale at an average follow-up of 20 months. Hindfoot radiographic parameters were evaluated according to AOFAS guidelines. For statistical analysis SPSS v.15.0.1 was used. The average AOFAS Score (from 42 to 95 points) and VAS (from 0.5 to 8 points) both increased significantly (p < 0.001 each) from preoperative to final follow-up as well as the hindfoot valgus (from 10 to 4 degrees (p = 0.005)) and the lateral talo-first metatarsal angle (from 13.6 preoperative to 5.2° at follow-up). 88 percent of patients evaluated the postoperative result with "very good" or "good". Implant-associated complications could not be detected. We conclude that interference screw fixation for FDL transfer is a safe and promising operative technique, allowing a smaller skin incision without disrupting the normal interconnections at the knot of Henry, while achieving very high patient satisfaction and improving postoperative function as well as relieving pain. This method is technically easy to perform, has a low complication risk and we, therefore, recommend this fixation technique in patients with adult acquired

  16. Flowers of Cypripedium fargesii (Orchidaceae) fool flat-footed flies (Platypezidae) by faking fungus-infected foliage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zong-Xin; Li, De-Zhu; Bernhardt, Peter; Wang, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin was fascinated by the orchid–pollinator interactions, but he did not realize that many orchid species are pollinated by deceit. Cypripedium, a model lineage of nonrewarding orchid flowers, is pollinated primarily by bees. Here we present both an example of floral mimesis of fungus-infected foliage in orchids and an example of flat-footed flies (Agathomyia sp.; Platypezidae) as pollen vectors for angiosperms. Cypripedium fargesii is a nectarless, terrestrial, endangered orchid from southwestern China that requires cross-pollination to produce the maximum number of viable embryos. All insects caught entering or leaving the labellum sac were Agathomyia sp. carrying conidia of Cladosporium sp. on their mouthparts and legs, suggesting mycophagy. Blackish hairy spots on the upper surface of foliage may imitate black mold spots, serving as short-term visual lures. Some odor molecules also associated with Cladosporium cultures were isolated in the floral scent. Mimesis of fungus-infected foliage probably represents an overlooked but important option in angiosperm diversification, because there are three to five more Cypripedium spp. in southwestern China with the same mode of floral presentation and black-spotted hairy leaves. PMID:21502502

  17. The flat-footed child -- to treat or not to treat: what is the clinician to do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Angela Margaret

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the treatment of pediatric flatfoot with foot orthoses and explores the existing knowledge from an evidence-based perspective. Studies investigating the use of foot orthoses for pediatric flatfoot were reviewed and ranked on the evidence hierarchy model according to research designs. Clinical guidelines and efficacy rating methods were also reviewed. Three randomized controlled trials exist, and a systematic review and possible meta-analysis of these studies is in progress. The results of these studies, although not definitive for the use of orthoses for pediatric flatfoot, provide useful direction. Clinical guidelines for the management of flatfoot are a useful supplement for clinical decision making and have been enhanced. This article presents a pragmatic and evidence-based clinical care pathway for clinicians to use for pediatric flatfoot. It uses a simple "traffic light" framework to identify three subtypes of pediatric flatfoot. The clinician is advised to 1) treat symptomatic pediatric flatfoot, 2) monitor (or with discretion simply treat) asymptomatic nondevelopmental pediatric flatfoot, and 3) identify and advise asymptomatic developmental pediatric flatfoot. (Children with juvenile arthritis should receive customized foot orthoses.) This approach will dispel much of the contention surrounding the use of foot orthoses in children.

  18. 跟骨内移截骨治疗获得性扁平足临床分析%Acquired flat foot medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奉琪; 王慧娟; 张奇; 赵海涛; 李智勇; 高巍; 张英泽

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] To study the c haracteristic and clinic curative effect of the acquired flatfoot treated by a medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy. [ Methods] From Jan. 2006 ~ Dec. 2008, 31 patients with an average age of 26. 7 years (range, 19 ~50 years), were treated by a medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy together with other technique. Seventeen of them were male and 14 were female. The lateral position, calcaneal axial and CT of calcaneal were taken preoperatively. The mean first talocalcaneal angle was 22.3° ( range, 5° ~ 32°) . All patients had contracture of achilles tendon, posterior tibial tendon dysfunction, calcaneovalgus, forefoot pronation and abduction ( weight bearing ) and pains. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hindfoot Scale was 45.8. Posterior tibial tendon irsufficiency (PTTI) were stageⅡ. Thirteen feet were treated by a medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy, 4 feet by a medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy and tendocalcaneus lengthening, 14 feet by a medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy , tendo calcaneus lengthening and flexor digitorum longus tendon transfer. [ Results] After a mean follow up of 18. 8 months (range, 6 ~ 26 months), the medial longitudinal arch improved postoperatively, 10 feets pain disappeared, 15 foot reliefed and 6 foot remained. The mean first talocalcaneal angle was 3.2° (range, 0° ~7°) (t = 22. 57, P≤0. 001 ), strephexopodia and the abduction of foot obviously improved . The rating of clinic curative effect was 80. 6% (25/31) . The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) Hindfoot Scale was 84. 5. [ Conclusion ] Medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy treating the flexible flatfoot can reliablely correct calcaneovalgus , partly resume the medial longitudinal arch, improve weight bearing and biomechanical characteristic of foot and ankle. We can combine with other technique to improve curativeeffect of the acquired flat foot. The operative indication

  19. EpCAM expression in normal, non-pathological tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Eva; Reid, Lola M

    2008-01-01

    Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is associated with various cancers. Most normal, non-pathological epithelial tissue is EpCAM positive with the exception of epidermal keratinocytes, gastric parietal cells, myoepithelial cells, thymic cortical epithelial, and hepatocytes. However, during early liver development EpCAM expression is also observed. In our studies, we have demonstrated that EpCAM is expressed in non-pathological human livers on hepatic progenitors in livers of all donor ages, from 16 weeks gestation fetal livers to adult. Hepatic progenitors of the liver consist of the stem cells and their descendants, the hepatoblasts, that give rise to the hepatocytic and biliary lineages. Both hepatic stem cells and most hepatoblasts express EpCAM, but only hepatoblasts are alpha-fetoprotein positive. The percentage of EpCAM positive progenitors in human livers varies with donor age and is about 2.5% in the adult and 12.1% in fetuses. In vivo, hepatic stem cells have been found associated with the canals of Hering. Xeno-transplantation experiments with EpCAM positive human liver cells have revealed their potential for proliferation and differentiation to mature liver parenchymal cells.

  20. Flat Feet, Happy Feet? Comparison of the Dynamic Plantar Pressure Distribution and Static Medial Foot Geometry between Malawian and Dutch Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, N.M.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Louwerens, J.W.; Ven, Y.H. van de; Keijsers, N.L.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot

  1. Flat Feet, Happy Feet? Comparison of the Dynamic Plantar Pressure Distribution and Static Medial Foot Geometry between Malawian and Dutch Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, N.M.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Louwerens, J.W.; Ven, Y.H. van de; Keijsers, N.L.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot

  2. New devices for measuring forces on the kayak foot bar and on the seat during flat-water kayak paddling: a technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johnny E; Rosdahl, Hans G

    2014-03-01

    The purpose was to develop and validate portable force-measurement devices for recording push and pull forces applied by each foot to the foot bar of a kayak and the horizontal force at the seat. A foot plate on a single-point force transducer mounted on the kayak foot bar underneath each foot allowed the push and pull forces to be recorded. Two metal frames interconnected with 4 linear ball bearings, and a force transducer allowed recording of horizontal seat force. The foot-bar-force device was calibrated by loading each foot plate with weights in the push-pull direction perpendicular to the foot plate surface, while the seat-force device was calibrated to horizontal forces with and without weights on the seat. A strong linearity (r2 = .99-1.0) was found between transducer output signal and load force in the push and pull directions for both foot-bar transducers perpendicular to the foot plate and the seat-force-measuring device. Reliability of both devices was tested by means of a test-retest design. The coefficient of variation (CV) for foot-bar push and pull forces ranged from 0.1% to 1.1%, and the CV for the seat forces varied from 0.6% to 2.2%. The current study opens up a field for new investigations of the forces generated in the kayak and ways to optimize kayak-paddling performance.

  3. Application of poly-L-lactide screws in flat foot surgery: histological and radiological aspects of bio-absorption of degradable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sena, P; Manfredini, G; Barbieri, C; Mariani, F; Tosi, G; Ruozi, B; Ferretti, M; Marzona, L; Palumbo, C

    2012-04-01

    The flat foot in childhood is a condition frequently observed in orthopedic practice but it is still debated when and in which patients surgical corrective treatment is appropriate; recently, the application of poly-L-lactic-acid (PLLA) screws was proposed. The present study investigates a group of 33 patients treated with PLLA expansion endorthesis in order to evaluate the deformity correction. Clinical and radiological outcomes in patients were correlated with: a) morphological characterization of screws both before and after being removed from patients, when necessary; b) histological and bio-molecular evaluation of degradation processes of the implants, focusing attention on the correlation between the cellular cohort involved in inflammatory reaction and the bio-absorption degree of PLLA screws. Deformity correction was mostly achieved, with minimal need of screw removal; the results obtained clearly show the occurrence of chronic rather than acute inflammation in removed screw specimens. At the histological level, after biomaterial implantation, the sequence of events occurring in the surrounding tissues ultimately ends in the formation of foreign body giant cells (FBGCs) at the tissue/material interface; but the mechanisms which influence the fate of screw implants, i.e. the resolution of acute inflammation rather than the progression towards chronic inflammation, are of crucial importance for biodegradable materials like "polylactic acid". In fact, the FBGC response ensures a long-term mechanism which eliminates the foreign material from the body, but at the same time the implications of prolonged FBGC responses, which generate negative side effects, could significantly impede the healing progress.

  4. Flat feet, happy feet? Comparison of the dynamic plantar pressure distribution and static medial foot geometry between Malawian and Dutch adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niki M Stolwijk

    Full Text Available In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot is loaded. Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands. None of the subjects had a history of foot complaints. The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups. Standardized pictures were taken from the feet to assess the height of the Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA. We found that Malawian adults: (1 loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2 had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3 had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch. These findings demonstrate that differences in static foot geometry, foot loading, and roll off technique exist between the two groups. The advantage of the foot loading pattern as shown by the Malawian group is that the plantar pressure is distributed more equally over the foot. This might prevent foot complaints.

  5. Flat feet, happy feet? Comparison of the dynamic plantar pressure distribution and static medial foot geometry between Malawian and Dutch adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolwijk, Niki M; Duysens, Jacques; Louwerens, Jan Willem K; van de Ven, Yvonne Hm; Keijsers, Noël Lw

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to western countries, foot complaints are rare in Africa. This is remarkable, as many African adults walk many hours each day, often barefoot or with worn-out shoes. The reason why Africans can withstand such loading without developing foot complaints might be related to the way the foot is loaded. Therefore, static foot geometry and dynamic plantar pressure distribution of 77 adults from Malawi were compared to 77 adults from the Netherlands. None of the subjects had a history of foot complaints. The plantar pressure pattern as well as the Arch Index (AI) and the trajectory of the center of pressure during the stance phase were calculated and compared between both groups. Standardized pictures were taken from the feet to assess the height of the Medial Longitudinal Arch (MLA). We found that Malawian adults: (1) loaded the midfoot for a longer and the forefoot for a shorter period during roll off, (2) had significantly lower plantar pressures under the heel and a part of the forefoot, and (3) had a larger AI and a lower MLA compared to the Dutch. These findings demonstrate that differences in static foot geometry, foot loading, and roll off technique exist between the two groups. The advantage of the foot loading pattern as shown by the Malawian group is that the plantar pressure is distributed more equally over the foot. This might prevent foot complaints.

  6. 中美空军飞行学员医学选拔对照实证研究--扁平足%An empirical study on medical selection of flying cadets with flat foot between PLAAF and USAF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    厉晓杰; 邹志康; 杜俊杰; 朱克顺; 袁超凡; 夏青; 吉保民; 马中立

    2016-01-01

    Objective To find the difference in the standards of flat foot between PLA Air Force flying cadets recruiting medical standard directory and US Air Force Medical Standard Directory in order to facilitate the reform of PLA Air Force flying cadets recruiting medical standard directory. Methods The reject rate and comprehensive assessment qualifiedrate of flat foot in flying cadet recruiting final selective physical examinations from 2012 to 2015 were researched. Standards of flat foot in PLA Air Force flying cadets recruiting medical standard directory and that in US Air Force Medical Standard Directory were compared and subjected to an empirical study. Results During flying cadet recruiting final selective physical examinations from 2012 to 2015, 52 candidates were rejected because of flat foot, accounting for 26.40% of the candidates rejected because of orthopeadic diseases. 87 candidates with flat foot were approved by comprehensive assessment, accounting for 37.18% of the candidates with orthopeadics diseases approved by comprehensive assessment. The differences in the standards of flat foot between PLA Air Force flying cadets recruiting medical standard directory and US Air Force Medical Standard Directory mainly lie in the fact that functions of the foot were emphasized in US Air Force Medical Standard Directory but were not mentioned in PLA guidelines. Based on US air force medical standard directory, 43 were qualified and 9 were disqualified among the candidates rejected because of flat foot. Among the candidates with flat foot approved by comprehensive assessment, 79 were qualified and 8 were disqualified. Conclusion In flying cadet recruiting final selective physical examinations, the number of candidates rejected because of flat foot is huge. The comprehensive assessment for flat foot in PLA has proved to be as effective as the US medical standards.%目的:探讨中美两军飞行学员选拔扁平足医学标准的不同,并对我军标准改革提

  7. Gait features and foot plantar pressure distribution of nurse natural walking on flat ground%平地自然行走护士的步态特征和足底压力分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萍; 严彬; 邓廉夫; 朱唯一; 夏杰; 黄琦昀

    2012-01-01

    背景:繁忙的工作和快速行走的严格要求势必造成护士足部压力增高,甚至引起足部疾病.目的:分析护士平地自然行走下的步态特征和足底压力分布.方法:采用比利时RSscan INTERNATIONAL 公司生产的足底压力分布测试系统对73 名护士进行动态足底压力测试.结果与结论:护士步态分析中足底压强、冲量、支撑时间数据分析一致:在自然步态下,护士足部最大压强部位在第2、3 跖骨区;足部最大冲量部位在前足;支撑期时间所占比例最大的是前足离地阶段;加上护士步速较快,足底压力相应增高,前足压力也随其增大.提示护士前足压力较高,易疲劳而发生运动损伤.因此,护士要科学的选择护士鞋或鞋垫,调整足底压力分布和足底冲量,加强对前足、特别是前足第2~3 跖骨区的保护,尽可能避免足部疲劳和损伤的发生.%BACKGROUND: The strict request with the busy work and fast walking would cause the nurse foot high pressure, and even cause foot diseases.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the natural gait feature and foot plantar pressure distribution of nurse walking on flat ground. METHODS: The dynamic foot plantar pressures of 73 nurses were tested by the Footscan system (Rsscan, Belgium). RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The data among the foot plantar pressure, the impulse and the support time in nurse gait analysis were consistent. Under the nurse natural gait, the largest pressure part was the second and the third metatarsal; the biggest impulse of foot spot located in forefoot, the largest proportion of the support interval was forefoot push off phase. The walking speed of the nurse was fast, foot plantar pressure was high, and the pressure in the front foot was increased with the total foot pressure increasing, which indicated that the nurse forefoot would be fatigued easily and would be injured easily. Therefore, the nurse should choose the nurse's shoes or insoles scientifically to adjust

  8. 130 DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS: CURRENT TRENDS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drclement

    achieved in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers in ... Fig II: WAGNER CLASSIFICATION OF DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS. Grade 0 .... to surgeries for correcting deformities .... Seamless socks and socks with flat, unobtrusive, soft seams should.

  9. Foot muscles strengthener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris T. Glavač

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous experience in the correction of flat feet consisted of the use of insoles for shoes and exercises with toys, balls, rollers, inclined planes, etc. A device for strengthening foot muscles is designed for the correction of flat feet in children and, as its name suggests, for strengthening foot muscles in adults. The device is made of wood and metal, with a mechanism and technical solutions, enabling the implementation of specific exercises to activate muscles responsible for the formation of the foot arch. It is suitable for home use with controlled load quantities since it has calibrated springs. The device is patented with the Intellectual Property Office, Republic of Serbia, as a petty patent.

  10. Flat feet in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukašinović Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe flatfoot, as one of very frequent deformities in everyday medical practice. A special condition of the deformity associated with a calcaneal valgus position and complicated by a knee valgus position (as a consequence of non-treatment is described. Also, the precise anatomy of the longitudinal foot arches (medial and lateral, definition and classification of the deformity, clinical findings and therapeutic protocols are proposed. The authors especially emphasise that the need for having extensive knowledge on the differences between a flexible and rigid flatfoot, having in mind that the treatment of flexible flat foot is usually not necessary, while the treatment of rigid flatfoot is usually unavoidable.

  11. The Effect of Taping on Foot Structure, Functional Foot Stability and Running Gait Patterns of the Foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Malia Ho; Tsai Djun; John Cher Chay Tan

    2015-01-01

    Running related foot injuries are associated with excessive foot movements due to malaligned foot structure and poor functional foot stability. Clinicians tape the foot to alleviate pain and prevent further injuries, whilst allowing the athlete to continue training. However, the effect of taping is not conclusive. The purpose of this study is to investigate if taping effectively improves foot structure, functional foot stability and reduces excessive foot movements during running. Twenty-two subjects had their foot structure identified as: fiat foot stable, fiat foot unstable and normal arched unstable according to the FPI (foot posture index) and the Modified Romberg's Test with the BESS (balance error scoring system) criteria. The subjects ran on an instrumented treadmill barefooted with their feet taped and untaped. Running kinetic and kinematic data were collected and analysed using a paired t-test and 3x2 ANOVA. Taping improved foot structure but not functional foot stability. During running, taping significantly reduced rearfoot eversion. Taping increased the loading rate in the fiat foot and normal arched unstable groups but reduced the loading rate for the flat foot stable group. Implication on the appropriate use of foot taping was discussed.

  12. Lucy's flat feet: the relationship between the ankle and rearfoot arching in early hominins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy M DeSilva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the Plio-Pleistocene, the hominin foot evolved from a grasping appendage to a stiff, propulsive lever. Central to this transition was the development of the longitudinal arch, a structure that helps store elastic energy and stiffen the foot during bipedal locomotion. Direct evidence for arch evolution, however, has been somewhat elusive given the failure of soft-tissue to fossilize. Paleoanthropologists have relied on footprints and bony correlates of arch development, though little consensus has emerged as to when the arch evolved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present evidence from radiographs of modern humans (n = 261 that the set of the distal tibia in the sagittal plane, henceforth referred to as the tibial arch angle, is related to rearfoot arching. Non-human primates have a posteriorly directed tibial arch angle, while most humans have an anteriorly directed tibial arch angle. Those humans with a posteriorly directed tibial arch angle (8% have significantly lower talocalcaneal and talar declination angles, both measures of an asymptomatic flatfoot. Application of these results to the hominin fossil record reveals that a well developed rearfoot arch had evolved in Australopithecus afarensis. However, as in humans today, Australopithecus populations exhibited individual variation in foot morphology and arch development, and "Lucy" (A.L. 288-1, a 3.18 Myr-old female Australopithecus, likely possessed asymptomatic flat feet. Additional distal tibiae from the Plio-Pleistocene show variation in tibial arch angles, including two early Homo tibiae that also have slightly posteriorly directed tibial arch angles. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study finds that the rearfoot arch was present in the genus Australopithecus. However, the female Australopithecus afarensis "Lucy" has an ankle morphology consistent with non-pathological flat-footedness. This study suggests that, as in humans today, there was variation in arch

  13. Flat semimodules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda Mohammed J. Al-Thani

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and investigate flat semimodules and k-flat semimodules .We hope these concepts will have the same importance in semimodule theory as in the theory of rings and modules.

  14. 临床手法结合功能锻炼矫治生长发育儿童扁平足的探讨%Discussion of Clinical Manipulative Therapy Combined with Functional Exercise to Treat the Children with Flat Foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞巧

    2016-01-01

    随着我国优生优育政策与措施的不断完善,人们对生长发育儿童的身体保健越来越重视,有调查结果显示,我国约有1/3的人患有不同程度的扁平足。今年3月,某中心对江南第一幼儿院、海珠幼儿院和儿童福利幼儿院的630名儿童进行的调查发现扁平足患者竟有389人,约占62%。目前,治疗扁平足的手段主要有传统的体育锻炼、穿着合适的鞋子以及各种足部矫形器和鞋垫足部矫形器和鞋垫,还有一些手术疗法。我中心采用手法并配合功能锻炼的方法矫治扁平足患者取得了较好的效果。%With the continuous improvement of the policies and measures of eugenic and superior nurture of China,people pay more and more attention to the health care of children,according to the results of the recent survey,China has about a third of people with different degrees of flat foot.On march this year,630 children in Jiangnan First Kindergarten,Haizhu Kindergarten and Children's Welfare Kindergarten were re-searched,it was found that there were 389 children of flat foot,accounting for 62%.Flat foot is mainly trea-ted by traditional methods of physical exercise,wearing the right shoes and various foot brace and the insole foot brace and the insole,and some other surgical therapies.We used manipulative therapy combined with functional exercise to treat the patients with flat foot and got a good effect.

  15. Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... straight across and not too short Your foot health can be a clue to your overall health. For example, joint stiffness could mean arthritis. Tingling ... foot checks are an important part of your health care. If you have foot problems, be sure ...

  16. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  17. A Cochrane review of the evidence for non-surgical interventions for flexible pediatric flat feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, A M; Rome, K

    2011-03-01

    The pediatric flat foot is a frequent presentation in clinical practice, a common concern to parents and continues to be debated within professional ranks. As an entity, it is confused by varied classifications, the notion of well-intended prevention and unsubstantiated, if common, treatment. The available prevalence estimates are all limited by variable sampling, assessment measures and age groups and hence result in disparate findings (0.6-77.9%). Consistently, flat foot has been found to normally reduce with age. The normal findings of flat foot versus children's age estimates that approximately 45% of preschool children, and 15% of older children (average age 10 years) have flat feet. Few flexible flat feet have been found to be symptomatic. Joint hypermobility and increased weight or obesity may increase flat foot prevalence, independently of age. Most attempts at classification of flat foot morphology include the arch, heel position and foot flexibility. Usual assessment methods are footprint measures, X-rays and visual (scaled) observations. There is no standardized framework from which to evaluate the pediatric flat foot. The pediatric flat foot is often unnecessarily treated, being ill-defined and of uncertain prognosis. Contemporary management of the pediatric flat foot is directed algorithmically within this review, according to pain, age, flexibility; considering gender, weight, and joint hypermobility. When foot orthoses are indicated, inexpensive generic appliances will usually suffice. Customised foot orthoses should be reserved for children with foot pain and arthritis, for unusual morphology, or unresponsive cases. Surgery is rarely indicated for pediatric flat foot (unless rigid) and only at the failure of thorough conservative management. The assessment of the pediatric flatfoot needs to be considered with reference to the epidemiological findings, where there is consensus that pediatric flexible flat foot reduces with age and that most children

  18. Characterizing Psychological Dimensions in Non-Pathological Subjects through Autonomic Nervous System Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimma eNardelli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective assessment of psychological traits of healthy subjects and psychiatric patients has been growing interest in clinical and bioengineering research fields during the last decade. Several experimental evidences strongly suggest that a link between Autonomic Nervous System (ANS dynamics and specific dimensions such as anxiety, social phobia, stress and emotional regulation might exist. Nevertheless, an extensive investigation on a wide range of psycho-cognitive scales and ANS non-invasive markers gathered from standard and nonlinear analysis still needs to be addressed. In this study, we analyzed the discerning and correlation capabilities of a comprehensive set of ANS features and psycho-cognitive scales in 29 non-pathological subjects monitored during resting conditions. In particular, the state of the art of standard and nonlinear analysis was performed on Heart Rate Variability, InterBreath Interval series, and Inter-Beat Respiration series, which were considered as monovariate and multivariate measurements. Experimental results show that each ANS feature is linked to specific psychological traits. Moreover, nonlinear analysis outperforms the psychological assessment with respect to standard analysis. Considering that the current clinical practice relies only on subjective scores from interviews and questionnaires, this study provides objective tools for the assessment of psychological dimensions.

  19. Flat pyramid

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Kevin Andrew

    2017-01-01

    'Flat pyramid' is a multi-channel video installation. The project employs appropriated promotional and instructional video from a defunct pyramid scheme as the source material for fictionalized reenactment. The footage primarily consists of presentation documentation, testimonial interviews, and product photography—throughout all of which cutting rarely occurs between takes. Perpetrators and victims are seen moving in and out of their promotional personas, inadvertently making their disquieti...

  20. Cavus Foot Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Cavus Foot Surgery Page Content What is a cavus foot? A ... problems. What are the goals of cavus foot surgery? The main goal of surgery is to reduce ...

  1. Club foot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engell, V; Damborg, F; Andersen, M;

    2006-01-01

    The aetiology of congenital club foot is unclear. Although studies on populations, families and twins suggest a genetic component, the mode of inheritance does not comply with distinctive patterns. The Odense-based Danish Twin Registry contains data on all 73,000 twin pairs born in Denmark over t...

  2. Mycetoma foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somnath Gooptu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycetoma is an uncommon chronic granulomatous infective disease of the skin, dermis and subcutaneous tissues predominantly seen in tropical countries. A patient presented to our hospital with the swelling of the left foot with a healed sinus and a painful nodule. He gave a history of sinuses in the left foot from which there was discharge of yellow granules. Culture of the ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology of the nodule revealed growths of Nocardia species. The patient was treated with a multi-drug therapy along with debridement of the painful nodule. He experienced symptomatic relief and a regression of the swelling within the three months of follow-up so far. Due to the relatively slow progression of the disease, patients are diagnosed at a late stage. Hence, emphasis should be placed on health education and the importance of wearing footwear.

  3. Differences in cognitive distortions between pathological and non-pathological gamblers with preferences for chance or skill games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrseth, Helga; Brunborg, Geir Scott; Eidem, Magnus

    2010-12-01

    Cognitive distortions have been thought to play an important role in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. The present study investigated whether severity of gambling problems and gamblers' preference for chance or skill games were related to two sub-factors of cognitive distortions as measured by the Gamblers Belief Questionnaire: Luck/Perseverance, which reflects an individual's perception that chance is favorable to him/her, and Illusion of Control, which reflects an individual's perception that his/her behavior influences chance occurrences. Participants (N = 166) were recruited from a race track (n = 79), off-course betting facilities (n = 50) and from an online treatment program for problem gamblers (n = 49). Gambling severity was measured by the South Oaks Gambling Screen, and 73 were classified as pathological gamblers whereas 93 were classified as non-pathological gamblers. The present study supports previous proposals that cognitive distortions are core processes related to gambling behavior as pathological gamblers reported more cognitive distortions than did non-pathological gamblers. A preference for skill games was also associated with greater Illusion of Control compared to a preference for chance games. For gamblers preferring skill games there were no differences in Luck/Perseverance or Illusion of Control between pathological and non-pathological gamblers.

  4. Foot amputation - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amputation - foot - discharge; Trans-metatarsal amputation - discharge ... You have had a foot amputation. You may have had an accident, or your foot may have had an infection or disease and doctors could not save ...

  5. Diabetes and Foot Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Charcot’s foot . Charcot’s foot may start with redness, warmth, and swelling. Later, bones in your feet and ... is safe) or your elbow to test the warmth of the water. Do not soak your feet ...

  6. Adult Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foot will usually respond to treatment with anti-fungal powders and lotions along with good foot hygiene. ... strikes thousands of Americans. This special type of arthritis can be diagnosed only by medical examination and ...

  7. Flat for Free Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ Just as Thomas Fried man's famous book,The World Is Flat,if not completely flat,it is anyway tending to be shaped flat.January 1,2010 saw the formation of the China-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement(CAFTA),which was another historical event flattening majority of Asia continent for international trade.

  8. Prevention of foot blisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Foot blisters are the most common medical problem faced by Soldiers during foot march operations and, if untreated, they can lead to infection. Foot blisters are caused by boots rubbing on the foot (frictional forces), which separates skin layers and allows fluid to seep in. Blisters can be prevented by wearing properly sized boots, conditioning feet through regular road marching, wearing socks that reduce reduce friction and moisture, and possibly applying antiperspirants to the feet.

  9. The medial heel skive technique. Improving pronation control in foot orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, K A

    1992-04-01

    A new method of foot orthosis modification that enhances the pronation controlling ability of foot orthoses is presented. The medial heel skive technique involves selectively removing small amounts of the medial portion of the plantar heel of the positive cast of the foot to create a unique varus wedging effect within the heel cup of the foot orthosis. The resulting increase in supination moment across the subtalar joint axis of the foot clinically produces significantly improved pronation control on pediatric flexible flat feet, posterior tibial dysfunction, and other types of excessively pronated feet.

  10. A STUDY ON PREVALENCE OF FLAT FEET AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN KANCHIPURAM POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Krupa Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A flexible flatfoot is considered to be a variation of a normal foot. Any deviation from the anatomical plantigrade foot is a deformed foot. Some of the deformities of the foot are: Flat Foot. The normal concavity due to the medial longitudinal arch is absent. High Arch Foot - A normal foot has a medial longitudinal arch which is higher. Materials and Methods: A total population of 625, in age ranging from 5 year to 9 years in Kanchipuram district was chosen. Each individual was made to sit and the foot was brought in contact with the Foot Impression gaining Kit on white sheets in standing posture. Results: The flat feet and high arch feet evaluation was obtained by means of foot prints and the plantar arch index was established. The mean values of plantar arch index within the age group were stable and ranges from 0.72 to 0.73. With plantar arch indices greater than 1.15 was regarded as flatfeet and less than 0.10 was regarded as High arch feet. Discussion: In normal feet with presence of an arch, the stress will be distributed in an even manner so that the person will not experience any kind of pain. Under an abnormal condition that occurs due to lack of stretching of muscles, bones and tendons, there will be absence of arch among these people. In this condition, all the weight will be concentrated in smaller area on the feet and generates a lot more pain than normal. This condition might occur in both children and adults. In some people both feet will be flat and in some only one foot will be flat. Conclusion: Flat foot is highly prevalent in the ages between 5-9. The average values for plantar arch indices are stable and ranges from 0.72 to 0.73 in our sample regarded as Normal foot. Plantar arch index > 1.15 is regarded as Flat foot. Plantar arch index < 0.10 is regarded as High arch foot.

  11. Stiffness of the human foot and evolution of the transverse arch

    OpenAIRE

    Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Dias, Marcelo A.; Singh, Dhiraj K.; Bandi, Mahesh M.; Mandre, Shreyas

    2017-01-01

    Foot stiffness underlies its mechanical function, and is central to the evolution of human bipedal locomotion. The stiff and propulsive human foot has two distinct arches, the longitudinal and transverse. By contrast, the feet of non-human primates are flat and softer. Current understanding of foot stiffness is based on studies that focus solely on the longitudinal arch, and little is known about the mechanical function of the transverse arch. However, common experience suggests that transver...

  12. Relatively Flat Envelopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁南庆

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate relatively flat envelopes. A necessary and sufficient condition is given for a relatively-finitely presented module to have a (mono-morphic or epic) relatively flat envelope. Then those rings are characterized whose every relatively-finitely presented module has a relatively flat envelope which coincides with its in-jective envelope. Some known results are obtained as corollaries.

  13. Creating flat design websites

    CERN Document Server

    Pratas, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This book contains practical, step-by-step tutorials along with plenty of explanation about designing your flat website. Each section is introduced sequentially, building up your web design skills and completing your website.Creating Flat Design Websites is ideal for you if you are starting on your web development journey, but this book will also benefit seasoned developers wanting to start developing in flat.

  14. Strongly Gorenstein Flat Dimensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Xia ZHANG; Li Min WANG

    2011-01-01

    This article is concerned with the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of modules and rings.We show this dimension has nice properties when the ring is coherent,and extend the well-known Hilbert's syzygy theorem to the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of rings.Also,we investigate the strongly Gorenstein flat dimensions of direct products of rings and (almost)excellent extensions of rings.

  15. Non-pathological infection of macaques by an attenuated mycobacterial vaccine is not reactivated in the setting of HIV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Taylor Wayne; Veatch, Ashley Victoria; LoBato, Denae Nadine; Didier, Peter John; Doyle-Meyers, Lara Angela; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi Elizabeth; Lackner, Andrew Alan; Kousoulas, Konstantin Gus; Khader, Shabaana Abdul; Kaushal, Deepak; Mehra, Smriti

    2017-09-18

    Failure to replace BCG with efficacious anti-TB vaccines have prompted out-of-the-box thinking, including pulmonary vaccination in order to elicit local immunity. MtbΔsigH, a stress-response attenuated strain, protected against lethal TB when used to vaccinate macaques via inhalation. While live mycobacterial vaccines show promising efficacy, HIV co-infection and the resulting immunodeficiency prompts safety concerns about their use. We assessed the persistence and safety of MtbΔsigH, delivered directly to the lungs, in the setting of HIV coinfection. Macaques were aerosol vaccinated with ΔsigH and subsequently challenged with SIVmac239. BAL and tissues were sampled for mycobacterial persistence, pathology and immune correlates. Only 35% and 3.5% lung samples were positive for live-bacilli and granulomas, respectively. Our results therefore suggest that the non-pathological infection of macaque lungs by ΔsigH was not reactivated by SIV, despite high viral titers and massive ablation of pulmonary CD4(+) T-cells. Protective pulmonary responses were retained, including vaccine-induced bronchus associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) and CD8(+) effector memory cells. Despite acute SIV infection, all animals remained asymptomatic of pulmonary TB. These findings highlight the efficacy of mucosal vaccination of this attenuated strain and will guide its further development to potentially combat TB in HIV endemic areas. Our results also suggest that lack of pulmonary pathology is a key correlate of safety for live mycobacterial vaccines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Paraboloid Shell As Footing

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ansari, Mohammed S.

    1999-01-01

    A simplified method for the design of paraboloid shell footing base on the displacement of the shell's crown where the column axial load is transferred to the footing has been developed. A case study was presented to demonstrate the use of the proposed method and to illustrate its capabilities. The results of the proposed method confirm the ability of the shell model in determining accurate and practical results for the design of paraboloid shell footing. Base on the analytical results of thi...

  17. Ilizarov external fixator for correction of complex foot deformities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecimel, Osman; Öçgüder, Ali; Doğan, Metin; Uğurlu, Mahmut; Bozkurt, Murat; Ateşalp, Sabri

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the outcomes of the Ilizarov external fixator for the correction of complex foot deformities. Between January 2000 and September 2005, 29 feet of 25 patients (18 males, 7 females; mean age 13.7 years; range 5 to 24 years) who were applied Ilizarov external fixators due to complex foot deformities in our clinic were prospectively analyzed. Four patients had bilateral foot deformity. The distribution of the deformities was as follows: hindfoot inversion (calcaneovarus) in 29, forefoot equines (cavus) in 29, forefoot adductus in 28, forefoot and hindfoot supination in 27 and forefoot and hindfoot pronation in one foot. The mean length of hospital stay was 9.4 weeks (range, 6 to 18 weeks). Osteotomy was required in nine patients with ages ranging from 13 to 24. Middle subtalar osteotomy was applied on six patients, while three patients received subtalar osteotomy. In three patients, release was provided by removal of incision scar tissue. The mean follow-up was 48 months (range, 16-65 months). The mean treatment period was 21.6 weeks (range, 18-31 weeks). All patients walked better following treatment. According to Paley's criteria, 27 feet were evaluated as plantigrade (flat) and two as non-plantigrade (non-flat). Two patients suffered from pain. The success rate of the treatment was 86.2%. Ilizarov method appears to be an efficient approach thanks to the three dimensional characteristic of the foot and fixator in the correction of complicated foot deformities.

  18. Effect of foot load changes on foot arch evaluation using foot pressure distribution data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kazuya Imaizumi; Yumi Iwakami; Kazuhiko Yamashita

    2014-01-01

    ... be helpful in health support for the elderly. The present authors have developed a classification system for foot arch type showing high reliability using foot pressure distribution data [1-2]. However, effect of foot load changes on foot arch evaluation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of foot load chan...

  19. Diabetic foot infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemechu, Fassil W; Seemant, Fnu; Curley, Catherine A

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic foot infection, defined as soft tissue or bone infection below the malleoli, is the most common complication of diabetes mellitus leading to hospitalization and the most frequent cause of nontraumatic lower extremity amputation. Diabetic foot infections are diagnosed clinically based on the presence of at least two classic findings of inflammation or purulence. Infections are classified as mild, moderate, or severe. Most diabetic foot infections are polymicrobial. The most common pathogens are aerobic gram-positive cocci, mainly Staphylococcus species. Osteomyelitis is a serious complication of diabetic foot infection that increases the likelihood of surgical intervention. Treatment is based on the extent and severity of the infection and comorbid conditions. Mild infections are treated with oral antibiotics, wound care, and pressure off-loading in the outpatient setting. Selected patients with moderate infections and all patients with severe infections should be hospitalized, given intravenous antibiotics, and evaluated for possible surgical intervention. Peripheral arterial disease is present in up to 40% of patients with diabetic foot infections, making evaluation of the vascular supply critical. All patients with diabetes should undergo a systematic foot examination at least once a year, and more frequently if risk factors for diabetic foot ulcers exist. Preventive measures include patient education on proper foot care, glycemic and blood pressure control, smoking cessation, use of prescription footwear, intensive care from a podiatrist, and evaluation for surgical interventions as indicated.

  20. From Flat Foot to Fat Foot: Structure, Ontogeny, Function, and Evolution of Elephant "Sixth Toes"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    John R. Hutchinson; Cyrille Delmer; Charlotte E. Miller; Thomas Hildebrandt; Andrew A. Pitsillides; Alan Boyde

    2011-01-01

    ..."), such as pandas' "thumbs." Elephants similarly have expanded structures in the fat pads of their fore- and hindfeet, but for three centuries these have been overlooked as mere cartilaginous curiosities...

  1. Flat-port connectors

    KAUST Repository

    Alrashed, Mohammed

    2017-05-26

    Disclosed are various embodiments for connectors used with electronic devices, such as input and/or output ports to connect peripheral equipment or accessories. More specifically, various flat-port are provided that can be used in place of standard connectors including, but not limited to, audio jacks and Universal Serial Bus (USB) ports. The flat-port connectors are an alternate connection design to replace the traditional receptacle port (female-port), making the device more sealed creation more dust and water resistant. It is unique in the way of using the outer surfaces of the device for the electrical connection between the ports. Flat-port design can allow the manufacture of extremely thin devices by eliminating the side ports slots that take a lot of space and contribute to the increase thickness of the device. The flat-port receptacle improves the overall appearance of the device and makes it more resistant to dust and water.

  2. Dynamic Foot Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Background: The foot has to fulfil important and complex functions which are, in most regions of the world, supported by shoes. The interface of feet and footwear has often been considered with respect to comfort and function but also to negative effects of shoes. One main contribution to the improvement of footwear fit is provided by matching the shape of the shoe to the shape of the foot. However, current approaches for implementation only include static information. There is still a lack o...

  3. [Minor foot amputations in diabetic foot syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, C; Eckhard, M; Szalay, G; Heiss, C

    2016-10-01

    The treatment strategy for diabetic foot syndrome must take into account protective sensibility of the foot, open wounds, infection status, and the rules of septic bone surgery. Interventions are classified as elective, prophylactic, curative, or emergency. Amputations in the forefoot and midfoot region are performed as ray amputations (including metatarsal), which can often be carried out as "inner" amputations. Gentle tissue treatment mandatory because of greater risk of revision with re-amputation compared to classical amputation. Good demarcation of infection, acute osteomyelitis, osteolytic lesions, neurotropic ulcer, arterial and venous blood flow to the other toes, gangrene of other toes with metatarsal affection. Arterial occlusive disease, infection of neighboring areas, avoidable amputations, poorly healing ulcers on the lower leg. Primary dorsal approach; minimal incisional distance (5 cm) to minimize skin necrosis risk. Atraumatic preparation, minimize hemostasis to not compromise the borderline perfusion situation. In amputations, plantar skin preparation and longer seams placed as dorsal as possible, either disarticulated and maintain cartilage, or round the cortical metatarsal bone after resection. Diabetes control. Braun splint, mobilization in a shoe with forefoot decompression and hindfoot support, physiotherapy. Antibiotics based on resistance testing. If no complications, dressing change on postoperative day 1. Optimal wound drainage by lowering foot several times a day; drainage removal after 12-24 h. Insoles and footwear optimization. Amputations require continued attention and if necessary treatment to avoid sequelae. Insufficient treatment associated with recurrent ulceration and altered anatomy.

  4. Education for diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Batista

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to stratify the risk in a consecutive group of diabetic patients presenting, for the first time, in a diabetic foot clinic. Additional aims were to investigate the preventive measures in the local health system and to evaluate the level of patient’s awareness about diabetic foot-associated morbidity. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult diabetic patients referred to a Diabetic Foot Clinic of a Municipal Public Hospital comprised the sample for this observational study. The enrollment visit was considered as the first health-system intervention for potential foot morbidity. The average time elapsed since a diagnosis of diabetes among patients was five years. Rresults: At the time of presentation, 94% of sample was not using appropriate footwear. Pedal pulses (dorsalis pedis and/or posterior tibial arteries were palpable in 76% of patients. Thirty subjects (60% had signs of peripheral neuropathy. Twenty-one subjects (42% had clinical deformity. There was a positive correlation between a history of foot ulcer, the presence of peripheral neuropathy, and the presence of foot deformity (p < 0.004 in each correlation. Cconclusions: Informing and educating the patients and those interested in this subject and these problems is essential for favorable outcomes in this scenario.

  5. Individual energy savings for individual flats in blocks of flats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anker; Rose, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that similar flats in a block do not have the same energy demand. Part of the explanation for this is the location of the flat in the building, e.g. on the top floor, at the house end or in the middle of the building. It is possible to take this into account when the heating bill...... is distributed on the individual flats. Today, most blocks of flats have individual heat meters to save energy and to ensure a fair distribution of the cost. If all flats have the same indoor temperature, the distribution is correct. In practice, the inhabitants of the different flats maintain different indoor...

  6. Classification of midfoot break using multi-segment foot kinematics and pedobarography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Jessica D; Ward, Valerie; Mayson, Tanja A; Davies, Karen R; Alvarez, Christine M; Beauchamp, Richard D; Black, Alec H

    2014-01-01

    Midfoot break (MFB) is a foot deformity that can occur when ankle dorsiflexion is restricted due to muscle spasticity or contractures, causing abnormal increased motion through the midfoot. MFB has been previously described in terms of forefoot (FF) and hindfoot (HF) motion in the sagittal plane. The purpose of this study was to further classify MFB by describing FF and HF motion in the coronal and transverse planes along with plantar pressures, with the goal of optimizing treatment of this deformity. Three-dimensional foot kinematics were assessed using a multi-segment foot model in children with MFB (n=30) and children with no foot or gait abnormalities (n=30). The MFB group was subdivided into three categories: (1) Pronated MFB, (2) Supinated MFB and (3) Flat Foot MFB. Unique patterns of plantar pressures and foot kinematics were identified for each MFB group. The Pronated MFB group had increased medial midfoot pressures, increased forefoot pronation, and increased external forefoot rotation (forefoot abductus). The Supinated MFB group had increased lateral midfoot pressures, increased forefoot supination, and increased internal forefoot rotation (forefoot adductus). In the Flat Foot MFB group, midfoot pressures were increased and distributed uniformly between the medial and lateral sides, forefoot pronation was increased, and internal forefoot rotation was present. By combining this new information with previously reported methods of measuring sagittal plane kinematics of MFB, it is now possible to characterize midfoot break in terms of severity and foot-floor contact pattern.

  7. Charcot foot syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffcoate, W J

    2015-06-01

    Charcot foot syndrome is an uncommon complication of diabetes but is potentially devastating in its consequences. Outcome is made worse by widespread professional ignorance leading to delayed diagnosis, but it is also hampered by lack of understanding of its causes and lack of treatments with proven effectiveness, other than offloading. There remains a desperate need for studies into its causes as well as comparative audit and trials designed to determine the best treatment for this difficult condition. Such work can probably only be effectively carried out through the establishment of multicentre networks. Nevertheless, improved understanding in recent years of the likely role of inflammatory pathways has raised awareness of the multiple ways in which the effects of neuropathy may be manifest in the development of the Charcot foot. This awareness is also leading to the realization that similar processes may conceivably contribute to the refractoriness of other foot diseases in diabetes, including both chronic unhealing ulcers and osteomyelitis.

  8. [The diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirnemann, P; Z'Brun, A; Brunner, D

    1998-10-01

    Problems of the diabetic foot are frequent. The magnitude of the clinical picture and morbidity mirrors the severity and complexity of the underlying pathobiology. The three pathogenetic mechanism involved are ischemia, neuropathy and infection. Seldom do these mechanisms work in isolation, rather most foot problems result from a complex interplay among all three. The clinical picture of the diabetic foot reaches from the neuropathic deformity with diminished or absent sensation of pain to limited gangrene or superficial ulcer. The polymicrobial infection leads to extensive tissue destruction (plantarphlegmone) with osteomyelitis. The patients often notes no pain and may become aware of the infection only through the presence of drainage or a foul odor. These infections are usually more extensive than would be predicted by clinical signs and symptoms. These lesions must be debrided and drained promptly and completely. This often requires amputations of one or more toes, combined with an incision along the entire course of the infected track on the plantar or dorsal aspect of the foot. Cultures should be taken from the depth of the wound. Initial treatment should be with broad-spectrum antibiotics, with subsequent adjustment based on culture results. The diabetic foot is a clinical problem that can be solved with a high degree of success when the approached by an interdisciplinary team (specialists in infectious and vascular disease, podiatry and diabetology). Arterial reconstruction should be designed to restore maximum perfusion to the foot. The most effective result can be obtained with infra-inguinal vein bypass with distal anastomosis to the most proximal artery with direct continuity to the ischemic territory. The single most important factor in the achievement of the reduction of amputation is the autologous vein bypass. The overall outcome in the diabetic patient in terms of graft patency and limb salvage is equal to that in the nondiabetic.

  9. Can toe-ground footwear margin alter swing-foot ground clearance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Hanatsu; Sparrow, W A; Begg, Rezaul K

    2015-07-01

    Falls are an important healthcare concern in the older population and tripping is the primary cause. Greater swing foot-ground clearance is functional for tripping prevention. Trips frequently occur due to the lowest part of the shoe contacting the walking surface. Shoe design effects on swing foot-ground clearance are, therefore, important considerations. When a shoe is placed on a flat surface, there usually is small vertical margin (VM) between the walking surface and the minimum toe point (MTP). The current study examined the effects of VM on swing foot-ground clearance at a critical gait cycle event, minimum foot clearance (MFC). 3D coordinates of the swing foot (i.e. MTP and heel) were obtained during the swing phase. MTP represented the swing foot-ground clearance and various MTPs were modelled based on a range of VMs. The sagittal orientation of the toe and heel relative to the walking surface was also considered to evaluate effects of VM and swing foot angle on foot-ground clearance. Greater VM increased the swing foot-ground clearance. At MFC, for example, 0.09 cm increase was estimated for every 0.1cm VM. Foot angle throughout the swing phase was typically -30° and 70°. Increasing swing ankle dorsiflexion can maximise VM, which is effective for tripping prevention. Further research will be needed to determine the maximum thresholds of VM to be safely incorporated into a shoe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Flat covers of modules

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinzhong

    1996-01-01

    Since the injective envelope and projective cover were defined by Eckmann and Bas in the 1960s, they have had great influence on the development of homological algebra, ring theory and module theory. In the 1980s, Enochs introduced the flat cover and conjectured that every module has such a cover over any ring. This book provides the uniform methods and systematic treatment to study general envelopes and covers with the emphasis on the existence of flat cover. It shows that Enochs' conjecture is true for a large variety of interesting rings, and then presents the applications of the results. Readers with reasonable knowledge in rings and modules will not have difficulty in reading this book. It is suitable as a reference book and textbook for researchers and graduate students who have an interest in this field.

  11. Foot Push-Up Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be inflamed and may have been overworked. Consulting a foot and ankle surgeon for weak and ... or last name. Search Where do you hurt? Interactive Foot Diagram Arch Supports Arch supports are devices ...

  12. Flat Earth图片

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    欢迎来到这期的光盘介绍。本月的附刊光盘中,除了每月的精彩教程外,您可在光盘中找到15张由Flat Earth友情提供的库存图片。当然还有Twixtor和最新的Acrobat Reader 7。

  13. What Is a Foot and Ankle Surgeon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Foot & Ankle Surgeon? A A A | Print | Share What is a Foot & Ankle Surgeon? Foot and ankle ... of conditions that affect people of every age. What education has a foot and ankle surgeon received? ...

  14. Biomechanics of the Ankle-Foot System during Stair Ambulation: Implications for Design of Advanced Ankle-Foot Prostheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    effective shape progresses superiorly. After the foot is flat on the step, the effective shape travels superiorly and anteriorly as weight is shifted...During Walking. Ph.D. Thesis. Palmer, M., 2002. Sagittal Plane Charaterization Of Normal Human Ankle Function Across A Range Of Walking Gait Speeds. M.S...human joint motion—part I: ankle, hip, and spine . Journal of Biomechanics 35 (4), 543–548. Yack, H.J., Nielsen, D.H., et al., 1999. Kinetic patterns

  15. Osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot

    OpenAIRE

    Malhotra, Rishi; Chan, Claire Shu-Yi; Nather, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Osteomyelitis (OM) is a common complication of diabetic foot ulcers and/or diabetic foot infections. This review article discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of OM in the diabetic foot. Clinical features that point to the possibility of OM include the presence of exposed bone in the depth of a diabetic foot ulcer. Medical imaging studies include plain radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and bone scintigraphy. A high index of suspicion is also required to make the...

  16. Adult cavovarus foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Alastair S E; Hansen, Sigvard T

    2005-09-01

    Cavovarus foot deformity, which often results from an imbalance of muscle forces, is commonly caused by hereditary motor sensory neuropathies. Other causes are cerebral palsy, cerebral injury (stroke), anterior horn cell disease (spinal root injury), talar neck injury, and residual clubfoot. In cavovarus foot deformity, the relatively strong peroneus longus and tibialis posterior muscles cause a hindfoot varus and forefoot valgus (pronated) position. Hindfoot varus causes overload of the lateral border of the foot, resulting in ankle instability, peroneal tendinitis, and stress fracture. Degenerative arthritic changes can develop in overloaded joints. Gait examination allows appropriate planning of tendon transfers to correct stance and swing-phase deficits. Inspection of the forefoot and hindfoot positions determines the need for soft-tissue release and osteotomy. The Coleman block test is invaluable for assessing the cause of hindfoot varus. Prolonged use of orthoses or supportive footwear can result in muscle imbalance, causing increasing deformity and irreversible damage to tendons and joints. Rebalancing tendons is an early priority to prevent unsalvageable deterioration of the foot. Muscle imbalance can be corrected by tendon transfer, corrective osteotomy, and fusion. Fixed bony deformity can be addressed by fusion and osteotomy.

  17. X-Ray Exam: Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old X-Ray Exam: Foot KidsHealth > For Parents > X-Ray Exam: Foot A A A What's in ... español Radiografía: pie What It Is A foot X-ray is a safe and painless test that ...

  18. Neuropathy and Diabetic Foot Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volmer-Thole, Maren; Lobmann, Ralf

    2016-06-10

    Diabetic foot ulceration is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus worldwide and the most common cause of hospitalization in diabetic patients. The etiology of diabetic foot ulcerations is complex due to their multifactorial nature; in the pathophysiology of diabetic foot ulceration polyneuropathy is important. Proper adherence to standard treatment strategies and interdisciplinary cooperation can reduce the still high rates of major amputations.

  19. Flexible flat feet in children: a real problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, A; Martín-Jiménez, F; Carnero-Varo, M; Gómez-Gracia, E; Gómez-Aracena, J; Fernández-Crehuet, J

    1999-06-01

    To estimate the prevalence of flexible flat feet in the provincial population of 4- to 13-year-old schoolchildren and the incidence of treatments considered unnecessary. Province of Málaga, Spain. We examined and graded by severity a sample of 1181 pupils taken from a total population of 198 858 primary schoolchildren (CI: 95%; margin of error: 5%). The sample group was separated into three 2-year age groups: 4 and 5 years, 8 and 9 years, and 12 and 13 years. The plantar footprint was classified according to Denis1 into three grades of flat feet: grade 1 in which support of the lateral edge of the foot is half that of the metatarsal support; grade 2 in which the support of the central zone and forefoot are equal; and grade 3 in which the support in the central zone of the foot is greater than the width of the metatarsal support. The statistical analysis for the evaluation of the differences between the groups was performed with Student's t and chi2 tests as appropriate. The prevalence of flat feet was 2.7%. Of the 1181 children sampled, 168 children (14.2%) were receiving orthopedic treatment, but only 2.7% had diagnostic criteria of flat feet. When we inspected the sample, we found that a number of children were being treated for flat feet with boots and arch supports. Most of them did not have a flat plantar footprint according to the criteria that we used for this work. Furthermore, in the group of children that we diagnosed as having flat feet, only 28.1% were being treated. We found no significant differences between the number of children receiving orthopedic treatments and the presence or absence of a flat plantar footprint. Children who were overweight in the 4- and 5-year-old group showed an increased prevalence for flat feet as diagnosed by us. The data suggest that an excessive number of orthopedic treatments had been prescribed in the province. When extrapolated to the 1997 population of schoolchildren within the age groups studied the figures

  20. Flat conductor cable commercialization project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogarth, P.; Wadsworth, E.

    1977-01-01

    An undercarpet flat conductor cable and a baseboard flat conductor cable system were studied for commercialization. The undercarpet system is designed for use in office and commercial buildings. It employs a flat power cable, protected by a grounded metal shield, that terminates in receptacles mounted on the floor. It is designed to interface with a flat conductor cable telephone system. The baseboard system consists of a flat power cable mounted in a plastic raceway; both the raceway and the receptacles are mounted on the surface of the baseboard. It is designed primarily for use in residential buildings, particularly for renovation and concrete and masonry construction.

  1. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Menz, Hylton B; Dufour, Alyssa B; Riskowski, Jody L; Hillstrom, Howard J.; Hannan, Marian T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002–05).

  2. Foot posture, foot function and low back pain: the Framingham Foot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Dufour, Alyssa B; Riskowski, Jody L; Hillstrom, Howard J; Hannan, Marian T

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal foot posture and function have been proposed as possible risk factors for low back pain, but this has not been examined in detail. The objective of this study was to explore the associations of foot posture and foot function with low back pain in 1930 members of the Framingham Study (2002-05). Low back pain, aching or stiffness on most days was documented on a body chart. Foot posture was categorized as normal, planus or cavus using static weight-bearing measurements of the arch index. Foot function was categorized as normal, pronated or supinated using the centre of pressure excursion index derived from dynamic foot pressure measurements. Sex-specific multivariate logistic regression models were used to examine the associations of foot posture, foot function and asymmetry with low back pain, adjusting for confounding variables. Foot posture showed no association with low back pain. However, pronated foot function was associated with low back pain in women [odds ratio (OR) = 1.51, 95% CI 1.1, 2.07, P = 0.011] and this remained significant after adjusting for age, weight, smoking and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07, 2.05, P = 0.018). These findings suggest that pronated foot function may contribute to low back symptoms in women. Interventions that modify foot function, such as orthoses, may therefore have a role in the prevention and treatment of low back pain.

  3. Comparative Anthropometry of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    height, angular orientatior of metatarsal heads, lateral foot contour, plantar arch height, dorsal arch height, breadth of instep, instep girth...with ball length and ball girth, namely the dorsal and plantar arch heights, foot flare, and the angular orientation of the heads of the metatarsals, may...57. RIVARIATE TABE OF BALL OF FOOT CIRCUMFERENCE AND FOOT BREADTH FOR U. S. ARMY WOMEN (1977) FOOT BREADTH Centimeters 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 10.5

  4. The relationships between foot arch volumes and dynamic plantar pressure during midstance of walking in preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Wen Chang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the foot arch volume measured from static positions and the plantar pressure distribution during walking. METHODS: A total of 27 children, two to six years of age, were included in this study. Measurements of static foot posture were obtained, including navicular height and foot arch volume in sitting and standing positions. Plantar pressure, force and contact areas under ten different regions of the foot were obtained during walking. RESULTS: The foot arch index was correlated (r = 0.32 with the pressure difference under the midfoot during the foot flat phase. The navicular heights and foot arch volumes in sitting and standing positions were correlated with the mean forces and pressures under the first (r = -0.296∼-0.355 and second metatarsals (r = -0.335∼-0.504 and midfoot (r = -0.331∼-0.496 during the stance phase of walking. The contact areas under the foot were correlated with the foot arch parameters, except for the area under the midfoot. CONCLUSIONS: The foot arch index measured in a static position could be a functional index to predict the dynamic foot functions when walking. The foot arch is a factor which will influence the pressure distribution under the foot. Children with a lower foot arch demonstrated higher mean pressure and force under the medial forefoot and midfoot, and lower contact areas under the foot, except for the midfoot region. Therefore, children with flatfoot may shift their body weight to a more medial foot position when walking, and could be at a higher risk of soft tissue injury in this area.

  5. The Effect of Foot Structure on Locomotion of a Small Biped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Tinh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a presentation of a work that consists of considering a novel foot structure for biped robot inspired by human foot. The specific objective is to develop a foot mechanism with human-like toes for a small biped robot. The chosen architecture to present the biped includes ten degrees of freedom (DoF on ten articulations between eleven links. Our study considers the effect of varying foot structure on a walking process of the robot in simulation by ADAMS (MSC software, USA through gait generation method. In toe mechanism, aiming to reduce the energy consumption, the passive joint was selected as the toe joint. The center of gravity (CoG point trajectories of the robot with varying toe is compared with each other in normal motion on flat terrain to determine the most consistent toe mechanism. The result shows that the selected foot structure enables the robot to walk stably and naturally.

  6. Piecewise flat gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Meent, Maarten, E-mail: M.vandeMeent@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, PO Box 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-04-07

    We examine the continuum limit of the piecewise flat locally finite gravity model introduced by 't Hooft. In the linear weak field limit, we find the energy-momentum tensor and metric perturbation of an arbitrary configuration of defects. The energy-momentum turns out to be restricted to satisfy certain conditions. The metric perturbation is mostly fixed by the energy-momentum except for its lightlike modes which reproduce linear gravitational waves, despite no such waves being present at the microscopic level.

  7. Shod wear and foot alignment in clinical gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louey, Melissa Gar Yee; Sangeux, Morgan

    2016-09-01

    Sagittal plane alignment of the foot presents challenges when the subject wears shoes during gait analysis. Typically, visual alignment is performed by positioning two markers, the heel and toe markers, aligned with the foot within the shoe. Alternatively, software alignment is possible when the sole of the shoe lies parallel to the ground, and the change in the shoe's sole thickness is measured and entered as a parameter. The aim of this technical note was to evaluate the accuracy of visual and software foot alignment during shod gait analysis. We calculated the static standing ankle angles of 8 participants (mean age: 8.7 years, SD: 2.9 years) wearing bilateral solid ankle foot orthoses (BSAFOs) with and without shoes using the visual and software alignment methods. All participants were able to stand with flat feet in both static trials and the ankle angles obtained in BSAFOs without shoes was considered the reference. We showed that the current implementation of software alignment introduces a bias towards more ankle dorsiflexion, mean=3°, SD=3.4°, p=0.006, and proposed an adjusted software alignment method. We found no statistical differences using visual alignment and adjusted software alignment between the shoe and shoeless conditions, p=0.19 for both. Visual alignment or adjusted software alignment are advised to represent foot alignment accurately.

  8. The athlete's foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, S S; Lewis, L A; Cohen, B H

    1977-09-01

    In general, painful feet can affect the performance of an athlete in any sport. To prevent skin diseases of the feet, the "Athlete's Foot" should be kept clean and dry with toenails trimmed. Properly fitting athletic shoes should be worn to avoid the formation of blisters. Wearing of sandals in locker and shower rooms, which prevents intimate contact with infecting organisms, can alleviate many of the problems that affect the feet.

  9. The neuropathic diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathur, Haris M; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, and result in major medical, social and economic consequences for the patients, their families, and society. Foot ulcers are likely to be of neuropathic origin and, therefore, are eminently preventable. Individuals with the greatest risk of ulceration can easily be identified by careful clinical examination of their feet: education and frequent follow-up is indicated for these patients. When infection complicates a foot ulcer, the combination can be limb-threatening, or life-threatening. Infection is defined clinically, but wound cultures assist in identification of causative pathogens. Tissue specimens are strongly preferred to wound swabs for wound cultures. Antimicrobial therapy should be guided by culture results, and although such therapy may cure the infection, it does not heal the wound. Alleviation of the mechanical load on ulcers (offloading) should always be a part of treatment. Plantar neuropathic ulcers typically heal in 6 weeks with nonremovable casts, because pressure at the ulcer site is mitigated and compliance is enforced. The success of other approaches to offloading similarly depends on the patient's adherence to the strategy used for pressure relief.

  10. The diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathur, Haris M; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic foot problems are common throughout the world, resulting in major medical, social and economic consequences for the patients, their families, and society. Foot ulcers are more likely to be of neuropathic origin, and therefore eminently preventable. People at greatest risk of ulceration can easily be identified by careful clinical examination of the feet: education and frequent follow-up is indicated for these patients. When infection complicates a foot ulcer, the combination can be limb or life-threatening. Infection is defined clinically, but wound cultures assist in identifying the causative pathogens. Tissue specimens are strongly preferred to wound swabs for wound cultures. Antimicrobial therapy should be guided by culture results, and although such therapy may cure the infection, it does not heal the wound. Alleviation of the mechanical load on ulcers (offloading) should always be a part of treatment. Plantar neuropathic ulcers typically heal in 6 weeks with irremovable casting, because pressure at the ulcer site is mitigated and compliance is enforced. The success of other approaches to offloading similarly depends on the patients' adherence to the effectiveness of pressure relief.

  11. Chondroblastoma of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, B R; Temple, H T; Chiricosta, F M; Mizel, M S; Murphey, M D

    1997-04-01

    A total of 322 cases of chondroblastoma were referred to the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology between 1960 and 1990. Ten additional cases of chondroblastoma were treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center between 1985 and 1993. Forty-two of these involved the foot, two of which were treated at Walter Reed Army Medical Center. Patients with chondroblastoma of the foot were male in 35 (81%) cases, with a mean age of 25.5 years, which was significantly different from the mean age of 17.3 years in patients with chondroblastoma of the long bones (P Chondroblastoma of the foot is most commonly found in the posterior subchondral areas of the talus and calcaneus as well as in the calcaneal apophysis. Radiographically, the lesion was associated with an articular surface or apophyseal area in all cases and appeared radiolucent, with little to no matrix production. The margins were generally well defined. Cystic features were noted grossly and histologically in 24 (57%) specimens, a feature seen in only 21% of all chondroblastomas overall. Treatment consists of thorough curetting and bone grafting with good oncologic and functional results.

  12. Relationship between static foot posture and foot mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPoil Thomas G

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is not uncommon for a person's foot posture and/or mobility to be assessed during a clinical examination. The exact relationship, however, between static posture and mobility is not known. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of association between static foot posture and mobility. Method The static foot posture and foot mobility of 203 healthy individuals was assessed and then analyzed to determine if low arched or "pronated" feet are more mobile than high arched or "supinated" feet. Results The study demonstrated that those individuals with a lower standing dorsal arch height and/or a wider standing midfoot width had greater mobility in their foot. In addition, those individuals with higher Foot Posture Index (FPI values demonstrated greater mobility and those with lower FPI values demonstrated less mobility. Finally, the amount of foot mobility that an individual has can be predicted reasonably well using either a 3 or 4 variable linear regression model. Conclusions Because of the relationship between static foot posture and mobility, it is recommended that both be assessed as part of a comprehensive evaluation of a individual with foot problems.

  13. IS THE WORLD FLAT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Încalţărău

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization became more and more prominent during the last decades. There is no way to argue that globalization led to more interconnected economies, facilitating the communication and the collaboration around the world. But where is this going? Doesglobalization mean uniformity or diversity? As the world begins to resemble more, the people are trying to distinguish between them more, which can exacerbate nationalistic feeling. Friedman argues that globalization made the world smaller and flatter, allowing all countries to take chance of the available opportunities equally. But is this really true? Although politic and cultural factors can stand in front of a really flat world, what is the key for Chinese and Indian success and which are theirs perspectives?

  14. Flat Helical Nanosieves

    CERN Document Server

    Mei, Shengtao; Hussain, Sajid; Huang, Kun; Ling, Xiaohui; Siew, Shawn Yohanes; Liu, Hong; Teng, Jinghua; Danner, Aaron; Qiu, Cheng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Compact and miniaturized devices with flexible functionalities are always highly demanded in optical integrated systems. Plasmonic nanosieve has been successfully harnessed as an ultrathin flat platform for complex manipulation of light, including holography, vortex generation and non-linear processes. Compared with most of reported single-functional devices, multi-functional nanosieves might find more complex and novel applications across nano-photonics, optics and nanotechnology. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a promising roadmap for nanosieve-based helical devices, which achieves full manipulations of optical vortices, including its generation, hybridization, spatial multiplexing, focusing and non-diffraction propagation etc., by controlling the geometric phase of spin light via over 121 thousands of spatially-rotated nano-sieves. Thanks to such spin-conversion nanosieve helical elements, it is no longer necessary to employ the conventional two-beam interferometric measurement to characterize optical ...

  15. More Ricci-flat branes

    CERN Document Server

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, J M

    1999-01-01

    Certain supergravity solutions (including domain walls and the magnetic fivebrane) have recently been generalised by Brecher and Perry by relaxing the condition that the brane worldvolume be flat. In this way they obtain examples in which the brane worldvolume is a static spacetime admitting parallel spinors. In this note we simply point out that the restriction to static spacetimes is unnecessary, and in this way exhibit solutions where the brane worldvolume is an indecomposable Ricci-flat lorentzian manifold admitting parallel spinors. We discuss more Ricci-flat fivebranes and domain walls, as well as new Ricci-flat D3-branes.

  16. The influence of valgus heel position on foot loading in a child's gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliška Martinásková

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Flat foot is a typical clinical sign in childhood, expressed as valgus positioning of the heel during vertical foot loading. This may lead to medial deviation of the foot axis and cause overloading of some foot areas. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of valgus position of the heel (both bilateral and unilateral on foot loading during gait. METHODS: An experimental group consisting of children with bilateral heel valgus deformity (16 children, age 5.3 ± 1.3 years and children with unilateral heel valgus deformity (14 children, age 5.6 ± 1.6 years. The control group comprised of 14 children (age 4.5 ± 1.2 years. For measuring foot loading during gait, the Footscan (RSScan International, Olen, Belgium pressure plate was used. Each subject went through 8 trials of gait measurement. From each trial, 8 foot areas were evaluated. Data processing with mean values for each subject was performed by non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests, Spearman correlation in the STATISTICA programme (StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, USA. RESULTS: Pressure peak and pressure impulse in the first metatarsal was greater for the bilateral valgus group (p CONCLUSION: The results show that valgus positioning of the heel influences foot loading in children during gait. The findings of this study suggest the necessity of a complex solution to the problem of preventing further progression of pathological changes.

  17. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Statements Publications Foot & Ankle International (FAI) Foot & Ankle Orthopaedics (FAO) In~Stride Newsletter News Center Press Releases ... the best possible care, see a foot & ankle ORTHOPAEDIC surgeon. Find one in your area here. Having ...

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  19. Sesamoid Injuries in the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the shoe may be prescribed for long-term treatment of sesamoiditis to balance the pressure placed on the ball of the foot. When Is Surgery Needed? When sesamoid injuries fail to respond to nonsurgical treatment, surgery may be required. The foot and ankle ...

  20. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page. Please enable Javascript in your browser. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What Is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ... people of all age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the ...

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham; Charleston, Bryan; Jackson, Terry;

    2009-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease is an economically important, highly contagious, disease of cloven-hoofed animals characterized by the appearance of vesicles (blisters) on the feet and in and around the mouth. The causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus, was the first mammalian virus to be discovered...

  2. Irritated Method for Flat warts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiBingxu

    2004-01-01

    Summary Background The relation between spontaneous regression of Flat warts and T cells depended immunity was confirmed. Cells immunity against HPV was induced by presenting of HPV related antigens, and thrived by cytokine and some chemistry agent. So how to make HPV which incubated in keratinocyte to present PHV antigens and keratinocyte to secret cytokine or chemistry agents should be a pursuance for dermatologist who are looking for a efficient method to deal with flat warts. Present research had exhibited inflammable agents can induce dermatitis when apply to the skin surface, so it might bring flat warts to spontaneous regression. Objective To observe the effectiveness of irritant drugs on flat warts, and at same time to understand more on the mechanism of the regression. Methods Compared with Control we treat 88 case of flat warts with retinoid gel or 3% hydrogen peroxide solution plus 5 % salicylic acid cream (HPSC). Results Both retinoid gel and HPSC reveal significant effect on flat warts. Conclusion Retinoid gel or SPHC was effective on the treatment of flat warts. The possible explanation for this is the drugs when put on the skin will induce dermatitis and dissolve or denude keratin.

  3. Foot Placement Indicator for Balance of Planar Bipeds with Point Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van Zutven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract If humanoid robots are to be used in society, they should be able to maintain their balance. Knowing where to step is crucially important. In this paper we contribute an algorithm that can compute the foot step location such that bipedal balance is maintained for planar bipeds with point feet and an arbitrary number of non-massless links on a horizontal and flat ground. The algorithm is called the foot placement indicator (FPI and it extends the foot placement estimator (FPE. The FPE uses an inverted pendulum model to capture the dynamics of a humanoid robot, whereas the FPI deals with multi-body models with distributed masses. This paper analyses equilibrium sets and the stability of planar bipeds with point feet. The algorithm uses conservation of energy throughout the step, taking into account the instantaneous impact dynamics at foot strike. A simulation case study on a five-link planar biped shows the effectiveness of the FPI.

  4. Foot Placement Indicator for Balance of Planar Bipeds with Point Feet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter van Zutven

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available If humanoid robots are to be used in society, they should be able to maintain their balance. Knowing where to step is crucially important. In this paper we contribute an algorithm that can compute the foot step location such that bipedal balance is maintained for planar bipeds with point feet and an arbitrary number of non‐massless links on a horizontal and flat ground. The algorithm is called the foot placement indicator (FPI and it extends the foot placement estimator (FPE. The FPE uses an inverted pendulum model to capture the dynamics of a humanoid robot, whereas the FPI deals with multi‐body models with distributed masses. This paper analyses equilibrium sets and the stability of planar bipeds with point feet. The algorithm uses conservation of energy throughout the step, taking into account the instantaneous impact dynamics at foot strike. A simulation case study on a five‐link planar biped shows the effectiveness of the FPI.

  5. Flats: Preliminary WFC Data and Plans for Flight Flats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlin, R. C.; Hartig, G.; Tsvetanov, Z.

    2000-10-01

    The ACS WFC pixel-to-pixel P-flats with the build-3 detector repeat over a three month time span to a precision of better than 0.1% rms. The shape of the low frequency Lflat field varies with wavelength, where the ratio of the F435W/F814W L-flats differs from unity by - 10% in two patches near opposite corners of the field of view. At ~0.5%, the high frequency pixel-to-pixel structure in the WFC P-flats is about half that of the HRC build-2 and does not increase as much toward shorter wavelengths as the HRC build-2 with the Lesser coating. The amplitude of the fringes for continuum illumination is less than 1%, even in the narrow band ramp filters, while the fringing in monochromatic light is - 10% at 9300 Å. The goals of the laboratory WFC and HRC flat field program are to obtain the set of external flats that fully populates the pipeline database and to archive a baseline of high S/N internal flats for tracking post-launch changes.

  6. Is classical flat Kasner spacetime flat in quantum gravity?

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Parampreet

    2016-01-01

    Quantum nature of classical flat Kasner spacetime is studied using effective spacetime description in loop quantum cosmology. We find that even though the spacetime curvature vanishes at the classical level, non-trivial quantum gravitational effects can arise. For the standard loop quantization of Bianchi-I spacetime, which uniquely yields universal bounds on expansion and shear scalars and results in a generic resolution of strong singularities, we find that a flat Kasner metric is not a physical solution of the effective spacetime description, except in a limit. The lack of a flat Kasner metric at the quantum level results from a novel feature of the loop quantum Bianchi-I spacetime: quantum geometry induces non-vanishing spacetime curvature components, making it not Ricci flat even when no matter is present. The non-curvature singularity of the classical flat Kasner spacetime is avoided, and the effective spacetime transits from a flat Kasner spacetime in asymptotic future, to a Minkowski spacetime in asym...

  7. Ronchi test for flat mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada, N. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Engelfried, J. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: jurgen@ifisica.uaslp.mx; Morelos, A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2005-11-11

    One of the RICHes in the velocity spectrometers of the proposed CKM experiment requires a flat mirror, situated in the high intensity kaon beam. To reduce the interaction background for the experiment, this mirror has to be as thin as possible. First glass prototypes were produced in Mexico. To test the surface quality of these prototypes, we extended the Ronchi method so flat mirrors can also be tested. We present the methods and report on results of our measurements.

  8. Complications of the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul J; Steinberg, John S

    2013-12-01

    The diabetic foot is at high risk for complications because of its role in ambulation. Peripheral neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease can lead to chronic foot ulcers, which are at high risk for infection, in part attributable to areas of high pressure caused by lack of tolerance of the soft tissue and bone and joint deformity. If left untreated, infection and ischemia lead to tissue death, culminating in amputation. Treatment strategies include antibiosis, topical therapies, offloading, debridement, and surgery. A multidisciplinary team approach is necessary in the prevention and treatment of complications of the diabetic foot.

  9. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  10. Characterizing multisegment foot kinematics during gait in diabetic foot patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denti Paolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions, this condition may result in multiple and chronic invalidating long term complications. Among these, the diabetic foot, is determined by the simultaneous presence of both peripheral neuropathy and vasculopathy that alter the biomechanics of the foot with the formation of callosity and ulcerations. To diagnose and treat the diabetic foot is crucial to understand the foot complex kinematics. Most of gait analysis protocols represent the entire foot as a rigid body connected to the shank. Nevertheless the existing multisegment models cannot completely decipher the impairments associated with the diabetic foot. Methods A four segment foot and ankle model for assessing the kinematics of the diabetic foot was developed. Ten normal subjects and 10 diabetics gait patterns were collected and major sources of variability were tested. Repeatability analysis was performed both on a normal and on a diabetic subject. Direct skin marker placement was chosen in correspondence of 13 anatomical landmarks and an optoelectronic system was used to collect the data. Results Joint rotation normative bands (mean plus/minus one standard deviation were generated using the data of the control group. Three representative strides per subject were selected. The repeatability analysis on normal and pathological subjects results have been compared with literature and found comparable. Normal and pathological gait have been compared and showed major statistically significant differences in the forefoot and midfoot dorsi-plantarflexion. Conclusion Even though various biomechanical models have been developed so far to study the properties and behaviour of the foot, the present study focuses on developing a methodology for the functional assessment of the foot-ankle complex and for the definition of a functional model of the diabetic neuropathic foot. It is, of course, important to evaluate

  11. Differences in plantar loading between training shoes and racing flats at a self-selected running speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.I. Wiegerinck; J. Boyd; J.C. Yoder; A.N. Abbey; J.A. Nunley; R.M. Queen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the difference in plantar loading between two different running shoe types. We hypothesized that a higher maximum force, peak pressure, and contact area would exist beneath the entire foot while running in a racing flat when compared to a training shoe. 37 at

  12. Broken Ankle/Broken Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so that your doctor can examine your gait. Imaging tests Not all foot and ankle injuries require ... an orthopedic surgeon may need to use pins, plates or screws to maintain proper position of your ...

  13. Avoiding foot complications in diabetes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to pain, heat, cold, pressure and proprioception allows increased callus formation at pressure points. This usually precedes an ulcer. Autonomic neuropathy causes a warm foot with bulging veins ... inadequate individual or family awareness.

  14. Imaging the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.H. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Tong, D.T.F. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Crim, J.R. [Durham Radiology Associates, Durham, NC (United States); Seeger, L.L. [Dept. of Radiological Sciences, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infection or neuropathy of the diabetic foot is the key to successful management. Angiopathy leads to ischemia which, in combination with peripheral neuropathy, predisposes to pedal skin ulceration, the precursor of osteomyelitis. Chronic hyperglycemia promotes production of glycosylated end products which accumulate on endothelial proteins, causing ischemia of the vasa nervorum. When combined with axonal degeneration of the sensory nerves, the result is hypertrophic neuroarthropathy. Should the sympathetic nerve fibers also be damaged, the resultant loss of vasoconstrictive impulses leads to hyperemia and atrophic neuroarthropathy. Plain radiography, although less sensitive than radionuclide, magnetic resonance (MR), and computed tomographic examinations, should be the initial procedure for imaging suspected osteomyelitis in the diabetic patient. If the radiographs are normal but the clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis is strong, a three-phase {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan or MR imaging is recommended. An equivocal {sup 99m}Tc-MDP scan should be followed by MR imaging. To exclude osteomyelitis at a site of neuroarthropathy, a {sup 111}In white blood cell scan is preferable. To obtain a specimen of bone for bacteriological studies, percutaneous core biopsy is the procedure of choice, with the entrance of the needle well beyond the edge of the subjacent ulcer. (orig.)

  15. Role of the tranverse arch in stiffness of the human foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Marcelo A.; Singh, Dhiraj K.; Bandi, Mahesh M.; Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Mandre, Shreyas

    2015-03-01

    Human ancestors evolved from walking, around 6 million years (Ma) ago, to regular endurance running, around 2 Ma ago. Simultaneously, the feet evolved from a relatively flat structure like that of current day Chimpanzees (or our hands), to the modern human foot with two arches, a longitudinal and a transversal arch. The feet play a crucial role in locomotion by providing sufficient stiffness for propulsion, and being soft and pliable to absorb impacts and store energy elastically. Here we show that the transverse arch could play a central role in stiffness modulation. We first treat the foot as an elastic shell that is with intrinsic curvature. Calculations, numerics and physical experiments all show that for a foot-like shell, the stiffness has a power-law dependence on transverse curvature beyond a critical value. On the other hand, for purely longitudinally curved feet, or transverse curvature below the critical value, lead to low stiffness like a flat plate. Discrete realizations of a continuum shell, more closely resembling the human foot, also exhibit curvature induced stiffening. These results shed light on the role of the quintessentially human feature of a doubly arched foot, and suggest mechanical consequences of disorders such as a collapsed arch. HFSP RGY0091/2013.

  16. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  17. Illiteracy and diabetic foot complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kaabi, Juma M; Al Maskari, Fatma; Cragg, Paul; Afandi, Bachar; Souid, Abdul-Kader

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes is especially common in the United Arab Emirates. Its complications in patients residing in the region have yet to be fully explored. This study reports on foot problems in our diabetic patients, with emphasis on the impact of illiteracy on foot care and complications due to diabetes. Adults were randomly recruited from the Diabetes Center at Tawam-John Hopkins affiliated hospital. A questionnaire addressing foot care and problems was completed for all patients. In addition, an examination was performed by a trained nurse, an endocrinologist, and a podiatrist. Four hundred twenty-two adults with type 2 (93%) or type 1 (7%) diabetes were enrolled; 67% were females. Patients' mean age was 52 ± 13 years and duration of diabetes ≥ 1 year. Illiterate patients were 51% and were less likely to practice foot care (p=0.002), recognize foot risk factors (p=0.004), use proper footwear (p=0.010), and being physically active (pIlliteracy invoked significant challenges to diabetic attentiveness and imposed increased foot complications. Physicians should realize that illiterate patients are vulnerable and require effective strategies to improve their education about the disease and reduce their diabetic complications. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genu Valgum and Flat Feet in Children With Healthy and Excessive Body Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka; Mikolajczyk, Edyta

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationship between obesity, genu valgum, and flat feet in children, and find practical implications for therapeutic interventions. A total of 1364 children aged 3-7 years took part in the research. Their body mass index was calculated and their weight status described. Participants' knee alignment was assessed by measuring the intermalleolar distance in the standing position with the knees in contact. The height of the longitudinal arch of each foot was measured using Clarke's angle. The prevalence of overweight and obesity increased with age. Reduction of intermalleolar distance and increased longitudinal arch of the foot, characteristic of typical growth and development, were observed. Genu valgum was more common in children who were overweight. Significant correlations among body mass index, intermalleolar distance, and Clarke's angle (P genu valgum and flat feet.

  19. Bacteriology of diabetic foot lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoga, R; Khairul, A; Sunita, K; Suresh, C

    2006-02-01

    Infection plays a pivotal role in enhancing a diabetic foot at risk toward amputation. Effective antibiotic therapy against the offending pathogens is an important component of treatment of diabetic foot infections. Recognition of the pathogen is always difficult as the representative deep tissue sample for culture is surrounded by ulcer surface harbouring colonies of organisms frequently labelled as skin commensals. The emergent of resistant strains represents a compounding problem standing against efforts to prevent amputation. This study was undertaken to identify the pathogens associated with diabetic foot infection in terms of their frequency and sensitivity against certain commonly used antibiotics. Forty-four consecutive patients with open diabetic foot infections had wound swab taken for culture and sensitivity testing. Cultures positive were observed in 89% of the cases with Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeroginosa encountered in 20%, 14% and 14% of cases respectively. Mixed growths were isolated in 6% of cultures. All Staphylcoccus aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin but 80% were sensitive to Erythromycin and Co-trimoxazole. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were sensitive to Methicillin and Gentamycin in 80% and 60% of cases respectively, and resistant to Ampicillin and Ceftazidime in 83% and 50% respectively. All Pseudomonas aeroginosa isolates were sensitive to Amikacin and Ciprofloxacin but 50% were resistant to Gentamycin. There was no single antibiotic possessing good coverage for all common organisms isolated from diabetic foot lesions. Staphylococcus aureus remains the predominant cause of diabetic foot infections followed by Klebsiela pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeroginosa. Most infections are monomicrobial. The emergence of multiresistant organisms is a worrying feature in diabetic foot infections.

  20. The Fallacies of Flatness: Thomas Friedman's "The World Is Flat"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abowitz, Kathleen Knight; Roberts, Jay

    2007-01-01

    Thomas Friedman's best-selling "The World is Flat" has exerted much influence in the west by providing both an accessible analysis of globalization and its economic and social effects, and a powerful cultural metaphor for globalization. In this review, we more closely examine Friedman's notion of the social contract, the moral center of his…

  1. Nonlocal gravity: Conformally flat spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bini, Donato

    2016-01-01

    The field equations of the recent nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation are presented in a form that is reminiscent of general relativity. The implications of the nonlocal field equations are studied in the case of conformally flat spacetimes. Even in this simple case, the field equations are intractable. Therefore, to gain insight into the nature of these equations, we investigate the structure of nonlocal gravity in two-dimensional spacetimes. While any smooth 2D spacetime is conformally flat and satisfies Einstein's field equations, only a subset containing either a Killing vector or a homothetic Killing vector can satisfy the field equations of nonlocal gravity.

  2. Effectiveness of Orthoses and Foot Training in patients with Patellofemoral Pain and hyperpronation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Carsten; Kaalund, Søren; Christensen, Marianne

    adolescent females (3). Soft foot orhtoses in addition to an exercise program resulted in significantly greater improvements in pain than treatment with flat insoles and exercises over eight weeks. A study from 2004 by Wiener-Ogilvie & Jones (4) found however no difference in outcome between 8 weeks...

  3. Flat-footedness is not a disadvantage for athletic performance in children aged 11 to 15 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Anton; Ruzic, Lana; Sestan, Branko; Sirola, Luka; Prpic, Tomislav

    2009-03-01

    Because the controversy about the relation of foot morphology and foot function is still present, we find it surprising that there are no studies published dealing with motor skills and athletic performance in flat-footed school children. Our aim in this study was to determine if there is an association between the degree of foot flatness and several motor skills that are necessary for sport performance. The feet of 218 children aged 11 to 15 years were scanned, and the arch index was determined. The value of the arch index was corrected for the influence of age, and then the entire sample was categorized into 4 groups according to the flatness of their feet. The children were tested for eccentric-concentric contraction and hopping on a Kistler force platform, speed-coordination polygon (Newtest system), balance (3 tests), toe flexion (textile crunching), tiptoe standing angle, and repetitive leg movements. Altogether, 17 measures of athletic performance were measured. No significant correlations between the arch height and 17 motor skills were found. Categorizing the sample into 4 groups did not reveal any differences between the groups in athletic performance. Also, several multivariate analysis of variance sets of multiple independent variables referring to a particular motor ability were not found to be significant. The differences were not found even after comparing only the 2 extreme groups, meaning children with very low and children with very high arches. No disadvantages in sport performance originating from flat-footedness were confirmed. Children with flat and children with "normal" feet were equally successful at accomplishing all motor tests; thus, we suggest that there is no need for treatment of flexible flat feet with the sole purpose of improving athletic performance, as traditionally advised by many.

  4. Foot posture influences the electromyographic activity of selected lower limb muscles during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies have found that flat-arched foot posture is related to altered lower limb muscle function compared to normal- or high-arched feet. However, the results from these studies were based on highly selected populations such as those with rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare lower limb muscle function of normal and flat-arched feet in people without pain or disease. Methods Sixty adults aged 18 to 47 years were recruited to this study. Of these, 30 had normal-arched feet (15 male and 15 female and 30 had flat-arched feet (15 male and 15 female. Foot posture was classified using two clinical measurements (the arch index and navicular height and four skeletal alignment measurements from weightbearing foot x-rays. Intramuscular fine-wire electrodes were inserted into tibialis posterior and peroneus longus under ultrasound guidance, and surface EMG activity was recorded from tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius while participants walked barefoot at their self-selected comfortable walking speed. Time of peak amplitude, peak and root mean square (RMS amplitude were assessed from stance phase EMG data. Independent samples t-tests were performed to assess for significant differences between the normal- and flat-arched foot posture groups. Results During contact phase, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis anterior (peak amplitude; 65 versus 46% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction and decreased activity of peroneus longus (peak amplitude; 24 versus 37% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. During midstance/propulsion, the flat-arched group exhibited increased activity of tibialis posterior (peak amplitude; 86 versus 60% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction and decreased activity of peroneus longus (RMS amplitude; 25 versus 39% of maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Effect sizes for these significant findings ranged from 0.48 to 1

  5. Impact of foot pronation on postural stability: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Ghada Mohamed; Elimy, Doaa Ayoub; Hamada, Hamada Ahmed; Fawaz, Hossam Eddien; Elgendy, Mohamed Hussein; Saab, Ibtissam M

    2017-09-15

    To investigate the effect of foot pronation on the dynamic balance including overall stability index (OAI), anteroposterior stability index (APSI) and mediolateral stability index (MLSI). Forty participants from both sexes were selected from the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, with a mean age of 23.55 ± 1.74 years. Subjects were divided into two groups: group A (8 males and 12 females) with foot pronation, and group B (9 males and 11 females) with normal feet. The Navicular Drop Test (NDT) was used to determine if the feet were pronated and Biodex Balance System was used to assess dynamic balance at level 8 and level 4 for both groups. No significant difference was found in dynamic balance, including OAI, APSI and MLSI at stability level 8 (p> 0.05) but, there was a significant difference at stability level 4 (p< 0.05) between the two groups with lower stability in group A. Foot pronation or flat feet influences the dynamic balance at stability level four using the Biodex Balance System compared with those in the control group.

  6. Flat space physics from holography

    CERN Document Server

    Bousso, R

    2004-01-01

    We point out that aspects of quantum mechanics can be derived from the holographic principle, using only a perturbative limit of classical general relativity. In flat space, the covariant entropy bound reduces to the Bekenstein bound. The latter does not contain Newton's constant and cannot operate via gravitational backreaction. Instead, it is protected by - and in this sense, predicts - the Heisenberg uncertainty principle

  7. The complexity of flat origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, M. [Xerox, Palo Alto, CA (United States); Hayes, B. [ParcPlace-Digitalk, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study a basic problem in mathematical origami: determine if a given crease pattern can be folded to a flat origami. We show that assigning mountain and valley folds is NP-hard. We also show that determining a suitable overlap order for flaps is NP-hard, even assuming a valid mountain and valley assignment.

  8. Line bundles and flat connections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    INDRANIL BISWAS; GEORG SCHUMACHER

    2017-06-01

    We prove that there are cocompact lattices $\\Gamma$ in $\\rm SL(2,\\mathbb C)$ with the property that there are holomorphic line bundles $L$ on $\\rm SL(2,\\mathbb C)/ \\Gamma$ with $c_{1}(L) = 0$ such that $L$ does not admit any unitary flat connection.

  9. [Operative treatment of diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintermann, B

    1999-07-08

    The majority of diabetic foot ulcers are the results of repetitive pressure that exceeds the threshold of soft-tissue tolerance, leading to mechanical destruction of the tissue. Progression of plantar ulcers can rapidly lead to osteomyelitis that may result in loss of the foot through amputation. In order to prevent such a disaster, surgical treatment should be taken into consideration when conservative treatment remains without success. The goal of surgical treatment of an infected ulcer is debridement of the soft-tissue and removal of the underlying pressure by careful bone resection or correction of a deformity by arthrodesis. Various authors have recently reported successful surgical reconstruction of neuroarthropathic foot deformity and instability. Apparently arthrodesis is a viable alternative to amputation for patients with unstable deformity or recurrent ulceration. Proper preoperative evaluation is mandatory. The indications are not well defined yet.

  10. Automatic Flatness Control of Cold Rolling Mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbe, Yoshiharu; Sekiguchi, Kunio

    One of the subjects of cold rolling is a flatness of the rolled strip. Conventionally, measured strip flatness was approximated by polynomial (2th, 4th, 6th) equation across the entire strip width. This made it difficult to deal with desired loose edge or any desired flatness across the entire strip width. Also conventional flatness control was done for the entire strip width, so if there is a different flatness error among drive side and work side, conventional flatness control can not control properly. We propose independent strip flatness control among drive side and work side, and also automatic flatness control (AFC) system with arbitrary desired strip flatness. Also some applied results to cold mill are shown.

  11. The Charcot foot in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Lee C; Frykberg, Robert G; Armstrong, David G; Boulton, Andrew J M; Edmonds, Michael; Van, Georges Ha; Hartemann, Agnes; Game, Frances; Jeffcoate, William; Jirkovska, Alexandra; Jude, Edward; Morbach, Stephan; Morrison, William B; Pinzur, Michael; Pitocco, Dario; Sanders, Lee; Wukich, Dane K; Uccioli, Luigi

    2011-09-01

    The diabetic Charcot foot syndrome is a serious and potentially limb-threatening lower-extremity complication of diabetes. First described in 1883, this enigmatic condition continues to challenge even the most experienced practitioners. Now considered an inflammatory syndrome, the diabetic Charcot foot is characterized by varying degrees of bone and joint disorganization secondary to underlying neuropathy, trauma, and perturbations of bone metabolism. An international task force of experts was convened by the American Diabetes Association and the American Podiatric Medical Association in January 2011 to summarize available evidence on the pathophysiology, natural history, presentations, and treatment recommendations for this entity.

  12. Design and Analysis of New Prosthetic Foot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim K.Al-Kinani,MSc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a variety of artificial foot designs variable for use with prosthetic legs . Most of the design can be divided into two classes, articulated and non-articulated feet. one common non-articulated foot is the SACH . The solid ankle cushion heel foot referred to as the SACH foot has a rigid keelOne key or the key factor in designing a new prosthesis is in the analysis of a patients response This view is the most important because if the foot does not provide functional , practical or cosmetically acceptable characteristics the patient will not feel comfortable with the prosthesis , therefore design and manufacturing a new foot is essential, this foot made from polyethylene, its different shape and characteristics The characteristics deemed important by patients in achieving natural gait motion include:Dorsiflexion Energy return Fatigue test In this study, including all these characteristics test, design fatigue foot tester according to ISO 10328 and design new foot .Also, the testometric crosshead was modified to find dorsiflexion angle and energy return .The fatigue criteria for polymer was proposed, in mathematical solution. Finally , the characteristics of SACH foot was compared with new foot by mathematical solution and used visual basic program and experimental method by different tests. From these test that the new foot is better than SACH foot for all test .

  13. Diabetic foot ulcers: practical treatment recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    When treating diabetic foot ulcers it is important to be aware of the natural history of the diabetic foot, which can be divided into five stages: stage 1, a normal foot; stage 2, a high risk foot; stage 3, an ulcerated foot; stage 4, an infected foot; and stage 5, a necrotic foot. This covers the entire spectrum of foot disease but emphasises the development of the foot ulcer as a pivotal event in stage 3, which demands urgent and aggressive management. Diabetic foot care in all stages needs multidisciplinary management to control mechanical, wound, microbiological, vascular, metabolic and educational aspects. Achieving good metabolic control of blood glucose, lipids and blood pressure is important in each stage, as is education to teach proper foot care appropriate for each stage. Ideally, it is important to prevent the development of ulcers in stages 1 and 2. In stage 1, the normal foot, it is important to encourage the use of suitable footwear, and to educate the patient to promote healthy foot care and footwear habits. In stage 2, the foot has developed one or more of the following risk factors for ulceration: neuropathy, ischaemia, deformity, swelling and callus. The majority of deformities can be accommodated in special footwear and as callus is an important precursor of ulceration it should be treated aggressively, especially in the neuropathic foot. In stage 3, ulcers can be divided into two distinct entities: those in the neuropathic foot and those in the neuroischaemic foot. In the neuropathic foot, ulcers commonly develop on the plantar surface of the foot and the toes, and are associated with neglected callus and high plantar pressures. In the neuroischaemic foot, ulcers are commonly seen around the edges of the foot, including the apices of the toes and back of the heel, and are associated with trauma or wearing unsuitable shoes. Ulcers in stage 3 need relief of pressure (mechanical control), sharp debridement and dressings (wound control), and

  14. [Quantification of gait using insole type foot pressure monitor : clinical application for chronic hemiplegia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Yutaro; Kimura, Yoshiko; Hashimoto, Takashi; Mori, Masao; Takemoto, Yoshimi

    2014-03-01

    Home-based stroke hemiplegia patients tend to fall easily. Poor toe clearance is reported to be one of the causes of falling, although there are many other related factors. We developed a low-priced insole type portable foot pressure measurement device, and measured the foot pressure distribution and the foot pressure-time curve of 20 chronic hemiplegia patients and compared them with 36 healthy controls. We also analyzed the outdoor gait of a chronic hemiplegia patient on flat ground, on rough terrain, walking up stairs and on a downward slope. The result was that the load rate of the unaffected heel was significantly increased in hemiplegic gait, and there was a significant negative correlation between the affected side stance phase rate and gait time for 10 m distance (r = -0.73, P hemiplegia patients tend to be highly dependent on their unaffected side during indoor and outdoor gait.

  15. Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Diabetic Foot URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Diabetic Foot - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  16. Find an Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle MD/DO

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Find a Surgeon Find an Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgeon Page Content The Orthopaedic Distinction Who are Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Surgeons? Orthopaedic foot and ankle surgeons ...

  17. An overview of the Charcot foot pathophysiology

    OpenAIRE

    Öğüt, Tahir; Kaynak, Gökhan; Birsel, Olgar; Güven, Mehmet Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Charcot arthropathy of the foot is a rare but devastating complication of diabetes that remains to be a challenging issue for the foot and ankle surgeons. Charcot foot fails to be an obvious diagnostic option that comes to mind, even in a pathognomonic clinical appearance. The rarity of the disorder, more common pathologies that mimic the condition, and the self-limiting prognosis deviate the clinician from the right diagnosis. The clinical challenges in the diagnosis of Charcot foot require ...

  18. Children with flat feet have weaker toe grip strength than those having a normal arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Yuto; Fukumoto, Takahiko; Uritani, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Nishiguchi, Shu; Fukutani, Naoto; Adachi, Daiki; Hotta, Takayuki; Morino, Saori; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the relationship between toe grip strength and foot posture in children. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 619 children participated in this study. The foot posture of the participants was measured using a foot printer and toe grip strength was measured using a toe grip dynamometer. Children were classified into 3 groups; flatfoot, normal, and high arch, according to Staheli’s arch index. The differences in demographic data and toe grip strength among each foot posture group were analyzed by analysis of variance. Additionally, toe grip strength differences were analyzed by analysis of covariance, adjusted to body mass index, age, and gender. [Results] The number of participants classified as flatfoot, normal, and high arch were 110 (17.8%), 468 (75.6%), and 41 (6.6%), respectively. The toe grip strength of flatfoot children was significantly lower than in normal children, as shown by both analysis of variance and analysis of covariance. [Conclusion] A significant difference was detected in toe grip strength between the low arch and normal foot groups. Therefore, it is suggested that training to increase toe grip strength during childhood may prevent the formation of flat feet or help in the development of arch. PMID:26696732

  19. Foot Health Facts for Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as basketball, can lead to tears and even ruptures of the Achilles tendon. These conditions should be followed by a foot and ankle surgeon. Heel pain —This condition is most often caused by plantar fasciitis, although other things, such as stress fractures or ...

  20. Flat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    菲亚特选在柏林举行的“面包与黄油(Bread&Butter)”青年时尚秀中发布了500柴油版车型。这款车型首先推出的是黑色和绿色车身颜色,共限量1万辆,目前已有6000辆被售出。现在,它又追加了1款车身颜色“午夜蓝”,菲亚特选择这款颜色,是因为它很接近牛仔裤的颜色,更容易吸引年轻的消费者。

  1. Laser illuminated flat panel display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    A 10 inch laser illuminated flat panel Planar Optic Display (POD) screen has been constructed and tested. This POD screen technology is an entirely new concept in display technology. Although the initial display is flat and made of glass, this technology lends itself to applications where a plastic display might be wrapped around the viewer. The display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optical waveguides where each glass waveguide represents a vertical line of resolution. A black cladding layer, having a lower index of refraction, is placed between each waveguide layer. Since the cladding makes the screen surface black, the contrast is high. The prototype display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately I inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.

  2. Parallel spinors on flat manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, Michał

    2006-05-01

    Let p(M) be the dimension of the vector space of parallel spinors on a closed spin manifold M. We prove that every finite group G is the holonomy group of a closed flat spin manifold M(G) such that p(M(G))>0. If the holonomy group Hol(M) of M is cyclic, then we give an explicit formula for p(M) another than that given in [R.J. Miatello, R.A. Podesta, The spectrum of twisted Dirac operators on compact flat manifolds, Trans. Am. Math. Soc., in press]. We answer the question when p(M)>0 if Hol(M) is a cyclic group of prime order or dim⁡M≤4.

  3. Graphene folding on flat substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhao, Yadong; Ke, Changhong, E-mail: cke@binghamton.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    We present a combined experimental-theoretical study of graphene folding on flat substrates. The structure and deformation of the folded graphene sheet are experimentally characterized by atomic force microscopy. The local graphene folding behaviors are interpreted based on nonlinear continuum mechanics modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our study on self-folding of a trilayer graphene sheet reports a bending stiffness of about 6.57 eV, which is about four times the reported values for monolayer graphene. Our results reveal that an intriguing free sliding phenomenon occurs at the interlayer van der Waals interfaces during the graphene folding process. This work demonstrates that it is a plausible venue to quantify the bending stiffness of graphene based on its self-folding conformation on flat substrates. The findings reported in this work are useful to a better understanding of the mechanical properties of graphene and in the pursuit of its applications.

  4. DIABETIC FOOT ULCERS MICROBIOLOGICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rajagopal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Infections of all types are more common in patients with diabetes, on the basis of outcome of retrospective study in Canada. Many types of infections are very common in diabetic than non-diabetic patients. Foot is the most common site. Diabetic foot infections range from mild infections to limb threatening conditions. Most require emergency medical attention. Diabetic foot infection is a global burden and projected to increase from 246 million people to over 380 million people by the year 2025. Many people with diabetes develop complications that seriously affect their quality and length of life. Lower limb complications are common, particularly foot ulcers and gangrene. Development of these complications is attributed to individual risk factors, poverty, racial and ethnic differences, and quality of local and national health care systems. The wide variations noted suggest that best practices in low incidence areas could easily be adapted in high incidence areas to reduce the burden of complications. Almost every infection begins in a wound, often as neuropathic ulceration or a traumatic break in the skin. Infections that begin as a small problem may progress to involve soft tissue, bones and joints. Because of these morbidity and occasional mortality by these foot infections several authoritative groups have recently developed guidelines for assessing and treating diabetic foot. METHODOLOGY 100 Diabetic patients with foot ulcers were admitted and wounds were classified using wagner’s classification. Pus was sent for culture and sensitivity and treated accordingly. RESULTS In our study the most common organism cultured from the wound with diabetes mellitus was staphylococcus. The most sensitive drug for these organisms was found to be chloramphenicol on most occasions. CONCLUSION The rationale of pus culture and sensitivity is not only to definitively treat the diabetic wound after the culture sensitivity report is

  5. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.

    1999-08-02

    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  6. 24 CFR 3285.312 - Footings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Foundations § 3285.312 Footings. (a) Materials approved... density. A footing must support every pier. Footings are to be either: (1) Concrete. (i) Four inch nominal... requirements when frame blocking only is used. 2. In addition to blocking required by § 3285.311, see Table...

  7. Half-flat Quantum Hair

    CERN Document Server

    García-Compeán, Hugo; Martínez-Merino, Aldo; Santos-Silva, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    By wrapping D3-branes over 3-cycles on a Half-flat manifold we construct an effective supersymmetric Black Hole in the N=2 low-energy theory in four-dimensions. Specifically we find that the torsion cycles present in a half-flat compactification, corresponding to the mirror symmetric image of electric NS flux on a Calabi-Yau manifold, manifest in the black hole physics as quantum hair. We compute the electric and magnetic charges related to the quantum hair, and also the mass contribution to the effective black hole. We find that by wrapping a number of D3-branes equal to the order of the discrete group associated to the torsional part of the half-flat homology, the effective charge and mass terms vanishes. We compute the variation of entropy and the corresponding temperature associated with the lost of the quantum hair. We also comment on the equivalence between canceling Freed-Witten anomalies and the assumption of self-duality for the five-form field strength. Finally from a K-theoretical perspective, we c...

  8. Flat colon polyps: what should radiologists know?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignjatovic, A. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Burling, D., E-mail: burlingdavid@yahoo.co.u [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Ilangovan, R.; Clark, S.K.; Taylor, S.A.; East, J.E.; Saunders, B.P. [Intestinal Imaging Centre, St Mark' s Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    With the recent publication of international computed tomography (CT) colonography standards, which aim to improve quality of examinations, this review informs radiologists about the significance of flat polyps (adenomas and hyperplastic polyps) in colorectal cancer pathways. We describe flat polyp classification systems and propose how flat polyps should be reported to ensure patient management strategies are based on polyp morphology as well as size. Indeed, consistency when describing flat polyps is of increasing importance given the strengthening links between CT colonography and endoscopy.

  9. Clinical examination and foot pressure analysis of diabetic foot: Prospective analytical study in Indian diabetic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshanand Popalwar

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Meticulous clinical examination can easily identify diabetic neuropathy and related pathological complications of diabetic foot. This shall help for early diagnosis and prevention of diabetic foot complications. Foot pressure analysis can be useful tool to screen patients of diabetic foot for abnormal high pressure point areas and can predict future risk of ulceration due to high foot pressure. This study states findings in Indian diabetic patients. [Natl J Med Res 2016; 6(1.000: 17-22

  10. Reliability and normative values of the foot line test: a technique to assess foot posture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, C; Larsen, Klaus; Nielsen, MB;

    2007-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Test-retest reliability. OBJECTIVE: To examine the reliability and report normative values of a novel test, the foot line test (FLT), to describe foot morphology. BACKGROUND: Numerous foot examinations are performed each day, but most existing examination techniques have considerable......). There was no significant association between foot size and FLT values. CONCLUSION: The FLT is a reproducible technique to assess foot posture....

  11. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  12. An extension to flat band ferromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulacsi, M.; Kovacs, G.; Gulacsi, Z.

    2014-11-01

    From flat band ferromagnetism, we learned that the lowest energy half-filled flat band gives always ferromagnetism if the localized Wannier states on the flat band satisfy the connectivity condition. If the connectivity conditions are not satisfied, ferromagnetism does not appear. We show that this is not always the case namely, we show that ferromagnetism due to flat bands can appear even if the connectivity condition does not hold due to a peculiar behavior of the band situated just above the flat band.

  13. Length spectra and degeneration of flat metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Duchin, Moon; Rafi, Kasra

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we consider flat metrics (semi-translation structures) on surfaces of finite type. There are two main results. The first is a complete description of when a set of simple closed curves is spectrally rigid, that is, when the length vector determines a metric among the class of flat metrics. Secondly, we give an embedding into the space of geodesic currents and use this to get a boundary for the space of flat metrics. The geometric interpretation is that flat metrics degenerate to "mixed structures" on the surface: part flat metric and part measured foliation.

  14. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Richard T. [Cascade Engineering, Grand Rapids, MI (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  15. Innovative Ballasted Flat Roof Solar PV Racking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, Richard T.

    2015-01-23

    The objective of this project was to reduce the cost of racking for PV solar on flat commercial rooftops. Cost reductions would come from both labor savings and material savings related to the installation process. The rack would need to accommodate the majority of modules available on the market. Cascade Engineering has a long history of converting traditional metal type applications over to plastic. Injection molding of plastics have numerous advantages including selection of resin for the application, placing the material exactly where it is needed, designing in features that will speed up the installation process, and weight reduction of the array. A plastic rack would need to meet the requirements of UL2703, Mounting systems, mounting devices, clamping/retention devices, and ground lugs for use with flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Comparing original data to the end of project racking design, racking material costs were reduced 50% and labor costs reduced 64%. The racking product accommodates all 60 and 72 cell panels on the market, meets UL2703 requirements, contributes only 1.3 pounds per square foot of weight to the array, requires little ballast to secure the array, automatically grounds the module when the module is secured, stacks/nests well for shipping/fewer lifts to the roof, provides integrated wire routing, allows water to drain on the roof, and accommodates various seismic roof connections. Project goals were achieved as noted in the original funding application.

  16. Tendinopathies of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Michael R; Howard, Thomas M

    2009-11-15

    Because our understanding of tendinopathy has evolved in recent years, the condition is now considered a degenerative process; this affects the approach to treatment. Initial therapy should always involve relative rest and modification of physical activity, use of rehabilitative exercises, and evaluation of intrinsic and extrinsic causes of injury. The posterior tibial tendon is a dynamic arch stabilizer; injury to this tendon can cause a painful flat-footed deformity with hindfoot valgus and midfoot abduction (characterized by the too many toes sign). Treatment of posterior tibial tendinopathy is determined by its severity and can include immobilization, orthotics, physical therapy, or subspecialty referral. Because peroneal tendinopathy is often misdiagnosed, it can lead to chronic lateral ankle pain and instability and should be suspected in a patient with either of these symptoms. Treatment involves physical therapy and close monitoring for surgical indications. Achilles tendinopathy is often caused by overtraining, use of inappropriate training surfaces, and poor flexibility. It is characterized by pain in the Achilles tendon 4 to 6 cm above the point of insertion into the calcaneus. Evidence from clinical trials shows that eccentric strengthening of the calf muscle can help patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Flexor hallucis longus tendinopathy is most common among ballet dancers. Patients may complain of an insidious onset of pain in the posteromedial aspect of the ankle; treatment involves correcting physical training errors, focusing on body mechanics, and strengthening the body's core. Anterior tibial tendinopathy is rare, but is typically seen in patients older than 45 years. It causes weakness in dorsiflexion of the ankle; treatment involves short-term immobilization and physical therapy.

  17. Non-Perturbative Flat Direction Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Basboll, A; Riva, F; West, S M; Basboll, Anders; Maybury, David; Riva, Francesco; West, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    We argue that supersymmetric flat direction vevs can decay non-perturbatively via preheating. Considering the case of a single flat direction, we explicitly calculate the scalar potential in the unitary gauge for a U(1) theory and show that the mass matrix for excitations around the flat direction has non-diagonal entries which vary with the phase of the flat direction vev. Furthermore, this mass matrix has 2 zero eigenvalues (associated with the excitations along the flat direction) whose eigenstates change with time. We show that these 2 light degrees of freedom are produced copiously in the non-perturbative decay of the flat direction vev. We also comment on the application of these results to the MSSM flat direction H_uL.

  18. Kinesiology-Based Robot Foot Design for Human-Like Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SangJoo Kwon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Compared with the conventional flat foot, the flexible foot is advantageous in implementing human‐like walking and much reduces energy consumption. In this paper, from an anatomical and kinesiological point of view, a flexible foot with toes and heels is investigated for a bipedal robot and three critical design parameters for walking stability are drawn, which include stiffness of toes and heels, frontal toe position, and ankle joint position. In addition, a human‐like walking trajectory compatible with the flexible foot is proposed by mimicking a human walking pattern. First of all, the zero moment point (ZMP trajectory continuously moves forward without stopping, even in the single support phase. Secondly, the centre of mass (CoM trajectory includes vertical motion similar to that seen in human beings. Thirdly, the ankle trajectory follows the rotational motion of a human foot while being lifted from and landing on the ground. Through the simulation study, it is shown that the suggested design parameters can be applied as useful indices for the mechanical design of biped feet; interestingly, the vertical motion of the centre of mass tends to compensate for the transient response in the initial walking step.

  19. Flat lens for seismic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Brule, Stephane; Guenneau, Sebastien

    2016-01-01

    A prerequisite for achieving seismic invisibility is to demonstrate the ability of civil engineers to control seismic waves with artificially structured soils. We carry out large-scale field tests with a structured soil made of a grid consisting of cylindrical and vertical holes in the ground and a low frequency artificial source (< 10 Hz). This allows the identification of a distribution of energy inside the grid, which can be interpreted as the consequence of an effective negative refraction index. Such a flat lens reminiscent of what Veselago and Pendry envisioned for light opens avenues in seismic metamaterials to counteract the most devastating components of seismic signals.

  20. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  1. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  2. Flat coalgebraic fixed point logics

    CERN Document Server

    Schröder, Lutz

    2010-01-01

    Fixed point logics have a wide range of applications in computer science, in particular in artificial intelligence and concurrency. The most expressive logics of this type are the mu-calculus and its relatives. However, popular fixed point logics tend to trade expressivity for simplicity and readability, and in fact often live within the single variable fragment of the mu-calculus. The family of such flat fixed point logics includes, e.g., CTL, the *-nesting-free fragment of PDL, and the logic of common knowledge. Here, we extend this notion to the generic semantic framework of coalgebraic logic, thus covering a wide range of logics beyond the standard mu-calculus including, e.g., flat fragments of the graded mu-calculus and the alternating-time mu-calculus (such as ATL), as well as probabilistic and monotone fixed point logics. Our main results are completeness of the Kozen-Park axiomatization and a timed-out tableaux method that matches EXPTIME upper bounds inherited from the coalgebraic mu-calculus but avo...

  3. Polyurethane adhesives in flat roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogárová Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to stabilize individual layers of flat roofs, mainly because of wind suction. Apart from anchoring and surcharge, these layers can be secured by bonding. At present gluing is an indispensable and widely used stabilization method. On our market we can found many types of adhesives, most widely used are based on polyurethane. This paper focuses on problematic about stabilization thermal insulation from expanded polystyrene to vapor barrier from bitumen. One of the main issues is to calculate the exact amount of adhesive, which is required to guarantee the resistance against wind suction. In this problematic we can not find help neither in technical data sheets provided by the manufactures. Some of these data sheets contain at least information about amount of adhesive depending on location in roof plane and building height, but they do not specify the strength of such connection. It was therefore resorted to select several representatives polyurethane adhesives and their subsequent testing on specimens simulating the flat roof segment. The paper described the test methodology and results for two types of polyurethane adhesives.

  4. Diabetic foot ulcer: assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraogi, Ravi Kant

    2008-02-01

    Diabetic foot ulcer is a rising health problem with rising prevalence of diabetes. It is the most important cause of non-traumatic foot amputations. Diabetic foot ulcers are primarily due to neuropathy and/or ischaemia, and are frequently complicated by infection. Up to 85% of all diabetic foot related problems are preventable through a combination of good foot care and appropriate education for patients and healthcare providers. The holistic care of diabetic foot ulcer patients requires a multidisciplinary team approach. Apart from blood sugar control, treatment of ulcer involves debridement, offloading, appropriate dressings, vascular maintenance and infection control. Use of adjunctive treatments such as various growth factors, skin replacement dressings and vacuum assisted closure will accelerate healing in selected cases.

  5. Foot Plantar Pressure Measurement System: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufridin Wahab

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Foot plantar pressure is the pressure field that acts between the foot and the support surface during everyday locomotor activities. Information derived from such pressure measures is important in gait and posture research for diagnosing lower limb problems, footwear design, sport biomechanics, injury prevention and other applications. This paper reviews foot plantar sensors characteristics as reported in the literature in addition to foot plantar pressure measurement systems applied to a variety of research problems. Strengths and limitations of current systems are discussed and a wireless foot plantar pressure system is proposed suitable for measuring high pressure distributions under the foot with high accuracy and reliability. The novel system is based on highly linear pressure sensors with no hysteresis.

  6. Narrative review: Diabetic foot and infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J.

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the major complications experienced by diabetic patients. An early identification and appropriate treatment of diabetic foot problems can prevent devastating consequences such as limb amputation. Several studies have demonstrated that temperature variations in the plantar region can be related to diabetic foot problems. Infrared thermography has been successfully used to detect complication related to diabetic foot, mainly because it is presented as a rapid, non-contact and non-invasive technique to visualize the temperature distribution of the feet. In this review, an overview of studies that relate foot temperature with diabetic foot problems through infrared thermography is presented. Through this research, it can be appreciated the potential of infrared thermography and the benefits that this technique present in this application. This paper also presents the different methods for thermogram analysis and the advantages and disadvantages of each one, being the asymmetric analysis the method most used so far.

  7. Foot kinematics and kinetics during adolescent gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacWilliams, Bruce A; Cowley, Matthew; Nicholson, Diane E

    2003-06-01

    Gait analysis models typically analyze the ankle joint complex and treat the foot as a rigid segment. Such models are inadequate for clinical decision making for patients with foot impairments. While previous multisegment foot models have been presented, no comprehensive kinematic and kinetic databases for normal gait exist. This study provides normative foot joint angles, moments and powers during adolescent gait. Eighteen subjects were evaluated using 19 retroreflective markers, six cameras, a pressure platform and a force plate. A nine-segment model determined 3D angles, 3D moments, and powers in eight joints or joint complexes. A complete sets of sagittal, coronal and frontal plane results are presented. Results indicate that single link models of the foot significantly overestimate ankle joint powers during gait. Understanding normal joint kinematics and kinetics during gait will provide a baseline for documenting impairments in patients with foot disorders.

  8. COMPARISON OF FOOT TAPING VERSUS CUSTOM-MADE MEDIAL ARCH SUPPORT ON PRONATED FLATFOOT IN SCHOOL GOING CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vadivelan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Flatfoot may exist as an isolated pathology or as part of a larger clinical entity. These entities include generalized ligamentous laxity, neurologic and muscular abnormalities, genetic conditions, collagen disorders and structural disorder. Flat foot is found to be associated with pronated foot. The objective of the study is to compare the effectiveness of foot taping versus custom-made medial arch support on pronated flatfoot in school going children. Methods: 60 students out of 130, aged 10 to 12 years were selected on the basis of inclusion criteria and divided into three groups from two different higher secondary schools at Srikalahasti, in Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh. Group-A received custom-made medial arch support and foot strengthening exercises, Group-B received kinesio taping and foot strengthening exercises , Group-C received foot strengthening exercises for 4 weeks. The values of navicular drop test were taken after 4 weeks of study. The pre and post-test values were compared and results were tabulated. Results: All three groups showed significant improvement in navicular drop separately. No significant difference was found in the post-test values of group-A, group-B, group-C (p>0.05. However, the reduction of navicular drop was slightly more in group-B subjects treated with kinesio tape and foot strengthening exercises when compared with other two interventions. Conclusion: The study concluded that foot taping, custom-made medial arch support and foot strengthening exercises were found to be effective on pronated flatfoot in school going children aged 10 to 12 years.

  9. "Flat-Fish" Vacuum Chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    The picture shows a "Flat-Fish" vacuum chamber being prepared in the ISR workshop for testing prior to installation in the Split Field Magnet (SFM) at intersection I4. The two shells of each part were hydroformed from 0.15 mm thick inconel 718 sheet (with end parts in inconel 600 for easier manual welding to the arms) and welded toghether with two strips which were attached by means of thin stainless steel sheets to the Split Field Magnet poles in order to take the vertical component of the atmospheric pressure force. This was the thinnest vacuum chamber ever made for the ISR. Inconel material was chosen for its high elastic modulus and strenght at chamber bake-out temperature. In this picture the thin sheets transferring the vertical component of the atmosferic pressure force are attached to a support frame for testing. See also 7712182, 7712179.

  10. Flat laminated microbial mat communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Jonathan; Stolz, John F.

    2009-10-01

    Flat laminated microbial mats are complex microbial ecosystems that inhabit a wide range of environments (e.g., caves, iron springs, thermal springs and pools, salt marshes, hypersaline ponds and lagoons, methane and petroleum seeps, sea mounts, deep sea vents, arctic dry valleys). Their community structure is defined by physical (e.g., light quantity and quality, temperature, density and pressure) and chemical (e.g., oxygen, oxidation/reduction potential, salinity, pH, available electron acceptors and donors, chemical species) parameters as well as species interactions. The main primary producers may be photoautotrophs (e.g., cyanobacteria, purple phototrophs, green phototrophs) or chemolithoautophs (e.g., colorless sulfur oxidizing bacteria). Anaerobic phototrophy may predominate in organic rich environments that support high rates of respiration. These communities are dynamic systems exhibiting both spatial and temporal heterogeneity. They are characterized by steep gradients with microenvironments on the submillimeter scale. Diel oscillations in the physical-chemical profile (e.g., oxygen, hydrogen sulfide, pH) and species distribution are typical for phototroph-dominated communities. Flat laminated microbial mats are often sites of robust biogeochemical cycling. In addition to well-established modes of metabolism for phototrophy (oxygenic and non-oxygenic), respiration (both aerobic and anaerobic), and fermentation, novel energetic pathways have been discovered (e.g., nitrate reduction couple to the oxidation of ammonia, sulfur, or arsenite). The application of culture-independent techniques (e.g., 16S rRNA clonal libraries, metagenomics), continue to expand our understanding of species composition and metabolic functions of these complex ecosystems.

  11. Representability of Hom Implies Flatness

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitin Nitsure

    2004-02-01

    Let be a projective scheme over a noetherian base scheme , and let $\\mathcal{F}$ be a coherent sheaf on . For any coherent sheaf $\\mathcal{E}$ on , consider the set-valued contravariant functor $\\hom_{(\\mathcal{E},\\mathcal{F})}$ on -schemes, defined by $\\hom_{(\\mathcal{E},\\mathcal{F})}(T)=\\mathrm{Hom}(\\mathcal{E}_T,\\mathcal{F}_T)$ where $\\mathcal{E}_T$ and $\\mathcal{F}_T$ are the pull-backs of $\\mathcal{E}$ and $\\mathcal{F}$ to $X_T=X×_s T$. A basic result of Grothendieck ([EGA], III 7.7.9) says that if $\\mathcal{F}$ is flat over then $\\hom_{(\\mathcal{E},\\mathcal{F})}$ is representable for all $\\mathcal{E}$. We prove the converse of the above, in fact, we show that if is a relatively ample line bundle on over such that the functor $\\hom_{(L^{-n},\\mathcal{F})}$ is representable for infinitely many positive integers , then $\\mathcal{F}$ is flat over . As a corollary, taking $X=S$, it follows that if $\\mathcal{F}$ is a coherent sheaf on then the functor $T\\mapsto H^0(T,\\mathcal{F}_T)$ on the category of -schemes is representable if and only if $\\mathcal{F}$ is locally free on . This answers a question posed by Angelo Vistoli. The techniques we use involve the proof of flattening stratification, together with the methods used in proving the author's earlier result (see [N1]) that the automorphism group functor of a coherent sheaf on is representable if and only if the sheaf is locally free.

  12. Priorities in offloading the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A

    2012-02-01

    Biomechanical factors play an important role in diabetic foot disease. Reducing high foot pressures (i.e. offloading) is one of the main goals in healing and preventing foot ulceration. Evidence-based guidelines show the strong association between the efficacy to offload the foot and clinical outcome. However, several aspects related to offloading are underexposed. First, in the management of foot complications, offloading is mostly studied as a single entity, whereas it should be analysed in a broader perspective of contributing factors to better predict clinical outcome. This includes assessment of patient behavioural factors such as type and intensity of daily physical activity and adherence to prescribed treatment. Second, a large gap exists between evidence-based recommendations and clinical practice in the use of offloading for ulcer treatment, and this gap needs to be bridged. Possible ways to achieve this are discussed in this article. Third, our knowledge about the efficacy and role of offloading in treating complicated and non-plantar neuropathic foot ulcers needs to be expanded because these ulcers currently dominate presentation in multidisciplinary foot practice. Finally, foot ulcer prevention is underexposed when compared with ulcer treatment. Prevention requires a larger focus, in particular regarding the efficacy of therapeutic footwear and its relative role in comparison with other preventative strategies. These priorities need the attention of clinicians, scientists and professional societies to improve our understanding of offloading and to improve clinical outcome in the management of the diabetic foot.

  13. Prevention and treatment of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jonathan Zhang Ming; Ng, Natasha Su Lynn; Thomas, Cecil

    2017-03-01

    The rising prevalence of diabetes estimated at 3.6 million people in the UK represents a major public health and socioeconomic burden to our National Health Service. Diabetes and its associated complications are of a growing concern. Diabetes-related foot complications have been identified as the single most common cause of morbidity among diabetic patients. The complicating factor of underlying peripheral vascular disease renders the majority of diabetic foot ulcers asymptomatic until latter evidence of non-healing ulcers become evident. Therefore, preventative strategies including annual diabetic foot screening and diabetic foot care interventions facilitated through a multidisciplinary team have been implemented to enable early identification of diabetic patients at high risk of diabetic foot complications. The National Diabetes Foot Care Audit reported significant variability and deficiencies of care throughout England and Wales, with emphasis on change in the structure of healthcare provision and commissioning, improvement of patient education and availability of healthcare access, and emphasis on preventative strategies to reduce morbidities and mortality of this debilitating disease. This review article aims to summarise major risk factors contributing to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. It also considers the key evidence-based strategies towards preventing diabetic foot ulcer. We discuss tools used in risk stratification and classifications of foot ulcer.

  14. [Hand, foot and mouth disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriere, H; Berger, M; Billaudel, S

    1976-11-16

    Two characteristic cases encountered in young adults led the authors to present the hand foot and mouth syndrome. They report the characteristic distribution and vesicular appearance of the lesions. The course was benign. The viral origin of the disease was more or less easily confirmed by cell culture, inoculation in new born mice and demonstration of antibodies. Usually the virus was a Coxackie A 16. However in one of the authors cases, an Echo 11 was demonstrated. The apparent rareness of the disease may be explained by lack of recognition.

  15. A new method to normalize plantar pressure measurements for foot size and foot progression angle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, N.L.; Stolwijk, N.M.; Nienhuis, B.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressure measurement provides important information about the structure and function of the foot and is a helpful tool to evaluate patients with foot complaints. In general, average and maximum plantar pressure of 6-11 areas under the foot are used to compare groups of subjects. However,

  16. Classification of diabetic foot ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Game, Frances

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the relative importance of factors involved in the development of diabetic foot problems can vary in both their presence and severity between patients and lesions. This may be one of the reasons why outcomes seem to vary centre to centre and why some treatments may seem more effective in some people than others. There is a need therefore to classify and describe lesions of the foot in patients with diabetes in a manner that is agreed across all communities but is simple to use in clinical practice. No single system is currently in widespread use, although a number have been published. Not all are well validated outside the system from which they were derived, and it has not always been made clear the clinical purposes to which such classifications should be put to use, whether that be for research, clinical description in routine clinical care or audit. Here the currently published classification systems, their validation in clinical practice, whether they were designed for research, audit or clinical care, and the strengths and weaknesses of each are explored.

  17. The madura foot: looking deep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatswami, Sandhya; Sankarasubramanian, Anandan; Subramanyam, Shobana

    2012-03-01

    "Mycetoma" means a fungal tumor. Mycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous, subcutaneous tissue infection caused by both bacteria (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma). This chronic infection was termed Madura foot and eventually mycetoma, owing to its etiology. Inoculation commonly follows minor trauma, predominantly to the foot and hence is seen more among the barefoot-walking populations, common among adult males aged 20 to 50 years. The hallmark triad of the disease includes tumefaction, fistulization of the abscess, and extrusion of colored grains. The color of these extruded grains in the active phase of the disease offers a clue to diagnosis. Radiology, ultrasonology, cytology, histology, immunodiagnosis, and culture are tools used in diagnosis. Recently, DNA sequencing has also been used successfully. Though both infections manifest with similar clinical findings, Actinomycetoma has a rapid course and can lead to amputation or death secondary to systemic spread. However, actinomycetomas are more responsive to antibiotics, whereas eumycetomas require surgical excision in addition to antifungals. Complications include secondary bacterial infections that can progress to full-blown bacteremia or septicemia, resulting in death. With extremely disfiguring sequelae, following the breakdown of the nodules and formation of discharging sinuses, it poses a therapeutic challenge.

  18. Focal rigidity of flat tori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Kwakkel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Given a closed Riemannian manifold (M, g, i.e. compact and boundaryless, there is a partition of its tangent bundle TM = ∪iΣi called the focal decomposition of TM. The sets Σi are closely associated to focusing of geodesics of (M, g, i.e. to the situation where there are exactly i geodesic arcs of the same length joining points p and q in M. In this note, we study the topological structure of the focal decomposition of a closed Riemannian manifold and its relation with the metric structure of the manifold. Our main result is that flat n-tori, n > 2, are focally rigid in the sense that if two flat tori are focally equivalent then the tori are isometric up to rescaling. The case n = 2 was considered before by F. Kwakkel.Dada uma variedade Riemanniana (M, g fechada, isto é, compacta e sem bordo, existe uma partição de seu fibrado tangente TM = ∪iΣi chamada decomposição focal de TM. Os conjuntos Σi estão intimamente associados ao modo como focalizam as geodésicas de (M,g, isto é, à situação em que existem exatamente i arcos de geodésica de mesmo comprimento unindo pontos p e q em M. Nesta nota, estudamos a estrutura topológica da decomposição focal de uma variedade Riemanniana fechada e sua relação com a estrutura métrica de M. Nosso principal resultado é que n-toros planos, n > 2, são focalmente rigidos, isto é, se dois toros planos são focalmente equivalentes, então os dois toros são isométricos módulo mudança de escala. O caso n = 2 foi considerado anteriormente por F. Kwakkel.

  19. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoussaad, Mourad; Sijobert, Benoît; Mombaur, Katja; Coste, Christine Azevedo

    2015-12-23

    This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU) placed on the subject's foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions.

  20. Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern in Diabetic Foot Ulcer: A Pilot Study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, diabetic foot ulcers are one of the major public ... Background: Diabetic foot infections (DFIs) are major public health problems and knowledge ... Keywords: Antibiotic resistance, Antimicrobial susceptibility, Diabetic foot infection,.

  1. Diabetic Foot and Risk: How to Prevent Losing Your Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Conditions / Diabetic Foot The Diabetic Foot and Risk: How to Prevent Losing Your ... Page Content Don't deny you are a diabetic Anyone who has ever had an elevated blood ...

  2. Multi-functional foot use during running in the zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Hsieh, S Tonia; Goldman, Daniel I

    2012-09-15

    A diversity of animals that run on solid, level, flat, non-slip surfaces appear to bounce on their legs; elastic elements in the limbs can store and return energy during each step. The mechanics and energetics of running in natural terrain, particularly on surfaces that can yield and flow under stress, is less understood. The zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides), a small desert generalist with a large, elongate, tendinous hind foot, runs rapidly across a variety of natural substrates. We use high-speed video to obtain detailed three-dimensional running kinematics on solid and granular surfaces to reveal how leg, foot and substrate mechanics contribute to its high locomotor performance. Running at ~10 body lengths s(-1) (~1 m s(-1)), the center of mass oscillates like a spring-mass system on both substrates, with only 15% reduction in stride length on the granular surface. On the solid surface, a strut-spring model of the hind limb reveals that the hind foot saves ~40% of the mechanical work needed per step, significant for the lizard's small size. On the granular surface, a penetration force model and hypothesized subsurface foot rotation indicates that the hind foot paddles through fluidized granular medium, and that the energy lost per step during irreversible deformation of the substrate does not differ from the reduction in the mechanical energy of the center of mass. The upper hind leg muscles must perform three times as much mechanical work on the granular surface as on the solid surface to compensate for the greater energy lost within the foot and to the substrate.

  3. Chromosome and p63 Gene Analysis of an Infant with Ectrodactyly–Split Hand and Foot Malformation

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRHAN, Osman

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Split hand-split foot malformation (SHFM) results from central ray reduction and presents as median clefts of the hands and feet, syndactyly, aplasia or hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals and metatarsals, which are frequently associated with other phenotypic abnormalities. We aimed to investigate the genetic pathway of SHFM in a child. Materials and methods: Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis was performed in a 10-day-old boy with split-syndactyly hand and flat-syndactyly...

  4. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar's brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Hirose, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    How very long-term (over many years) motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer) recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while he rotated his right ankle at 1 Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar's brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  5. [The "diabetic foot" syndrome. An overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, E

    1999-01-01

    Amputation has been used most frequently to treat the diabetic foot syndrome, occlusive microangiopathy being suspected as the underlying cause. This paradigm is obsolete: most diabetic foot lesions are due to traumatic painless (neuropathic) infections. Evidence is presented for alternative treatment strategies to effectively reduce exorbitant amputation rates in diabetic patients.

  6. Louisiana farm discussion: 8 foot row spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This year several tests in growers’ fields were used to compare traditional 6-foot row spacing to 8-foot row spacing. Cane is double-drilled in the wider row spacing. The wider row spacing would accommodate John Deere 3522 harvester. Field data indicate the sugarcane yields are very comparable in 8-...

  7. Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion's Pandora's Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...

  8. Flat hat glass diffractive optical beam shaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Steffen; Petzold, Uwe; Biertuempfel, Ralf; Vogt, Helge

    2009-02-01

    Many laser applications need a homogeneous - so called flat hat - light distribution in the application area. However, many laser emit Gaussian shaped light. The technology of diffractive optical elements (DOE) can be used to shape the Gaussian beam into a flat hat beam at a compact length. SCHOTT presents a DOE design of a flat hat DOE beam shaper made out of optical glass. Here the material glass has the significant advantage of high laser durability, low scattering losses, high resistance to temperature, moisture, and chemicals compared to polymer DOEs. Simulations and measurements on different DOEs for different wavelength, laser beam width, and laser divergence are presented. Surprisingly the flat hat DOE beam shaper depends only weakly on wavelength and beam width but strongly on laser divergence. Based on the good agreement between simulation and measurement an improved flat hat DOE beam shaper is also presented.

  9. The role of foot morphology on foot function in diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiotto, Annamaria; Sawacha, Zimi; Guarneri, Gabriella; Cristoferi, Giuseppe; Avogaro, Angelo; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of foot morphology, related with respect to diabetes and peripheral neuropathy in altering foot kinematics and plantar pressure during gait. Healthy and diabetic subjects with or without neuropathy with different foot types were analyzed. Three dimensional multisegment foot kinematics and plantar pressures were assessed on 120 feet: 40 feet (24 cavus, 20 with valgus heel and 11 with hallux valgus) in the control group, 80 feet in the diabetic (25 cavus 13 with valgus heel and 13 with hallux valgus) and the neuropathic groups (28 cavus, 24 with valgus heel and 18 with hallux valgus). Subjects were classified according to their foot morphology allowing further comparisons among the subgroups with the same foot morphology. When comparing neuropathic subjects with cavus foot, valgus heel with controls with the same foot morphology, important differences were noticed: increased dorsiflexion and peak plantar pressure on the forefoot (Pfoot morphology in altering both kinematics and plantar pressure in diabetic subjects, diabetes appeared to further contribute in altering foot biomechanics. Surprisingly, all the diabetic subjects with normal foot arch or with valgus hallux were no more likely to display significant differences in biomechanics parameters than controls. This data could be considered a valuable support for future research on diabetic foot function, and in planning preventive interventions.

  10. Cosmology in Conformally Flat Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endean, Geoffrey

    1997-04-01

    A possible solution to cosmological age and redshift-distance difficulties has recently been proposed by applying the appropriate conformally flat spacetime (CFS) coordinates to the standard solution of the field equations in a standard dust model closed universe. Here it is shown that CFS time correctly measures the true age of the universe, thus answering a major theoretical objection to the proposal. It is also shown that the CFS interpretation leads to a strong Copernican principle and is in all other respects wholly self-consistent. The deceleration parameter q0 is related to t0, the present age of the universe divided by L, the scale length of its curvature (an absolute constant). The values of q0 and L are approximately 5/6 and 9.2 × 109 yr, respectively. It is shown that the universe started everywhere simultaneously, with no recession velocity until the effects of its closed topology became significant. Conclusions to the contrary in standard theory (the big bang) stem from a different definition of recession velocity. The theoretical present cosmological mass density is quantified as 4.4 × 10-27 kg m-3 approximately, thus greatly reducing, in a closed universe, the observational requirement to find hidden mass. It is also shown that the prediction of standard theory, for a closed universe, of collapse toward a big crunch termination, will not in fact take place.

  11. An overview of the Charcot foot pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaynak, Gökhan; Birsel, Olgar; Güven, Mehmet Fatih; Oğüt, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Charcot arthropathy of the foot is a rare but devastating complication of diabetes that remains to be a challenging issue for the foot and ankle surgeons. Charcot foot fails to be an obvious diagnostic option that comes to mind, even in a pathognomonic clinical appearance. The rarity of the disorder, more common pathologies that mimic the condition, and the self-limiting prognosis deviate the clinician from the right diagnosis. The clinical challenges in the diagnosis of Charcot foot require in-depth investigations of its enigmatic nature to establish useful guidelines. Yet, this goal seems to be beyond reach, without a holistic view of the immense literature concerning the pathophysiology of the disorder. The primary objective of this article is to put together and review the recent advancements about the etiology and intrinsic mechanisms of diabetic Charcot foot.

  12. An overview of the Charcot foot pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kaynak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Charcot arthropathy of the foot is a rare but devastating complication of diabetes that remains to be a challenging issue for the foot and ankle surgeons. Charcot foot fails to be an obvious diagnostic option that comes to mind, even in a pathognomonic clinical appearance. The rarity of the disorder, more common pathologies that mimic the condition, and the self-limiting prognosis deviate the clinician from the right diagnosis. The clinical challenges in the diagnosis of Charcot foot require in-depth investigations of its enigmatic nature to establish useful guidelines. Yet, this goal seems to be beyond reach, without a holistic view of the immense literature concerning the pathophysiology of the disorder. The primary objective of this article is to put together and review the recent advancements about the etiology and intrinsic mechanisms of diabetic Charcot foot.

  13. Temporal characteristics of foot roll-over during barefoot jogging: reference data for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, A; De Clercq, D; Willems, T; Witvrouw, E

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a representative reference dataset for temporal characteristics of foot roll-over during barefoot jogging, based on plantar pressure data collected from 220 healthy young adults. The subjects ran at 3.3 ms-1 over a 16.5 m long running track, having a built-in pressure platform mounted on a force platform. The initial contact, final contact, time to peak pressure and the duration of contact at the lateral and medial heel, metatarsal heads I to V and the hallux were measured. Temporal plantar pressure variables were found to be reliable (93% of ICC coefficients above 0.75) and both gender and asymmetry influences could be neglected. Foot roll-over during jogging started with heel contact followed by a latero-medial contact of the metatarsals and finally the hallux. After heel off, the forefoot started to push off at the lateral metatarsals, followed by a more central push off over the second metatarsal and finally over the hallux. Based on the plantar pressure data, the stance phase during running was divided into four distinct phases: initial contact (8.2%), forefoot contact (11.3%), foot flat (25.3%) and forefoot push off (55.1%). These findings provide a reliable and representative reference dataset for temporal characteristics of foot roll-over during jogging of young adults that may also be relevant in the evaluation of running patterns.

  14. CRIO-INFLUENCE IN SURGICAL TREATMENT OF BENIGN TUMOURS OF FOOT BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Dianov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The material of investigation was the results of treatment of 131 patients with foot bones tumours. The largest number of patients referred, to age interval from 11 to 30 years (69,6%. More than half of cases were osteochondromas (54%, then solitary bone cyst (14,5% and chondromas (13%. Other nosologic forms were met significantly seldom. Two groups of patients were examined: the main group (with crio-influence - 44 patients and group of comparison (without crio-influence - 87 patients. The plot of operation was in flat, border-line, intrafocusal or segmental resection of damaged section, crio-instillation or contact curio-processing of bone and auto- or allopathic of respected defect. The results of treatment were estimated in a year after operation. After usage of curio-surgical method there were observed positive results in 41 patients, satisfactory - in 2 and unsatisfactory - in 1. The results of treatment with traditional method were positive in 79 cases, satisfactory - in 2, unsatisfactory - in 6. The worked-out method of curio-surgical treatment of foot bone tumours includes resection of pathological focus, itraoperative crio-influence on bone tissue and bone plastic transplantation of resected, defect. The analysis of criosurgical operations of foot gave the foundation to consider such interventions significant and perspective in treatment of patients with tumours and tumour similar damages of foot bone.

  15. The foot core system: a new paradigm for understanding intrinsic foot muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeon, Patrick O; Hertel, Jay; Bramble, Dennis; Davis, Irene

    2015-03-01

    The foot is a complex structure with many articulations and multiple degrees of freedom that play an important role in static posture and dynamic activities. The evolutionary development of the arch of the foot was coincident with the greater demands placed on the foot as humans began to run. The movement and stability of the arch is controlled by intrinsic and extrinsic muscles. However, the intrinsic muscles are largely ignored by clinicians and researchers. As such, these muscles are seldom addressed in rehabilitation programmes. Interventions for foot-related problems are more often directed at externally supporting the foot rather than training these muscles to function as they are designed. In this paper, we propose a novel paradigm for understanding the function of the foot. We begin with an overview of the evolution of the human foot with a focus on the development of the arch. This is followed by a description of the foot intrinsic muscles and their relationship to the extrinsic muscles. We draw the parallels between the small muscles of the trunk region that make up the lumbopelvic core and the intrinsic foot muscles, introducing the concept of the foot core. We then integrate the concept of the foot core into the assessment and treatment of the foot. Finally, we call for an increased awareness of the importance of the foot core stability to normal foot and lower extremity function. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Footwear and foot care knowledge as risk factors for foot problems in Indian diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandalia, H B; Singh, D; Kapoor, V; Chandalia, S H; Lamba, P S

    2008-10-01

    We assessed 300 diabetic and 100 age- and sex-matched controls for correlating foot wear practices and foot care knowledge and the presence of foot complications. A structured questionnaire evaluated the knowledge about foot care, type of footwear used, education level, association of tobacco abuse, and any associated symptoms of foot disease. Clinical evaluation was done by inspection of feet for presence of any external deformities, assessment of sensory function (vibration perception threshold, VPT), vascular status (foot pulses and ankle brachial ratio) and presence of any infection.In the diabetes category, 44.7% patients had not received previous foot care education. 0.6% walked barefoot outdoors and 45% walked barefoot indoors. Fourteen (4.7%) patients gave history of foot ulceration in the past and comprised the high risk group; only 2 out of 14 had received foot care education, 6 gave history of tobacco abuse, 8 had symptoms of claudication, 9 had paresthesias, 2 walked barefoot indoors. Average duration of diabetes in the high-risk and low-risk diabetes group was 10.85 +/- 6.53 and 9.83 +/- 7.99 years, respectively. In the high- and low-risk diabetic groups, VPT was 19.57 +/- 11.26 and 15.20 +/- 10.21V (P practices were important risk factors for foot problems in diabetes.

  17. Foot roll-over evaluation based on 3D dynamic foot scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, William; Van Hamme, Angèle; Sanchez, Stéphane; Chèze, Laurence; Van Sint Jan, Serge; Feipel, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Foot roll-over is commonly analyzed to evaluate gait pathologies. The current study utilized a dynamic foot scanner (DFS) to analyze foot roll-over. The right feet of ten healthy subjects were assessed during gait trials with a DFS system integrated into a walkway. A foot sole picture was computed by vertically projecting points from the 3D foot shape which were lower than a threshold height of 15 mm. A 'height' value of these projected points was determined; corresponding to the initial vertical coordinates prior to projection. Similar to pedobarographic analysis, the foot sole picture was segmented into anatomical regions of interest (ROIs) to process mean height (average of height data by ROI) and projected surface (area of the projected foot sole by ROI). Results showed that these variables evolved differently to plantar pressure data previously reported in the literature, mainly due to the specificity of each physical quantity (millimeters vs Pascals). Compared to plantar pressure data arising from surface contact by the foot, the current method takes into account the whole plantar aspect of the foot, including the parts that do not make contact with the support surface. The current approach using height data could contribute to a better understanding of specific aspects of foot motion during walking, such as plantar arch height and the windlass mechanism. Results of this study show the underlying method is reliable. Further investigation is required to validate the DFS measurements within a clinical context, prior to implementation into clinical practice.

  18. Standard growth of the foot arch in childhood and adolescence--derived from the measurement results of 10,155 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseda, Akeo; Suda, Yasunori; Inokuchi, Suguru; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2014-09-01

    The definition of flatfoot remains analytically vague. Toward the purpose of establishing the standard values of the foot length and arch height in childhood and adolescence, large-scale measurement and investigation of the foot arch were conducted using a three-dimensional foot-measuring device. Measurements of foot structure were performed on 5311 boys and 4844 girls, for a total of 20,310 ft. of 10,155 children aged from 6 to 18 years during the 2006-2008 year period. The foot length (FL) and the navicular height (NH) were measured, and the arch height ratio (AHR (%)=NH×100/FL) was calculated. The FL in boys showed an extension from the age of 6 to 14 and nearly reached a plateau at 14 years old. In girls, the extension was observed from the age of 6 to 13, and the FL came to a plateau at 13 years old. The NH in boys increased from the age of 6 to 13. In girls, the NH increased from the age of 8 to 13. The AHR, presented a normal distribution, and no differences were observed in the distribution for all ages in boys and girls. In boys, the AHR was almost flat until 11 years old, but elevated in the 11-13 year age period. In girls, the AHR was almost flat until 10 years old, but elevated in the 10-12 year age period. We are certain that the data demonstrating the normal growth of the foot contribute to the diagnosis and treatment of the failure of the foot to thrive. Copyright © 2014 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SBC Internal Lamp P-flat Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, R. J.; Chiaberge, M.; Bohlin, R.

    2016-03-01

    We report on a Cycle 23 calibration program to monitor the status of the SBC P-flat. We find random pixel to pixel changes to be small, with only 2% of pixels having changed by more than 3. There are coherent changes that we measure to be above the poisson errors, in some regions as high as 4% peak to peak. We recommend that the ACS team obtain new observations in order to create a new P-flat. We also measured the degradation of the deuterium lamp used to create internal flats. The brightness of the lamp is currently 65% of its initial level, the degradation being dependent on lifetime usage.

  20. Foot lengthening and shortening during gait: a parameter to investigate foot function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolwijk, N M; Koenraadt, K L M; Louwerens, J W K; Grim, D; Duysens, J; Keijsers, N L W

    2014-02-01

    Based on the windlass mechanism theory of Hicks, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) flattens during weight bearing. Simultaneously, foot lengthening is expected. However, changes in foot length during gait and the influence of walking speed has not been investigated yet. The foot length and MLA angle of 34 healthy subjects (18 males, 16 females) at 3 velocities (preferred, low (preferred -0.4 m/s) and fast (preferred +0.4 m/s) speed were investigated with a 3D motion analysis system (VICON(®)). The MLA angle was calculated as the angle between the second metatarsal head, the navicular tuberculum and the heel in the local sagittal plane. Foot length was calculated as the distance between the marker at the heel and the 2nd metatarsal head. A General Linear Model for repeated measures was used to indicate significant differences in MLA angle and foot length between different walking speeds. The foot lengthened during the weight acceptance phase of gait and shortened during propulsion. With increased walking speed, the foot elongated less after heel strike and shortened more during push off. The MLA angle and foot length curve were similar, except between 50% and 80% of the stance phase in which the MLA increases whereas the foot length showed a slight decrease. Foot length seems to represent the Hicks mechanism in the foot and the ability of the foot to bear weight. At higher speeds, the foot becomes relatively stiffer, presumably to act as a lever arm to provide extra propulsion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Plastic closure of wounds and trophic ulcers in patients with diabetic foot syndrome by relief autoshred].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlyshin, A V; Shidlovskiĭ, V A; Gerasimchuk, P A

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the features of the surgical treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus complicated with diabetic foot syndrome. Results of autodermoplasty of acute and chronic skin damages with ripped and flat skin graft in 185 patients who were treated in the clinic of general surgery of I.Ya. Horbachevsky Ternopil State Medical University, Ukraine, in the period from 2007 to 2012 Using of this method leads to improved cosmetic and functional results in 81.7% of patients with reducing of treatment duration up to 12 days.

  2. Flatness Control Using Roll Coolant Based on Predicted Flatness Variation in Cold Rolling Mills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohmae, Yukihiro; Okamura, Yoshihide

    Flatness control for cold rolling mills is one of the important technologies for improving of product quality and productivity. In particular, poor flatness leads to strip tearing in the extreme case and, moreover, it significantly reduces productivity. Therefore, various flatness control system has been developed. The main actuators for flatness control are classified into two types; one is mechanical equipment such as roll bender, the other is roll coolant, which controls thermal expansion of roll. Flatness variation such as center buckle or edge wave is mainly controlled by mechanical actuator which has high response characteristics. On another front, flatness variation of local zone can be controlled by roll coolant although one's response is lower than the response of mechanical actuator. For accomplishing good flatness accuracy in cold rolling mills, it is important to improve the performance of coolant control moreover. In this paper, a new coolant control method based on flatness variation model is described. In proposed method, the state of coolant spray on or off is selected to minimize the flatness deviation by using predicted flatness variation. The effectiveness of developed system has been demonstrated by application in actual plant.

  3. Surgical treatment of the Charcot foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzur, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    With the increased number of diabetics worldwide and the increased incidence of morbid obesity in more prosperous cultures, there has become an increased awareness of Charcot arthropathy of the foot and ankle. Outcome studies would suggest that patients with deformity associated with Charcot Foot arthropathy have impaired health related quality of life. This awareness has led reconstructive-minded foot and ankle surgeons to develop surgical strategies to treat these acquired deformities. This article outlines the current clinical approach to this disabling medical condition.

  4. 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1932-01-01

    The researcher is sitting above the exit cone of the 5-foot Vertical Wind Tunnel and is examining the new 6-component spinning balance. This balance was developed between 1930 and 1933. It was an important advance in the technology of rotating or rolling balances. As M.J. Bamber and C.H. Zimmerman wrote in NACA TR 456: 'Data upon the aerodynamic characteristics of a spinning airplane may be obtained in several ways; namely, flight tests with full-scale airplanes, flight tests with balanced models, strip-method analysis of wind-tunnel force and moment tests, and wind-tunnel tests of rotating models.' Further, they note: 'Rolling-balance data have been of limited value because it has not been possible to measure all six force and moment components or to reproduce a true spinning condition. The spinning balance used in this investigation is a 6-component rotating balance from which it is possible to obtain wind-tunnel data for any of a wide range of possible spinning conditions.' Bamber and Zimmerman described the balance as follows: 'The spinning balance consists of a balance head that supports the model and contains the force-measuring units, a horizontal turntable supported by streamline struts in the center of the jet and, outside the tunnel, a direct-current driving motor, a liquid tachometer, an air compressor, a mercury manometer, a pair of indicating lamps, and the necessary controls. The balance head is mounted on the turntable and it may be set to give any radius of spin between 0 and 8 inches.' In an earlier report, NACA TR 387, Carl Wenzinger and Thomas Harris supply this description of the tunnel: 'The vertical open-throat wind tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics ... was built mainly for studying the spinning characteristics of airplane models, but may be used as well for the usual types of wind-tunnel tests. A special spinning balance is being developed to measure the desired forces and moments with the model simulating the actual

  5. Generation of subject-specific, dynamic, multisegment ankle and foot models to improve orthotic design: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosterwaal Michiel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, custom foot and ankle orthosis prescription and design tend to be based on traditional techniques, which can result in devices which vary greatly between clinicians and repeat prescription. The use of computational models of the foot may give further insight in the biomechanical effects of these devices and allow a more standardised approach to be taken to their design, however due to the complexity of the foot the models must be highly detailed and dynamic. Methods/Design Functional and anatomical datasets will be collected in a multicentre study from 10 healthy participants and 15 patients requiring orthotic devices. The patient group will include individuals with metarsalgia, flexible flat foot and drop foot. Each participant will undergo a clinical foot function assessment, 3D surface scans of the foot under different loading conditions, and detailed gait analysis including kinematic, kinetic, muscle activity and plantar pressure measurements in both barefoot and shod conditions. Following this each participant will undergo computed tomography (CT imaging of their foot and ankle under a range of loads and positions while plantar pressures are recorded. A further subgroup of participants will undergo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the foot and ankle. Imaging data will be segmented to derive the geometry of the bones and the orientation of the joint axes. Insertion points of muscles and ligaments will be determined from the MRI and CT-scans and soft tissue material properties computed from the loaded CT data in combination with the plantar pressure measurements. Gait analysis data will be used to drive the models and in combination with the 3D surface scans for scaling purposes. Predicted plantar pressures and muscle activation patterns predicted from the models will be compared to determine the validity of the models. Discussion This protocol will lead to the generation of unique datasets which will be used

  6. B^F Theory and Flat Spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Waelbroeck, Henri

    2009-01-01

    We propose a reduced constrained Hamiltonian formalism for the exactly soluble $B \\wedge F$ theory of flat connections and closed two-forms over manifolds with topology $\\Sigma^3 \\times (0,1)$. The reduced phase space variables are the holonomies of a flat connection for loops which form a basis of the first homotopy group $\\pi_1(\\Sigma^3)$, and elements of the second cohomology group of $\\Sigma^3$ with value in the Lie algebra $L(G)$. When $G=SO(3,1)$, and if the two-form can be expressed as $B= e\\wedge e$, for some vierbein field $e$, then the variables represent a flat spacetime. This is not always possible: We show that the solutions of the theory generally represent spacetimes with ``global torsion''. We describe the dynamical evolution of spacetimes with and without global torsion, and classify the flat spacetimes which admit a locally homogeneous foliation, following Thurston's classification of geometric structures.

  7. On certain geodesic conjugacies of flat cylinders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S ARAVINDA; H A GURURAJA

    2017-06-01

    We prove $C^0$-conjugacy rigidity of any flat cylinder among two different classes of metrics on the cylinder, namely among the class of rotationally symmetric metrics and among the class of metrics without conjugate points.

  8. Fuzzy Neural Model for Flatness Pattern Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Chun-yu; SHAN Xiu-ying; LIU Hong-min; NIU Zhao-ping

    2008-01-01

    For the problems occurring in a least square method model,a fuzzy model,and a neural network model for flatness pattern recognition,a fuzzy neural network model for flatness pattern recognition with only three-input and three-output signals was proposed with Legendre orthodoxy polynomial as basic pattern,based on fuzzy logic expert experiential knowledge and genetic-BP hybrid optimization algorithm.The model not only had definite physical meanings in its inner nodes,but also had strong self-adaptability,anti-interference ability,high recognition precision,and high velocity,thereby meeting the demand of high-precision flatness control for cold strip mill and providing a convenient,practical,and novel method for flatness pattern recognition.

  9. Improved ferrous shielding for flat cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, R. J.

    1969-01-01

    To improve shielding of flat multicore cables, a thin, seamless ferrous shield around all cores optimizes low frequency magnetic shielding. Such shielding is covered with an ultrathin seamless coat of highly conductive nonferrous material.

  10. High performance flat plate solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Reynolds, R.

    1976-01-01

    The potential use of porous construction is presented to achieve efficient heat removal from a power producing solid and is applied to solar air heaters. Analytical solutions are given for the temperature distribution within a gas-cooled porous flat plate having its surface exposed to the sun's energy. The extracted thermal energy is calculated for two different types of plate transparency. Results show the great improvement in performance obtained with porous flat plate collectors as compared with analogous nonporous types.

  11. Topological properties of flat electroencephalography's state space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken, Tan Lit; Ahmad, Tahir bin; Mohd, Mohd Sham bin; Ngien, Su Kong; Suwa, Tohru; Meng, Ong Sie

    2016-02-01

    Neuroinverse problem are often associated with complex neuronal activity. It involves locating problematic cell which is highly challenging. While epileptic foci localization is possible with the aid of EEG signals, it relies greatly on the ability to extract hidden information or pattern within EEG signals. Flat EEG being an enhancement of EEG is a way of viewing electroencephalograph on the real plane. In the perspective of dynamical systems, Flat EEG is equivalent to epileptic seizure hence, making it a great platform to study epileptic seizure. Throughout the years, various mathematical tools have been applied on Flat EEG to extract hidden information that is hardly noticeable by traditional visual inspection. While these tools have given worthy results, the journey towards understanding seizure process completely is yet to be succeeded. Since the underlying structure of Flat EEG is dynamic and is deemed to contain wealthy information regarding brainstorm, it would certainly be appealing to explore in depth its structures. To better understand the complex seizure process, this paper studies the event of epileptic seizure via Flat EEG in a more general framework by means of topology, particularly, on the state space where the event of Flat EEG lies.

  12. Effect of forward/backward standing posture on foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Tan, T.K.; Punte, P.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Foot length and breadth are generally used to determine the correct shoe size. An important question is whether foot length and foot breadth are dependent upon body posture. Therefore, the effect of leaning forward/backward on foot length and breadth is investigated in this study. Seven subjects

  13. Age-related differences in women's foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansuategui Echeita, Jone; Hijmans, Juha M.; Smits, Sharon; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Postema, Klaas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Describe age-related differences in women's foot shape using a wide range of measurements and ages. Study design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Main outcome measurements: Six foot-shape measurements of each foot: foot lengths, ball widths, ball circumferences, low instep circumferen

  14. Effect of forward/backward standing posture on foot shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Tan, T.K.; Punte, P.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Foot length and breadth are generally used to determine the correct shoe size. An important question is whether foot length and foot breadth are dependent upon body posture. Therefore, the effect of leaning forward/backward on foot length and breadth is investigated in this study. Seven subjects par

  15. Clinical and functional correlates of foot pain in diabetic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijken, P.M.; Dekker, J.; Rauwerda, J.A.; Dekker, E.; Lankhorst, G.J.; Bakker, K.; Dooren, J.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: patients with diabetes mellitus frequently suffer from foot pain. This pain seems to be a neglected area in studies on the diabetic foot. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical variables associated with foot pain in diabetic patients. In addition, the relationships between foot

  16. The diabetic foot in 2015: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markakis, K; Bowling, F L; Boulton, A J M

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, it can be said that the diabetic foot is no longer the Cinderella of diabetic complications. Thirty years ago there was little evidence-based research taking place on the diabetic foot, and there were no international meetings addressing this topic. Since then, the biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot meetings started in 1986, the American Diabetes Association founded their Foot Council in 1987, and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes established a Foot Study Group in 1998. The first International Symposium on the Diabetic Foot in The Netherlands was convened in 1991, and this was soon followed by the establishment of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot that has produced useful guidelines in several areas of investigation and the management of diabetic foot problems. There has been an exponential rise in publications on diabetic foot problems in high impact factor journals, and a comprehensive evidence-base now exists for many areas of treatment. Despite the extensive evidence available, it, unfortunately, remains difficult to demonstrate that most types of education are efficient in reducing the incidence of foot ulcers. However, there is evidence that education as part of a multi-disciplinary approach to diabetic foot ulceration plays a pivotal role in incidence reduction. With respect to treatment, strong evidence exists that offloading is the best modality for healing plantar neuropathic foot ulcers, and there is also evidence from two randomized controlled trials to support the use of negative-pressure wound therapy in complex post-surgical diabetic foot wounds. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy exhibits the same evidence level and strength of recommendation. International guidelines exist on the management of infection in the diabetic foot. Many randomized trials have been performed, and these have shown that the agents studied generally produced comparable results, with the exception of one study in which tigecycline was shown to

  17. Intramedullary foot fixation for midfoot Charcot neuroarthropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Bradley M; Siddiqui, Noman A; Nair, Ajitha K; LaPorta, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Midfoot Charcot collapse commonly occurs through the tarsometatarsal and/or midtarsal joints, which creates the characteristic "rocker bottom" deformity. Intramedullary metatarsal fixation spanning the tarsus into the talus and/or calcaneus is a recently developed method for addressing unstable midfoot Charcot deformity. The intramedullary foot fixation technique has various advantages when addressing midfoot Charcot deformity in the neuropathic patient. These advantages include anatomical realignment, minimally invasive fixation technique, formal multiple joint fusion, adjacent joint fixation beyond the level of Charcot collapse, rigid interosseus fixation, and preservation of foot length. The goals of the intramedullary foot fixation procedure are to create a stable, plantigrade, and ulcer-free foot, which allows the patient to ambulate with custom-molded orthotics and shoes.

  18. [Diabetic, neuropathic, arteriopathic foot and dressing choice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, S; Kayoumi, M

    2012-11-14

    The definition for the diabetic foot is infection, ulceration or destruction of deep tissues of the foot associated with neuropathy or peripheral vascular disease in the lower extremity of people with diabetes. Non-diabetic patients may suffer the same risks when neuropathy and arteriopathy are present. Knowing that 85% of amputations are preceded by foot ulcers, prevention is primordial. At the onset of an ulcer, immediate treatment must be undertaken and preferably by an interdisciplinary team. Delayed healing and increased risk of infection are often due to an associated vascular disease. While the array of dressings is expansive there is no «gold standard» treatment or «miracle dressing» described for foot ulcers. The management consists of wound analysis, debridement, woundcare and especially offloading.

  19. Diabetic foot ulcer management: the podiatrist's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turns, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Diabetic foot complications result from two broad pathologies-neuropathic and neuro-ischaemic feet. It is important for diabetic patients to have at least a yearly review of foot ulcer risk factors, and they should have a corresponding risk classification agreed based on this assessment. Diabetic foot ulcer assessment should include a wound classification tool, which can give an indication of wounds at greater risk of non-healing or amputation. The treatment of diabetic foot ulcers should be part of a comprehensive care plan that should also include treatment of infection, frequent debridement (if deemed appropriate by a skilled specialist clinician), biomechanical offloading, blood glucose control and treatment of comorbidities. Clinicians should base dressing selection on the wound's location, size and depth, amount of exudate, presence of infection or necrosis and the condition of the surrounding tissue.

  20. Glossary of Foot and Ankle Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Charcot fractures in the foot and ankle. Orthopaedics/Orthopedics - The medical and surgical specialty focused on treating, repairing and reconstructing the human musculoskeletal system. Orthopaedist /Orthopaedic Surgeon - A surgeon whose specialty is treating, repairing ...

  1. Habitual physical activity, peripheral neuropathy, foot deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Function Scale, and a self-designed foot deformity audit form. .... categorised under: Work activity – assesses physical activity level .... married and more than half (59%) were in paid employment. ..... walking patterns of the diabetic groups.

  2. American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Practice Management Education Opportunities Practice Management e-Learning e-Learning CME Transcripts Corporate Relations Faculty Application Research & Publications Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery ACFAS Update Read ...

  3. On-the-Job Foot Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and direct flame PROTECTION: overshoes or boots of fire-resistant materials with wooden soles HAZARD: high voltage ... in the workplace. Only one out of four victims of job- related foot injury wear any type ...

  4. Angiography in the region of the foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeitler, E.

    1984-06-01

    It is reported on technique, incidence and findings of angiography of the foot which provided magnifying angiography and non-ionic contrast media are used, is especially qualified for the differentiation of diabetic and non-diabetic angiopathies as well as for the identification of peripherical embolizations and digital arterial occlusions at thrombocytosis or polycythemia. The arteries of the foot represent the peripherical outflow at peripherical reconstructive performances at the lower leg and have to be studied prior to such reconstructive surgical interventions. The different localization of arterial obliterations and changes of the walls in diabetics of stage I-IV according to Fontaine shows the particularly large number of vascular-pathological findings in arteries of the lower leg and foot in diabetics with arterial occlusive diseases of stage III and IV. Therefore, the unfavourable prognoses of arterial occlusive diseases in diabetics have also to be made for peripherical arterial obliterations of the foot and lower leg.

  5. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features on ... guideline for management for rehabilitation of lower limb amputation. January 2008. www.healthquality.va.gov/guidelines/Rehab/ ...

  6. Development of a Robotic Assembly for Analyzing the Instantaneous Axis of Rotation of the Foot Ankle Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly N. Salb

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ankle instantaneous axis of rotation (IAR measurements represent a more complete parameter for characterizing joint motion. However, few studies have implemented this measurement to study normal, injured, or pathological foot ankle biomechanics. A novel testing protocol was developed to simulate aspects of in vivo foot ankle mechanics during mid-stance gait in a human cadaveric specimen. A lower leg was mounted in a robotic testing platform with the tibia upright and foot flat on the baseplate. Axial tibia loads (ATLs were controlled as a function of a vertical ground reaction force (vGRF set at half body weight (356 N and a 50% vGRF (178 N Achilles tendon load. Two specimens were repetitively loaded over 10 degrees of dorsiflexion and 20 degrees of plantar flexion. Platform axes were controlled within 2 microns and 0.008 degrees resulting in ATL measurements within ±2 N of target conditions. Mean ATLs and IAR values were not significantly different between cycles of motion, but IAR values were significantly different between dorsiflexion and plantar flexion. A linear regression analysis showed no significant differences between slopes of plantar flexion paths. The customized robotic platform and advanced testing protocol produced repeatable and accurate measurements of the IAR, useful for assessing foot ankle biomechanics under different loading scenarios and foot conditions.

  7. Flat H Frangible Joint Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diegelman, Thomas E.; Hinkel, Todd J.; Benjamin, Andrew; Rochon, Brian V.; Brown, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Space vehicle staging and separation events require pyrotechnic devices. They are single-use mechanisms that cannot be tested, nor can failure-tolerant performance be demonstrated in actual flight articles prior to flight use. This necessitates the implementation of a robust design and test approach coupled with a fully redundant, failure-tolerant explosive mechanism to ensure that the system functions even in the event of a single failure. Historically, NASA has followed the single failure-tolerant (SFT) design philosophy for all human-rated spacecraft, including the Space Shuttle Program. Following the end of this program, aerospace companies proposed building the next generation human-rated vehicles with off-the-shelf, non-redundant, zero-failure-tolerant (ZFT) separation systems. Currently, spacecraft and launch vehicle providers for both the Orion and Commercial Crew Programs (CCPs) plan to deviate from the heritage safety approach and NASA's SFT human rating requirements. Both programs' partners have base-lined ZFT frangible joints for vehicle staging and fairing separation. These joints are commercially available from pyrotechnic vendors. Non-human-rated missions have flown them numerous times. The joints are relatively easy to integrate structurally within the spacecraft. In addition, the separation event is debris free, and the resultant pyro shock is lower than that of other design solutions. It is, however, a serious deficiency to lack failure tolerance. When used for critical applications on human-rated vehicles, a single failure could potentially lead to loss of crew (LOC) or loss of mission (LOM)). The Engineering and Safety & Mission Assurance directorates within the NASA Johnson Space Center took action to address this safety issue by initiating a project to develop a fully redundant, SFT frangible joint design, known as the Flat H. Critical to the ability to retrofit on launch vehicles being developed, the SFT mechanisms must fit within the same

  8. Charcot foot and ankle with osteomyelitis

    OpenAIRE

    Donegan, Ryan; Sumpio, Bauer; Peter A. Blume

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the current literature discussing topics of Charcot osteoarthropathy, osteomyelitis, diagnosing osteomyelitis, antibiotic management of osteomyelitis, and treatment strategies for management of Charcot osteoarthropathy with concurrent osteomyelitis.Keywords: Charcot foot; osteomyelitis; diabetes mellitus; infection; neuropathy(Published: 1 October 2013)Citation: Diabetic Foot & Ankle 2013, 4: 21361 - http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/dfa.v4i0.21361

  9. Postoperative infection in the foot and ankle.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chan, Victoria O

    2012-07-01

    Our discussion highlights the commonly performed surgical procedures in the foot and ankle and reviews the various imaging modalities available for the detection of infection with graphic examples to better enable radiologists to approach the radiological evaluation of postoperative infection in the foot and ankle. Discrimination between infectious and noninfectious inflammation remains a diagnostic challenge usually needing a combination of clinical assessment, laboratory investigations, and imaging studies to increase diagnostic accuracy.

  10. The landmine foot: its description and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, L G

    1991-11-01

    The injuries of 54 patients involved in landmine explosions are described. In 72 per cent the injuries affected the mid- and hindfoot. Of these injuries, 67 per cent were open fractures involving the calcaneus. The injury resulted in the 'landmine foot', an entity not previously described. Its clinical features and orthotic management are described. The prognosis of 'landmine foot' was generally favourable in this Third World setting, with adequate rehabilitation provided by a customized surgical boot.

  11. A dynamic 3D foot reconstruction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Ali K; Trucco, Emanuele; Salvi, Joaquim; Wang, Weijie; Abboud, Rami J

    2011-01-01

    Foot problems are varied and range from simple disorders through to complex diseases and joint deformities. Wherever possible, the use of insoles, or orthoses, is preferred over surgery. Current insole design techniques are based on static measurements of the foot, despite the fact that orthoses are prevalently used in dynamic conditions while walking or running. This paper presents the design and implementation of a structured-light prototype system providing dense three dimensional (3D) measurements of the foot in motion, and its use to show that foot measurements in dynamic conditions differ significantly from their static counterparts. The input to the system is a video sequence of a foot during a single step; the output is a 3D reconstruction of the plantar surface of the foot for each frame of the input. Engineering and clinical tests were carried out for the validation of the system. The accuracy of the system was found to be 0.34 mm with planar test objects. In tests with real feet, the system proved repeatable, with reconstruction differences between trials one week apart averaging 2.44 mm (static case) and 2.81 mm (dynamic case). Furthermore, a study was performed to compare the effective length of the foot between static and dynamic reconstructions using the 4D system. Results showed an average increase of 9 mm for the dynamic case. This increase is substantial for orthotics design, cannot be captured by a static system, and its subject-specific measurement is crucial for the design of effective foot orthoses.

  12. The management of the infected diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaggi, Carlo; Sganzaroli, Adriana; Galenda, Paolo; Bassetti, Matteo; Ferraresi, Roberto; Gabrielli, Livio

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic disease with a worldwide increasing trend. Foot complications, closely related to neuropathy and obstructive peripheral vascular disease, are responsible for more than 1 million of leg amputations every year. Foot infection can dramatically increase the risk of amputation. Although many ulcer classification systems have been proposed to stratify the severity of the infectious process, the definition of a specific therapeutic approach still remains an unsolved problem. A Diabetic Foot Triage and an Integrated Surgical Protocol are proposed to identify a diagnostic flowchart and a step-by-step surgical protocol that can be applied in the treatment of diabetic foot infection. Considering the rapid climbing of multidrug resistant strains it is very important to rationalize the use of antibiotics utilizing them only for the treatment of true infected ulcers. PAD is widely considered the most important factor conditioning the outcome of a diabetic foot ulcer. Currently no randomized control trials are reported in the international literature directly comparing open versus endovascular revascularisation in diabetic patients with CLI. Insufficient data are available to demonstrate whether open bypass surgery or endovascular interventions are more effective in these patients. A decisional flow chart in choosing the best revascularization strategy in diabetic patients with CLI is proposed. Goals and technical aspects of emergency and elective surgical procedures in diabetic foot are analysed to evaluate critical aspects and to suggest proper surgical choices.

  13. The Charcot foot: pathophysiology, diagnosis and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trieb, K

    2016-09-01

    Neuropathic changes in the foot are common with a prevalence of approximately 1%. The diagnosis of neuropathic arthropathy is often delayed in diabetic patients with harmful consequences including amputation. The appropriate diagnosis and treatment can avoid an extensive programme of treatment with significant morbidity for the patient, high costs and delayed surgery. The pathogenesis of a Charcot foot involves repetitive micro-trauma in a foot with impaired sensation and neurovascular changes caused by pathological innervation of the blood vessels. In most cases, changes are due to a combination of both pathophysiological factors. The Charcot foot is triggered by a combination of mechanical, vascular and biological factors which can lead to late diagnosis and incorrect treatment and eventually to destruction of the foot. This review aims to raise awareness of the diagnosis of the Charcot foot (diabetic neuropathic osteoarthropathy and the differential diagnosis, erysipelas, peripheral arterial occlusive disease) and describe the ways in which the diagnosis may be made. The clinical diagnostic pathways based on different classifications are presented. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B:1155-9.

  14. THE MADURA FOOT - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazimuddin Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Madura foot or mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease characterized by localized infection of subcutaneous tissues by actinomycetes or fungi. The inflammatory response can extend to the underlying bone. Mycetoma was described first in the mid 1800s and was initially called Madura foot. The infection can be caused by true fungi (eumycetoma in 40%, or filamentous bacteria (actinomycetoma in 60%.Actinomycetoma may be due to Actinomadura madurae, Actinomadura pelletieri, Streptomyces somaliensis, Nocardia species. The infection, which may remain latent for a time, forms small, subcutaneous swellings that enlarge, soften with pus, and break through the skin surface, with concurrent invasion of deeper tissues. Sulfonamide, iodide, and antibiotic therapy have been used against actinomycotic infections, but the fungi are more resistant to treatment. We reported a patient of madura foot from International Medical College Hospital, Tongi, Gazipur. A 82-years old male was admitted to the International medical college hospital with a 16 months history of swelling with multiple discharging sinuses filled with granules localized in his right foot. Pus was examined by gram staining and periodic acid Schiff (PAS staining. Moderate number of filamentous branching gram positive bacilli were found . The organism was recognized as a member of the actinomyces genus. PAS staining did not reveal any other organism. The aggressive course and progression of the disease affected the short bones of the involved foot. The patient was diagnosed as a case of Madura foot and was treated in the same hospital.

  15. Efficacy of custom foot orthotics in improving pain and functional status in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Mary; Seid, Michael; Szer, Ilona S

    2005-05-01

    . To compare the clinical efficacy of custom foot orthotics, prefabricated "off-the-shelf" shoe inserts, and supportive athletic shoes worn alone, on reducing pain and improving function for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Children with JIA and foot pain (n = 40) were randomized to one of 3 groups receiving: (1) custom-made semirigid foot orthotics with shock absorbing posts (n = 15), (2) off-the-shelf flat neoprene shoe inserts (n = 12), or (3) supportive athletic shoes with a medial longitudinal arch support and shock absorbing soles worn alone (n = 13). Foot pain and functional limitations were measured using the Pediatric Pain Questionnaire-visual analog scale (VAS), Timed Walking, Foot Function Index (FFI), and the Physical Functioning Subscale of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL). Measures were administered by personnel blinded to group status at baseline (before wearing the assigned intervention) and at 3 months' followup. Children in the orthotics group showed significantly greater improvements in overall pain (p = 0.009), speed of ambulation (p = 0.013), activity limitations (p = 0.002), foot pain (p = 0.019), and level of disability (p = 0.024) when compared with the other 2 groups. Both children and parents in the orthotics group reported clinically meaningful improvement in child health-related quality of life, although the group by time interaction did not show statistical significance. Except for a reduction in pain for supportive athletic shoes (paired t test, p = 0.011), neither the off-the-shelf shoe inserts nor the supportive athletic shoes worn alone showed significant effect on any of the evaluation measures. In children with JIA, custom-made semirigid foot orthotics with shock-absorbing posts significantly improve pain, speed of ambulation, and self-rated activity and functional ability levels compared with prefabricated off-the-shelf shoe inserts or supportive athletic shoes worn alone.

  16. The growth of foot arches and influencing factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ferial Hadipoetro Idris

    2016-01-01

    Background Foot arches are important components for body sup- port. Foot arch deformity caused by growth abnormalities cause serious limitations in daily activities. Objectives To determine the patterns of foot arch growth, factors influencing foot arch growth, and the timing for intervention in er- rant growth patterns. Methods A cross-sectional study evaluated the foot arches of chil- dren aged 0-18 years according to age and sex. Subjects included had no evidence of...

  17. Movement of the human foot in 100 pain free individuals aged 18–45: implications for understanding normal foot function

    OpenAIRE

    Nester, Christopher J; Jarvis, Hannah L; Jones, Richard K; Bowden, Peter D; Liu, Anmin

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding motion in the normal healthy foot is a prerequisite for understanding the effects of pathology and thereafter setting targets for interventions. Quality foot kinematic data from healthy feet will also assist the development of high quality and research based clinical models of foot biomechanics. To address gaps in the current literature we aimed to describe 3D foot kinematics using a 5 segment foot model in a population of 100 pain free individuals. Methods Kinematics...

  18. WFC3 UVIS Detector: Improved Flat Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Mack, J.; Sabbi, E.; WFC3 Team

    2012-01-01

    We describe the improved flat field calibration for a set of UVIS broad-band filters that were delivered to MAST in August 2011. The total change peak-to-peak with respect to the previous pipeline flats ranges from 3.6% to 5.6%, increasing with wavelength. The flat-fields previously used in the pipeline were obtained during ground testing and contained a large reflection ghost (or flare) that affected 40% of the field. A simplified geometric model of the internal light reflections has been used to remove the flare from the ground flats. Residual low-frequency structures caused by differences in the ground-based and in-flight optical paths were then computed using photometry of Omega Centauri, observed at various roll angles and with large dithered steps. Furthermore, photometry in a range of apertures has been used to study the UVIS PSF in detail. For radii smaller than 0.4" (10 pixels) the PSF is strongly dependent on both the detector position and on the telescope focus at the time of observation. Therefore, the new pipeline flat fields have been normalized to "infinite" aperture by applying local aperture corrections to 10 pixels, making them more generally applicable.

  19. The forgotten foot - an assessment of foot and ankle radiograph pathology in final year medical students.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Groarke, P J

    2014-04-27

    It has been shown that doctors in Emergency Departments (EDs) have inconsistent knowledge of musculoskeletal anatomy. This is most likely due to a deficiency in focused musculoskeletal modules at undergraduate level in medical school. The aims of this study were to evaluate the knowledge of final year medical students on foot anatomy and common foot and ankle pathology as seen on radiographs.

  20. Foot lengthening and shortening during gait: a parameter to investigate foot function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, N.M.; Koenraadt, K.L.M.; Louwerens, J.W.; Grim, D.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Keijsers, N.L.W.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on the windlass mechanism theory of Hicks, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) flattens during weight bearing. Simultaneously, foot lengthening is expected. However, changes in foot length during gait and the influence of walking speed has not been investigated yet. METHODS: The

  1. Foot lengthening and shortening during gait: a parameter to investigate foot function?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, N.M.; Koenraadt, K.L.M.; Louwerens, J.W.; Grim, D.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Keijsers, N.L.W.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on the windlass mechanism theory of Hicks, the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) flattens during weight bearing. Simultaneously, foot lengthening is expected. However, changes in foot length during gait and the influence of walking speed has not been investigated yet. METHODS: The f

  2. Diagnostics and treatment of the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelqvist, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Every 30 s, a lower limb is amputated due to diabetes. Of all amputations in diabetic patients 85% are preceded by a foot ulcer which subsequently deteriorates to a severe infection or gangrene. There is a complexity of factors related to healing of foot ulcers including strategies for treatment of decreased perfusion, oedema, pain, infection, metabolic disturbances, malnutrition, non-weight bearing, wound treatment, foot surgery, and management of intercurrent disease. Patients with diabetic foot ulcer and decreased perfusion do often not have rest pain or claudication and as a consequence non-invasive vascular testing is recommended for early recognition of ulcers in need of revascularisation to achieve healing. A diabetic foot infection is a potentially limb-threatening condition. Infection is diagnosed by the presence or increased rate of signs inflammation. Often these signs are less marked than expected. Imaging studies can diagnose or better define deep, soft tissue purulent collections and are frequently needed to detect pathological findings in bone. The initial antimicrobial treatment as well as duration of treatment is empiric. There is a substantial delay in wound healing in diabetic foot ulcer which has been related to various abnormalities. Several new treatments related to these abnormalities have been explored in wound healing with various successes. An essential part of the strategy to achieve healing is an effective offloading. Many interventions with advanced wound management have failed due to not recognizing the need for effective offloading. A multidisciplinary approach to wounds and foot ulcer has been successfully implemented in different centres with a substantial decrease in amputation rate.

  3. GROUND REACTION FORCE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RUNNING SHOES, RACING FLATS, AND DISTANCE SPIKES IN RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Logan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Various shoes are worn by distance runners throughout a training season. This study measured the differences in ground reaction forces between running shoes, racing flats, and distance spikes in order to provide information about the potential effects of footwear on injury risk in highly competitive runners. Ten male and ten female intercollegiate distance runners ran across a force plate at 6.7 m·s-1 (for males and 5.7 m·s-1 (for females in each of the three types of shoes. To control for differences in foot strike, only subjects who exhibited a heel strike were included in the data analysis. Two repeated-measures ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc tests (p < 0.05 were used to detect differences in shoe types among males and females. For the males, loading rate, peak vertical impact force and peak braking forces were significantly greater in flats and spikes compared to running shoes. Vertical stiffness in spikes was also significantly greater than in running shoes. Females had significantly shorter stance times and greater maximum propulsion forces in racing flats compared to running shoes. Changing footwear between the shoes used in this study alters the loads placed on the body. Care should be taken as athletes enter different phases of training where different footwear is required. Injury risk may be increased since the body may not be accustomed to the differences in force, stance time, and vertical stiffness

  4. Robust Foot Clearance Estimation Based on the Integration of Foot-Mounted IMU Acceleration Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Benoussaad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a method for the robust estimation of foot clearance during walking, using a single inertial measurement unit (IMU placed on the subject’s foot. The proposed solution is based on double integration and drift cancellation of foot acceleration signals. The method is insensitive to misalignment of IMU axes with respect to foot axes. Details are provided regarding calibration and signal processing procedures. Experimental validation was performed on 10 healthy subjects under three walking conditions: normal, fast and with obstacles. Foot clearance estimation results were compared to measurements from an optical motion capture system. The mean error between them is significantly less than 15 % under the various walking conditions.

  5. Factors associated with combined hand and foot eczema Associations between foot and hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As for hand eczema, the etiology of foot eczema is multifactorial, and not very well understood. The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with foot eczema in a cohort of hand eczema patients being classified into different subgroups. METHODS: Associations between...... foot and hand eczema was studied in a cross sectional design in a cohort of hand eczema patients. Consecutive patients were recruited from 9 different European Centres during the period October 2011 - September 2012. Data on demographic factors, presence of foot eczema, hand eczema duration...... and severity, and whether the hand eczema was work-related or not were available, as well as patch-test results. RESULTS: Of a total of 427 hand eczema patients identified, information on foot eczema was available in 419 patients who were included in the present study. 125 patients (29.8 %) had concomitant...

  6. Magnetized and Flat Beam Experiment at FAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halavanau, A. [Fermilab; Hyun, J. [Sokendai, Tsukuba; Mihalcea, D. [NIU, DeKalb; Piot, P. [NICADD, DeKalb; Sen, T. [Fermilab; Thangaraj, C. [Fermilab

    2017-05-22

    A photocathode, immersed in solenoidal magnetic field, can produce canonical-angular-momentum (CAM) dominated or “magnetized” electron beams. Such beams have an application in electron cooling of hadron beams and can also be uncoupled to yield asymmetric-emittance (“flat”) beams. In the present paper we explore the possibilities of the flat beam generation at Fermilab’s Accelerator Science and Technology (FAST) facility. We present optimization of the beam flatness and four-dimensional transverse emittance and investigate the mapping and its limitations of the produced eigen-emittances to conventional emittances using a skew-quadrupole channel. Possible application of flat beams at the FAST facility are also discussed.

  7. Witten spinors on maximal, conformally flat hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Frauendiener, Jörg; Szabados, László B

    2011-01-01

    The boundary conditions that exclude zeros of the solutions of the Witten equation (and hence guarantee the existence of a 3-frame satisfying the so-called special orthonormal frame gauge conditions) are investigated. We determine the general form of the conformally invariant boundary conditions for the Witten equation, and find the boundary conditions that characterize the constant and the conformally constant spinor fields among the solutions of the Witten equations on compact domains in extrinsically and intrinsically flat, and on maximal, intrinsically globally conformally flat spacelike hypersurfaces, respectively. We also provide a number of exact solutions of the Witten equation with various boundary conditions (both at infinity and on inner or outer boundaries) that single out nowhere vanishing spinor fields on the flat, non-extreme Reissner--Nordstr\\"om and Brill--Lindquist data sets. Our examples show that there is an interplay between the boundary conditions, the global topology of the hypersurface...

  8. Design and Development of Hand and Foot Contamination Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Akter

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A hand and foot contamination monitor is a health physics instrument to provide detection and measurement of beta-gamma contamination on the palm of each hand and on the bottom surface of both feet/shoes. There are four channels of detection for two hands and two feet. Four G-M detectors have been used in a single unit to cover the whole area of hand and feet. A regulated high voltage DC power supply (900 V has been designed using the PIC12F675 microcontroller to operate the pancake Geiger-Müller detectors. The reading is displayed on a linearly scaled 0-100 Bq/cm2 analog panel meter. The monitor detects beta–gamma radiation emitted by radioactive materials, and if the detected value exceeds a preset level, the monitor sounds an alarm and displays a reading in the respective panel meter. Indicator lamps are used to show the status of contamination. The performance of the system has been tested by using pulse generator and by flat surface radioactive calibration sources. Electronic linearity, detection efficiency, response to the contamination, calibration factor and percentage of error has been measured. Test results were satisfactory and the present system can be used instead of similar imported instruments.

  9. A shift in priority in diabetic foot care and research: 75% of foot ulcers are preventable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A; van Netten, Jaap J

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration poses a heavy burden on the patient and the healthcare system, but prevention thereof receives little attention. For every euro spent on ulcer prevention, ten are spent on ulcer healing, and for every randomized controlled trial conducted on prevention, ten are conducted on healing. In this article, we argue that a shift in priorities is needed. For the prevention of a first foot ulcer, we need more insight into the effect of interventions and practices already applied globally in many settings. This requires systematic recording of interventions and outcomes, and well-designed randomized controlled trials that include analysis of cost-effectiveness. After healing of a foot ulcer, the risk of recurrence is high. For the prevention of a recurrent foot ulcer, home monitoring of foot temperature, pressure-relieving therapeutic footwear, and certain surgical interventions prove to be effective. The median effect size found in a total of 23 studies on these interventions is large, over 60%, and further increases when patients are adherent to treatment. These interventions should be investigated for efficacy as a state-of-the-art integrated foot care approach, where attempts are made to assure treatment adherence. Effect sizes of 75-80% may be expected. If such state-of-the-art integrated foot care is implemented, the majority of problems with foot ulcer recurrence in diabetes can be resolved. It is therefore time to act and to set a new target in diabetic foot care. This target is to reduce foot ulcer incidence with at least 75%.

  10. Nursing care of the aging foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitty, Ethel

    2009-01-01

    Feet are not necessarily the most attractive part of the body as it ages, and given the choice, most older adults would rather ignore them. In fact, many older adults cannot even see them, reach them, or care for them properly. And when they ache or look misshapen and oddly colored; well, that's just part of growing old, isn't it? The feet are important for weight bearing, balance, and mobility. Over an average life span, the feet are subject to considerable stress and trauma. Age-related changes of the foot predispose the older adult to discomfort if not pain, fungal infection, reduced range of motion, and itchy dry skin. More than three fourths of older adults (i.e., those age over 65 years) complain of foot pain that is associated with a significant foot problem and have evidence of arthritic changes on x-ray. Impaired ambulation can make the difference between independence versus dependency on others, engagement versus isolation. Assisted living is about choices. Being unable to get where one wants to go or do what one wants to do because of foot problems is a barrier to full enjoyment of the opportunities in assisted living communities. This article describes foot problems associated with aging, diabetes, nursing assessment of the feet, and nursing interventions in the service of accessing and optimizing choices for quality of life.

  11. Multi-functional foot use during running in the zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Chen; Goldman, Daniel I; 10.1242/jeb.061937

    2013-01-01

    A diversity of animals that run on solid, level, flat, non-slip surfaces appear to bounce on their legs; elastic elements in the limbs can store and return energy during each step. The mechanics and energetics of running in natural terrain, particularly on surfaces that can yield and flow under stress, is less understood. The zebra-tailed lizard (Callisaurus draconoides), a small desert generalist with a large, elongate, tendinous hind foot, runs rapidly across a variety of natural substrates. We use high speed video to obtain detailed three-dimensional running kinematics on solid and granular surfaces to reveal how leg, foot, and substrate mechanics contribute to its high locomotor performance. Running at ~10 body length/s (~1 m/s), the center of mass oscillates like a spring-mass system on both substrates, with only 15% reduction in stride length on the granular surface. On the solid surface, a strut-spring model of the hind limb reveals that the hind foot saves about 40% of the mechanical work needed per s...

  12. Taming Past LTL and Flat Counter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Demri, Stéphane; sangnier, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Reachability and LTL model-checking problems for flat counter systems are known to be decidable but whereas the reachability problem can be shown in NP, the best known complexity upper bound for the latter problem is made of a tower of several exponentials. Herein, we show that the problem is only NP-complete even if LTL admits past-time operators and arithmetical constraints on counters. Actually, the NP upper bound is shown by adequately combining a new stuttering theorem for Past LTL and the property of small integer solutions for quantifier-free Presburger formulae. Other complexity results are proved, for instance for restricted classes of flat counter systems.

  13. Scalar Curvature and Intrinsic Flat Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Herein we present open problems and survey examples and theorems concerning sequences of Riemannian manifolds with uniform lower bounds on scalar curvature and their limit spaces. Examples of Gromov and of Ilmanen which naturally ought to have certain limit spaces do not converge with respect to smooth or Gromov-Hausdorff convergence. Thus we focus here on the notion of Intrinsic Flat convergence, developed jointly with Wenger. This notion has been applied successfully to study sequences that arise in General Relativity. Gromov has suggested it should be applied in other settings as well. We first review intrinsic flat convergence, its properties, and its compactness theorems, before presenting the applications and the open problems.

  14. Static cylindrical symmetry and conformal flatness

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera, L; Marcilhacy, G; Santos, N O

    2004-01-01

    We present the whole set of equations with regularity and matching conditions required for the description of physically meaningful static cylindrically symmmetric distributions of matter, smoothly matched to Levi-Civita vacuum spacetime. It is shown that the conformally flat solution with equal principal stresses represents an incompressible fluid. It is also proved that any conformally flat cylindrically symmetric static source cannot be matched through Darmois conditions to the Levi-Civita spacetime. Further evidence is given that when the Newtonian mass per unit length reaches 1/2 the spacetime has plane symmetry.

  15. The flat phase of quantum polymerized membranes

    CERN Document Server

    Coquand, O

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the flat phase of quantum polymerized phantom membranes by means of a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We first implement this formalism for general quantum polymerized membranes and derive the flow equations that encompass both quantum and thermal fluctuations. We then deduce and analyze the flow equations relevant to study the flat phase and discuss their salient features : quantum to classical crossover and, in each of these regimes, strong to weak coupling crossover. We finally illustrate these features in the context of free standing graphene physics.

  16. Ultimate resolution of indefinite metamaterial flat lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Bénédicto, Jessica; Pollès, Rémi; Moreau, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    We show that any metallo-dielectric multilayer with a hyperbolic dispersion relation can actually be characterized by a complex effective index. This refractive index, extracted from the complex Bloch band diagram, can be directly linked to the super-resolution of a flat lens made of this so- called indefinite metamaterials. This allows for a systematic optimization of the lens design, leading to structures that are outperforming state-of-art flat lenses. We show that, even when fully taking absorption into account, our design provides super-resolved images for visible light up to a distance of one wavelength from the lens edge.

  17. Clinical management of acute diabetic Charcot foot in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Rasmus Bo; Svendsen, Ole Lander; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Charcot foot is a severe complication to diabetes mellitus and treatment involves several different clinical specialities. Our objective was to describe the current awareness, knowledge and treatment practices of Charcot foot among doctors who handle diabetic foot disorders. METHODS...... and treatment practices of acute diabetic Charcot foot at diabetes foot clinics in Denmark. The responders seem to follow the international recommendations and guidelines on management of the acute diabetic Charcot foot, despite a lack of Danish guidelines. FUNDING: none. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  18. Outpatient assessment and management of the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPreta, John A

    2014-03-01

    Patients with diabetes and peripheral neuropathy are at risk for foot deformities and mechanical imbalance of the lower extremity. Peripheral neuropathy leads to an insensate foot that puts the patient at risk for injury. When combined with deformity due to neuropathic arthropathy, or Charcot foot, the risks of impending ulceration, infection, and amputation are significant to the diabetic patient. Education of proper foot care and shoe wear cannot be overemphasized. For those with significant malalignment or deformity of the foot and ankle, referral should be made immediately to an orthopedic foot and ankle specialist.

  19. [Mycetoma of the foot: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, A; Baptista, C; Guinard, D; Legré, R; Gay, A

    2015-04-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic inflammatory cutaneous and subcutaneous pathology caused by either a fongic (eumycetoma) or bacterial (actinomycetoma) infection, which lead to a granulomatous tumefaction with multiple sinuses. When localized in the foot this infection is named "Madura foot". This infection is endemic to tropical and subtropical regions and rarely occurs in western countries. A historical case in Europe of a foot mycetoma evolving since 20 years without any treatment is presented. A histopathologic diagnosis of actinomycetoma has been done in 1987. The patient presented a severe Staphylococcus aureus chronic osteitis leading to a trans-tibial amputation. This case allows to present this infection which, even if rarely presented in France, can be meet especially among a migrant's population.

  20. Macrodystrophia lipomatosa of foot involving great toe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, A K; Mhambre, A S; Popalwar, H; Sharma, R

    2014-06-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare form of congenital disorder in which there is localized gigantism characterized by progressive overgrowth of all mesenchymal elements with a disproportionate increase in the fibroadipose tissues. The adipose tissue infiltration involves subcutaneous tissue, periosteum, nerves and bone marrow. Most of the cases reported have hand or foot involvement. Patient seeks medical help for improving cosmesis or to get the size of the involved part reduced in order to reduce mechanical problems. We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa involving medial side of foot with significant enlargement of great toe causing concern for cosmesis and inconvenience due to mechanical problems. The X-rays showed increased soft tissue with more of adipose tissue and increased size of involved digits with widening of ends. Since the patient's mother did not want any surgical intervention he was educated about foot care and proper footwear design was suggested.

  1. Chinese Herbal Foot Bath plus Acupoint Massage Beneficial to the Improvement of Grade 0 Diabetic Foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Xiao-xia; Xu Xu-yuan; Shangguan Bin-bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the clinical effect of foot bath with Tao Hong Si Wu Tang plus massage on acupoints at the sole for grade 0 diabetic foot. Methods: One hundred and sixty eligible cases were randomly divided into an observation group and a control group, 80 cases in each group. The two groups were treated with routine basic medications to control blood sugar. The patients in the observation group were given foot bath withTao Hong Si Wu Tangplus massage on acupoints at the sole, once every day. At the same time, the patients were instructed to understand the knowledge of diabetes, accept the education on foot care and to know the self-management for diabetes. The patients in the control group only accepted the education on foot care and studied the self-management for diabetes. The patients in the two groups were followed up once every week by phone. The local examination was intensified for the patients in their clinical visit every month. The therapeutic effects were assessed after three months of continuous treatment. Results: The total effective rate was 92.5% in the observation group, remarkably higher than 65.0% in the control group. The difference in comparison of the general therapeutic effect was statistically significant (P Conclusion: Foot bath withTao Hong Si Wu Tang plus massage on acupoints at the sole was beneficial to the improvement of clinical symptoms of grade 0 diabetic foot.

  2. Noncommutative Topological Half-flat Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    García-Compéan, H; Ramírez, C

    2004-01-01

    We formulate a noncommutative description of topological half-flat gravity in four dimensions. BRST symmetry of this topological gravity is deformed through a twisting of the usual BRST quantization of noncommutative gauge theories. Finally it is argued that resulting moduli space of instantons is characterized by the solutions of a noncommutative version of the Plebanski's heavenly equation.

  3. Affleck Dine leptogenesis via multiple flat directions

    CERN Document Server

    Kamada, Kohei

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the Affleck-Dine mechanism when multiple flat directions have large values simultaneously. We consider in detail the case when both $LH_u$ and $H_uH_d$ flat directions are operative with a non-renormalizable superpotential. In case Hubble induced A-terms are present for these two flat directions, their initial values are determined completely by the potential and there are no ambiguities how they are mixed. Moreover, CP is violated even when the Hubble parameter is large due to the Hubble induced A-term and cross coupling in F-term, so that the lepton asymmetry is generated just after the end of inflation. As a result, compared with the case of single flat direction, the resultant lepton-to-entropy ratio is enhanced by a factor of $H_{osc}/m_{3/2}$, where $H_{osc}$ is the Hubble parameter at the onset of oscillation and $m_{3/2}$ is the gravitino mass. However, when Hubble induced A-terms do not exist, there remains indefiniteness of initial phases and CP is violated spontaneously by the phase ...

  4. η-Invariant and Flat Vector Bundles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    We present an alternate definition of the mod Z component of the AtiyahPatodi-Singer η invariant associated to (not necessary unitary) fiat vector bundles, which identifies explicitly its real and imaginary parts. This is done by combining a deformation of flat connections introduced in a previous paper with the analytic continuation procedure appearing in the original article of Atiyah, Parodi and Singer.

  5. Chemically patterned flat stamps for microcontact printing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, Ruben B.A.; Burdinski, Dirk; Huskens, Jurriaan; Zandvliet, Harold J.W.; Reinhoudt, David N.; Poelsema, Bene

    2005-01-01

    Locally oxidized patterns on flat poly(dimethylsiloxane) stamps for microcontact printing were used as a platform for the transfer of a hydrophilic fluorescent ink to a glass substrate. The contrast was found to be limited. These locally oxidized patterns were conversely used as barriers for the tra

  6. Minimal Flat Resolutions of Artinian Modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sh. Payrovi

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to establish connection between the minimal flat resolutions of Artinian modules and the concept of cosequences in commutative algebra.The main result of this paper leads to a characterization of local Cohen-Macaulay rings in terms of vanishing property of the dual Bass numbers of certain Artinian modules.

  7. Wideband Flat Radomes Using Inhomogeneous Planar Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Khalaj-Amirhosseini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhomogeneous planar layers (IPLs are optimally designed as flat radomes in a desired frequency range. First, the electric permittivity function of the IPL is expanded in a truncated Fourier series. Then, the optimum values of the coefficients of the series are obtained through an optimization approach. The performance of the proposed structure is verified using some examples.

  8. Design scenarios for flat panel photobioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slegers, P.M.; Wijffels, R.H.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential of algae production for biofuel and other products at various locations throughout the world requires assessment of algae productivity under varying light conditions and different reactor layouts. A model was developed to predict algae biomass production in flat panel

  9. Holography of 3d Flat Cosmological Horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Bagchi, Arjun; Fareghbal, Reza; Simon, Joan

    2013-01-01

    We provide a first derivation of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of 3d flat cosmological horizons in terms of the counting of states in a dual field theory. These horizons appear in the shifted-boost orbifold of R^{1,2}, the flat limit of non-extremal rotating BTZ black holes. These 3d geometries carry non-zero charges under the asymptotic symmetry algebra of R^{1,2}, the 3d Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS3) algebra. The dual theory has the symmetries of the 2d Galilean Conformal Algebra, a contraction of two copies of the Virasoro algebra, which is isomorphic to BMS3. We study flat holography as a limit of AdS3/CFT2 to semi-classically compute the density of states in the dual, exactly reproducing the bulk entropy in the limit of large charges. Our flat horizons, remnants of the BTZ inner horizons also satisfy a first law of thermodynamics. We comment on how the dual theory reproduces the bulk first law and how cosmological bulk excitations are matched with boundary quantum numbers.

  10. Foot and Ankle Injuries in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Andrew R; Anderson, Robert B

    Physicians need to be aware of a variety of foot and ankle injuries that commonly occur in American football, including turf toe, Jones fractures, Lisfranc injuries, syndesmotic and deltoid disruption, and Achilles ruptures. These injuries are often complex and require early individual tailoring of treatment and rehabilitation protocols. Successful management and return to play requires early diagnosis, a thorough work-up, and prompt surgical intervention when warranted with meticulous attention to restoration of normal foot and ankle anatomy. Physicians should have a high suspicion for subtle injuries and variants that can occur via both contact and noncontact mechanisms.

  11. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part II. Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    The management of diabetic foot ulcers can be optimized by using an interdisciplinary team approach addressing the correctable risk factors (ie, poor vascular supply, infection control and treatment, and plantar pressure redistribution) along with optimizing local wound care. Dermatologists can initiate diabetic foot care. The first step is recognizing that a loss of skin integrity (ie, a callus, blister, or ulcer) considerably increases the risk of preventable amputations. A holistic approach to wound assessment is required. Early detection and effective management of these ulcers can reduce complications, including preventable amputations and possible mortality.

  12. Foot and ankle injuries in theatrical dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaker, W T; Margello, S; Goldner, J L

    1985-10-01

    The theatrical dancer is a unique combination of athlete and artist. The physical demands of dance class, rehearsal, and performance can lead to injury, particularly to the foot and ankle. Ankle sprains are the most common acute injury. Chronic injuries predominate and relate primarily to the repeated impact loading of the foot and ankle on the dance floor. Contributing factors include anatomic variation, improper technique, and fatigue. Early and aggressive conservative management is usually successful and surgery is rarely indicated. Orthotics play a limited but potentially useful role in treatment. Following treatment, a structured rehabilitation program is fundamental to the successful return to dance.

  13. The effects of common footwear on stance-phase mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Scham, Joel; Orendurff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Prosthetic feet are prescribed based on their mechanical function and user functional level. Subtle changes to the stiffness and hysteresis of heel, midfoot, and forefoot regions can influence the dynamics and economy of gait in prosthesis users. However, the user's choice of shoes may alter the prosthetic foot-shoe system mechanical characteristics, compromising carefully prescribed and rigorously engineered performance of feet. Observe the effects of footwear on the mechanical properties of the prosthetic foot-shoe system including commonly prescribed prosthetic feet. Repeated-measures, Mechanical characterization. The stiffness and energy return was measured using a hydraulic-driven materials test machine across combinations of five prosthetic feet and four common shoes as well as a barefoot condition. Heel energy return decreased by an average 4%-9% across feet in all shoes compared to barefoot, with a cushioned trainer displaying the greatest effect. Foot designs that may improve perceived stability by providing low heel stiffness and rapid foot-flat were compromised by the addition of shoes. Shoes altered prosthesis mechanical characteristics in the sagittal and frontal planes, suggesting that shoe type should be controlled or reported in research comparing prostheses. Understanding of how different shoes could alter certain gait-related characteristics of prostheses may aid decisions on footwear made by clinicians and prosthesis users. Clinical relevance Shoes can alter function of the prosthetic foot-shoe system in unexpected and sometimes undesirable ways, often causing similar behavior across setups despite differences in foot design, and prescribing clinicians should carefully consider these effects on prosthesis performance.

  14. Alteration of serum high-mobility group protein 1 (HMGB1) levels in children with enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot, and mouth disease

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Weikun; Shi, Haifan; Chen, Yiping; Xu, Zhiwei; Chen, Jie; Jin, Longteng

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common pediatric disease caused by enterovirus infection. It typically presents as a fever along with flat, discolored spots and bumps on the hands, feet, and mouth. Compared with other viruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71)-induced HFMD is more prone to cause severe complications in children, such as brainstem encephalitis, cardiopulmonary disorders, and even death. More in-depth studies are still necessary to understand the characteristics of EV71-...

  15. Prevalence of flatfoot and anthropometric comparison between flat and normal feet in the Hausa ethnic group of Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Musa B T; Tafida, Rabiu U

    2013-01-01

    Flat arches in children usually become proper arches and high arches as the child progresses through adolescence and into adulthood. Only if the deformity persists or presents in adolescence or adulthood is it considered abnormal. We sought to determine the incidence of flatfoot in schoolchildren and to make an anthropometric comparison between flat and normal feet with respect to age and sex in the Hausa ethnic group of Nigeria. Two hundred 9- to 14-year-old students (100 boys and 100 girls) were studied. Navicular height, medial malleolar height, lateral malleolar height, foot length, and transverse arch length were measured with a ruler, marker, and measuring tape. Statistical analysis was conducted using analysis of variance and independent-samples t tests (P ethnic group, with the incidence decreasing with age. Girls had a higher incidence of flatfoot than boys, and it was also influenced by age.

  16. Gait phase detection and discrimination between walking-jogging activities using hidden Markov models applied to foot motion data from a gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Andrea; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we present a classifier based on a hidden Markov model (HMM) that was applied to a gait treadmill dataset for gait phase detection and walking/jogging discrimination. The gait events foot strike, foot flat, heel off, toe off were detected using a uni-axial gyroscope that measured the foot instep angular velocity in the sagittal plane. Walking/jogging activities were discriminated by processing gyroscope data from each detected stride. Supervised learning of the classifier was undertaken using reference data from an optical motion analysis system. Remarkably good generalization properties were achieved across tested subjects and gait speeds. Sensitivity and specificity of gait phase detection exceeded 94% and 98%, respectively, with timing errors that were less than 20 ms, on average; the accuracy of walking/jogging discrimination was approximately 99%.

  17. Diabetic foot ulcers: Part I. Pathophysiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Mayer, Dieter; Goodman, Laurie; Botros, Mariam; Armstrong, David G; Woo, Kevin; Boeni, Thomas; Ayello, Elizabeth A; Kirsner, Robert S

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious, life-long condition that is the sixth leading cause of death in North America. Dermatologists frequently encounter patients with diabetes mellitus. Up to 25% of patients with diabetes mellitus will develop diabetic foot ulcers. Foot ulcer patients have an increased risk of amputation and increased mortality rate. The high-risk diabetic foot can be identified with a simplified screening, and subsequent foot ulcers can be prevented. Early recognition of the high-risk foot and timely treatment will save legs and improve patients' quality of life. Peripheral arterial disease, neuropathy, deformity, previous amputation, and infection are the main factors contributing to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. Early recognition of the high-risk foot is imperative to decrease the rates of mortality and morbidity. An interprofessional approach (ie, physicians, nurses, and foot care specialists) is often needed to support patients' needs.

  18. Comorbidities associated with Egyptian diabetic foot disease subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary N. Rizk

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion Special attention should be paid toward the identification of patients who are at risk of foot ulceration to help prevent foot problems. Comorbid conditions must also be identified early and managed aggressively.

  19. A Descriptive Study Of Foot Complications In Diabetic Patients With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Symptomatic peripheral neuropathy in a diabetic patient may be associated with the ... skin and fungal infections were the most frequent lesions seen in diabetic ... Foot complications other than foot ulcers may occur in diabetic patients with ...

  20. Effect of foot hyperpronation on lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis in standing position using 3-dimensional ultrasound-based motion analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhmanesh, Khatere; Shirzadian, Toraj; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Shahri, Mina Neyakan

    2014-06-17

    Based on clinical observations, foot hyperpronation is very common. Excessive pronation (hyperpronation) can cause malalignment of the lower extremities. This most often leads to functional and structural deficits. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of foot hyperpronation on lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis. Thirty five healthy subjects (age range, 18030 years) were asked to stand on 4 positions including a flat surface (normal position) and on wedges angled at 10, 15, and 20 degrees. Sampling was done using simple random sampling. Measurements were made by a motion analysis system. For data analysis, the SPSS software (ver. 18) using paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. The eversion created by the wedges caused a significant increase in lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis. The most significant change occurred between two consecutive positions of flat surface and the first wedge. The t-test for repeated measures showed a high correlation between each two consecutive positions. The results showed that with increased bilateral foot pronation, lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis increased as well. In fact, each of these results is a compensation phenomenon. Further studies are required to determine long-term results of excessive foot pronation and its probable effect on damage progression.

  1. Effect of Foot Hyperpronation on Lumbar Lordosis and Thoracic Kyphosis in Standing Position Using 3-Dimensional Ultrasound-Based Motion Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhmanesh, Khatere; Shirzadian, Toraj; Mahboubi, Mohammad; Shahri, Mina Neyakan

    2014-01-01

    Based on clinical observations, foot hyperpronation is very common. Excessive pronation (hyperpronation) can cause malalignment of the lower extremities. This most often leads to functional and structural deficits. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of foot hyperpronation on lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis. Thirty five healthy subjects (age range, 18030 years) were asked to stand on 4 positions including a flat surface (normal position) and on wedges angled at 10, 15, and 20 degrees. Sampling was done using simple random sampling. Measurements were made by a motion analysis system. For data analysis, the SPSS software (ver. 18) using paired t-test and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied. The eversion created by the wedges caused a significant increase in lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis. The most significant change occurred between two consecutive positions of flat surface and the first wedge. The t-test for repeated measures showed a high correlation between each two consecutive positions. The results showed that with increased bilateral foot pronation, lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis increased as well. In fact, each of these results is a compensation phenomenon. Further studies are required to determine long-term results of excessive foot pronation and its probable effect on damage progression. PMID:25169004

  2. Traumatic foot injuries in horses: surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burba, Daniel J

    2013-01-01

    Managing traumatic foot wounds in horses may require surgical intervention. These wounds include coronary-band and heel-bulb lacerations, septic pedal osteitis, septic navicular bursitis, sepsis of the collateral cartilages, and hoof-wall injuries. This article provides a practical overview of the surgical management of these types of wounds.

  3. Foot-and-mouth disease vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals. This disease has affected most areas of the world, often causing extensive epizootics in livestock, mostly farmed cattle and swine, although sheep, goats and many wild species are also susceptible...

  4. Assessment of acute foot and ankle sprains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynam, Louise

    2006-07-01

    Acute ankle and foot trauma is a regular emergency presentation and prompt strategic assessment skills are required to enable nurses to categorise and prioritise these injuries appropriately. This article provides background information on the anatomy and physiology of the lower limb to help nurses to identify various grades of ankle sprain as well as injuries that are limb threatening

  5. Diabetic foot complications: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurini, John M; Lyons, Thomas E

    2005-09-01

    Foot complications in patients with diabetes mellitus are a challenge to the health care industry. A great deal of expenditure is due to the management of diabetic foot complications. This places a great burden on the health care industry. It also places a great burden on those diabetic patients with foot complications and their families. Therefore, their effective management in an efficient manner is crucial to our patients. To deal with these problems, a dedicated, knowledgeable, and experienced multidisciplinary team is key. Intervention at the earliest possible time yields the best outcome. Prevention is the focus for those with no ulcerations. For those with ulcerations, prompt recognition and treatment is key. The importance of classifying ulcerations according to size, depth, presence or absence of infection, and vascular status can not be overstated. Proper offloading is vital for those with neuropathic lesions. Recognition of patients with a component of ischemia and vascular intervention to increase perfusion will aid in wound healing. Of course deep infection requires immediate drainage. All efforts of those in the multidisciplinary team are directed at the restoration and maintenance of an ulcer-free foot which is important in enabling our patients to maintain their ambulatory status.

  6. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  7. Complex interventions for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Ruben C; Dorresteijn, Johannes A N; Kriegsman, Didi M W; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can lead to the amputation of feet and legs, is a major problem for people with diabetes mellitus, and can cause substantial economic burden. Single preventive strategies have not been shown to reduce the incidence of foot ulceration to a significant extent.

  8. Do foot pad scores measure Turkey welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hocking, P.M.; Harkness, A.; Veldkamp, Teun; Vinco, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of the project was to assess the painfulness of different levels of foot pad dermatitis (FPD) in turkeys. Three different analgesics (butorphanol, carprofen and meloxicam) were used to assess their effect on behaviour. Video recordings were taken when the birds were treated with either

  9. Influence of footings stiffness on punching resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ĺudovít Fillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper brings new aspects of punching resistance due to influence of footing stiffness and consequential ground stresses distribution. Diagrams of design load versus effective depth were created coming from new design criteria which depend on the maximum punching resistance defined from shear-bending failure and on the maximum punching resistance defined from crushing of concrete struts.

  10. Osteoarthritis of the Foot and Ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that creates an increased risk of arthritis. Symptoms People with osteoarthritis in the foot or ankle experience, in varying degrees, one or more of the following: Pain and stiffness in the joint Swelling in or near the joint Difficulty walking or bending the joint Some patients with osteoarthritis ...

  11. [Neuropad test in evaluation of diabetic foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieru, Alexandra; Niţă, Otilia; Graur, Lidia Iuliana; Mazilu, Georgiana; Mihalache, Laura; Popescu, Raluca Maria; Graur, Mariana

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the main cause of foot ulceration. One of the earliest modifications is the loss of normal sudomotor function, a sign of autonomic neuropathy. The aim of this study is to evaluate sudomotor dysfunction using a new tool (Neuropad) in diabetic patients with foot ulceration. We included 58 diabetic patients with foot ulceration admitted in 2010 in the Clinical Center for Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases. We collected data regarding age, gender, type and duration of diabetes, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc), history of amputations and duration of hospital admission. Peripheral neuropathy was evaluated through the Neuropathy Disability Score (NDS) and autonomic neuropathy was tested through Neuropad. 95% of patients had NDS > or = 6, among which 76% had also positive Neuropad test. Patients with both peripheral and autonomic neuropathy had longer duration of diabetes (p = 0.027) but similar HbA1c as patients with only peripheral neuropathy (p = 0.09). The former also had longer duration of current admission (p = 0.022) and a higher percentage of these patients had history of amputations (p = 0.041). Neuropad is a reliable, easy to use test for the diagnosis of autonomic neuropathy, which puts patients at greater risk for foot ulceration and amputation.

  12. ATA gas propagation - 1 foot tank experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Y.P.; Caporaso, G.J.; Chambers, F.W.; Fawley, W.M.; Lauer, E.J.; Paul, A.C.; Prono, D.S.; Weir, J.T.

    1984-06-27

    The first gas propagation experiment on ATA is planned to be conducted in a 1-foot diameter tank of up to 10 m length. The primary objectives are to measure beam parameters at injection to determine whether the desired beam conditioning is achieved, and to observe how such conditioned beams propagate in air and neon.

  13. Complex interventions for preventing diabetic foot ulceration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, Ruben C; Dorresteijn, Johannes A N; Kriegsman, Didi M W; Valk, Gerlof D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulceration of the feet, which can lead to the amputation of feet and legs, is a major problem for people with diabetes mellitus, and can cause substantial economic burden. Single preventive strategies have not been shown to reduce the incidence of foot ulceration to a significant extent.

  14. Pixel classification for automated diabetic foot diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloeze, C.; Klein, A.; Hazenberg, S.; Heijden, van der F.; Baal, van J.G.; Bus, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, more than 180 million people suffer from diabetes mellitus. Approximately 50% of these patients will develop complications to their feet. Neuropathy, combined with poor blood supply and biomechanical changes results in a high risk for foot ulcers, which is a key problem in the diabetic fo

  15. Malignant melanoma of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K J; Hayes, D W; Green, D R; Dickerson, J

    2000-04-01

    Malignant melanoma is a serious and devastating skin disease that podiatrists may be called upon to treat. It is pertinent that delays in diagnosis and treatment of malignant melanoma be avoided. Some of the topics discussed in this article are causes, clinical features, classification, and treatment of malignant melanoma, focusing on the foot and ankle.

  16. Foot deformation during walking: differences between static and dynamic 3D foot morphology in developing feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barisch-Fritz, Bettina; Schmeltzpfenning, Timo; Plank, Clemens; Grau, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The complex functions of feet require a specific composition, which is progressively achieved by developmental processes. This development should take place without being affected by footwear. The aim of this study is to evaluate differences between static and dynamic foot morphology in developing feet. Feet of 2554 participants (6-16 years) were recorded using a new scanner system (DynaScan4D). Each foot was recorded in static half and full weight-bearing and during walking. Several foot measures corresponding to those used in last construction were calculated. The differences were identified by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Static and dynamic values of each foot measure must be considered to improve the fit of footwear. In particular, footwear must account for the increase of forefoot width and the decrease of midfoot girth. Furthermore, the toe box should have a more rounded shape. The findings are important for the construction of footwear for developing feet.

  17. Quick foot placement adjustments during gait: direction matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogkamer, W.; Potocanac, Z.; Duysens, J.

    2015-01-01

    To prevent falls, adjustment of foot placement is a frequently used strategy to regulate and restore gait stability. While foot trajectory adjustments have been studied during discrete stepping, online corrections during walking are more common in daily life. Here, we studied quick foot placement ad

  18. Imaging diagnostics of the foot; Bildgebende Diagnostik des Fusses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeimies, Ulrike; Staebler, Axel [Radiologie in Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany); Walther, Markus (eds.) [Schoen-Klinik Muenchen-Harlaching, Muenchen (Germany). Zentrum fuer Fuss- und Sprunggelenkchirurgie

    2012-11-01

    The book on imaging diagnostics of the foot contains the following chapters: (1) Imaging techniques. (2) Clinical diagnostics. (3) Ankle joint and hind foot. (4) Metatarsus. (5) Forefoot. (6) Pathology of plantar soft tissue. (7) Nervous system diseases. (8) Diseases without specific anatomic localization. (9) System diseases including the foot. (10) Tumor like lesions. (11) Normative variants.

  19. [Diabetic foot osteomyelitis: is conservative treatment possible?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordano-Montañez, Queralt; Muñiz-Tatay, Montse; Viadé-Julià, Jordi; Jaen-Manzanera, Angeles; Royo-Serrando, Josep; Cuchí-Burgos, Eva; Anglada-Barceló, Jordi; de la Sierra-Iserte, Alejandro

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the proportion of foot ulcers, complicated by osteomyelitis in diabetic patients, that heal without amputation. Furthermore, an attempt is made to analyze the main clinical and microbiological characteristics of episodes, and to identify potential predictive factors leading to the failure of conservative treatment. A prospective observational study was carried out between 2007 and 2009 on diabetic patients with a foot lesion and attending a diabetic foot clinic. A percutaneous bone biopsy was required to be included in the study. A total of 81 episodes of diabetic foot osteomyelitis in 64 patients were evaluated. Staphylococcus aureus (28/81) and coagulase negative Staphylococcus (22/81) were the most frequent organisms isolated. Among the gramnegative group (34/81), non-fermenting gram negative bacteria were the most prevalent organisms isolated (14/81). Conservative treatment was successful in 73% of episodes. After a logistic regression analysis using the most significant prognostic variables, only lesion size greater than 2cm independently predicted failure of conservative treatment. Culture guided antibiotic treatment was associated with a better prognosis. Conservative treatment, including culture-guided antibiotics, is successful without amputation in a large proportion of diabetic patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis. Considering empiric therapy directed at non-fermenting gramnegative bacteria could be advisable in some cases, because they are frequently isolated in our setting. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  20. Normative values for the Foot Posture Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redmond Anthony C

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Foot Posture Index (FPI is a validated method for quantifying standing foot posture, and is being used in a variety of clinical settings. There have however, been no normative data available to date for comparison and reference. This study aimed to establish normative FPI reference values. Methods Studies reporting FPI data were identified by searching online databases. Nine authors contributed anonymised versions of their original datasets comprising 1648 individual observations. The datasets included information relating to centre, age, gender, pathology (if relevant, FPI scores and body mass index (BMI where available. FPI total scores were transformed to interval logit scores as per the Rasch model and normal ranges were defined. Comparisons between groups employed t-tests or ANOVA models as appropriate and data were explored descriptively and graphically. Results The main analysis based on a normal healthy population (n = 619 confirmed that a slightly pronated foot posture is the normal position at rest (mean back transformed FPI raw score = +4. A 'U' shaped relationship existed for age, with minors and older adults exhibiting significantly higher FPI scores than the general adult population (F = 51.07, p t = -1.44, p = 0.149. No relationship was found between the FPI and BMI. Systematic differences from the adult normals were confirmed in patients with neurogenic and idiopathic cavus (F = 216.981, p Conclusion A set of population norms for children, adults and older people have been derived from a large sample. Foot posture is related to age and the presence of pathology, but not influenced by gender or BMI. The normative values identified may assist in classifying foot type for the purpose of research and clinical decision making.

  1. Tuberculosis of the foot: An osteolytic variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep S Dhillon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foot involvement in osteoarticular tuberculosis is uncommon and isolated bony involvement of foot bones with an osteolytic defect is even more rare; diagnostic and therapeutic delays can occur, worsening the prognosis. We present a retrospective series of osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis. Materials and Methods: We present 24 osteolytic variety of foot tuberculosis (Eleven calcaneus, four cuboid, two cunieforms, one talus, three metatarsals, three phalanges out of 92 foot TB cases collected over last 20 years. There were 16 adults and eight children. Tissue diagnosis was established in 23 of 24 cases based on PCR AFB staining, culture, and histopathology. Surgical intervention was reserved for patients with either a juxtaarticular focus threatening to involve a joint or an impending collapse of a midfoot bone with cystic destruction. Results: Fifteen cases had an osteolytic lesion on the radiographs resembling a space-occupying lesion, five had patchy osteolysis, while four showed coke like sequestra; one patient had a lesion in two bones. Antitubercular chemotherapy after biopsy was sufficient to heal the lesion in 19 cases, while in five cases surgical debridement needed to be done. The lesions healed eventually. At an average followup of 8.3 years, (range 2-15 years there were no recurrences and all patients were free from pain, with no restriction of movements. Six patients complained of occasional pain during walking on uneven ground. Conclusion: When tuberculous pathology is limited to the bone, the prognosis is better than in articular disease, as there is less deformity, and hence, less residual pain and disability.

  2. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high ris...

  3. Tibialis posterior tendon transfer corrects the foot drop component of cavovarus foot deformity in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, T; Wolf, S I; Heitzmann, D; Fremd, C; Klotz, M C; Wenz, W

    2014-03-19

    The foot drop component of cavovarus foot deformity in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is commonly treated by tendon transfer to provide substitute foot dorsiflexion or by tenodesis to prevent the foot from dropping. Our goals were to use three-dimensional foot analysis to evaluate the outcome of tibialis posterior tendon transfer to the dorsum of the foot and to investigate whether the transfer works as an active substitution or as a tenodesis. We prospectively studied fourteen patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and cavovarus foot deformity in whom twenty-three feet were treated with tibialis posterior tendon transfer to correct the foot drop component as part of a foot deformity correction procedure. Five patients underwent unilateral treatment and nine underwent bilateral treatment; only one foot was analyzed in each of the latter patients. Standardized clinical examinations and three-dimensional gait analysis with a special foot model (Heidelberg Foot Measurement Method) were performed before and at a mean of 28.8 months after surgery. The three-dimensional gait analysis revealed significant increases in tibiotalar and foot-tibia dorsiflexion during the swing phase after surgery. These increases were accompanied by a significant reduction in maximum plantar flexion at the stance-swing transition but without a reduction in active range of motion. Passive ankle dorsiflexion measured in knee flexion and extension increased significantly without any relevant decrease in passive plantar flexion. The AOFAS (American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society) score improved significantly. Tibialis posterior tendon transfer was effective at correcting the foot drop component of cavovarus foot deformity in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, with the transfer apparently working as an active substitution. Although passive plantar flexion was not limited after surgery, active plantar flexion at push-off was significantly reduced and it is unknown whether

  4. Trends in lumber processing in the western United States. Part I: board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Keegan; Todd A. Morgan; Keith A. Blatner; Jean M. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    This article describes trends in board foot Scribner volume per cubic foot of timber for logs processed by sawmills in the western United States. Board foot to cubic foot (BF/CF) ratios for the period from 2000 through 2006 ranged from 3.70 in Montana to 5.71 in the Four Corners Region (Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah). Sawmills in the Four Corners Region,...

  5. Gorenstein flatness and injectivity over Gorenstein rings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Let R be a Gorenstein ring.We prove that if I is an ideal of R such that R/I is a semi-simple ring,then the Gorenstein flat dimension of R/I as a right R-module and the Gorenstein injective dimension of R/I as a left R-module are identical.In addition,we prove that if R→S is a homomorphism of rings and SE is an injective cogenerator for the category of left S-modules,then the Gorenstein flat dimension of S as a right R-module and the Gorenstein injective dimension of E as a left R-module are identical.We also give some applications of these results.

  6. Perturbations of spiky strings in flat spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharya, Soumya; Panigrahi, Kamal L

    2016-01-01

    Perturbations of a class of semiclassical strings known today as spiky strings, are studied using the well-known Jacobi equations for small normal deformations of an embedded timelike surface. It is shown that there exists finite normal perturbations of the spiky string worldsheets embedded in a $2+1$ dimensional flat spacetime. Such perturbations lead to a rounding off the spikes, which, in a way, demonstrates the stable nature of the unperturbed worldsheet. The same features appear for the dual spiky string solution and in the spiky as well as their dual solutions in $3+1$ dimensional flat spacetime. Our results are based on exact solutions of the corresponding Jacobi equations which we obtain and use while constructing the profiles of the perturbed configurations.

  7. Improving the durability of flat roof constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    Flat roof constructions are mainly used on commercial, institutional and industrial buildings, where insulation is placed on top of the load-bearing deck and then covered with a roof membrane. Through time, there is a risk that the membrane will allow water passage as holes might form due...... as there is no easy method of drying it. To be able to dry the insulation, and thereby regain the functional requirements of the roofing system, two new solutions for insulating flat roofs with existing materials are proposed for high density mineral wool and expanded polystyrene. Monitoring equipment are part...... to weathering effects or physical loads. Water will then enter the insulation, and as a vapor retarder is normally found below the insulation thus trapping the water in the insulation, the leak can remain undetected for a long period. When the leak is finally discovered, the insulation has to be discharged...

  8. Standard specification for silvered flat glass mirror

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers the requirements for silvered flat glass mirrors of rectangular shape supplied as cut sizes, stock sheets or as lehr ends and to which no further processing (such as edgework or other fabrication) has been done. 1.2 This specification covers the quality requirements of silvered annealed monolithic clear and tinted flat glass mirrors up to 6 mm (¼ in.) thick. The mirrors are intended to be used indoors for mirror glazing, for components of decorative accessories or for similar uses. 1.3 This specification does not address safety glazing materials nor requirements for mirror applications. Consult model building codes and other applicable standards for safety glazing applications. 1.4 Mirrors covered in this specification are not intended for use in environments where high humidity or airborne corrosion promoters, or both, are consistently present (such as swimming pool areas, ocean-going vessels, chemical laboratories and other corrosive environments). 1.5 The dimensional val...

  9. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohedano, Rubén, E-mail: rmohedano@lpi-europe.com; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo [LPI, Altadena, CA, USA and Madrid (Spain); Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM), Campus de Montegancedo, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-28

    The so-called CCS{sup 4}FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  10. A Flat World with Deep Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Constantinescu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet manages to connect different parts of the world, defies geographical distances and gives the impression that our planet is flat, but the Internet is there only for the ones who have the possibility and the ability to use it. Our contemporary flat world has deep transversal fractures which, like in many geological structures, make a direct connection between layers with different characteristics. The elites are moving across information avenues with targets set in the future; at the same time, in many parts of our planet, there are people organizing their lives in pre-modern agrarian cycles. Diversity in ways of living and in social organization is a sign of human freedom, not a sign of error, so, having different alternatives to achieving prosperity and happiness should be good news. Holding dear to a society’s lifestyle should not push for the destruction of societies with different sets of values.

  11. Flat roof integration. CPT solar (AET IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianese, D.; Pola, I.; Bernasconi, A.; Bura, E.; Cereghetti, N.; Realini, A.; Pasinelli, P.; Rioggi, S.

    2007-11-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a 15.4 kWp solar power installation in Trevano, Switzerland, that features flexible amorphous silicon triple-junction modules, mounted nearly horizontally and directly laminated to flexible polyolefin membranes that form the covering of a flat roof. The main objective of this study was to verify in which order of magnitude the better thermal behaviour of amorphous silicon cells can compensate for losses due to the quasi-horizontal roof integration (lower irradiation and higher reflection), and thus be competitive in the flat roof construction and refurbishment markets. The modules used and their characteristics are described. Performance, temperature levels and energy-production are reviewed for the panels of the installation. The performance of the inverter used is also reviewed. Data on temperatures and production are presented in graphical form and optical losses are examined.

  12. Emergent universe in spatially flat cosmological model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kaituo; Yu, Hongwei

    2013-01-01

    The scenario of an emergent universe provides a promising resolution to the big bang singularity in universes with positive or negative spatial curvature. It however remains unclear whether the scenario can be successfully implemented in a spatially flat universe which seems to be favored by present cosmological observations. In this paper, we study the stability of Einstein static state solutions in a spatially flat Shtanov-Sahni braneworld scenario. With a negative dark radiation term included and assuming a scalar field as the only matter energy component, we find that the universe can stay at an Einstein static state past eternally and then evolve to an inflation phase naturally as the scalar field climbs up its potential slowly. In addition, we also propose a concrete potential of the scalar field that realizes this scenario.

  13. Efficient defrosting of an inclined flat surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subrata Roy; Haribalan Kumar; Anderson, R. [Kettering University, Flint, MI (United States). Computational Plasma Dynamics Laboratory

    2005-06-01

    We present a deicing simulation for a practical three-dimensional geometry inside which hot air jets impinge upon a flat inclined glass surface with a layer of ice on the outside. The main goal is to study the unsteady two-phase melting process over the inclined flat surface, and to identify the traditional control parameters such as jet impingement angles for minimization of the defrosting time for given ice and glass thicknesses. A correlation for defrosting as functions of time, heat transfer parameters and impingement angles has been found. Also, in this study, the first Joule heating defroster using transparent electrodes are proposed and numerically simulated as a viable alternative. A correlation between the electrical Joule power requirement and the defrosting time is given. It is demonstrated that substantial improvements (roughly 70% reduction) in defrosting time may be achieved using Joule heating compared to the traditional jet impingement HVAC technology. (author)

  14. Towards a flat 45%-efficient concentrator module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Hernandez, Maikel; Vilaplana, Juan; Chaves, Julio; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Sorgato, S.; Falicoff, Waqidi

    2015-09-01

    The so-called CCS4FK is an ultra-flat photovoltaic system of high concentration and high efficiency, with potential to convert, ideally, the equivalent of a 45% of direct solar radiation into electricity by optimizing the usage of sun spectrum and by collecting part of the diffuse radiation, as a flat plate does. LPI has recently finished a design based on this concept and is now developing a prototype based on this technology, thanks to the support of FUNDACION REPSOL-Fondo de Emprendedores, which promotes entrepreneur projects in different areas linked to energy. This works shows some details of the actual design and preliminary potential performance expected, according to accurate spectral simulations.

  15. Wash Flats Management Plan Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wash Flats impoundments comprise an area of approximately 1,200 acres. Prior to 1963, the Wash Flats was subject to periodic wash-over during extremely high...

  16. Shrinkage and trajectory of the flat jet with inclination angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shufeng Ye; Yusheng Xie; Hongzhi Guo; Ye Huang; Shantong Jin

    2003-01-01

    The performance of the flat jet with an inclination angle was investigated by a water model. A mathematical model for theshrinkage and the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle was derived theoretically and verified by experimental data of thewater model. The experimental results indicate that the inclination angle (α) has no influence on the shrinkage of the flat jet, theshrinkage of the flat jet along the width direction decreases with the increasing of the initial velocity at the exit (u0) and the initialthickness of the flat jet (t0). Enough bigger initial exit velocity (u0) and initial thickness can suppress the shrinkage of the flat jetalong the width direction and keep the flat jet stabilized. In addition, the trajectory of the flat jet with an inclination angle is parabolicand must be taking into consideration when to determine the striking distance.

  17. Superheater Tube Flat Wall Stationary Temperature Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parpiev A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The BKZ-220-100-9 steam generator platen superheater tube flat wall stationary temperature fields analysis have been made. The six steel grades, using in boiler fabrication, namely, St. 10, St. 20, 12H1MF, 15HM, 1H18N9T and 12H18N12T, have been used. The temperature curves calculation has been made by using outer and inner surface heat-transfer coefficients nine different combinations.

  18. EXTRUDED POLYSTYRENE FOAM IN FLAT ROOFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In our article we prove the necessity of applying thermal insulation with low water absorption and resistance and preserving mechanical and thermophysical properties in corrosive environment in flat roofs, where there is always a danger of penetrating condensed moisture into the structure. As such material we offered extruded polystyrene foam - heat-insulating polymer material with uniformly distributed closed cells. The products are used in the form of slab insulation and special items - for forming slopes and venting.

  19. Phosphors for flat panel emissive displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.T.; Walko, R.J.; Phillips, M.L.F.

    1995-07-01

    An overview of emissive display technologies is presented. Display types briefly described include: cathode ray tubes (CRTs), field emission displays (FEDs), electroluminescent displays (ELDs), and plasma display panels (PDPs). The critical role of phosphors in further development of the latter three flat panel emissive display technologies is outlined. The need for stable, efficient red, green, and blue phosphors for RGB fall color displays is emphasized.

  20. The Relationship with Balance, Foot Posture, and Foot Size in School of Physical Education and Sports Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of foot posture and foot size with balance. A hundred and thirteen healthy volunteers were recruited from undergraduate students (Male = 74, Female = 37, age range 18-22). The Foot Posture Index (FPI-6), anthropometric measurements, dynamic balance and static balance measurements were done…

  1. Superfluidity in topologically nontrivial flat bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peotta, Sebastiano; Törmä, Päivi

    2015-11-20

    Topological invariants built from the periodic Bloch functions characterize new phases of matter, such as topological insulators and topological superconductors. The most important topological invariant is the Chern number that explains the quantized conductance of the quantum Hall effect. Here we provide a general result for the superfluid weight Ds of a multiband superconductor that is applicable to topologically nontrivial bands with nonzero Chern number C. We find that the integral over the Brillouin-zone of the quantum metric, an invariant calculated from the Bloch functions, gives the superfluid weight in a flat band, with the bound Ds⩾|C|. Thus, even a flat band can carry finite superfluid current, provided the Chern number is nonzero. As an example, we provide Ds for the time-reversal invariant attractive Harper-Hubbard model that can be experimentally tested in ultracold gases. In general, our results establish that a topologically nontrivial flat band is a promising concept for increasing the critical temperature of the superconducting transition.

  2. Graphene nanoribbons production from flat carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, W. S.; Guerini, S.; Diniz, E. M., E-mail: eduardo.diniz@ufma.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís - MA 65080-805 (Brazil)

    2015-11-14

    Graphene nanoribbons are of great interest for pure and applied sciences due to their unique properties which depend on the nanoribbon edges, as, for example, energy gap and antiferromagnetic coupling. Nevertheless, the synthesis of nanoribbons with well-defined edges remains a challenge. To collaborate with this subject, here we propose a new route for the production of graphene nanoribbons from flat carbon nanotubes filled with a one-dimensional chain of Fe atoms by first principles calculations based on density functional theory. Our results show that Fe-filled flat carbon nanotubes are energetically more stable than non flattened geometries. Also we find that by hydrogenation or oxygenation of the most curved region of the Fe-filled flat armchair carbon nanotube, it occurred a spontaneous production of zigzag graphene nanoribbons which have metallic or semiconducting behavior depending on the edge and size of the graphene nanoribbon. Such findings can be used to create a new method of synthesis of regular-edge carbon nanoribbons.

  3. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Rynes, N.J. (Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States)); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States))

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA's characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL's RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Remote geologic structural analysis of Yucca Flat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, M.G.; Heasler, P.G.; Hoover, K.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Rynes, N.J. [Northern Illinois Univ., De Kalb, IL (United States); Thiessen, R.L.; Alfaro, J.L. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1991-12-01

    The Remote Geologic Analysis (RGA) system was developed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to identify crustal structures that may affect seismic wave propagation from nuclear tests. Using automated methods, the RGA system identifies all valleys in a digital elevation model (DEM), fits three-dimensional vectors to valley bottoms, and catalogs all potential fracture or fault planes defined by coplanar pairs of valley vectors. The system generates a cluster hierarchy of planar features having greater-than-random density that may represent areas of anomalous topography manifesting structural control of erosional drainage development. Because RGA uses computer methods to identify zones of hypothesized control of topography, ground truth using a well-characterized test site was critical in our evaluation of RGA`s characterization of inaccessible test sites for seismic verification studies. Therefore, we applied RGA to a study area centered on Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and compared our results with both mapped geology and geologic structures and with seismic yield-magnitude models. This is the final report of PNL`s RGA development project for peer review within the US Department of Energy Office of Arms Control (OAC) seismic-verification community. In this report, we discuss the Yucca Flat study area, the analytical basis of the RGA system and its application to Yucca Flat, the results of the analysis, and the relation of the analytical results to known topography, geology, and geologic structures. 41 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. [Present state and future of flat panel detector in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashida, Yoshiharu

    2002-01-01

    In our country, the introduction of flat panel detector is carried out in the diagnosis region since before several years. In flat panel detector with the high image characteristic, large expectation is being placed. In this paper, image characteristic of flat panel detector and effectiveness of clinical application were reviewed. It is anticipated that flat panel detector with the excellent image characteristic gives large effect in the radiological diagnosis.

  6. Visual guidance of the human foot during a step

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, R. F.; Day, B L

    2005-01-01

    When the intended foot placement changes during a step, either due to an obstacle appearing in our path or the sudden shift of a target, visual input can rapidly alter foot trajectory. However, previous studies suggest that when intended foot placement does not change, the path of the foot is fixed after it leaves the floor and vision has no further influence. Here we ask whether visual feedback can be used to improve the accuracy of foot placement during a normal, unperturbed step. To invest...

  7. 扁平足与正常足男大学生足底压力及步态特征比较%Comparative research of characteristics on foot pole pressure and foot trait of college students with fiat foot and normal foot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔德刚; 高虹; 王璐

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析扁平足大学生的足底压力及步态特征,为相关领域开展深入研究提供参考依据.方法 运用比利时Footscan足底压力测试系统,对从河北工程大学1 216名男大学生中筛查出的113名扁平足大学生(扁平足组)和807名正常足大学生(正常足组)进行测试并比较.结果 正常足组大学生左足的第4,5跖骨,足跟外侧及右足的第2~5趾骨,第2~5跖骨,足弓,足跟内、外侧峰值压强均大于扁平足组;左足第1跖骨,第2跖骨,足弓及右足第1,2,5跖骨、足跟外侧达峰值压强时间均晚于扁平足组(P<0.05或P<0.01);正常足组的左足第4,5跖骨,足弓及右足第1趾骨,第3,4跖骨,足弓,足跟内侧负荷率均大于扁平足组(P<0.05或P<0.01);正常足组的左足第2,4,5跖骨,足跟外侧及右足第2~5趾骨,第2~5跖骨,足跟内、外侧冲量均大于扁平足组(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论 扁平足组大学生足底各区域呈现出峰值压强和冲量偏小,达峰值压强时间偏早,左、右足负荷率在第1,3跖骨及足弓差异较大的特征.%Objective To measure the characteristics of foot pole pressure and foot trait in college students with fiat foot.Methods Flat panel type FOOTSCAN foot pole pressure test system (Belgium) was used to study the difference between college students with flat foot (n =113) and normal foot (n =807) in Hebei Engineering University.Results In terms of Peak Torque,there were highly significant difference in Meta4,Meta5 and Heel lateral (P < 0.05) in left feet and in Toe2-5,Meta2,Meta3,Meta4,Meta5,Arch,Heel Medial and Heel Lateral (P < 0.05) in right feet,the normal foot group was bigger.In terms of the time to reach Peak Torque,there were highly significant difference in Meta1,Meta2 and Arch (P < 0.05) in left feet and in Meta1,Meta2,Meta5 and Heel Lateral (P <0.05) in right feet,the normal foot group was late.In terms of load rate,there were highly significant difference in Meta

  8. The effects of biomechanical foot orthoses on the gait patterns of patients with malalignment syndrome as determined by three dimensional gait analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Ahn, Sang-Ho; Jung, Gil-Su; Kim, Jin-Hyun; Cho, Yun-Woo

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The biomechanical effects of foot orthoses on malalignment syndrome have not been fully clarified. This experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of orthoses on the gait patterns of patients with malalignment syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Ten patients with malalignment syndrome were recruited. For each participant, kinematic and kinetic data were collected under three test conditions: walking barefoot, walking with flat insoles in shoes, and walking with a biomechanical foot orthosis (BFO) in shoes. Gait patterns were analyzed using a motion analysis system. [Results] Spatiotemporal data showed the step and stride lengths when wearing shoes with flat insoles or BFO were significantly greater than when barefoot, and that the walking speed when wearing shoes with BFO was significantly faster than when walking barefoot or with shoes with flat insoles. Kinetic data, showed peak pelvic tilt and obliquity angle were significantly greater when wearing BFO in shoes than when barefoot, and that peak hip flexion/extension angle and peak knee flexion/extension and rotation angles were significantly greater when wearing BFO and flat insoles in shoes than when barefoot. [Conclusion] BFOs can correct pelvic asymmetry while walking. PMID:27190451

  9. The clinical assessment study of the foot (CASF): study protocol for a prospective observational study of foot pain and foot osteoarthritis in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Menz Hylton B; D'Cruz Deborah; Marshall Michelle; Thomas Martin J; Myers Helen; Roddy Edward; Belcher John; Muller Sara; Peat George

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) affects approximately 10% of adults aged over 60 years. The foot joint complex is commonly affected by OA, yet there is relatively little research into OA of the foot, compared with other frequently affected sites such as the knee and hand. Existing epidemiological studies of foot OA have focussed predominantly on the first metatarsophalangeal joint at the expense of other joints. This three-year prospective population-based observational co...

  10. Foot segment kinematics during normal walking using a multisegment model of the foot and ankle complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkyn, Thomas R; Anas, Kiersten; Nichol, Alexander

    2009-03-01

    Gait analysis using optical tracking equipment has been demonstrated to be a clinically useful tool for measuring three-dimensional kinematics and kinetics of the human body. However, in current practice, the foot is treated as a single rigid segment that articulates with the lower leg, meaning the motions of the joints of the foot cannot be measured. A multisegment kinematic model of the foot was developed for use in a gait analysis laboratory. The foot was divided into hindfoot, talus, midfoot, and medial and lateral forefoot segments. Six functional joints were defined: Ankle and subtalar joints, frontal and transverse plane motions of the hindfoot relative to midfoot, supination-pronation twist of the forefoot relative to midfoot, and medial longitudinal arch height-to-length ratio. Twelve asymptomatic subjects were tested during barefoot walking with a six-camera optical stereometric system and passive markers organized in triads. Repeatability of reported motions was tested using coefficients of multiple correlation. Ankle and subtalar joint motions and twisting of the forefoot were most repeatable. Hindfoot motions were least repeatable both within subjects and between subjects. Hindfoot and forefoot pronations in the frontal place were found to coincide with dropping of the medial longitudinal arch between early to midstance, followed by supination and rising of the arch in late stance and swing phase. This multisegment foot model overcomes a major shortcoming in current gait analysis practice-the inability to measure motion within the foot. Such measurements are crucial if gait analysis is to remain relevant in orthopaedic and rehabilitative treatment of the foot and ankle.

  11. A prospective study of risk factors for foot ulceration: The West of Ireland Diabetes Foot Study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, L

    2013-09-25

    BackgroundThis is the first study to examine risk factors for diabetic foot ulceration in Irish general practice.AimTo determine the prevalence of established risk factors for foot ulceration in a community-based cohort, and to explore the potential for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to act as a novel risk factor.DesignA prospective observational study.MethodsPatients with diabetes attending 12 (of 17) invited general practices were invited for foot screening. Validated clinical tests were carried out at baseline to assess for vascular and sensory impairment and foot deformity. Ulcer incidence was ascertained by patient self-report and medical record. Patients were re-assessed 18 months later. ResultsOf 828 invitees, 563 (68%) attended screening. On examination 23-25% had sensory dysfunction and 18-39% had evidence of vascular impairment. Using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network risk stratification system we found the proportion at moderate and high risk of future ulceration to be 25% and 11% respectively. At follow-up 16\\/383 patients (4.2%) developed a new foot ulcer (annual incidence rate of 2.6%). We observed an increasing probability of abnormal vascular and sensory test results (pedal pulse palpation, doppler waveform assessment, 10g monofilament, vibration perception and neuropathy disability score) with declining eGFR levels. We were unable to show an independent association between new ulceration and reduced eGFR [Odds ratio 1.01; p=0.64].ConclusionsOur data show the extent of foot complications in a representative sample of diabetes patients in Ireland. Use of eGFR did not improve identification of patients at risk of foot ulceration.

  12. How To Prevent Foot Ulcers In Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Morshed

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of development of foot ulcers in diabetic patients is 4% to 10%, these ulcers may be infected, cause morbidity and may lead to lower extremity amputation.Objective: Prevention of diabetic foot ulcers in patients known to be diabetics by fasting blood sugar (FBS, HbA1C tests.Material and Methods: The study was done on 120 patients between March 2010 and July 2011 diagnosed as diabetics and they performed simple screening tests for peripheral neuropathy (Semmes-Weinstein monofilament examination (SWME, superficial pain, vibration testing by the on-off method, the timed method. Nerve conduction studies (NCS were used as standard criterion for detection of neuropathy, they also underwent Doppler ultrasound and ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI measurement to assess the vascularity of their lower limbs. All patients were given proper education to prevent foot ulcers, including optimising glycemic control, cessation of smoking, debridement of calluses, appropriate foot wear and foot care with periodic foot examination.Results: In our study we succeeded in increasing the prevention of foot ulceration in our diabetic patients by 95%, compared to results achieved with the previous measures.Conclusion: Screening tests are effective for all diabetic patients to identify patients at risk of foot ulceration. They may benefit from prophylactic interventions including, optimising glycemic control, cessation of smoking, debridement of calluses, appropriate foot wear and intensive foot care.Also, we take care of patients with low risk of foot ulceration by adequate foot care and periodic foot examination to prevent foot ulceration.

  13. Hand and foot syndrome secondary to capecitabine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Shaikh Lal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old woman on treatment with capecitabine and paclitaxel for breast carcinoma presented with history of a tingling sensation in her hands and feet with a progressive burning sensation. She also noted discomfort, minimal pain and stiffness while holding objects. On examination, there was patchy hyperpigmentation of both the palms and soles, and the dorsa of hands and feet. This was accompanied by a thickening of the skin more over the knuckles and toes. In addition there was a moist desquamation around the toes and over the palmar creases and a bluish discoloration of the lunulae of both thumbnails. She was diagnosed with hand and foot syndrome and started on pyridoxine and emollients. The finding of keratoderma noted in our patient is not seen commonly in hand and foot syndrome.

  14. Minor amputations for diabetic foot salvage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salah Y. Habel

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Foot ulceration in diabetic patients is a frequent complication of diabetes mellitus (DM, necessitating hospitalization for control of infection, wound care and glycemic control. These patients are at risk for potential loss of the involved limb as well as for future loss of the contralateral limb. Diabetic foot is the consequence of peripheral neuropathy complicated by infrapopliteal peripheral vascular disease. Most of the patients present with chronic plantar ulceration and with cellulitis or an abscess. In a significant number of patients, it is observed that the frequency of life or limb threatening infection is less with an intact skin cover. Limb salvage employs the use of culture specific antibiotics, sharp debridement or a minor amputation, wound care and/or skin cover as the situation demands.

  15. [Subintimal angioplasty and diabetic foot revascularisation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierret, Charles; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Bordier, Lise; Blin, Emmanuel; Duverger, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic wounds foot are responsible for 5-10% minor or major amputation in France. In fact, amputation risk of lower limbs is 15-30% higher for diabetic patients. University of Texas classification (UT) is the reference for diabetic foot wound. It distinguish non ischemic and ischemic wound with more amputation. If ischaemia is combined, revascularization may be considered for salvage of the limb. Some revascularization techniques are well known: as surgical by-pass, angioplasty with or without stent, or hybrid procedures with the both. Subintimal angioplasty is a more recent endovascular technique, in assessment for old patients who are believed to be unsuitable candidates for conventional by-pass or angioplasty.

  16. Location of foot arteries using infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor-Mora, Carlos; González-Vega, Arturo; Martín Osmany Falcón, Antonio; Benítez Ferro, Jesús Francisco Guillemo; Córdova Fraga, Teodoro

    2014-11-01

    In this work are presented the results of localization of foot arteries, in a young group of participants by using infrared thermal images, these are the dorsal, posterior tibial and anterior tibial arteries. No inclusion criteria were considered, that causes that no strong statistical data about the influence of the age in the arterial localization. It was achieved to solve the confusion when veins present a heat distribution similar to the artery and in the position of this. it contributes to enhance the rate of location of arteries. In general it is possible to say that the use of infrared thermal images is a good technique to find the foot arteries and can be applied in its characterization in a future. The procedure proposed is a non-invasive technique, and in certain fashion does not requires specialized personnel to achieve locate the arteries. It is portable, safe, and relatively economical.

  17. A study of dermatoglyphics in club foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadakat Ali

    2014-04-01

    Results: Frequency of whorls increase in both hands significantly, frequency of arches and ulnar loops decrease significantly, frequency of radial loops increase in right hand and decrease in left hand but difference was not significant. TFRC count was reduced significantly and no significant difference was found in a-t-d angle and a-b ridge count. Conclusion: Dermatoglyphics is a genetically determined reliable marker for detecting the incidence of club foot. Merely by identifying the dermatoglyphics pattern of couples with family history of club foot may be at risk of having their offspring affected, and they can be diagnosed early and preventive measures can be taken. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 557-559

  18. Foot mounted inertial system for pedestrian navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godha, S.; Lachapelle, G.

    2008-07-01

    This paper discusses algorithmic concepts, design and testing of a system based on a low-cost MEMS-based inertial measurement unit (IMU) and high-sensitivity global positioning system (HSGPS) receivers for seamless personal navigation in a GPS signal degraded environment. The system developed here is mounted on a pedestrian shoe/foot and uses measurements based on the dynamics experienced by the inertial sensors on the user's foot. The IMU measurements are processed through a conventional inertial navigation system (INS) algorithm and are then integrated with HSGPS receiver measurements and dynamics derived constraint measurements using a tightly coupled integration strategy. The ability of INS to bridge the navigation solution is evaluated through field tests conducted indoors and in severely signal degraded forest environments. The specific focus is on evaluating system performance under challenging GPS conditions.

  19. Innovations in diabetic foot reconstruction using supermicrosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Oh, Tae Suk; Hong, Joon Pio

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of diabetic foot ulceration is complex with multiple factors involved, and it may often lead to limb amputation. Hence, a multidisciplinary approach is warranted to cover the spectrum of treatment for diabetic foot, but in complex wounds, surgical treatment is inevitable. Surgery may involve the decision to preserve the limb by reconstruction or to amputate it. Reconstruction involves preserving the limb with secure coverage. Local flaps usually are able to provide sufficient coverage for small or moderate sized wound, but for larger wounds, soft tissue coverage involves flaps that are distantly located from the wound. Reconstruction of distant flap usually involves microsurgery, and now, further innovative methods such as supermicrosurgery have further given complex wounds a better chance to be reconstructed and limbs salvaged. This article reviews the microsurgery involved in reconstruction and introduces the new method of supermicrosurgery.

  20. Recurrent Admissions for Diabetic Foot Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang CL

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic foot complications are a significant source of morbidity and mortality. Patients who undergo recurrent admissions for the same diabetic foot problems represent a difficult subgroup to treat. From July 2007 to June 2008, there were 38 such patients who were admitted recurrently. Eighteen patients (47% were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgical treatment. Eighteen patients (47% received treatment as necessary but were still readmitted for recurrent infection at the same wound site. Assessment of patients’ compliance to outpatient treatment was found to be generally lacking. As a significant proportion were re-admitted because of previous refusal of surgery, a trained counselor may be suitable in counselling patients for debridement or amputation surgery.

  1. L1TV Computes the Flat Norm for Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Morgan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that the recently introduced L1TV functional can be used to explicitly compute the flat norm for codimension one boundaries. Furthermore, using L1TV, we also obtain the flat norm decomposition. Conversely, using the flat norm as the precise generalization of L1TV functional, we obtain a method for denoising nonboundary or higher codimension sets. The flat norm decomposition of differences can made to depend on scale using the flat norm with scale which we define in direct analogy to the L1TV functional. We illustrate the results and implications with examples and figures.

  2. The feral horse foot. Part B: radiographic, gross visual and histopathological parameters of foot health in 100 Australian feral horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, B A; de Laat, M A; Mills, P C; Walsh, D M; Pollitt, C C

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that the feral horse foot is a benchmark model for foot health in horses. However, the foot health of feral horses has not been formally investigated. To investigate the foot health of Australian feral horses and determine if foot health is affected by environmental factors, such as substrate properties and distance travelled. Twenty adult feral horses from five populations (n = 100) were investigated. Populations were selected on the basis of substrate hardness and the amount of travel typical for the population. Feet were radiographed and photographed, and digital images were surveyed by two experienced assessors blinded to each other's assessment and to the population origin. Lamellar samples from 15 feet from three populations were investigated histologically for evidence of laminitis. There was a total of 377 gross foot abnormalities identified in 100 left forefeet. There were no abnormalities detected in three of the feet surveyed. Each population had a comparable prevalence of foot abnormalities, although the type and severity of abnormality varied among populations. Of the three populations surveyed by histopathology, the prevalence of chronic laminitis ranged between 40% and 93%. Foot health appeared to be affected by the environment inhabited by the horses. The observed chronic laminitis may be attributable to either nutritional or traumatic causes. Given the overwhelming evidence of suboptimal foot health, it may not be appropriate for the feral horse foot to be the benchmark model for equine foot health. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  3. Nuclear medicine applications for the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartshorne, M.F.; Peters, V.

    1987-04-01

    Although not frequently described in the podiatric literature, nuclear medicine imaging may be of great assistance to the clinical podiatrist. This report reviews in detail the use of modern nuclear medicine approaches to the diagnosis and management of the diabetic foot. Nuclear medicine techniques are helpful in evaluating possible osteomyelitis, in determining appropriate amputation levels, and in predicting response to conservative ulcer management. Specific indications for bone, gallium, and perfusion imaging are described.

  4. Bacteriological study of diabetic foot infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul Azmi ABD KADIR

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Foot infections are one of the major complications of diabetes mellitus and a significant risk factor for lower extremity amputation. Providing effective antimicrobial therapy is an important component in treating these infections. This study assesses the microbial isolates of patients with diabetic foot infections and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of 75 patients with diabetic foot infections admitted to RIPAS hospital between June 2008 and June 2010 was undertaken. Bacteriological specimens were obtained and processed using standard hospital procedure for microbiological culture and sensitivity testing. Results: Overall, 40 (54% patients had subcutaneous infections, 22 (29% had infected superficial ulcers, seven (9% had infected deep ulcers involving muscle tissues and six (8% had osteomyelitis. A total of 98 pathogens were isolated. Forty percent of the patients had polymicrobial infection, 39 (52% had single organism and 6(8% had no growth. Gram-negative bacteria (67% were more commonly isolated than gram-positive bacteria (30%. The three most frequently found gram-negative organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (19.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.3%, and Acinetobacter spp. (10.2% and gram-positive organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (10.2%, Streptococcus pyogenes (7.1% and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] (7.1%. Vancomycin was found to be the most effective against gram-positive bacteria while amikacin was the most effective against gram-negative bacteria based on antibiotic testing. Conclusion: In 40% of diabetic feet infection was polymicrobial. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were the most common gram-positive and gram-negative organisms respectively. This study helps us to choose the empirical antibiotics for cases of diabetic foot infections.

  5. Case report 442: Madura foot (mycetoma pedis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.H.; Mirra, J.M.

    1987-10-01

    A case is presented of Mycetoma pedis (or Madura foot) in a 31-year-old female native of a tropical region of Mexico. The right lower extremity was noted to show considerable alteration, swelling, and induration with drainage of pus. Treatment in Mexico had been unsuccessful and the patient had come to Los Angeles hopefully for definitive therapy. Radiological and pathological studies were described in some detail and the differential diagnosis radiologically was considered. The usual etiological organisms were indicated.

  6. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade; Larissa Santos França; Paulo Roberto Santana de Melo; Marcelo Araújo

    2014-01-01

    Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Su...

  7. NONLINEAR MHD WAVES IN A PROMINENCE FOOT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ofman, L. [Catholic University of America, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Knizhnik, K.; Kucera, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Schmieder, B. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)

    2015-11-10

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using a 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope in Ca ii emission of a prominence on 2012 October 10 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of Hα intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However, the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits a unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity (δI/I ∼ δn/n). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with a typical period in the range of 5–11 minutes and wavelengths <2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating waves. The magnetic field was measured with the THEMIS instrument and was found to be 5–14 G. For the typical prominence density the corresponding fast magnetosonic speed is ∼20 km s{sup −1}, in qualitative agreement with the propagation speed of the detected waves. The 2.5D MHD numerical model is constrained with the typical parameters of the prominence waves seen in observations. Our numerical results reproduce the nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves and provide strong support for the presence of these waves in the prominence foot. We also explore gravitational MHD oscillations of the heavy prominence foot material supported by dipped magnetic field structure.

  8. Comparison of plantar pressure distribution in subjects with normal and flat feet during gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluisio Otavio Vargas Avila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the possible relationship between loss of thenormal medial longitudinal arch measured by the height of the navicular bone in a static situationand variables related to plantar pressure distribution measured in a dynamic situation. Elevenmen (21 ± 3 years, 74 ± 10 kg and 175 ± 4 cm participated in the study. The Novel Emed-ATSystem was used for the acquisition of plantar pressure distribution data (peak pressure, meanpressure, contact area, and relative load at a sampling rate of 50 Hz. The navicular drop testproposed by Brody (1982 was used to assess the height of the navicular bone for classificationof the subjects. The results were compared by the Mann-Whitney U test, with the level of significanceset at p ≤ 0.05. Differences were observed between the two groups in the mid-foot regionfor all variables studied, with the observation of higher mean values in subjects with flat feet.There were also significant differences in contact area, relative load, peak pressure, and meanpressure between groups. The present study demonstrates the importance of paying attentionto subjects with flat feet because changes in plantar pressure distribution are associated withdiscomfort and injuries.

  9. Absolute flatness testing of skip-flat interferometry by matrix analysis in polar coordinates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhi-Gang; Yin, Lu; Chen, Lei; Zhu, Ri-Hong

    2016-03-20

    A new method utilizing matrix analysis in polar coordinates has been presented for absolute testing of skip-flat interferometry. The retrieval of the absolute profile mainly includes three steps: (1) transform the wavefront maps of the two cavity measurements into data in polar coordinates; (2) retrieve the profile of the reflective flat in polar coordinates by matrix analysis; and (3) transform the profile of the reflective flat back into data in Cartesian coordinates and retrieve the profile of the sample. Simulation of synthetic surface data has been provided, showing the capability of the approach to achieve an accuracy of the order of 0.01 nm RMS. The absolute profile can be retrieved by a set of closed mathematical formulas without polynomial fitting of wavefront maps or the iterative evaluation of an error function, making the new method more efficient for absolute testing.

  10. REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE AND ANALYSIS ISI FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR WITH MODIFIED FLAT PLATE COLLECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR.Y.Y.NANDURKAR

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The market of solar water heater of natural circulation type (thermo-siphon is fast growing in India. Initial cost of the solar water heater system at present is high because of store type design. It is necessary to make the product more popular by reducing the cost. This is possible by reducing area of liquid flat plate collector by increasing tube diameter and reducing riser length. Hence it is essential to make solar water heater in affordable range of the general public class. Present work is based on review of comparative performance and analysis of ISI flat plate collector with modified flat plat collector. The paper will be helpful for those who are working in the area of solar water heating system and their use in domestic areas.

  11. Surgical reconstruction in diabetic foot syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umid Shoyusupov

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Considerable morbidity upon spontaneous wound healing (phlegmons, osteomyelitis, and purulent osteoarthritis of metatarsophalangeal joint as well as loss of the diseased foot’s walking ability are among the reasons for transition to plastic surgery in management tactics. The longer foot lesion persists, the higher probability of amputation. Improvement of treatment of both wound and ulcer lesions by means of reconstructive surgery in patients with diabetic foot syndrome was the main aim of the study. Outcomes of treatment of 460 patients managed at the Center for the Scientific and Clinical Study of Endocrinology, within the period from 2001 to 2009 were analyzed. Size, form, depth and localization of a wound, tissue composition of the wound bed as well as circulation in skin flaps caused the choice of specific operation: autodermoplasty by Parin (with the split-thickness skin flap, local tissue plastic operation (with the sliding or inter-advancing skin flaps, flaps from previously amputated toe or Indian flaps, plastic operation with the controlled tissue tension or combined plastic operation. Reconstructive foot wound surgery allows restoring load-bearing function of the extremity much earlier in contrast to spontaneous healing, reducing incidence of post-operative and long-term complications, amputations and re-amputations, decreasing period of treatment.

  12. Health literacy and diabetic foot ulcer healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, David J; Hampton, Michelle; Hoffstad, Ole; Malay, D Scot; Thom, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The adherence by patients to diabetic foot ulcer therapy is often difficult. The goal of this study was to begin to understand how a patient's health literacy affects their foot ulcer management decisions. Initially using a cross-sectional study design, we evaluated diabetics with foot ulcers within 4 weeks of being asked to participate in a longitudinal study. We assessed health literacy using measures of general health literacy, diabetes health literacy, diabetes self-efficacy, and diabetes numeracy. Individuals enrolled in the study had higher health literacy based on the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults [33.8 (SD 2.3) versus 27.3 (SD 9.6); p = 0.009] as compared to individuals who previously declined an invitation to enroll in the study. Furthermore, patients with lower Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults scores had larger (p = 0.04) and older (p = 0.125) wounds (markers for poorer prognosis). Other measures of literacy showed similar results. In conclusion, those with diminished health literacy were less likely to enroll in an investigational study and had wounds that were less likely to heal. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  13. Diabetes Foot Ulcers: A novel Treatment Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Namazi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Foot ulcers are common in 12-25 percent of diabetic patients. Preventing, controlling and treating of these kind chronic wounds are of the major clinical challenges.Evidence based documents revealed that DFU (Diabetic Foot ulcer is a chronic wound type originating from disturbed cellular and molecular mechanisms that have to be in its functional form to overcome its problem. In diabetes and some other chronic based diseases, harmonized acting machine causes chronic phases that result in conditions as foot ulceration and related complications seen commonly in diabetes.DFU needs to be transformed into acute phase in order to be healed in a physiological manner. Disturbed mechanisms have to be corrected reversely and to achieve such a goal it is essential to better understanding of disturbing factors responsible for biological abnormalities. Factors associated with DFU are as cellular and molecular recruitment and function impairments and there is need to repair these mechanisms. For this, we believe that the activated Th-1 cells (T helper-1 Cells might have a critical role in regulation of the several effector functions of the cellular and molecular mechanisms essential to the body to act the best. Evidences and our successful results urge us to suggest this regulatory role for effector cells and molecules generated through activation of Th-1 cells as a treatment strategy.

  14. Risk factors for developing diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Estela Willrich Boell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study is to identify the risk factors for developing diabetic foot. A cross-sectional study, with a convenience sample, developed with 70 individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM, registered in three basic health units in the municipality of Florianópolis/SC, Brazil, in the period from November 2010 to May 2011. Biometric data was collected regarding their sociodemographic, health and illness conditions. An assessment of the feet was also carried out. The average participant age was 66.17 years and time with diagnosed disease was under ten years (61.42%. The following risk factors were identified: advanced age; time of DM diagnosis; few years of schooling; overweight/obesity; inadequate diet; physical inactivity; inadequate metabolic control; lack of proper and specific foot care; and arterial hypertension. We conclude that the majority of the population presented one or more risk factors that favor the appearance of foot-related complications. doi: 10.5216/ree.v16i2.20460.

  15. Mycetoma (Madura foot): A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asly, M; Rafaoui, A; Bouyermane, H; Hakam, K; Moustamsik, B; Lmidmani, F; Rafai, M; Largab, A; Elfatimi, A

    2010-12-01

    Mycetoma is a chronic disease, which is endemic in tropical and subtropical countries. We report a rare case of mycetoma located on the foot of a patient living in a temperate-climate country followed by a short discussion. A 50-year-old woman with painless swelling in her left foot. The swelling started after a banal penetrating injury on the sole of her left foot 23 years ago. X-rays images showed multiple osteolytic lesions of the tarsus. The histological analyses identified the fungus madurella mycetomatis. The treatment was radical surgery (amputation). The patient had a tibial prosthesis and recovered an autonomous gait. Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous inflammatory response often with sinus tract formations due to fungal or bacterial organisms. The infection of the forefoot is quite typical. It is a slowly progressing disease affecting the deep dermis and subcutaneous tissues that can extent to the underlying bones. If it is not diagnosed early on, mycetoma can cause functional and esthetical impairments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving Hohlraums for High Foot Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkel, D. E.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Ma, T.; Ralph, J. E.; Albert, F.; Benedetti, L. R.; Celliers, P. M.; Doeppner, T.; Goyon, C. S.; Izumi, N.; Jarrott, L. C.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kritcher, A. L.; Kyrala, G. A.; Nagel, S. R.; Pak, A. E.; Patel, P.; Rosen, M. D.; Rygg, J. R.; Schneider, M. B.; Turnbull, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-10-01

    Analysis of High Foot implosions show that performance has been limited by the radiation drive environment, i.e., the hohlraum. Demonstrated here is that improvements in the radiation environment result in an enhancement in implosion performance. This is accomplished by using a longer, larger case-to-capsule ratio hohlraum at lower gas fill density. At fixed laser energy, High Foot implosions driven with this hohlraum have achieved a 1.4 x increase in stagnation pressure, with an accompanying relative increase in fusion yield of 50%. Low mode asymmetries are still present, however, and are most likely a consequence of poor inner beam propagation through the hohlraum to the wall. Presented here are results from these High Foot implosions, as well as analyses of inner beam propagation, and additional hohlraum improvements that further ameliorate the implosion. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  18. Diabetic foot infection treatment and care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigna, Emanuele; Fino, Pasquale; Onesti, Maria G; Amorosi, Vittoria; Scuderi, Nicolò

    2016-04-01

    Foot infections in diabetic patients are a common, complex and costly problem. They are potentially adverse with progression to deeper spaces and tissues and are associated with severe complications. The management of diabetic foot infection (DFI) requires a prompt and systematic approach to achieve more successful outcomes and to ultimately avoid amputations. This study reviews a multi-step treatment for DFIs. Between September 2010 and September 2012, a total of about 37 patients were consulted for DFI. The treatment algorithm included four steps, that is, several types of debridement according to the type of wound, the application of negative pressure therapy (NPT), other advanced dressings, a targeted antibiotic therapy local or systemic as the case may, and, if necessary, reconstructive surgery. This treatment protocol showed excellent outcomes, allowing us to avoid amputation in most difficult cases. Only about 8% of patients require amputation. This treatment protocol and a multidisciplinary approach with a specialised team produced excellent results in the treatment of DFI and in the management of diabetic foot in general, allowing us to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients and also to ensure cost savings.

  19. Measurements of Flat-Plate Milk Coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimil Nejtek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring in laboratory conditions was performed with the aim to collect a sufficient quantity of measured data for the qualified application of flat-plate coolers in measuring under real operating conditions. The cooling water tank was filled with tap water; the second tank was filled with water at a temperature equivalent to freshly milked milk. At the same time, pumps were activated that delivered the liquids into the flat-plate cooler where heat energy was exchanged between the two media. Two containers for receiving the run-out liquid were placed on the outputs from the cooler; here, temperature was measured with electronic thermometer and volume was measured with calibrated graduated cylinder. Flow rate was regulated both on the side of the cooling fluid and on the side of the cooled liquid by means of a throttle valve. The measurements of regulated flow-rates were repeated several times and the final values were calculated using arithmetic average. To calculate the temperature coefficient and the amount of brought-in and let-out heat, the volume measured in litres was converted to weight unit. The measured values show that the volume of exchanged heat per weight unit increases with the decreasing flow-rate. With the increasing flow-rate on the throttled side, the flow-rate increases on the side without the throttle valve. This phenomenon is caused by pressure increase during throttling and by the consequent increase of the diameter of channels in the cooler at the expense of the opposite channels of the non-throttled part of the circuit. If the pressure is reduced, there is a pressure decrease on the external walls of opposite channels and the flow-rate increases again. This feature could be utilised in practice: a pressure regulator on one side could regulate the flow-rate on the other side. The operating measurement was carried out on the basis of the results of laboratory measurements. The objective was to determine to what extent the

  20. Contribution of Leg-Muscle Forces to Paddle Force and Kayak Speed During Maximal-Effort Flat-Water Paddling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johnny E; Rosdahl, Hans G

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate the contribution of leg-muscle-generated forces to paddle force and kayak speed during maximal-effort flat-water paddling. Five elite male kayakers at national and international level participated. The participants warmed up at progressively increasing speeds and then performed a maximal-effort, nonrestricted paddling sequence. This was followed after 5 min rest by a maximal-effort paddling sequence with the leg action restricted--the knee joints "locked." Left- and right-side foot-bar and paddle forces were recorded with specially designed force devices. In addition, knee angular displacement of the right and left knees was recorded with electrogoniometric technique, and the kayak speed was calculated from GPS signals sampled at 5 Hz. The results showed that reduction in both push and pull foot-bar forces resulted in a reduction of 21% and 16% in mean paddle-stroke force and mean kayak speed, respectively. Thus, the contribution of foot-bar force from lower-limb action significantly contributes to kayakers' paddling performance.

  1. Foot posture is associated with kinematics of the foot during gait: A comparison of normal, planus and cavus feet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldt, Andrew K; Levinger, Pazit; Murley, George S; Menz, Hylton B; Nester, Christopher J; Landorf, Karl B

    2015-06-01

    Variations in foot posture are associated with the development of some lower limb injuries. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship are unclear. The objective of this study was to compare foot kinematics between normal, pes cavus and pes planus foot posture groups using a multi-segment foot model. Ninety-seven healthy adults, aged 18-47 were classified as either normal (n=37), pes cavus (n=30) or pes planus (n=30) based on normative data for the Foot Posture Index, Arch Index and normalised navicular height. A five segment foot model was used to measure tri-planar motion of the rearfoot, midfoot, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot and hallux during barefoot walking at a self-selected speed. Angle at heel contact, peak angle, time to peak angle and range of motion was measured for each segment. One way ANOVAs with post-hoc analyses of mean differences were used to compare foot posture groups. The pes cavus group demonstrated a distinctive pattern of motion compared to the normal and pes planus foot posture groups. Effect sizes of significant mean differences were large and comparable to similar studies. Three key differences in overall foot function were observed between the groups: (i) altered frontal and transverse plane angles of the rearfoot in the pes cavus foot; (ii) Less midfoot motion in the pes cavus foot during initial contact and midstance; and (iii) reduced midfoot frontal plane ROM in the pes planus foot during pre-swing. These findings indicate that foot posture does influence motion of the foot.

  2. Jet screech reduction with perforated flat reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md. Tawhidul Islam; Teramoto, Kenbu; Matsuo, Shigeru; Setoguchi, Toshiaki

    2008-09-01

    In the present experimental study, investigations have been carried out to evaluate the performance of the new control technique of jet screech with different perforated flat reflectors. Mainly two types of porous flat reflectors had been used in the experiment. One reflector (reflector-V) designed for placing the reflector surface vertical to the jet axis, when, another type of reflector (reflector-H) designed for placing the reflecting surface horizontal to the jet axis. In both cases the reflectors had been placed at the nozzle (base tube with uniform cross-sectional area) exit. The diameter of the reflector-V was 15D when the diameter of the reflector-H was 10D. The porous area of the reflector-V was 6D and 4.5D for reflector-H where D indicated the diameter of the nozzle exit. The placement of the reflector at the exit of the nozzle reduces the sound pressure at the nozzle exit. Thus the muted sound can not excite the unstable disturbance at the nozzle exit and the loop of the feedback mechanism disappeared, finally, the generation of jet screech be cancelled. The suction space located at the back side of the porous surface of the reflector-V improves the efficiency of the screech control technique. However, in the case of reflector-H, the receptivity process of feedback loop had been controlled by reducing the disturbances at the effective shock fronts as well as at the nozzle exit. The performance of the proposed method was verified with a flat reflector concept and good performance in jet screech suppression has been confirmed in the case of porous reflector.

  3. Jet Screech Reduction with Perforated Flat Reflector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the present experimental study, investigations have been carried out to evaluate the performance of the new control technique of jet screech with different perforated flat reflectors. Mainly two types of porous flat reflectors had been used in the experiment. One reflector (reflector-V) designed for placing the reflector surface vertical to the jet axis, when, another type of reflector (reflector-H) designed for placing the reflecting surface horizontal to the jet axis. In both cases the reflectors had been placed at the nozzle (base tube with uniform cross-sectional area)exit. The diameter of the reflector-V was 15D when the diameter of the reflector-H was 10D. The porous area of the reflector-V was 6D and 4.5D for reflector-H where D indicated the diameter of the nozzle exit. The placement of the reflector at the exit of the nozzle reduces the sound pressure at the nozzle exit. Thus the muted sound can not excite the unstable disturbance at the nozzle exit and the loop of the feedback mechanism disappeared, finally,the generation of jet screech be cancelled. The suction space located at the back side of the porous surface of the reflector-V improves the efficiency of the screech control technique. However, in the case of reflector-H, the receptivity process of feedback loop had been controlled by reducing the disturbances at the effective shock fronts as well as at the nozzle exit. The performance of the proposed method was verified with a flat reflector concept and good performance in jet screech suppression has been confirmed in the case of porous reflector.

  4. How flat is our Universe really?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okouma, P.M., E-mail: okouma@saao.ac.za [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa); Fantaye, Y. [Astrophysics Sector, International School for Advanced Studies, SISSA, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, N-0315, Oslo (Norway); Bassett, B.A. [Department of Maths and Applied Maths, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town (South Africa); South African Astronomical Observatory, Observatory, Cape Town (South Africa); African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, 6-8 Melrose Road, Muizenberg, Cape Town (South Africa); Centre for High Performance Computing, 15 Lower Hope St., Rosebank, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2013-02-12

    Distance measurement provides no constraints on curvature independent of assumptions about the dark energy, raising the question, how flat is our Universe if we make no such assumptions? Allowing for general evolution of the dark energy equation of state with 20 free parameters that are allowed to cross the phantom divide, w(z)=−1, we show that while it is indeed possible to match the first peak in the Cosmic Microwave Background with non-flat models and arbitrary Hubble constant, H{sub 0}, the full WMAP7 and supernova data alone imply −0.12<Ω{sub k}<0.01 (2σ). If we add an H{sub 0} prior, this tightens significantly to Ω{sub k}=0.002±0.009. These constitute the most conservative and model-independent constraints on curvature available today, and illustrate that the curvature-dynamics degeneracy is broken by current data, with a key role played by the Integrated Sachs Wolfe effect rather than the distance to the surface of last scattering. If one imposes a quintessence prior on the dark energy (−1⩽w(z)⩽1) then just the WMAP7 and supernova data alone force the Universe to near flatness: Ω{sub k}=0.013±0.012. Finally, allowing for curvature, we find that all datasets are consistent with a Harrison–Zel'dovich spectral index, n{sub s}=1, at 2σ, illustrating the interplay between early and late Universe constraints.

  5. New asymptotically flat phantom wormhole solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Lobo, Francisco S N; Riazi, Nematollah

    2012-01-01

    A possible cause of the late-time cosmic acceleration is an exotic fluid with an equation of state lying within the phantom regime, i.e., $w=p/\\rho 0. Thus, there is no need to surgically paste the interior wormhole geometry to an exterior vacuum spacetime. We also consider the "volume integral quantifier", which provides useful information regarding the total amount of energy condition violating matter, and show that, in principle, it is possible to construct asymptotically flat wormhole solutions with an arbitrary small amount of energy condition violating matter.

  6. The ADM mass of asymptotically flat hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    de Lima, Levi Lopes

    2011-01-01

    We provide integral formulae for the ADM mass of asymptotically flat hypersurfaces in Riemannian manifolds with a certain warped product structure in a neighborhood of infinity, thus extending Lam's recent results on Euclidean graphs to this broader context. As applications we exhibit, in any dimension, new classes of manifolds for which versions of the Positive Mass and Riemannian Penrose inequalities hold and discuss a notion of quasi-local mass in this setting. The proof explores a novel connection between the co-vector defining the ADM mass of a hypersurface as above and the Newton tensor associated to its shape operator, which takes place in the presence of an ambient Killing field.

  7. Maintaining collections with a flat budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E Morris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the various processes, methods and tough decisions made by the University of Kansas Libraries to provide library materials while maintaining a flat collections budget for over eight years. During this period, those responsible for the Libraries’ collections have implemented quick stop- gap measures, picked all the ‘low-hanging fruit’, and eventually canceled a large journal package. This case study will help other librarians facing the reality of maintaining collections at a time when budgets, changing formats and publication practices are all obstacles to providing patrons with what they need.

  8. Atomically flat ultrathin cobalt ferrite islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-García, Laura; Quesada, Adrián; Munuera, Carmen; Fernández, Jose F; García-Hernández, Mar; Foerster, Michael; Aballe, Lucía; de la Figuera, Juan

    2015-10-21

    A route for fabricating structurally perfect cobalt ferrite magnetic nanostructures is demonstrated. Ultrathin islands of up to 100 μm(2) with atomically flat surfaces and free from antiphase boundaries are developed. The extremely low defect concentration leads to a robust magnetic order, even for thicknesses below 1 nm, and exceptionally large magnetic domains. This approach allows the evaluation of the influence of specific extrinsic effects on domain wall pinning. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Atomically flat single terminated oxide substrate surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Yang, Chan-Ho; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Jeong, Yoon H.

    2017-05-01

    Scientific interest in atomically controlled layer-by-layer fabrication of transition metal oxide thin films and heterostructures has increased intensely in recent decades for basic physics reasons as well as for technological applications. This trend has to do, in part, with the coming post-Moore era, and functional oxide electronics could be regarded as a viable alternative for the current semiconductor electronics. Furthermore, the interface of transition metal oxides is exposing many new emergent phenomena and is increasingly becoming a playground for testing new ideas in condensed matter physics. To achieve high quality epitaxial thin films and heterostructures of transition metal oxides with atomically controlled interfaces, one critical requirement is the use of atomically flat single terminated oxide substrates since the atomic arrangements and the reaction chemistry of the topmost surface layer of substrates determine the growth and consequent properties of the overlying films. Achieving the atomically flat and chemically single terminated surface state of commercially available substrates, however, requires judicious efforts because the surface of as-received substrates is of chemically mixed nature and also often polar. In this review, we summarize the surface treatment procedures to accomplish atomically flat surfaces with single terminating layer for various metal oxide substrates. We particularly focus on the substrates with lattice constant ranging from 4.00 Å to 3.70 Å, as the lattice constant of most perovskite materials falls into this range. For materials outside the range, one can utilize the substrates to induce compressive or tensile strain on the films and explore new states not available in bulk. The substrates covered in this review, which have been chosen with commercial availability and, most importantly, experimental practicality as a criterion, are KTaO3, REScO3 (RE = Rare-earth elements), SrTiO3, La0.18Sr0.82Al0.59Ta0.41O3 (LSAT), Nd

  10. Geotechnical risk analysis by flat dilatometer (DMT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoroso, Sara; Monaco, Paola

    2015-04-01

    In the last decades we have assisted at a massive migration from laboratory testing to in situ testing, to the point that, today, in situ testing is often the major part of a geotechnical investigation. The State of the Art indicates that direct-push in situ tests, such as the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) and the Flat Dilatometer Test (DMT), are fast and convenient in situ tests for routine site investigation. In most cases the DMT estimated parameters, in particular the undrained shear strength su and the constrained modulus M, are used with the common design methods of Geotechnical Engineering for evaluating bearing capacity, settlements etc. The paper focuses on the prediction of settlements of shallow foundations, that is probably the No. 1 application of the DMT, especially in sands, where undisturbed samples cannot be retrieved, and on the risk associated with their design. A compilation of documented case histories that compare DMT-predicted vs observed settlements, was collected by Monaco et al. (2006), indicating that, in general, the constrained modulus M can be considered a reasonable "operative modulus" (relevant to foundations in "working conditions") for settlement predictions based on the traditional linear elastic approach. Indeed, the use of a site investigation method, such as DMT, that improve the accuracy of design parameters, reduces risk, and the design can then center on the site's true soil variability without parasitic test variability. In this respect, Failmezger et al. (1999, 2015) suggested to introduce Beta probability distribution, that provides a realistic and useful description of variability for geotechnical design problems. The paper estimates Beta probability distribution in research sites where DMT tests and observed settlements are available. References Failmezger, R.A., Rom, D., Ziegler, S.R. (1999). "SPT? A better approach of characterizing residual soils using other in-situ tests", Behavioral Characterics of Residual Soils, B

  11. Flexible Polyhedral Surfaces with Two Flat Poses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmuth Stachel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We present three types of polyhedral surfaces, which are continuously flexible and have not only an initial pose, where all faces are coplanar, but pass during their self-motion through another pose with coplanar faces (“flat pose”. These surfaces are examples of so-called rigid origami, since we only admit exact flexions, i.e., each face remains rigid during the motion; only the dihedral angles vary. We analyze the geometry behind Miura-ori and address Kokotsakis’ example of a flexible tessellation with the particular case of a cyclic quadrangle. Finally, we recall Bricard’s octahedra of Type 3 and their relation to strophoids.

  12. High Performance Atomically Thin Flat Lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Han; Qiu, Chengwei; Jia, Baohua; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate ultrathin flat lenses with a thickness of 7 {\\AA}, which corresponds to the fundamental physical limit of the thickness of the material, is fabricated in a large area, monolayer, CVD-prepared tungsten chalcogenides single crystals using the low-cost flexible laser writing method. The lenses apply the ultra-high refractive index to introduce abrupt amplitude modulation of the incident light to achieve three-dimensional (3D) focusing diffraction-limited resolution (0.5{\\lambda}) and a focusing efficiency as high as 31%. An analytical physical model based diffraction theory is derived to simulate the focusing process, which shows excellent agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Foot orthoses and physiotherapy in the treatment of patellofemoral pain syndrome: A randomised clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darnell Ross

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patellofemoral pain syndrome is a highly prevalent musculoskeletal overuse condition that has a significant impact on participation in daily and physical activities. A recent systematic review highlighted the lack of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials for the conservative management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Although foot orthoses are a commonly used intervention for patellofemoral pain syndrome, only two pilot studies with short term follow up have been conducted into their clinical efficacy. Methods/design A randomised single-blinded clinical trial will be conducted to investigate the clinical efficacy and cost effectiveness of foot orthoses in the management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. One hundred and seventy-six participants aged 18–40 with anterior or retropatellar knee pain of non-traumatic origin and at least six weeks duration will be recruited from the greater Brisbane area in Queensland, Australia through print, radio and television advertising. Suitable participants will be randomly allocated to receive either foot orthoses, flat insoles, physiotherapy or a combined intervention of foot orthoses and physiotherapy, and will attend six visits with a physiotherapist over a 6 week period. Outcome will be measured at 6, 12 and 52 weeks using primary outcome measures of usual and worst pain visual analogue scale, patient perceived treatment effect, perceived global effect, the Functional Index Questionnaire, and the Anterior Knee Pain Scale. Secondary outcome measures will include the Lower Extremity Functional Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Patient-Specific Functional Scale, Physical Activity Level in the Previous Week, pressure pain threshold and physical measures of step and squat tests. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be based on treatment effectiveness against resource usage recorded in treatment logs and

  14. Risk factors that may adversely modify the natural history of the pediatric pronated foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napolitano, C; Walsh, S; Mahoney, L; McCrea, J

    2000-07-01

    Flatfoot is one of the most common conditions seen in pediatric podiatry practice. There is no universally accepted definition for flatfoot. Flatfoot is a term used to describe a recognizable clinical deformity created by malalignment at several adjacent joints. Clinically, a flatfoot is one that has a low or absent longitudinal arch. Determining flexibility (physiologic) or rigidity (pathologic) is the first step in management. A flexible flat foot will have an arch that is present in open kinetic chain (off weight-bearing) and lost in closed kinetic chain (weight-bearing). A rigid flatfoot has loss of the longitudinal arch height in open and closed kinetic chain. According to Mosca, "The anatomic characteristics of a flatfoot are excessive eversion of the subtalar complex during weight-bearing with plantarflexion of the talus, plantarflexion of the calcaneus in relation to the tibia, a dorsiflexed and abducted navicular and a supinated forefoot." Normally developing infants have a flexible flatfoot and gradually develop a normal arch during the first decade of life. When evaluating an infant for a pronated condition, the examiner must also consider other risk factors that may affect the foot in its overall development. These contributing factors will play a role in the development of a treatment plan. The risk factors include ligamentous laxity, obesity, rotational deformities, tibial influence, pathological tibia varum, equinus, presence of an os tibiale externum, and tarsal coalitions. The authors realize other less significant factors exist but are not as detrimental to the foot as the primary ones discussed in depth. The primary risk factors that affect the pronated foot have been outlined. The clinician should always examine for these conditions when presented with a child exhibiting pronatory changes. A thorough explanation to the parents as to the consequential effects of these risk factors and their effects on the pediatric pronated foot is paramount to

  15. Horizontal capacity of skirted circular shallow footings on sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Z. El Wakil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Shallow footings are subjected to lateral forces induced by earthquake movements, wind loads, water wave pressure, lateral earth pressure, and transmitting power cables. In some structures such as water front structure, earth retaining structure and transmitting power structures, the lateral forces acting on the footings may be dominant. There has been little work studying the performance of skirted footings subjected to lateral loads. Twelve loading tests were performed on small scale circular skirted footing to shed some light on the performance of skirted footings when subjected to lateral loads. The effects of skirt length and the relative density of sand on the performance of the footing were investigated through laboratory testing program. Also a comparative experimental study between ultimate horizontal loads attained by skirted and unskirted footings with the same properties was conducted. From the accomplished laboratory tests it was found that the skirts changed the failure mode of circular shallow footings from sliding mechanism into rotational mechanism. Also the skirts attached to footings increased appreciably the ultimate horizontal capacity of shallow footings.

  16. Heat removal using microclimate foot cooling: a thermal foot manikin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, John W; Demes, Robert; Endrusick, Thomas L; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Montain, Scott J

    2014-04-01

    It has been proposed that microclimate cooling systems exploit the peripheral extremities because of more efficient heat transfer. The purpose of this study was to quantify, using a patented microclimate cooling technique, the heat transfer from the plantar surface of the foot for comparison to other commonly cooled body regions. A military boot was fitted with an insole embedded with a coiled, 1.27 m length of hollow tubing terminating in inlet and outlet valves. A thermal foot manikin with a surface temperature of 34 degrees C was placed in the boot and the valves were connected to a system that circulated water through the insole at a temperature of 20 degrees C and flow rate of 120 ml x min(-1). The manikin foot served as a constant heat source to determine heat transfer provided by the insole. Testing was done with the foot model dry and sweating at a rate of 500 ml x h(- 1) x m(-2). Climatic chamber conditions were 30 degrees C with 30% RH. Heat loss was approximately 4.1 +/- 0.1 and approximately 7.7 +/- 0.3 W from the dry and sweating foot models, respectively. On a relative scale, the heat loss was 3.0 W and 5.5 W per 1% (unit) body surface area, respectively, for the dry and sweating conditions. The relative heat loss afforded by plantar foot cooling was similar compared to other body regions, but the absolute amount of heat removal is unlikely to make an impact on whole body heat balance.

  17. Assessment of foot perfusion in patients with a diabetic foot ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Rachael O; Hinchliffe, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of foot perfusion is a vital step in the management of patients with diabetic foot ulceration, in order to understand the risk of amputation and likelihood of wound healing. Underlying peripheral artery disease is a common finding in patients with foot ulceration and is associated with poor outcomes. Assessment of foot perfusion should therefore focus on identifying the presence of peripheral artery disease and to subsequently estimate the effect this may have on wound healing. Assessment of perfusion can be difficult because of the often complex, diffuse and distal nature of peripheral artery disease in patients with diabetes, as well as poor collateralisation and heavy vascular calcification. Conventional methods of assessing tissue perfusion in the peripheral circulation may be unreliable in patients with diabetes, and it may therefore be difficult to determine the extent to which poor perfusion contributes to foot ulceration. Anatomical data obtained on cross-sectional imaging is important but must be combined with measurements of tissue perfusion (such as transcutaneous oxygen tension) in order to understand the global and regional perfusion deficit present in a patient with diabetic foot ulceration. Ankle-brachial pressure index is routinely used to screen for peripheral artery disease, but its use in patients with diabetes is limited in the presence of neuropathy and medial arterial calcification. Toe pressure index may be more useful because of the relative sparing of pedal arteries from medial calcification but may not always be possible in patients with ulceration. Fluorescence angiography is a non-invasive technique that can provide rapid quantitative information about regional tissue perfusion; capillaroscopy, iontophoresis and hyperspectral imaging may also be useful in assessing physiological perfusion but are not widely available. There may be a future role for specialized perfusion imaging of these patients, including magnetic resonance

  18. High temperature flat plate solar collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hozumi, S.; Aso, S.; Ebisu, K.; Uchino, H.

    1981-04-01

    Improvements in the efficiency of collectors are of great importance for extending the utilization of solar energy for heating and cooling in homes. A highly efficient collector makes the system size small and decreases the system cost effectively. From the view of the amount of energy collected, the efficient collector has a multiple effect, not only because of the high increase in instantaneous efficiency, but also because of the large usable intensity range of the insolation. On the basis of a functional analysis for a flat collector, the materials and parameters were selected and optimized, and a new high temperature flat collector was designed. The collector has 2 panes. The first pane is low iron glass and the second pane is a thin film of fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer. The overall solar transmittance for the two panes is 0.89. The collecting panel and its water paths were formed by means of welding and hydraulic expansion. The selective absorbing surface consists of colored stainless steel whose absorption characteristic is 0.89 and emission characteristic is 0.16. The thermal insulator preventing backward heatloss consists of double layers of urethane foam and glass wool. Furthermore, the sustained method for the second pane is contrived so as to prevent water condensation on the panes and excessive elevation of the absorber temperature during no load heating.

  19. Cosmological consequences of supersymmetric flat directions

    CERN Document Server

    Riva, Francesco; Sarkar, Subir; Giudice, Gian

    In this work we analyze various implications of the presence of large field vacum expectation values (VEVs) along supersymmetric flat direct ions during the early universe. First, we discuss supersymmetric leptogenesis and the grav itino bound. Supersym- metric thermal leptogenesis with a hierarchical right-han ded neutrino mass spectrum normally requires the mass of the lightest right-handed neu trino to be heavier than about 10 9 GeV. This is in conflict with the upper bound on the reheating t empera- ture which is found by imposing that the gravitinos generate d during the reheating stage after inflation do not jeopardize successful nucleosy nthesis. We show that a solution to this tension is actually already incorporated i n the framework, because of the presence of flat directions in the supersymmetric scalar potential. Massive right- handed neutrinos are efficiently produced non-thermally and the observed baryon asymmetry can be explained even for a reheating temperature respecting the grav- itino bound...

  20. Asymptotically flat space-times: an enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Ezra T.

    2016-07-01

    We begin by emphasizing that we are dealing with standard Einstein or Einstein-Maxwell theory—absolutely no new physics has been inserted. The fresh item is that the well-known asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell theory are transformed to a new coordinate system with surprising and (seemingly) inexplicable results. We begin with the standard description of (Null) asymptotically flat space-times described in conventional Bondi-coordinates. After transforming the variables (mainly the asymptotic Weyl tensor components) to a very special set of Newman-Unti (NU) coordinates, we find a series of relations totally mimicking standard Newtonian classical mechanics and Maxwell theory. The surprising and troubling aspect of these relations is that the associated motion and radiation does not take place in physical space-time. Instead these relations takes place in an unusual inherited complex four-dimensional manifold referred to as H-space that has no immediate relationship with space-time. In fact these relations appear in two such spaces, H-space and its dual space \\bar{H}.

  1. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities. PMID:27076876

  2. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the “foot at risk” to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noha; Amin[1; John; Doupis[2,3

    2016-01-01

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities.

  3. Diabetic foot disease: From the evaluation of the "foot at risk" to the novel diabetic ulcer treatment modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Noha; Doupis, John

    2016-04-10

    The burden of diabetic foot disease (DFD) is expected to increase in the future. The incidence of DFD is still rising due to the high prevalence of DFD predisposing factors. DFD is multifactorial in nature; however most of the diabetic foot amputations are preceded by foot ulceration. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is a major risk factor for foot ulceration. DPN leads to loss of protective sensation resulting in continuous unconscious traumas. Patient education and detection of high risk foot are essential for the prevention of foot ulceration and amputation. Proper assessment of the diabetic foot ulceration and appropriate management ensure better prognosis. Management is based on revascularization procedures, wound debridement, treatment of infection and ulcer offloading. Management and type of dressing applied are tailored according to the type of wound and the foot condition. The scope of this review paper is to describe the diabetic foot syndrome starting from the evaluation of the foot at risk for ulceration, up to the new treatment modalities.

  4. Different surgical treatment of post-burn trophic ulcers of the plantar surface in foot burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakirov, Babur M

    2011-12-01

    Burns of the plantar surface of the foot with the subsequent formation of scar is often complicated by unhealing trophic ulcers. Trophic ulcers increase due to constant local irritation, reaching various depth and area, penetrating to the bone and the tendons and covering the area of several centimetres in diameter up to the whole heel area. A total of 21 patients (12 men and nine women) have been under our observation at Samarkand Inter-Regional Burn Center, Uzbekistan, for prolonged trophic ulcers of soft tissues of the plantar surface of the foot. Ulcers sizes were from 1.0-2.5 to 3-5 cm in diameter. All patients had undergone earlier unsuccessful operation (3-5 times). The method of closure should be chosen according to both severity and localisation of the injury, using local uninjured tissues and soft scars to make bilobed skin-flap plasty, one-lobed skin-flat flap, tube graft and other shaped flaps and free grafts placed on the area of the excised scars. In 18 observations, a good result was achieved and no complications were noted. The grafts were viable, sensibility was preserved and no marginal necrosis was noticed. Patients can take up their work by 1.5-2.0 months after surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Wearing Different Personal Equipment on Force Distribution at the Plantar Surface of the Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schulze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The wearing of personal equipment can cause specific changes in muscle activity and posture. In the present study, we investigated the influence of differences in equipment related weight loading and load distribution on plantar pressure. In addition, we studied functional effects of wearing different equipment with a particular focus on relevant changes in foot shape. Methods. Static and dynamic pedobarography were performed on 31 male soldiers carrying increasing weights consisting of different items of equipment. Results. The pressure acting on the plantar surface of the foot increased with higher loading, both under static and dynamic conditions (p < 0.05. We observed an increase in the contact area (p < 0.05 and an influence of load distribution through different ways to carry the rifle. Conclusions. The wearing of heavier weights leads to an increase in plantar pressure and contact area. This may be caused by flattening of the transverse and longitudinal arches. The effects are more evident in subjects with flat feet deformities which seem to flatten at an earlier load condition with a greater amount compared to subjects with normal arches. Improving load distribution should be a main goal in the development of military equipment in order to prevent injuries or functional disorders of the lower extremity.

  6. Painful Lytic Lesions of the Foot : A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Vaishya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The presence of lytic lesions in the bones of foot raises a number of diagnostic possibilities ranging from infection, inflammatory pathology to neoplastic conditions. Although the radiological picture is not pathognomonic of any pathology, clinical history and histopathological examination can help to clinch the diagnosis. We present a case of multiple lytic lesions of the foot and discuss possible differential diagnoses. The patient was diagnosed as a case of madura foot and the lesions responded to surgical debridement and anti-fungal treatment with a good functional outcome. Madura foot is an uncommon, chronic granulomatous fungal or bacterial infection with a predilection in people who walk barefoot. Although known for a specific geographical distribution, madura foot should be kept as a possible diagnosis in patients presenting with lytic lesions of the foot due to population emigration across the world.

  7. Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Papanas

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification.

  8. Etiology, pathophysiology and classifications of the diabetic Charcot foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papanas, Nikolaos; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2013-01-01

    In people with diabetes mellitus, the Charcot foot is a specific manifestation of peripheral neuropathy that may involve autonomic neuropathy with high blood flow to the foot, leading to increased bone resorption. It may also involve peripheral somatic polyneuropathy with loss of protective sensation and high risk of unrecognized acute or chronic minor trauma. In both cases, there is excess local inflammatory response to foot injury, resulting in local osteoporosis. In the Charcot foot, the acute and chronic phases have been described. The former is characterized by local erythema, edema, and marked temperature elevation, while pain is not a prominent symptom. In the latter, signs of inflammation gradually recede and deformities may develop, increasing the risk of foot ulceration. The most common anatomical classification describes five patterns, according to the localization of bone and joint pathology. This review article aims to provide a brief overview of the diabetic Charcot foot in terms of etiology, pathophysiology, and classification.

  9. Pathogenesis of foot ulcers and the need for offloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathur, H M; Boulton, A J

    2005-04-01

    Diabetic foot ulceration represents a major medical, social and economic problem all over the world. While more than 5% of diabetic patients have a history of foot ulceration, the cumulative lifetime incidence may be as high as 15%. Ethnic differences exist in both ulcer and amputation incidences. Foot ulceration results from the interaction of several contributory factors, the most important of which is neuropathy. The use of the total-contact cast is demonstrated in the treatment of plantar neuropathic ulcers. Histological evidence suggests that pressure relief results in chronic foot ulcers changing their morphological appearance by displaying some features of an acute wound. Thus, repetitive stresses on the insensate foot appear to play a major role in maintaining ulcer chronicity. It is hoped that research activity in foot disease will ultimately result in fewer ulcers and less amputation in diabetes.

  10. Care of Patients with Diabetic Foot Disease in Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Busaidi, Ibrahim S.; Abdulhadi, Nadia N.; Coppell, Kirsten J.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major public health challenge and causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diabetic foot disease is one of the most debilitating and costly complications of diabetes. While simple preventative foot care measures can reduce the risk of lower limb ulcerations and subsequent amputations by up to 85%, they are not always implemented. In Oman, foot care for patients with diabetes is mainly provided in primary and secondary care settings. Among all lower limb amputations performed in public hospitals in Oman between 2002–2013, 47.3% were performed on patients with diabetes. The quality of foot care among patients with diabetes in Oman has not been evaluated and unidentified gaps in care may exist. This article highlights challenges in the provision of adequate foot care to Omani patients with diabetes. It concludes with suggested strategies for an integrated national diabetic foot care programme in Oman. PMID:27606104

  11. Isolated medial foot compartment syndrome after ankle sprain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Josep; Amat, Carles; Selga, Jordi; Corona, Pablo Salvador

    2014-03-01

    Foot compartment syndrome is a serious potential complication of foot crush injury, fractures, surgery, and vascular injury. An acute compartment syndrome isolated to the medial compartment of the foot after suffering an ankle sprain is a rare complication. We report the case of a 31-year-old man who developed a medial foot compartment syndrome after suffering a deltoid ligament rupture at ankle while playing football. The patient underwent a medial compartment fasciotomy with resolution of symptoms. Compartment syndromes of the foot are rare and have been reported to occur after severe trauma. But, there are some reports in the literature of acute exertional compartment syndrome. In our case, the compartment syndrome appeared after an ankle sprain without vascular injuries associated. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Outcomes of a Nurse-Managed Diabetes Foot Clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Managed Diabetes Foot Clinic 5b. GRANT NUMBER HU0001-04-1-TS10 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER N04-017...measured outcomes of a nurse-managed diabetes foot clinic on foot wound rates, health care costs, and changes in health status in adults with... diabetes . Design: This study reflects results of a two-group randomized, controlled trial. Sample: Participants were 126 adults with diabetes for more

  13. Use of Pressure Offloading Devices in Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Stephanie C; Jensen, Jeffrey L.; Weber, Anna K.; Robinson, Daniel E.; David G Armstrong

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—Pressure mitigation is crucial for the healing of plantar diabetic foot ulcers. We therefore discuss characteristics and considerations associated with the use of offloading devices. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A diabetic foot ulcer management survey was sent to foot clinics in all 50 states and the District of Columbia in 2005. A total of 901 geographically diverse centers responded. The survey recorded information regarding usage frequency and characteristics of assessment and tre...

  14. RISK FACTOR DIAGNOSTIC SCORE IN DIABETIC FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Shameem P. M

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Diabetic foot ulcers vary in their clinical presentation and nature of severity and therefore create a challenging problem to the treating surgeon regarding the prediction of the clinical course and the end result of the treatment. Clinical studies have shown that there are certain risk factors for the progression of foot ulcers in diabetics and it may therefore be possible to predict the course of an ulcer foot at presentation itself, thus instituting proper therapy without delay. Spoken otherwise clinical scoring may tell that this particular ulcer is having highest chance of amputation, then one may be able to take an early decision for the same and avoid the septic complications, inconvenience to the patient, long hospital stay and cost of treatments. AIM OF THE STUDY Aim of the study is to evaluate the above-mentioned scoring system in predicting the course the diabetic foot ulcers. MATERIALS AND METHODS 50 patients with Diabetic Foot attending the OPD of Department of Surgery of Government Hospital attached to Calicut Medical College are included in the present study. After thorough history taking and clinical examination, six risk factors like Age, pedal vessels, renal function, neuropathy, radiological findings and ulcers were observed in the patients by giving certain scoring points to each of them. The total number of points scored by the patients at the time of admission or OPD treatment was correlated with the final outcome in these patients, whether leading to amputation or conservative management. All the data was analysed using standard statistical methods. OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS There were 12 females and 38 males with a female to male ratio 1:3.1. All were aged above 30 years. Twenty-four (48% of them were between 30-60 years and twenty six (52% were above 60 years. 10 patients were treated conservatively with risk score range: 10 to 35. Six had single toe loss with risk score: 25 to 35. Six had multiple toe loss

  15. The effect of the degree of disability on nutritional status and flat feet in adolescents with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowicz-Szymanska, Agnieszka; Mikolajczyk, Edyta; Wojtanowski, Wiesław

    2013-11-01

    Excessive weight and obesity are ranked among lifestyle diseases. In the case of weight gain, the effectiveness of therapy based on diet and physical activity depends considerably on patients themselves, but despite this the number of those who successfully manage to lose weight is still not satisfactory. Preventing or treating excessive weight gain in the intellectually disabled is extremely difficult since they have a higher risk for developing obesity. The below presented study assessed the effect of the degree of intellectual disability on nutritional status in adolescents with Down syndrome. It also focused on some correlations between the degree of disability and a selected constituent of the body posture, i.e. flat feet. A total of 54 males and 26 females with mild and moderate Down syndrome, aged 18.68 ± 1.73, residents of Special Needs Education Centre in Tarnów, Poland, participated in the study, in which body weight and height, BMI, fat tissue percentage and the longitudinal arch of the foot were measured. A total of 17.5% of individuals with mild and 50% of individuals with moderate ID were found overweight or obese. Weight gain more often occurred in females. It seemed that flat feet were affected to a greater extent by the participants' nutritional status than their degree of disability. The study found no unambiguous effect of the degree of disability on the nutritional status and flat feet in individuals with Down syndrome.

  16. Benign and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Adam D.; Datir, Abhijit; Langley, Travis [Emory University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Section of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Atlanta, GA (United States); Tresley, Jonathan [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States); Clifford, Paul D.; Jose, Jean; Subhawong, Ty K. [University of Miami, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Pain and focal masses in the foot and ankle are frequently encountered and often initiate a workup including imaging. It is important to differentiate benign lesions from aggressive benign or malignant lesions. In this review, multiple examples of osseous and soft tissue tumors of the foot and ankle will be presented. Additionally, the compartmental anatomy of the foot and ankle will be discussed in terms of its relevance for percutaneous biopsy planning and eventual surgery. Finally, a general overview of the surgical management of benign, benign aggressive and malignant tumors of the foot and ankle will be discussed. (orig.)

  17. Isolation of a substance activating foot formation in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimmelikhuijzen, C J; Schaller, H C

    1977-01-01

    -forming potential of the tissue (2) It does not accelerate head regeneration, nor do the head factors of hydra discovered by Schaller (1973) and Berking (1977) accelerate foot regeneration. We propose that the foot-activating substance is a morphogen responsible for foot formation in hydra. The foot activator can...... be extracted from hydra tissue with methanol and separated from other known morphogens of hydra by gel filtration and ion-exchange chromatography. A substance with similar biological and physicochemical properties can be isolated from sea anemones....

  18. Foot-pad dermatitis in broilers and turkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Charlotte C.

    1998-01-01

    Foot-pad dermatitis is a condition characterised by lesions on the ventral foot-pads of poultry. It is a type of contact dermatitis, which in an early stage results in hyperkeratosis, erosions and discoloration of the skin. The erosions can develop into ulcers. In severe cases, the foot-pad lesions may cause pain which together with a deteriorated state of health constitutes a welfare issue. It has also been indicated that broilers with severe foot-pad dermatitis show slower weight gain. The ...

  19. Foot structure and footwear prescription in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, Sicco A

    2008-01-01

    Foot structure abnormalities such as foot deformity and limited joint mobility are common and well established components of the diabetic foot which are associated with increased levels of mechanical stress on the foot and the development of ulcers. Our understanding of foot structure abnormality in diabetes has improved recently, mainly through the findings from in vivo imaging studies. Several examples will be discussed in this review. A limited understanding, however, still exists about several aspects related to the assessment, etiology, and consequences of change in foot structure in diabetes. Knowledge on these matters is needed if we are to better deal with the implications of foot structure change in diabetes. Diabetic patients with neuropathy and foot deformity are commonly prescribed with custom footwear, in particular after ulcer healing. The goal of this footwear is to redistribute and reduce plantar foot pressures, and to prevent ulcer recurrence. However, the available evidence for the effectiveness of custom footwear in secondary ulcer prevention is not yet strong. This may be associated with several factors, including a lack of standardized or systematic approach (a set of guidelines) in footwear prescription and evaluation or with the significant variability that exists across patients in the offloading effect of different footwear interventions, which increases the difficulty of predicting what works for a given patient. Objective evaluation tools such as in-shoe plantar pressure analysis can be helpful in this regard in order to ensure efficacy of an intervention. This provides a more optimal footwear solution that may lower the risk for ulceration.

  20. Clinical workflow for personalized foot pressure ulcer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucki, M; Luboz, V; Perrier, A; Champion, E; Diot, B; Vuillerme, N; Payan, Y

    2016-09-01

    Foot pressure ulcers are a common complication of diabetes because of patient's lack of sensitivity due to neuropathy. Deep pressure ulcers appear internally when pressures applied on the foot create high internal strains nearby bony structures. Monitoring tissue strains in persons with diabetes is therefore important for an efficient prevention. We propose to use personalized biomechanical foot models to assess strains within the foot and to determine the risk of ulcer formation. Our workflow generates a foot model adapted to a patient's morphology by deforming an atlas model to conform it to the contours of segmented medical images of the patient's foot. Our biomechanical model is composed of rigid bodies for the bones, joined by ligaments and muscles, and a finite element mesh representing the soft tissues. Using our registration algorithm to conform three datasets, three new patient models were created. After applying a pressure load below these foot models, the Von Mises equivalent strains and "cluster volumes" (i.e. volumes of contiguous elements with strains above a given threshold) were measured within eight functionally meaningful foot regions. The results show the variability of both location and strain values among the three considered patients. This study also confirms that the anatomy of the foot has an influence on the risk of pressure ulcer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Gait: the role of the ankle and foot in walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Andrew

    2014-03-01

    Evaluation of gait and its associated deviations from normal requires an in-depth evaluation of the patient and an appreciation for the complexity of the task. Understanding gait starts with an appreciation of the basic determinants of gait. Foot drop is a common gait deviation. Functionally, a foot drop results in a long limb. This will result in alterations of the gait cycle during swing phase. The common compensations for a foot drop include steppage gait, circumduction, and a persistently abducted limb. Noninterventional options for management of common gait deviations secondary to ankle/foot dysfunction present challenges.

  2. Prospective study of ankle and foot fractures in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadagiri Surender Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of ankle fractures in old people is changing as time passes on. The incidence of ankle fractures increases with advancing age. The study conducted was among a rural popula-tion which comprised of 68 women (32 women with ankle fractures & 36 women with foot fractures. Patients studied were in the age group more than 50 years. The study highlights the etiological & risk factors for fractures of ankle & foot. The commonest ankle fracture was the lateral malleolar fracture & the commonest foot fracture was the 5th Metatarsal fracture. Diabetes is a risk factor which increases the occurrence of ankle and foot injuries.

  3. SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA FOOT WITH ILIOINGUINAL LYMPHADENOPATHY : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rambabu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma of the foot is rare. This carcinoma of the foot may arise from a precursor lesion or may be secondary. Squamous cell carcinoma of the foot may resemble verrucous carcinoma or there can be distinct verrucous carcinoma of the foot or epithelioma cuniculatum. We reporting a case of 45 years old male patient developed squamous cell carcinoma over marjolins ulcer and develop ilio - inguinal lymphadenopathy after 1 month of malignancy. We have done below knee amputation and ilioinguinal block dissection

  4. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  5. Flatness and Profile Integration Control Model for Tandem Cold Mills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Using the effective matrix methods of flatness and profile control synthetically, the flatness and profile in- tegration control scheme for tandem cold mills is built in order to increase flatness and profile control precision of tan- dem cold mills. Corresponding control strategies are adopted for various control objectives of different stands and the coordination control strategies of various stands are given, which makes the on-line flatness control cooperate with on-line profile control and implements the parallel control of different stands. According to the measured flatness and profile data of some 1550 mm tandem cold mills, the control scheme is verified and the result indicates that the scheme has high flatness and profile control precision with steady and reliable control process. A new way and method is supplied for researching shade control of tandem cold mills.

  6. Holography of 3D Asymptotically Flat Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Fareghbal, Reza

    2014-01-01

    We study the asymptotically flat rotating hairy black hole solution of a three-dimensional gravity theory which is given by taking flat-space limit (zero cosmological constant limit) of New Massive Gravity (NMG). We propose that the dual field theory of the flat-space limit of NMG can be described by a Contracted Conformal Field Theory (CCFT). Using Flat/CCFT correspondence we construct a stress tensor which yields the conserved charges of the asymptotically flat black hole solution. Furthermore, by taking appropriate limit of the Cardy formula in the parent CFT, we find a Cardy-like formula which reproduces the Wald's entropy of the 3D asymptotically flat black hole.

  7. Holography of 3D asymptotically flat black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fareghbal, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Morteza

    2015-04-01

    We study the asymptotically flat rotating hairy black hole solution of a three-dimensional gravity theory which is given by taking the flat-space limit (zero cosmological constant limit) of new massive gravity. We propose that the dual field theory of the flat-space limit of new massive gravity can be described by a contracted conformal field theory which is invariant under the action of the BMS3 group. Using the flat/contracted conformal field theory correspondence, we construct a stress tensor which yields the conserved charges of the asymptotically flat black hole solution. We check that our expressions of the mass and angular momentum fit with the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Furthermore, by taking the appropriate limit of the Cardy formula in the parent conformal field theory, we find a Cardy-like formula which reproduces the Wald's entropy of the 3D asymptotically flat black hole.

  8. [Experience of treatment of diabetic foot syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertsov, V I; Ponomarenko, O V

    2014-07-01

    In The Clinic of Cathedra of The Catastrophes Medicine, Military Medicine, Anesthesiology and Reanimatology in 2010 - 2013 yrs 53 patients, ageing 23-65 yrs, were treated for diabetic foot syndrome (DFS) of neuropathic and mixed forms. Diagnostic-treatment algorithm was proposed for determination of level and degree of a circulation and neuropathic disorders, introduction of which have promoted optimization of surgical and local treatment, improvement of the complex treatment results in patients, suffering DFS. A new method of treatment application, using combined preparation of hyaluronic acid with the sodium succinic, have permitted to achieve a complete healing of the ulcer defect.

  9. Metabolic Foot- and Fingerprinting of Lactobacillus paracasei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäpelt, Kristina Bak

    in the metabolome, and an increased understanding of bile response mechanisms could be obtained by analysis of the response by tools within metabolomics. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to develop a platform for metabolic foot- and fingerprinting of L. paracasei subsp. paracasei strain (L. casei CRL-431......, it was demonstrated that the subsequent method used to extract intracellular metabolites from the L. paracasei cells altered the metabolic fingerprint. A comparative study was performed to characterise the effect of the genetic alterations in a set of mutants with enhanced bile tolerance from the parental strain of L...

  10. A Pacinian hyperplasia of the foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satge, D; Nabhan, J; Nandiegou, Y; Hermann, B; Goburdhun, J; Labrousse, F

    2001-04-01

    A case of Pacinian hyperplasia of the right great toe is reported. Pacinian hyperplasia is a rare benign and recently recognized painful lesion composed of an excess of well formed or hyperplastic Pacinian corpuscules, normaly involved in sensory innervation. This lesion that is usually observed in the hand, must be distinguished from nerve tumors harboring onion-bulb structure which are not true well formed Pacinian corpuscules and from Morton neuroma. Pacinian hyperplasia is considered a reactive lesion and not a true neoplasm. To our knowledge, this case is the first described in the foot.

  11. Wheeled foot quadruped robot HITAN-I

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Pengfei; Sun Lining

    2006-01-01

    In view of the robot running environment, the structure of wheeled foot and quadruped are adopted in this robot system, which combines the priorities of both wheeled robot and legged robot. Based on CAN bus, the two-class robot control system using multiple controllers and drivers is constructed. At the same time, serial inverse kinematics of swaying leg and parallel inverse kinematics of supporting legs are analyzed independently. The forward gait and turning gait are planned and experiment image is given at last.

  12. Facts that every vascular surgeon needs to know about the diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes important aspects of the diabetic foot which the vascular surgeon needs to understand to efficiently manage the diabetic foot. Firstly, it emphasises the three main pathologies which come together in the diabetic foot, namely neuropathy, ischemia and immunopathy, the latter predisposing to infection. As a result of neuropathy, the signs and symptoms of tissue breakdown, infection and ischemia may be minimal. Nevertheless the pathology emanating from such clinical events proceeds rapidly without the body being aware of it and the end stage of tissue death and necrosis is quickly reached. It is important to have a prompt system of evaluation and intervention to prevent the rapid progression to necrosis. Thus, secondly, the paper describes a simple rapid assessment of the diabetic foot, which comprises inspection, palpation and sensory testing and leads on to a modern classification and staging of the diabetic foot. This classifies six subdivisions of the diabetic foot: foot with neuropathic ulceration, Charcot foot, neuroischemic foot, critically ischemic foot, acutely ischemic foot and renal ischemic foot and six stages in the natural history of each of these subdivisions: normal foot, high risk foot, ulcerated foot, infected foot, necrotic foot and unsalvageable foot. Thirdly, it describes modern management of the diabetic foot, emphazising wound care and revascularization within the context of a multidisciplinary care team that provides integrated care focused in a diabetic foot clinic, to which patients with diabetes should have easy and rapid access. Members of the team include podiatrist, nurse, orthotist, physician, radiologist and surgeons.

  13. THE FEASIBILITY OF HIND FOOT AMPUTATION IN SELECTED SARCOMAS OF THE FOOT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAM, SJ; HOEKSTRA, HJ; EISMA, WH; OLDHOFF, J; KOOPS, HS

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of foot sarcomas is generally a below knee amputation. In selected sarcomas of the forefoot, however, a transtarsal amputation according to Chopart, a calcaneotibial arthrodesis according to Pirogoff, or a supramalleolar amputation according to Syme can be considered the treatment of c

  14. A kinematic method to detect foot contact during running for all foot strike patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Clare E; Paquette, Max R

    2015-09-18

    The biomechanics of distance running are studied in relation to both understanding injury mechanisms and improving performance. Kinematic methods must be used to identify the stance phase of running when data are recorded during running on a standard treadmill or outside the laboratory. Recently, a focus on foot strike patterns has emerged in the field. Thus, there is a need for a kinematic method to identify foot contact that is equally effective for both rearfoot and non-rearfoot strike patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a new kinematic method could accurately determine foot contact during running in both rearfoot and non-rearfoot strikers. Overground gait data were collected at on 22 runners, 11 with a rearfoot strike pattern and 11 with a non-rearfoot strike pattern. Data were processed to identify foot contact from: vertical ground reaction force, two previously published kinematic methods, and our new kinematic method. Limits of agreement were used to determine bias and random error of each kinematic method compared to ground reaction force onset. The new method had comparable random error at 200 Hz sampling frequency (5 ms per frame) to the previous methods (7 frames vs 6-9 frames) and produced the same offset for both strike patterns (3 frames), while the existing methods had different offsets for different strike patterns (4 or 7 frames). Study findings support use of this new method, as it can be applied to all running strike patterns without adjusting the frame offset, simplifying data processing.

  15. THE FEASIBILITY OF HIND FOOT AMPUTATION IN SELECTED SARCOMAS OF THE FOOT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAM, SJ; HOEKSTRA, HJ; EISMA, WH; OLDHOFF, J; KOOPS, HS

    The treatment of foot sarcomas is generally a below knee amputation. In selected sarcomas of the forefoot, however, a transtarsal amputation according to Chopart, a calcaneotibial arthrodesis according to Pirogoff, or a supramalleolar amputation according to Syme can be considered the treatment of

  16. Mechanism and Design Analysis of Articulated Ankle Foot Orthoses for Drop-Foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morshed Alam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technologies are being employed increasingly in the treatment of lower limb disabilities. Individuals suffering from stroke and other neurological disorders often experience inadequate dorsiflexion during swing phase of the gait cycle due to dorsiflexor muscle weakness. This type of pathological gait, mostly known as drop-foot gait, has two major complications, foot-slap during loading response and toe-drag during swing. Ankle foot orthotic (AFO devices are mostly prescribed to resolve these complications. Existing AFOs are designed with or without articulated joint with various motion control elements like springs, dampers, four-bar mechanism, series elastic actuator, and so forth. This paper examines various AFO designs for drop-foot, discusses the mechanism, and identifies limitations and remaining design challenges. Along with two commercially available AFOs some designs possess promising prospective to be used as daily-wear device. However, the design and mechanism of AFO must ensure compactness, light weight, low noise, and high efficiency. These entailments present significant engineering challenges to develop a new design with wide consumer adoption.

  17. TRANSVERSE MODES FOR FLAT INTER-BUNCH WAKES*

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, A

    2013-01-01

    If inter-bunch wake fields are flat, i.e. their variations over a bunch length can be neglected, all coherent modes have the same coupled-bunch structure, provided the bunches can be treated as identical by their inner qualities (train theorem). If a flat feedback is strong enough, the transverse modes are single-bunch, provided the inter-bunch wakes are also flat (damper theorem).

  18. Development of Partial Tubular Flat Knitting Fabric Composite Preform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wei Qing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After building some structures of partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform, the influencing factor on tubular section was analyzed and the fabric was knitted selectively. The partial tubular flat knitting fabric composite preform were Knitted by changing different yarn, row number and two-sided partial tubular flat knitting fabric. Multilayer sheet would be got after hot pressing and it has big market prospects and good application value.

  19. Improving the durability of flat roof constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    Flat roof constructions are mainly used on commercial, institutional and industrial buildings, where insulation is placed on top of the load-bearing deck and then covered with a roof membrane. Through time, there is a risk that the membrane will allow water passage as holes might form due...... to weathering effects or physical loads. Water will then enter the insulation, and as a vapor retarder is normally found below the insulation thus trapping the water in the insulation, the leak can remain undetected for a long period. When the leak is finally discovered, the insulation has to be discharged...... of the system, thereby making it easier to detect leaks faster. When a leak is detected, the membrane is repaired locally. In order to remove water which has already entered the insulation, an air gap or a system of air channels between the deck and the insulation is subjected to forced ventilation with outdoor...

  20. Knitting Force Measurement on Flat Knitting Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fouda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knittability can be defined as the ability of yarns to run on knitting machines without problems. Knittability can be achieved when less stress is applied on the knitting machine parts by the knitting yarns. This paper presents a novel measuring system for the knitting force needed to perform knitting yarns on flat knitting machine based on data acquisition system (DAS. The proposed system is used to measure the knitting force at different machine settings and different properties of the knitting yarns to determine the optimal production conditions. For this reason, three types of knitted fabric structures (single jersey, Rib 1 × 1, and full cardigan with three different loop lengths and five different twists of ply yarn were produced. The obtained results showed the optimal yarn ply twist factor (αe which gave minimum knitting force (less stress on needles or knitting yarns at different loop lengths for each structure.

  1. Perfect Multi-Channel Flat Reflectors

    CERN Document Server

    Asadchy, V S; Elsakka, A; Albooyeh, M; Tretyakov, S A

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in engineered gradient metasurfaces have enabled unprecedented opportunities for light manipulation using optically thin sheets, such as anomalous refraction, reflection, or focusing of an incident beam. Here we introduce a concept of multi-channel functional metasurfaces, which are able to control incoming and outgoing waves in a number of propagation directions or polarization states simultaneously and independently. In particular, we reveal a possibility to create perfect multi-channel reflectors. Under the assumption of reciprocity and energy conservation, we find that there exist three fundamental classes of multi-channel mirrors. Together they form a basis of all possible reflection functionalities achievable with flat periodically modulated reflectors. To demonstrate the potential of the introduced concept, we design and experimentally test one of the basis multi-channel reflectors, confirming the desired multi-channel response. Furthermore, by extending the concept to reflectors suppor...

  2. Incompressible Polaritons in a Flat Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Matteo; van Nieuwenburg, Evert P L; Blatter, Gianni; Huber, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    We study the interplay of geometric frustration and interactions in a nonequilibrium photonic lattice system exhibiting a polariton flat band as described by a variant of the Jaynes-Cummings-Hubbard model. We show how to engineer strong photonic correlations in such a driven, dissipative system by quenching the kinetic energy through frustration. This produces an incompressible state of photons characterized by short-ranged crystalline order with period doubling. The latter manifests itself in strong spatial correlations, i.e., on-site and nearest-neighbor antibunching combined with extended density-wave oscillations at larger distances. We propose a state-of-the-art circuit QED realization of our system, which is tunable in situ.

  3. Topological flat bands from dipolar spin systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, N Y; Laumann, C R; Gorshkov, A V; Bennett, S D; Demler, E; Zoller, P; Lukin, M D

    2012-12-28

    We propose and analyze a physical system that naturally admits two-dimensional topological nearly flat bands. Our approach utilizes an array of three-level dipoles (effective S=1 spins) driven by inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields. The dipolar interactions produce arbitrary uniform background gauge fields for an effective collection of conserved hard-core bosons, namely, the dressed spin flips. These gauge fields result in topological band structures, whose band gap can be larger than the corresponding bandwidth. Exact diagonalization of the full interacting Hamiltonian at half-filling reveals the existence of superfluid, crystalline, and supersolid phases. An experimental realization using either ultracold polar molecules or spins in the solid state is considered.

  4. Rocky Flats experience with SDM/70

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanders, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    SDM/70 is a comprehensive system for developing systems. It employs a series of phases designed for consistent, orderly progress through the entire system development life cycle, with heavy emphasis on interaction with the users in the early phases and straightforward, but thorough, documentation throughout. The overall package includes a standard structure of tasks and steps for each phase, methods guidelines, many good forms and tutorials on state-of-the-art techniques. It has guidelines for estimating costs and schedules, approaches for improving project management, and ways to match the effort to the size and type of project (even for small applications or maintenance and enhancement of existing systems). Reasons for adoption of a new methodology by the Computing and Information Systems Department at Rocky Flats are reviewed. The choice of SDM/70 is described, and the status after about a year's experience, including the benefits perceived during that time, is discussed. (RWR)

  5. On asymptotic flatness and Lorentz charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Compere, Geoffrey [KdV Institute for Mathematics, Universiteit van Amsterdam (Netherlands); Dehouck, Francois; Virmani, Amitabh, E-mail: gcompere@uva.nl, E-mail: fdehouck@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: avirmani@ulb.ac.be [Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2011-07-21

    In this paper we establish two results concerning four-dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes at spatial infinity. First, we show that the six conserved Lorentz charges are encoded in two unique, distinct, but mutually dual symmetric divergence-free tensors that we construct from the equations of motion. Second, we show that the integrability of Einstein's equations in the asymptotic expansion is sufficient to establish the equivalence between counter-term charges defined from the variational principle and charges defined by Ashtekar and Hansen. These results clarify earlier constructions of conserved charges in the hyperboloid representation of spatial infinity. In showing this, the parity condition on the mass aspect is not needed. Along the way in establishing these results, we prove two lemmas on tensor fields on three-dimensional de Sitter spacetime stated by Ashtekar-Hansen and Beig-Schmidt and state and prove three additional lemmas.

  6. Holographic Renormalization of Asymptotically Flat Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Miok

    2012-01-01

    We compute the boundary stress tensor associated with Mann-Marolf counterterm in asymptotic flat and static spacetime for cylindrical boundary surface as $r \\rightarrow \\infty$, and find that the form of the boundary stress tensor is the same as the hyperbolic boundary case in 4 dimensions, but has additional terms in higher than 4 dimensions. We find that these additional terms are impotent and do not contribute to conserved charges. We also check the conservation of the boundary stress tensor in a sense that $\\mathcal{D}^a T_{ab} = 0$, and apply our result to the ($n+3$)-dimensional static black hole solution. As a result, we show that the stress boundary tensor with Mann-Marolf counterterm works well in standard boundary surfaces.

  7. FREE VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF FLAT THIN MEMBRANE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. HARSHA

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the vibration analysis for predicating the behavior of flat thin inflatable membrane structure. This is having rectangular shaped with a thickness in millimeter fabricated using the various smart materials. Within structural member, it is subjected to pre-stress rather than bending or moments. The deployable structure has the low weight (minimal mass to achieve high acceleration; large area & durable (easily withstand the temperature changes, micrometeoroid hazards in outer space. The objective of this paper is to optimize the smart material for the space satellite technology so that the light weight inflatable structure attracts in satellite application. The observations show the good agreement between finite element and analytical results.

  8. Pulsar Magnetospheres: Beyond the Flat Spacetime Dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Samuel E; Philippov, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Most studies of the pulsar magnetosphere have assumed a pure magnetic dipole in flat spacetime. However, recent work suggests that the effects of general relativity are in fact of vital importance and that realistic pulsar magnetic fields may have a significant nondipolar component. We introduce a general analytical method for studying the axisymmetric force-free magnetosphere of a slowly-rotating star of arbitrary magnetic field, mass, radius and moment of inertia, including all the effects of general relativity. We confirm that spacelike current is generically present in the polar caps (suggesting a pair production region), irrespective of the stellar magnetic field. We show that general relativity introduces a ~60% correction to the formula for the dipolar component of the surface magnetic field inferred from spindown. Finally, we show that the location and size of the polar caps can be modified dramatically by even modestly strong higher moments. This can affect emission processes occurring near the star ...

  9. Piecewise flat embeddings for hyperspectral image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Tyler L.; Meinhold, Renee T.; Hamilton, John F.; Cahill, Nathan D.

    2017-05-01

    Graph-based dimensionality reduction techniques such as Laplacian Eigenmaps (LE), Local Linear Embedding (LLE), Isometric Feature Mapping (ISOMAP), and Kernel Principal Components Analysis (KPCA) have been used in a variety of hyperspectral image analysis applications for generating smooth data embeddings. Recently, Piecewise Flat Embeddings (PFE) were introduced in the computer vision community as a technique for generating piecewise constant embeddings that make data clustering / image segmentation a straightforward process. In this paper, we show how PFE arises by modifying LE, yielding a constrained ℓ1-minimization problem that can be solved iteratively. Using publicly available data, we carry out experiments to illustrate the implications of applying PFE to pixel-based hyperspectral image clustering and classification.

  10. Physiological Demands of Flat Horse Racing Jockeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, SarahJane; OʼLoughlin, Gillian; McGoldrick, Adrian; Smyth, Barry; May, Gregory; Warrington, Giles D

    2015-11-01

    The physiological demands of jockeys during competition remain largely unknown, thereby creating challenges when attempting to prescribe sport-specific nutrition and training guidelines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological demands and energy requirements of jockeys during flat racing. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) and heart rate (HR) were assessed in 18 male trainee jockeys during a race simulation trial on a mechanical horse racing simulator for the typical time duration to cover a common flat race distance of 1,400 m. In addition, 8 male apprentice jockeys participated in a competitive race, over distances ranging from 1,200 to 1,600 m, during which HR and respiratory rate (RR) were assessed. All participants performed a maximal incremental cycle ergometer test. During the simulated race, peak V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was 42.74 ± 5.6 ml·kg·min (75 ± 11% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) and below the mean ventilatory threshold (81 ± 5% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak) reported in the maximal incremental cycle test. Peak HR was 161 ± 16 b·min (86 ± 7% of HRpeak). Energy expenditure was estimated as 92.5 ± 18.8 kJ with an associated value of 9.4 metabolic equivalents. During the competitive race trial, peak HR reached 189 ± 5 b·min (103 ± 4% of HRpeak) and peak RR was 50 ± 7 breaths per minute. Results suggest that horse racing is a physically demanding sport, requiring jockeys to perform close to their physiological limit to be successful. These findings may provide a useful insight when developing sport-specific nutrition and training strategies to optimally equip and prepare jockeys physically for the physiological demands of horse racing.

  11. A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Robin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of the motor control pathway and may occur in numerous pathologies such as stroke, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and cerebral palsy. The objectives for the prototype PhAFO are to provide toe clearance during swing, permit free ankle motion during stance, and harvest the needed power with an underfoot bellow pump pressurized during the stance phase of walking. Methods The PhAFO was constructed from a two-part (tibia and foot carbon composite structure with an articulating ankle joint. Ankle motion control was accomplished through a cam-follower locking mechanism actuated via a pneumatic circuit connected to the bellow pump and embedded in the foam sole. Biomechanical performance of the prototype orthosis was assessed during multiple trials of treadmill walking of an able-bodied control subject (n = 1. Motion capture and pressure measurements were used to investigate the effect of the PhAFO on lower limb joint behavior and the capacity of the bellow pump to repeatedly generate the required pneumatic pressure for toe clearance. Results Toe clearance during swing was successfully achieved during all trials; average clearance 44 ± 5 mm. Free ankle motion was observed during stance and plantarflexion was blocked during swing. In addition, the bellow component repeatedly generated an average of 169 kPa per step of pressure during ten minutes of walking. Conclusion This study demonstrated that fluid power could be harvested with a pneumatic circuit built into an AFO, and used to operate an actuated cam-lock mechanism that controls ankle-foot motion at specific periods of the gait cycle.

  12. Level-Ground Walking for 3D Quasi-Passive Walker with Flat Feet - Lateral-plane Input using McKibben-Type Artificial Muscle -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many bipedal robots have been proposed to realize the high energy efficiency walking. The passive dynamic walking does not require control input. Generally, a foot of passive dynamic walking robot is an arc foot. In this paper, it is intended to establish a control method and control mechanism to achieve energy efficient and stable gate. Therefore, we developed 3D quasi-passive walker with flat feet driven by an antagonistic pneumatic artificial muscle. An antagonistic mechanism is constituted by a pair of McKibben muscle. And an antagonistic pneumatic system is used as joint actuators of linkage mechanisms which control the torque, joint stiffness and position simultaneously. Finally, this report shows that the 3D quasi-passive walking in the level ground can realize by the swinging (simple input of the frontal direction, and the stride of the robot is proportional to lateral-plane input.

  13. Update on the diabetic foot 2012: the 14th biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot Conference, May 9-11, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Peter; Franklyn, Kerryn; Rayman, Gerry; Boulton, Andrew J M

    2013-03-01

    The 14th biennial Malvern Diabetic Foot Conference was held in May 2012. Physicians, podiatrists, nurses, orthotists, surgeons, radiologists, and other professionals attended to reflect on the diabetic foot. The conference comprised interactive workshops, oral presentations of new research findings, and lectures from leading figures in the world of the diabetic foot. Over the 3 days, topics such as epidemiology, neuropathy, screening, vascular disease, prevention, and management among others were discussed. The conference has been an excellent platform from which to share new and ongoing research and it will without a doubt improve the treatment of the diabetic foot across the world.

  14. Functional clinical typology of the foot and kinematic gait parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Marenčáková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The foot plays a key role in a standing posture, walking and running performance. Changes in its structure or function may alter upper segments of kinematic chain which can lead to formation of musculoskeletal disorders. Although functional clinical typology provides a complex view of foot kinesiology there is a lack of knowledge and evidence about influences of different foot types on human gait. Objective: The aim of the study was to analyse differences of kinematic gait parameters of lower extremity joints and pelvis between functional clinical foot types in healthy young men. Methods: Three-dimensional kinematic analysis by the Vicon Motion Capture MX System device in synchronization with 2 Kistler force platforms was used to obtain kinematic data from 18 healthy men (mean age 23.2 ± 1.9 years. The functional clinical foot type was clinically examined and sorted into 3 basic foot type groups - forefoot varus (FFvar, rearfoot varus (RFvar and forefoot valgus (FFvalg. Peak angular values and range of an angular displacement in all of three movement planes were analysed for pelvis, hip, knee and ankle joint. For statistical analysis of kinematic gait parameters differences between foot types Mann Whitney U test at a statistical significance level p < .05 and Cohen's coefficient d for effect size were used. Results: This study showed that functional clinical foot type can affect kinematic parameters of gait in the joints of the lower limb and pelvis. Significant differences were presented in the FFvar in comparison with other two foot type groups with middle and high size of effect. The most alterations were observed in pelvis area and in a sagittal plane of movement. Nevertheless, significant differences between FFvalg and RFvar foot types were not noticed. Conclusions: Functional clinical foot typology provides one of the possible methods to describe foot structure and function. Our results showed that foot type could

  15. The German and Belgian accreditation models for diabetic foot services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbach, Stephan; Kersken, Joachim; Lobmann, Ralf; Nobels, Frank; Doggen, Kris; Van Acker, Kristien

    2016-01-01

    The International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot recommends that auditing should be part of the organization of diabetic foot care, the efforts required for data collection and analysis being balanced by the expected benefits. In Germany legislature demands measures of quality management for in- and out-patient facilities, and, in 2003, the Germany Working Group on the Diabetic Foot defined and developed a certification procedure for diabetic foot centres to be recognized as 'specialized'. This includes a description of management facilities, treatment procedures and outcomes, as well as the organization of mutual auditing visits between the centres. Outcome data is collected at baseline and 6 months on 30 consecutive patients. By 2014 almost 24,000 cases had been collected and analysed. Since 2005 Belgian multidisciplinary diabetic foot clinics could apply for recognition by health authorities. For continued recognition diabetic foot clinics need to treat at least 52 patients with a new foot problem (Wagner 2 or more or active Charcot foot) per annum. Baseline and 6-month outcome data of these patients are included in an audit-feedback initiative. Although originally fully independent of each other, the common goal of these two initiatives is quality improvement of national diabetic foot care, and hence exchanges between systems has commenced. In future, the German and Belgian accreditation models might serve as templates for comparable initiatives in other countries. Just recently the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot initiated a working group for further discussion of accreditation and auditing models (International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot AB(B)A Working Group).

  16. Foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kickboxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Wattanarojanapom, Thongaek; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Muay Thai kickboxing is a common sport that uses the foot and ankle in fighting. Muay Thai kickboxing trainees usually receive training in Thailand Foot and ankle problems in this group ofpeople who usually train barefoot remain unexplored To evaluate the prevalence of common foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kick boxers. The present study is a cross-sectional survey of Muay Thai kick boxers practicing in northern Thailand. Interviews were conducted and foot and ankle examinations were evaluated Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. One hundred and twenty-three Muay Thai kickbox ersinnine training gyms were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found in the Muay Thai kick boxers were callosity (59%), gastrocnemius contracture (57%), toe deformities (49.3%), wounds (10%) and heel pain (9%). Callosity was most commonly found on the forefoot (77.5%), on the plantar first metatarsal (55.3%) and on the big toe (33.3%). An association was found between a tight heel cord and a history of foot injury with prolonged periods of weekly training. Toe deformities such as hallux rigidus (37.6%) were also associated with prolonged periods of training (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between type of foot arch and foot and ankle problems. Plantar forefoot callosities and wounds as well as toe deformities including tight heel cords are some of the foot and ankle problems commonly found in Muay Thai kick boxers. They are associated with prolonged periods of barefoot training. The unique pattern of training and of the kicks in Muay Thai might be a path mechanism, leading to the development of foot and ankle problems.

  17. [Diabetic foot microbiology through biopsy cultures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabeza-De-Vaca, Francisco; Macías, Alejandro Ernesto; Alvarez, José Antonio; Cuevas, Aurora; Ramirez, América Jazmín; Ramírez, Welsy Araceli; Sifuentes-Osornio, José

    2009-01-01

    To determine the microbiology of diabetic foot wounds, through biopsy cultures. Patients with diabetic foot and clinical data of infection were recruited consecutively. Cultures were processed for aerobic organisms after mortar homogenization. For cases with multiple isolates, only the two predominant organisms were identified. The bacterial identification was carried out by biochemical procedures. The sensitivity to antibiotics was made by the disk diffusion method. A total of 91 biopsies were studied, 47 from men (52%). There were 102 isolates, 68 being Gram-negative bacilli (67%), with predominance of Escherichia coli (21%). A total of 28 Gram-positive cocci were isolated (28%) and 6 yeasts (6%). Of the 68 Gram-negative bacilli, 24 were resistant to ciprofloxacin (35%). A total of 55 Enterobacteriaceae were isolated, of which 4 (7%) produced extended-spectrum beta-lactamases. There were 8 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 3 of which (38%) were resistant to methicillin. In comparison with reports from industrialized countries, we found a higher proportion of Gram-negative and resistant organisms.

  18. Autonomic neuropathy and diabetic foot ulceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, M E; Nicolaides, K H; Watkins, P J

    1986-01-01

    Autonomic function was studied in three groups of insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Heart rate changes during deep breathing and on standing were significantly less in 28 patients with a recent history of foot ulceration compared with 40 patients with peripheral neuropathy but without ulceration (p less than 0.001) and 54 patients without neuropathy (p less than 0.001). Sympathetic function was assessed in 36 of these patients from peripheral arterial diastolic flow patterns obtained by Doppler ultrasound measurements and expressed as the pulsatility index (PI). Patients with a history of ulceration (n = 10) showed considerably increased diastolic flow (PI = 4.28 +/- 0.53, mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with 12 neuropathic patients with no history of ulceration (PI = 7.80 +/- 0.68, p less than 0.002) and 14 patients without neuropathy (PI = 9.55 +/- 0.89, p less than 0.002). Severely abnormal autonomic function occurs in association with neuropathic foot ulceration, but patients without ulcers have lesser degrees of autonomic neuropathy, thus a causal relationship has not been established.

  19. Nonlinear MHD waves in a Prominence Foot

    CERN Document Server

    Ofman, Leon; Kucera, Therese; Schmieder, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    We study nonlinear waves in a prominence foot using 2.5D MHD model motivated by recent high-resolution observations with Hinode/SOT in Ca~II emission of a prominence on October 10, 2012 showing highly dynamic small-scale motions in the prominence material. Observations of H$\\alpha$ intensities and of Doppler shifts show similar propagating fluctuations. However the optically thick nature of the emission lines inhibits unique quantitative interpretation in terms of density. Nevertheless, we find evidence of nonlinear wave activity in the prominence foot by examining the relative magnitude of the fluctuation intensity ($\\delta I/I\\sim \\delta n/n$). The waves are evident as significant density fluctuations that vary with height, and apparently travel upward from the chromosphere into the prominence material with quasi-periodic fluctuations with typical period in the range of 5-11 minutes, and wavelengths $\\sim <$2000 km. Recent Doppler shift observations show the transverse displacement of the propagating wav...

  20. Imaging osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W. (Gottingen Univ. (Germany). Dep. of Nuclear Medicine)

    1999-03-01

    The clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and the diabetic foot is in most of the patients not possible without imaging the bone. The clinical problem is to diagnose infection as early, as reliable and as cheap as possible to prevent the possible longstanding and life-threatening complications. For imaging a lot of different radiological and nuclear medicine methods are available. This article focuses on the possible results of conventional plain radiography and tomography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging as radiological and on bone scan, autologous white blood cell scintigraphy with [sup 111]In-oxin or [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO, antigranulocyte antibodies, [sup 99m]Tc/[sup 111]In-human immunoglobulin,[sup 67] Ga-citrate and [sup 99m]Tc-nanocelloids. Different methods after different answers. Radiological methods give detailed pathological answers, nuclear medicine methods answer questions of specificity such as leukocyte infiltration. If osteomyelitis is suspected, plain radiography should be the first, three phase bone scintigraphy the second and infection specific radiopharmaceuticals the third step of examination. Only in negative images with high clinical suspicion CT or MRI should be the final imaging procedure. In the diabetic foot imaging cascade should also start with plain radiography, followed by three phase bone scintigraphy or MRI. If clinically neuropathy is present specific nuclear medicine imaging should be performed.

  1. Ground reaction force differences between running shoes, racing flats, and distance spikes in runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Suzanna; Hunter, Ian; J Ty Hopkins, J T; Feland, J Brent; Parcell, Allen C

    2010-01-01

    Various shoes are worn by distance runners throughout a training season. This study measured the differences in ground reaction forces between running shoes, racing flats, and distance spikes in order to provide information about the potential effects of footwear on injury risk in highly competitive runners. Ten male and ten female intercollegiate distance runners ran across a force plate at 6.7 m·s(-1) (for males) and 5.7 m·s(-1) (for females) in each of the three types of shoes. To control for differences in foot strike, only subjects who exhibited a heel strike were included in the data analysis. Two repeated-measures ANOVAs with Tukey's post-hoc tests (p force and peak braking forces were significantly greater in flats and spikes compared to running shoes. Vertical stiffness in spikes was also significantly greater than in running shoes. Females had significantly shorter stance times and greater maximum propulsion forces in racing flats compared to running shoes. Changing footwear between the shoes used in this study alters the loads placed on the body. Care should be taken as athletes enter different phases of training where different footwear is required. Injury risk may be increased since the body may not be accustomed to the differences in force, stance time, and vertical stiffness. Key pointsTo determine the differences in ground reaction forces between regular running shoes and competitive footwear, force plate data was obtained from 10 males (6.7 m·s(-1)) and 10 females (5.7 m·s(-1)) for each of three shoe types.Data from men and women were analyzed in two separate groups, and significant differences were found for various GRF components between the three types of shoes.The significant increases in GRF components in competitive footwear suggest that the body must deal with greater impact forces in these shoes than in running shoes at the same running speed.The results from this study warrant the recommendation that runners transition gradually from

  2. Skin and nail mycoses in patients with diabetic foot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, M; Cicoletti, M; Fabrizi, V; Landucci, P

    2013-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus affects all socioeconomic and age groups and its incidence is rapidly increasing worldwide. The diabetic foot complication represents one of the most complex and serious complications in these patients. Fungal infections can also contribute to the severity of the diabetic foot. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of foot skin and toenail mycosis in a group of 75 patients with diabetic foot complication and in a matched control group. Diabetic patients showed onychomycosis in 53.3% and foot skin mycosis in 46.7% of the cases, with a prevalence of both fungal infections significantly higher than that observed in the control group. At least one type of these fungal infections was present in 69.3% of diabetic subjects with a highly significant difference compared to control group (Pdiabetic foot complication, and that the problem of fungal infections of the foot in diabetic subjects is still highly underestimated. Consequently, there is an important clinical rationale for careful mycological examination of diabetic foot and an adequate treatment tailored for each individual patient according to the fungal species involved.

  3. Assessment of Lumped-Parameter Models for Rigid Footings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    and vertical translations as well as torsion and rocking, and the necessity of coupling between horizontal sliding and rocking is discussed. Most of the analyses are carried out for hexagonal footings; but in order to generalise the conclusions to a broader variety of footings, comparisons are made...

  4. Diabetic foot syndrome--dermatological point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troskot, Nina; Duvancić, Tomislav; Kolić, Maja

    2013-03-01

    Patients with diabetes mellitus often suffer from diabetic foot syndrome, a condition leading to foot ulceration or even amputation of lower extremity. Peripheral neuropathy combined with repetitive trauma to the foot and peripheral vascular disease are the main etiological factors in the development of foot ulcers. Other major contributive factors include the effects of callus, increased plantar pressures, and local infections. Patient education concerning their disease has a central role in the prevention of foot ulcers. Ordinary preventive measures taken by the patient include regular self-inspections, appropriate daily hygiene of the feet, appropriate footwear to reduce plantar pressures, and medical pedicure performed by a pedicurist experienced in diabetic foot patients. The importance of callus in diabetic patients has been shown in several studies by high predictability of subsequent ulcer development in patients with plantar calluses. For removing callus, urea based preparations are considered to be the treatment of choice. In case of local bacterial and fungal diabetic foot infections, systemic antibiotic and systemic antimycotic therapy is indicated, respectively. Wound dressings of various types are the mainstay in the treatment of chronic foot ulcers with avoidance of occlusive dressings in infected ulcers. Since the vast majority of ulcers and amputations can be prevented in diabetic patients, proper diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach are essential.

  5. Nurses’ role in diabetic foot prevention and care; a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalaa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Diabetes as one of Non-communicable diseases has allocated a large proportion of cost, time and human resources of health systems. Now, due to changes in lifestyle and industrial process, incidence of diabetes and its complications have been increased. Accordingly diabetic foot considered as a common complication of diabetes. Nurses are health care providers who actively involved in prevention and early detection of diabetes and its complications. The nurses’ role could be in health care, health, community education, health systems management, patient care and improving the quality of life. Diabetes Nurses play their educating role in the field of prevention of diabetic foot, foot care and preventing from foot injury. In care dimension, nurses responsible for early detection of any changes in skin and foot sensation, foot care, dressing and apply novel technology. In the area of rehabilitation, help patient sufferings from diabetic foot ulcer or amputation, to have movement are diabetes nurse’s duties. Consequently, nurses need to attend in special training to use the latest instructions of diabetic foot care in order that provides the effective services to facilitate promote diabetic patients health.

  6. Efficient foot motor control by Neymar’s brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiichi eNaito

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available How very long-term (over many years motor skill training shapes internal motor representation remains poorly understood. We provide valuable evidence that the football brain of Neymar da Silva Santos Júnior (the Brasilian footballer recruits very limited neural resources in the motor-cortical foot regions during foot movements. We scanned his brain activity with a 3-tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while he rotated his right ankle at 1Hz. We also scanned brain activity when three other age-controlled professional footballers, two top-athlete swimmers and one amateur footballer performed the identical task. A comparison was made between Neymar’s brain activity with that obtained from the others. We found activations in the left medial-wall foot motor regions during the foot movements consistently across all participants. However, the size and intensity of medial-wall activity was smaller in the four professional footballers than in the three other participants, despite no difference in amount of foot movement. Surprisingly, the reduced recruitment of medial-wall foot motor regions became apparent in Neymar. His medial-wall activity was smallest among all participants with absolutely no difference in amount of foot movement. Neymar may efficiently control given foot movements probably by largely conserving motor-cortical neural resources. We discuss this possibility in terms of over-years motor skill training effect, use-dependent plasticity, and efficient motor control.

  7. Easy ways to offload diabetic foot ulcer in rural setup

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Vijay P

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic wound management has become a foremost problem in recent era. Offloading is one of the cornerstones of gold-standard treatment in diabetic neuropathic foot ulcer. The following article reviews the easily made offloading systems which are ideal to use in rural setup to offload diabetic foot ulcer.

  8. Innovations in plantar pressure and foot temperature measurements in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bus, S A

    2016-01-01

    Plantar pressure and temperature measurements in the diabetic foot primarily contribute to identifying abnormal values that increase risk for foot ulceration, and they are becoming increasingly more integrated in clinical practice and daily life of the patient. While plantar pressure measurements have long been present, only recently evidence shows their importance in ulcer prevention, as a data-driven approach to therapeutic footwear provision. The long-term monitoring of plantar pressures with the option to provide feedback, when alarming pressure levels occur, is a promising development in this area, although more technical and clinical validation is required. Shear is considered important in ulcer aetiology but is technically difficult to measure. Innovative research is underway to assess if foot temperature can act as a useful surrogate for shear. Because the skin heats up before it breaks down, frequent monitoring of foot temperature can identify these warning signals. This approach has shown to be effective in preventing foot ulcers. Innovation in diagnostic methods for foot temperature monitoring and evidence on cost effectiveness will likely facilitate implementation. Finally, monitoring of adherence to offloading treatment using temperature-based sensors has proven to be a feasible and relevant method with a wide range of possible research and patient care applications. These innovations in plantar pressure and temperature measurements illustrate an important transfer in diabetic foot care from subjective to objective evaluation of the high-risk patient. They demonstrate clinical value and a large potential in helping to reduce the patient and economic burden of diabetic foot disease.

  9. Veterinary realities: what is foot and mouth disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, J.; Mol, A.

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary science draws on different traditions for knowing and acting, and mobilises different kinds of materials and techniques. This article explores these differences and their tensions for the diagnosis of foot and mouth disease in the UK in 2001. It shows that when they talk of foot and mouth

  10. Back to School Foot Pain (Flip-Flops)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and ankle surgeons see an increase in ankle injuries among young athletes. Football, soccer and basketball are the sports most likely to lead to sprains, broken... Foot of the Class After wearing ... for foot and ankle injuries. Parents and coaches should think twice before coaxing ...

  11. Foot Posture and Patellar Tendon Pain Among Adult Volleyball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Reinier; Malliaras, Peter; Munteanu, Shannon; Payne, Craig; Morrissey, Dylan; Maffulli, Nicola

    Objective: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. Design: Observational study. Setting: Field-based study among competing athletes. Participants: Volleyball

  12. Compartment syndrome of the foot in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A K; Sharaf, I; Ajay, S

    2001-06-01

    We report a case of a 12-year-old boy with acute compartment syndrome of the foot following a road-traffic accident. Due to the rarity of the injury, there was a delay in diagnosing the injury. An emergency fasciotomy was performed 19 hours after the injury. The foot healed with a mild extension contracture of the second toe.

  13. Functional limitations due to foot involvement in spondyloarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaras, Nihal; Havan, Nuri; Poyraz, Emine; Rezvanı, Aylin; Aydın, Teoman

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Spondyloarthritis is a major inflammatory disease followed-up in the rheumatology clinics, foot involvement in spodyloarthritis is common. The functional states of patients with spondyloarthritis are usually evaluated globally. The aim of this study was to assess the foot involvement-related functional limitations in patients with spondyloarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Patients with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis with foot pain more than 4 weeks who underwent anteroposterior and lateral feet radiography were enrolled into the study. A “clinical findings score” was calculated by assigning 1 point for every finding of swelling, redness, and tenderness. C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were used as serum markers for disease activity. Foot radiograms were evaluated using the spondyloarthropathy tarsal radiographic index and the foot-related functional state of patients was determined by the Turkish version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score. [Results] There were no relationships between Foot and Ankle Outcome Score subscales and clinical findings score, serum markers, or radiologic score. Pain and symptoms subscale scores were result positively correlated with activity of daily living, sport and recreation, and quality of life subscale scores. [Conclusion] Pain and symptoms are the main determinants of foot-related functional limitations in spondyloarthritis. PMID:27512252

  14. Foot posture and patellar tendon pain among adult volleyball players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, R. de; Malliaras, P.; Munteanu, S.; Payne, C.; Morrissey, D.; Maffulli, N.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Field-based study among competing athletes. PARTICIPANTS: Volleyball player

  15. Foot Posture and Patellar Tendon Pain Among Adult Volleyball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Reinier; Malliaras, Peter; Munteanu, Shannon; Payne, Craig; Morrissey, Dylan; Maffulli, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that individuals with a normal foot posture would be less likely to experience patellar tendon pain and pathology than those with a pronated or supinated foot. Design: Observational study. Setting: Field-based study among competing athletes. Participants: Volleyball player

  16. Diabetic foot ulcers – evidence-based wound management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of diabetic foot ulcers to promote cost-effective evidence-based ... lowship (Australia) ... His practice focuses on cerebrovascular and peripheral vascular disease. He has ... decreased incidence of major amputation .... Best practice recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot.

  17. Bearing capacity of Skirt circular footing on sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Z. EL Wakil

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Skirts are used to improve the bearing capacity of shallow footings on sandy soil by constraining the soil beneath and containing the plastic flow of soil. They are used as an alternative to deep foundations in soils with low strength at the surface. As there has been available little work studying the performance of skirted foundation, we are performing eighteen laboratory experiments on circular steel footings of different diameters and different skirt lengths. The aim of these experiments is to shed some lights on the effects of skirts on the bearing capacity of shallow footings. The effects of skirt length and the relative density of sand on the ultimate load attained were investigated. From the accomplished laboratory tests, it was found that skirts improve appreciably the sustainability of shallow footings to applied load as they increase the ultimate load of shallow footings by some up to 6.25 times for the current study conditions and variables. The performance of skirted footing depends upon the relative density of sand and on the skirt length to footing diameter ratio. Skirts are more beneficial in case of footings on loose sand than in case of medium and dense sand.

  18. Cold-Weather Foot Care Key for Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163022.html Cold-Weather Foot Care Key for Diabetics It's important to make sure feet stay as ... Services. Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Diabetic Foot About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...

  19. Software tool for the prosthetic foot modeling and stiffness optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbac, Matija; Popović, Dejan B

    2012-01-01

    We present the procedure for the optimization of the stiffness of the prosthetic foot. The procedure allows the selection of the elements of the foot and the materials used for the design. The procedure is based on the optimization where the cost function is the minimization of the difference between the knee joint torques of healthy walking and the walking with the transfemural prosthesis. We present a simulation environment that allows the user to interactively vary the foot geometry and track the changes in the knee torque that arise from these adjustments. The software allows the estimation of the optimal prosthetic foot elasticity and geometry. We show that altering model attributes such as the length of the elastic foot segment or its elasticity leads to significant changes in the estimated knee torque required for a given trajectory.

  20. The Modulation and Control of the Gecko's Foot Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Ce; Dai Zhen-dong; Ji Ai-hong; Wang Wei-ying; Sun Jiu-rong

    2005-01-01

    The modulation and control of gecko's foot movements were studied electrophysiologically in order to design the motor control system of a gecko-mimic robot. In this study ( 1 ) the anatomy of the peripheral nerves controlling the gecko's foot movements was determined; (2) the relationship between the limb nerves of the gecko and its foot motor patterns was studied; (3) the afferent impulses of the nerves evoked by rubbing the gecko's toes and palm were recorded; (4) copying the natural patterns of movement of the gecko's foot (abduction, adduction, flexion, and revolution) and its limb nerve modulation and control mechanism, the nerves were stimulated under computer control, and the results recorded by CCD.Results suggest that gecko's foot movements can be successfully controlled by artificial electrical signals.

  1. [Role of yeasts in diabetic foot ulcer infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missoni, Emilija Mlinarić; Kalenić, Smilja; Vukelić, Milan; De Syo, Drago; Belicza, Mladen; Kern, Josipa; Babić, Verica Vazić

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to assess the incidence of isolation of individual fungal species and interpret the meaning of fungal isolates from foot ulcers of 509 diabetic outpatients using mycologic and histopathologic methods. Another aim was to explore risk factors for the development of fungal infections in foot ulcer. Fungus isolation was made on selective media and their identification by standard mycologic methods. Histopathologic diagnosis of fungal ulcer infections was made on PAS-stained histopathologic preparations and imprint preparations (PAS and Papanicolaou staining) of foot wound biopsy specimens. Fungal and mixed foot ulcer infections were found in 14.9% of diabetic patients. In 33.8% of patients, these infections were confirmed by a finding of fungal elements in histopathologic preparations of ulcer biopsy specimens, as follows: in 16.9% of patients, by finding fungal elements in imprint preparations of ulcer biopsy specimens and by isolation fungus from the swab of the same ulcer; in 2.3% by fungus isolation from ulcer biopsy specimens; in 36.9% by fungus isolation from ulcer swabs in pure culture and/or in a large number of colonies and/or from several ulcers on the foot of the same patient. More than 89% of patients had a single foot ulcer with fungal or mixed infection, big toe and the plantar-metatarsal region in one foot or both feet being the most common sites of ulcer. Fifteen species from the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon and Rhodotorula were the causative agents of fungal and mixed foot ulcer infections. C. parapsilosis (in 61.5% of patients), and C. albicans and C. tropicalis (in 10.8% of patients each) were the most common causes of these infections. The presence of yeasts and/or dermatophytes in the toe web of the same or other foot, or of both feet, did not influence the incidence of fungal and mixed foot ulcer infections. Patient sex and age, type and length of diabetes, or clinical picture of diabetic foot did not affect it either. In

  2. Functional limitations related to foot pain in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Maria Rodrigues Lopes de Oliveira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the association between foot pain and functional disability in the elderly. Methods: descriptive study conducted among the elderly attended in a geriatric outpatient clinic of a university hospital. The sample consisted of 114 elderly who reported foot pain. Data was collected through subsidized interview, using structured instrument, covering demographic variables and the Manchester Foot Pain and Disability Index in Elderly and the Mini Mental State Examination. Results: there was a high incidence of foot pain among women and young elderly as well as significant inability to perform certain daily activities. Conclusion: it is identified the need for special attention to the health of elderly reporting foot pain, since this tends to restrict daily activities, causing decreased quality of life, immobilization and possible episodes of falls.

  3. Software Tool for the Prosthetic Foot Modeling and Stiffness Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Štrbac

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the procedure for the optimization of the stiffness of the prosthetic foot. The procedure allows the selection of the elements of the foot and the materials used for the design. The procedure is based on the optimization where the cost function is the minimization of the difference between the knee joint torques of healthy walking and the walking with the transfemural prosthesis. We present a simulation environment that allows the user to interactively vary the foot geometry and track the changes in the knee torque that arise from these adjustments. The software allows the estimation of the optimal prosthetic foot elasticity and geometry. We show that altering model attributes such as the length of the elastic foot segment or its elasticity leads to significant changes in the estimated knee torque required for a given trajectory.

  4. The World Is Not Flat: Can People Reorient Using Slope?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Daniele; Newcombe, Nora S.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of spatial representation generally focus on flat environments and visual input. However, the world is not flat, and slopes are part of most natural environments. In a series of 4 experiments, we examined whether humans can use a slope as a source of allocentric, directional information for reorientation. A target was hidden in a corner of…

  5. Evaluation of photomask flatness compensation for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballman, Katherine; Lee, Christopher; Zimmerman, John; Dunn, Thomas; Bean, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    As the semiconductor industry continues to strive towards high volume manufacturing for EUV, flatness specifications for photomasks have decreased to below 10nm for 2018 production, however the current champion masks being produced report P-V flatness values of roughly 50nm. Write compensation presents the promising opportunity to mitigate pattern placement errors through the use of geometrically adjusted target patterns which counteract the reticle's flatness induced distortions and address the differences in chucking mechanisms between e-beam write and electrostatic clamping during scan. Compensation relies on high accuracy flatness data which provides the critical topographical components of the reticle to the write tool. Any errors included in the flatness data file are translated to the pattern during the write process, which has now driven flatness measurement tools to target a 6σ reproducibility write compensation is validated against printed wafer results. Topographic features which lack compensation capability must then be held to stringent specifications in order to limit their contributions to the final image placement error (IPE) at wafer. By understanding the capabilities and limitations of write compensation, it is then possible to shift flatness requirements towards the "non-correctable" portion of the reticle's profile, potentially relieving polishers from having to adhere to the current single digit flatness specifications.

  6. Flat Files - JSNP | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available switchLanguage; BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Data ... Data file File name: jsnp_flat_files File URL: ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archiv...his Database Database Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Flat Files - JSNP | LSDB Archive ...

  7. The Discourses of OERs: How "Flat" Is This World?

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Andreia Inamorato

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 2000) as a tool for identifying the various discourses that can be found in the provision of open educational resources. The argument will be built upon the concept of a "flat world", a powerful metaphor used by Friedman in his famous book "The World is Flat" (2005). The discussion will…

  8. The Flat Tax: Implications for Financing Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmiller, Richard A.

    The campaign for the 1996 Republican presidential election focused attention on proposals to replace the current federal income tax system with a flat tax. This booklet examines the ramifications of a flat tax for local school funding. Section 1 outlines the criteria for evaluating proposed taxes and the purposes of tax systems. The second section…

  9. On the Picard group of a compact flat projective variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelacakis, NJ

    1996-01-01

    In this note, we describe the Picard group of the class of compact, smooth, flat, projective varieties. In view of Charlap's work and Johnson's characterization, we construct line bundles over such manifolds as the holonomy-invariant elements of the Neron-Severi group of a projective flat torus cove

  10. Free energy of topologically massive gravity and flat space holography

    CERN Document Server

    Grumiller, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    We calculate the free energy from the on-shell action for topologically massive gravity with negative and vanishing cosmological constant, thereby providing a first principles derivation of the free energy of BTZ black holes and flat space cosmologies. We summarize related recent checks of flat space holography.

  11. New face-centered photonic square lattices with flat bands

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yiqi; Li, Changbiao; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    We report two new classes of face-centered photonic square lattices with flat bands which we call the Lieb-I and the Lieb-II lattices. There are 5 and 7 sites in the corresponding unit cells of the simplest Lieb-I and Lieb-II lattices, respectively. The number of flat bands $m$ in the new Lieb lattices is related to the number of sites $N$ in the unit cell by $m=(N-1)/2$. Physical properties of the lattices with even and odd number of flat bands are different. We also consider localization of light in such Lieb lattices. If the input beam excites the flat-band mode, it will not diffract during propagation, owing to the strong localization in the flat-band mode. For the Lieb-II lattice, we also find that the beam will oscillate and still not diffract during propagation, because of the intrinsic oscillating properties of certain flat-band modes. The period of oscillation is determined by the energy difference between the two flat bands. This study provides a new platform for the investigation of flat-band modes...

  12. Tom Friedman on Education in the "Flat World"

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Administrator, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In his best-selling book, "The World Is Flat," Thomas Friedman describes that the real world is becoming "flat." He describes how 10 forces are "flattening" the 21st century--making it easier for people in India, China and around the world to compete with Americans and others who had triumphed the century before. This article presents an interview…

  13. The human foot and heel–sole–toe walking strategy: a mechanism enabling an inverted pendular gait with low isometric muscle force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usherwood, J. R.; Channon, A. J.; Myatt, J. P.; Rankin, J. W.; Hubel, T. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanically, the most economical gait for slow bipedal locomotion requires walking as an ‘inverted pendulum’, with: I, an impulsive, energy-dissipating leg compression at the beginning of stance; II, a stiff-limbed vault; and III, an impulsive, powering push-off at the end of stance. The characteristic ‘M’-shaped vertical ground reaction forces of walking in humans reflect this impulse–vault–impulse strategy. Humans achieve this gait by dissipating energy during the heel-to-sole transition in early stance, approximately stiff-limbed, flat-footed vaulting over midstance and ankle plantarflexion (powering the toes down) in late stance. Here, we show that the ‘M’-shaped walking ground reaction force profile does not require the plantigrade human foot or heel–sole–toe stance; it is maintained in tip–toe and high-heel walking as well as in ostriches. However, the unusual, stiff, human foot structure—with ground-contacting heel behind ankle and toes in front—enables both mechanically economical inverted pendular walking and physiologically economical muscle loading, by producing extreme changes in mechanical advantage between muscles and ground reaction forces. With a human foot, and heel–sole–toe strategy during stance, the shin muscles that dissipate energy, or calf muscles that power the push-off, need not be loaded at all—largely avoiding the ‘cost of muscle force’—during the passive vaulting phase. PMID:22572024

  14. The human foot and heel-sole-toe walking strategy: a mechanism enabling an inverted pendular gait with low isometric muscle force?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usherwood, J R; Channon, A J; Myatt, J P; Rankin, J W; Hubel, T Y

    2012-10-07

    Mechanically, the most economical gait for slow bipedal locomotion requires walking as an 'inverted pendulum', with: I, an impulsive, energy-dissipating leg compression at the beginning of stance; II, a stiff-limbed vault; and III, an impulsive, powering push-off at the end of stance. The characteristic 'M'-shaped vertical ground reaction forces of walking in humans reflect this impulse-vault-impulse strategy. Humans achieve this gait by dissipating energy during the heel-to-sole transition in early stance, approximately stiff-limbed, flat-footed vaulting over midstance and ankle plantarflexion (powering the toes down) in late stance. Here, we show that the 'M'-shaped walking ground reaction force profile does not require the plantigrade human foot or heel-sole-toe stance; it is maintained in tip-toe and high-heel walking as well as in ostriches. However, the unusual, stiff, human foot structure--with ground-contacting heel behind ankle and toes in front--enables both mechanically economical inverted pendular walking and physiologically economical muscle loading, by producing extreme changes in mechanical advantage between muscles and ground reaction forces. With a human foot, and heel-sole-toe strategy during stance, the shin muscles that dissipate energy, or calf muscles that power the push-off, need not be loaded at all--largely avoiding the 'cost of muscle force'--during the passive vaulting phase.

  15. Custom-Made Foot Orthoses Decrease Medial Foot Loading During Drop Jump in Individuals With Patellofemoral Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S; Richter, Camilla; Brushøj, Christoffer

    2016-01-01

    with 12 weeks of follow-up. SETTING: Hospital setting. PARTICIPANTS: 23 adults with PFP. INTERVENTIONS: Custom-made foot orthoses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Foot loading (plantar pressure) was collected from the most painful side during drop jump and single leg squat using pressure sensitive Pedar insoles...

  16. Replantation of an avulsive amputation of a foot after recovering the foot from the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, F; Karacaoğlu, E; Ulkür, E; Güler, M M

    2000-04-01

    A foot avulsion case, with the dismembered body part submerged in sea water for 1 hour, is presented. This report is unique in that it is the first to document the reattachment of a body part that had been submerged in sea water. It was not known how salt-water exposure would affect wound management. Differences in osmolarity and bacterial flora between the sea water and foot tissues have not caused any problems, and the patient has not suffered any vascular or infectious complications after replantation. Neurotization of the plantar surface by the tibial nerve, which was stripped off during amputation and replaced in its original traces, was the most critical part of convalescence. After management of such an interesting case, we conclude that exposure to sea water of the dismembered part should not be a contraindication for replantation surgery.

  17. Orthosis-Shaped Sandals Are as Efficacious as In-Shoe Orthoses and Better than Flat Sandals for Plantar Heel Pain: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Vicenzino

    Full Text Available To investigate efficacy of a contoured sandal being marketed for plantar heel pain with comparison to a flat flip-flop and contoured in-shoe insert/orthosis.150 volunteers aged 50 (SD: 12 years with plantar heel pain (>4 weeks were enrolled after responding to advertisements and eligibility determined by telephone and at first visit. Participants were randomly allocated to receive commercially available contoured sandals (n = 49, flat flip-flops (n = 50 or over the counter, pre-fabricated full-length foot orthotics (n = 51. Primary outcomes were a 15-point Global Rating of Change scale (GROC: 1 = a very great deal worse, 15 = a very great deal better, 13 to 15 representing an improvement and the 20-item Lower Extremity Function Scale (LEFS on which participants rate 20 common weight bearing activities and activities of daily living on a 5-point scale (0 = extreme difficulty, 4 = no difficulty. Secondary outcomes were worst level of heel pain in the preceding week, and the foot and ankle ability measure. Outcomes were collected blind to allocation. Analyses were done on an intention to treat basis with 12 weeks being the primary outcome time of interest.The contoured sandal was 68% more likely to report improvement in terms of GROC compared to flat flip-flop. On the LEFS the contoured sandal was 61% more likely than flat flip-flop to report improvement. The secondary outcomes in the main reflected the primary outcomes, and there were no differences between contoured sandal and shoe insert.Physicians can have confidence in supporting a patient's decision to wear contoured sandals or in-shoe orthoses as one of the first and simple strategies to manage their heel pain.The Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12612000463875.

  18. Starting off on the right foot: strong right-footers respond faster with the right foot to positive words and with the left foot to negative words

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Irmgard; Graebe, Julia; Härtner, Leonie; Dudschig, Carolin; Kaup, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have provided evidence for an association between valence and left/right modulated by handedness, which is predicted by the body-specificity hypothesis (Casasanto, 2009) and also reflected in response times. We investigated whether such a response facilitation can also be observed with foot responses. Right-footed participants classified positive and negative words according to their valence by pressing a key with their left or right foot. A significant interaction between valence and foot only emerged in the by-items analysis. However, when dividing participants into two groups depending on the strength of their footedness, an interaction between valence and left/right was observed for strong right-footers, who responded faster with the right foot to positive words, and with the left foot to negative words. No interaction emerged for weak right-footers. The results strongly support the assumption that fluency lies at the core of the association between valence and left/right. PMID:25852609

  19. Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area 2008 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dan [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2008-11-03

    The Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is a 12,718 acre complex located in Douglas County, Washington. Four distinct management units make up the area: Bridgeport, Chester Butte, Dormaier and Sagebrush Flat. The four Units are located across a wide geographic area within Douglas County. The Units are situated roughly along a north/south line from Bridgeport in the north to the Douglas/Grant county line in the south, 60 miles away. The wildlife area was established to conserve and enhance shrubsteppe habitat for the benefit shrubsteppe obligate and dependent wildlife species. In particular, the Sagebrush Flat Wildlife Area is managed to promote the recovery of three state-listed species: Columbian sharp-tailed grouse (threatened), greater sage grouse (threatened) and the pygmy rabbit (endangered). The US Fish and Wildlife Service also list the pygmy rabbit as endangered. Wildlife area staff seeded 250 acres of old agricultural fields located on the Sagebrush Flat, Dormaier and Chester Butte units. This has been a three project to reestablish high quality shrubsteppe habitat on fields that had either been abandoned (Dormaier) or were dominated by non-native grasses. A mix of 17 native grasses and forbs, most of which were locally collected and grown, was used. First year maintenance included spot spraying Dalmatian toadflax on all sites and mowing annual weeds to reduce competition. Photo points were established and will be integral to long term monitoring and evaluation. Additional monitoring and evaluation will come from existing vegetation transects. This year weed control efforts included spot treatment of noxious weeds, particularly Dalmatian toadflax, in previously restored fields on the Bridgeport Unit (150 acres). Spot treatment also took place within fields scheduled for restoration (40 acres) and in areas where toadflax infestations are small and relatively easily contained. Where toadflax is so widespread that chemical treatment would be impractical, we use the

  20. Beam uniformity of flat top lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chao; Cramer, Larry; Danielson, Don; Norby, James

    2015-03-01

    Many beams that output from standard commercial lasers are multi-mode, with each mode having a different shape and width. They show an overall non-homogeneous energy distribution across the spot size. There may be satellite structures, halos and other deviations from beam uniformity. However, many scientific, industrial and medical applications require flat top spatial energy distribution, high uniformity in the plateau region, and complete absence of hot spots. Reliable standard methods for the evaluation of beam quality are of great importance. Standard methods are required for correct characterization of the laser for its intended application and for tight quality control in laser manufacturing. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standard procedures and definitions for this purpose. These procedures have not been widely adopted by commercial laser manufacturers. This is due to the fact that they are unreliable because an unrepresentative single-pixel value can seriously distort the result. We hereby propose a metric of beam uniformity, a way of beam profile visualization, procedures to automatically detect hot spots and beam structures, and application examples in our high energy laser production.