WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-nasa commercial applications

  1. Commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the near term (one-to-five-year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered in this assessment. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low-radiation-dose thyroid scan. The word could in the preceding sentence is underlined because an alternative source of enriched stable isotopes does exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States

  2. Commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The near term (one to five year) needs of domestic and foreign commercial suppliers of radiochemicals and radiopharmaceuticals for electromagnetically separated stable isotopes are assessed. Only isotopes purchased to make products for sale and profit are considered. Radiopharmaceuticals produced from enriched stable isotopes supplied by the Calutron facility at ORNL are used in about 600,000 medical procedures each year in the United States. A temporary or permanent disruption of the supply of stable isotopes to the domestic radiopharmaceutical industry could curtail, if not eliminate, the use of such diagnostic procedures as the thallium heart scan, the gallium cancer scan, the gallium abscess scan, and the low radiation dose thyroid scan. An alternative source of enriched stable isotopes exist in the USSR. Alternative starting materials could, in theory, eventually be developed for both the thallium and gallium scans. The development of a new technology for these purposes, however, would take at least five years and would be expensive. Hence, any disruption of the supply of enriched isotopes from ORNL and the resulting unavailability of critical nuclear medicine procedures would have a dramatic negative effect on the level of health care in the United States.

  3. Commercial Manure Applicators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This layer represents the office location for Commercial Manure Services (CMS). They transport, handle, store or apply manure for a fee. The company must be licensed...

  4. Commercial applications for COIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Wayne C.; Carroll, David L.; King, D. M.; Fockler, L. A.; Stromberg, D. S.; Sexauer, M.; Milmoe, A.; Sentman, Lee H.

    2000-01-01

    The chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) is a high power, fiber deliverable tool, which can be used for a number of different industrial applications. COIL is of particular interest because of its short fiber deliverable wavelength, high scaleable continuous wave power, and excellent material interaction properties. In past research the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign identified and decommissioning and decontamination (DD) of nuclear facilities as a primary focus for COIL technology. DD will be a major challenge in the coming decades. The use of a robotically driven fiber delivered cutting/ablation tool in contaminated areas promises to lower risks to workers for the DD mission. Further, the high cutting speed of COIL will significantly reduce the time required to cut contaminated equipment, reducing costs. The high power of COIL will permit the dismantling of thick stacks of piping and equipment as well as reactor vessels. COIL is very promising for the removal of material from contaminated surfaces, perhaps to depths thicker than an inch. Laser cutting and ablation minimizes dust and fumes, which reduces the required number of high efficiency particulate accumulator filters, thus reducing costly waste disposal. Other potential industrial applications for COIL are shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing, heavy machinery manufacturing, tasks requiring underwater cutting or welding, and there appear to be very promising applications for high powers lasers in the oil industry.

  5. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-15

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project.

  6. Planning and Operation of Commercial Application Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Yeon; Kim, Kye Ryung; Lee, Tae Joon; Lee, Jae Hyeong; Park, Je Won; Lee, Jae Sang

    2003-06-01

    The objectives of this R and D project are as follows : First, transferring developed technologies to outside companies and operating technology market to vitalize technology transactions, Second, developing commercial application projects to transfer technologies for commercial purposes and to solve interface problems in commercial applications, Third, enhancing commercial utilizations of developed accelerator and beam utilization technologies, Finally. preparing infra-structures for the development of over 30 venture- businesses based on achieved technologies through the Proton Engineering Frontier Project

  7. Commercial application of rainfall simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loch, Rob J.

    2010-05-01

    Landloch Pty Ltd is a commercial consulting firm, providing advice on a range of land management issues to the mining and construction industries in Australia. As part of the company's day-to-day operations, rainfall simulation is used to assess material erodibility and to investigate a range of site attributes. (Landloch does carry out research projects, though such are not its core business.) When treated as an everyday working tool, several aspects of rainfall simulation practice are distinctively modified. Firstly, the equipment used is regularly maintained, and regularly upgraded with a primary focus on ease, safety, and efficiency of use and on reliability of function. As well, trained and experienced technical support is considered essential. Landloch's chief technician has over 10 years experience in running rainfall simulators at locations across Australia and in Africa and the Pacific. Secondly, the specific experimental conditions established for each set of rainfall simulator runs are carefully considered to ensure that they accurately represent the field conditions to which the data will be subsequently applied. Considerations here include: • wetting and drying cycles to ensure material consolidation and/or cementation if appropriate; • careful attention to water quality if dealing with clay soils or with amendments such as gypsum; • strong focus on ensuring that the erosion processes considered are those of greatest importance to the field situation of concern; and • detailed description of both material and plot properties, to increase the potential for data to be applicable to a wider range of projects and investigations. Other important company procedures include: • For each project, the scientist or engineer responsible for analysing and reporting rainfall simulator data is present during the running of all field plots, as it is essential that they be aware of any specific conditions that may have developed when the plots were subjected

  8. Commercial applications of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchings, M.T.

    1993-01-01

    The fact that industry is now willing to pay the full commercial cost for certain neutron scattering experiments aimed at solving its urgent materials - related problems is a true testimony to the usefulness of neutrons as microscopic probes. This paper gives examples of such use of three techniques drawn mainly from our experience at AEA Technology Harwell Laboratory. These are diffraction to measure residual stress, small angle neutron scattering to examine hardening precipitates in ferritic steels brought about by irradiation, and reflectivity to study amorphous diamond layers deposited on silicon. In most cases it is the penetrative power of the neutron which proves to be its best asset for commercial industrial applicaitons. (author)

  9. Commercial application of laser fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamentals of laser-induced fusion, some laser-fusion reactor concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation are discussed. Theoretical fusion-pellet microexplosion energy release characteristics are described and the effects of pellet design options on pellet-microexplosion characteristics are discussed. The results of analyses to assess the engineering feasibility of reactor cavities for which protection of cavity components is provided either by suitable ablative materials or by diversion of plasmas by magnetic fields are presented. Two conceptual laser-fusion electric generating stations, based on different laser-fusion reactor concepts, are described

  10. Commercial application of fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crosetti, P.A.; Bruce, R.A.

    1970-01-01

    The potential for general application of Fault Tree Analysis to commercial products appears attractive based not only on the successful extension from the aerospace safety technology to the nuclear reactor reliability and availability technology, but also because combinatorial hazards are common to commercial operations and therefore lend themselves readily to evaluation by Fault Tree Analysis. It appears reasonable to conclude that the technique has application within the commercial industrial community where the occurrence of a specified consequence or final event would be of sufficient concern to management to justify such a rigorous analysis as an aid to decision making. (U.S.)

  11. Wood energy-commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Wood energy is being widely investigated in many areas of the country because of the many obvious benefits of wood fuel such as the low price per million Btus relative to coal, oil, and gas; the wide availability of noncommercial wood and the proven ability to harvest it; established technology which is reliable and free of pollution; renewable resources; better conservation for harvested land; and the potential for jobs creation. The Southeastern United States has a specific leadership role in wood energy based on its established forest products industry experience and the potential application of wood energy to other industries and institutions. Significant questions about the widespread usage of wood energy are being answered in demonstrations around the country as well as the Southeast in areas of wood storage and bulk handling; high capitalization costs for harvesting and combustion equipment; long term supply and demand contracts; and the economic feasibility of wood energy outside the forest products industry.

  12. Commercial applications of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.A.; Frank, T.G.

    1977-05-01

    This report describes the fundamentals of inertial-confinement fusion, some laser-fusion reactor (LFR) concepts, and attendant means of utilizing the thermonuclear energy for commercial electric power generation. In addition, other commercial energy-related applications, such as the production of fissionable fuels, of synthetic hydrocarbon-based fuels, and of process heat for a variety of uses, as well as the environmental and safety aspects of fusion energy, are discussed. Finally, the requirements for commercialization of laser fusion technologies are described

  13. ERAST: Scientific Applications and Technology Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunley, John D. (Compiler); Kellogg, Yvonne (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    This is a conference publication for an event designed to inform potential contractors and appropriate personnel in various scientific disciplines that the ERAST (Environmental Research Aircraft and Sensor Technology) vehicles have reached a certain level of maturity and are available to perform a variety of missions ranging from data gathering to telecommunications. There are multiple applications of the technology and a great many potential commercial and governmental markets. As high altitude platforms, the ERAST vehicles can gather data at higher resolution than satellites and can do so continuously, whereas satellites pass over a particular area only once each orbit. Formal addresses are given by Rich Christiansen, (Director of Programs, NASA Aerospace Technology Ent.), Larry Roeder, (Senior Policy Advisor, U.S. Dept. of State), and Dr. Marianne McCarthy, (DFRC Education Dept.). The Commercialization Workshop is chaired by Dale Tietz (President, New Vista International) and the Science Workshop is chaired by Steve Wegener, (Deputy Manager of NASA ERAST, NASA Ames Research Center.

  14. Commercial applications of perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietz, R.N.

    1991-06-01

    Tracer technology can be successfully applied to many leak-checking and monitoring evaluations of operating systems (e.g., building HVACs), manufacturing processes and products (e.g., air conditioners), and subsurface components and systems (e.g., underground storage tanks). Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology is the most sensitive of all tracer technologies because the ambient background levels of the five (5) routinely-used PFTs are in the range of parts per 10 15 parts of air (i.e., parts per quadrillion-ppq) and this technology's instrumentation can measure down to those levels. The effectiveness of this technology is achieved both in terms of cost (very little PFT need to be used) and detectability; for example, very small leaks can be rapidly detected. The PFT compounds, which are environmentally and biologically safe to use, are commercially available as are the sampling and analysis instrumentation. This presentation concerns (1) the steps being taken to commercialize this technology, (2) new applications of processes currently under study, and (3) applications in areas of use that will be particularly beneficial to the environment. 21 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Commercial gasifier for IGCC applications study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notestein, J.E.

    1990-06-01

    This was a scoping-level study to identify and characterize the design features of fixed-bed gasifiers appearing most important for a gasifier that was to be (1) potentially commercially attractive, and (2) specifically intended for us in integrated coal gasification/combined-cycle (IGCC) applications. It also performed comparative analyses on the impact or value of these design features and on performance characteristics options of the whole IGCC system since cost, efficiency, environmental traits, and operability -- on a system basis -- are what is really important. The study also reviewed and evaluated existing gasifier designs, produced a conceptual-level gasifier design, and generated a moderately advanced system configuration that was utilized as the reference framework for the comparative analyses. In addition, technical issues and knowledge gaps were defined. 70 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Potential commercial applications of centrifuge technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    As part of an effort to prevent the loss of and maximize the use of unique developments of the centrifuge program, this document identifies and briefly describes unclassified technologies potentially available for transfer. In addition, this document presents a preliminary plan for action needed to carry out the transfer activity. Continuing efforts will provide additional descriptions of technologies which have applications that are not as apparent or as obvious as those presented here. Declassification of some of the program information, now classified as restricted data, would permit the descriptions of additional technologies which have significant commercial potential. The following are major areas of technology where transfer opportunities exist: biomedical; separation; motors and control systems; materials; vacuum; dynamics and balancing; and diagnostics and instrumentation

  17. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vílchez, Carlos; Forján, Eduardo; Cuaresma, María; Bédmar, Francisco; Garbayo, Inés; Vega, José M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological functions of carotenoids relevant for life on earth. Biological properties of carotenoids allow for a wide range of commercial applications. Indeed, recent interest in the carotenoids has been mainly for their nutraceutical properties. A large number of scientific studies have confirmed the benefits of carotenoids to health and their use for this purpose is growing rapidly. In addition, carotenoids have traditionally been used in food and animal feed for their color properties. Carotenoids are also known to improve consumer perception of quality; an example is the addition of carotenoids to fish feed to impart color to farmed salmon. PMID:21556162

  18. Commercial Application of In-Space Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymer, John; Hanson, Mark; Tadros, Al; Boccio, Joel; Hollenstein, Bruno; Emerick, Ken; Doughtery, Sean; Doggett, Bill; Dorsey, John T.; King, Bruce D.; hide

    2016-01-01

    In-Space assembly (ISA) expands the opportunities for cost effective emplacement of systems in space. Currently, spacecraft are launched into space and deploy into their operational configuration through a carefully choreographed sequence of operations. The deployment operation dictates the arrangement of the primary systems on the spacecraft, limiting the ability to take full advantage of launch vehicles volume and mass capability. ISA enables vastly different spacecraft architectures and emplacement scenarios to be achieved, including optimal launch configurations ranging from single launch and assembly to on-orbit aggregation of multiple launches at different orbital locations and times. The spacecraft can be visited at different orbital locations and times to effect expansion and maintenance of an operational capability. To date, the primary application of ISA has been in large programs funded by government organizations, such as the International Space Station. Recently, Space Systems Loral (SSL) led a study funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), called Dragonfly, to investigate the commercial applicability and economic advantages of ISA. In the study, it was shown that ISA enables SSL to double the capability of a commercial satellite system by taking advantage of alternate packaging approaches for the reflectors. The study included an ultra-light-weight robotic system, derived from Mars manipulator designs, to complete assembly of portions of the antenna system using a tool derived from DARPA orbital express and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) automated structural assembly experience. The mechanical connector that enables robotic ISA takes advantage of decades of development by NASA from the 1970's to 1980's during the Space Station Freedom program, the precursor to the ISS. The mechanical connector was originally designed for rapid astronaut assembly while also providing a high quality structural connection

  19. Commercial Applications of X Ray Spectrometric Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrzynek, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the 21st century, the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique is widely used in process control, industrial applications and for routine elemental analysis. The technique has a multielement capability capable of detecting elements with Z ≥ 10, with a few instruments capable of detecting also elements with Z ≥ 5. It is characterized by a non-destructive analysis process and relatively good detection limits, typically one part per million, for a wide range of elements. The first commercial XRF instruments were introduced to the market about 50 years ago. They were the wavelength dispersive X ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometers utilizing Bragg’s law and reflection on crystal lattices for sequential elemental analysis of sample composition. The advances made in radiation detector technology, especially the introduction of semiconductor detectors, improvements in signal processing electronics, availability and exponential growth of personal computer market led to invention of energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The EDXRF is more cost effective as compared to WDXRF. It also allows for designing compact instruments. Such instruments can be easily tailored to the needs of different customers, integrated with industrial installations, and also miniaturized for the purpose of in-situ applications. The versatility of the technique has been confirmed in a spectacular way by using the XRF and X-ray spectrometric techniques, among few others, during the NASA and ESA missions in search for the evidence of life and presence of water on the surface of Mars. The XRF technique has achieved its strong position within the atomic spectroscopy group of analytical techniques not only due to its versatility but also due to relatively low running costs, as compared to the commonly used methods, e.g., atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission/mass spectrometry (ICP-AES/MS). Presently, the XRF technique together with X ray

  20. Commercial Applications of X Ray Spectrometric Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegrzynek, D., E-mail: D.Wedgrznek@iaea.org [International Atomic Energy Agency, The IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-15

    In the 21st century, the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique is widely used in process control, industrial applications and for routine elemental analysis. The technique has a multielement capability capable of detecting elements with Z {>=} 10, with a few instruments capable of detecting also elements with Z {>=} 5. It is characterized by a non-destructive analysis process and relatively good detection limits, typically one part per million, for a wide range of elements. The first commercial XRF instruments were introduced to the market about 50 years ago. They were the wavelength dispersive X ray fluorescence (WDXRF) spectrometers utilizing Bragg's law and reflection on crystal lattices for sequential elemental analysis of sample composition. The advances made in radiation detector technology, especially the introduction of semiconductor detectors, improvements in signal processing electronics, availability and exponential growth of personal computer market led to invention of energy dispersive X ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. The EDXRF is more cost effective as compared to WDXRF. It also allows for designing compact instruments. Such instruments can be easily tailored to the needs of different customers, integrated with industrial installations, and also miniaturized for the purpose of in-situ applications. The versatility of the technique has been confirmed in a spectacular way by using the XRF and X-ray spectrometric techniques, among few others, during the NASA and ESA missions in search for the evidence of life and presence of water on the surface of Mars. The XRF technique has achieved its strong position within the atomic spectroscopy group of analytical techniques not only due to its versatility but also due to relatively low running costs, as compared to the commonly used methods, e.g., atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission/mass spectrometry (ICP-AES/MS). Presently, the XRF technique together with X ray

  1. NASA Technology Applications Team: Commercial applications of aerospace technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The Research Triangle Institute (RTI) Team has maintained its focus on helping NASA establish partnerships with U.S. industry for dual use development and technology commercialization. Our emphasis has been on outcomes, such as licenses, industry partnerships and commercialization of technologies, that are important to NASA in its mission of contributing to the improved competitive position of U.S. industry. The RTI Team has been successful in the development of NASA/industry partnerships and commercialization of NASA technologies. RTI ongoing commitment to quality and customer responsiveness has driven our staff to continuously improve our technology transfer methodologies to meet NASA's requirements. For example, RTI has emphasized the following areas: (1) Methodology For Technology Assessment and Marketing: RTI has developed and implemented effective processes for assessing the commercial potential of NASA technologies. These processes resulted from an RTI study of best practices, hands-on experience, and extensive interaction with the NASA Field Centers to adapt to their specific needs. (2) Effective Marketing Strategies: RTI surveyed industry technology managers to determine effective marketing tools and strategies. The Technology Opportunity Announcement format and content were developed as a result of this industry input. For technologies with a dynamic visual impact, RTI has developed a stand-alone demonstration diskette that was successful in developing industry interest in licensing the technology. And (3) Responsiveness to NASA Requirements: RTI listened to our customer (NASA) and designed our processes to conform with the internal procedures and resources at each NASA Field Center and the direction provided by NASA's Agenda for Change. This report covers the activities of the Research Triangle Institute Technology Applications Team for the period 1 October 1993 through 31 December 1994.

  2. Coke gasification costs, economics, and commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahnke, F.C.; Falsetti, J.S.; Wilson, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The disposition of petroleum coke remains a problem for modern high conversion refineries. Market uncertainty and the price for coke can prevent the implementation of otherwise attractive projects. The commercially proven Texaco Gasification Process remains an excellent option for clean, cost effective coke disposition as demonstrated by the new coke gasification units coming on-line and under design. Previous papers, have discussed the coke market and general economics of coke gasification. This paper updates the current market situation and economics, and provide more details on cost and performance based on recent studies for commercial plants

  3. Advanced LWR technology for commercial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) are now being deployed and commercialized around the world. In Japan, the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) is building the world's first ALWRs, two 1300 MWe Advanced BWRs (ABWRs). In the United States, the Department of Energy, utilities and suppliers are undertaking a cooperative program called First of a Kind Engineering (FOAKE). The purpose of FOAKE is to perform the detailed engineering of ALWRs to that they will be commercially available to U.S. utilities in the mid-1990s. The U.S. industry is in the second year of its strategic plan to have an ALWR in commercial operation by the year 2000. Elsewhere, the Taiwan Power Company has issued a Request for Proposal for two ALWRs so be built at its Lungmen site, with commercial operation of the first unit to be in the year 2000. Korea is formulating plans for an ALWR and other countries, such as Indonesia and Mexico, are looking into the feasibility of building ALWRs

  4. Optical intersatellite links - Application to commercial satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, D.; Faris, F.; Garlow, R.; Inukai, T.; Pontano, B.; Razdan, R.; Ganz, Aura; Caudill, L.

    1992-01-01

    Application of optical intersatellite links for commercial satellite communications services is addressed in this paper. The feasibility of commercialization centers around basic issues such as the need and derived benefits, implementation complexity and overall cost. In this paper, commercialization of optical ISLs is assessed in terms of the services provided, systems requirements and feasibility of appropriate technology. Both long- and short-range ISLs for GEO-GEO, GEO-LEO and LEO applications are considered. Impact of systems requirements on the payload design and use of advanced technology in reducing its mass, power, and volume requirements are discussed.

  5. Diffractive optics for industrial and commercial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turunen, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland); Wyrowski, F. [eds.] [Jena Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The following topics were dealt with: diffractive optics, diffraction gratings, optical system design with diffractive optics, continuous-relief diffractive lenses and microlens arrays, diffractive bifocal intraocular lenses, diffractive laser resonators, diffractive optics for semiconductor lasers, diffractive elements for optical image processing, photorefractive crystals in optical measurement systems, subwavelenth-structured elements, security applications, diffractive optics for solar cells, holographic microlithography. 999 refs.

  6. Intersatellite link application to commercial communications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young S.; Atia, Ali E.; Ponchak, Denise S.

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental characteristics of intersatellite link (ISL) systems, and their application to domestic, regional, and global satellite communications, are described. The quantitative advantages of using ISLs to improve orbit utilization, spectrum occupancy, transmission delay (compared to multi-hop links), coverage, and connectivity, and to reduce the number of earth station antennas, are also presented. Cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits of using ISLs are identified, and the technical and systems planning aspects of ISL systems implementation are addressed.

  7. Commercial applications of food ionization in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Pierre-Louis

    1994-01-01

    Due to the long history of nuclear energy in France, French public is not frightened by nuclear applications in its everyday life. The first industrial initiative on food ionization dates back to 1956. In 1980, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Ionization concluded that food ionization up to a certain maximum dose presented neither toxicological nor nutritional hazard. This opened the new era for the industrial development. But in 1988, a draft directive to harmonize national legislations was issued by the Commission of European Communities. This stopped many industrial initiatives due to uncertainty. It is estimated that nearly 14,000 tons of various food items have been ionized in France in 1991. About 40% are spices, followed by dry fruit, vegetables, and deboned poultry meat. Most of the present applications are intended to eliminate microorganisms. In 1992, 8 industrial facilities were in operation, mostly using gamma sources. Local research associations were founded to promote food ionization. Food ionization development in the past 30 years has been rapid and important, but the future of this process depends on the European harmonization of legislations. (K.I.)

  8. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

  9. Commercial application of bacterial heap leaching in Ganzhou uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jian; Fan Baotuan; Meng Yunsheng; Xiao Jinfeng; Chen Sencai; Wu Jinjing; Liu Chengwu; Wu Yichang; Zeng Ruilong

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the situation of commercial application on bacterial heap leaching in Ganzhou Uranium Mine is introduced, and the construction of biomembrane oxidizing tank, regeneration and recycled utilization of barren solution are summarized. Total five heaps, 18436 t, uranium ore are leached by bacteria during the half of a year. The result is consistent with that of commercial experiment. The technology of bacterial heap leaching is more perfected

  10. Application of adaptive antenna techniques to future commercial satellite communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, L.; Lee, E. A.; Matthews, E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this contract was to identify the application of adaptive antenna technique in future operational commercial satellite communication systems and to quantify potential benefits. The contract consisted of two major subtasks. Task 1, Assessment of Future Commercial Satellite System Requirements, was generally referred to as the Adaptive section. Task 2 dealt with Pointing Error Compensation Study for a Multiple Scanning/Fixed Spot Beam Reflector Antenna System and was referred to as the reconfigurable system. Each of these tasks was further sub-divided into smaller subtasks. It should also be noted that the reconfigurable system is usually defined as an open-loop system while the adaptive system is a closed-loop system. The differences between the open- and closed-loop systems were defined. Both the adaptive and reconfigurable systems were explained and the potential applications of such systems were presented in the context of commercial communication satellite systems.

  11. MAIT application to the analysis of commercial power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, L.A.; McDaniel, T.L.; Chapman, L.D.; Stack, D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses a study which was conducted for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to determine the applicability of the Matrix Analysis of the Insider Threat (MAIT) code to the analysis of sabotage vulnerabilities of commercial power reactors. The sabotage of concern was the initiation of a release of radioactivity in excess of 10 CFR 100 guidelines. 5 refs

  12. Layered Thermal Insulation Systems for Industrial and Commercial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.

    2015-01-01

    From the high performance arena of cryogenic equipment, several different layered thermal insulation systems have been developed for industrial and commercial applications. In addition to the proven areas in cold-work applications for piping and tanks, the new Layered Composite Insulation for Extreme Environments (LCX) has potential for broader industrial use as well as for commercial applications. The LCX technology provides a unique combination of thermal, mechanical, and weathering performance capability that is both cost-effective and enabling. Industry applications may include, for example, liquid nitrogen (LN2) systems for food processing, liquefied natural gas (LNG) systems for transportation or power, and chilled water cooling facilities. Example commercial applications may include commercial residential building construction, hot water piping, HVAC systems, refrigerated trucks, cold chain shipping containers, and a various consumer products. The LCX system is highly tailorable to the end-use application and can be pre-fabricated or field assembled as needed. Product forms of LCX include rigid sheets, semi-flexible sheets, cylindrical clam-shells, removable covers, or flexible strips for wrapping. With increasing system control and reliability requirements as well as demands for higher energy efficiencies, thermal insulation in harsh environments is a growing challenge. The LCX technology grew out of solving problems in the insulation of mechanically complex cryogenic systems that must operate in outdoor, humid conditions. Insulation for cold work includes equipment for everything from liquid helium to chilled water. And in the middle are systems for LNG, LN2, liquid oxygen (LO2), liquid hydrogen (LH2) that must operate in the ambient environment. Different LCX systems have been demonstrated for sub-ambient conditions but are capable of moderately high temperature applications as well.

  13. Nuclear Analytical Techniques for Commercial Applications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Feng, S.; Yang, J.; Ouyang, H.; Feng, X.; Mao, X.

    2013-01-01

    Since the establishment of the first Chinese nuclear reactor and accelerator in 1958, the nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in China have dramatically developed in past half century. Nowadays 10 research nuclear reactors and over 100 small accelerators are available in China. Roughly, about 50 % of the machine time is applied for commercial purpose at the moment. The versatile nuclear analytical methods, mainly NAA, PIXE, XRF, etc., in China have been and are being applied widely and extensively in the following three fields: scientific, training, and commercial. This paper will briefly describe the past experience and present status about NATs for commercial applications. Some practical examples to demonstrate the role of NATs in this aspect will be given as well. Basically, the NATs used for the commercial applications in China can be divided into two types, i.e. off-line and on-line. The former mainly includes instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for compositional determination, particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) also for compositional analysis, accelerator-based mass-spectrometry (AMS) for analysis of C-14, Be-7, Cl-36 and other long-lived radioactive nuclides, solid state nuclear track detector

  14. Bioreactors in tissue engineering - principles, applications and commercial constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansmann, Jan; Groeber, Florian; Kahlig, Alexander; Kleinhans, Claudia; Walles, Heike

    2013-03-01

    Bioreactor technology is vital for tissue engineering. Usually, bioreactors are used to provide a tissue-specific physiological in vitro environment during tissue maturation. In addition to this most obvious application, bioreactors have the potential to improve the efficiency of the overall tissue-engineering concept. To date, a variety of bioreactor systems for tissue-specific applications have been developed. Of these, some systems are already commercially available. With bioreactor technology, various functional tissues of different types were generated and cultured in vitro. Nevertheless, these efforts and achievements alone have not yet led to many clinically successful tissue-engineered implants. We review possible applications for bioreactor systems within a tissue-engineering process and present basic principles and requirements for bioreactor development. Moreover, the use of bioreactor systems for the expansion of clinically relevant cell types is addressed. In contrast to cell expansion, for the generation of functional three-dimensional tissue equivalents, additional physical cues must be provided. Therefore, bioreactors for musculoskeletal tissue engineering are discussed. Finally, bioreactor technology is reviewed in the context of commercial constraints. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation Of Commercial Supercapacitors For Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineste, Valery; Loup, Didier; Mattesco, Patrick; Neugnot, Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    Supercapacitors are identified since years as a new technology enabling energy storage together with high power delivery capability to the system. A recent ESA study [1] led by Astrium has demonstrated the interest of these devices for space application, providing that reliability and end of life performances are demonstrated. A realistic commercial on the shelf (COTS) approach (or with limited design modification approved by potential suppliers) has been favoured (as for batteries). This paper presents preliminary test results done by Astrium on COTS supercapacitors: accelerated life tests, calendar life tests, technology analyses. Based on these results, assessment and lessons learnt are drawn in view of future exhaustive supercapacitor validation and future qualification.

  16. Performance measures in the earth observations commercialization applications program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1996-03-01

    Performance measures in the Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP) are key to its success and include net profitability; enhancements to industry productivity through generic innovations in industry practices, standards, and protocols; and documented contributions to public policy governing the newly developing remote sensing industry. Because EOCAP requires company co-funding, both parties to the agreement (the government and the corporate partner) have incentives to pursue these goals. Further strengthening progress towards these goals are requirements for business plans in the company's EOCAP proposal, detailed scrutiny given these plans during proposal selection, and regularly documented progress reports during project implementation.

  17. Extended Evaluations of the Commercial Spectrometer Systems for Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duc T. Vo

    1999-08-01

    Safeguards applications require the best of the spectrometer system with excellent resolution, stability, and throughput. Instruments must perform well in all situations and environments. Data communication to the computer should be convenient, fast, and reliable. The software should have all the necessary tools and be easy to use. Portable systems should be small in size, lightweight, and have a long battery life. Nine commercially available spectrometer systems are tested with five different germanium detectors. Considering the performance of the Digital Signal Processors (DSP), digital-based spectroscope y may become the way of future gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  18. Review of Compact Commercial Accelerator Products and Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Y.

    1997-05-01

    Historically, particle accelerators were developed initially for nuclear, then for particle physics research. From this research resulted applications of accelerators in the field of medicine and industry. These application-oriented accelerators are generally built commercially, and they often emphasize other qualities than the accelerators for research. The research applications frequently require energies or beam qualities at the limit of the existing technologies. They offer the largest flexibility in term of particles and beam properties, but are more complex, more expensive and often require large and highly qualified staff to operate and maintain them. In contrast, most applications are done with low to moderate energy protons or electrons, but often with large average beam power. The accelerators are generally specialized for a specific application, and are therefore very simple and inexpensive to operate. The author will review some applications in the field of medicine, such as the production of radio-isotopes for medical diagnostic or the production of electrons, protons or fast neutron beams for cancer therapy. In the industrial field, high power electron beam are used for sterilization and for the modification of materials. Log No. 1001

  19. Film forming microbial biopolymers for commercial applications--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayendra, S V N; Shamala, T R

    2014-12-01

    Microorganisms synthesize intracellular, structural and extracellular polymers also referred to as biopolymers for their function and survival. These biopolymers play specific roles as energy reserve materials, protective agents, aid in cell functioning, the establishment of symbiosis, osmotic adaptation and support the microbial genera to function, adapt, multiply and survive efficiently under changing environmental conditions. Viscosifying, gelling and film forming properties of these have been exploited for specific significant applications in food and allied industries. Intensive research activities and recent achievements in relevant and important research fields of global interest regarding film forming microbial biopolymers is the subject of this review. Microbial polymers such as pullulan, kefiran, bacterial cellulose (BC), gellan and levan are placed under the category of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and have several other functional properties including film formation, which can be used for various applications in food and allied industries. In addition to EPS, innumerable bacterial genera are found to synthesis carbon energy reserves in their cells known as polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), microbial polyesters, which can be extruded into films with excellent moisture and oxygen barrier properties. Blow moldable biopolymers like PHA along with polylactic acid (PLA) synthesized chemically in vitro using lactic acid (LA), which is produced by LA bacteria through fermentation, are projected as biodegradable polymers of the future for packaging applications. Designing and creating of new property based on requirements through controlled synthesis can lead to improvement in properties of existing polysaccharides and create novel biopolymers of great commercial interest and value for wider applications. Incorporation of antimicrobials such as bacteriocins or silver and copper nanoparticles can enhance the functionality of polymer films especially in food packaging

  20. Technology requirements for commercial applications of inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.G.; Rossi, C.E.

    1981-01-01

    Current inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research is directed primarily at physics experiments intended to provide confidence in the scientific feasibility of the basic concept. In conjunction with these experiments, a variety of laser and particle beam drivers having potential for eventual use in fusion power plants is being developed. Expectations are that the scientific feasibility of ICF will be demonstrated in the latter part of the 1980s. At that time, the emphasis of the program will shift to engineering, economic, environmental, and licensing issues with the necessary technology development effort continuing into the early part of the next century. This paper discusses the technology requirements for the successive phases of engineering development leading to commercial application of ICF. The engineering areas requiring significant effort for ICF application include high average power driver development; pulsed high-energy power supply development; reactor cavity and heat transport system design; tritium extraction and control; commercial pellet development; pellet injection, tracking, and targeting systems design; materials radiation, fatigue, and corrosion behavior; and reactor plant systems integration and demonstration

  1. Development of Commercial Applications of a FAPY Alloy; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sikka, VK

    2001-01-01

    The Fe-16 at. (8.5 wt)% Al alloy, known as FAPY, has been identified as a superior material for heating element applications. However, while the 15-lb heats melted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) could be processed into wire, the large heat melted at Hoskins Manufacturing Company (Hoskins) could not be processed under commercial processing conditions. The primary objective of the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was to demonstrate that wire of the FAPY alloy could be produced under commercial conditions from air-induction-melted (AIM) heats. The specific aspects of this CRADA included: (1) Melting 15-lb heats by AIM or vacuum-induction melting (VIM) at ORNL. (2) Development of detailed processing steps including warm drawing and annealing temperature and time during cold-drawing steps. (3) Melting of 1400-lb heats at Hoskins by the Exo-Melt(trademark) process and their chemical analysis and microstructural characterization. (4) Development of tensile properties of sections of ingots from the large heats in the as-cast, hot-worked, and hot- and cold-worked conditions. (5) Microstructural characterization of cast and wrought structures and the fractured specimens. (6) Successful demonstration of processing of AIM heats at Hoskins to heating element wire. The aspects of this CRADA listed above have demonstrated that the FAPY alloy of the desired composition can be commercially produced by AIM by the use of the Exo-Melt(trademark) process. Furthermore, it also demonstrated that the wire processing steps developed for 15-lb heats at ORNL can be successfully applied to the production of wire from the large AIM heats

  2. 77 FR 30021 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border...: Application to Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE). This is a proposed extension of an information... Environment (ACE) is a trade processing system that will eventually replace the Automated Commercial System...

  3. Commercial-grade motors in safety-related applications: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzman, P.M.

    1988-04-01

    The objective of this project was to discuss the process necessary to utilize commercial grade equipment in safety related applications and to provide utilities with guidance for accepting commercial grade motors for safety-related applications. The generic commercial-grade concepts presented in this report can be successfully applied to motors. Commercial grade item utilization has the greatest applicability to motors in ''mild'' environments, because these motors are essentially similar to commercial grade motors in materials, construction methods, and capabilities. The acceptance process is less applicable to motors that are subject to ''harsh'' environments during postulated accidents, because of the unique design features and testing required to qualify these motors

  4. Personalized skincare: from molecular basis to clinical and commercial applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markiewicz E

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Markiewicz, Olusola Clement Idowu Research & Development, Hexis Lab, Science Central, The Core, Bath Lane, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Individual responses of human skin to the environmental stress are determined by differences in the anatomy and physiology that are closely linked to the genetic characteristics such as pigmentation. Ethnic skin phenotypes can be distinguished based on defined genotypic traits, structural organization and compartmentalized sensitivity to distinct extrinsic aging factors. These differences are not only responsible for the variation in skin performance after exposure to damaging conditions, but can also affect the mechanisms of drug absorption, sensitization and other longer term effects. The unique characteristics of the individual skin function and, particularly, of the ethnic skin type are currently considered to shape the future of clinical and pharmacologic interventions as a basis for personalized skincare. Individual approaches to skincare render a novel and actively growing area with a range of biomedical and commercial applications within cosmetics industry. In this review, we summarize the aspects of the molecular and clinical manifestations of the environmental stress on human skin and proposed protective mechanisms that are linked to ethnic differences and pathophysiology of extrinsic skin aging. We subsequently discuss the possible applications and translation of this knowledge into personalized skincare. Keywords: pigmentation, gene polymorphism, photodamage, environmental stress, cosmetics

  5. Non-commercial vs. commercial clinical trials: a retrospective study of the applications submitted to a research ethics committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes Camps, Inmaculada; Rodríguez, Alexis; Agustí, Antonia

    2018-02-15

    There are many difficulties in undertaking independent clinical research without support from the pharmaceutical industry. In this retrospective observational study, some design characteristics, the clinical trial public register and the publication rate of noncommercial clinical trials were compared to those of commercial clinical trials. A total of 809 applications of drug-evaluation clinical trials were submitted from May 2004 to May 2009 to the research ethics committee of a tertiary hospital, and 16.3% of trials were noncommercial. They were mainly phase IV, multicentre national, and unmasked controlled trials, compared to the commercial trials that were mainly phase II or III, multicentre international, and double-blind masked trials. The commercial trials were registered and published more often than noncommercial trials. More funding for noncommercial research is still needed. The results of the research, commercial or noncommercial, should be disseminated in order not to compromise either its scientific or its social value. © 2018 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Industrial and commercial applications for a Triga reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Physics and Radioisotope Services Group of ICI operates a Triga Reactor in support of a commercial, Industrial Radioisotope Technology Service. The technical and commercial development of this business is discussed in the context of operating a Triga Reactor in an Industrial Environment. (author)

  7. Magnetic giant magnetoresistance commercial off the shelf for space applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelena, M.D.; Oelschlägel, Wulf; Arruego, I.

    2008-01-01

    The increase of complexity and miniaturizing level of Aerospace platforms make use of commercial off the shelf (COTS) components constitute a plausible alternative to the use of military or rad-tolerant components. In this work, giant magnetoresistance commercial sensors are studied to be used as......-375 mu T biasing field. (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  8. 77 FR 14535 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Activities: Application To Use the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Commercial Environment (ACE). This request for comment is being made pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act... Number: None. Abstract: The Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) is a trade processing system that will...

  9. Tropical Fruit Irradiation-From Research to Commercial Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, James H.

    2005-09-01

    Food irradiation is an emerging technology for the 21st century. Extensive research and development worldwide in the past 40 years have proved the versatility and efficacy. With low, medium to high dose, and using either a gamma, electrons, or x-ray source, radiation can: 1) disinfest plant products and spices; 2) extend shelf life of tubers, bulbs, and selected tropical fruits; 3) decontaminate meats and seafood; 4) sterilize spices and special meals; and 5) improve product utilization. Criteria for testing its efficacy include effectiveness, efficiency, and the ability to retain product quality. The use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment of tropical fruits is potentially attractive to countries growing these fruits. A two-prong research plan should aim at proving radiation's effectiveness in preventing emergence of all insect pests that might be on a fruit, and determining that all quality attributes of a host fruit are retained after irradiation, subsequent storage and shipment. ommercial application involves conducting an economical feasibility study; market research and testing; selection of radiation source and irradiator type; training of personnel for plant operations, radiation safety and dosimetry monitoring; designing of packages and choosing the most cost-effective means of transporting treated fruits to market destinations. When all of hese are achieved, it should lead to a continuous and profitable operation. Researchers at the University of Hawaii using a gamma irradiator from the mid-1960s to early 2000s had amassed a volume of data to prove the efficacy of radiation disinfestations. And installation of a commercial x-ray irradiator in 2000 on the Island of Hawaii has enabled fruit farmers and packers to use this technology for exporting tropical fruits to distant markets

  10. Application of text mining for customer evaluations in commercial banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jing; Du, Xiaojiang; Hao, Pengpeng; Wang, Yanbo J.

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays customer attrition is increasingly serious in commercial banks. To combat this problem roundly, mining customer evaluation texts is as important as mining customer structured data. In order to extract hidden information from customer evaluations, Textual Feature Selection, Classification and Association Rule Mining are necessary techniques. This paper presents all three techniques by using Chinese Word Segmentation, C5.0 and Apriori, and a set of experiments were run based on a collection of real textual data that includes 823 customer evaluations taken from a Chinese commercial bank. Results, consequent solutions, some advice for the commercial bank are given in this paper.

  11. Commercialization of terrestrial applications of aerospace power technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    The potential for commercialization of terrestrial energy systems based upon aerospace power technology's explored. Threats to the aerospace power technology industry, caused by the end of the cold war and weak world economy are described. There are also new opportunities caused by increasing terrestrial energy needs and world-wide concern for the environment. In this paper, the strengths and weaknesses of the aerospace power industry in commercializing terrestrial energy technologies are reviewed. Finally, actions which will enable the aerospace power technology industry to commercialize products into terrestrial energy markets are described

  12. 48 CFR 12.503 - Applicability of certain laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... laws to Executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.503 Section 12.503... COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items and Commercially... acquisition of commercial items. (a) The following laws are not applicable to Executive agency contracts for...

  13. 40 CFR 171.3 - Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Categorization of commercial applicators of pesticides. 171.3 Section 171.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS CERTIFICATION OF PESTICIDE APPLICATORS § 171.3 Categorization of commercial...

  14. Commercial Applications at FRM II Based on Neutron Irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerstenberg, H.; Draack, A.; Kastenmuller, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Munchen (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Due to its design as a heavy water moderated reactor with a very compact core FRM II, Germany's most modern and most powerful research reactor, offers excellent conditions for basic research using beam tubes. On the other hand it is equipped with various irradiation facilities to be used mainly for industrial purposes. From the very beginning of reactor operation a dedicated department had been implemented in order to provide a neutron irradiation service to interested parties on a commercial basis. As of today the most widely used application is Si doping. The semiautomatic doping facility accepts ingots with diameters between 125 mm and 200 mm and a maximum height of 500 mm. The irradiation channel is located deep in the heavy water tank and exhibits a ratio of thermal/fast neutron flux density of > 1000. This value allows the doping of Si to a target resistivity as high as 1100 Ωcm within the tight limits regarding accuracy and homogeneity specified by the customer. Typically the throughput of Si doped in FRM II sums up to about 15 t/year. Another topic of growing importance is the use of FRM II aiming the production of radioisotopes mainly for the radiopharmaceutical industry. The maybe most challenging example is the production of Lu-177 n. c. a. based on the irradiation of Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} to a high fluence of thermal neutrons of typically 1.5E20 cm{sup -2}. The Lu-177 activity delivered to the customer is in the range of 750 GBq. With respect to further processing it turned out to be a highly advantageous to have the laboratories of ITG, the company extracting the Lu-177 from the freshly irradiated Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3} on site FRM II. Further irradiation facilities are available at FRM II in order to allow the activation of samples for analytical purposes or to irradiate samples for geochronological investigations using the fission track technique. Finally a project on the future installation of a facility dedicated to the irradiation of U-targets for

  15. Use of advanced commercial ICs (COTS) for space application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, D.J.; Czajkowski, D.R.; Layton, P.; Shanken, S.

    1999-01-01

    A product line of space-qualified radiation-tolerant ICs based on a high-volume commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) silicon has been developed. The basic results from over 300 lots of COTS silicon, assembled and screened to Class B and Class S requirements will be presented. Intelligent use of commercial ICs engineered to improve radiation performance, is effective in introducing advanced technology to new satellite systems. Space Electronics has introduced over 125 space-qualified microelectronics standard products, that are used on over 90 space projects. (authors)

  16. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Electronics Reliability for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellish, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    This presentation describes the accelerating use of Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) parts in space applications. Component reliability and threats in the context of the mission, environment, application, and lifetime. Provides overview of traditional approaches applied to COTS parts in flight applications, and shows challenges and potential paths forward for COTS systems in flight applications it's all about data!

  17. Next-generation batteries and fuel cells for commercial, military, and space applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jha, A R

    2012-01-01

    Distilling complex theoretical physical concepts into an understandable technical framework, Next-Generation Batteries and Fuel Cells for Commercial, Military, and Space Applications describes primary and secondary (rechargeable) batteries for various commercial, military, spacecraft, and satellite applications for covert communications, surveillance, and reconnaissance missions. It emphasizes the cost, reliability, longevity, and safety of the next generation of high-capacity batteries for applications where high energy density, minimum weight and size, and reliability in harsh conditions are

  18. Facility overview for commercial application of selected Rocky Flats facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Facility Overview is to support the Rocky Flats Local Impacts Initiative's Request for Interest, to solicit interest from commercial corporations for utilizing buildings 865 and 883, and the equipment contained within each building, for a commercial venture. In the following sections, this document describes the Rocky Flats Site, the buildings available for lease, the equipment within these buildings, the site services available to a tenant, the human resources available to support operations in buildings 865 and 883, and the environmental condition of the buildings and property. In addition, a brief description is provided of the work performed to date to explore the potential products that might be manufactured in Buildings 865 and 883, and the markets for these products

  19. The commercial application prospect of HTGR plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yingsu

    2008-01-01

    With an introduction of the features and current situation of the HTGR power generation as well as the development of HTGR demonstration project in China, the article analyzes the necessity of developing HTGR power plants. The article proposes to exercise the advantages of HTGR to full extent so as to further develop HTGR power plants. It is believed that HTGR is of great commercial promotion value under appropriate circumstances. (authors)

  20. The commercial application of near real time materials accountancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chater, S.P.; Jones, B.J.; Jones, R.F.; Westwood, L.N.; Wharrier, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Near Real Time Materials Accountancy (NRTMA) is the leading edge technical solution employed by BNFL for in-process verification and timely detection of anomalies. It facilitates Safeguards inspection without intrusion and safeguards interim assurance without a monthly plant shut down. BNFL has been committed to the development of NRTMA for commercial plutonium plants. This multimedia poster presentation describes the features of Thorp and SMP relevant to the application of NRTMA, and then the statistical engine of NRTMA, which has many features in common across the two systems. This final point renders BNFL's implementation of NRTMA eligible for application to other nuclear and non-nuclear installations. NRTMA is operational in the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (Thorp). NRTMA supports fulfilment of the monthly timeliness component of the safeguards approach so that Thorp can remain operational between annual Physical Inventory Takings (PITs). The In-Process Inventory (IPI) is determined by for each vessel, or group of vessels, based on determination of weight and assay (or volume and concentration) or process models. Data trending enhances the quality of important sources of data. Plant status rules are used to determine times when it is appropriate to determine the IPI. The number of IPIs is currently some tens per annual campaign (PIT to PIT), although the NRTMA System can accommodate more. NRTMA is an intrinsic element in the safeguards and nuclear materials control and accountancy arrangements for the Sellafield MOX Plant (SMP). This fulfils the timeliness component of the safeguards approach and does not require monthly clean out or run down for verification. The SMP is a batch process. In a plant location, there is a 'Window of Opportunity' for determining that component of the inventory while it is stationary. The IPI can be determined when the 'Windows of Opportunity' for the entire Works Accountancy Area align. There are potentially many

  1. Guideline on evaluation and acceptance of commercial grade digital equipment for nuclear safety applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    Nuclear power plants are increasingly upgrading their instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems with commercial digital equipment, which allows them to continue meeting safety and reliability requirements while controlling operating costs. However, the use of commercial software-based devices for safety related applications has raised new issues that impact design, procurement, and licensing activities. This guideline describes a consistent, comprehensive approach for the evaluation and acceptance of commercial digital equipment for nuclear safety systems

  2. Characterization of commercial supercapacitors for low temperature applications

    OpenAIRE

    Iwama, Etsuro; Taberna, Pierre-Louis; Azais, Philippe; Brégeon, Laurent; Simon, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Electrochemical characterizations at low temperature and floating tests have been performed on 600F commercial supercapacitor (SC) for acetonitrile (AN)-based and AN + methyl acetate (MA) mixed electrolytes. From −40 to +20 °C, AN electrolyte showed slightly higher capacitance than those of AN + MA mixed electrolytes (25 and 33 vol.% of MA). At −55 °C, however, AN electrolyte did not cycle at all, while MA mixed electrolyte normally cycled with a slight decrease in the...

  3. 48 CFR 212.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.504 Section 212.504 Federal... PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. (a...

  4. 48 CFR 12.504 - Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 12.504 Section 12.504 Federal Acquisition... Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items and Commercially Available Off-The-Shelf Items 12.504 Applicability of certain laws to subcontracts for the acquisition of commercial items. (a...

  5. Adaptation of commercial microscopes for advanced imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brideau, Craig; Poon, Kelvin; Stys, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Today's commercially available microscopes offer a wide array of options to accommodate common imaging experiments. Occasionally, an experimental goal will require an unusual light source, filter, or even irregular sample that is not compatible with existing equipment. In these situations the ability to modify an existing microscopy platform with custom accessories can greatly extend its utility and allow for experiments not possible with stock equipment. Light source conditioning/manipulation such as polarization, beam diameter or even custom source filtering can easily be added with bulk components. Custom and after-market detectors can be added to external ports using optical construction hardware and adapters. This paper will present various examples of modifications carried out on commercial microscopes to address both atypical imaging modalities and research needs. Violet and near-ultraviolet source adaptation, custom detection filtering, and laser beam conditioning and control modifications will be demonstrated. The availability of basic `building block' parts will be discussed with respect to user safety, construction strategies, and ease of use.

  6. Modelling streamflow reductions resulting from commercial afforestation in South Africa: From research to application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, Mark B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available , in 1972, of legislation that required timber growers to apply for permits to establish commercial plantations. Applications to establish forestry plantations became mandatory, and were rejected if it was deemed that the afforestation would use...

  7. Trends in genetic patent applications: The commercialization of academic intellectual property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kers, J.G.; van Burg, J.C.; Stoop, T.; Cornel, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications

  8. Application of commercial exploration techniques to site selection and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    Since 1976 the U.S Department of Energy has conducted intensive geologic studies of the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in south-central Washington. With passage of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 the process of search for a geologically suitable waste repository site became more structured, and it has been subject to outside review by the state, affected Indian tribes and other federal agencies, notably the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S Geological Survey. This paper contrasts the USDOE approach with that of the mining and petroleum industries, highlighting fundamental differences in philosophy and techniques. It is proposed that the principle of ''condemnation,'' which is fundamental in commercial exploration methods, could greatly benefit the USDOE siting program, which by comparison has been slow, costly and not very productive

  9. Response of commercial photodiodes for application in alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira Filho, Alfredo Lopes

    1998-06-01

    The use of semiconductor detector for ionizing radiations spectrometry and dosimetry has been growing in the last years due to its characteristics of fast response, good efficiency for unit of volume and excellent resolution. Since the working principle of a semiconductor detector is identical to that of the semiconductor junctions of commercial electronic devices, a study was carried out on the PIN-photodiodes response, aiming at set up an alpha spectrometry system of low cost and easy acquisition. The tested components have the following characteristics: active area varying between 13.2 and 25 mm 2 , window of thickness equal or lower than 57 mg/cm 2 , depletion area with depth ranging from 10 to 300 μm and junction capacitance of 16 to 20 pF.Am-241, Cm-244, U-233 and Np-237 alpha sources produced by electrodeposition were used to evaluate the response of the devices as a function of the radiation energy. The results have shown a linear response of the photodiodes with the incident alpha particle energy. The resolution varied from 1.6% to 0.45% and the better detection efficiency found was about 7.2. The low cost of the photodiodes and the excellent results obtained at room temperature make such components very attractive for teaching purposes for environmental monitoring. (author)

  10. Characterization of commercial supercapacitors for low temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, E.; Taberna, P. L.; Azais, P.; Brégeon, L.; Simon, P.

    2012-12-01

    Electrochemical characterizations at low temperature and floating tests have been performed on 600F commercial supercapacitor (SC) for acetonitrile (AN)-based and AN + methyl acetate (MA) mixed electrolytes. From -40 to +20 °C, AN electrolyte showed slightly higher capacitance than those of AN + MA mixed electrolytes (25 and 33 vol.% of MA). At -55 °C, however, AN electrolyte did not cycle at all, while MA mixed electrolyte normally cycled with a slight decrease in their capacitance. From electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, the whole resistance for AN-based cells at -55 °C was found to be about 10,000 times higher than that of +20 °C, while a 40-fold increase in the cell resistance was obtained for the MA mixture between 20 and -55 °C. From the results of floating tests at 2.7 V and 60 °C for 1 month, the 25 vol.% MA mixture showed no change and slight decreased but stable capacitance.

  11. Thermal characterization of commercially pure titanium for dental applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enori Gemelli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal characterization of commercially pure titanium was carried out in dry air to investigate the oxidation kinetics, the oxide structures and their properties. Oxidation kinetics were performed by thermogravimetry in isothermal conditions between 300 and 750 °C for 48 hours and the oxide structures were studied by differential thermal analyses and X ray diffraction between room temperature and 1000 °C. The oxidation kinetic increases with temperature and is very fast in the initial period of oxidation, decreasing rapidly with time, especially up to 600 °C. Kinetic laws varied between the inverse logarithmic for the lower temperatures (300 and 400 °C and the parabolic for the higher temperatures (650, 700 and 750 °C. Evidences from X ray diffraction and differential thermal analyses showed that crystallization of the passive oxide film, formed at room temperature, into anatase occurs at about 276 °C. The crystallized oxide structure is composed of anatase between 276 and 457 °C, anatase and rutile sublayers between 457 and 718 °C, and a pure layer of rutile after 718 °C. Rockwell-C adhesion tests reveled that the oxide films formed up to 600 °C have a good adhesion. Vickers indentations on the oxidized surfaces showed that the hardness of the oxide film, measured at 600 and 650 °C, is approximately 9500 MPa. At these temperatures the surface roughness varied between 0.90 and 1.30 mm.

  12. Center for commercial applications of combustion in space (CCACS); A partnership for space commercialization at the Colorado School of Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schowengerdt, F. D.; Kee, Bob; Linne, Mark; McKinnon, Tom; Moore, John; Parker, Terry; Readey, Dennis; Tilton, John E.; Helble, Joe

    1997-01-01

    The Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion in Space (CCACS) is a NASA/Industry/University consortium at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM). The mission of the Center is to assist industry in developing commercial products by conducting combustion research which takes advantage of the unique properties of space. By conducting experiments in near-zero gravity, convection and buoyancy effects can be minimized and new fundamental design-related knowledge can be gained which can be used to improve combustion-related products and processes on earth. Companies, government laboratories and universities most actively involved in CCACS at present include ABB Combustion, ADA Technologies, Advanced Refractory Technologies, Golden Technologies, Lockheed-Martin, Southwest Sciences, Space Systems/Lora, NASA-Lewis, JPL, the Baylor Dental School and the University of Connecticut. Products and processes of interest to the Center participants include industrial process combustors; catalytic combustion; Halon replacements; ceramic powders, whiskers and fibers; metal-matrix composites; NiTi for bone replacement; diamond coatings for oil-well drill bits; zeolites; imaging sensor arrays and other instrumentation for flame and particulate diagnostics. The center also assists member companies in marketing the resulting products and processes.

  13. Usability of Commercially Available Mobile Applications for Diverse Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Urmimala; Gourley, Gato I; Lyles, Courtney R; Tieu, Lina; Clarity, Cassidy; Newmark, Lisa; Singh, Karandeep; Bates, David W

    2016-12-01

    Mobile applications or 'apps' intended to help people manage their health and chronic conditions are widespread and gaining in popularity. However, little is known about their acceptability and usability for low-income, racially/ethnically diverse populations who experience a disproportionate burden of chronic disease and its complications. The objective of this study was to investigate the usability of existing mobile health applications ("apps") for diabetes, depression, and caregiving, in order to facilitate development and tailoring of patient-facing apps for diverse populations. Usability testing, a mixed-methods approach that includes interviewing and direct observation of participant technology use, was conducted with participants (n = 9 caregivers; n = 10 patients with depression; and n = 10 patients with diabetes) on a total of 11 of the most popular health apps (four diabetes apps, four depression apps, and three caregiver apps) on both iPad and Android tablets. The participants were diverse: 15 (58 %) African Americans, seven (27 %) Whites, two (8 %) Asians, two (8 %) Latinos with either diabetes, depression, or who were caregivers. Participants were given condition-specific tasks, such as entering a blood glucose value into a diabetes app. Participant interviews were video recorded and were coded using standard methods to evaluate attempts and completions of tasks. We performed inductive coding of participant comments to identify emergent themes. Participants completed 79 of 185 (43 %) tasks across 11 apps without assistance. Three themes emerged from participant comments: lack of confidence with technology, frustration with design features and navigation, and interest in having technology to support their self-management. App developers should employ participatory design strategies in order to have an impact on chronic conditions such as diabetes and depression that disproportionately affect vulnerable populations. While patients

  14. Commercial Clinical Application of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    CRADA No. 95-CR-09 among the LITCO--now Bechtel BWXT Idaho, LLC; a private company, Neutron Therapies Limited Liability Company, NTL formerly Ionix Corporation; and Washington State University was established in 1996 to further the development of BNCT. NTL has established a laboratory for the synthesis, under US FDA approved current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines, of key boron intermediates and final boron agents for BNCT. The company has focused initially on the development of the compound GB-10 (Na 2 B 10 H 10 ) as the first boron agent of interest. An Investigational New Drug (IND) application for GB-10 has been filed and approved by the FDA for a Phase I human biodistribution trial in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and glioblastoma multiforme at UW under the direction of Professor Keith Stelzer, Principal Investigator (PI). These trials are funded by NTL under a contract with the UW, Department of Radiation Oncology, and the initial phases are nearing completion. Initial results show that boron-10 concentrations on the order of 100 micrograms per gram (100 ppm) can be achieved and maintained in blood with no indication of toxicity

  15. Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of generators for nuclear safety related applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, R.K.; Hajos, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The number of nuclear safety related equipment suppliers and the availability of spare and replacement parts designed specifically for nuclear safety related application are shrinking rapidly. These have made it necessary for utilities to apply commercial grade spare and replacement parts in nuclear safety related applications after implementing proper acceptance and dedication process to verify that such items conform with the requirements of their use in nuclear safety related application. The general guidelines for the commercial grade item (CGI) acceptance and dedication are provided in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Generic Letters and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Report NP-5652, Guideline for the Utilization of Commercial Grade Items in Nuclear Safety Related Applications. This paper presents an application of these generic guidelines for procurement, acceptance, and dedication of a commercial grade generator for use as a standby generator at Salem Generating Station Units 1 and 2. The paper identifies the critical characteristics of the generator which once verified, will provide reasonable assurance that the generator will perform its intended safety function. The paper also delineates the method of verification of the critical characteristics through tests and provide acceptance criteria for the test results. The methodology presented in this paper may be used as specific guidelines for reliable and cost effective procurement and dedication of commercial grade generators for use as standby generators at nuclear power plants

  16. 48 CFR 212.570 - Applicability of certain laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.570 Applicability of certain laws to contracts and... laws to contracts and subcontracts for the acquisition of commercially available off-the-shelf items...

  17. 48 CFR 212.503 - Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of commercial items. 212.503 Section 212.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Applicability of Certain Laws to the Acquisition of Commercial Items 212.503 Applicability of certain laws to executive agency contracts for the acquisition of...

  18. Evaluation of commercial and sulfated ZrO_2 aiming application catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, F.N.; Dantas, J.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Pallone, E.M.J.A.; Dutra, R.C.L.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the performance of commercial and sulfated ZrO_2 for future application in catalysis. Commercial ZrO_2 was provided by the company Saint-Gobain Zirpro. The sulfation occurred with SO_4"-"2 ion content of 30% compared to the mass of ZrO_2. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, EDX and GD. The results revealed the formation of a monoclinic phase for the commercial sample, and a monoclinic major phase with tetragonal traces for the sulfated sample. The commercial ZrO_2 showed a narrow, bimodal and asymmetric agglomerates distribution, while the sulfated sample showed a narrow, tetramodal and asymmetric agglomerates distribution. The presence of traces of the tetragonal phase in the SO_4"-"2/ZrO_2 XRD, and the presence of SO_3 in the EDX were good indicators for future use in catalysis to provide ester. (author)

  19. A benchmark study of commercially available copper nanoparticle inks for application in organic electronic devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polino, G.; Abbel, R.; Shanmugam, S.; Bex, G.J.P.; Hendriks, R.; Brunetti, F.; Di Carlo, A.; Andriessen, R.; Galagan, Y.

    2016-01-01

    A set of three commercial copper nanoparticle based inkjet inks has been benchmarked with respect to their potential to form conducting printed structures for future applications in organic electronic devices. Significant differences were observed in terms of jetting properties, spreading behaviour

  20. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, Lance Lewis; Terrani, Kurt A.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Worrall, Andrew; Robb, Kevin R.; Snead, Mary A.

    2015-01-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  1. Technology Implementation Plan. Fully Ceramic Microencapsulated Fuel for Commercial Light Water Reactor Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Lance Lewis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Powers, Jeffrey J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Worrall, Andrew [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Robb, Kevin R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Snead, Mary A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report is an overview of the implementation plan for ORNL's fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) light water reactor fuel. The fully ceramic microencapsulated fuel consists of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) particles embedded inside a fully dense SiC matrix and is intended for utilization in commercial light water reactor application.

  2. Application of the iron-enriched basalt waste form for immobilizing commercial transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.

    1981-08-01

    The principal sources of commercial transuranic (TRU) waste in the United States are identified. The physical and chemical nature of the wastes from these sources are discussed. The fabrication technique and properties of iron-enriched basalt, a rock-like waste form developed for immobilizing defense TRU wastes, are discussed. The application of iron-enriched basalt to commercial TRU wastes is discussed. Review of commercial TRU wastes from mixed-oxide fuel fabrication, light water reactor fuel reprocessing, and miscellaneous medical, research, and industrial sources, indicates that iron-enriched basalt is suitable for most types of commercial TRU wastes. Noncombustible TRU wastes are dissolved in the high temperature, oxidizing iron-enriched basalt melt. Combustible TRU wastes are immobilized in iron-enriched basalt by incinerating the wastes and adding the TRU-bearing ash to the melt. Casting and controlled cooling of the melt produces a devitrified, rock-like iron-enriched basalt monolith. Recommendations are given for testing the applicability of iron-enriched basalt to commercial TRU wastes

  3. New developments in nickel-hydrogen cell and battery design for commercial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, D.B.; Fox, C.L.; Miller, L.E. [Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., Joplin, MO (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Nickel-hydrogen (NiH{sub 2}) battery systems were first developed for space applications more than 20 years ago. Currently, they are being manufactured for commercial, terrestrial applications. The battery is ideal for commercial terrestrial energy storage applications because it offers a better potential cycle life than any other battery system and is maintenance free. A selection of low-cost components, electrodes, cell designs and battery designs are being tested to determine their feasibility for commercial applications. The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) design, developed by Eagle-Picher Industries, is the newest step in the continued development and evolution of the NiH{sub 2} system. The unique feature of the DPV cell design is the prismatic electrode stack which is more efficient than the cylindrical electrode stack. The electrode stack is the electrochemically active part of the cell. It contains nickel and hydrogen electrodes interspersed with an absorbent separator. DPV cells of two sizes, 40 and 60 Ah cells, have been developed. The DPV cell offers high specific energy at a reduced cost. The advanced DPV design also offers an efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal configuration and a reduced parts count. The design promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and weight efficiency. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Application of secondary ion mass spectrometry for the characterization of commercial high performance materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gritsch, M.

    2000-09-01

    The industry today offers an uncounted number of high performance materials, that have to meet highest standards. Commercial high performance materials, though often sold in large quantities, still require ongoing research and development to keep up to date with increasing needs and decreasing tolerances. Furthermore, a variety of materials is on the market that are not fully understood in their microstructure, in the way they react under application conditions, and in which mechanisms are responsible for their degradation. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is an analytical method that is now in commercial use for over 30 years. Its main advantages are the very high detection sensitivity (down to ppb), the ability to measure all elements with isotopic sensitivity, the ability of gaining laterally resolved images, and the inherent capability of depth-profiling. These features make it an ideal tool for a wide field of applications within advanced material science. The present work gives an introduction into the principles of SIMS and shows the successful application for the characterization of commercially used high performance materials. Finally, a selected collection of my publications in reviewed journals will illustrate the state of the art in applied materials research and development with dynamic SIMS. All publications focus on the application of dynamic SIMS to analytical questions that stem from questions arising during the production and improvement of high-performance materials. (author)

  5. High-energy radiation and polymers: A review of commercial processes and emerging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clough, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been found to be widely applicable in modifying the structure and properties of polymers, and can be used to tailor the performance of either bulk materials or surfaces. Fifty years of research in polymer radiation chemistry has led to numerous applications of commercial and economic importance, and work remains active in the application of radiation to practical uses involving polymeric materials. This paper provides a survey of radiation-processing methods of industrial interest, ranging from technologies already commercially well established, through innovations in the active R and D stage which show exceptional promise for future commercial use. Radiation-processing technologies are discussed under the following categories: cross-linking of plastics and rubbers, curing of coatings and inks, heat-shrink products, fiber-matrix composites, chain-scission for processing control, surface modification, grafting, hydrogels, sterilization, natural product enhancement, plastics recycling, ceramic precursors, electronic property materials, ion-track membranes and lithography for microdevice production. In addition to new technological innovations utilizing conventional gamma and e-beam sources, a number of promising new applications make use of novel radiation types which include ion beams (heavy ions, light ions, highly focused microscopic beams and high-intensity pulses), soft X-rays which are focused, coherent X-rays (from a synchrotron) and e-beams which undergo scattering to generate patterns

  6. Application of IC Card License for Road Transportation in Commercial Vehicles Supervision and Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IC card electronic license for road transport includes the IC card commercial vehicle’s certificate and IC card practitioner’s qualification certificate. In China, the IC card electronic license for road transport is the electronic ID card which must be carried by each commercial vehicles and practitioners. This paper briefly introduces the basic situation, data format and security keys architecture of IC card electronic license for road transportation of China. In order to strengthen the supervision and service of commercial vehicles, this paper puts forward the overall application framework of IC card electronic license for road transport. The application examples of IC card license in the supervision of passenger station, dangerous goods transport management, governance overload and logistics park and port area management are discussed. The practical application results show that the application of IC card electronic license for road transport is an important technical means to improve the supervision ability and service quality of the road transportation industry.

  7. Trends in genetic patent applications: the commercialization of academic intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kers, Jannigje G; Van Burg, Elco; Stoop, Tom; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-10-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications data from the PATSTAT database from 1990 until 2009 were analyzed for time trends and regional distribution. Overall, the number of patent applications has been growing. In 2009, 152 000 patent applications were submitted under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and within the EP (European Patent) system of the European Patent Office (EPO). The number of genetic patent applications increased until a peak was reached in the year 2000, with >8000 applications, after which it declined by almost 50%. Continents show different patterns over time, with the global peak in 2000 mainly explained by the USA and Europe, while Asia shows a stable number of >1000 per year. Nine countries together account for 98.9% of the total number of genetic patent applications. In The Netherlands, 26.7% of the genetic patent applications originate from public research institutions. After the year 2000, the number of genetic patent applications dropped significantly. Academic leadership and policy as well as patent regulations seem to have an important role in the trend differences. The ongoing investment in genetic research in the past decade is not reflected by an increase of patent applications.

  8. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  9. Grain Refinement of Commercial EC Grade 1070 Aluminium Alloy for Electrical Application

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanabadi, Massoud

    2015-01-01

    The aluminium alloys for electrical conductivity applications are generally not grain refinedsince the addition of grain refiners drops the electrical conductivity by introducing impuritiesinto the melt. Non-grain refined aluminium may lead to bar fracture and cracks during themetalworking process. The present study focuses to find an optimum balance between the grain refiner addition andthe electrical conductivity of commercial EC grade 1070 aluminium alloy for electricalapplication. In orde...

  10. Usage of Commercial Grade Programmable Digital Systems in Safety Related Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandic, D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explains methods and conditions, which if completely and correctly fulfilled, enable an operating NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) licensed and operating in accordance with the US codes and US regulatory requirements to use a commercial grade programmable digital device (PLC - Programmable Digital Controller, digital controller, digital computer or process computer) in a safety related application in a NPP. In mid 80's, when an intensive construction cycle of the new NPPs in the U.S.A. was completed, many equipment manufacturers either disappeared from the market or they abandoned their product lines that were designed and manufactured under 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B quality assurance program. The quality assurance as defined by 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B comprises all those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a Structure, System or Component (SSC) will perform satisfactorily in service . The operating NPPs faced the problem related to the availability of qualified equipment, components and spare parts. The US NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) recognized that problem timely (Oct. 1978 revision of 10CFR21) and required a commercial grade item to be dedicated before it could be used as a basic component. A special process named Dedication of CGI - Commercial Grade Items if conducted properly, provides reasonable assurance that a commercial grade item to be used as a basic component will perform its intended safety related function and, in this respect, is deemed equivalent to an item designed and manufactured under 10 CFR Part 50 Appendix B. After that, the Dedication of CGI has been widely used mostly for relatively simple mechanical, electrical, and IandC components and spare parts. In order to provide guidance to the dedication process, EPRI has issued two documents (EPRI NP-5652 and Supplemental Guidance for EPRI NP-5652). All nuclear power plants, which comply with the US nuclear regulatory requirements, hindered as

  11. Commercial grade item (CGI) dedication of MDR relays for nuclear safety related applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ranjit K.; Julka, Anil; Modi, Govind

    1994-08-01

    MDR relays manufactured by Potter & Brumfield (P&B) have been used in various safety related applications in commercial nuclear power plants. These include emergency safety features (ESF) actuation systems, emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) actuation, and reactor protection systems. The MDR relays manufactured prior to May 1990 showed signs of generic failure due to corrosion and outgassing of coil varnish. P&B has made design changes to correct these problems in relays manufactured after May 1990. However, P&B does not manufacture the relays under any 10CFR50 Appendix B quality assurance (QA) program. They manufacture the relays under their commercial QA program and supply these as commercial grade items. This necessitates CGI Dedication of these relays for use in nuclear-safety-related applications. This paper presents a CGI dedication program that has been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after been used to dedicate the MDR relays manufactured after May 1990. The program is in compliance with current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) guidelines and applicable industry standards; it specifies the critical characteristics of the relays, provides the tests and analysis required to verify the critical characteristics, the acceptance criteria for the test results, performs source verification to quality P&B for its control of the critical characteristics, and provides documentation. The program provides reasonable assurance that the new MDR relays will perform their intended safety functions.

  12. APPLICATION OF FORMS AND METHODS OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF INNOVATIONS THROUGH THE INTERACTION OF UNIVERSITIES AND ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana E. Sitnikova

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the conditions of formation of economy based on knowledge, a key condition for successful development is the effective integration of science, education and business. Currently, the commercialization of innovation becomes a necessary factor for sustainable development of universities, one of their main tools to increase its competitiveness in the market of educational services and products. The efficiency of the process of innovation commercialization is conditioned by the rational choice of forms and methods of implementing this process. The interaction of universities and enterprises in the innovative clusters provides benefits such as effective dissemination of information about the creation of innovations, the relevant areas of research, the granting of preferences to cluster participants. The creation of technoparks suggests the presence of a specially allocated site, which houses many new businesses, so that existing institutions can only be partners of the technopark. From the point of view of commercialization of University innovation, the cluster seems to be a more attractive method compared with the creation of technology parks, but its application is necessary to adjust the approach to conducting the state policy in the field of innovation management. The interaction of universities and enterprises via an intermediary – the chamber of commerce and industry – can be described as an obstacle to the commercialization of university innovations. On the contrary, technological innovation center protects the interests of universities, rather than enterprises, as it is created to facilitate the commercialization of university innovation. Direct interaction of universities and enterprises becomes possible with the help of methods of a single transaction, a regular cooperation and a contract for the supply of innovation. The choice of methods of commercialization of innovations should be made on the basis of existing university

  13. Application of narrow-band television to industrial and commercial communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embrey, B. C., Jr.; Southworth, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    The development of narrow-band systems for use in space systems is presented. Applications of the technology to future spacecraft requirements are discussed along with narrow-band television's influence in stimulating development within the industry. The transferral of the technology into industrial and commercial communications is described. Major areas included are: (1) medicine; (2) education; (3) remote sensing for traffic control; and (5) weather observation. Applications in data processing, image enhancement, and information retrieval are provided by the combination of the TV camera and the computer.

  14. Gas-cooled reactor commercialization study: introduction scenario and commercialization analyses for process heat applications. Final report, July 8, 1977--November 30, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This report identifies and presents an introduction scenario which can lead to the operation of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor demonstration plants for combined process heat and electric power generation applications, and presents a commercialization analysis relevant to the organizational and management plans which could implement a development program

  15. Gas-cooled reactor commercialization study: introduction scenario and commercialization analyses for process heat applications. Final report, July 8, 1977--November 30, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This report identifies and presents an introduction scenario which can lead to the operation of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor demonstration plants for combined process heat and electric power generation applications, and presents a commercialization analysis relevant to the organizational and management plans which could implement a development program.

  16. Mobile clinical decision support systems and applications: a literature and commercial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pérez, Borja; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel; Sainz-de-Abajo, Beatriz; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The latest advances in eHealth and mHealth have propitiated the rapidly creation and expansion of mobile applications for health care. One of these types of applications are the clinical decision support systems, which nowadays are being implemented in mobile apps to facilitate the access to health care professionals in their daily clinical decisions. The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly, to make a review of the current systems available in the literature and in commercial stores. Secondly, to analyze a sample of applications in order to obtain some conclusions and recommendations. Two reviews have been done: a literature review on Scopus, IEEE Xplore, Web of Knowledge and PubMed and a commercial review on Google play and the App Store. Five applications from each review have been selected to develop an in-depth analysis and to obtain more information about the mobile clinical decision support systems. Ninety-two relevant papers and 192 commercial apps were found. Forty-four papers were focused only on mobile clinical decision support systems. One hundred seventy-one apps were available on Google play and 21 on the App Store. The apps are designed for general medicine and 37 different specialties, with some features common in all of them despite of the different medical fields objective. The number of mobile clinical decision support applications and their inclusion in clinical practices has risen in the last years. However, developers must be careful with their interface or the easiness of use, which can impoverish the experience of the users.

  17. Can surveillance systems identify and avert adverse drug events? A prospective evaluation of a commercial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish K; Laguette, Julia; Seger, Andrew; Bates, David W

    2008-01-01

    Computerized monitors can effectively detect and potentially prevent adverse drug events (ADEs). Most monitors have been developed in large academic hospitals and are not readily usable in other settings. We assessed the ability of a commercial program to identify and prevent ADEs in a community hospital. and Measurement We prospectively evaluated the commercial application in a community-based hospital. We examined the frequency and types of alerts produced, how often they were associated with ADEs and potential ADEs, and the potential financial impact of monitoring for ADEs. Among 2,407 patients screened, the application generated 516 high priority alerts. We were able to review 266 alerts at the time they were generated and among these, 30 (11.3%) were considered substantially important to warrant contacting the physician caring for the patient. These 30 alerts were associated with 4 ADEs and 11 potential ADEs. In all 15 cases, the responsible physician was unaware of the event, leading to a change in clinical care in 14 cases. Overall, 23% of high priority alerts were associated with an ADE (95% confidence interval [CI] 12% to 34%) and another 15% were associated with a potential ADE (95% CI 6% to 24%). Active surveillance used approximately 1.5 hours of pharmacist time daily. A commercially available, computer-based ADE detection tool was effective at identifying ADEs. When used as part of an active surveillance program, it can have an impact on preventing or ameliorating ADEs.

  18. Technical meeting on commercial applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Meeting report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Technical Meeting on the Commercial Applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques held in Vienna on 23-26 November 2004, where an assessment was initiated of the world capacity and market potentials for neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy, including an estimation of economic revenues. Industry and governmental agencies were identified as stakeholders for these laboratories. Examples are given of potential benefits of these techniques to the stakeholders. The potentials for commercial applications of neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy (measurement of alpha, beta and gamma ray emitting radionuclides) are addressed. First estimates are given of the worldwide capacity of these laboratories, suggestions and examples are given for potential markets and the typical organizational and technical constraints are discussed. Two case studies of commercial neutron activation analysis laboratories at a small and a medium-size reactor are given in the 'individual contributions' section of this document. An assessment of other nuclear analytical techniques such as X ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Particle Induced X ray Emission Spectrometry or Ion Beam Analysis Spectrometry has been completed after a comprehensive collection of background information

  19. Current state of commercial radiation detection equipment for homeland security applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klann, R.T.; Shergur, J.; Mattesich, G.

    2009-01-01

    With the creation of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) came the increased concern that terrorist groups would attempt to manufacture and use an improvised nuclear device or radiological dispersal device. As such, a primary mission of DHS is to protect the public against the use of these devices and to assist state and local responders in finding, locating, and identifying these types of devices and materials used to manufacture these devices. This assistance from DHS to state and local responders comes in the form of grant money to procure radiation detection equipment. In addition to this grant program, DHS has supported the development of American National Standards Institute standards for radiation detection equipment and has conducted testing of commercially available instruments. This paper identifies the types and kinds of commercially available equipment that can be used to detect and identify radiological material - for use in traditional search applications as well as primary and secondary screening of personnel, vehicles, and cargo containers. In doing so, key considerations for the conduct of operations are described as well as critical features of the instruments for specific applications. The current state of commercial instruments is described for different categories of detection equipment including personal radiation detectors, radioisotope identifiers, man-portable detection equipment, and radiation portal monitors. In addition, emerging technologies are also discussed, such as spectroscopic detectors and advanced spectroscopic portal monitors

  20. Technical meeting on commercial applications of nuclear analytical techniques. Meeting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Technical Meeting on the Commercial Applications of Nuclear Analytical Techniques held in Vienna on 23-26 November 2004, where an assessment was initiated of the world capacity and market potentials for neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy, including an estimation of economic revenues. Industry and governmental agencies were identified as stakeholders for these laboratories. Examples are given of potential benefits of these techniques to the stakeholders. The potentials for commercial applications of neutron activation analysis and nuclear spectroscopy (measurement of alpha, beta and gamma ray emitting radionuclides) are addressed. First estimates are given of the worldwide capacity of these laboratories, suggestions and examples are given for potential markets and the typical organizational and technical constraints are discussed. Two case studies of commercial neutron activation analysis laboratories at a small and a medium-size reactor are given in the 'individual contributions' section of this document. An assessment of other nuclear analytical techniques such as X ray Fluorescence Spectrometry, Particle Induced X ray Emission Spectrometry or Ion Beam Analysis Spectrometry has been completed after a comprehensive collection of background information.

  1. Tokamaks with high-performance resistive magnets: advanced test reactors and prospects for commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromberg, L.; Cohn, D.R.; Williams, J.E.C.; Becker, H.; Leclaire, R.; Yang, T.

    1981-10-01

    Scoping studies have been made of tokamak reactors with high performance resistive magnets which maximize advantages gained from high field operation and reduced shielding requirements, and minimize resistive power requirements. High field operation can provide very high values of fusion power density and n tau/sub e/ while the resistive power losses can be kept relatively small. Relatively high values of Q' = Fusion Power/Magnet Resistive Power can be obtained. The use of high field also facilitates operation in the DD-DT advanced fuel mode. The general engineering and operational features of machines with high performance magnets are discussed. Illustrative parameters are given for advanced test reactors and for possible commercial reactors. Commercial applications that are discussed are the production of fissile fuel, electricity generation with and without fissioning blankets and synthetic fuel production

  2. A spreadsheet-based microcomputer application for determining cost-effectiveness of commercial lighting retrofit opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spain, T.K.

    1992-01-01

    Lighting accounts for 20-25% of electricity use in the United States. With estimates of 50-70% potential reductions being made by energy engineers, lighting is a promising area for cost-effective energy conservation projects in commercial buildings. With an extensive array of alternatives available to replace or modify existing lighting systems, simple but effective calculation tools are needed to help energy auditors evaluate lighting retrofits. This paper describes a spreadsheet-based microcomputer application for determining the cost-effectiveness of commercial lighting retrofits. Developed to support walk-through energy audits conducted by the Industrial Energy Advisory Service (IdEAS), the spreadsheet provides essential comparative data for evaluating the payback of alternatives. The impact of alternatives on environmental emissions is calculated to help communicate external costs and sell the project, if appropriate. The methodology and calculations are fully documented to allow the user to duplicate the spreadsheet and modify it as needed

  3. Methodology for validating technical tools to assess customer Demand Response: Application to a commercial customer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcazar-Ortega, Manuel; Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Segura-Heras, Isidoro

    2011-01-01

    The authors present a methodology, which is demonstrated with some applications to the commercial sector, in order to validate a Demand Response (DR) evaluation method previously developed and applied to a wide range of industrial and commercial segments, whose flexibility was evaluated by modeling. DR is playing a more and more important role in the framework of electricity systems management for the effective integration of other distributed energy resources. Consequently, customers must identify what they are using the energy for in order to use their flexible loads for management purposes. Modeling tools are used to predict the impact of flexibility on the behavior of customers, but this result needs to be validated since both customers and grid operators have to be confident in these flexibility predictions. An easy-to-use two-steps method to achieve this goal is presented in this paper.

  4. Mapping the value of commercial PV applications in the US -- Accounting for externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R.; Kmiecik, M.; Herig, C.; Wenger, H.

    1999-01-01

    In previous publications, the authors reported on the geographical distribution of the economic feasibility of customer-owned commercial PV systems in the US. The results showed that several regions in the country were near or above economic breakeven. However, the authors noted that these results only reflected business as usual assumptions. They did not account for existing or prospective external value elements that could, depending on the application, considerably increase PV's feasibility threshold. In this paper, the authors look at the individual and combined impact of the following value elements: (1) Replacement Value, (2) enhanced load management value, (3) emergency value and (4) environmental value. They show that accounting for these elements could significantly increase the size of cost-effective niche markets for customer-owned commercial PV installation

  5. Residential-commercial energy input estimation based on genetic algorithm (GA) approaches: an application of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, H.K.; Canyurt, O.E.; Hepbasli, A.; Utlu, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to develop the energy input estimation equations for the residential-commercial sector (RCS) in order to estimate the future projections based on genetic algorithm (GA) notion and to examine the effect of the design parameters on the energy input of the sector. For this purpose, the Turkish RCS is given as an example. The GA Energy Input Estimation Model (GAEIEM) is used to estimate Turkey's future residential-commercial energy input demand based on gross domestic product (GDP), population, import, export, house production, cement production and basic house appliances consumption figures. It may be concluded that the three various forms of models proposed here can be used as an alternative solution and estimation techniques to available estimation techniques. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies. (author)

  6. Commercial applications of large-scale Research and Development computer simulation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuok Mee Ling; Pascal Chen; Wen Ho Lee

    1998-01-01

    The potential commercial applications of two large-scale R and D computer simulation technologies are presented. One such technology is based on the numerical solution of the hydrodynamics equations, and is embodied in the two-dimensional Eulerian code EULE2D, which solves the hydrodynamic equations with various models for the equation of state (EOS), constitutive relations and fracture mechanics. EULE2D is an R and D code originally developed to design and analyze conventional munitions for anti-armor penetrations such as shaped charges, explosive formed projectiles, and kinetic energy rods. Simulated results agree very well with actual experiments. A commercial application presented here is the design and simulation of shaped charges for oil and gas well bore perforation. The other R and D simulation technology is based on the numerical solution of Maxwell's partial differential equations of electromagnetics in space and time, and is implemented in the three-dimensional code FDTD-SPICE, which solves Maxwell's equations in the time domain with finite-differences in the three spatial dimensions and calls SPICE for information when nonlinear active devices are involved. The FDTD method has been used in the radar cross-section modeling of military aircrafts and many other electromagnetic phenomena. The coupling of FDTD method with SPICE, a popular circuit and device simulation program, provides a powerful tool for the simulation and design of microwave and millimeter-wave circuits containing nonlinear active semiconductor devices. A commercial application of FDTD-SPICE presented here is the simulation of a two-element active antenna system. The simulation results and the experimental measurements are in excellent agreement. (Author)

  7. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Based on a comprehensive evaluation of the fundamental Intersatellite Link (ISL) systems characteristics, potential applications of ISLs to domestic, regional, and global commercial satellite communications were identified, and their cost-effectiveness and other systems benefits quantified wherever possible. Implementation scenarios for the cost-effective communications satellite systems employing ISLs were developed for the first launch in 1993 to 1994 and widespread use of ISLs in the early 2000's. Critical technology requirements for both the microwave (60 GHz) and optical (0.85 micron) ISL implementations were identified, and their technology development programs, including schedule and cost estimates, were derived.

  8. Note: Commercial SQUID magnetometer-compatible NMR probe and its application for studying a quantum magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennemann, T; Jeong, M; Yoon, D; Magrez, A; Berger, H; Yang, L; Živković, I; Babkevich, P; Rønnow, H M

    2018-04-01

    We present a compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe which is compatible with a magnet of a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and demonstrate its application to the study of a quantum magnet. We employ trimmer chip capacitors to construct an NMR tank circuit for low temperature measurements. Using a magnetic insulator MoOPO 4 with S = 1/2 (Mo 5+ ) as an example, we show that the T-dependence of the circuit is weak enough to allow the ligand-ion NMR study of magnetic systems. Our 31 P NMR results are compatible with previous bulk susceptibility and neutron scattering experiments and furthermore reveal unconventional spin dynamics.

  9. An application of commercial data averaging techniques in pulsed photothermal experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozescu, I.V.; Moksin, M.M.; Wahab, Z.A.; Yunus, W.M.M.

    1997-01-01

    We present an application of data averaging technique commonly implemented in many commercial digital oscilloscopes or waveform digitizers. The technique was used for transient data averaging in the pulsed photothermal radiometry experiments. Photothermal signals are surrounded by an important amount of noise which affect the precision of the measurements. The effect of the noise level on photothermal signal parameters in our particular case, fitted decay time, is shown. The results of the analysis can be used in choosing the most effective averaging technique and estimating the averaging parameter values. This would help to reduce the data acquisition time while improving the signal-to-noise ratio

  10. A proposed acceptance process for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software in reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preckshot, G.G.; Scott, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper proposes a process for acceptance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) software products for use in reactor systems important to safety. An initial set of four criteria establishes COTS software product identification and its safety category. Based on safety category, three sets of additional criteria, graded in rigor, are applied to approve/disapprove the product. These criteria fall roughly into three areas: product assurance, verification of safety function and safety impact, and examination of usage experience of the COTS product in circumstances similar to the proposed application. A report addressing the testing of existing software is included as an appendix

  11. Evaluations of the commercial spectrometer systems for safeguards applications using the germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.T.

    1998-01-01

    Safeguards applications require the best spectrometer systems with excellent resolution, stability, and throughput. Instruments must perform well in all the situations and environments. Data communication to the computer should be convenient, fast, and reliable. The software should have all the necessary tools and be ease to use. Portable systems should be small in size, lightweight, and have a long battery life. Nine commercially available spectrometer systems are tested with both the planar and coaxial germanium detectors. Considering the performance of the Digital Signal Processors (DSP), digital-based spectroscopy may be the future of gamma-ray spectroscopy

  12. Note: Commercial SQUID magnetometer-compatible NMR probe and its application for studying a quantum magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennemann, T.; Jeong, M.; Yoon, D.; Magrez, A.; Berger, H.; Yang, L.; Živković, I.; Babkevich, P.; Rønnow, H. M.

    2018-04-01

    We present a compact nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe which is compatible with a magnet of a commercial superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer and demonstrate its application to the study of a quantum magnet. We employ trimmer chip capacitors to construct an NMR tank circuit for low temperature measurements. Using a magnetic insulator MoOPO4 with S = 1/2 (Mo5+) as an example, we show that the T-dependence of the circuit is weak enough to allow the ligand-ion NMR study of magnetic systems. Our 31P NMR results are compatible with previous bulk susceptibility and neutron scattering experiments and furthermore reveal unconventional spin dynamics.

  13. Deploying a Route Optimization EFB Application for Commercial Airline Operational Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, David A.; Vivona, Robert A.; Woods, Sharon E.; Karr, David A.; Wing, David J.

    2016-01-01

    The Traffic Aware Planner (TAP), developed for NASA Langley Research Center to support the Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) project, is a flight-efficiency software application developed for an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB). Tested in two flight trials and planned for operational testing by two commercial airlines, TAP is a real-time trajectory optimization application that leverages connectivity with onboard avionics and broadband Internet sources to compute and recommend route modifications to flight crews to improve fuel and time performance. The application utilizes a wide range of data, including Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) traffic, Flight Management System (FMS) guidance and intent, on-board sensors, published winds and weather, and Special Use Airspace (SUA) schedules. This paper discusses the challenges of developing and deploying TAP to various EFB platforms, our solutions to some of these challenges, and lessons learned, to assist commercial software developers and hardware manufacturers in their efforts to implement and extend TAP functionality in their environments. EFB applications (such as TAP) typically access avionics data via an ARINC 834 Simple Text Avionics Protocol (STAP) server hosted by an Aircraft Interface Device (AID) or other installed hardware. While the protocol is standardized, the data sources, content, and transmission rates can vary from aircraft to aircraft. Additionally, the method of communicating with the AID may vary depending on EFB hardware and/or the availability of onboard networking services, such as Ethernet, WIFI, Bluetooth, or other mechanisms. EFBs with portable and installed components can be implemented using a variety of operating systems, and cockpits are increasingly incorporating tablet-based technologies, further expanding the number of platforms the application may need to support. Supporting multiple EFB platforms, AIDs, avionics datasets, and user interfaces presents a

  14. SP-100 nuclear space power systems with application to space commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to familiarize the Space Commercialization Community with the status and characteristics of the SP-100 space nuclear power system. The program is a joint undertaking by the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy and NASA. The goal of the program is to develop, validate, and demonstrate the technology for space nuclear power systems in the range of 10 to 1000 kWe electric for use in the future civilian and military space missions. Also discussed are mission applications which are enhanced and/or enabled by SP-100 technology and how this technology compares to that of more familiar solar power systems. The mission applications include earth orbiting platforms and lunar/Mars surface power

  15. NRC research on the application of advanced I and C technology to commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gollei, K.R.; Hon, A.L.

    1983-01-01

    The operational safety and efficiency of commercial nuclear power plants (NPP's) could possibly be enhanced by utilizing advanced instrumentation and control technology developed by other industries. The NRC is interested in learning about new I and C technology that probably will or could be applied to new or existing plants. This would enable the NRC to be better prepared to evaluate the application without undue delays. It would also help identify any appropriate changes in NRC regulations or guidance necessary to facilitate the application of advanced IandC technology to NPP's. The NRC has initiated a project to work cooperatively with the advanced technology industry, power industry, EPRI, and technical organizations such as ISA toward this goal. This paper describes the objectives and plans of this cooperative effort. It summarizes the highlights of some of the advanced technology already being evaluated by NRC such as microprocessor applications, instruments to detect inadequate core cooling and other two-phase flow measurements, reactor noise surveillance and diagnostic techniques. This paper also suggests potential candidates for consideration such as utilization of advanced instruments for LOCA experiments. It also identifies some of the potential challenges facing the application of advanced technology to NPP's. It concludes that close cooperation between NRC and industry is essential for the success of such applications

  16. Commercial Smartphone-Based Devices and Smart Applications for Personalized Healthcare Monitoring and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashist, Sandeep Kumar; Schneider, E Marion; Luong, John H T

    2014-08-18

    Smartphone-based devices and applications (SBDAs) with cost effectiveness and remote sensing are the most promising and effective means of delivering mobile healthcare (mHealthcare). Several SBDAs have been commercialized for the personalized monitoring and/or management of basic physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, weight, body analysis, pulse rate, electrocardiograph, blood glucose, blood glucose saturation, sleeping and physical activity. With advances in Bluetooth technology, software, cloud computing and remote sensing, SBDAs provide real-time on-site analysis and telemedicine opportunities in remote areas. This scenario is of utmost importance for developing countries, where the number of smartphone users is about 70% of 6.8 billion cell phone subscribers worldwide with limited access to basic healthcare service. The technology platform facilitates patient-doctor communication and the patients to effectively manage and keep track of their medical conditions. Besides tremendous healthcare cost savings, SBDAs are very critical for the monitoring and effective management of emerging epidemics and food contamination outbreaks. The next decade will witness pioneering advances and increasing applications of SBDAs in this exponentially growing field of mHealthcare. This article provides a critical review of commercial SBDAs that are being widely used for personalized healthcare monitoring and management.

  17. Commercial Smartphone-Based Devices and Smart Applications for Personalized Healthcare Monitoring and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Vashist

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone-based devices and applications (SBDAs with cost effectiveness and remote sensing are the most promising and effective means of delivering mobile healthcare (mHealthcare. Several SBDAs have been commercialized for the personalized monitoring and/or management of basic physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, weight, body analysis, pulse rate, electrocardiograph, blood glucose, blood glucose saturation, sleeping and physical activity. With advances in Bluetooth technology, software, cloud computing and remote sensing, SBDAs provide real-time on-site analysis and telemedicine opportunities in remote areas. This scenario is of utmost importance for developing countries, where the number of smartphone users is about 70% of 6.8 billion cell phone subscribers worldwide with limited access to basic healthcare service. The technology platform facilitates patient-doctor communication and the patients to effectively manage and keep track of their medical conditions. Besides tremendous healthcare cost savings, SBDAs are very critical for the monitoring and effective management of emerging epidemics and food contamination outbreaks. The next decade will witness pioneering advances and increasing applications of SBDAs in this exponentially growing field of mHealthcare. This article provides a critical review of commercial SBDAs that are being widely used for personalized healthcare monitoring and management.

  18. Commercial Optimization of a 100 kg/day PEM based Hydrogen Generator For Energy and Industrial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulthrop, L.; Anderson, E.; Chow, O.; Friedland, R.; Maloney, T.; Schiller, M.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial hydrogen generators using PEM water electrolysis are well proven, serving industrial applications worldwide in over 50 countries. Now, market and environmental requirements are converging to demand larger on-site hydrogen generators. North American liquid H 2 shortages, increasing trucking costs, developing economies with no liquid infrastructure, utilities, and forklift fuel cell fueling applications are all working to increase market demand for commercial on-site H 2 generation. These commercial applications may be satisfied by a 100 kg H 2 /day module; this platform can be the pathway towards a 500 kg H 2 /day generator desired for small fore-court hydrogen vehicle fueling stations. This paper discusses the steps necessary and activities already underway to develop a 100 to 500 kg H 2 /day PEM hydrogen generator platform to meet commercial market cost targets and approach US DoE transportation fueling cost targets. (authors)

  19. Large-scale commercial applications of the in situ vitrification remediation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, B.E.; Hansen, J.E.; McElroy, J.L.; Thompson, L.E.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The first large-scale commercial application of the innovative In Situ Vitrification (ISV) remediation technology was completed at the Parsons Chemical/ETM Enterprises Superfund site in Michigan State midyear 1994. This project involved treating 4,800 tons of pesticide and mercury-contaminated soil. The project also involved performance of the USEPA SITE Program demonstration test for the ISV technology. The Parsons project involved consolidation and staging of contaminated soil from widespread locations on and nearby the site. This paper presents a brief description of the ISV technology along with case-study type information on these two sites and the performance of the ISV technology on them. The paper also reviews other remediation projects where ISV has been identified as the/a preferred remedy, and where ISV is currently planned for use. These sites include soils contaminated with pesticides, dioxin, PCP, paint wastes, and a variety of heavy metals. This review of additional sites also includes a description of a planned radioactive mixed waste remediation project in Australia that contains large amounts of plutonium, uranium, lead, beryllium, and metallic and other debris buried in limestone and dolomitic soil burial pits. Initial test work has been completed on this application, and preparations are now underway for pilot testing in Australia. This project will demonstrate the applicability of the ISV technology to the challenging application of buried mixed wastes

  20. Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulescu, Georgeta; Mueller, Don; Goluoglu, Sedat; Hollenbach, Daniel F; Fox, Patricia B

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation report, Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel, is to validate the computational method used to perform postclosure criticality calculations. The validation process applies the criticality analysis methodology approach documented in Section 3.5 of the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report. The application systems for this validation consist of waste packages containing transport, aging, and disposal canisters (TAD) loaded with commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) of varying assembly types, initial enrichments, and burnup values that are expected from the waste stream and of varying degree of internal component degradation that may occur over the 10,000-year regulatory time period. The criticality computational tool being evaluated is the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code. The nuclear cross-section data distributed with MCNP 5.1.40 and used to model the various physical processes are based primarily on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version VI (ENDF/B-VI) library. Criticality calculation bias and bias uncertainty and lower bound tolerance limit (LBTL) functions for CSNF waste packages are determined based on the guidance in ANSI/ANS 8.1-1998 (Ref. 4) and ANSI/ANS 8.17-2004 (Ref. 5), as described in Section 3.5.3 of Ref. 1. The development of this report is consistent with Test Plan for: Range of Applicability and Bias Determination for Postclosure Criticality. This calculation report has been developed in support of licensing activities for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and the results of the calculation may be used in the criticality evaluation for CSNF waste packages based on a conceptual TAD canister.

  1. Development of wall thinning screening system and its application to a commercial nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyung Ha; Hwang, Il Soon; Kim, Ji Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Wall loss screening system (WalSS) has been developed based on ES-DCPD method. • Screening criteria was established based on the thinning of the actual shape that occur in the power plant. • With the criteria, the WalSS gives priority of the need for inspection. • This technique was successfully applied to commercial nuclear power plant. - Abstract: A new non-destructive evaluation (NDE) method has been developed for metal pipes for the detection wall thinning. The method has been showed to be suitable for applications to electric power generation plants where flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel piping is a significant cause of increased maintenance and plant personnel casualty. The wall thinning screening system (WalSS) was developed in two major phases. In the first phase, the equipotential switching direct current potential drop (ES-DCPD) method was developed for piping wall (Ryu et al., 2008a, 2010). In the second phase, in this paper, a quantitative detection criteria was developed. The relative ES-DCPD change of 3.8% has been defined as the screening criteria for wall thinning schematization. This criteria means that the component with measured ES-DCPD change greater than 3.8% is called for a more comprehensive examination. In the criteria development, all variables were taken into consideration based on commercial plant piping inspection data such as initial thickness distributions, wall thinning shape and nominal thickness. The developed WalSS based on ES-DCPD was applied to a moisture separator reheater (MSR) drain line of a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP) during a scheduled overhaul. The measured ES-DCPD change was 2.16%, which is lower than the ES-DCPD criteria, identifying the pipe having adequate wall thickness. This is confirmed by site thickness inspection using ultrasonic technique (UT)

  2. Comparison of mechanical compressive properties of commercial and autologous fibrin glues for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, Matthew G; Behn, Anthony W; Dragoo, Jason L

    2017-11-01

    Fibrin glues are widely used in orthopedic surgery as adhesives and hemostatic agents. We evaluated the compressive properties of selected fibrin glues in order to identify which are appropriate for tissue regeneration applications subject to compression. Uniaxial unconfined compression tests were performed on fibrin gels prepared from commercial and autologous products: (1) Evicel (Ethicon), (2) Tisseel (Baxter), (3) Angel (Arthrex), and (4) ProPlaz (Biorich). Cyclic loads were applied from 0 to 30% strain for 100cycles at 0.5Hz. Following cyclic testing, specimens were subjected to ramp displacement of 1% strain per second to 80% strain. Throughout cyclic loading, Evicel and Tisseel deformed (shortened) less than Angel at all but one time point, and deformed less than ProPlaz at cycles 10 and 20. The dynamic moduli, peak stress, and strain energy were significantly greater in Tisseel than all other groups. Evicel displayed significantly greater dynamic moduli, peak stress, and strain energy than Angel and ProPlaz. Following cyclic testing, Tisseel and Evicel were significantly less deformed than Angel. No specimens exhibited gross failure during ramp loading to 80% strain. Ramp loading trends mirrored those of cyclic loading. The tested commercial glues were significantly more resistant to compression than the autologous products. The compressive properties of Tisseel were approximately twice those of Evicel. All preparations displayed moduli multiple orders of magnitude less than that of native articular cartilage. We conclude that in knee surgeries requiring fibrin glue to undergo compression of daily activity, commercial products are preferable to autologous preparations from platelet-poor plasma, though both will deform significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Commercialization of an S-band standing-wave electron accelerator for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jin-Hyeok; Kwak, Gyeong-Il; Han, Jae-Ik; Lee, Gyu-Baek; Jeon, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Young; Hwang, Cheol-Bin; Lee, Gi-Yong; Kim, Young-Man; Park, Sung-Ju

    2016-09-01

    An electron accelerator system has been developed for use in industrial, as well as possible medical, applications. Based on our experiences achieved during prototype system development and various electron beam acceleration tests, we have built a stable and compact system for sales purposes. We have integrated a self-developed accelerating cavity, an E-gun pulse driver, a radio-frequency (RF) power system, a vacuum system, a cooling system, etc. into a frame with a size of 1800 × 1000 × 1500 mm3. The accelerating structure is a side-coupled standing-wave type operating in the π/2 mode (tuned to~3 GHz). The RF power is provided by using a magnetron driven by a solid-state modulator. The electron gun is a triode type with a dispenser cathode (diameter of 11 mm). The system is capable of delivering a maximum 900-W average electron beam power with tight focusing at the target. Until now, we have performed various electron beam tests and X-ray beam tests after having built the system, have completed the beam assessment for commercializations, and have been preparing full-fledged sales activity. This article reports on our system development processes and on some of our early test results for commercializations.

  4. Development of a Topical Resveratrol Formulation for Commercial Applications Using Dendrimer Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentek, Tyler; Newenhouse, Eric; O'Brien, Brennin; Chauhan, Abhay Singh

    2017-01-14

    Resveratrol (RSV) is well known for its anti-oxidant and anti-aging properties. However, resveratrol is insoluble in water and has stability issues. Recently, efforts were placed to prepare a resveratrol-based advanced anti-aging topical product but it contains harsh organic solvents and oils that could be harmful to the human body and the environment. Hence, we propose the use of a multifunctional dendrimer to solve the solubility and stability issues of resveratrol. A dendrimer-resveratrol complex was prepared, optimized and tested for solubility enhancement, stability in solution and cream dosage forms. We have also developed a high performance liquid chromatography method to measure the resveratrol within the final product. PAMAM dendrimers increased the solubility and stability of resveratrol in water and semisolid dosage forms. Therefore, this product would be water based 'green' formulation devoid of harsh organic solvents and oils and can be safely applied to the skin. Additionally, we have shown that the dendrimer helped to increase overall RSV loading and skin penetration of resveratrol. The dendrimer-RSV formulation was successfully scaled up towards commercialization. Dendrimer with RSV has led to an innovation in anti-aging cream and solutions that could be commercially marketed. Dendrimer-RSV complex could also be added to other product forms for additional purposes and applications.

  5. Advances in commercial application of gamma radiation in tropical fruits at Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, S. F.; Silva, J. M.; Cruz, J. N.; Broisler, P. O.; Rela, P. R.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.

    2009-07-01

    All regions of Brazil are potential areas for growing tropical fruits. As this country is already a great producer and exporter of tropical fruits, ionizing radiation has been the subject of studies in many commodities. An important project has been carried out to increase the commercial use of gamma radiation in our country. Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)-CNEN/SP together with field producers in northeast region and partners like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), CIC, Empresa Brasileira Pesquisa na Agricultura (EMBRAPA) joined to demonstrate this technology, its application and commercial feasibility. The objective of this study is to show advances in feasibility demonstrate the quality of the irradiated fruits in an international consignment from Brazil to Canada. In this work, Tommy Atkins mangoes harvested in northeast region of Brazil were sent to Canada. The fruits were treated in a gamma irradiation facility at doses 0.4 and 1.0 kGy. The control group was submitted to hydrothermal treatment (46 °C for 110 min). The fruits were stored at 11 °C for 10 days until the international transportation and kept at an environmental condition (22 °C) for 12 days, where their physical-chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. The financial part of the feasibility study covers the scope of the investment, including the net working capital and production costs.

  6. Commercial and industrial applications of color ink jet: a technological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunand, Alain

    1996-03-01

    In just 5 years, color ink-jet has become the dominant technology for printing color images and graphics in the office and home markets. In commercial printing, the traditional printing processes are being influenced by new digital techniques. Color ink-jet proofing, and concepts such as computer to film/plate or digital processes are contributing to the evolution of the industry. In industrial color printing, the penetration of digital techniques is just beginning. All widely used conventional contact printing technologies involve mechanical printing forms including plates, screens or engraved cylinders. Such forms, which need to be newly created and set up for each job, increase costs. In our era of fast changing customer demands, growing needs for customization, and increasing use of digital exchange of information, the commercial and industrial printing markets represent an enormous potential for digital printing technologies. The adoption characteristics for the use of color ink-jet in these industries are discussed. Examples of color ink-jet applications in the fields of billboard printing, floor/wall covering decoration, and textile printing are described. The requirements on print quality, productivity, reliability, substrate compatibility, and color lead to the consideration of various types of ink-jet technologies. Key technical enabling factors and directions for future improvements are presented.

  7. Advances in commercial application of gamma radiation in tropical fruits at Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabato, S.F.; Silva, J.M.; Cruz, J.N.; Broisler, P.O.; Rela, P.R.; Salmieri, S.; Lacroix, M.

    2009-01-01

    All regions of Brazil are potential areas for growing tropical fruits. As this country is already a great producer and exporter of tropical fruits, ionizing radiation has been the subject of studies in many commodities. An important project has been carried out to increase the commercial use of gamma radiation in our country. Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN)-CNEN/SP together with field producers in northeast region and partners like International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), CIC, Empresa Brasileira Pesquisa na Agricultura (EMBRAPA) joined to demonstrate this technology, its application and commercial feasibility. The objective of this study is to show advances in feasibility demonstrate the quality of the irradiated fruits in an international consignment from Brazil to Canada. In this work, Tommy Atkins mangoes harvested in northeast region of Brazil were sent to Canada. The fruits were treated in a gamma irradiation facility at doses 0.4 and 1.0 kGy. The control group was submitted to hydrothermal treatment (46 o C for 110 min). The fruits were stored at 11 o C for 10 days until the international transportation and kept at an environmental condition (22 o C) for 12 days, where their physical-chemical and sensorial properties were evaluated. The financial part of the feasibility study covers the scope of the investment, including the net working capital and production costs.

  8. Computers for Manned Space Applications Base on Commercial Off-the-Shelf Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, T.; Gronowski, M.

    2009-05-01

    Similar to the consumer markets there has been an ever increasing demand in processing power, signal processing capabilities and memory space also for computers used for science data processing in space. An important driver of this development have been the payload developers for the International Space Station, requesting high-speed data acquisition and fast control loops in increasingly complex systems. Current experiments now even perform video processing and compression with their payload controllers. Nowadays the requirements for a space qualified computer are often far beyond the capabilities of, for example, the classic SPARC architecture that is found in ERC32 or LEON CPUs. An increase in performance usually demands costly and power consuming application specific solutions. Continuous developments over the last few years have now led to an alternative approach that is based on complete electronics modules manufactured for commercial and industrial customers. Computer modules used in industrial environments with a high demand for reliability under harsh environmental conditions like chemical reactors, electrical power plants or on manufacturing lines are entered into a selection procedure. Promising candidates then undergo a detailed characterisation process developed by Astrium Space Transportation. After thorough analysis and some modifications, these modules can replace fully qualified custom built electronics in specific, although not safety critical applications in manned space. This paper focuses on the benefits of COTS1 based electronics modules and the necessary analyses and modifications for their utilisation in manned space applications on the ISS. Some considerations regarding overall systems architecture will also be included. Furthermore this paper will also pinpoint issues that render such modules unsuitable for specific tasks, and justify the reasons. Finally, the conclusion of this paper will advocate the implementation of COTS based

  9. Digimarc MediaBridge: the birth of a consumer product from concept to commercial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Burt; MacIntosh, Brian; Cushman, David

    2002-04-01

    This paper examines the issues encountered in the development and commercial deployment of a system based on digital watermarking technology. The paper provides an overview of the development of digital watermarking technology and the first applications to use the technology. It also looks at how we took the concept of digital watermarking as a communications channel within a digital environment and applied it to the physical print world to produce the Digimarc MediaBridge product. We describe the engineering tradeoffs that were made to balance competing requirements of watermark robustness, image quality, embedding process, detection speed and end user ease of use. Today, the Digimarc MediaBridge product links printed materials to auxiliary information about the content, via the Internet, to provide enhanced informational marketing, promotion, advertising and commerce opportunities.

  10. KrF laser cost/performance model for ICF commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Pendergrass, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Simple expressions suitable for use in commercial-applications plant parameter studies for the direct capital cost plus indirect field costs and for the efficiency as a function of repetition rate were developed for pure-optical-compression KrF laser fusion drivers. These simple expressions summarize estimates obtained from detailed cost-performance studies incorporating recent results of ongoing physics, design, and cost studies. Contributions of KrF laser capital charges and D and M costs to total levelized constant-dollar (1984) unit ICF power generation cost are estimated as a function of plant size and driver pulse energy using a published gain for short-wavelength lasers and representative values of plant parameters

  11. Severe Plastic Deformation of Commercial Pure Titanium (CP-Ti) for Biomedical Applications: A Brief Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodian, Reza; Annuar, N. Syahira M.; Faraji, Ghader; Bahar, Nadia Dayana; Razak, Bushroa Abd; Sparham, Mahdi

    2017-11-01

    This paper reviews severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques for producing ultrafine-grained (UFG) and nanostructured commercial pure titanium (CP-Ti) for biomedical applications as the best alternative to titanium alloys. SPD processes, effective parameters, and advantages of nanostructured CP-Ti over coarse-grained (CG) material and Ti alloys are briefly reviewed. It is reported that nanostructured CP-Ti processed via SPD exhibits higher mechanical strength comparable to Ti alloys but better biological response and superior biocompatibility. Also, different surface modification techniques offer different results on UFG and CG CP-Ti, leading to nanoscale surface topography in UFG samples. Overall, it is reported that nanostructured CP-Ti processed by SPD could be considered to be the best candidate for biomedical implants.

  12. Radiation tolerance study of a commercial 65 nm CMOS technology for high energy physics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Lili, E-mail: lili03.ding@gmail.com [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); State Key Laboratory of Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an (China); Gerardin, Simone [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bagatin, Marta [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); Bisello, Dario [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Padova University, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Mattiazzo, Serena [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Padova University, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Paccagnella, Alessandro [Department of Information Engineering, Padova University, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2016-09-21

    This paper reports the radiation tolerance study of a commercial 65 nm technology, which is a strong candidate for the Large Hadron Collider applications. After exposure to 3 MeV protons till 1 Grad dose, the 65 nm CMOS transistors, especially the pMOSFETs, showed severe long-term degradation mainly in the saturation drain currents. There were some differences between the degradation levels in the nMOSFETs and the pMOSFETs, which were likely attributed to the positive charges trapped in the gate spacers. After exposure to heavy ions till multiple strikes, the pMOSFETs did not show any sudden loss of drain currents, the degradations in the characteristics were negligible.

  13. Catalog of Realizations for DXCCII using Commercially Available ICs and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maheshwari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents fifteen distinct practical realizations for dual-X second generation current conveyor (DXCCII using commercially available integrated circuits. Detailed comparisons and results are presented to verify the utility of proposed realizations. The catalog of proposed realizations is a first attempt and is expected to be useful for testing newly developed circuits based on dual-X second generation current conveyor. Each of the first fourteen proposed realizations uses four ICs. One three IC based implementation is further given making the total count fifteen. Some additional features are also explored which further enhance the versatility of DXCCII. The paper further presents a novel and compact quadrature oscillator to verify the applicability of the proposed realizations. Single resistance control of the frequency of oscillation is also demonstrated by employing the new gain-variable DXCCII. Experimental results are also included along with simulation results to validate the proposed theory and its practical significance.

  14. Modification of polysaccharides: Pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications with commercial utility (patents)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malviya, Rishabha, E-mail: rishabhamalviya19@gmail.com [Polymer Science Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, School of Medical & Allied Sciences, Galgotias University, Greator Noida, UP (India); Department of Pharmacy, Uttarkhand Technical University, Dehradun, Uttarkhand (India); Sharma, Pramod Kumar [Polymer Science Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, School of Medical & Allied Sciences, Galgotias University, Greator Noida, UP (India); Dubey, Susheel Kumar [Siddarth Institute of Pharmacy, Dehradun, Uttarkhand (India)

    2016-11-01

    Polymer modifications open new era for the development of polymers with requisite properties. Use of modified polymers is practically boundless. Different studies focus on biomedical applications of chemically modified polysaccharides. Development and utilization of modified polysaccharides get attention to be used as carrier for pharmaceutical drug delivery as well as tissue engineering scaffolds. Grafted polymer shows better cellular regeneration, signal transmission, diagnostic and imaging material than putative form. This review article aims to discuss various approaches to modify naturally derived polymer and their applications as pharmaceutical drug carrier and as a material for wound dressing and artificial cartilage due to better biophysical cues. Manuscript included various patents based on the applications of modified polymers and techniques used to modify polymers. - Highlights: • Properties of natural polysaccharides can be modulated by modification in their basic backbone. • Polysaccharides can be easily modified using microwave irradiation as compared to conventional closed vessel modification. • Biodegradable and biocompatible nature of modified polymer promotes their use in targeted cellular delivery of pharmaceuticals. • Studies show strong support that biodegradable polymers have ability to modulate cell signaling, cellular attachment, migration, proliferation and differentiation. • Manuscript reveals the fact that various commercial patents have been granted for the use of modified polymer.

  15. Development of ZIF-8 membranes: opportunities and challenges for commercial applications

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping

    2018-03-24

    Metal organic framework (MOF) membranes have attracted significant attentions in recent years because of their potentials in gas and liquid separations and other applications such as catalysis and chemical sensors, etc. More than half of the MOF membrane publications up to date are related to ZIF-8 system, because of its easy synthesis, relatively high stability, and excellent gas separation performance, which allows many novel ideas to be easily implemented. Extensive studies have shown that ZIF-8 membranes hold great potentials in gas separations, but may face great challenges in liquid separations mainly because of their poor stability. This is also a common observation for other MOF membranes. As such, in this article we use ZIF-8 membrane as a prototype and focus on its development in gas separations for the discussions of the most concerned issues related to membrane commercialization including membrane synthesis, separation performance, stability, process reproducibility, and finally on the opportunities and challenges that MOF membranes may face in industrial applications.

  16. Development of ZIF-8 membranes: opportunities and challenges for commercial applications

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Zhiping

    2018-01-01

    Metal organic framework (MOF) membranes have attracted significant attentions in recent years because of their potentials in gas and liquid separations and other applications such as catalysis and chemical sensors, etc. More than half of the MOF membrane publications up to date are related to ZIF-8 system, because of its easy synthesis, relatively high stability, and excellent gas separation performance, which allows many novel ideas to be easily implemented. Extensive studies have shown that ZIF-8 membranes hold great potentials in gas separations, but may face great challenges in liquid separations mainly because of their poor stability. This is also a common observation for other MOF membranes. As such, in this article we use ZIF-8 membrane as a prototype and focus on its development in gas separations for the discussions of the most concerned issues related to membrane commercialization including membrane synthesis, separation performance, stability, process reproducibility, and finally on the opportunities and challenges that MOF membranes may face in industrial applications.

  17. Image Analysis via Soft Computing: Prototype Applications at NASA KSC and Product Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of "soft computing" which differs from "hard computing" in that it is more tolerant of imprecision, partial truth, uncertainty, and approximation and its use in image analysis. Soft computing provides flexible information processing to handle real life ambiguous situations and achieve tractability, robustness low solution cost, and a closer resemblance to human decision making. Several systems are or have been developed: Fuzzy Reasoning Edge Detection (FRED), Fuzzy Reasoning Adaptive Thresholding (FRAT), Image enhancement techniques, and visual/pattern recognition. These systems are compared with examples that show the effectiveness of each. NASA applications that are reviewed are: Real-Time (RT) Anomaly Detection, Real-Time (RT) Moving Debris Detection and the Columbia Investigation. The RT anomaly detection reviewed the case of a damaged cable for the emergency egress system. The use of these techniques is further illustrated in the Columbia investigation with the location and detection of Foam debris. There are several applications in commercial usage: image enhancement, human screening and privacy protection, visual inspection, 3D heart visualization, tumor detections and x ray image enhancement.

  18. COTS low-cost 622-Mb/s free-space laser communications link for short-distance commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kenneth A.

    2000-05-01

    The results from a low cost 622 Mb/s, free-space laser communication link operating at 850 nm for short distance commercial applications is presented. The test results demonstrate the use of a free-space laser communications transceiver for building to building applications such as LAN, WAN and ATM operations, etc. This illustrates the potential for wide-use commercial computer network applications. The transceiver is constructed of commercial off-the-shelf materials for the development of a low-cost laser communications data link. The test system configuration utilizes standard Personal Computers with network cards and signal conversion cards for the copper to optical medical conversion. These tests precede the development of an increased data rate device operating at 2.5 Gb/s.

  19. Experimental performance evaluation for a carbon dioxide light commercial cooling application under transcritical and subcritical conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccardi, G.; Calabrese, N.; Celata, G.P.; Mastrullo, R.; Mauro, A.W.; Perrone, A.; Trinchieri, R.

    2013-01-01

    CO 2 is one of the most interesting non toxic, nor flammable, low GWP natural fluid to be used in applications with a large direct contribution to global warming, such as vending machines. In this paper the results of an experimental investigation on a small capacity, air-forced refrigerating plant working with CO 2 are presented. The air inlet temperatures at gas cooler and evaporator were varied between 16 °C and 31 °C and between −25 °C and 25 °C, respectively, to cover the range of temperatures under conditions typical of commercial refrigeration, during quasi-steady operation. The thermodynamic analysis of the system performance was carried on varying independently the pressure at the gas cooler, by overfeeding the liquid receiver to point out the effect of refrigerant charge. The results allow to describe the performance of the system in a map varying the boundary conditions; at the same time the corresponding variations of the thermodynamic cycle, the COP and the mass flow rate are reported. -- Highlights: ► A light commercial refrigerating plant working with CO 2 was tested in order to evaluate its performance. ► 71 experimental points were collected varying the flow rates, the temperatures of air sources and the refrigerant charge. ► Mass flow rate, cooling capacity, electrical power and COP were evaluated as a function of pressures and superheating. ► The segregate influence of each operating parameter on each performance indicator was calculated. ► A map of plant performance as a function of air source temperatures is reported

  20. Application of geographical information systems for the optimal location of a commercial network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Rodríguez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to study the optimization of the geographical location of a network of points of sale, so that each retailer can have access to a potential geographic market. In addition, the authors study the importance of the distance variable in the commercial viability of a point of sale and a network of points of sale, analysing if the best location for each point (local optimum is always the best location for the whole (global optimum. Design/methodology/approach - Location-allocation models are applied using p-median algorithms and spatial competition maximization to analyse the actual journeys of 64,740 car buyers in 1240 postal codes using a geographic information system (GIS and geomarketing techniques. Findings - The models show that the pursuit of individual objectives by each concessionaire over the collective provides poorer results for the whole network of points of sale when compared to coordinated competition. The solutions provided by the models considering geographic and marketing criteria permit a reduction in the length of journeys made by the buyers. GIS allows the optimal control of market demand coverage through the collaborative strategies of the supplying retailers, in this case, car dealerships. Originality/value - The paper contributes to the joint research of geography and marketing from a theoretical and practical point of view. The main contribution is the use of information on actual buyer journeys for the optimal location of a network of points of sale. This research also contributes to the analysis of the correlation between the optimum local and optimum global locations of a commercial network and is a pioneering work in the application of these models to the automotive sector in the territorial area of the study.

  1. Comparison of the applicability of commercial computer programs to study the thermodynamic stability of metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koukkari, P.; Olin, M.; Laitinen, T.; Sippola, H.

    1999-04-01

    The oxide films formed on primary circuit surfaces incorporate radioactive species from the coolant and influence different corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants. One approach to improve the understanding on the formation and properties of these oxide films is to evaluate their thermodynamic stability. The aim of this work was to compare and demonstrate the applicability of different commercial thermodynamic computer programs to model the deposition of oxides containing iron, chromium and/or nickel in various nuclear power plant environments. The programs considered in this evaluation comprised the EQ3/6 program and a product group including such products as ChemSage, HSC (including SOLGASMIX and GIBBS), H+PLUS and ChemSheet. In the group the transfer of data between different products is relatively easy. The goal was to find out which programs can be applied to evaluate the stability of oxide films, but not to assess the absolute accuracy of the calculations. The evaluation was done by means of applying the programs to calculate the stability of pure and mixed oxides of iron, nickel and chromium on stainless steel both in WWER and BWR conditions at different temperatures and coolant compositions. The comparison showed that EQ3/6 is suitable for most thermodynamic calculations. EQ3/6 can be characterised as a professional tool, for which no commercial training is available. ChemSage is a versatile and reliable program, which can be well used together with HSC and H+PLUS. ChemSage is mainly a professional tool, while HSC is easier to operate by an occasional user. Commercial training and support is available for both ChemSage and HSC. ChemSheet has been designed to utilise the properties of ChemSage in a user-friendly spreadsheet environment. All the products tested calculate thermodynamic equilibrium. Thus they are suitable to characterise such conditions in which the formation of a certain phase is or becomes possible. On the other hand, the modelling of the

  2. Application of Best Industry Practices to the Design of Commercial Refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-06-30

    The substantial efficiency improvements which have been realized in residential refrigerators over the last twenty years due to implementation of the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act and changing consumer reactions to energy savings give an indication of the potential for improvement in the commercial sector, where few such efficiency improvements have been made to date. The purchase decision for commercial refrigerators is still focused primarily on first cost and product performance issues such as maximizing storage capacity, quick pulldown, durability, and reliability. The project applied techniques used extensively to reduce energy use in residential refrigeration to a commercial reach-in refrigerator. The results will also be applicable to other commercial refrigeration equipment, such as refrigerated vending machines, reach-in freezers, beverage merchandisers, etc. The project described in this paper was a collaboration involving the Appliance and Building Technology Sector of TIAX, the Delfield Company, and the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies. Funding was provided by DOE through Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT41000. The program plan and schedule were structured to assure successful integration of the TIAX work on development of efficient design concepts into Delfield's simultaneous development of the Vantage product line. The energy-saving design options evaluated as part of the development included brushless DC and PSC fan motors, high-efficiency compressors, variable-speed compressor technology, cabinet thermal improvement (particularly in the face frame area), increased insulation thickness, a trap for the condensate line, improved insulation, reduced-wattage antisweat heaters, non-electric antisweat heating, off-cycle defrost termination, rifled heat exchanger tubing, and system optimization (selection of heat exchangers, fans, and subcooling, superheat, and suction temperatures for efficient

  3. Application of NAA and BA in chemical thinning of some commercial apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šebek Gordana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the fruit thinning response of some commercial apple cultivars to NAA and BA plant regulators. The experiment was designed to evaluate NAA applied separately at three concentrations - 13.2 ppm, 17.82 ppm and 26.73 ppm, and BA + NAA combinations (BA - 60 ppm, 100 ppm, 120 ppm or 140 ppm + NAA 4.29 ppm for thinning the assessed apple cultivars. All treatments with NAA and BA + NAA adequately thinned 'McIntosh' and 'Jonathan', whereas the application of NAA 17.82 ppm and 26.73 ppm and the combined treatment BA 140 ppm+ NAA 4.29 ppm were effective fruit thinners for 'Prima'. In terms of the average fruit weight, number of fruits categorized as large (> 75 mm or > 65 mm, and number of fruit per trunk cross-sectional area, the treatment BA 140 ppm + NAA 4.29 ppm was most effective on 'McIntosh' and 'Prima', whereas BA 100 ppm + NAA 4.29 ppm had the best effect on 'Jonathan'.

  4. Conceptual design of a hybrid KrF laser system for ICF commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Lowenthal, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    KrF lasers appear to be the most efficient lasers operating near the optimal wavelength for laser fusion. Most high-efficiency, low-cost KrF laser designs use large electron-beam-driven amplifiers and use pure angular multiplexing for the required pulse compression. A recent study carried out by Los Alamos National Lab. and Spectra Technology has defied a high-efficiency hybrid KrF laser system architecture that uses both angular multiplexing and Raman beam combination. The high overall system efficiency of this hybrid design, ∼ 12%, is achieved primarily through the use of electron-beam sustained discharge lasers (EBSDL), and by using the efficient forward rotational Raman process in hydrogen. The new system appears attractive as a commercial-applications driver because the calculated efficiency is higher than the usual large electron-beam-pumped (EBP) KrF laser/pure angular multiplexing approach. In this paper, the hybrid system architecture will be described, and the trade-offs with respect to the large EBP amplifier/angular multiplexed system will be discussed

  5. Conceptual design of a hybrid KrF laser system for ICF commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.B.; Lowenthal, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    KrF lasers appear to be the most efficient lasers operating near the optimal wavelength for laser fusion. Most high-efficiency, low-cost KrF laser designs use large electron-beam driven amplifiers and use pure angular multiplexing for the required pulse compression. A recent study carried out by Los Alamos and Spectra Technology has defined a high-efficiency hybrid KrF laser system architecture that uses both angular multiplexing and Raman beam combination. The high overall system efficiency of this hybrid design, approximately 12%, is achieved primarily through the use of e-beam sustained discharge lasers (EBSDL), and by using the efficient forward rotational Raman process in hydrogen. The new system appears attractive as a commercial-applications driver because the calculated efficiency is higher than the usual large e-beam pumped (EBP) KrF laser/pure angular multiplexing approach. In this paper, the hybrid system architecture is described, and the tradeoffs with respect to the large EBP amplifier/angular multiplexed system are discussed

  6. Application of AmBe source neutron irradiator for determination of inorganic elements in commercial fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi Filho, Tufic; Armelim, Maria Jose Aguirre; Fulas, Paulo Marcelo Marangon; Trevizam, Anderson Ricardo; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes

    2005-01-01

    The rational use of fertilizers , for the soil fertility correction, contributes to the increase of agricultural production, using the same areas previously available. The quality of products could ne improved with reduced costs. Therefore, knowledge of the chemical characteristics of the correctives used is required to streamline the application and avoid excesses or deficiencies. The studied characteristics are generally limited to the essential nutrients for the nutrition of plants and animals, e.g.: Mn, Zn, P, K, Cu and those known toxic, such as: As, Cd, Hg and Pb. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a highly sensitive non destructive technique, for the determination of the elemental composition in samples. It has been particularly useful in the simultaneous determination of inorganic elements in complex samples of several kinds. Several analysis methods for activation are used, such as: comparative and absolute. Commercial fertilizers were analyzed applying the absolute and comparative methods. Using the absolute method, samples were submitted to neutron flux generated by an irradiator with two Am Be sources. The obtained results were compared with those obtained by the comparative method using neutrons generated in the IEA-R1 Reactor. (author)

  7. Application of a commercial diffusion type carbon meter in a sodium circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhat, N.P.; Borgstedt, H.U.; Peric, Z.; Witting, G.

    1980-01-01

    The exchange of carbon between structural materials and liquid sodium influences the mechanical properties of components of the cooling circuits. Therefore, the estimation of the carbon content of the alkali metal and the knowledge of its carburizing potential is of importance. Since some years the measurement of the carburizing potential of sodium is easy to perform by the application of the foil equilibration method which leads to good results in spite of the very low carbon concentrations in the liquid metal. Thin foils (0.025 to 0.125 mm) of Fe-18Cr-8Ni-C alloy (corresponding to stainless steel type AISI 304) are immersed in sodium at 550 to 700 deg. C for 200 to 400 hours. The equilibrium of the carbon distribution must be reached. Chemical analyses of the steel tabs and relation of concentration to activity of carbon lead to information on the carbon concentration in the sodium, if the saturation concentration of carbon in sodium is known. The method gives arbitrary values over a longer period of time. The time needed for equilibration and analysis causes a delay for the getting of results. Therefore, there is a need for instruments which are capable to measure carbon directly in the circuits and give continuously information on the actual carbon activities in the fluid. Until 1975 only one carbon meter was commercially available. One unit in was tested a chemical analytical sodium circuit

  8. The New Anechoic Shielded Chambers Designed for Space and Commercial Applications at LIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Benjamim; Galvao, M. C.; Pereira, Clovis Solano

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to present the capabilities of the new anechoic shielded rooms designed for space and commercial applications as part of the Integration and Testing Laboratory (LIT, Laboratorio de Integracao e Testes) in Brazil. A new anechoic shielded room named CBA2 has been in full operation since March 2007 and a remodeled chamber CBA1 is planned to be ready by the end of 2008, replacing an old facility which was in operation for the last 18 years. The Brazilian Space Program started with very small and simple satellites and the old CBA1 chamber was conceived in 1987 to accomplish the EMI/EMC tests not requiring significant volumes. Since the very beginning this facility was also used by the private sector for other applications mainly due to the absorption of digital electronics in all kind of products. The intense use of this facility during the last years, operating three shifts a day, caused a normal degradation and imposed several limitations. Therefore, a new totally remodeled chamber was designed considering the state of the art in terms of absorbers and associated instrumentation. On the other hand the facility CBA2 was conceived, designed and implemented to test large satellites taking into account the advance of the technology in terms of RF frequencies, power level, testing methodologies and several other factors. A very interesting and unique aspect of this project was the partnership between the private sector and governmental institution. As a result, the total investment was shared between several companies and consequently a time-sharing use of the facility as well.

  9. 77 FR 34971 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... automation, informed compliance and compliance assessment, account-based processing, commercial enforcement... professional biography or resume; Home address and telephone number; Work address, telephone number, and email...

  10. 40 CFR 171.7 - Submission and approval of State plans for certification of commercial and private applicators of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... authorities are pending enactment and/or promulgation, the Governor (or Chief Executive) may request that a...) Any changes in commercial applicator subcategories. (iii) A summary of enforcement activities related... contents of examinations (e.g., multiple choice, true-false) and submission of sample examination questions...

  11. Design and dosimetry characteristics of a commercial applicator system for intra-operative electron beam therapy utilizing ELEKTA Precise accelerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevelsky, Alexander; Bernstein, Zvi; Bar-Deroma, Raquel; Kuten, Abraham; Orion, Itzhak

    2010-07-19

    The design concept and dosimetric characteristics of a new applicator system for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) are presented in this work. A new hard-docking commercial system includes polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) applicators with different diameters and applicator end angles and a set of secondary lead collimators. A telescopic device allows changing of source-to-surface distance (SSD). All measurements were performed for 6, 9, 12 and 18 MeV electron energies. Output factors and percentage depth doses (PDD) were measured in a water phantom using a plane-parallel ion chamber. Isodose contours and radiation leakage were measured using a solid water phantom and radiographic films. The dependence of PDD on SSD was checked for the applicators with the smallest and the biggest diameters. SSD dependence of the output factors was measured. Hardcopies of PDD and isodose contours were prepared to help the team during the procedure on deciding applicator size and energy to be chosen. Applicator output factors are a function of energy, applicator size and applicator type. Dependence of SSD correction factors on applicator size and applicator type was found to be weak. The same SSD correction will be applied for all applicators in use for each energy. The radiation leakage through the applicators is clinically acceptable. The applicator system enables effective collimation of electron beams for IORT. The data presented are sufficient for applicator, energy and monitor unit selection for IORT treatment of a patient.

  12. Applications of commercial biosensors in clinical, food, environmental, and biothreat/biowarfare analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadır, Elif Burcu; Sezgintürk, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-06-01

    The lack of specific, low-cost, rapid, sensitive, and easy detection of biomolecules has resulted in the development of biosensor technology. Innovations in biosensor technology have enabled many biosensors to be commercialized and have enabled biomolecules to be detected onsite. Moreover, the emerging technologies of lab-on-a-chip microdevices and nanosensors offer opportunities for the development of new biosensors with much better performance. Biosensors were first introduced into the laboratory by Clark and Lyons. They developed the first glucose biosensor for laboratory conditions. Then in 1973, a glucose biosensor was commercialized by Yellow Springs Instruments. The commercial biosensors have small size and simple construction and they are ideal for point-of-care biosensing. In addition to glucose, a wide variety of metabolites such as lactate, cholesterol, and creatinine can be detected by using commercial biosensors. Like the glucose biosensors (tests) other commercial tests such as for pregnancy (hCG), Escherichia coli O157, influenza A and B viruses, Helicobacter pylori, human immunodeficiency virus, tuberculosis, and malaria have achieved success. Apart from their use in clinical analysis, commercial tests are also used in environmental (such as biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, pesticide), food (such as glutamate, glutamine, sucrose, lactose, alcohol, ascorbic acid), and biothreat/biowarfare (Bacillus anthracis, Salmonella, Botulinum toxin) analysis. In this review, commercial biosensors in clinical, environmental, food, and biowarfare analysis are summarized and the commercial biosensors are compared in terms of their important characteristics. This is the first review in which all the commercially available tests are compiled together. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Technology data characterizing water heating in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    Commercial-sector conservation analyses have traditionally focused on lighting and space conditioning because of their relatively-large shares of electricity and fuel consumption in commercial buildings. In this report we focus on water heating, which is one of the neglected end uses in the commercial sector. The share of the water-heating end use in commercial-sector electricity consumption is 3%, which corresponds to 0.3 quadrillion Btu (quads) of primary energy consumption. Water heating accounts for 15% of commercial-sector fuel use, which corresponds to 1.6 quads of primary energy consumption. Although smaller in absolute size than the savings associated with lighting and space conditioning, the potential cost-effective energy savings from water heaters are large enough in percentage terms to warrant closer attention. In addition, water heating is much more important in particular building types than in the commercial sector as a whole. Fuel consumption for water heating is highest in lodging establishments, hospitals, and restaurants (0.27, 0.22, and 0.19 quads, respectively); water heating`s share of fuel consumption for these building types is 35%, 18% and 32%, respectively. At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, we have developed and refined a base-year data set characterizing water heating technologies in commercial buildings as well as a modeling framework. We present the data and modeling framework in this report. The present commercial floorstock is characterized in terms of water heating requirements and technology saturations. Cost-efficiency data for water heating technologies are also developed. These data are intended to support models used for forecasting energy use of water heating in the commercial sector.

  14. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Third quarterly progress report, November 1, 1976--January 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-09-01

    The application of Solar Total Energy System (STES) to the commercial sector (e.g., office buildings, shopping centers, retail stores, etc.) in the United States is investigated. Candidate solar-thermal and solar-photovoltaic concepts are considered for providing on-site electrical power generation as well as thermal energy for both heating and cooling applications. The solar-thermal concepts include the use of solar concentrators (distributed or central-receiver) for collection of the thermal energy for conversion to electricity by means of a Rankine-cycle or Brayton-cycle power-conversion system. Recoverable waste heat from the power-generation process is utilized to help meet the building thermal-energy demand. Evaluation methodology is identified to allow ranking and/or selection of the most cost-effective concept for commercial-building applications.

  15. Estimating commercial property prices: an application of cokriging with housing prices as ancillary information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Lorenzo, José-María; Larraz-Iribas, Beatriz; Páez, Antonio

    2009-12-01

    A vast majority of the recent literature on spatial hedonic analysis has been concerned with residential property values, with only very few examples of studies focused on commercial property prices. The dearth of studies can be attributed to some of the challenges faced in the analysis of commercial properties, in particular the scarcity of information compared to residential transactions. In order to address this issue, in this paper we propose the use of cokriging and housing prices as ancillary information to estimate commercial property prices. Cokriging takes into account the spatial autocorrelation structure of property prices, and the use of more abundant information on housing prices helps to improve the accuracy of property value estimates. A case study of Toledo in Spain, a city for which commercial activity stemming from tourism is one of the key elements of the economy in the city, demonstrates that substantial accuracy and precision gains can be obtained from the use of cokriging.

  16. Generic requirements specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for safety-related applications in nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostenso, A.; May, R.

    1996-12-01

    This is a specification for qualifying a commercially available PLC for application to safety systems in nuclear power plants. The specifications are suitable for evaluating a particular PLC product line as a platform for safety-related applications, establishing a suitable qualification test program, and confirming that the manufacturer has a quality assurance program that is adequate for safety-related applications or is sufficiently complete that, with a reasonable set of compensatory actions, it can be brought into conformance. The specification includes requirements for: (1) quality assurance measures applied to the qualification activities, (2) documentation to support the qualification, and (3) documentation to provide the information needed for applying the qualified PLC platform to a specific application. The specifications are designed to encompass a broad range of safety applications; however, qualifying a particular platform for a different range of applications can be accomplished by appropriate adjustments to the requirements

  17. Moving research to patient applications through commercialization: understanding and evaluating the role of intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Robert M

    2010-03-01

    The advancement of research from discovery to the delivery of medical care can be limited without the support of industry to sponsor its continued development. Federal government financial support is generally crucial in early-stage development through funding from the NIH, National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies; however, government support generally stops shortly after basic research discoveries have been reported. Much of the cessation of financial support derives from the government's regulatory responsibilities, as sponsoring the commercialization of a product conflicts with regulation of the approval for clinical use of a drug or device. Furthermore, differences in goals, resources, and flexibility render government, as compared with private industry, inefficient and less responsive to market demands with regard to stream-lining the development of and enhancing the quality of products and services offered. Thus, industry and private investment provide the bridge that converts new discoveries into healthcare products that are available to consumers and patients. This conversion occurs through commercialization, which involves both high risks and high rewards. Taking advantage of the commercialization option for research development requires an understanding of the technology transfer process. This article reviews 5 topics: 1) industry motivation to invest in academic research; 2) institutional considerations in partnering with industry; 3) academia's interactions with inventors in the commercialization process; 4) the research institution's route to commercialization, and 5) the role of intellectual property and commercialization in the advancement of healthcare.

  18. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  19. Application of commercial RIA kit in investigating milk contamination with M1 aflatoxin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukal, L.

    1988-01-01

    Measured were samples of commercially sold milk produced by two Czech dairies and samples of unprocessed cow's milk from three farms. The determination of aflatoxin M 1 in liquid milk was carried out with a RIA-test-aflatoxin M 1 B 1 kit. The range of the calibration curve of the kit is 0.06 to 2.0 μg/l. In samples of commercially sold milk a higher share of aflatoxin M 1 free samples was found (93%) and 7% samples contained 0.050 to 0.1 μg aflatoxin/l. The dilution effect was manifest in commercially sold milk. On the other hand in 7% samples of raw milk aflatoxin concentration exceeded the limits set by hygiene inspection bodies for consumption by infants. The detected aflatoxin concentrations are compared with data from abroad. (E.S.). 2 tabs., 13 refs

  20. Performance evaluation of a commercially available heat flow calorimeter and applicability assessment for safeguarding special nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracken, D.S.; Biddle, R.; Rudy, C.

    1998-01-01

    The performance characteristics of a commercially available heat-flow calorimeter will be presented. The heat-flow sensors within the calorimeter are based on thermopile technology with a vendor-quoted sensitivity of 150 microV/mW. The calorimeter is a full-twin design to compensate for ambient temperature fluctuations. The efficacy of temperature fluctuation compensations will also be detailed. Finally, an assessment of design applicability to special nuclear materials control and accountability and safeguarding will be presented

  1. Accelerating the commercialization of university technologies for military healthcare applications: the role of the proof of concept process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Rosibel; DeLong, Hal; Kenyon, Jessica; Wilson, Eli

    2011-06-01

    The von Liebig Center for Entrepreneurism and Technology Advancement at UC San Diego (vonliebig.ucsd.edu) is focused on accelerating technology transfer and commercialization through programs and education on entrepreneurism. Technology Acceleration Projects (TAPs) that offer pre-venture grants and extensive mentoring on technology commercialization are a key component of its model which has been developed over the past ten years with the support of a grant from the von Liebig Foundation. In 2010, the von Liebig Entrepreneurism Center partnered with the U.S. Army Telemedicine and Advanced Technology Research Center (TATRC), to develop a regional model of Technology Acceleration Program initially focused on military research to be deployed across the nation to increase awareness of military medical needs and to accelerate the commercialization of novel technologies to treat the patient. Participants to these challenges are multi-disciplinary teams of graduate students and faculty in engineering, medicine and business representing universities and research institutes in a region, selected via a competitive process, who receive commercialization assistance and funding grants to support translation of their research discoveries into products or services. To validate this model, a pilot program focused on commercialization of wireless healthcare technologies targeting campuses in Southern California has been conducted with the additional support of Qualcomm, Inc. Three projects representing three different universities in Southern California were selected out of forty five applications from ten different universities and research institutes. Over the next twelve months, these teams will conduct proof of concept studies, technology development and preliminary market research to determine the commercial feasibility of their technologies. This first regional program will help build the needed tools and processes to adapt and replicate this model across other regions in the

  2. Technology data characterizing refrigeration in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, O.; Koomey, J.G.

    1995-12-01

    In the United States, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. The disaggregation of the refrigeration end use in terms of specific technologies, however, is complicated by several factors. First, the number of configurations of refrigeration cases and systems is quite large. Also, energy use is a complex function of the refrigeration-case properties and the refrigeration-system properties. The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND 4.0) and the associated data development presented in this report attempt to address the above complications and create a consistent forecasting framework. Expanding end-use forecasting models so that they address individual technology options requires characterization of the present floorstock in terms of service requirements, energy technologies used, and cost-efficiency attributes of the energy technologies that consumers may choose for new buildings and retrofits. This report describes the process by which we collected refrigeration technology data. The data were generated for COMMEND 4.0 but are also generally applicable to other end-use forecasting frameworks for the commercial sector.

  3. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... following: (1) For corporate applicants: (i) The name and address of each stockholder who owns 5 percent or... person under direct or indirect control with the applicant. (2) For non-corporate applicants: (i) The... accounting principles applied on a consistent basis, and must contain the name and address of the applicant's...

  4. Nanomanufacturing Portfolio: Manufacturing Processes and Applications to Accelerate Commercial Use of Nanomaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Industrial Technologies Program

    2011-01-05

    This brochure describes the 31 R&D projects that AMO supports to accelerate the commercial manufacture and use of nanomaterials for enhanced energy efficiency. These cost-shared projects seek to exploit the unique properties of nanomaterials to improve the functionality of industrial processes and products.

  5. Application of reactors for testing neutron-induced upsets in commercial SRAMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.J.; Luera, T.F.; Sexton, F.W.; Cooper, P.J.; Karr, S.G.; Hash, G.L.; Fuller, E.

    1997-01-01

    Reactor neutron environments can be used to test/screen the sensitivity of unhardened commercial SRAMs to low-LET neutron-induced upset. Tests indicate both thermal/epithermal (< 1 keV) and fast neutrons can cause upsets in unhardened parts. Measured upset rates in reactor environments can be used to model the upset rate for arbitrary neutron spectra

  6. Energy analysis of fuel cell system for commercial greenhouse application – A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadiee, Amir; Yaghoubi, Mahmoud; Sardella, Marco; Farjam, Pardis

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility study of integrating a PEMFC with a commercial greenhouse. • An energy analysis has been performed in order to evaluate the energetic performance of the system. • A sensitivity analysis on the main influencing operating parameters for optimization. - Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of integrating a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system with a commercial greenhouse and assess the mutual benefits of such integration. The main objective is to recover the low quality waste heat of the PEMFC system in order to meet the thermal energy demand of a commercial greenhouse. In addition the PEMFC covers the some part of the greenhouse electrical demand. In this study an energy analysis has been performed in order to evaluate the energetic performance of the system. To achieve these aims, first, a system model has been developed using TRNSYS. Afterwards, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out varying the main influencing operating parameters in order to evaluate an optimal configuration of the system. In particular the influences of temperature and air stoichiometry have been investigated. The results show that a 3 kW fuel cell system is capable to cover approximately the 25% and 10% of the usual electricity and heat demands of a 1000 m 2 commercial greenhouse during a year, respectively

  7. Red alder kitchen cabinets—How does application of commercial stains influence customer choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of consumer reaction and preferences for red alder (Alnus rubra Bong.) secondary products will help Alaska producers in entering new markets. In this study, red alder kitchen cabinets were commercially stained to six different levels and displayed at home shows in Portland, Oregon, and Anchorage, Alaska. The stains simulated...

  8. 75 FR 33661 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards; Rotel North American Tours, LLC; Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... named drivers, employed by Rotel and possessing German CDLs, to operate commercial motor vehicles (CMVs.... ADDRESSES: You may submit comments identified by Federal Docket Management System Number FMCSA-2008-0078 by... . Follow the online instructions for submitting comments. Fax: 1-202-493-2251. Mail: Docket Management...

  9. A Pulse Power Modulator System for Commercial High Power Ion Beam Surface Treatment Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, D.M.; Cockreham, B.D.; Dragt, A.J.; Ives, H.C.; Neau, E.L.; Reed, K.W.; White, F.E.

    1999-01-01

    The Ion Beam Surface Treatment (lBESTrM) process utilizes high energy pulsed ion beams to deposit energy onto the surface of a material allowing near instantaneous melting of the surface layer. The melted layer typically re-solidifies at a very rapid rate which forms a homogeneous, fine- grained structure on the surface of the material resulting in significantly improved surface characteristics. In order to commercialize the IBESTTM process, a reliable and easy-to-operate modulator system has been developed. The QM-I modulator is a thyratron-switched five-stage magnetic pulse compression network which drives a two-stage linear induction adder. The adder provides 400 kV, 150 ns FWHM pulses at a maximum repetition rate of 10 pps for the acceleration of the ion beam. Special emphasis has been placed upon developing the modulator system to be consistent with long-life commercial service

  10. Applicability of Commercially Available ELISA Kits for the Quantification of Faecal Immunoreactive Corticosterone Metabolites in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Kalliokoski, Otto; Teilmann, Anne Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background: Commercially available ELISA kits are popular among investigators that quantify faecal corticosterone or cortisol metabolites (FCM) for stress assessment in animals. However, in faeces, these assays mainly detect immunoreactive glucocorticoid metabolites. Since different assays contain......: The present study was designed to investigate corticosterone (CORT) in serum and FCM levels in faeces of laboratory mice, as quantified in four different ELISA kits (DRG EIA-4164, Demeditec DEV9922, Enzo ADI-900-097 and Cayman EIA kit 500655). Assay kits were chosen based on the origin of the antibody...... assays, in both groups of mice. In faecal samples, there was no consistent positive correlation between the levels detected in the four assays and the measured concentration of FCM also differed between assays. Conclusion: Whereas commercially available CORT ELISAs are frequently successfully used...

  11. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Parts Risk and Reliability User and Application Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark

    2017-01-01

    All COTS parts are not created equal. Because they are not created equal, the notion that one can force the commercial industry to follow a set of military specifications and standards, along with the certifications, audits and qualification commitments that go with them, is unrealistic for the sale of a few parts. The part technologies that are Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) certified or Military Specification (MS) qualified, are several generations behind the state-of-the-art high-performance parts that are required for the compact, higher performing systems for the next generation of spacecraft and instruments. The majority of the part suppliers are focused on the portion of the market that is producing high-tech commercial products and systems. To that end, in order to compete in the high performance and leading edge advanced technological systems, an alternative approach to risk assessment and reliability prediction must be considered.

  12. Commercial applications of solar total energy systems. Volume 3. Conceptual designs and market analyses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boobar, M.G.; McFarland, B.L.; Nalbandian, S.J.; Willcox, W.W.; French, E.P.; Smith, K.E.

    1978-07-01

    The overall objective of this program was to assess the feasibility of using solar energy to provide a significant fraction of the energy needs of commercial buildings that have energy demands greater than 200 kWe. The STES concept trade studies, sensitivity parameters, performance characteristics, and selected concepts are discussed. Market penetration rate estimates are provided, and technology advancements and utilization plans are discussed. Photovoltaic STES configurations and Rankine cycle thermal STES systems are considered. (WHK)

  13. Heat pumps: Residential and commercial applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and development of heat pumps for use in residential houses, apartments, and commercial installations. Energy exchange systems examined include air-to-air, ground-coupled, air-to-water, and water-to-water types. The citations cover costs and reliability of the heat pump systems, and studies of operations in differing climates and seasons. (Contains a minimum of 70 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Heat pumps: Residential and commercial applications. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design and development of heat pumps for use in residential houses, apartments, and commercial installations. Energy exchange systems examined include air-to-air, ground-coupled, air-to-water, and water-to-water types. The citations cover costs and reliability of the heat pump systems, and studies of operations in differing climates and seasons. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  15. Energy consumption and commercial applications of liquid foam insulation technology for greenhouses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villeneuve, J. [Environnement-MJ, Quebec City, PQ (Canada); De Halleux, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Dept. des Sols et de Genie Agroalimentaire; Aberkani, K. [Laval Univ., Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Centre de Recherche en Horticulture; Vineberg, S. [Sunarc of Canada, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Sunarc of Canada has developed an energy saving system for commercial greenhouse growers. Large amounts of energy are needed to operate commercial greenhouses in northern latitudes, and as energy prices fluctuate, it is important to enable growers to control their microclimate. Sunarc's liquid foam insulating system was installed in 2007 at 2 sites in Ontario. The first site had an area of 14,700 ft{sup 2} while the other site had an area of 43,000 ft{sup 2}. Both facilities were monitored for energy use during the winter period. Night-time energy savings ranged from above 60 per cent to below 10 per cent depending on outdoor temperatures. The greater savings occurred during colder outdoor temperatures. Monthly average night-time energy savings from February, March and April were 46.6, 42, and 32.3 per cent respectively. After initial commercial testing, the liquid foam system was re-engineered to optimize operations, reduce fill time, and improve liquid foam formulas. The new system was installed at a third site in Quebec as a demonstration unit. The company is currently negotiating international distribution rights with several partners.

  16. Weldability, machinability and surfacing of commercial duplex stainless steel AISI2205 for marine applications – A recent review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vinoth Jebaraj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present review, attempts have been made to analyze the metallurgical, mechanical, and corrosion properties of commercial marine alloy duplex stainless steel AISI 2205 with special reference to its weldability, machinability, and surfacing. In the first part, effects of various fusion and solid-state welding processes on joining DSS 2205 with similar and dissimilar metals are addressed. Microstructural changes during the weld cooling cycle such as austenite reformation, partitioning of alloying elements, HAZ transformations, and the intermetallic precipitations are analyzed and compared with the different welding techniques. In the second part, machinability of DSS 2205 is compared with the commercial ASS grades in order to justify the quality of machining. In the third part, the importance of surface quality in a marine exposure is emphasized and the enhancement of surface properties through peening techniques is highlighted. The research gaps and inferences highlighted in this review will be more useful for the fabrications involved in the marine applications.

  17. Weldability, machinability and surfacing of commercial duplex stainless steel AISI2205 for marine applications - A recent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinoth Jebaraj, A; Ajaykumar, L; Deepak, C R; Aditya, K V V

    2017-05-01

    In the present review, attempts have been made to analyze the metallurgical, mechanical, and corrosion properties of commercial marine alloy duplex stainless steel AISI 2205 with special reference to its weldability, machinability, and surfacing. In the first part, effects of various fusion and solid-state welding processes on joining DSS 2205 with similar and dissimilar metals are addressed. Microstructural changes during the weld cooling cycle such as austenite reformation, partitioning of alloying elements, HAZ transformations, and the intermetallic precipitations are analyzed and compared with the different welding techniques. In the second part, machinability of DSS 2205 is compared with the commercial ASS grades in order to justify the quality of machining. In the third part, the importance of surface quality in a marine exposure is emphasized and the enhancement of surface properties through peening techniques is highlighted. The research gaps and inferences highlighted in this review will be more useful for the fabrications involved in the marine applications.

  18. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  19. Commercial Bank Efficiency Evaluation in Consideration of the Undesirable Output and Its Link with Stakeholders Relationship: An Application of China’s Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyue Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the modern contract theory, expectancy theory, and stakeholder theory, this paper analyzes how stakeholders relationship influences the efficiency of commercial banks and finds that the efficiency is a function of stakeholders relationship. A DEA model with Seiford's linear transformation function is developed to evaluate the efficiency in consideration of the undesirable output. The panel Tobit model is established to conduct empirical research with data of 14 Chinese commercial banks from 2004 to 2012. The study finds that except for business customer relation, stakeholder relationship is the key variable that influences comprehensive efficiency of commercial banks.

  20. 75 FR 12561 - Request for Applicants for Appointment to the Advisory Committee on Commercial Operations of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... border and cargo supply chain security, CBP modernization and automation, informed compliance and...: Statement of interest and reasons for application; Complete professional biography or resume; Home address...

  1. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the recognition of weeds and methods of their control in rights-of-way. Different types of application equipment both airborne and ground are discussed with precautions for the safe and effective use of herbicides. (CS)

  2. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1C: Agricultural Crop Disease Control. CS-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyvall, Robert F.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. It summarizes the economically important diseases of field and forage crops such as corn, soybeans and alfalfa. Special attention is given to pesticide application methods and safety. (CS)

  3. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1A: Agricultural Weed Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Weeds, their effects, and control in relation to crop production are presented. Pre- and post-emergence treatments are discussed for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Problems with herbicide application to grass pastures, small grains, and…

  4. The law applicable to the use of space for commercial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1983-01-01

    The general principles of space law that have an impact on commercial space activities are discussed. The Outer Space Treaty guaranteed the right of private enterprise in space, with jurisdiction over the participating parties residing in the country of origin. The liability for damages caused to a third party is also assigned to the country of origin. Government consent is necessary in the U.S. before a private firm is permitted to launch an object into space, with the relevant statute sections being part of the Arms Export Control Act; launches are legally treated as exports. FAA regulations define the safe area and flight conditions that must be satisfied for a private launch, although NASA, in the 1958 act which formed the agency, potentialy has the power to regulate space launch activities. The DoD must be notified of any launches in order to notify the U.S.S.R., filings must be made with the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, and fees must be paid to the IRS. It is presently U.S. government policy to encourage and facilitate private sector development of commercial launch services.

  5. Being everything to anyone: Applicability of thermoacoustic technology in the commercial refrigeration market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poese, Matthew E.; Smith, Robert W. M.; Garrett, Steven L.

    2005-09-01

    This talk will compare electrodynamically driven thermoacoustic refrigeration technology to some common implementations of low-lift vapor-compression technology. A rudimentary explanation of vapor-compression refrigeration will be presented along with some of the implementation problems faced by refrigeration engineers using compressor-based systems. These problems include oil management, compressor slugging, refrigerant leaks and the environmental impact of refrigerants. Recently, the method of evaluating this environmental impact has been codified to include the direct effects of the refrigerants on global warming as well as the so-called ``indirect'' warming impact of the carbon dioxide released during the generation (at the power plant) of the electrical power consumed by the refrigeration equipment. It is issues like these that generate commercial interest in an alternative refrigeration technology. However, the requirements of a candidate technology for adoption in a mature and risk-averse commercial refrigeration industry are as hard to divine as they are to meet. Also mentioned will be the state of other alternative refrigeration technologies like free-piston Stirling, thermoelectric and magnetocaloric as well as progress using vapor compression technology with alternative refrigerants like hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide.

  6. Hydrogen venting characteristics of commercial carbon-composite filters and applications to TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, E.L.; Marshall, R.S.; Cappis, J.H.

    1997-04-01

    The generation of hydrogen (by radiolysis) and of other potentially flammable gases in radioactive wastes which are in contact with hydrogenous materials is a source of concern, both from transportation and on-site storage considerations. Because very little experimental data on the generation and accumulation of hydrogen was available in actual waste materials, work was initiated to experimentally determine factors affecting the concentration of hydrogen in the waste containers, such as the hydrogen generation rate, (G-values) and the rate of loss of hydrogen through packaging and commercial filter-vents, including a new design suitable for plastic bags. This report deals only with the venting aspect of the problem. Hydrogen venting characteristics of two types of commercial carbon-composite filter-vents, and two types of PVC bag closures (heat-sealed and twist-and-tape) were measured. Techniques and equipment were developed to permit measurement of the hydrogen concentration in various layers of actual transuranic (TRU) waste packages, both with and without filter-vents. A test barrel was assembled containing known configuration and amounts of TRU wastes. Measurements of the hydrogen in the headspace verified a hydrogen release model developed by Benchmark Environmental Corporation. These data were used to calculate revised wattage Emits for TRU waste packages incorporating the new bag filter-vent

  7. Estimating the energy and exergy utilization efficiencies for the residential-commercial sector: an application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlu, Zafer; Hepbasli, Arif

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives in carrying out the present study are twofold, namely to estimate the energy and exergy utilization efficiencies for the residential-commercial sector and to compare those of various countries with each other. In this regard, Turkey is given as an illustrative example with its latest figures in 2002 since the data related to the following years are still being processed. Total energy and exergy inputs in this year are calculated to be 3257.20 and 3212.42 PJ, respectively. Annual fuel consumptions in space heating, water heating and cooking activities as well as electrical energy uses by appliances are also determined. The energy and exergy utilization efficiency values for the Turkish residential-commercial sector are obtained to be 55.58% and 9.33%, respectively. Besides this, Turkey's overall energy and exergy utilization efficiencies are found to be 46.02% and 24.99%, respectively. The present study clearly indicates the necessity of the planned studies toward increasing exergy utilization efficiencies in the sector studied

  8. Investigation of a new methodology in high temperature oxidation application to commercial austenitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangeli, P.; Ivarsson, B. [Avesta Sheffield, R and D (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Avesta Sheffield R and D has evaluated a scaling temperature for heat resistant steels from laboratory gravimetric measurements of cyclic exposures. In this paper, this old method is described. A new methodology, based on the results of isothermal and cyclic tests, is proposed and discussed. It includes isothermal and cyclic oxidation kinetics of different commercial austenitic steels. Oxidation of Avesta Sheffield 153MA, 253MA and 353MA and standard commercial heat resistant steels 309S, 310S and A800 have been investigated under isothermal and cyclic conditions, in air, in the temperature range 800-1200 C. For all alloys, oxidation rates obey a parabolic law below a critical temperature. The activation energies have been calculated. Kinetics of the cyclic tests show that a critical mass change corresponding to a critical thickness of the oxide scale is responsible for the spallation start. This thickness depends on the composition of the alloys, and is very much increased by alloying minor elements like Ce. (orig.)

  9. Intersatellite Link (ISL) application to commercial communications satellites. Volume 2: Technical final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, S. Lee

    1987-01-01

    Intersatellite Link (ISL) applications can improve and expand communication satellite services in a number of ways. As the demand for orbital slots within prime regions of the geostationary arc increases, attention is being focused on ISLs as a method to utilize this resource more efficiently and circumvent saturation. Various GEO-to-GEO applications were determined that provide potential benefits over existing communication systems. A set of criteria was developed to assess the potential applications. Intersatellite link models, network system architectures, and payload configurations were developed. For each of the chosen ISL applications, ISL versus non-ISL satellite systems architectures were derived. Both microwave and optical ISL implementation approaches were evaluated for payload sizing and cost analysis. The technological availability for ISL implementations was assessed. Critical subsystems technology areas were identified, and an estamate of the schedule and cost to advance the technology to the requiered state of readiness was made.

  10. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  11. Application of high temperature ceramic superconductors (CSC) to commercial tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.A.; Kim, S.; Gohar, Y.; Turner, L.; Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.

    1987-10-01

    Ceramic superconductors operating near liquid nitrogen temperature may experience higher heating rates without losing stability, compared to conventional superconductors. This will permit cable design with less stabilizer, reducing fabrication costs for large fusion magnets. Magnet performance is studied for different operating current densities in the superconductor, and cost benefits to commercial tokamak reactors are estimated. It appears that 10 kA . cm -2 (at 77 K and ∼10 T) is a target current density which must be achieved in order for the ceramic superconductors to compete with conventional materials. At current densities around 50 kA . cm -2 most potential benefits have already been gained, as magnet structural steel begins to dominate the cost at this point. For a steady state reactor reductions of ∼7% are forecast for the overall capital cost of the power plant in the best case. An additional ∼3% cost saving is possible for pulsed tokamaks. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  12. Economic modeling of fault tolerant flight control systems in commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finelli, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes the current development of a comprehensive model which will supply the assessment and analysis capability to investigate the economic viability of Fault Tolerant Flight Control Systems (FTFCS) for commercial aircraft of the 1990's and beyond. An introduction to the unique attributes of fault tolerance and how they will influence aircraft operations and consequent airline costs and benefits is presented. Specific modeling issues and elements necessary for accurate assessment of all costs affected by ownership and operation of FTFCS are delineated. Trade-off factors are presented, aimed at exposing economically optimal realizations of system implementations, resource allocation, and operating policies. A trade-off example is furnished to graphically display some of the analysis capabilities of the comprehensive simulation model now being developed.

  13. Practical application of a commercial CFD package in a design/build environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkoe, J; Krag, P; Rayner, C; Imrie, W [Bechtel Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Some examples of how computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to solve problems in the design of metallurgical plants, were presented. CFD has been used to optimize equipment for several unit operations at Bechtel Mining and Metals, and also in developing technologies to improve environmental conditions in several facilities. Some examples included mixing in a copper refining furnace, flow in copper solvent extraction settlers, the ventilation of electrowinning tank houses, and the capture of fugitive emissions from Peirce-Smith converters. Cost effective use of CFD on such projects requires substantial investment in high-end computing equipment, versatile commercial CFD software and advanced data visualization, however, in the hands of a sophisticated analyst the results are well worth the expense. 21 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  14. Power plant surveillance and fault detection: applications to a commercial PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Herzog, J.P.; Wegerich, S.; Van Alstine, R.; Bockhorst, F.K.

    1998-01-01

    The theoretical basis and validation studies of a real-time, model-based process monitoring and fault detection system (MSET, multivariate state estimation technique) is presented. Through use of a non-linear state estimation technique coupled with a probabilistically-based statistical hypothesis test, it is possible to detect and identify sensor, component and process faults at extremely early times from changes in the stochastic characteristics of measured signals. Data from an experimental fast reactor and a commercial LWR are used to demonstrate functional capabilities of the monitoring system. In addition, operational data from the Crystal River-3 (CR-3) nuclear power plant are used to illustrate the high sensitivity, accuracy, and the rapid response time of MSET for annunciation of variety signal disturbances. The types of faults detected and identified included the gradual degradation of a venturi flowmeter, rapidly failing flow sensor and the loss-of-time-response of a pressure transmitter. (author)

  15. Design fractures and commercial potential of superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utility application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.J.; Schoenung, S.

    1986-01-01

    Historically, energy storage in the United States has been provided by a few pumped hydroelectric plants, but siting constraints and high cost severely limit the use of this option. Two other options which will soon be in use are batteries and compressed air energy storage. A fourth option, currently being developed for load leveling is Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES). This paper reports the design features and estimated costs of utility scale SMES plants. For moderate discharge duration, SMES is projected to have substantially lower revenue requirements and better availability than other load leveling options. The Electric Power Research Institute has prepared a plan for commercialization which could, if aggressively pursued, lead to a demonstrated SMES technology that is available for utility commitment by the late 1990's

  16. Condition-based dynamic maintenance operations planning and grouping. Application to commercial heavy vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouvard, K., E-mail: keomany.bouvard@volvo.co [Volvo Technology, 99 route de Lyon, 69806 Saint Priest cedex (France); Laboratoire d' Automatique de Genie Informatique et Signal - FRE3303 - Polytech' Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Artus, S., E-mail: samuel.artus@volvo.co [Volvo Technology, 99 route de Lyon, 69806 Saint Priest cedex (France); Berenguer, C., E-mail: christophe.berenguer@utt.f [Universite de technologie de Troyes - Institut Charles Delaunay and UMR CNRS 6279 - 12, rue Marie Curie, BP2060, 10010 Troyes cedex (France); Cocquempot, V., E-mail: vincent.cocquempot@univ-lille1.f [Laboratoire d' Automatique de Genie Informatique et Signal - FRE3303 - Polytech' Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-06-15

    This paper aims at presenting a method to optimize the maintenance planning for a commercial heavy vehicle. Such a vehicle may be considered as a multi-components system. Grouping maintenance operations related to each component reduces the global maintenance cost of the system. Classically, the optimization problem is solved using a priori reliability characteristics of components. Two types of methods may be used, i.e. static or dynamic methods. Static methods provide a fixed maintenance planning, whereas dynamic methods redefine the groups of maintenance operations at each decision time. Dynamic procedures can incorporate component information such as component states or detected failures. For deteriorating systems, reliability characteristics of each component may be estimated thanks to deterioration models and may be updated when a degradation measure is available. This additional information on degradation features allows to better follow the real state of each component and to improve the maintenance planning.

  17. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part I - progress in the patent landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2013-12-01

    In the last 20 years, diffractive optics experienced a strong research interest and was in the center of many development projects in applied optics. To offer a side view for optical engineers, here, we discuss selected, business-related aspects of the current status of the transfer process to bring diffractive optics into commercial products. The contribution is divided into two parts. Here, in part I, we focus on the patent landscape of diffractive optics with a closer look on the temporal development and the distribution over main players. As an important result, currently, new strong patent activities are observed especially in the context of imaging systems. In the second part, the business volumes of selected market segments are discussed.

  18. Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

  19. Optimization of self-consumption and techno-economic analysis of PV-battery systems in commercial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merei, Ghada; Moshövel, Janina; Magnor, Dirk; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Optimization of self-consumption and the degree of self-sufficiency in commercial applications. • Technical and economic analyses for a PV-battery system. • Sensitivity analysis considering different sizes and prices of PV and battery systems. • Investigation of batteries to increase self-consumption today is not economic in the considered applications. - Abstract: Increasing costs of electricity supply from the local grid, the decreasing photovoltaic (PV) technology costs and the decreasing PV feed-in-tariff according to the current German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) will in the future raise the monetary incentives to increase the self-consumption of PV energy. This is of great interest in commercial buildings as there mostly is sufficient place to install high capacities of photovoltaic panels on their own roofs. Furthermore, the electricity purchase price from the local grid for commercial consumers nowadays is about 20 €ct/kW h, which is higher than the cost of generation of electricity from solar panels (about 8–12 €ct/kW h). Additionally, the load profiles in commercial applications have a high correlation with the generated solar energy. Hence, there is a great opportunity for economic savings. This paper presents optimization results with respect to self-consumption and degree of self-sufficiency for a supermarket in Aachen, Germany. The optimization is achieved using real measurement data of load profile and solar radiation. Besides, techno-economic analyses and sensitivity analyses have been carried out to demonstrate the influence of different PV system sizes, PV system costs and interest rates. Moreover, to raise self-consumption different battery sizes with different battery system costs have been investigated and analysed for 2015 and 2025 scenarios as well. The results show that the installation of a PV system can reduce the electricity costs through self-consumption of self-generated PV energy. Also, applying

  20. Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator system. Phase I. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.J.; Anderson, E.R.; Bardwell, K.M.

    1980-04-01

    This report documents the design and analysis of the BDM CAPVC (Commercial Application of a Photovoltaic Concentrator) system. The preliminary design, prototype test and evaluation, system analysis, and final design of a large-scale concentrating photovoltaic system are described. The application is on an attractive new office building which represents a large potential market. The photovoltaic concentrating array is a roof-mounted, single-axis linear parabolic trough, using single crystalline silicon photovoltaic cells. A total of 6720 square feet of aperture is focussed on 13,944 PV cells. The photovoltaic system operates in parallel with the local utility in an augmentary loadsharing operating mode. The array is actively cooled and the thermal energy utilized for building heat during winter months. (WHK)

  1. Formulation of a Commercial Biosurfactant for Application as a Dispersant of Petroleum and By-products Spilled in Oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Galdino Freitas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil spills in oceans cause irreparable damage to marine life and harm the coastal populations of affected areas. It is therefore fundamental to develop treatment strategies for such spills. Currently, chemical dispersants have been used during oil spills, although these agents have been increasingly restricted due to their toxic potential. Thus, the aim of the present study was to formulate a biodegradable commercial biosurfactant for application as a dispersant. Biosurfactants are scientifically known biomolecules produced by microorganisms capable of allowing water-oil interaction. Thus, a biosurfactant was produced by the yeast Candida bombicola URM 3718 cultivated in industrial waste and formulated with the addition of a potassium sorbate preservative for fractionated sterilisation (tyndallisation and the combination of fluent vaporisation with the preservative. After formulation, samples were stored for 120 days, followed by surface tension, emulsification and oil dispersant tests in sea water. The results were promising for the biosurfactant formulated with the preservative, which demonstrated stability and an absence of toxicity in experiments with a marine indicator. The commercial biosurfactant was tested at different pH values, temperatures and in the presence of salt, demonstrating potential industrial application at a cost compatible with the environmental field. The formulation process developed in this research was patented in the Brazilian National Intellectual Property Institute (patent number BR1020140179631.

  2. A ternary phase-field model incorporating commercial CALPHAD software and its application to precipitation in superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Y.H.; Lill, J.V.; Chen, S.L.; Simmons, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    A ternary phase-field model was developed that is linked directly to commercial CALPHAD software to provide quantitative thermodynamic driving forces. A recently available diffusion mobility database for ordered phases is also implemented to give a better description of the diffusion behavior in alloys. Because the targeted application of this model is the study of precipitation in Ni-based superalloys, a Ni-Al-Cr model alloy was constructed. A detailed description of this model is given in the paper. We have considered the misfit effects of the partitioning of the two solute elements. Transformation rules of the dual representation of the γ+γ ' microstructure by CALPHAD and by the phase field are established and the link with commercial CALPHAD software is described. Proof-of-concept tests were performed to evaluate the model and the results demonstrate that the model can qualitatively reproduce observed γ ' precipitation behavior. Uphill diffusion of Al is observed in a few diffusion couples, showing the significant influence of Cr on the chemical potential of Al. Possible applications of this model are discussed.

  3. Continuous country-wide rainfall observation using a large network of commercial microwave links: Challenges, solutions and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwala, Christian; Boose, Yvonne; Smiatek, Gerhard; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Commercial microwave link (CML) networks have proven to be a valuable source for rainfall information over the last years. However, up to now, analysis of CML data was always limited to certain snapshots of data for historic periods due to limited data access. With the real-time availability of CML data in Germany (Chwala et al. 2016) this situation has improved significantly. We are continuously acquiring and processing data from 3000 CMLs in Germany in near real-time with one minute temporal resolution. Currently the data acquisition system is extended to 10000 CMLs so that the whole of Germany is covered and a continuous country-wide rainfall product can be provided. In this contribution we will elaborate on the challenges and solutions regarding data acquisition, data management and robust processing. We will present the details of our data acquisition system that we run operationally at the network of the CML operator Ericsson Germany to solve the problem of limited data availability. Furthermore we will explain the implementation of our data base, its web-frontend for easy data access and present our data processing algorithms. Finally we will showcase an application of our data in hydrological modeling and its potential usage to improve radar QPE. Bibliography: Chwala, C., Keis, F., and Kunstmann, H.: Real-time data acquisition of commercial microwave link networks for hydrometeorological applications, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 9, 991-999, doi:10.5194/amt-9-991-2016, 2016

  4. Modification of polysaccharides: Pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications with commercial utility (patents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Dubey, Susheel Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Polymer modifications open new era for the development of polymers with requisite properties. Use of modified polymers is practically boundless. Different studies focus on biomedical applications of chemically modified polysaccharides. Development and utilization of modified polysaccharides get attention to be used as carrier for pharmaceutical drug delivery as well as tissue engineering scaffolds. Grafted polymer shows better cellular regeneration, signal transmission, diagnostic and imaging material than putative form. This review article aims to discuss various approaches to modify naturally derived polymer and their applications as pharmaceutical drug carrier and as a material for wound dressing and artificial cartilage due to better biophysical cues. Manuscript included various patents based on the applications of modified polymers and techniques used to modify polymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Microencapsulated fuel technology for commercial light water and advanced reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrani, Kurt A.; Snead, Lance L.; Gehin, Jess C.

    2012-01-01

    The potential application of microencapsulated fuels to light water reactors (LWRs) has been explored. The specific fuel manifestation being put forward is for coated fuel particles embedded in silicon carbide or zirconium metal matrices. Detailed descriptions of these concepts are presented, along with a review of attributes, potential benefits, and issues with respect to their application in LWR environments, specifically from the standpoints of materials, neutronics, operations, and economics. Preliminary experiment and modeling results imply that with marginal redesign, significant gains in operational reliability and accident response margins could be potentially achieved by replacing conventional oxide-type LWR fuel with microencapsulated fuel forms.

  6. Decision support systems and applications in ophthalmology: literature and commercial review focused on mobile apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; Martínez-Pérez, Borja; López-Coronado, Miguel; Díaz, Javier Rodríguez; López, Miguel Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    The growing importance that mobile devices have in daily life has also reached health care and medicine. This is making the paradigm of health care change and the concept of mHealth or mobile health more relevant, whose main essence is the apps. This new reality makes it possible for doctors who are not specialist to have easy access to all the information generated in different corners of the world, making them potential keepers of that knowledge. However, the new daily information exceeds the limits of the human intellect, making Decision Support Systems (DSS) necessary for helping doctors to diagnose diseases and also help them to decide the attitude that has to be taken towards these diagnoses. These could improve the health care in remote areas and developing countries. All of this is even more important in diseases that are more prevalent in primary care and that directly affect the people's quality of life, this is the case in ophthalmological problems where in first patient care a specialist in ophthalmology is not involved. The goal of this paper is to analyse the state of the art of DSS in Ophthalmology. Many of them focused on diseases affecting the eye's posterior pole. For achieving the main purpose of this research work, a literature review and commercial apps analysis will be done. The used databases and systems will be IEEE Xplore, Web of Science (WoS), Scopus, and PubMed. The search is limited to articles published from 2000 until now. Later, different Mobile Decision Support System (MDSS) in Ophthalmology will be analyzed in the virtual stores for Android and iOS. 37 articles were selected according their thematic (posterior pole, anterior pole, Electronic Health Records (EHRs), cloud, data mining, algorithms and structures for DSS, and other) from a total of 600 found in the above cited databases. Very few mobile apps were found in the different stores. It can be concluded that almost all existing mobile apps are focused on the eye's posterior

  7. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Right-of-Way Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators who are engaged in right-of-way pest control to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. While the majority of material in this guide pertains to vegetation management, the guide also addresses right-of-way insect and fungus control. An introduction…

  8. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  9. Teaching Farmers and Commercial Pesticide Applicators about Invasive Species in Pesticide Training Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gary J.; Herzfeld, Dean; Haugen-Brown, Tana

    2015-01-01

    Farmers and agricultural professionals who are aware of species likely to invade agricultural landscapes can be active participants in efforts to detect invasive species. To reach this audience we created a short invasive species program and added it to the existing and required pesticide applicator recertification workshops. We highlighted four…

  10. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

  11. Commercial Radio as Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenbuhler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Compares the day-to-day work routines of commercial radio with the principles of a theoretical communication model. Illuminates peculiarities of the conduct of communication by commercial radio. Discusses the application of theoretical models to the evaluation of practicing institutions. Offers assessments of commercial radio deriving from…

  12. Application of high temperature ceramic superconductors (CSC) to commercial tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehst, D.A.; Kim, S.; Gohar, Y.; Turner, L.; Smith, D.L.; Mattas, R.

    1988-08-01

    Ceramic superconductors operating near liquid nitrogen temperature may experience higher heating rates without losing stability, compared conventional superconductors. This will permit cable design with less stabilizer, reducing fabrication costs for large fusion magnets. Magnet performance is studied for different operating current densities in the superconductor, and cost benefits to commercial tokamak reactors are estimated. It appears that 10 kA /center dot/ cm/sup /minus/2/ (at 77 K and /approximately/10 T) is a target current density which must be achieved in order for the ceramic superconductors to compete with conventional materials. At current densities around 50 kA /center dot/ cm/sup /minus/2/ most potential benefits have already been gained, as magnet structural steel begins to dominate the cost at this point. For a steady state reactor reductions of /approximately/7% are forecast for the overall capital cost of the power plant in the best case. An additional /approximately/3% cost saving is possible for pulsed tokamaks. 9 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs

  13. The Application of 40Ti-35Ni-25Nb Filler Foil in Brazing Commercially Pure Titanium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Bo Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The clad ternary 40Ti-35Ni-25Nb (wt % foil has been applied in brazing commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti. The wavelength dispersive spectroscope (WDS was utilized for quantitative chemical analyses of various phases/structures, and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD was used for crystallographic analyses in the brazed joint. The microstructure of brazed joint relies on the Nb and Ni distributions across the joint. For the β-Ti alloyed with high Nb and low Ni contents, the brazed zone (BZ, consisting of the stabilized β-Ti at room temperature. In contrast, eutectoid decomposition of the β-Ti into Ti2Ni and α-Ti is widely observed in the transition zone (TZ of the joint. Although average shear strengths of joints brazed at different temperatures are approximately the same level, their standard deviations decreased with increasing the brazing temperature. The presence of inherent brittle Ti2Ni intermetallics results in higher standard deviation in shear test. Because the Ni content is lowered in TZ at a higher brazing temperature, the amount of eutectoid is decreased in TZ. The fracture location is changed from TZ into BZ mixed with α and β-Ti.

  14. A closed loop wireless power transmission system using a commercial RFID transceiver for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Mehdi; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a standalone closed loop wireless power transmission system that is built around a commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) radio frequency identification (RFID) transceiver (MLX90121) operating at 13.56 MHz. It can be used for inductively powering implantable biomedical devices in a closed loop fashion. Any changes in the distance and misalignment between transmitter and receiver coils in near-field wireless power transmission can cause a significant change in the received power, which can cause either malfunction or excessive heat dissipation. RFID transceivers are often used open loop. However, their back telemetry capability can be utilized to stabilize the received voltage on the implant. Our measurements showed that the delivered power to the transponder was maintained at 1.48 mW over a range of 6 to 12 cm, while the transmitter power consumption changed from 0.3 W to 1.21 W. The closed loop system can also oppose voltage variations as a result of sudden changes in load current.

  15. Application of nonisothermal kinetic techniques on the reduction of three commercial iron ore agglomerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedolla, E.; Leon, C.A.; Aguilar, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    The mechanism of reduction of iron ore agglomerates by both isothermal and nonisothermal TG studies was investigated, and the work was complemented with the structural characterization of the total and partially reacted samples. Three different commercial hematite pellets were studied. The mechanisms of reduction were obtained under isothermal conditions, resulting in a fitting to chemical reaction models. Nonisothermal reduction was carried out using a TGA system (CAHN TG-171) from 600 to 1,000 degree centigree maintaining a lineal heating rate of 4,7 and 10 degree centigree/min, and the reducing atmospheres used were H 2 (100%) and H 2 -CO(95:5). The kinetic parameters were evaluated by Coats and Redfern, Dixit and Ray and Prakash and Ray techniques. It was found that the lower the heating rate, the higher the reduction degree and the higher activation energy. The activation energy for reduction with the mixture H 2 -CO was always higher than that obtained with pure H 2 . (Author)

  16. Characterization of commercial ceramic adsorbents and its application on naphthenic acids removal of petroleum distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Pereira Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of carboxylic acids present in petroleum oil and directly responsible for its acidity and corrosiveness in liquid phase during the refine process is denominated "naphthenic acids". These acids are also present in distilled fraction of petroleum, causing several problems in final products quality. A possible way to remove the carboxilic acids from petroleum distilled fractions is the adsorption in porous materials. However, the results obtained until now indicate that ion exchange resins would be the best adsorbents for this process, which would probably increase its cost. In this work, two commercial adsorbents (clay and activated alumina were characterized by a set of physical-chemistry techniques and evaluated concerning their capacity of removing naphthenic acids from a light petroleum fraction. It was verified the influence of a thermal treatment previous to the adsorption in its physical-chemistry characteristics and its properties. A high reduction of the TAN values was verified in the residual oils from both adsorbent, although there was a competition among all the compounds present in the light oil fraction for the adsorption sites, which can be probably related to the thermal pre-treatment. These results were related to corrosion yield experiments, and it was observed that the adsorbent pretreatment also affected the reduction in corrosion yields for both alumina and clay.

  17. EXAMINATION OF THE THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF THE RESIDENTIAL COMMERCIAL SECTOR: AN APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Utlu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy utilization of a country can be evaluated using exergy analysis, which is a way to a sustainable development, to gain insights into its efficiency. The authors have conducted various studies on analyzing the energy utilization efficiencies of Turkey and extend here these studies by dealing with the investigation of the thermodynamic parameters in the Turkish residential-commercial sector (TRCS. The thermodynamic parameters considered are as follows: (i fuel depletion rate, (ii relative irreversibility, (iii productivity lack, and (iv exergetic factor. These parameters are determined for the components of the TRCS in an attempt to assess their individual performances and are also compared to each other, while the analysis is done based on the actual data. The present study has clearly indicated the necessity of the planned studies towards increasing exergy efficiencies in the sector studied and especially the critical role of policymakers in establishing effective energyefficiency delivery mechanisms throughout the country. It may be concluded that the current methodology is useful for analyzing the sectoral energy and exergy utilization, giving energy saving opportunities.

  18. Application of high-resolution melting analysis for authenticity testing of valuable Dendrobium commercial products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoman; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Peng, Daiyin; Luo, Yuqin; Zhao, Yuyang; Huang, Luqi

    2018-01-01

    The accurate identification of botanical origin in commercial products is important to ensure food authenticity and safety for consumers. The Dendrobium species have long been commercialised as functional food supplements and herbal medicines in Asia. Three valuable Dendrobium species, namely Dendrobium officinale, D. huoshanense and D. moniliforme, are often mutually adulterated in trade products in pursuit of higher profit. In this paper, a rapid and reliable semi-quantitative method for identifying the botanical origin of Dendrobium products in terminal markets was developed using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis with specific primer pairs to target the trnL-F region. The HRM analysis method detected amounts of D. moniliforme adulterants as low as 1% in D. huoshanense or D. officinale products. The results have demonstrated that HRM analysis is a fast and effective tool for the differentiation of these Dendrobium species both for their authenticity as well as for the semi-quantitative determination of the purity of their processed products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography of lipophilic compounds with application to synthetic and commercial biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf-Khorassani, M; Yang, J; Rainville, P; Jones, M D; Fountain, K J; Isaac, G; Taylor, L T

    2015-03-01

    Ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) in combination with sub-2μm particles and either diode array ultraviolet (UV), evaporative light scattering, (ELSD), or mass spectrometric (MS) detection has been shown to be a valuable technique for the determination of acylglycerols in soybean, corn, sesame, and tobacco seed oils. Excellent resolution on an un-endcapped single C18 column (3.0mm×150mm) with a mobile phase gradient of acetonitrile and carbon dioxide in as little as 10min served greatly as an improvement on first generation packed column SFC instrumentation. Unlike high resolution gas chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection, UHPSFC/MS was determined to be a superior analytical tool for both separation and detection of mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerols as well as free glycerol itself in biodiesel without derivatization. Baseline separation of residual tri-, di-, and mono-acylglycerols alongside glycerol at 0.05% (w/w) was easily obtained employing packed column SFC. The new analytical methodology was applied to both commercial B100 biodiesel (i.e. fatty acid methyl esters) derived from vegetable oil and to an "in-house" synthetic biodiesel (i.e. fatty acid ethyl esters) derived from tobacco seed oil and ethanol both before and after purification via column chromatography on bare silica. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reverse Engineering and Security Evaluation of Commercial Tags for RFID-Based IoT Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis

    2016-12-24

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics) and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine the origin of the data and to automatically detect the elements around us. One of the best positioned technologies to perform identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), which in the last years has gained a lot of popularity in applications like access control, payment cards or logistics. Despite its popularity, RFID security has not been properly handled in numerous applications. To foster security in such applications, this article includes three main contributions. First, in order to establish the basics, a detailed review of the most common flaws found in RFID-based IoT systems is provided, including the latest attacks described in the literature. Second, a novel methodology that eases the detection and mitigation of such flaws is presented. Third, the latest RFID security tools are analyzed and the methodology proposed is applied through one of them (Proxmark 3) to validate it. Thus, the methodology is tested in different scenarios where tags are commonly used for identification. In such systems it was possible to clone transponders, extract information, and even emulate both tags and readers. Therefore, it is shown that the methodology proposed is useful for auditing security and reverse engineering RFID communications in IoT applications. It must be noted that, although this paper is aimed at fostering RFID communications security in IoT applications, the methodology can be applied to any RFID communications protocol.

  1. Reverse Engineering and Security Evaluation of Commercial Tags for RFID-Based IoT Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago M. Fernández-Caramés

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine the origin of the data and to automatically detect the elements around us. One of the best positioned technologies to perform identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification, which in the last years has gained a lot of popularity in applications like access control, payment cards or logistics. Despite its popularity, RFID security has not been properly handled in numerous applications. To foster security in such applications, this article includes three main contributions. First, in order to establish the basics, a detailed review of the most common flaws found in RFID-based IoT systems is provided, including the latest attacks described in the literature. Second, a novel methodology that eases the detection and mitigation of such flaws is presented. Third, the latest RFID security tools are analyzed and the methodology proposed is applied through one of them (Proxmark 3 to validate it. Thus, the methodology is tested in different scenarios where tags are commonly used for identification. In such systems it was possible to clone transponders, extract information, and even emulate both tags and readers. Therefore, it is shown that the methodology proposed is useful for auditing security and reverse engineering RFID communications in IoT applications. It must be noted that, although this paper is aimed at fostering RFID communications security in IoT applications, the methodology can be applied to any RFID communications protocol.

  2. Reverse Engineering and Security Evaluation of Commercial Tags for RFID-Based IoT Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caramés, Tiago M.; Fraga-Lamas, Paula; Suárez-Albela, Manuel; Castedo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) is a distributed system of physical objects that requires the seamless integration of hardware (e.g., sensors, actuators, electronics) and network communications in order to collect and exchange data. IoT smart objects need to be somehow identified to determine the origin of the data and to automatically detect the elements around us. One of the best positioned technologies to perform identification is RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), which in the last years has gained a lot of popularity in applications like access control, payment cards or logistics. Despite its popularity, RFID security has not been properly handled in numerous applications. To foster security in such applications, this article includes three main contributions. First, in order to establish the basics, a detailed review of the most common flaws found in RFID-based IoT systems is provided, including the latest attacks described in the literature. Second, a novel methodology that eases the detection and mitigation of such flaws is presented. Third, the latest RFID security tools are analyzed and the methodology proposed is applied through one of them (Proxmark 3) to validate it. Thus, the methodology is tested in different scenarios where tags are commonly used for identification. In such systems it was possible to clone transponders, extract information, and even emulate both tags and readers. Therefore, it is shown that the methodology proposed is useful for auditing security and reverse engineering RFID communications in IoT applications. It must be noted that, although this paper is aimed at fostering RFID communications security in IoT applications, the methodology can be applied to any RFID communications protocol. PMID:28029119

  3. Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting The Business Operating Model and How-To Manual for 450 Specific Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Maasberg, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting is the first proprietary manual for cleaning and rehabilitation through pressure-washing, hydro-blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting (UHP).   It examines the cleaning, restoration and rehabilitation of statuary and historical structures; manufacturing hardware; and application technologies for residential, commercial and industrial areas, structures and buildings. Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting contains over 450 applications from agricultural, marine, municipal, food processing, paper-pulp, pharmaceutical and cosmetic, industrial and power generating maintenance areas. It includes gear lists to help readers easily identify the appropriate tooling and equipment for each specific application and industry.   Commercial-Industrial Cleaning, by Pressure-Washing, Hydro-Blasting and UHP-Jetting supplies readers with the tools to create a successful business model for re...

  4. A B2C Digital Media Marketing Communications Plan for a Mobile Application Commercial Launch

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The thesis focuses on a B2C Digital Marketing Communications plan on a mobile gamification application. The marketing communications plan takes a clear step away from the traditional views on marketing planning and PR, above all because of the evolvement of social media and the massive cultural shift that has deeply affected the way societies use the most widely spread communications platform ever invented, the Internet. The project for which the marketing communications plan is made, is ...

  5. A weight loss intervention using a commercial mobile application in Latino Americans-Adelgaza Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Vittinghoff, Eric; Hooper, Julie

    2018-02-21

    More than half of Latino adults living in the USA are expected to develop type 2 diabetes in their lifetime. Despite the growing interest in smartphone use for weight loss and diabetes prevention, relatively few clinical trials have evaluated the efficacy of mobile app-based interventions in Latino populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of an in-person weight loss intervention in conjunction with a commercially available Fitbit app in a Latino sample at risk for type 2 diabetes and explore significant predictors associated with weight loss. After the run-in period, 54 self-identified Latinos with body mass index (BMI) > 24.9 kg/m2 were enrolled in an 8-week uncontrolled pilot study, and received a Fitbit Zip, its app, and two in-person weight loss sessions adapted from the Diabetes Prevention Program. Mean age was 45.3 (SD ± 10.8) years, 61.1% were born in the USA, and mean BMI was 31.4 (SD ± 4.1) kg/m2. Participants lost an average of 3.3 (SD ± 3.4) % of their body weight (p < .0005). We also observed statistically significant reductions in hip and waist circumferences, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (p < .001). After controlling for demographic factors, use of the mobile app weight diary at least twice a week (p = .01) and change in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire score (p = .03) were associated with change in percent body weight. The intervention showed the potential efficacy of this intervention, which should be formally evaluated in a randomized controlled trial.

  6. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 2 - Forest Pest Control. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, W. A., Comp.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. Each of the eight chapters deals with a different aspect of pesticide use. Chapter one discusses the problems of use as it relates to safety of humans and the environment. Chapter two is concerned with the identification and diagnosis of…

  7. Status and development of nuclear techniques for commercial application in Sichuan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hao; Pan Pingchuan; Chen Zhuping; Zhu Yun; Chao Xiaochuan

    2001-01-01

    This article presents information on fields of radiation techniques in Sichuan and their potential development in future. Sichuan is one of biggest provinces and is a center of economy and art in the southwest of China. Research of nuclear technology began from 1960. The studies at the beginning had focused on agriculture, radiation chemistry industry and radiation medicine. Over the past 30 years, nuclear techniques are used in a wide range of applications, from food preservation to crosslinking. They play an increasingly valuable and often unique role in Sichuan economy. (J.P.N.)

  8. Status and development of nuclear techniques for commercial application in Sichuan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hao; Pan Pingchuan; Chen Zhuping; Zhu Yun; Chao Xiaochuan [Sichuan Province Institute of Nuclear Technology Application, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2001-03-01

    This article presents information on fields of radiation techniques in Sichuan and their potential development in future. Sichuan is one of biggest provinces and is a center of economy and art in the southwest of China. Research of nuclear technology began from 1960. The studies at the beginning had focused on agriculture, radiation chemistry industry and radiation medicine. Over the past 30 years, nuclear techniques are used in a wide range of applications, from food preservation to crosslinking. They play an increasingly valuable and often unique role in Sichuan economy. (J.P.N.)

  9. Surface-treated commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications: Electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Erika S.; Matos, Adaias O.; Beline, Thamara; Marques, Isabella S.V.; Sukotjo, Cortino; Mathew, Mathew T.; Rangel, Elidiane C.; Cruz, Nilson C.; Mesquita, Marcelo F.; Consani, Rafael X.

    2016-01-01

    Modified surfaces have improved the biological performance and biomechanical fixation of dental implants compared to machined (polished) surfaces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the surface properties of titanium (Ti) as a function of different surface treatment. This study investigated the role of surface treatments on the electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical properties of commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti) under different electrolytes. Cp-Ti discs were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): machined (M—control); etched with HCl + H_2O_2 (Cl), H_2SO_4 + H_2O_2 (S); sandblasted with Al_2O_3 (Sb), Al_2O_3 followed by HCl + H_2O_2 (SbCl), and Al_2O_3 followed by H_2SO_4 + H_2O_2 (SbS). Electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs 3; 6.5 and 9) and simulated body fluid (SBF—pH 7.4). All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. The results indicated that Cl group exhibited the highest polarization resistance (R_p) and the lowest capacitance (Q) and corrosion current density (I_c_o_r_r) values. Reduced corrosion stability was noted for the sandblasted groups. Acidic artificial saliva decreased the R_p values of cp-Ti surfaces and produced the highest I_c_o_r_r values. Also, the surface treatment and corrosion process influenced the surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. Based on these results, it can be concluded that acid-etching treatment improved the electrochemical stability of cp-Ti and all treated surfaces behaved negatively in acidic artificial saliva. - Highlights: • Characterization of surface treatment for biomedical implants was investigated. • Sandblasting reduced the corrosion stability of cp-Ti. • Acid etching is a promising dental implants surface treatment.

  10. Surface-treated commercially pure titanium for biomedical applications: Electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogawa, Erika S.; Matos, Adaias O.; Beline, Thamara [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); IBTN/Br—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine—Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Marques, Isabella S.V. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); Sukotjo, Cortino [Department of Restorative Dentistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Dentistry, 801 S Paulina, Chicago, IL, USA, 60612 (United States); IBTN—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Mathew, Mathew T. [IBTN—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois, College of Medicine at Rockford, 1601 Parkview Avenue, Rockford, IL, USA, 61107 (United States); Rangel, Elidiane C.; Cruz, Nilson C. [IBTN/Br—Institute of Biomaterials, Tribocorrosion and Nanomedicine—Brazilian Branch (Brazil); Laboratory of Technological Plasmas, Engineering College, Univ Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Av Três de Março, 511, Sorocaba, São Paulo 18087-180 (Brazil); Mesquita, Marcelo F.; Consani, Rafael X. [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Av Limeira, 901, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13414-903 (Brazil); and others

    2016-08-01

    Modified surfaces have improved the biological performance and biomechanical fixation of dental implants compared to machined (polished) surfaces. However, there is a lack of knowledge about the surface properties of titanium (Ti) as a function of different surface treatment. This study investigated the role of surface treatments on the electrochemical, structural, mechanical and chemical properties of commercial pure titanium (cp-Ti) under different electrolytes. Cp-Ti discs were divided into 6 groups (n = 5): machined (M—control); etched with HCl + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (Cl), H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (S); sandblasted with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Sb), Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by HCl + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (SbCl), and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} followed by H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2} (SbS). Electrochemical tests were conducted in artificial saliva (pHs 3; 6.5 and 9) and simulated body fluid (SBF—pH 7.4). All surfaces were characterized before and after corrosion tests using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive microscopy, X-ray diffraction, surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. The results indicated that Cl group exhibited the highest polarization resistance (R{sub p}) and the lowest capacitance (Q) and corrosion current density (I{sub corr}) values. Reduced corrosion stability was noted for the sandblasted groups. Acidic artificial saliva decreased the R{sub p} values of cp-Ti surfaces and produced the highest I{sub corr} values. Also, the surface treatment and corrosion process influenced the surface roughness, Vickers microhardness and surface free energy. Based on these results, it can be concluded that acid-etching treatment improved the electrochemical stability of cp-Ti and all treated surfaces behaved negatively in acidic artificial saliva. - Highlights: • Characterization of surface treatment for biomedical implants was investigated. • Sandblasting reduced the corrosion stability of cp

  11. Risk mitigation process for utilization of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts in CCD camera for military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anees; Batcheldor, Scott; Cannon, Steven C.; Roberts, Thomas E.

    2002-09-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned during the design and development of a high performance cooled CCD camera for military applications utilizing common commercial off the shelf (COTS) parts. Our experience showed that concurrent evaluation and testing of high risk COTS must be performed to assess their performance over the required temperature range and other special product requirements such as fuel vapor compatibility, EMI and shock susceptibility, etc. Technical, cost and schedule risks for COTS parts must also be carefully evaluated. The customer must be involved in the selection and evaluation of such parts so that the performance limitations of the selected parts are clearly understood. It is equally important to check with vendors on the availability and obsolescence of the COTS parts being considered since the electronic components are often replaced by newer, better and cheaper models in a couple of years. In summary, this paper addresses the major benefits and risks associated with using commercial and industrial parts in military products, and suggests a risk mitigation approach to ensure a smooth development phase, and predictable performance from the end product.

  12. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of ODS Ferritic Steels Using Commercial Alloy Powders for High Temperature Service Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Choi, Byoung-Kwon; Kang, Suk Hoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Oxide dispersion strengthening (ODS) is one of the promising ways to improve the mechanical property at high temperatures. This is mainly attributed to uniformly distributed nano-oxide particle with a high density, which is extremely stable at the high temperature and acts as effective obstacles when the dislocations are moving. In this study, as a preliminary examination to develop the advanced structural materials for high temperature service applications, ODS ferritic steels were fabricated using commercial alloy powders and their microstructural and mechanical properties were investigated. In this study, ODS ferritic steels were fabricated using commercial stainless steel 430L powder and their microstructures and mechanical properties were investigated. Morphology of micro-grains and oxide particles were significantly changed by the addition of minor alloying elements such as Ti, Zr, and Hf. The ODS ferritic steel with Zr and Hf additions showed ultra-fine grains with fine complex oxide particles. The oxide particles were uniformly located in grains and on the grain boundaries. This led to higher hardness than ODS ferritic steel with Ti addition.

  13. Disruption of the yeast ATH1 gene confers better survival after dehydration, freezing, and ethanol shock: potential commercial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Alizadeh, P; Harding, T; Hefner-Gravink, A; Klionsky, D J

    1996-01-01

    The accumulation of trehalose is a critical determinant of stress resistance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have constructed a yeast strain in which the activity of the trehalose-hydrolyzing enzyme, acid trehalase (ATH), has been abolished. Loss of ATH activity was accomplished by disrupting the ATH1 gene, which is essential for ATH activity. The delta ath1 strain accumulated greater levels of cellular trehalose and grew to a higher cell density than the isogenic wild-type strain. In addition, the elevated levels of trehalose in the delta ath1 strain correlated with increased tolerance to dehydration, freezing, and toxic levels of ethanol. The improved resistance to stress conditions exhibited by the delta ath1 strain may make this strain useful in commercial applications, including baking and brewing. PMID:8633854

  14. Commercializing potassium terbium fluoride, KTF (KTb3F10) faraday crystals for high laser power optical isolator applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Wolfgang; Stevens, Kevin; Foundos, Greg; Payne, Alexis

    2017-10-01

    Many scientific lasers and increasingly industrial laser systems operate in manufacture. However, for high-power laser applications TGG is limited by its absorption at 1064nm and its thermo-optic coefficient, dn/dT. Specifically, thermal lensing and depolarization effects become a limiting factor at high laser powers. While TGG absorption has improved significantly over the past few years, there is an intrinsic limit. Now, SYNOPTICS is commercializing the enhanced new crystal Potassium Terbium Fluoride KTF (KTb3F10) that exhibits much smaller nonlinear refractive index and thermo-optic coefficients, and still exhibits a Verdet constant near that of TGG. This cubic crystal has relatively low absorption and thermo-optic coefficients. It is now fully characterized and available for select production orders. At OPTIFAB in October 2017 we present recent results comparing the performance of KTF to TGG in optical isolators and show SYNOPTICS advances in large volume crystal growth and the production ramp up.

  15. Robust Clamping Force Control of an Electro-Mechanical Brake System for Application to Commercial City Buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangjune Eum

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a sensor-less robust force control method for improving the control performance of an electro-mechanical brake (EMB which is applicable to commercial city buses. The EMB generates the accurate clamping force commanded by a driver through an independent motor control at each wheel instead of using existing mechanical components. In general, an EMB undergoes parameter variation and a backdrivability problem. For this reason, the cascade control strategy (e.g., force-position cascade control structure is proposed and the disturbance observer is employed to enhance control robustness against model variations. Additionally, this paper proposed the clamping force estimation method for a sensor-less control, i.e., the clamping force observer (CFO. Finally, in order to confirm the performance and effectiveness of a proposed robust control method, several experiments are performed and analyzed.

  16. Application of commercial sensor manufacturing methods for NOx/NH3 mixed potential sensors for emissions control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Mark A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sekhar, Praveen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Williamson, Todd [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Garzon, Fernando H [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a low cost on-board Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x})/Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) sensor that can not only be used for emissions control but has the potential to improve efficiency through better monitoring of the combustion process and feedback control in both vehicle and stationary systems. Over the past decade, Los AJamos National Laboratory (LANL) has developed a unique class of electrochemical gas sensors for the detection of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen and nitrogen oxides. These sensors are based on the mixed-potential phenomenon and are a modification of the existing automotive lambda (oxygen) sensor and have the potential to meet the stringent sensitivity, selectivity and stability requirements of an on-board emissions/engine control sensor system. The current state of the art LANL technology is based on the stabilization of the electrochemical interfaces and relies on an externally heated, hand-made, tape cast device. We are now poised to apply our patented sensing principles in a mass production sensor platform that is more suitable for real world engine-out testing such as on dynamometers for vehicle applications and for exhaust-out testing in heavy boilers/SCR systems in power plants. In this present work, our goal is to advance towards commercialization of this technology by packaging the unique LANL sensor design in a standard automotive sensor-type platform. This work is being performed with the help of a leading US technical ceramics firm, utilizing commercial manufacturing techniques. Initial tape cast platforms with screen printed metal oxide and Pt sensor electrodes have shown promising results but also clearly show the need for us to optimize the electrode and electrolyte compositions/morphologies and interfaces of these devices in order to demonstrate a sensitive, selective, and stable NO{sub x} sensor. Our previous methods and routes to preparing stable and reproducible mixed potential sensors

  17. Health Information Technologies-Academic and Commercial Evaluation (HIT-ACE) methodology: description and application to clinical feedback systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Aaron R; Lewis, Cara C; Melvin, Abigail; Boyd, Meredith; Nicodimos, Semret; Liu, Freda F; Jungbluth, Nathaniel

    2016-09-22

    Health information technologies (HIT) have become nearly ubiquitous in the contemporary healthcare landscape, but information about HIT development, functionality, and implementation readiness is frequently siloed. Theory-driven methods of compiling, evaluating, and integrating information from the academic and commercial sectors are necessary to guide stakeholder decision-making surrounding HIT adoption and to develop pragmatic HIT research agendas. This article presents the Health Information Technologies-Academic and Commercial Evaluation (HIT-ACE) methodology, a structured, theory-driven method for compiling and evaluating information from multiple sectors. As an example demonstration of the methodology, we apply HIT-ACE to mental and behavioral health measurement feedback systems (MFS). MFS are a specific class of HIT that support the implementation of routine outcome monitoring, an evidence-based practice. HIT-ACE is guided by theories and frameworks related to user-centered design and implementation science. The methodology involves four phases: (1) coding academic and commercial materials, (2) developer/purveyor interviews, (3) linking putative implementation mechanisms to hit capabilities, and (4) experimental testing of capabilities and mechanisms. In the current demonstration, phase 1 included a systematic process to identify MFS in mental and behavioral health using academic literature and commercial websites. Using user-centered design, implementation science, and feedback frameworks, the HIT-ACE coding system was developed, piloted, and used to review each identified system for the presence of 38 capabilities and 18 additional characteristics via a consensus coding process. Bibliometic data were also collected to examine the representation of the systems in the scientific literature. As an example, results are presented for the application of HIT-ACE phase 1 to MFS wherein 49 separate MFS were identified, reflecting a diverse array of characteristics

  18. Applications of commercial liquid scintillation counters to radon-222 and radium-226 analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Prichard, H.M.; Haygood, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The ubiquitous commerical liquid scintillation counter offers automatic sample processing, automatic data recording and the prospect of multiple users. With these features in mind we have explored a number of applications of liquid scintillation counters to environmental and health physics problems. One application, the analysis of radon in water has been described elsewhere and is only briefly reviewed. A method for measuring radon in air, two methods for measuring radium in water, and a technique for leak testing radium needles have also been investigated. An ordinary glass scintillation vial is readily converted into a miniature scintillation flask by coating the inside surface with a thin layer in ZnS:Ag phosphor. The lower limit detection is high, about 2 pCi/1 for a 1 hour count, but these flasks have proved to be useful in situations where a larger number of samples must be taken in environments with relatively high levels of radon. One technique for the detection of radium in water uses liquid-liquid extraction to concentrate radon into an organic scintillation fluid, the other involves passing the water sample through an ion exchange resin and then sealing the resin and scintillation fluid in a vial. Both techniques offer the prospect of easy and inexpensive analyses with limits of detection at or below 0.5 pCi/1. Radium needles can be leak tested by placing them in vials containing toluene for a few minutes, adding fluor to the toluene and counting. Preliminary data regarding these several methods are given

  19. DECREASE Final Technical Report: Development of a Commercial Ready Enzyme Application System for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, Sarah A

    2012-04-18

    .5 kg kettle reactors) was performed to compare the starting enzyme mixture CZP00005 with CTec3 alone; these results indicated a 1.9X dose- reduction for 80% conversion. The CTec3 composition does not include the best available enzyme components from the DECREASE effort. While these components are not yet available in a commercial product, experimental mixtures were assayed in a smaller scale assay using DECREASE PCS, at high solids loadings (21.5% TS). The results indicated that the newer mixtures required 2.9X-less enzyme for 90% conversion, and 3.2X-less enzyme for 80% conversion, relative to the starting enzyme cocktail. In conclusion, CTec3 delivers a 1.8-1.9X dose reduction on NREL PCS at high solids loadings, and the next generation enzyme from Novozymes will continue to show dramatically improved biochemical performance. CTec3 allows reduced costs today, and the experimental cocktails point to continued biotechnological improvements that will further drive down costs for biorefineries of tomorrow.

  20. Optimization of a hybrid electric power system design for large commercial buildings: An application design guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keun

    Renewable energy in different forms has been used in various applications for survival since the beginning of human existence. However, there is a new dire need to reevaluate and recalibrate the overall energy issue both nationally and globally. This includes, but is not limited to, the finite availability of fossil fuel, energy sustainability with an increasing demand, escalating energy costs, environmental impact such as global warming and green-house gases, to name a few. This dissertation is primarily focused and related to the production and usage of electricity from non-hydro renewable sources. Among non-hydro renewable energy sources, electricity generation from wind and solar energy are the fastest-growing technologies in the United States and in the world. However, due to the intermittent nature of such renewable sources, energy storage devices are required to maintain proper operation of the grid system and in order to increase reliability. A hybrid system, as the name suggests, is a combination of different forms of non-renewable and renewable energy generation, with or without storage devices. Hybrid systems, when applied properly, are able to improve reliability and enhance stability, reduce emissions and noise pollution, provide continuous power, increase operation life, reduce cost, and efficiently use all available energy. In the United States (U.S.), buildings consume approximately 40% of the total primary energy and 74% of the total electricity. Therefore, reduction of energy consumption and improved energy efficiency in U.S. buildings will play a vital role in the overall energy picture. Electrical energy usage for any such building varies widely depending on age (construction technique), electricity and natural gas usage, appearance, location and climate. In this research, a hybrid system including non-renewable and renewable energy generation with storage devices specifically for building applications, is studied in detail. This research deals

  1. Progress and profit through microtechnologies: commercial applications of MEMS/MOEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrfeld, Ursula

    2001-09-01

    Micro technology deals with miniaturization and integration in all areas of technology outside of microelectronics like micro mechanics, micro optics, micro acoustics, micro fluid technology, micro reaction technology and further disciplines which are focused on technical components and systems with characteristic dimensions in the micrometer range. Within a period of about ten years a multi-billion dollar market has been set up with many products for daily life. The growth rate of the market of micro technology will remain on a high level for the years to come. Mega trends resulting from fundamental human wishes for health, information, mobility and sustainable development are creating a further growing basis for micro technical products. A broad spectrum of production processes and materials has been developed to meet the requirements of a strongly diversified range of applications. For the development of new components and systems the importance of software tools for simulation of functional properties, production processes and comprehensive optimization is growing rapidly. Micro devices are meanwhile used extensively in information, automotive, and medical technologies. In addition, micro technology is generating a completely novel basis for chemical engineering, life sciences, industrial automation and optical communication, to mention only a few disciplines where future innovation will be dominated by miniaturization.

  2. The potential for increasing the use of catalytic carbons in commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    A carbon catalyst, prepared either by oxidizing activated carbon with air at 500-700??C or by oxidizing activated carbon with boiling nitric acid followed by heating it to 500-700??C, is the subject of this paper. This catalyst, designated OAC500-700, catalyzes the removal of hydrogen chloride from alkyl halides. Because OAC500-700 retains adsorptive properties of an activated carbon it can be used both to adsorb pollutants from liquid or gaseous streams and to convert them to recyclable products. A highly-developed micropore structure is not required for all uses of activated carbon or a catalyst produced from it. A comparatively inexpensive ($325/ton projected) low surface area (gas. This grade of activated carbon is widely used in Europe for flue gas cleaning and for other applications. Activated carbon adsorbers of some type are required by recently passed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations for municipal waste combustors to control emission of cadmium, mercury, lead, dioxins, furans and acid gases (U.S. EPA, 1995). Similar regulations are expected for hospital and hazardous waste incinerators. The marketing of less costly activated carbons of the type used widely in Europe is expected in the United States. Low cost OAC500-700 made from less expensive grades of activated carbon may become available for large scale adsorbent/catalyst systems designed to both remove and decompose toxic pollutants found in liquid and gaseous streams, chlorinated organic compounds in particular.

  3. Commercial lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent A. McDonald; David E. Kretschmann

    1999-01-01

    In a broad sense, commercial lumber is any lumber that is bought or sold in the normal channels of commerce. Commercial lumber may be found in a variety of forms, species, and types, and in various commercial establishments, both wholesale and retail. Most commercial lumber is graded by standardized rules that make purchasing more or less uniform throughout the country...

  4. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

  5. Field approach to mining-dump revegetation by application of sewage sludge co-compost and a commercial biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla-Perea, A; Mingorance, M D

    2015-08-01

    An approach was devised for revegetation of a mining dump soil, sited in a semiarid region, with basic pH as well as Fe and Mn enrichment. A field experiment was conducted involving the use of co-compost (a mixture of urban sewage sludge and plant remains) along with a commercial biofertilizer (a gel suspension which contains arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus) to reinforce the benefits of the former. Four treatments were studied: unamended soil; application of conditioners separately and in combination. Pistachio, caper, rosemary, thyme and juniper were planted. We evaluated the effects of the treatments using soil quality (physicochemical properties, total content of hazardous elements, nutrient availability, microbial biomass and enzyme activities) and plant establishment indicators (survival, growth, vigor, nutrient content in leaves, nutrient balances and mycorrhizal root colonization). Thyme and juniper did not show a suitable survival rate (biofertilizer + co-compost > co-compost > biofertilizer > unamended. The application of co-compost was therefore essential with regard to improving soil fertility; furthermore, it increased leaf N and P content, whereas leaf Fe and Mn concentrations showed a decrease. The combined treatment, however, provided the best results. The positive interaction between the two soil conditioners might be related to the capacity of the biofertilizer to increase nutrient uptake from the composted residue, and to protect plants against Fe and Mn toxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A hybrid life cycle assessment of the vehicle-to-grid application in light duty commercial fleet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yang; Tatari, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The vehicle-to-grid system is an approach utilizing the idle battery capacity of electric vehicles while they are parked to provide supplementary energy to the power grid. As electrification continues in light duty vehicle fleets, the application of vehicle-to-grid systems for commercial delivery truck fleets can provide extra revenue for fleet owners, and also has significant potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity generation sector. In this study, an economic input–output based hybrid life cycle assessment is conducted to analyze the potential greenhouse gas emissions emission savings from the use of the vehicle-to-grid system, as well as the possible emission impacts caused by battery degradation. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to address the uncertainties that lie in the electricity exchange amount of the vehicle-to-grid service as well as the battery life of the electric vehicles. The results of this study showed that extended range electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles are both viable regulation service providers for saving greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation if the battery wear-out from regulation services is assumed to be minimal, but the vehicle-to-grid system becomes less attractive at higher battery degradation levels. - Highlights: • The commercial delivery trucks are studied as vehicle-to-grid service providers. • Hybrid life cycle assessment is conducted to evaluate emission mitigation. • Battery degradation level and corresponding emissions and cost are evaluated. • Vehicle-to-grid service is shown to have significant emission saving effect.

  7. Commercial application of freezing-irradiation combination process for pasteurization of two specific batches of cooked, peeled shrimps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P.A.

    1981-01-01

    In 1978 microbiological standards for pre-cooked, peeled frozen shrimps imported into Australia were abruptly amended and made more stringent. Large consignments of shrimps failed to meet the new specifications and were placed in quarantine on arrival. Two importers affected by the change in policy obtained permission to investigate the feasibility of using ionizing radiation to reduce to an acceptable level the microbial load on two batches of frozen shrimps. Trial irradiations established that doses of 6 or 8 kGy (600 or 800 krad) reduced microbial levels at least 100-fold, thus enabling these batches to meet the new microbiological standard. Applications to State regulatory authorities resulted in approvals being granted to the importers to irradiate: (1) in New South Wales 47 tonnes of imported frozen shrimps at 6 kGy, using the Research Establishment's facilities; and (2) in Victoria 14.3 tonnes at 8 kGy using ICI Australia Operations Pty Ltd's commercial radiation plant at Dandenong. Approvals applied solely to these two batches and marketing of the irradiated shrimps were confined to the State in which they were irradiated. The microbiological basis for the choice of dose, dosimetry, technology, legal aspects, economics and public acceptance of this first limited commercial use in Australia of radiation for food preservation are described. It is suggested that in standards for irradiation of specific foods, dose limits should be flexible enough to take into account the relationships between the physical state of food, temperature during irradiation, the extent of chemical change likely to occur at that temperature, and the dose required to produce the desired microbiological effect. (author)

  8. Do-It-Yourself: A Special Library's Approach to Creating Dynamic Web Pages Using Commercial Off-The-Shelf Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeman, Gerald; Connell, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Many librarians may feel that dynamic Web pages are out of their reach, financially and technically. Yet we are reminded in library and Web design literature that static home pages are a thing of the past. This paper describes how librarians at the Institute for Defense Analyses (IDA) library developed a database-driven, dynamic intranet site using commercial off-the-shelf applications. Administrative issues include surveying a library users group for interest and needs evaluation; outlining metadata elements; and, committing resources from managing time to populate the database and training in Microsoft FrontPage and Web-to-database design. Technical issues covered include Microsoft Access database fundamentals, lessons learned in the Web-to-database process (including setting up Database Source Names (DSNs), redesigning queries to accommodate the Web interface, and understanding Access 97 query language vs. Standard Query Language (SQL)). This paper also offers tips on editing Active Server Pages (ASP) scripting to create desired results. A how-to annotated resource list closes out the paper.

  9. Application of the neutron irradiator with AmBe sources for inorganic elements in commercial fertilizers determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi Filho, Tufic; Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre; Fulas, Paulo Marcelo Marangon; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; Trevizam, Anderson Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    The rational use of fertilizers, for the soil fertility correction, contributes to the increase of agricultural production, using the same areas previously available. The quality of products could be improved with reduced costs. Therefore, knowledge of the chemical characteristics of the correctives used is required to streamline the application and avoid excesses or deficiencies. The studied characteristics are generally limited to the essential nutrients for the nutrition of plants and animals, e.g.: Mn, Zn, P, K, Cu and those known toxic, such as: As, Cd, Hg and Pb. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a highly sensitive non destructive technique, for the determination of the elemental composition in samples. It has been particularly useful in the simultaneous determination of inorganic elements in complex samples of several kinds. Several analysis methods for activation are used, such as: comparative and absolute. Commercial fertilizers were analyzed applying the absolute and comparative methods. Using the absolute method, samples were submitted to neutron flux generated by an Irradiator with two AmBe sources. The obtained results were compared with those obtained by the comparative method using neutrons generated in the IEA-R1 Reactor. (author)

  10. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the production of cut flower roses under commercial-like conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmendia, I.; Mangas, V. J.

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to study the influence of two arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) Glomus mosseae (Nicol. and Gerd.) Gerd. and Trappe, and G. intraradices (Schenck and Smith) on cut flower yield of rose (Rosa hybrida L. cv. Grand Gala) under commercial-like greenhouse conditions. Flower production was positively influenced by G. mosseae inoculation. Both inocula tested caused low levels of mycorrhizal root colonization, with higher percentages in Rosa associated with G. mosseae. Significant improvement of plant biomass, leaf nutritional status or flower quality was not detected in inoculated plants probably due to the low symbiosis establishment. However, G. mosseae reduced by one month the time needed for 80% of the plants to flower and slightly increased number of cut flowers relative to non-mycorrhizal controls on the fourth, sixth and eighth months after transplanting. It is suggested that an altered carbohydrate metabolism could contribute to this positive effect. Low colonization of rose roots supports the idea that more effort is required to ensure successful application of AMF in ornamental production systems. (Author) 40 refs.

  11. Atmospheric fluidized bed combustion advanced system concepts applicable to small industrial and commercial markets. Topical report, Level 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ake, T.R.; Dixit, V.B.; Mongeon, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    As part of an overall strategy to promote FBC coal combustion and to improve the marketability of the eastern coals, the US Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Research Center awarded a three level contract to Riley Stoker Corporation to develop advanced Multi Solids Fluidized Bed (MSFB) boiler designs. The first level of this contract targeted the small package boiler (10,000--50,000 lb/hr steam) and industrial size boiler (75,000--150,000 lb/hr steam) markets. Two representative sizes, 30,000 lb/hr and 110,000 lb/hr of steam, were selected for the two categories for a detailed technical and economic evaluation. Technically, both the designs showed promise, however, the advanced industrial design was favored on economic considerations. It was thus selected for further study in the second level of the contract. Results of this Level-2 effort, presented in this report, consisted of testing the design concept in Riley`s 4.4 MBtu/hr pilot MSFB facility located at Riley Research Center in Worcester, Mass. The design and economics of the proof of concept facility developed in Level-1 of the contract were then revised in accordance with the findings of the pilot test program. A host site for commercial demonstration in Level-3 of the contract was also secured. It was determined that co-firing coal in combination with paper de-inking sludge will broaden the applicability of the design beyond conventional markets. International Paper (IP), the largest paper company in the world, is willing to participate in this part of the program. IP has offered its Hammermill operation at Lockhaven, Pa, site of a future paper de-inking plant, for the proof of concept installation. This plant will go in operation in 1994. It is recommended that METC proceed to the commercial demonstration of the design developed. The approach necessary to satisfy the needs of the customer while meeting the objectives of this program is presented along with a recommended plan of action.

  12. 76 FR 126 - Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial Public Key Information (PKI) Certificate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Requirement for Commercial Users To Use Commercial..., SDDC will require all commercial accounts accessing transportation systems and applications to use a commercial PKI certificate or Transportation Workers Identification Credential (TWIC). This requirement will...

  13. Field Testing of a Prototype Heat Stress Monitor: System Performance and Applicability to Commercial Mining in Australia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matthew, William

    1999-01-01

    .... Overall system performance of three prototype HSMs was evaluated at a commercial oil production facility at Barrow Island, Australia, and a single prototype was evaluated for potential use in deep...

  14. Study of the effects of proline, phenylalanine, and urea foliar application to Tempranillo vineyards on grape amino acid content. Comparison with commercial nitrogen fertilisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde-Cerdán, T; López, R; Portu, J; González-Arenzana, L; López-Alfaro, I; Santamaría, P

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this work was to study the influence of foliar application of different nitrogen sources on grape amino acid content. The nitrogen sources applied to Tempranillo grapevines were proline, phenylalanine, urea, and two commercial nitrogen fertilisers, both without and with amino acids in their formulations. All treatments were applied at veraison and one week later. Proline treatment did not affect the must nitrogen composition. However, phenylalanine and urea foliar application enhanced the plants' synthesis of most of the amino acids, producing similar effects. In addition, the spray of commercial nitrogen fertilisers over leaves also induced a rise in grape amino acid concentrations regardless of the presence or absence of amino acids in their formulation. The most effective treatments were phenylalanine and urea followed by nitrogen fertilisers. This finding is of oenological interest for improved must nitrogen composition, ensuring better fermentation kinetics and most likely enhancing wine quality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Commercial Toilets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether you are looking to reduce water use in a new facility or replace old, inefficient toilets in commercial restrooms, a WaterSense labeled flushometer-valve toilet is a high-performance, water-efficient option worth considering.

  16. Commercialization in Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas; Sornn-Friese, Henrik

    For any firm, the ultimate purpose of new product development is the commercialization of the new offerings. Despite its regular use in the product innovation and general management science literature, commercialization is only loosely defined and applied. This lack of conceptual clarity about...... the processes at the interface between product development and customer application is noteworthy as it hinders the theoretical development of the field. In this paper, we explore how research has advanced our understanding of commercialization in product innovation over a 30 year period by mapping different...

  17. Evaluation of commercial and sulfated ZrO{sub 2} aiming application catalysis; Avaliacao de ZrO{sub 2} comercial e sulfatada visando aplicacao em catalise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, F.N.; Dantas, J.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: nilson.s@hotmail.com [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais; Pallone, E.M.J.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Basicas; Dutra, R.C.L. [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (AQI/IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Quimica

    2014-07-01

    This study evaluates the performance of commercial and sulfated ZrO{sub 2} for future application in catalysis. Commercial ZrO{sub 2} was provided by the company Saint-Gobain Zirpro. The sulfation occurred with SO{sub 4}{sup -2} ion content of 30% compared to the mass of ZrO{sub 2}. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, EDX and GD. The results revealed the formation of a monoclinic phase for the commercial sample, and a monoclinic major phase with tetragonal traces for the sulfated sample. The commercial ZrO{sub 2} showed a narrow, bimodal and asymmetric agglomerates distribution, while the sulfated sample showed a narrow, tetramodal and asymmetric agglomerates distribution. The presence of traces of the tetragonal phase in the SO{sub 4}{sup -2}/ZrO{sub 2} XRD, and the presence of SO{sub 3} in the EDX were good indicators for future use in catalysis to provide ester. (author)

  18. Commercialization scenarios of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell applications for stationary power generation in the United States by the year 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Stephen; Mahadevan, Kathya

    Battelle is identifying the most likely markets and economic impacts of stationary polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells in the range of 1-250 kW in the U.S. by the year 2015. For this task, Battelle is using the Interactive Future Simulations (IFS™), an analytical modeling and forecasting tool that uses expert judgment, trend analysis, and cross-impact analysis methods to generate most likely future conditions for PEM fuel cell applications, market acceptance, commercial viability, and economic impacts. The cross-impact model contains 28 descriptors including commercial and technological advances in both polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells and fossil fuel technologies, sources of hydrogen, investments, public policy, environmental regulation, value to consumers, commercialization leadership, modes of generation, and the reliability and prices of grid electricity. One likely scenario to the year 2015 is that the PEM fuel cells will be limited to commercial and industrial customers in the range of 50-200 kW with a market size less than US$ 5 billion a year.

  19. 77 FR 40142 - Applications for Exemption: Commercial Driver's License (CDL) and Hours-of-Service (HOS) of Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... and Redding (joint FMCSA-2009-0010... application). Rotel Rotel provides motorcoach tours of the... individual, filed a joint application seeking relief for 20 CMV drivers who transport jet fuel in tank CMVs... all public comments received. The Agency concluded in each case that the application for exemption...

  20. Market Research Survey of Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) Portable MS Systems for IAEA Safeguards Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Garret L.; Hager, George J.; Barinaga, Charles J.; Duckworth, Douglas C.

    2013-02-01

    This report summarizes the results for the market research survey of mass spectrometers that are deemed pertinent to International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) needs and strategic objectives. The focus of the report is on MS instruments that represent currently available (or soon to be) commercial off-the shelf (COTS) technology and weigh less than 400 pounds. A compilation of all available MS instruments (36 COTS and 2 R&D) is presented, along with pertinent information regarding each instrument.

  1. Do not fear the Framingham: Practical application to properly evaluate and modify cardiovascular risk in commercial divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Rahul; Pavela, James; Kus, Marcus S; Alleman, Tony; Sanders, Robert

    2018-01-01

    In April 2016 the Association of Diving Contractors International (ADCI) consensus guidelines began recommending annual cardiovascular risk stratification of commercial divers using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS). For those at elevated risk, further testing is recommended. This approach has raised concerns about potential operational and financial impacts. However, the prevalence of elevated cardiovascular risk and need for additional testing among commercial divers is not known. Clinical data required to calculate the FRS was abstracted for 190 commercial divers in two cohorts. Population demographics, FRS distribution, contributions of risk factors and effect of interventions on reducing risk-factor burden were assessed. Mean FRS score was 1.68 ± 6.35 points, with 13 divers (6.8%) at intermediate risk and none at high 10-year risk. In these 13 divers, the mean contributions to the FRS were from age (6.5 points), cholesterol (3.1 pts.), smoking (1.3 pts.), highdensity lipoprotein (1 pt.), and systolic blood pressure (0.8 pts). The youngest age group had a significantly higher modifiable risk core than the oldest age group (5.87 vs. 1.2 points, P ⟨ 0.001). All 13 intermediate risk divers could have been reclassified as low-risk with successful treatment of modifiable risk factors. The prevalence of elevated cardiovascular risk among commercial divers is low, and treatment of modifiable risk factors could reclassify those at intermediate risk to low risk. Therefore, FRS implementation coupled with intensive risk-reduction strategies for at risk-divers may help improve diver health and prolong the careers of divers while limiting the need for additional testing and adverse operational impact. Copyright© Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society.

  2. Different Analytical Approaches in Assessing Antibacterial Activity and the Purity of Commercial Lysozyme Preparations for Dairy Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Pellegrino

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hen egg-white lysozyme (LSZ is currently used in the food industry to limit the proliferation of lactic acid bacteria spoilage in the production of wine and beer, and to inhibit butyric acid fermentation in hard and extra hard cheeses (late blowing caused by the outgrowth of clostridial spores. The aim of this work was to evaluate how the enzyme activity in commercial preparations correlates to the enzyme concentration and can be affected by the presence of process-related impurities. Different analytical approaches, including turbidimetric assay, SDS-PAGE and HPLC were used to analyse 17 commercial preparations of LSZ marketed in different countries. The HPLC method adopted by ISO allowed the true LSZ concentration to be determined with accuracy. The turbidimetric assay was the most suitable method to evaluate LSZ activity, whereas SDS-PAGE allowed the presence of other egg proteins, which are potential allergens, to be detected. The analytical results showed that the purity of commercially available enzyme preparations can vary significantly, and evidenced the effectiveness of combining different analytical approaches in this type of control.

  3. A global reference database from very high resolution commercial satellite data and methodology for application to Landsat derived 30 m continuous field tree cover data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pengra, Bruce; Long, Jordan; Dahal, Devendra; Stehman, Stephen V.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    2015-01-01

    The methodology for selection, creation, and application of a global remote sensing validation dataset using high resolution commercial satellite data is presented. High resolution data are obtained for a stratified random sample of 500 primary sampling units (5 km  ×  5 km sample blocks), where the stratification based on Köppen climate classes is used to distribute the sample globally among biomes. The high resolution data are classified to categorical land cover maps using an analyst mediated classification workflow. Our initial application of these data is to evaluate a global 30 m Landsat-derived, continuous field tree cover product. For this application, the categorical reference classification produced at 2 m resolution is converted to percent tree cover per 30 m pixel (secondary sampling unit)for comparison to Landsat-derived estimates of tree cover. We provide example results (based on a subsample of 25 sample blocks in South America) illustrating basic analyses of agreement that can be produced from these reference data. Commercial high resolution data availability and data quality are shown to provide a viable means of validating continuous field tree cover. When completed, the reference classifications for the full sample of 500 blocks will be released for public use.

  4. Predicting adolescents' disclosure of personal information in exchange for commercial incentives: an application of an extended theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirman, Wannes; Walrave, Michel; Ponnet, Koen

    2013-02-01

    This study adopts a global theoretical framework to predict adolescents' disclosure of personal information in exchange for incentives offered by commercial Websites. The study postulates and tests the validity of a model based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB), including antecedent factors of attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). A survey was conducted among 1,042 respondents. Results from SEM analyses show that the hypothesized model fits the empirical data well. The model accounts for 61.9 percent of the variance in adolescents' intention to disclose and 43.7 percent of the variance in self-reported disclosure. Perceived social pressure exerted by significant others (subjective norm) is the most important TPB factor in predicting intention to disclose personal information in exchange for incentives. This finding suggests that in discussions of adolescents' information privacy, the importance of social factors outweighs the individually oriented TPB factors of attitude and PBC. Moreover, privacy concern and trust propensity are significant predictors of respondents' attitudes toward online disclosure in exchange for commercial incentives, whereas the frequency of Internet use significantly affects their level of PBC.

  5. A non-commercial approach for the generation of transgenic Leishmania tarentolae and its application in antileishmanial drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Tatiana; Valencia, Yesenia; Flórez, María F; Pulido, Sergio A; Vélez, Iván D; Robledo, Sara M

    2016-08-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection caused by several species of the genus Leishmania that is considered as a neglected disease. Drug development process requires a robust and updated high-throughput technology to the evaluation of candidate compounds that imply the manipulation of the pathogenic species of the parasite in the laboratory. Therefore, it is restricted to trained personal and level II biosafety environments. However, it has been established the utility of Leishmania tarentolae as a model for in vitro screening of antileishmanial agents without the necessity of level II biosafety setups. In parallel the transfection of Leishmania parasites with reporter genes as the eGFP using non-commercial integration vectors like the pIRmcs3(-) has proved to be a powerful tool for the implementation of semi automatized high-throughput platforms for the evaluation of antileishmanial compounds. Here we report the generation of a new L. tarentolae strain overexpressing the eGFP gene harboured by the non-commercial vector pIR3(-). We also demonstrate its utility for the semi-automatized screening of antileshmanial compounds in intracellular forms of the L. tarentolae parasite.

  6. Prize for Industrial Applications of Physics: Reflective Cholesteric Liquid Crystals - Innovations in Materials, Display Technology, and Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Asad

    Reflective Cholesteric Liquid Crystals have been the subject of much research, development, and commercialization - in display technology as well as other embodiments, such as sensors, privacy films, etc. The liquid Crystal Institute (LCI) at Kent State University (KSU) served as a hot bed of much of the research and development in this field in the early 1990's. From here, the reflective technology was licensed to Kent Displays (KDI) to further develop and commercialize. The 90's saw some development in flexible technologies, drive scheme, display design, as well as materials. The early part of the century took a turn with a strong effort in encapsulation based flexible display development. In 2006, KDI engineers and technologists started firming up ambitious plans for the world's first roll-to-roll manufacturing line for bistable cholesteric displays. In 2009, this became a reality! In early 2010, the first eWriter product was launched into the consumer market under the brand Boogie Board®. Within months, this became a success forcing the rapid development of the manufacturing process for the flexible displays. Today, the company has two manufacturing lines, 24 hour roll-to-roll production of flexible displays, millions of Boogie Board products in the global market place, and a growing OEM business in the Boogie Board technology. KDI continues to do basic research, development, and exploration in the bistable display field. It also has had to become an expert in the supply chain management of the unique raw materials needed for flexible display manufacturing, while still managing global operations with sales offices in several continents and a growing and diversified group of individuals. In this presentation, we will present the story, research, development, technology, and latest trends in bistable cholesteric liquid crystal materials with a particular emphasis on the eWriter technology and market.

  7. Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asosheh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Information systems outsourcing issues has been attracted in recent years because many information systems projects in organizations are done in this case. On the other hand, failure rate of this kind of projects is also high. The aim of this article is to find success factors in risk management of information systems outsourcing in commercial banks using these factors leads to increase the success rate of risk management of information systems outsourcing projects. Research methods in the present article based on purpose are applied and descriptive- survey. In addition, research tool is questionnaire which was used among commercial bank experts. For this purpose, First information systems outsourcing risks were identified and then ranked. In the next step, the information systems outsourcing reasons were surveyed and the most important reasons were identified. Then the risks which have not any relationship with the most important reasons were removed and success factors in managing residual risks were extracted.

  8. Commercial and Industrial Wiring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Stan; Flowers, Gary

    This module is the third in a series of three wiring publications, includes additional technical knowledge and applications required for job entry in the commercial and industrial wiring trade. The module contains 15 instructional units that cover the following topics: blueprint reading and load calculations; tools and equipment; service;…

  9. Commercially developed mixed-signal CMOS process features for application in advanced ROICs in 0.18μm technology node

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Hurwitz, Paul; Mann, Richard; Qamar, Yasir; Chaudhry, Samir; Zwingman, Robert; Howard, David; Racanelli, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Increasingly complex specifications for next-generation focal plane arrays (FPAs) require smaller pixels, larger array sizes, reduced power consumption and lower cost. We have previously reported on the favorable features available in the commercially available TowerJazz CA18 0.18μm mixed-signal CMOS technology platform for advanced read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) applications. In his paper, new devices in development for commercial purposes and which may have applications in advanced ROICs are reported. First, results of buried-channel 3.3V field effect transistors (FETs) are detailed. The buried-channel pFETs show flicker (1/f) noise reductions of ~5X in comparison to surface-channel pFETs along with a significant reduction of the body constant parameter. The buried-channel nFETs show ~2X reduction of 1/f noise versus surface-channel nFETs. Additional reduced threshold voltage nFETs and pFETs are also described. Second, a high-density capacitor solution with a four-stacked linear (metal-insulator-metal) MIM capacitor having capacitance density of 8fF/μm2 is reported. Additional stacking with MOS capacitor in a 5V tolerant process results in >50fC/μm2 charge density. Finally, one-time programmable (OTP) and multi-time programmable (MTP) non-volatile memory options in the CA18 technology platform are outlined.

  10. Hot-spot application of biocontrol agents to replace pesticides in large scale commercial rose farms in Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gacheri, Catherine; Kigen, Thomas; Sigsgaard, Lene

    2015-01-01

    Rose (Rosa hybrida L.) is the most important ornamental crop in Kenya, with huge investments in pest management. We provide the first full-scale, replicated experiment comparing cost and yield of conventional two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) control with hot-spot applications of...

  11. Recent Experience of the Application of a Commercial Data Base Management System (ADABAS) to a Scientific Data Bank (ECDIN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Town, William G.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered and solutions adopted in application of the ADABAS database management system to the ECDIN (Environmental Chemicals Data and Information Network) data bank. SIMAS, the pilot system, and ADABAS are compared, and ECDIN ADABAS design features are described. Appendices provide additional facts about ADABAS and SIMAS.…

  12. Neutron imaging of a commercial Li-ion battery during discharge: Application of monochromatic imaging and polychromatic dynamic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, Leslie G.; Schillinger, Burkhard; Ham, Kyungmin; Dobbins, Tabbetha A.; Liu, Ping; Vajo, John J.

    2011-01-01

    A commercial lithium-ion polymer battery of prismatic construction was imaged in 2D by monochromatic neutron radiography at wavelengths around a LiC 6 spectral feature. Over the range of 3-4 A, the neutron attenuation spectra for charged and discharged batteries are distinctly different. In a real-time experiment, a battery was observed during discharge at wavelengths spanning the LiC 6 spectral feature and its disappearance monitored. No evidence of 'staging' was detected in this preliminary experiment. A similar battery was imaged in 3D with a new tomographic data acquisition scheme based on the Greek golden ratio; the scheme allows convenient post-processing to establish 'time windows' for 3D image reconstruction. The 3D images at 5% state of charge intervals are compromised by beam hardening, but still show some asymmetric battery volume change with discharge. Finally comments on the future of neutron imaging for battery experiments, whether at continuous sources at nuclear reactors or at pulsed spallation sources, are discussed.

  13. Issues involved in food irradiation and its commercial application: a discussion paper prepared for the Primary and Allied Industries Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Australian Department of Primary Industries and Energy's interest in food irradiation stems from its responsibilities under the Export Control Act (1982) and the Quarantine Act (1908) and the implications this process may have for Australian food exports and quarantine control. Food irradiation is regarded by the Department as a process which may provide an alternative to some existing conventional food treatments. It is not expected to replace completely other processes, but subject to the overseas acceptance of imported irradiated foods, it could offer Australian exporters an additional processing and/or quarantine treatment. The Department's position is that foods irradiated in approved facilities in Australia could be approved for export provided they comply with the regulatory requirements of the importing country and are appropriately labelled or identified. The Department maintains the view that the choice to use this technology is a commercial decision which will depend on many factors including: acceptability of the toxicological aspects, demand for benefits it provides, its cost and competitiveness with alternative treatments, approval by Australian and international regulatory authorities, and importantly, the willingness of consumers to buy irradiated foods

  14. Machinability assessment of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) during turning operation: Application potential of GRA method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar; Maity, Kalipada

    2018-03-01

    This paper explores some of the vital machinability characteristics of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) grade 2. Experiments were conducted based on Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array. The selected material was machined on a heavy duty lathe (Model: HMT NH26) using uncoated carbide inserts in dry cutting environment. The selected inserts were designated by ISO as SNMG 120408 (Model: K313) and manufactured by Kennametal. These inserts were rigidly mounted on a right handed tool holder PSBNR 2020K12. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were selected as three input variables whereas tool wear (VBc) and surface roughness (Ra) were the major attentions. In order to confirm an appreciable machinability of the work part, an optimal parametric combination was attained with the help of grey relational analysis (GRA) approach. Finally, a mathematical model was developed to exhibit the accuracy and acceptability of the proposed methodology using multiple regression equations. The results indicated that, the suggested model is capable of predicting overall grey relational grade within acceptable range.

  15. Uniform implantation of CNTs on total activated carbon surfaces: a smart engineering protocol for commercial supercapacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian; Li, Linpo; Liu, Yani; Liu, Siyuan; Xu, Maowen; Zhu, Jianhui

    2017-04-07

    The main obstacles to building better supercapacitors are still trade-offs between energy and power parameters. To promote commercial supercapacitor behaviors, proper optimization toward electrode configurations/architectures may be a feasible and effective way. We herein propose a smart and reliable electrode engineering protocol, by in situ implantation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on total activated carbon (AC) surfaces via a mild chemical vapor deposition process at ∼550 °C, using nickel nitrate hydroxide (NNH) thin films and waste ethanol solvents as the catalyst and carbon sources, respectively. The direct and conformal growth of NNH layers onto carbonaceous scaffold guarantees the later uniform implantation of long and high-quality CNTs on total AC outer surfaces. Such fluffy and entangled CNTs preserve ionic diffusion channels, well connect neighboring ACs and function as superhighways for electrons transfer, endowing electrodes with outstanding capacitive behaviors including large output capacitances of ∼230 F g -1 in 1 M Na 2 SO 4 neutral solution and ∼502.5 F g -1 in 6 M KOH using Ni valence state variation, and very negligible capacity decay in long-term cycles. Furthermore, a full symmetric supercapacitor device of CNTs@ACs//CNTs@ACs has been constructed, capable of delivering both high specific energy and power densities (maximum values reaching up to ∼97.2 Wh kg -1 and ∼10.84 kW kg -1 ), which holds great potential in competing with current mainstream supercapacitors.

  16. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Increasing transportation and disposal costs have caused industry to consider incineration as a cost-effective means of volume reduction of combustible LLW. Repeated inquiries from the nuclear industry regarding the applicability of the Los Alamos controlled air incineration (CAI) design led the DOE to initiate a commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. Development studies and results in support of this program involving ion exchange resin incineration and fission/activation product distributions within the Los Alamos CAI are described

  17. Application of image based measurement techniques for the investigation of aeroengine performance on a commercial aircraft in ground operation

    OpenAIRE

    Schröder, Andreas; Geisler, Reinhard; Schanz, Daniel; Agocs, Janos; Pallek, Dieter; Schroll, Michael; Klinner, Joachim; Beversdorff, Manfred; Voges, Melanie; Willert, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The investigation of the flow and sound field upstream and downstream of a full scale aeroengine is aimed at providing important reference data required for reliable modeling and prediction. In this regard a wide variety of contactless and non-invasive laser optical and acoustic measurement techniques have matured in recent years to allow their application on full scale aircraft. Within a measurement campaign involving an Airbus A320 DLR research aircraft inside a sound-attenuating hangar at ...

  18. Integrating a work-flow engine within a commercial SCADA to build end users applications in a scientific environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounsy, M.; Pierre-Joseph Zephir, S.; Saintin, K.; Abeille, G.; Ley, E. de

    2012-01-01

    To build integrated high-level applications, SOLEIL is using an original component-oriented approach based on GlobalSCREEN, an industrial Java SCADA. The aim of this integrated development environment is to give SOLEIL's scientific and technical staff a way to develop GUI (Graphical User Interface) applications for external users of beamlines. These GUI applications must address the two following needs: monitoring and supervision of a control system and development and execution of automated processes (as beamline alignment, data collection and on-line data analysis). The first need is now completely answered through a rich set of Java graphical components based on the COMETE library and providing a high level of service for data logging, scanning and so on. To reach the same quality of service for process automation, a big effort has been made for more seamless integration of PASSERELLE, a work-flow engine with dedicated user-friendly interfaces for end users, packaged as JavaBeans in GlobalSCREEN components library. Starting with brief descriptions of software architecture of the PASSERELLE and GlobalSCREEN environments, we will then present the overall system integration design as well as the current status of deployment on SOLEIL beamlines. (authors)

  19. Application of Commercial Games for Home-Based Rehabilitation for People with Hemiparesis: Challenges and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Bulmaro A; Glegg, Stephanie M N; Lambert-Shirzad, Navid; Schneider, Andrea N; Marr, Jonathan; Bernard, Renee; Lohse, Keith; Hoens, Alison M; Van der Loos, H F Machiel

    2018-06-01

    To identify the factors that influence the use of an at-home virtual rehabilitation gaming system from the perspective of therapists, engineers, and adults and adolescents with hemiparesis secondary to stroke, brain injury, and cerebral palsy. This study reports on qualitative findings from a study, involving seven adults (two female; mean age: 65 ± 8 years) and three adolescents (one female; mean age: 15 ± 2 years) with hemiparesis, evaluating the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of a home-based custom-designed virtual rehabilitation system over 2 months. Thematic analysis was used to analyze qualitative data from therapists' weekly telephone interview notes, research team documentation regarding issues raised during technical support interactions, and the transcript of a poststudy debriefing session involving research team members and collaborators. Qualitative themes that emerged suggested that system use was associated with three key factors as follows: (1) the technology itself (e.g., characteristics of the games and their clinical implications, system accessibility, and hardware and software design); (2) communication processes (e.g., preferences and effectiveness of methods used during the study); and (3) knowledge and training of participants and therapists on the technology's use (e.g., familiarity with Facebook, time required to gain competence with the system, and need for clinical observations during remote therapy). Strategies to address these factors are proposed. Lessons learned from this study can inform future clinical and implementation research using commercial videogames and social media platforms. The capacity to track compensatory movements, clinical considerations in game selection, the provision of kinematic and treatment progress reports to participants, and effective communication and training for therapists and participants may enhance research success, system usability, and adoption.

  20. Commercialization of fuel-cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, S.S.; Appleby, A.J.; Baker, B.S.; Bates, J.L.; Buss, L.B.; Dollard, W.J.; Farris, P.J.; Gillis, E.A.; Gunsher, J.A.; Khandkar, A.; Krumpelt, M.; O' Sullivan, J.B.; Runte, G.; Savinell, R.F.; Selman, J.R.; Shores, D.A.; Tarman, P.

    1995-03-01

    This report is an abbreviated version of the ''Report of the DOE Advanced Fuel Cell Commercialization Working Group (AFC2WG),'' released January 1995. We describe fuel-cell commercialization for stationary power applications of phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, solid oxide, and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells.

  1. Physical and mechanical properties of high manganese non-magnetic steel and its application to various products for commercial use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Terufumi; Watanabe, Kenji; Nohara, Kiyohiko; Ono, Yutaka; Kondo, Nobuyuki; Sato, Shuzo.

    1982-01-01

    In order to develop new high manganese non-magnetic steels that can be employed to extensive applications ranging from cryogenic to elevated temperature uses, the effects of C and Mn on their magnetic permeability, thermal expansion coefficient and mechanical properties are investigated. It is found that the relation between thermal expansion coefficient, β, and both C and Mn contents can be expressed by the following linear regression equation: β( x 10 -6 / 0 C) = 17.66 + 3.82 C (%) - 0.22 Mn (%). Good mechanical properties are exhibited in the wide range of Mn contents between 18 % and 30 % at room temperature, while there is a tendency that this optimum range of Mn content is narrowed at cryogenic temperature. Then, H-shapes, round bars and deformed bars are manufactured at the workshops using 5t vacuum melted ingots, aiming to establish the conditions for practical processes for final products and to study such various characteristics of the products as their physical and mechanical properties, machinability and weldability. As a result, it is shown that all of those products have excellent properties as non-magnetic steels. In addition, the manufacturing of non-magnetic pinch rolls attached to the electro-magnetic stirring equipment on the continuous casting machine is described in detail as one of the practical applications of the high Mn non-magnetic steels. (author)

  2. Automatic and remote controlled ictal SPECT injection for seizure focus localization by use of a commercial contrast agent application pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feichtinger, Michael; Eder, Hans; Holl, Alexander; Körner, Eva; Zmugg, Gerda; Aigner, Reingard; Fazekas, Franz; Ott, Erwin

    2007-07-01

    In the presurgical evaluation of patients with partial epilepsy, the ictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a useful noninvasive diagnostic tool for seizure focus localization. To achieve optimal SPECT scan quality, ictal tracer injection should be carried out as quickly as possible after the seizure onset and under highest safety conditions possible. Compared to the commonly used manual injection, an automatic administration of the radioactive tracer may provide higher quality standards for this procedure. In this study, therefore, we retrospectively analyzed efficiency and safety of an automatic injection system for ictal SPECT tracer application. Over a 31-month period, 26 patients underwent ictal SPECT by use of an automatic remote-controlled injection pump originally designed for CT-contrast agent application. Various factors were reviewed, including latency of ictal injection, radiation safety parameters, and ictal seizure onset localizing value. Times between seizure onset and tracer injection ranged between 3 and 48 s. In 21 of 26 patients ictal SPECT supported the localization of the epileptogenic focus in the course of the presurgical evaluation. In all cases ictal SPECT tracer injection was performed with a high degree of safety to patients and staff. Ictal SPECT by use of a remote-controlled CT-contrast agent injection system provides a high scan quality and is a safe and confirmatory presurgical evaluation technique in the epilepsy-monitoring unit.

  3. Evaluation of low-residue soldering for military and commercial applications: A report from the Low-Residue Soldering Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iman, R.L.; Anderson, D.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Burress, R.V. [SEHO (United States)] [and others

    1995-06-01

    The LRSTF combined the efforts of industry, military, and government to evaluate low-residue soldering processes for military and commercial applications. These processes were selected for evaluation because they provide a means for the military to support the presidential mandate while producing reliable hardware at a lower cost. This report presents the complete details and results of a testing program conducted by the LRSTF to evaluate low-residue soldering for printed wiring assemblies. A previous informal document provided details of the test plan used in this evaluation. Many of the details of that test plan are contained in this report. The test data are too massive to include in this report, however, these data are available on disk as Excel spreadsheets upon request. The main purpose of low-residue soldering is to eliminate waste streams during the manufacturing process.

  4. Commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.H.

    1983-01-01

    The commercialization of nuclear power plant decommissioning is presented as a step in the commercialization of nuclear energy. Opportunities for technology application advances are identified. Utility planning needs are presented

  5. Economic analysis of a new class of vanadium redox-flow battery for medium- and large-scale energy storage in commercial applications with renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ming-Jia; Zhao, Wei; Chen, Xi; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new class of the vanadium redox-flow battery (VRB) is developed. • The new class of VRB is more economic. It is simple process and easy to scale-up. • There are three levels of cell stacks and electrolytes with different qualities. • The economic analysis of the VRB system for renewable energy bases is carried out. • Related polices and suggestions based on the result are provided. - Abstract: Interest in the implement of vanadium redox-flow battery (VRB) for energy storage is growing, which is widely applicable to large-scale renewable energy (e.g. wind energy and solar photo-voltaic), developing distributed generation, lowering the imbalance and increasing the usage of electricity. However, a comprehensive economic analysis of the VRB for energy storage is obscured for various commercial applications, yet it is fundamental for implementation of the VRB in commercial electricity markets. In this study, based on a new class of the VRB that was developed by our team, a comprehensive economic analysis of the VRB for large-scale energy storage is carried out. The results illustrate the economy of the VRB applications for three typical energy systems: (1) The VRB storage system instead of the normal lead-acid battery to be the uninterrupted power supply (UPS) battery for office buildings and hospitals; (2) Application of vanadium battery in household distributed photo-voltaic power generation systems; (3) The wind power and solar power stations equipped with the VRB storage systems. The economic perspectives and cost-benefit analysis of the VRB storage systems may underpin optimisation for maximum profitability. In this case, two findings are concluded. First, with the fixed capacity power or fixed discharging time, the greater profit ratio will be generated from the longer time or the larger capacity power. Second, when the profit ratio, discharging time and capacity power are all variables, it is necessary to find out the best optimisation

  6. Scaling and application of commercial, feature-rich, modular mixed-signal technology platforms for large format ROICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Racanelli, Marco; Howard, David; Miyagi, Glenn; Bowler, Mark; Jordan, Scott; Zhang, Tao; Krieger, William

    2010-04-01

    Today's modular, mixed-signal CMOS process platforms are excellent choices for manufacturing of highly integrated, large-format read out integrated circuits (ROICs). Platform features, that can be used for both cooled and un-cooled ROIC applications, can include (1) quality passives such as 4fFμm2 stacked MIM capacitors for linearity and higher density capacitance per pixel, 1kOhm high-value poly-silicon resistors, 2.8μm thick metals for efficient power distribution and reduced I-R drop; (2) analog active devices such as low noise single gate 3.3V, and 1.8V/3.3V or 1.8V/5V dual gate configurations, 40V LDMOS FETs, and NPN and PNP devices, deep n-well for substrate isolation for analog blocks and digital logic; (3) tools to assist the circuit designer such as models for cryogenic temperatures, CAD assistance for metal density uniformity determination, statistical, X-sigma and PCM-based models for corner validation and to simulate design sensitivity, and (4) sub-field stitching for large die. The TowerJazz platform of technology for 0.50μm, 0.25μm and 0.18μm CMOS nodes, with features as described above, is described in detail in this paper.

  7. SELF-BILL, A NEW APPLICATION OF COMMERCIAL INVOICE AS A RESULT OF ECONOMIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin YARBAŞI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The progress of the world economy in the last decades brought the deletion of the small and medium sized enterprises and the rise of the bigger ones in order to satisfy the consumers as much as possible. These businesses face another giant problem which is to hold enough capital, that means the merchant who has to buy big quantities of many types of goods would need an enourmous capital and the problem of the producer is having to sell his products to as many as possible retailers. The solution of these problems appear to be sending on consignement or collection on sale - so no- body would have capital insufficiency pressure. The next problem on behalf of the producer is to watch the sale of the goods for inventory control and also for cash inflow expectation. The last solution here becomes the Self-Billing in English or Autofacturation in French or Selbstfakturierung in German which means the buyer issues bill of the goods sold himself on behalf of the producer and send one copy to the producer. this application is not valid in turkey yet but we believe it will take its place among rules and legislations soon.

  8. High average power, diode pumped petawatt laser systems: a new generation of lasers enabling precision science and commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haefner, C. L.; Bayramian, A.; Betts, S.; Bopp, R.; Buck, S.; Cupal, J.; Drouin, M.; Erlandson, A.; Horáček, J.; Horner, J.; Jarboe, J.; Kasl, K.; Kim, D.; Koh, E.; Koubíková, L.; Maranville, W.; Marshall, C.; Mason, D.; Menapace, J.; Miller, P.; Mazurek, P.; Naylon, A.; Novák, J.; Peceli, D.; Rosso, P.; Schaffers, K.; Sistrunk, E.; Smith, D.; Spinka, T.; Stanley, J.; Steele, R.; Stolz, C.; Suratwala, T.; Telford, S.; Thoma, J.; VanBlarcom, D.; Weiss, J.; Wegner, P.

    2017-05-01

    Large laser systems that deliver optical pulses with peak powers exceeding one Petawatt (PW) have been constructed at dozens of research facilities worldwide and have fostered research in High-Energy-Density (HED) Science, High-Field and nonlinear physics [1]. Furthermore, the high intensities exceeding 1018W/cm2 allow for efficiently driving secondary sources that inherit some of the properties of the laser pulse, e.g. pulse duration, spatial and/or divergence characteristics. In the intervening decades since that first PW laser, single-shot proof-of-principle experiments have been successful in demonstrating new high-intensity laser-matter interactions and subsequent secondary particle and photon sources. These secondary sources include generation and acceleration of charged-particle (electron, proton, ion) and neutron beams, and x-ray and gamma-ray sources, generation of radioisotopes for positron emission tomography (PET), targeted cancer therapy, medical imaging, and the transmutation of radioactive waste [2, 3]. Each of these promising applications requires lasers with peak power of hundreds of terawatt (TW) to petawatt (PW) and with average power of tens to hundreds of kW to achieve the required secondary source flux.

  9. Particle deposition from turbulent flow: Review of published research and its applicability to ventilation ducts in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2002-06-01

    This report reviews published experimental and theoretical investigations of particle deposition from turbulent flows and considers the applicability of this body of work to the specific case of particle deposition from flows in the ducts of heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Particle deposition can detrimentally affect the performance of HVAC systems and it influences the exposure of building occupants to a variety of air pollutants. The first section of this report describes the types of HVAC systems under consideration and discusses the components, materials and operating parameters commonly found in these systems. The second section reviews published experimental investigations of particle deposition rates from turbulent flows and considers the ramifications of the experimental evidence with respect to HVAC ducts. The third section considers the structure of turbulent airflows in ventilation ducts with a particular emphasis on turbulence investigations that have been used as a basis for particle deposition models. The final section reviews published literature on predicting particle deposition rates from turbulent flows.

  10. N2Vision technology application for direct identification of commercial hydrocarbons in Trenton-Black River Formations of Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agou, S. [Productive Geoscience Exploration Inc., Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    N2Vision seismic signal interpretation technology has been used to evaluate the petroleum and natural gas potential in the Trenton-Black River (TBR) formations of Ontario. The technology was developed in Russia in the 1980s to solve complex problems in frontier exploration. The N2Vision neural networks algorithm is a multilayer feed-forward neural network (MFFN) for pattern recognition and is based on data from existing wells collected over 20 years of method application. The algorithm recognizes hydrocarbons by establishing relationships between all attributes of the seismic field and data from existing wells. In Ontario, the algorithm was trained on data from many productive and non-productive wells from the researched and adjacent fields, as well as on seismic patterns of geological features obtained from the Yurubchen-Tokhom oil field in easter Siberia. The 2D seismic data was collected by different companies. It targeted shallower horizons and had non-consistent quality. The results of N2Vision were shown to be well correlated with the objective data. The common geological features of southern Ontario, Yurubchen field and the Baltic Syneclise were presented in this paper. All 3 regions are found in specific geodynamically prestressed and heated up zones that are represented primarily by shallow carbonates, leaching dolomites and highly permeable reservoirs with vertical fracturing. This paper demonstrated that the technology can greatly reduce the risk of selecting drilling locations, while significantly decreasing the cost of hydrocarbon exploration. tabs., figs.

  11. Evaluation of commercial lithium-ion cells based on composite positive electrode for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle applications. Part I: Initial characterizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubarry, Matthieu; Truchot, Cyril; Cugnet, Mikael; Liaw, Bor Yann; Gering, Kevin; Sazhin, Sergiy; Jamison, David; Michelbacher, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating commercial Li-ion batteries presents some unique benefits. One of them is to use cells made from established fabrication process and form factor, such as those offered by the 18650 cylindrical configuration, to provide a common platform to investigate and understand performance deficiency and aging mechanism of target chemistry. Such an approach shall afford us to derive relevant information without influence from processing or form factor variability that may skew our understanding on cell-level issues. A series of 1.9 Ah 18650 lithium ion cells developed by a commercial source using a composite positive electrode comprising (LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 + LiMn2O4) is being used as a platform for the investigation of certain key issues, particularly path-dependent aging and degradation in future plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) applications, under the US Department of Energy's Applied Battery Research (ABR) program. Here we report in Part I the initial characterizations of the cell performance and Part II some aspects of cell degradation in 2C cycle aging. The initial characterizations, including cell-to-cell variability, are essential for life cycle performance characterization in the second part of the report when cell-aging phenomena are discussed. Due to the composite nature of the positive electrode, the features (or signature) derived from the incremental capacity (IC) of the cell appear rather complex. In this work, the method to index the observed IC peaks is discussed. Being able to index the IC signature in details is critical for analyzing and identifying degradation mechanism later in the cycle aging study.

  12. Comparison of the applicability of commercial computer programs to study the thermodynamic stability of metal oxides; Vertailu kaupallisten laskentaohjelmien soveltuvuudesta metallioksidien termodynaamiseen stabiilisuustarkasteluun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukkari, P.; Olin, M. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, T. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland); Sippola, H. [GEM Systems Oy (Finland)

    1999-04-01

    The oxide films formed on primary circuit surfaces incorporate radioactive species from the coolant and influence different corrosion phenomena in nuclear power plants. One approach to improve the understanding on the formation and properties of these oxide films is to evaluate their thermodynamic stability. The aim of this work was to compare and demonstrate the applicability of different commercial thermodynamic computer programs to model the deposition of oxides containing iron, chromium and/or nickel in various nuclear power plant environments. The programs considered in this evaluation comprised the EQ3/6 program and a product group including such products as ChemSage, HSC (including SOLGASMIX and GIBBS), H+PLUS and ChemSheet. In the group the transfer of data between different products is relatively easy. The goal was to find out which programs can be applied to evaluate the stability of oxide films, but not to assess the absolute accuracy of the calculations. The evaluation was done by means of applying the programs to calculate the stability of pure and mixed oxides of iron, nickel and chromium on stainless steel both in WWER and BWR conditions at different temperatures and coolant compositions. The comparison showed that EQ3/6 is suitable for most thermodynamic calculations. EQ3/6 can be characterised as a professional tool, for which no commercial training is available. ChemSage is a versatile and reliable program, which can be well used together with HSC and H+PLUS. ChemSage is mainly a professional tool, while HSC is easier to operate by an occasional user. Commercial training and support is available for both ChemSage and HSC. ChemSheet has been designed to utilise the properties of ChemSage in a user-friendly spreadsheet environment. All the products tested calculate thermodynamic equilibrium. Thus they are suitable to characterise such conditions in which the formation of a certain phase is or becomes possible. On the other hand, the modelling of the

  13. Commercialization of nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, David W

    2009-01-01

    The emerging and potential commercial applications of nanotechnologies clearly have great potential to significantly advance and even potentially revolutionize various aspects of medical practice and medical product development. Nanotechnology is already touching upon many aspects of medicine, including drug delivery, diagnostic imaging, clinical diagnostics, nanomedicines, and the use of nanomaterials in medical devices. This technology is already having an impact; many products are on the market and a growing number is in the pipeline. Momentum is steadily building for the successful development of additional nanotech products to diagnose and treat disease; the most active areas of product development are drug delivery and in vivo imaging. Nanotechnology is also addressing many unmet needs in the pharmaceutical industry, including the reformulation of drugs to improve their bioavailability or toxicity profiles. The advancement of medical nanotechnology is expected to advance over at least three different generations or phases, beginning with the introduction of simple nanoparticulate and nanostructural improvements to current product and process types, then eventually moving on to nanoproducts and nanodevices that are limited only by the imagination and limits of the technology itself. This review looks at some recent developments in the commercialization of nanotechnology for various medical applications as well as general trends in the industry, and explores the nanotechnology industry that is involved in developing medical products and procedures with a view toward technology commercialization. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Commercial incineration demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Neuls, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by nuclear utilities presently are shipped to commercial burial grounds for disposal. Substantially increasing shipping and disposal charges have sparked renewed industry interest in incineration and other advanced volume reduction techniques as potential cost-saving measures. Repeated inquiries from industry sources regarding LLW applicability of the Los Alamos controlled-air incineration (CAI) design led DOE to initiate this commercial demonstration program in FY-1980. The selected program approach to achieving CAI demonstration at a utility site is a DOE sponsored joint effort involving Los Alamos, a nuclear utility, and a liaison subcontractor. Required development tasks and responsibilities of the particpants are described. Target date for project completion is the end of FY-1985

  15. Evaluation of the effects of aging in synthetic saliva solution of both commercial and silanized Nd–Fe–B magnets for dental application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabiano, F., E-mail: ffabiano@unime.it [Department of Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy); Department of Experimental, Specialized Medical-Surgical and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125 Messina (Italy); Puliafito, V.; Calabrese, L.; Borsellino, C.; Bonaccorsi, L.M.; Giordano, A. [Department of Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada di Dio, 98166 Messina (Italy); Fabiano, V. [Department of Human Pathology, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125 Messina (Italy); Cordasco, G. [Department of Experimental, Specialized Medical-Surgical and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125 Messina (Italy)

    2016-04-01

    Neodymium–iron–boron magnets are able to ensure a magnetic flux with high maximum energy product also at miniaturized size. In the past, due to their marked corrosion in saliva they were unsuccessfully implemented in orthodontic systems. Thereby, we propose a multi-layered organic–inorganic coating able to supply anticorrosion resistance, wear resistance and durability to the whole assembly. We evaluated the influence on the magnetic force of commercial nickel plated and silanized Nd–Fe–B during aging time in synthetic Fusayama saliva. Two magnets based-micromagnetic simulations were performed in order to analyze the magnetic field generated which is linked to the magnetic force. Our key results underline that the proposed hybrid coating does not affect the magnetic force of Nd–Fe–B magnets, moreover, preventing corrosion degradation in aggressive solution. Thus the limiting aspects avoiding the use of Nd–Fe–B magnets for orthodontic and prosthodontic applications can be overcome by using silane agents as surface coating.

  16. Design, construction and operating experience of demonstration LMFBRs. The application of core and fuel performance experience in British reactors to commercial fast reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, K.Q.

    1978-01-01

    The Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) sub-assembly design is described with particular emphasis on the choice of factors that are important in determining satisfactory performance. Reasons for the adoption of specific clad and fuel design details are given in their historical context, and irradiation experience - mostly from the Dounreay Fast Reactor (DFR) - in support of the choices is described. The implications of factors that are now better understood than when the PFR fuel was designed, notably neutron-induced void swelling and irradiation creep, are then considered. It is shown that the 'free-standing' core design used in PFR, in which the sub-assembly is unsupported above the level of the lower axial breeder, relies on the availability of low-swelling, preferably irradiation-creep-resistant alloys as sub-assembly structural materials in order to achieve the prescribed burn-up target. The advantages of a 'restrained core', which makes use of irradiation creep to redress the effects of material swelling, are noted briefly, and the application of this concept to the Commercial Demonstration Fast Reactor (CDFR) core design is described. Probable future trends in pin and sub-assembly design are reviewed and the scope of associated irradiation testing programmes defined. Arrangements for monitoring and evaluating fuel performance, both in reactor and post-irradiation, are outlined and the provisions for endorsement of CDFR pin, sub-assembly and core design details in PFR are indicated. (author)

  17. A self-setting particle-stabilized porous ceramic panel prepared from commercial cement and loaded with carbon for potential radar'absorbing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Hoon Ha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Porous ceramic materials are in a current research focus because of their outstanding thermal stability, chemical stability and lightweight. Recent research has widened the range of applications to radar absorption to utilize the advantages of porous ceramic materials. There has been long-standing interest in the development of lightweight radar-absorbing materials for military applications such as camouflaging ground-based facilities against airborne radar detection. Therefore, in this study, a novel lightweight radar-absorbing material for X-band frequencies was developed using a self-setting particle-stabilized porous ceramic panel composited with carbon. The panel was prepared using a commercial calcium aluminate cement (as a self-setting matrix, zeolite 13X particles with propyl gallate (as a particle-stabilized pore former and carbon (as a radar-absorbing material. The panel contained macropores approximately 200 to 400 µm in size formed by zeolite 13X particles that are irreversibly adsorbed at liquid-gas interfaces. The self-setting particle-stabilized porous ceramic panels were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, mercury porosimetry, physisorption analysis, capillary flow porosimetry and network analysis. When 0.2 wt.% carbon was added to a self-setting particle-stabilized porous ceramic panel to fabricate a composite 7 mm thick, the maximum reflection loss was −11.16 dB at 12.4 GHz. The effects of the amount of added carbon and the thickness variation of a self-setting particle-stabilized porous ceramic panel on the radar-absorbing properties remain important issues for further research.

  18. Application of the GIF PR and PP methodology to a commercial fast reactor system for a preliminary analysis of PR scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    The Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) Working Group has developed a methodology for the PR and PP evaluation of the next generation Nuclear Energy Systems (NESs). Following the methodology proposed by the working group, applicable to assessing the proliferation resistance of an NES and its individual elements, the main objective of this work is to apply the methodology to show an example of how its results could be used by designers to improve the PR of the system. In this study, the reactor site of a hypothetical and commercial sodium‑cooled fast neutron nuclear reactor system (SFR) was used as the target NES for the application of the methodology. The design of this SFR is based on the layout of the Japanese Sodium Fast Reactor (JSFR) with a safeguards design based on the safeguards approach of the Japanese prototype fast breeder reactor Monju. The methodology is applied to all the PR scenarios described in the methodology: diversion, misuse and breakout. The methodology was first applied to the SFR to check if this system meets the target of PR as described in the GIF goal; secondly, a comparison between the SFR and a light water reactor (LWR) with an open fuel cycle was performed to evaluate if and how it would be possible to improve the PR and PP of the SFR. The LWR layout is based on the European Pressurized Water Reactor. The comparison was implemented according to the following example development target: achieving proliferation resistance to material diversion similar or superior to domestic and international advanced LWR. Three main actions were performed: implement the evaluation methodology based on its assumptions; characterize the PR and PP for the nuclear energy system applying the methodology to the SFR; and identify recommendations for system designers through comparing the SFR with the LWR.

  19. Challenges of future aircraft propulsion: A review of distributed propulsion technology and its potential application for the all electric commercial aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohardani, Amir S.; Doulgeris, Georgios; Singh, Riti

    2011-07-01

    This paper highlights the role of distributed propulsion technology for future commercial aircraft. After an initial historical perspective on the conceptual aspects of distributed propulsion technology and a glimpse at numerous aircraft that have taken distributed propulsion technology to flight, the focal point of the review is shifted towards a potential role this technology may entail for future commercial aircraft. Technological limitations and challenges of this specific technology are also considered in combination with an all electric aircraft concept, as means of predicting the challenges associated with the design process of a next generation commercial aircraft.

  20. Intitutional constraints to fusion commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-10-01

    The major thrust of this report is that the long time frame associated with the development of commercial fusion systems in the context of the commercialization and institutional history of an allied technology, fission-power, suggests that fusion commercialization will not occur without active and broad-based support on the part of the Nation's political leaders. Its key recommendation is that DOE fusion planners devote considerable resources to analytical efforts aimed at determining the need for fusion and the timing of that need, in order to convince policymakers that they need do more than preserve fusion as an option for application at some indefinite point in the future. It is the thesis of the report that, in fact, an act of political vision on the part of the Nation's leaders will be required to accomplish fusion commercialization

  1. Production of Liquid Synthetic Fuels from Carbon, Water and Nuclear Power on Ships and at Shore Bases for Military and Potential Commercial Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locke Bogart, S.; Schultz, Ken; Brown, Lloyd; Russ, Ben

    2006-01-01

    It is demonstrable that synthetic fuels (jet/diesel/gasoline ≅ (CH 2 ) n ) can be produced from carbon, water, and nuclear energy. What remains to be shown is that all system processes are scalable, integrable, and economical. Sources of carbon include but are not limited to CO 2 from the atmosphere or seawater, CO 2 from fossil-fired power plants, and elemental carbon from coal or biomass. For mobile defense (Navy) applications, the ubiquitous atmosphere is our chosen carbon source. For larger-scale sites such as Naval Advance Bases, the atmosphere may still be the choice should other sources not be readily available. However, at many locations suitable for defense and, potentially, commercial syn-fuel production, far higher concentrations of carbon may be available. The rationale for this study was manifold: fuel system security from terrorism and possible oil embargoes; rising demand and, eventually, peaking supply of conventional petroleum; and escalating costs and prices of fuels. For these reasons, the initial parts of the study were directed at Syn-fuel production for mobile Naval platforms and shore sites such as Rokkasho, Japan (as an exemplar). Nuclear reactors would provide the energy for H 2 from water-splitting, Membrane Gas Absorption (MGA) would extract CO 2 from the atmosphere, the Reverse Water-Gas Reaction (RWGR) would convert the CO 2 to CO, and the resultant H 2 and CO feeds would be converted to (CH 2 )n by the Fischer-Tropsch reaction. Many of these processes exist at commercial scale. Some, particularly MGA and RWGR, have been demonstrated at the bench-scale, requiring up-scaling. Likewise, the demonstration of an integrated system at some scale is yet to be done. For ship-based production, it has been shown that the system should be viable and, under reasonable assumptions, both scalable and economical for defense fuels. For the assumptions in the study, fuel cost estimates range from ∼ $2.55 to $4.75 per gallon with a nominal cost of

  2. Commercial Security on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddy, Carrie

    1996-01-01

    Discusses commercial security on the Internet and explains public key technology as successfully melding the conflicting requirements of openness for practical business applications and isolation and confidentiality for protection of data. Examples of public key value-added products are described, including encryption, digital signature and…

  3. Commercial transport aircraft composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    The role that analysis plays in the development, production, and substantiation of aircraft structures is discussed. The types, elements, and applications of failure that are used and needed; the current application of analysis methods to commercial aircraft advanced composite structures, along with a projection of future needs; and some personal thoughts on analysis development goals and the elements of an approach to analysis development are discussed.

  4. Nanovate commercializing disruptive nanotechnologies

    CERN Document Server

    Anis, Mohab; Sarhan, Wesam; Elsemary, Mona

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers from diverse backgrounds to the principles underlying nanotechnology, from devices to systems, while also describing in detail how businesses can use nanotechnology to redesign their products and processes, in order to have a clear edge over their competition. The authors include 75 case studies, describing in a highly-accessible manner, real nanotechnology innovations from 15 different industrial sectors. For each case study, the technology or business challenges faced by the company are highlighted, the type of nanotechnology adopted is defined, and the eventual economic and social impact is described. Introduces fundamentals of nanotechnology and its applications in a highly-accessible manner Includes 75 case studies of commercializing nanotechnology from 15 industrial sectors, including Automotive, Consumer Electronics, and Renewable Energy Enables nanotechnology experts to learn simple and important business concepts to facilitate the transfer of science to the market Introdu...

  5. Commercial Buildings Characteristics, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-29

    Commercial Buildings Characteristics 1992 presents statistics about the number, type, and size of commercial buildings in the United States as well as their energy-related characteristics. These data are collected in the Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), a national survey of buildings in the commercial sector. The 1992 CBECS is the fifth in a series conducted since 1979 by the Energy Information Administration. Approximately 6,600 commercial buildings were surveyed, representing the characteristics and energy consumption of 4.8 million commercial buildings and 67.9 billion square feet of commercial floorspace nationwide. Overall, the amount of commercial floorspace in the United States increased an average of 2.4 percent annually between 1989 and 1992, while the number of commercial buildings increased an average of 2.0 percent annually.

  6. Influence of partner diversity on collaborative public R&D project outcomes: a study of application and commercialization of nanotechnologies in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; Jansen, M.; Boshuizen, J.; Lüttge, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have indicated the importance of public R&D in the transfer and commercialization of nanotechnology. So far, few have focused on university–industry interaction and collaboration performance. In this study, we investigate the impact of technological diversity and value chain

  7. Empirical survey of the application of commercial-graded Lithium Polymer batteries in military systems in conjunction with solar panels and fuel cells

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an empirical survey into the comparative characteristics of commercial NiCd, Lithium-ion and Lithium Polymer batteries when applied in a range of man portable military radios. The focus is on when the expected load...

  8. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  9. A methodology for combining multiple commercial data sources to improve measurement of the food and alcohol environment: applications of geographical information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara D. Mendez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Commercial data sources have been increasingly used to measure and locate community resources. We describe a methodology for combining and comparing the differences in commercial data of the food and alcohol environment. We used commercial data from two commercial databases (InfoUSA and Dun&Bradstreet for 2003 and 2009 to obtain infor- mation on food and alcohol establishments and developed a matching process using computer algorithms and manual review by applying ArcGIS to geocode addresses, standard industrial classification and North American industry classification tax- onomy for type of establishment and establishment name. We constructed population and area-based density measures (e.g. grocery stores and assessed differences across data sources and used ArcGIS to map the densities. The matching process resulted in 8,705 and 7,078 unique establishments for 2003 and 2009, respectively. There were more establishments cap- tured in the combined dataset than relying on one data source alone, and the additional establishments captured ranged from 1,255 to 2,752 in 2009. The correlations for the density measures between the two data sources was highest for alcohol out- lets (r = 0.75 and 0.79 for per capita and area, respectively and lowest for grocery stores/supermarkets (r = 0.32 for both. This process for applying geographical information systems to combine multiple commercial data sources and develop meas- ures of the food and alcohol environment captured more establishments than relying on one data source alone. This replic- able methodology was found to be useful for understanding the food and alcohol environment when local or public data are limited.

  10. Introducing Commercial Finance into the Water Sector in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bender, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This guidance note provides an introduction to the role of commercial finance in the water and sanitation sector. Its aim is to help readers (development specialists) explore applications in their own countries. The note focuses primarily on commercial bank loans, and throughout the document the term commercial finance refers to commercial loans from domestic banks. However, much of the gu...

  11. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  12. Commercial and home-made nitrogen modified titanias. A short reflection about the advantageous/disadvantageous properties of nitrogen doping in the frame of their applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pap, Zs.; Mogyorósi, K.; Veréb, G.; Dombi, A.; Hernádi, K.; Danciu, V.; Baia, L.

    2014-09-01

    As visible light driven photocatalysis became more and more intensively studied, the first commercial products showed up on the market. Simultaneously controversial results appeared in the literature generating an intensive debate regarding the advantages and draw-backs of nitrogen doping of titania. Hence, the present work focuses on two commercially available and four sol-gel made nitrogen modified titania powders regarding their structure and activity. It is demonstrated that the interstitial nitrogen entities “leak out” from the catalysts if the material is irradiated with UV light, while substitutional nitrogen remains stable. However, the latter one was proven to be less important in the photocatalytic point of view. These observations were also valid in the case of sol-gel made nitrogen modified titanias. Furthermore, the results obtained after applying different spectroscopic methods (IR, XPS and DRS) shown that the yellow color of the titanias, does not necessary mean that a successful doping is achieved.

  13. Applicability of stable C and N isotope analysis in inferring the geographical origin and authentication of commercial fish (Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejoong; Suresh Kumar, K; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Globalisation of seafood and aquaculture products and their convenient marketing worldwide, increases the possibility for the distribution of mislabelled products; thereby, underlining the need to identify their origin. Stable isotope analysis is a promising approach to identify the authenticity and traceability of seafood and aquaculture products. In this investigation, we measured carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) of three commercial fish, viz. Mackerel, Yellow Croaker and Pollock, originating from various countries. Apart from the species-dependent variation in the isotopic values, marked differences in the δ(13)C and δ(15)N ratios were also observed with respect to the country of origin. This suggests that C and N isotopic signatures could be reliable tools to identify and trace the origin of commercial fish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhancement of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in cabbage (Brassica oleraceae following application of commercial seaweed extracts of the brown seaweed, (Ascophyllum nodosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodora Lola-Luz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brassica crops are rich is phytochemical compounds and frequent consumption of these vegetables has been associated with a lower risk in cancer, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. The effect of three commercial extracts of the brown seaweed, Ascophyllum nodosum, on phytochemical content and yield in cabbage plants was tested under field conditions in two consecutive crops. Total phenolic content was higher in all seaweed treated plants, with the highest increase recorded with AlgaeGreenTM (3.5 l ha-1 with a 2 fold increase relative to the control. The other commercial seaweed extract, XT achieved a lower increases of 1.3 fold (3.5 l ha-1. Similar increases were recorded in total flavonoid content. No statistically significant increases in yield were recorded with any of the seaweed extracts tested. The results suggest that seaweed extracts stimulated an increased accumulation of phytochemicals in cabbage but had no significant effect in yield under these experimental conditions.

  15. Commercial Banking Industry Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright Horizons Children's Centers, Cambridge, MA.

    Work and family programs are becoming increasingly important in the commercial banking industry. The objective of this survey was to collect information and prepare a commercial banking industry profile on work and family programs. Fifty-nine top American commercial banks from the Fortune 500 list were invited to participate. Twenty-two…

  16. Research and development of Proton-Exchange-Membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Fuel cell infrastructure and commercialization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This paper has been prepared in partial fulfillment of a subcontract from the Allison Division of General Motors under the terms of Allison`s contract with the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-90CH10435). The objective of this task (The Fuel Cell Infrastructure and Commercialization Study) is to describe and prepare preliminary evaluations of the processes which will be required to develop fuel cell engines for commercial and private vehicles. This report summarizes the work undertaken on this study. It addresses the availability of the infrastructure (services, energy supplies) and the benefits of creating public/private alliances to accelerate their commercialization. The Allison prime contract includes other tasks related to the research and development of advanced solid polymer fuel cell engines and preparation of a demonstration automotive vehicle. The commercialization process starts when there is sufficient understanding of a fuel cell engine`s technology and markets to initiate preparation of a business plan. The business plan will identify each major step in the design of fuel cell (or electrochemical) engines, evaluation of the markets, acquisition of manufacturing facilities, and the technical and financial resources which will be required. The process will end when one or more companies have successfully developed and produced fuel cell engines at a profit. This study addressed the status of the information which will be required to prepare business plans, develop the economic and market acceptance data, and to identify the mobility, energy and environment benefits of electrochemical or fuel cell engines. It provides the reader with information on the status of fuel cell or electrochemical engine development and their relative advantages over competitive propulsion systems. Recommendations and descriptions of additional technical and business evaluations that are to be developed in more detail in Phase II, are included.

  17. Are we there yet? Evaluating commercial grade brain-computer interface for control of computer applications by individuals with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherian, Sarvnaz; Selitskiy, Dmitry; Pau, James; Claire Davies, T

    2017-02-01

    Using a commercial electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI), the training and testing protocol for six individuals with spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy (GMFCS and MACS IV and V) was evaluated. A customised, gamified training paradigm was employed. Over three weeks, the participants spent two sessions exploring the system, and up to six sessions playing the game which focussed on EEG feedback of left and right arm motor imagery. The participants showed variable inconclusive results in the ability to produce two distinct EEG patterns. Participant performance was influenced by physical illness, motivation, fatigue and concentration. The results from this case study highlight the infancy of BCIs as a form of assistive technology for people with cerebral palsy. Existing commercial BCIs are not designed according to the needs of end-users. Implications for Rehabilitation Mood, fatigue, physical illness and motivation influence the usability of a brain-computer interface. Commercial brain-computer interfaces are not designed for practical assistive technology use for people with cerebral palsy. Practical brain-computer interface assistive technologies may need to be flexible to suit individual needs.

  18. Regional vegetation management standards for commercial pine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the understanding gained from these trials allowed for the development of vegetation management standards, their operational and economic viability need to be tested on a commercial basis. Four pine trials were thus initiated to test the applicability of these standards when utilised on a commercial scale. Two of ...

  19. The Rise and Demise of Commercial Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Lawrence R.

    1982-01-01

    Commercial geography, originally taught in 18th-century trading schools, reached its zenith in the mid-1920s because it was stimulated by the development of the British Empire, noted for its commercial applications, and popularized through information disseminated by geographical societies. Demise factors include America's isolationist attitudes,…

  20. Benchmarking Commercial Conformer Ensemble Generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Nils-Ole; de Bruyn Kops, Christina; Flachsenberg, Florian; Sommer, Kai; Rarey, Matthias; Kirchmair, Johannes

    2017-11-27

    We assess and compare the performance of eight commercial conformer ensemble generators (ConfGen, ConfGenX, cxcalc, iCon, MOE LowModeMD, MOE Stochastic, MOE Conformation Import, and OMEGA) and one leading free algorithm, the distance geometry algorithm implemented in RDKit. The comparative study is based on a new version of the Platinum Diverse Dataset, a high-quality benchmarking dataset of 2859 protein-bound ligand conformations extracted from the PDB. Differences in the performance of commercial algorithms are much smaller than those observed for free algorithms in our previous study (J. Chem. Inf. 2017, 57, 529-539). For commercial algorithms, the median minimum root-mean-square deviations measured between protein-bound ligand conformations and ensembles of a maximum of 250 conformers are between 0.46 and 0.61 Å. Commercial conformer ensemble generators are characterized by their high robustness, with at least 99% of all input molecules successfully processed and few or even no substantial geometrical errors detectable in their output conformations. The RDKit distance geometry algorithm (with minimization enabled) appears to be a good free alternative since its performance is comparable to that of the midranked commercial algorithms. Based on a statistical analysis, we elaborate on which algorithms to use and how to parametrize them for best performance in different application scenarios.

  1. Data Center Energy Efficiency Technologies and Methodologies: A Review of Commercial Technologies and Recommendations for Application to Department of Defense Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    host multiple applications on a single server and split larger applications between multiple servers. If applications can be quickly and easily...improvements are often seen as leading to negative impacts on the organization that operates the DC. Another significant limiting factor for the DoD...34 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 31, pp. 622-638, 2014. [152] R. Miller, "Data Center Used to Heat Swimming Pool," Data Center Knowledge, 2

  2. Analysis of SEL on Commercial SRAM Memories and Mixed-Field Characterization of a Latchup Detection Circuit for LEO Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondo, R.; Alía, R. Garcia; Peronnard, P.; Brugger, M.; Masi, A.; Danzeca, S.; Merlenghi, A.; Vaillé, J.-R.; Dusseau, L.

    2017-08-01

    A single event latchup (SEL) experiment based on commercial static random access memory (SRAM) memories has recently been proposed in the framework of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Latchup Experiment and Student Satellite nanosatellite low Earth orbit (LEO) space mission. SEL characterization of three commercial SRAM memories has been carried out at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) facility, using monoenergetic focused proton beams and different acquisition setups. The best target candidate was selected and a circuit for SEL detection has been proposed and tested at CERN, in the CERN High Energy AcceleRator Mixed-field facility (CHARM). Experimental results were carried out at test locations representative of the LEO environment, thus providing a full characterization of the SRAM cross sections, together with the analysis of the single-event effect and total ionizing dose of the latchup detection circuit in relation to the particle spectra expected during mission. The setups used for SEL monitoring are described, and details of the proposed circuit components and topology are presented. Experimental results obtained both at PSI and at CHARM facilities are discussed.

  3. Extraction and Application of Laccases from Shimeji Mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus Residues in Decolourisation of Reactive Dyes and a Comparative Study Using Commercial Laccase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Sposina S. Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidases are able to degrade organic pollutants; however, high costs associated with biocatalysts production still hinder their use in environmental biocatalysis. Our study compared the action of a commercial laccase from Aspergillus oryzae and a rich extract from Pleurotus ostreatus cultivation residues in decolourisation of reactive dyes: Drimaren Blue X-3LR (DMBLR, Drimaren Blue X-BLN (DMBBLN, Drimaren Rubinol X-3LR (DMR, and Drimaren Blue C-R (RBBR. The colour removal was evaluated by considering dye concentration, reaction time, absence or presence of the mediator ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, and the source of laccase. The presence of ABTS was essential for decolourisation of DMR (80–90%, 1 h and RBBR (80–90%, 24 h with both laccases. The use of ABTS was not necessary in reactions containing DMBLR (85–97%, 1 h and DMBBLN (63–84%, 24 h. The decolourisation of DMBBLN by commercial laccase showed levels near 60% while the crude extract presented 80% in 24 h.

  4. Using voice to create hospital progress notes: Description of a mobile application and supporting system integrated with a commercial electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Thomas H; Alonso, W David; Markiel, J Andrew; Lybarger, Kevin; White, Andrew A

    2018-01-01

    We describe the development and design of a smartphone app-based system to create inpatient progress notes using voice, commercial automatic speech recognition software, with text processing to recognize spoken voice commands and format the note, and integration with a commercial EHR. This new system fits hospital rounding workflow and was used to support a randomized clinical trial testing whether use of voice to create notes improves timeliness of note availability, note quality, and physician satisfaction with the note creation process. The system was used to create 709 notes which were placed in the corresponding patient's EHR record. The median time from pressing the Send button to appearance of the formatted note in the Inbox was 8.8 min. It was generally very reliable, accepted by physician users, and secure. This approach provides an alternative to use of keyboard and templates to create progress notes and may appeal to physicians who prefer voice to typing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of banks’ commercial credit applications using the analytic hierarchy process and Grey relational analysis: A comparison between public and private banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeliha Kaygısız Ertuğ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to develop an evaluation model that considers the quantitative and qualitative criteria for the appropriate selection of firms demanding commercial credit for both public and private banks. In this paper, the authors propose an integrated model that combines the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP and Grey Relational Analysis (GRA into a single evaluation model. The model is illustrated with a case study on bank experts to demonstrate the effectiveness of this integrated method for four firms that applied for a commercial loan. In this study, AHP is applied to determine the weight of the criteria, and GRA is performed to determine the most appropriate firm. The results of this study indicate that, whereas firm morality and news criteria are the main criteria with the highest priority, sale and marketing constructions are the main criteria with the lowest priorities for both public and private banks. In addition, according to the results of GRA, the most appropriate firm for a public bank is Firm 1, and the most appropriate firm for a private bank is Firm 2.

  6. Application of commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA for the detection of antibodies for foot-and-mouth disease virus in wild boar and red deer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzić Svjetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available For detecting antibodies towards foot and mouth (FMD virus in sera collected from red deer hinds (Cervus elaphus and wild boars (Sus scrofa, three commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA were used. Two ELISA kits (PrioCHECK FMDV NS and CHEKIT FMD-3ABC were used for the detection of antibodies towards non-structural proteins of FMD virus and one assay was based on the detection of antibodies for serotype O (PrioCHECK FMDV type O. All of the sera tested in our study were negative for antibodies against FMD virus. The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of commercially available ELISA kits given for marketing authorization in Croatia in testing the prevalence of FMD antibodies in wild boar and red deer populations. Since the producers of ELISA kits used in our study did not declare wild animals as a target species, we hypothesised that the same kits could be used for serological diagnosis of FMD in red deer and wild boars. Our study confirmed that the kits used are acceptable for detecting antibodies in both species tested, however, the investigation highlighted the problem of validating the kits due to the absence of available positive sera originating from red deer, as well as other susceptible species, especially artiodactyls.

  7. THE IDEA IS TO USEMODIS IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE CURRENT LIMITED LANDSAT CAPABILITY, COMMERCIAL SATELLITES, ANDUNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES (UAV), IN A MULTI-STAGE APPROACH TO MEET EPA INFORMATION NEEDS.REMOTE SENSING OVERVIEW: EPA CAPABILITIES, PRIORITY AGENCY APPLICATIONS, SENSOR/AIRCRAFT CAPABILITIES, COST CONSIDERATIONS, SPECTRAL AND SPATIAL RESOLUTIONS, AND TEMPORAL CONSIDERATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA remote sensing capabilities include applied research for priority applications and technology support for operational assistance to clients across the Agency. The idea is to use MODIS in conjunction with the current limited Landsat capability, commercial satellites, and Unma...

  8. Compendium of Single Event Effects Test Results for Commercial Off-The-Shelf and Standard Electronics for Low Earth Orbit and Deep Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddell, Brandon D.; Bailey, Charles R.; Nguyen, Kyson V.; O'Neill, Patrick M.; Wheeler, Scott; Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Jaime; Kalb, Theodore; Patel, Chirag; Beach, Elden R.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of Single Event Effects (SEE) testing with high energy protons and with low and high energy heavy ions for electrical components considered for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and for deep space applications.

  9. Recommended composition/property relationships for the characterization of commercial biodiesels before their application in production of automotive diesel fuels in a refinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinov, I.; Stratiev, D.; Shishkova, I.; Dinkov, R. [LUKOIL Neftohim Burgas (Bulgaria); Georgiev, K. [Cristal Chemical Trading, Velingrad (Bulgaria)

    2013-10-15

    The article summarizes the results of experimental studies on the physicochemical properties of twenty commercial biodiesel samples obtained from different manufacturers, and studied properties include density, viscosity and cetane number. An extensive literature review was carried out on available mathematical relationships between fatty acid composition of the biodiesel and the above properties. The predictive potential of the published relationships was evaluated with respect to the properties of the investigated biodiesel samples. Based on existing standard methods for analysis those relationships were selected that fit within the reproducibility of the corresponding method or closely match it. The selected dependencies were summarized in a single mathematical apparatus, with which it is possible to expertly assess the quality of biodiesel before being used for production of automotive diesel fuel in a refinery. (orig.)

  10. Commercial application of titania-supported hydrodesulfurization catalysts in the production of hydrogen using full-range FCC off-gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaohu [SINOPEC Wuhan Branch, Qingshan, Wuhan 430082 (China); Shen, Binglong; Qu, Lianglong [Beijing Haishunde Titanium Catalyst Co. Ltd., A-1 North East-Ring Road, Beijing Economic-Technological Development Area, Beijing 100176 (China)

    2004-11-24

    This paper provides an alternative for low-cost feed used for on-purpose hydrogen production. Full-range FCC off-gas was applied to steam-reforming process as feed after treating with hydrogenation and hydrodesulfurization catalysts. Commercial run results were reported with novel TiO{sub 2}-supported Mo-based catalysts, T205A-1 and T205. The processes of catalysts loading, sulfidation, start-up and long-term run were described in details. Long-term run showed that TiO{sub 2}-supported Mo catalysts have good low-temperature hydrogenation activity, excellent HDS activity, and outstanding stability. Use of FCC off-gas as feed for hydrogen production is quite promising and will increase margins for refiners today.

  11. Preliminary Study on Application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for Determining the Peroxide Value of Three Commercial Palm Oil Based FTIR Spectrum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azwan Mat Lazim; Musa Ahmad; Zuriati Zakaria; Mohd Suzeren Jamil; Suria Ramli; Faiz Zainuddin; Mohd Nasir Taib; Mat Nasir Mat Arip

    2013-01-01

    Peroxide value is one of the measurements that being used to determine the peroxide in oil samples produce from the peroxide compound and hydroperoxide group at the primary level of lipid oxidation. In this study, 3 commercial palm cooking oils were selected and labeled as A, B and C. Two different conditions were applied to the samples. First, the oil sample was exposed to the air for three months (labeled as A) while samples B and C were used for frying for many times. Two inputs from FTIR spectra (3444 cm -1 and 3450 cm -1 ) were chosen for the ANN training. The suitable architecture for this training is 2:20:1. The prediction made by ANN was very accurate and compatible to the result which obtained from the standard method. A low average error (0.48) was obtained when the hidden neuron (20) and the epochs (300) were used. (author)

  12. Commercialism in Intercollegiate Athletics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany, James E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the history of intercollegiate athletics and the evolution of commercialization in college sports, particularly through television. Argues that few Division I programs could be self-sufficient; the issue is the degree to which sports are commercialized for revenue, and the challenge to balance schools' needs, private sector interests, and…

  13. Recycling Sounds in Commercials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Charlotte Rørdam

    2012-01-01

    Commercials offer the opportunity for intergenerational memory and impinge on cultural memory. TV commercials for foodstuffs often make reference to past times as a way of authenticating products. This is frequently achieved using visual cues, but in this paper I would like to demonstrate how...... such references to the past and ‘the good old days’ can be achieved through sounds. In particular, I will look at commercials for Danish non-dairy spreads, especially for OMA margarine. These commercials are notable in that they contain a melody and a slogan – ‘Say the name: OMA margarine’ – that have basically...... remained the same for 70 years. Together these identifiers make OMA an interesting Danish case to study. With reference to Ann Rigney’s memorial practices or mechanisms, the study aims to demonstrate how the auditory aspects of Danish margarine commercials for frying tend to be limited in variety...

  14. Streamlining Transportation Corridors Planning Processes and Validating the Application of Commercial Remote Sensing and Spatial Information (CRS-SI) Technologies for Environmental Impact Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-05

    The new US DOT RITA program has selected MSU for addressing corridor planning and environmental assessment in new and innovative ways that can be compared to traditional approaches. Our primary focus is on the application and validation of new and in...

  15. Using commercial amateur astronomical spectrographs

    CERN Document Server

    Hopkins, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    Amateur astronomers interested in learning more about astronomical spectroscopy now have the guide they need. It provides detailed information about how to get started inexpensively with low-resolution spectroscopy, and then how to move on to more advanced  high-resolution spectroscopy. Uniquely, the instructions concentrate very much on the practical aspects of using commercially-available spectroscopes, rather than simply explaining how spectroscopes work. The book includes a clear explanation of the laboratory theory behind astronomical spectrographs, and goes on to extensively cover the practical application of astronomical spectroscopy in detail. Four popular and reasonably-priced commercially available diffraction grating spectrographs are used as examples. The first is a low-resolution transmission diffraction grating, the Star Analyser spectrograph. The second is an inexpensive fiber optic coupled bench spectrograph that can be used to learn more about spectroscopy. The third is a newcomer, the ALPY ...

  16. Is radurisation commercially feasible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    In November 1980 an international expert committee, convened by the three organisations sponsoring the International Food Irradiation Project, viz the World Health Organisation, the Food and Agricultural Organization and the International Atomic Energy Agency, declared all radurised foods irradiated up to a dose of 10 kGy (1 Mrad) as unconditionally safe and nutritionally adequate (ie wholesome) for humans. However, the application of this new food-processing technique on a full commercial scale will undoubtedly be determined by factors such as the efficacy of the process in comparison with existing techniques, cost of operation, and finally, acceptance by the food handler and consumer. Studies in various countries, including South Africa, during the past decade have demonstrated that radiation in most cases in combination with pre-irradiation heat treatment or post irradiation cold storage, could play an important role in improving the quality of fresh produce by extension of shelf life (sometimes dramatic), by hygienisation (eg the elimination of harmful pathogens or a reduction of potentially harmful chemical residues) and lastly by improved quarantine control. Cost and energy-comsumption analyses indicate that radurisation is an energy-saving process in comparison with both heating and cooling and, even though the process is capital intensive, that substantial cost benefits can accrue when large quantities of certain foodstuffs are processed. Consumer acceptance trials, both locally and abroad, have shown that if the consumer is properly informed, he can be convinced of the advantages which radurised foods could offer. A National Steering Committee was recently consituted. This committee acts in an advisory capacity to the Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and co-ordinates all aspects of the test marketing of radurised food on a national level

  17. 75 FR 32983 - Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ...-28480] Commercial Driver's License (CDL) Standards: Exemption AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety... commercial driver's license (CDL) as required by current regulations. FMCSA reviewed NAAA's application for... demonstrate alternatives its members would employ to ensure that their commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers...

  18. Thermal spray for commercial shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, F. S.

    1997-09-01

    Thermal spraying of steel with aluminum to protect it from corrosion is a technology that has been proven to work in the marine environment. The thermal spray coating system includes a paint sealer that is applied over the thermally sprayed aluminum. This extends the service life of the coating and provides color to the end product. The thermal spray system protects steel both through the principle of isolation (as in painting) and galvanizing. With this dual protection mechanism, steel is protected from corrosion even when the coating is damaged. The thermal- sprayed aluminum coating system has proved the most cost- effective corrosion protection system for the marine environment. Until recently, however, the initial cost of application has limited its use for general application. Arc spray technology has reduced the application cost of thermal spraying of aluminum to below that of painting. Commercial shipbuilders could use this technology to enhance their market position in the marine industry.

  19. Future trends in commercial and military systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, F. E.

    Commercial and military satellite communication systems are addressed, with a review of current applications and typical communication characteristics of the space and earth segments. Drivers for the development of future commercial systems include: the pervasion of digital techniques and services, growing orbit and frequency congestion, demand for more entertainment, and the large potential market for commercial 'roof-top' service. For military systems, survivability, improved flexibility, and the need for service to small mobile terminals are the principal factors involved. Technical trends include the use of higher frequency bands, multibeam antennas and a significant increase in the application of onboard processing. Military systems will employ a variety of techniques to counter both physical and electronic threats. The use of redundant transmission paths is a particularly effective approach. Successful implementation requires transmission standards to achieve the required interoperability among the pertinent networks. For both the military and commercial sectors, the trend toward larger numbers of terminals and more complex spacecraft is still persisting.

  20. Towards commercial aquaponics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, Harry W.; Knaus, Ulrich; Appelbaum, Samuel; Goddek, Simon; Strauch, Sebastian M.; Vermeulen, Tycho; Haїssam Jijakli, M.; Kotzen, Benz

    2018-01-01

    Aquaponics is rapidly developing as the need for sustainable food production increases and freshwater and phosphorous reserves shrink. Starting from small-scale operations, aquaponics is at the brink of commercialization, attracting investment. Arising from integrated freshwater aquaculture, a

  1. NASA commercial programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Highlights of NASA-sponsored and assisted commercial space activities of 1989 are presented. Industrial R and D in space, centers for the commercial development of space, and new cooperative agreements are addressed in the U.S. private sector in space section. In the building U.S. competitiveness through technology section, the following topics are presented: (1) technology utilization as a national priority; (2) an exploration of benefits; and (3) honoring Apollo-Era spinoffs. International and domestic R and D trends, and the space sector are discussed in the section on selected economic indicators. Other subjects included in this report are: (1) small business innovation; (2) budget highlights and trends; (3) commercial programs management; and (4) the commercial programs advisory committee.

  2. Commercial Landing System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Fisheries Statistics Division of the NOAA Fisheries has automated data summary programs that anyone can use to rapidly and easily summarize U.S. commercial...

  3. Commodification and commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Richard J

    1992-01-01

    ... In this article I shall argue tentatively for the claim that commercial surrogacy should be legally permissible. I am more strongly convinced that a commitment to feminism should not predispose anyone against surrogacy. At least, no arguments offered so far should persuade anyone who is committed to equal rights for women and men and the dismantling of gender-based hierarchies to favor either legal prohibition or moral condemnation of commercial surrogacy.

  4. Technology Commercialization Program 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-11-01

    This reference compilation describes the Technology Commercialization Program of the Department of Energy, Defense Programs. The compilation consists of two sections. Section 1, Plans and Procedures, describes the plans and procedures of the Defense Programs Technology Commercialization Program. The second section, Legislation and Policy, identifies legislation and policy related to the Program. The procedures for implementing statutory and regulatory requirements are evolving with time. This document will be periodically updated to reflect changes and new material.

  5. Thermal comfort in commercial kitchens (RP-1469)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Stoops, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory, and working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type of establishment (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, the size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., further complicate an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in commercial kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are stipulated in international standards (e.g., ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN 7730), but are these standardized methods applicable...... dissatisfied (PMV/PPD) index is not directly appropriate for all thermal conditions in commercial kitchens....

  6. Research achievements and commercial interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnett, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    ANSTO, in partnership with Australian and overseas organisations, continues to make significant contributions to selected fields of research and development. Major revenue for ANSTO is generated through sales of radiopharmaceuticals and radioisotopes for medical, industrial, environmental and research purposes and through neutron irradiation services. Further, ANSTO is actively trying to generate maximum value from its knowledge and know-how through protection and exploitation of its intellectual property. Strategic alliances have been developed to further the commercial utilisation of ANSTO know-how in, for example, delivery systems for tumour treatments, commercial waste remediation and applications of plasma implantation. The 2000-2001 financial year saw the establishment of an ANSTO business unit called Sulfide Solutions targeted at better management of environmental issues arising from mining operations. Overall, ANSTO's capacity to generate value from the application of its knowledge and know-how is being increasingly acknowledged, the organisation attaining credibility as an international leader in the application of nuclear science and technology in targeted areas

  7. Condensation versus diffusion. A spatial-scale-independent theory of aggregate structures in edible oils: applications to model systems and commercial shortenings studied via rheology and USAXS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink, David A.; Peyronel, Fernanda; Quinn, Bonnie; Singh, Pratham; Marangoni, Alejandro G.

    2015-09-01

    Understanding how solid fats structures come about in edible oils and quantifying their structures is of fundamental importance in developing edible oils with pre-selected characteristics. We considered the great range of fractal dimensions, from 1.91 to 2.90, reported from rheological measurements. We point out that, if the structures arise via DLA/RLA or DLCA/RLCA, as has been established using ultra small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS), we would expect fractal dimensions in the range ~1.7 to 2.1, and ~2.5 or ~3.0. We present new data for commercial fats and show that the fractal dimensions deduced lie outside these values. We have developed a model in which competition between two processes can lead to the range of fractal dimensions observed. The two processes are (i) the rate at which the solid fat particles are created as the temperature is decreased, and (ii) the rate at which these particles diffuse, thereby meeting and forming aggregates. We assumed that aggregation can take place essentially isotropically and we identified two characteristic times: a time characterizing the rate of creation of solid fats, {τ\\text{create}}(T)\\equiv 1/{{R}S}(T) , where {{R}S}(T) is the rate of solid condensation (cm3 s-1), and the diffusion time of solid fats, {τ\\text{diff}}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right)= /6{D}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right) , where {D}≤ft(T,{{c}S}\\right) is their diffusion coefficient and is the typical average distance that fats must move in order to aggregate. The intent of this model is to show that a simple process can lead to a wide range of fractal dimensions. We showed that in the limit of very fast solid creation, {τ\\text{create}}\\ll {τ\\text{diff}} the fractal dimension is predicted to be that of DLCA, ~1.7, relaxing to that of RLCA, 2.0-2.1, and that in the limit of very slow solid creation, {τ\\text{create}}\\gg {τ\\text{diff}} , the fractal dimension is predicted to be that obtained via DLA, ~2.5, relaxing to that of RLA, 3.0. We predict that

  8. An automated, open-source (NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline) workflow for mass production of high-resolution DEMs from commercial stereo satellite imagery: Application to mountain glacies in the contiguous US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shean, D. E.; Arendt, A. A.; Whorton, E.; Riedel, J. L.; O'Neel, S.; Fountain, A. G.; Joughin, I. R.

    2016-12-01

    We adapted the open source NASA Ames Stereo Pipeline (ASP) to generate digital elevation models (DEMs) and orthoimages from very-high-resolution (VHR) commercial imagery of the Earth. These modifications include support for rigorous and rational polynomial coefficient (RPC) sensor models, sensor geometry correction, bundle adjustment, point cloud co-registration, and significant improvements to the ASP code base. We outline an automated processing workflow for 0.5 m GSD DigitalGlobe WorldView-1/2/3 and GeoEye-1 along-track and cross-track stereo image data. Output DEM products are posted at 2, 8, and 32 m with direct geolocation accuracy of process individual stereo pairs on a local workstation, the methods presented here were developed for large-scale batch processing in a high-performance computing environment. We have leveraged these resources to produce dense time series and regional mosaics for the Earth's ice sheets. We are now processing and analyzing all available 2008-2016 commercial stereo DEMs over glaciers and perennial snowfields in the contiguous US. We are using these records to study long-term, interannual, and seasonal volume change and glacier mass balance. This analysis will provide a new assessment of regional climate change, and will offer basin-scale analyses of snowpack evolution and snow/ice melt runoff for water resource applications.

  9. A comparison of the oral application and injection routes using the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid vaccine, its safety, efficacy and duration of protection in commercial laying hens : article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Purchase

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to establish whether the Onderstepoort Biological Products Fowl Typhoid (OBPft vaccine registered as an injectable vaccine was effective and safe when administered orally to commercial layers. Its efficacy and duration of protection were compared with application by intramuscular injection. Commercial brown layer hens were used as they were found to be highly susceptible to Salmonella gallinarum infections. In the vaccine safety trial birds were euthanased at timed intervals spanning 4 weeks post-vaccination. Necropsies were performed and samples were taken and tested. No clinical signs or mortalities could be attributed to the OBPft vaccine nor could active shedding of the vaccine strain be detected. Slight pathological changes were noted with both routes of vaccination; however, these changes were transient, returning to normal within the observation period. The injected groups showed a better serological response with the rapid serum plate agglutination (RSPA test than the orally vaccinated groups. In the duration of protection trial, birds were challenged at 3-8-week intervals post-vaccination. All unvaccinated birds died. Protection 8 and 16 weeks after vaccination was above 60 %, by 24 weeks after challenge, the vaccine protection was below 30 %. It was found that there was no significant difference (P < 0.05 in the protection offered by either the oral or injected route of vaccination with the OBPft vaccine.

  10. Biogas treatment using an anaerobic biosystem[Manure, biosolids, and organic industrial/commercial residuals in land applications programs : improving beneficial reuse and protection of water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soreanu, G.; Al-Jamal, M.; Beland, M. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). Wastewater Technology Centre

    2007-07-01

    A common practice to stabilize biosolids prior to land application involves the anaerobic digestion of municipal sludge or other organic wastes. The biogas generated by the anaerobic process can be recovered and used as a green renewable fuel source. However, due to the presence of harmful by-products such as hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S) and siloxanes, its use is limited in practical applications. H{sub 2}S causes sulphur oxide emissions and is extremely toxic, odorous, and highly corrosive causing damages to combined heat and power engines, thereby reducing their operating life cycle. This paper discussed the results of a study that investigated the removal of H{sub 2}S from biogas using a bioreactor packed with polypropylene spheres inoculated with anaerobically digested sludge. The paper identified the material and methodology used for the study as well as the key control parameters utilized during the biological H{sub 2}S removal process, including the composition of a nutritive solution and the temperature of a filter bed. The paper discussed the preliminary results that were determined under different operating conditions. It was concluded that the production of biomass in the reactor was insignificant and no pressure drop was registered during the experiments. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  11. Hardness variability in commercial technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Meisenheimer, T.L.; Sexton, F.W.; Roeske, S.B.; Knoll, M.G.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation hardness of commercial Floating Gate 256K E 2 PROMs from a single diffusion lot was observed to vary between 5 to 25 krad(Si) when irradiated at a low dose rate of 64 mrad(Si)/s. Additional variations in E 2 PROM hardness were found to depend on bias condition and failure mode (i.e., inability to read or write the memory), as well as the foundry at which the part was manufactured. This variability is related to system requirements, and it is shown that hardness level and variability affect the allowable mode of operation for E 2 PROMs in space applications. The radiation hardness of commercial 1-Mbit CMOS SRAMs from Micron, Hitachi, and Sony irradiated at 147 rad(Si)/s was approximately 12, 13, and 19 krad(Si), respectively. These failure levels appear to be related to increases in leakage current during irradiation. Hardness of SRAMs from each manufacturer varied by less than 20%, but differences between manufacturers are significant. The Qualified Manufacturer's List approach to radiation hardness assurance is suggested as a way to reduce variability and to improve the hardness level of commercial technologies

  12. Efficient recovery of whole blood RNA - a comparison of commercial RNA extraction protocols for high-throughput applications in wildlife species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwochow Doreen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the emergence of next generation sequencing platforms, unprecedented opportunities have arisen in the study of natural vertebrate populations. In particular, insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of adaptation can be revealed through study of the expression profiles of genes. However, as a pre-requisite to expression profiling, care must be taken in RNA preparation as factors like DNA contamination, RNA integrity or transcript abundance can affect downstream applications. Here, we evaluated five commonly used RNA extraction methods using whole blood sampled under varying conditions from 20 wild carnivores. Results Despite the use of minute starting volumes, all methods produced quantifiable RNA extracts (1.4 – 18.4 μg with varying integrity (RIN 4.6 - 7.7, the latter being significantly affected by the storage and extraction method used. We observed a significant overall effect of the extraction method on DNA contamination. One particular extraction method, the LeukoLOCK™ filter system, yielded high RNA integrity along with low DNA contamination and efficient depletion of hemoglobin transcripts highly abundant in whole blood. In a proof of concept sequencing experiment, we found globin RNA transcripts to occupy up to ¼ of all sequencing reads if libraries were not depleted of hemoglobin prior to sequencing. Conclusion By carefully choosing the appropriate RNA extraction method, whole blood can become a valuable source for high-throughput applications like expression arrays or transcriptome sequencing from natural populations. Additionally, candidate genes showing signs of selection could subsequently be genotyped in large population samples using whole blood as a source for RNA without harming individuals from rare or endangered species.

  13. Application of commercial MOSFET detectors for in vivo dosimetry in the therapeutic x-ray range from 80 kV to 250 kV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehringfeld, Christian; Schmid, Susanne; Poljanc, Karin; Kirisits, Christian; Aiginger, Hannes; Georg, Dietmar

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric characteristics (energy dependence, linearity, fading, reproducibility, etc) of MOSFET detectors for in vivo dosimetry in the kV x-ray range. The experience of MOSFET in vivo dosimetry in a pre-clinical study using the Alderson phantom and in clinical practice is also reported. All measurements were performed with a Gulmay D3300 kV unit and TN-502RDI MOSFET detectors. For the determination of correction factors different solid phantoms and a calibrated Farmer-type chamber were used. The MOSFET signal was linear with applied dose in the range from 0.2 to 2 Gy for all energies. Due to fading it is recommended to read the MOSFET signal during the first 15 min after irradiation. For long time intervals between irradiation and readout the fading can vary largely with the detector. The temperature dependence of the detector signal was small (0.3% deg. C -1 ) in the temperature range between 22 and 40 deg. C. The variation of the measuring signal with beam incidence amounts to ±5% and should be considered in clinical applications. Finally, for entrance dose measurements energy-dependent calibration factors, correction factors for field size and irradiated cable length were applied. The overall accuracy, for all measurements, was dominated by reproducibility as a function of applied dose. During the pre-clinical in vivo study, the agreement between MOSFET and TLD measurements was well within 3%. The results of MOSFET measurements, to determine the dosimetric characteristics as well as clinical applications, showed that MOSFET detectors are suitable for in vivo dosimetry in the kV range. However, some energy-dependent dosimetry effects need to be considered and corrected for. Due to reproducibility effects at low dose levels accurate in vivo measurements are only possible if the applied dose is equal to or larger than 2 Gy

  14. Application of commercial MOSFET detectors for in vivo dosimetry in the therapeutic x-ray range from 80 kV to 250 kV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehringfeld, Christian; Schmid, Susanne; Poljanc, Karin; Kirisits, Christian; Aiginger, Hannes; Georg, Dietmar

    2005-01-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the dosimetric characteristics (energy dependence, linearity, fading, reproducibility, etc) of MOSFET detectors for in vivo dosimetry in the kV x-ray range. The experience of MOSFET in vivo dosimetry in a pre-clinical study using the Alderson phantom and in clinical practice is also reported. All measurements were performed with a Gulmay D3300 kV unit and TN-502RDI MOSFET detectors. For the determination of correction factors different solid phantoms and a calibrated Farmer-type chamber were used. The MOSFET signal was linear with applied dose in the range from 0.2 to 2 Gy for all energies. Due to fading it is recommended to read the MOSFET signal during the first 15 min after irradiation. For long time intervals between irradiation and readout the fading can vary largely with the detector. The temperature dependence of the detector signal was small (0.3% degrees C(-1)) in the temperature range between 22 and 40 degrees C. The variation of the measuring signal with beam incidence amounts to +/-5% and should be considered in clinical applications. Finally, for entrance dose measurements energy-dependent calibration factors, correction factors for field size and irradiated cable length were applied. The overall accuracy, for all measurements, was dominated by reproducibility as a function of applied dose. During the pre-clinical in vivo study, the agreement between MOSFET and TLD measurements was well within 3%. The results of MOSFET measurements, to determine the dosimetric characteristics as well as clinical applications, showed that MOSFET detectors are suitable for in vivo dosimetry in the kV range. However, some energy-dependent dosimetry effects need to be considered and corrected for. Due to reproducibility effects at low dose levels accurate in vivo measurements are only possible if the applied dose is equal to or larger than 2 Gy.

  15. Modular Platform for Commercial Mobile Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten

    , and not on putting the robots on the commercial market. At the time when this research project was started in May 2010, the amount of successful commercial applications based on mobile robots was very limited. The most known applications were vacuum cleaners, lawn mowers, and few examples of specialized transport...... by the individual groups and perhaps a few close industrial partners. This research project addresses the problem of increasing the potential for more commercial applications based on mobile wheeled robots. Therefore the main focus is not on inventing new ground-breaking robotics technology, but instead...... period, a signicant research community was created around one specific robot control framework called ROS. From the very beginning,this research project acknowledged the value of such a community, and put a significant eort into in uencing the ROS framework to become usable also for industry...

  16. Application of the Commercial Grade Item (CGI) Dedication Process for Procurement of Nuclear Safety Related Items at Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NEK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heruc, Z.; Pozar, J.

    1998-01-01

    CGI procurement is a process whereby parts are brought without imposing Appendix B Quality Assurance requirements on the supplier, and than dedicated for use in safety-related applications. The dedication process involves 1) based upon required safety function, an engineering evaluation to identify critical characteristic of the item and specification of acceptance criteria; and 2) quality control activities to ensure the item(s) supplied meets the acceptance criteria specified. CGI Dedication supports the supply of certified components/parts for the plant operation in an environment where the number of nuclear qualified suppliers diminishes. It requires a more active role of the plant personnel, therefore presenting an additional burden on human resources, but at the same time increases the technical KNOW-HOW and improves the confidence of test and inspection data presented in the certificates. Very often it is also cost beneficial. This paper is a continuation to last year presentation of the introduction of this method into NEK's procurement process and presents the current approach and some practical examples. (author)

  17. Commercialization of NESSUS: Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Millwater, Harry R.

    1991-01-01

    A plan was initiated in 1988 to commercialize the Numerical Evaluation of Stochastic Structures Under Stress (NESSUS) probabilistic structural analysis software. The goal of the on-going commercialization effort is to begin the transfer of Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) developed technology into industry and to develop additional funding resources in the general area of structural reliability. The commercialization effort is summarized. The SwRI NESSUS Software System is a general purpose probabilistic finite element computer program using state of the art methods for predicting stochastic structural response due to random loads, material properties, part geometry, and boundary conditions. NESSUS can be used to assess structural reliability, to compute probability of failure, to rank the input random variables by importance, and to provide a more cost effective design than traditional methods. The goal is to develop a general probabilistic structural analysis methodology to assist in the certification of critical components in the next generation Space Shuttle Main Engine.

  18. Commercial Conspiracy Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eFurnham

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to categorise conspiracy theories. In the present study, we examined individual and demographic predictors of beliefs in commercial conspiracy theories among a British sample of over 300 women and men. Results showed people were cynical and sceptical with regard to advertising tricks, as well as the tactics of organisations like banks and alcohol, drug and tobacco companies. Beliefs sorted into four identifiable clusters, labelled sneakiness, manipulative, change-the-rules and suppression/prevention. The high alpha for the overall scale suggested general beliefs in commercial conspiracy. Regressions suggested that those people who were less religious, more left-wing, more pessimistic, less (self-defined as wealthy, less Neurotic and less Open-to-Experience believed there was more commercial conspiracy. Overall the individual difference variables explained relatively little of the variance in these beliefs.The implications of these findings for the literature on conspiracy theories are discussed.

  19. Commercial and Institutional Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Commercial and institutional waste is primarily from retail (stores), hotels, restaurants, health care (except health risk waste), banks, insurance companies, education, retirement homes, public services and transport. Within some of these sectors, e.g. retail and restaurants, large variations...... are found in terms of which products and services are offered. Available data on unit generation rates and material composition as well as determining factors are discussed in this chapter. The characterizing of commercial and institutional waste is faced with the problem that often only a part of the waste...... is handled in the municipal waste system, where information is easily accessible. An important part of commercial and institutional waste is packaging waste, and enterprises with large quantities of clean paper, cardboard and plastic waste may have their own facilities for baling and storing their waste...

  20. NASA's commercial research plans and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ray J.

    One of the primary goals of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) commercial space development plan is to encourage the development of space-based products and markets, along with the infrastructure and transportation that will support those products and markets. A three phased program has been instituted to carry out this program. The first phase utilizes government grants through the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS) for space-related, industry driven research; the development of a technology data base; and the development of commercial space transportation and infrastructure. The second phase includes the development of these technologies by industry for new commercial markets, and features unique industry/government collaborations such as Joint Endeavor Agreements. The final phase will feature technical applications actually brought to the marketplace. The government's role will be to support industry required infrastructure to encourage start-up markets and industries through follow-on development agreements such as the Space Systems Development Agreement. The Office of Commercial Programs has an aggressive flight program underway on the Space Shuttle, suborbital rockets, orbital expendable launch vehicles, and the Commercial Middeck Accommodation Module with SPACEHAB Inc. The Office of Commercial Program's has been allocated 35 percent of the U.S. share of the Space Station Freedom resources for 1997 utilization. A utilization plan has been developed with the Centers for the Commercial Development of Space and has identified eleven materials processing and biotechnology payloads occupying 5 double racks in the pressurized module as well as two payloads external to the module in materials exposure and environment monitoring. The Office of Commercial Programs will rely on the Space Station Freedom to provide the long duration laboratory component for space-based commercial research.

  1. Commercial Crew Medical Ops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinbaugh, Randall; Cole, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Provide commercial partners with: center insight into NASA spaceflight medical experience center; information relative to both nominal and emergency care of the astronaut crew at landing site center; a basis for developing and sharing expertise in space medical factors associated with returning crew.

  2. Commercial Baking. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Nancy

    A project filmed three commercial baking videotapes for use by secondary and adult students in food service programs. The three topics were basic dinner rolls, bread making, and hard breads and rolls. Quick-rise dough recipes were developed, written down, and explained for use with the videotapes. A pretest, posttest, and student guide were…

  3. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2015-01-01

    Within the EU regulatory framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. While radio licence renewal occurs in many EU countries, an objective, model-based approach for setting licence

  4. Valuing commercial radio licences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerste, M.; Poort, J.; van Eijk, N.

    2011-01-01

    Within the EU Regulatory Framework, licensees for commercial radio broadcasting may be charged a fee to ensure optimal allocation of scarce resources but not to maximize public revenues. In this paper, it is described how such a fee can be determined for the purpose of licence renewal or extension.

  5. Automatic Commercial Permit Sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Paul [Folsom Labs, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2017-12-21

    Final report for Folsom Labs’ Solar Permit Generator project, which has successfully completed, resulting in the development and commercialization of a software toolkit within the cloud-based HelioScope software environment that enables solar engineers to automatically generate and manage draft documents for permit submission.

  6. The Commercial Energy Consumer: About Whom Are We Speaking?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payne, Christopher

    2006-05-12

    Who are commercial sector customers, and how do they make decisions about energy consumption and energy efficiency investment? The energy policy field has not done a thorough job of describing energy consumption in the commercial sector. First, the discussion of the commercial sector itself is dominated by discussion of large businesses/buildings. Second, discussion of this portion of the commercial sectors consumption behavior is driven primarily by theory, with very little field data collected on the way commercial sector decision-makers describe their own options, choices, and reasons for taking action. These limitations artificially constrain energy policy options. This paper reviews the extant literature on commercial sector energy consumption behavior and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, it argues that the primary energy policy model of commercial sector energy consumption is a top-down model that uses macro-level investment data to make conclusions about commercial behavior. Missing from the discussion is a model of consumption behavior that builds up to a theoretical framework informed by the micro-level data provided by commercial decision-makers themselves. Such a bottom-up model could enhance the effectiveness of commercial sector energy policy. In particular, translation of some behavioral models from the residential sector to the commercial sector may offer new opportunities for policies to change commercial energy consumption behavior. Utility bill consumption feedback is considered as one example of a policy option that may be applicable to both the residential and small commercial sector.

  7. Survey VS audit by using method 2 to dedicate commercial grade services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez ayucar, F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Since the start of the commercial grade dedications, both 10CFR21 and EPRI documents, plus the dedication of commercial grade components, and the stage of commercial grade dedication of the services contemplated. And recently the NRC through various communications and answers trafficking among other issues the commercial grade dedication service. The NRC has detected repeatedly incorrect application of the survey as a method of commercial grade dedication and instead has done an audit of the program elements of commercial quality. (Author)

  8. Methanol commercial aviation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.O.

    1992-01-01

    Southern California's heavy reliance on petroleum-fueled transportation has resulted in significant air pollution problems within the south Coast Air Basin (Basin) which stem directly from this near total dependence on fossil fuels. To deal with this pressing issue, recently enacted state legislation has proposed mandatory introduction of clean alternative fuels into ground transportation fleets operating within this area. The commercial air transportation sector, however, also exerts a significant impact on regional air quality which may exceed emission gains achieved in the ground transportation sector. This paper addresses the potential, through the implementation of methanol as a commercial aviation fuel, to improve regional air quality within the Basin and the need to flight test and demonstrate methanol as an environmentally preferable fuel in aircraft turbine engines

  9. European Perspectives on International Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg Wilhelmsen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    of a uniform rule on the law applicable to the existence and validity of an arbitration agreement. This article examines these issues in order to find out whether they are only European or also inherent in the international regulation of international commercial arbitration. The article examines to which...

  10. Progress in gamma processing of commercial products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, F.M.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper the global outlook for gamma radiation processing of commercial products is discussed. Canada's contribution to the development of the industry is presented. New developments in the applications of the process and its marketing are discussed. (U.K.)

  11. Commercial nuclear power 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report presents historical data on commercial nuclear power in the United States, with projections of domestic nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2020. The report also gives country-specific projections of nuclear capacity and generation through the year 2010 for other countries in the world outside centrally planned economic areas (WOCA). Information is also presented regarding operable reactors and those under construction in countries with centrally planned economies. 39 tabs

  12. International Commercial Arbitration

    OpenAIRE

    Hlušička, Ondřej

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of my thesis is to analyse one of the most used type of extrajudicial procedures, the International commercial arbitration. The reason for my research is the progress and elevation of use of the arbitration and not only on international field. The thesis is composed of six chapters, each of them dealing with different aspects of Arbitration. Chapter One is introductory and defines basic terminology used in the thesis. The chapter is subdivided into two parts. Part One describes in...

  13. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. EVALUATING COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DERMAL ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the Human Exposure Program focuses on the exposure of children to pesticides, there are concerns about the effect, or perceived effect, of components of the sampling procedure on the health and well-being of the infant and the ability to collect pesticide residues. One concern involves the materials in wipes used to collect pesticide residues or other contact materials on the skin. In recent studies (e.g., National Human Exposure Assessment Survey; NHEXAS), isopropyl alcohol has been used as a solvent in conjunction with a cloth wipe to obtain samples from the hands of adults and children. Although isopropyl alcohol is generally considered innocuous, the use of commercially available products could eliminate concerns about exposure to alcohol. A few studies have evaluated the potential of commercially available baby wipes to collect personal exposure samples for metals research, but not for the area of pesticide research (Millson et al., 1994; Campbell et al., 1993; Lichtenwalner et al., 1993). Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the potential for using commercially available baby wipes for collecting pesticide samples from skin and other surfaces. Another concern involves establishing a convenient and safe method for assessing overall dermal exposure for children, especially for those in crawling stage. One route that the U .S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) would like to investigate is the use of cotton body suits (infant sleepers) as an indicator

  15. Commercial speech in crisis: Crisis Pregnancy Center regulations and definitions of commercial speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Kathryn E

    2013-02-01

    Recent attempts to regulate Crisis Pregnancy Centers, pseudoclinics that surreptitiously aim to dissuade pregnant women from choosing abortion, have confronted the thorny problem of how to define commercial speech. The Supreme Court has offered three potential answers to this definitional quandary. This Note uses the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases to demonstrate that courts should use one of these solutions, the factor-based approach of Bolger v. Youngs Drugs Products Corp., to define commercial speech in the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases and elsewhere. In principle and in application, the Bolger factor-based approach succeeds in structuring commercial speech analysis at the margins of the doctrine.

  16. Commercialization of solar space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Alok; Sera, Gary

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this research is to help U.S. companies commercialize renewable energy in India, with a special focus on solar energy. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Mid-Continent Technology Transfer Center (MCTTC) is working with ENTECH, Inc., a solar photovoltaic (SPV) systems manufacturer to form partnerships with Indian companies. MCTTC has conducted both secondary and primary market research and obtained travel funding to meet potential Indian partners face to face. MCTTC and ENTECH traveled to India during June 2-20, 1994, and visited New Delhi, Bombay, Pune and Calcutta. Meetings were held with several key government officials and premier Indian business houses and entrepreneurs in the area of solar energy. A firsthand knowledge of India's renewable energy industry was gained, and companies were qualified in terms of capabilities and commitment to the SPV business. The World Bank has awarded India with 280 million to commercialize renewable energies, including 55 million for SPV. There is a market in India for both small-scale (kW) and large SPV (MW) applications. Each U.S. company needs to form a joint venture with an Indian firm and let the latter identify the states and projects with the greatest business potential. Several big Indian companies and entrepreneurs are planning to enter the SPV business, and they currently are seeking foreign technology partners. Since the lager companies have adopted a more conservative approach, however, partnerships with entrepreneurs might offer the quickest route to market entry in India.

  17. Reliability implications for commercial Plowshare applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumleve, T D [Plowshare Systems Research Division, Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Based on the premise that there will always be a finite chance of a Plowshare project failure, the implications of such a failure are examined. It is suggested that the optimum reliability level will not necessarily be the highest attainable, but rather that which results in minimum average project cost. The type of performance guarantee that the U. S. should provide for nuclear explosive services, the determination of nuclear yield, courses of action to take in the event of failure, and methods to offset remedial costs are discussed. (author)

  18. Commercial Aircraft Pricing: Application of Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Given this, and the 45 Sean Broderick , “Boeing Revives Emphasis On Post-Delivery Business...web.stanford.edu/~lanierb/research/Dynamic_Aircraft_RES.pdf. Broderick , Sean. “Boeing Revives Emphasis On Post-Delivery Business.” Inside MRO, MRO

  19. Reliability implications for commercial Plowshare applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumleve, T.D.

    1970-01-01

    Based on the premise that there will always be a finite chance of a Plowshare project failure, the implications of such a failure are examined. It is suggested that the optimum reliability level will not necessarily be the highest attainable, but rather that which results in minimum average project cost. The type of performance guarantee that the U. S. should provide for nuclear explosive services, the determination of nuclear yield, courses of action to take in the event of failure, and methods to offset remedial costs are discussed. (author)

  20. Marine Carotenoids: Biological Functions and Commercial Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilchez, C.; Forján, E.; Cuaresma, M.; Bédmar, F.; Garbayo, I.; Vega, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Carotenoids are the most common pigments in nature and are synthesized by all photosynthetic organisms and fungi. Carotenoids are considered key molecules for life. Light capture, photosynthesis photoprotection, excess light dissipation and quenching of singlet oxygen are among key biological

  1. Semi-commercialization of PVP-carrageenan hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Relleve, Lorna S.; Abad, Lucille V.; Aranilla, Charito T.; Dela Rosa, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) has developed the PVP-Carrageenan hydrogel wound dressing by radiation processing. The PVP-Carrageenan hydrogel has undergone clinical testing for burn and bedsores. It has already a pending patent application (No. 1-2000-02471) at the Philippine Patent Office. The techno-economic feasibility study has also been completed. In order to commercialize this product, a project on semi-commercialization in partnership with the investor was proposed to Technology Incubation for Commercialization (TECHNICOM), a technology transfer program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST). TECHNICOM was established in 2003 under the National Science and Technology Plan (2002-2020) as a strategic technology transfer program. The program aims to identify key technological breakthroughs especially those generated by R and D institutes. It can intervene through the following: technology assessment/commercial prototype development; business plan/feasibility study preparation; intellectual property rights protection; technology valuation negotiation and licensing; semi-commercial production assistance and training/consultancy services. High technology applications with commercial potentials are given priority. Under semi-commercialization stage, government funds will be provided to match private sector investment in the commercial application of a particular technology innovation. This will lessen the risk of commercialization and ensure commitment from the investors. Commercial success in the shortest time is ensured since scientist can then work closely with the private sector at the production floor while testing the gaps in the technology. (author)

  2. Application of AmBe source neutron irradiator for determination of inorganic elements in commercial fertilizers; Aplicacao do irradiador de neutrons com fonte de AmBe para determinacao de elementos inorganicos em fertilizantes comerciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madi Filho, Tufic; Armelim, Maria Jose Aguirre; Fulas, Paulo Marcelo Marangon [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: tmfilho@ipen.br; Trevizam, Anderson Ricardo [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2005-11-15

    The rational use of fertilizers , for the soil fertility correction, contributes to the increase of agricultural production, using the same areas previously available. The quality of products could ne improved with reduced costs. Therefore, knowledge of the chemical characteristics of the correctives used is required to streamline the application and avoid excesses or deficiencies. The studied characteristics are generally limited to the essential nutrients for the nutrition of plants and animals, e.g.: Mn, Zn, P, K, Cu and those known toxic, such as: As, Cd, Hg and Pb. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a highly sensitive non destructive technique, for the determination of the elemental composition in samples. It has been particularly useful in the simultaneous determination of inorganic elements in complex samples of several kinds. Several analysis methods for activation are used, such as: comparative and absolute. Commercial fertilizers were analyzed applying the absolute and comparative methods. Using the absolute method, samples were submitted to neutron flux generated by an irradiator with two Am Be sources. The obtained results were compared with those obtained by the comparative method using neutrons generated in the IEA-R1 Reactor. (author)

  3. Application of the neutron irradiator with AmBe sources for inorganic elements in commercial fertilizers determination; Aplicacao do irradiador de neutrons com fontes de AmBe para determinacao de elementos inorganicos em fertilizantes comerciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madi Filho, Tufic; Armelin, Maria Jose Aguirre; Fulas, Paulo Marcelo Marangon [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: tmfilho@ipen.br; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul (UNICSUL), SP (Brazil); Trevizam, Anderson Ricardo [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The rational use of fertilizers, for the soil fertility correction, contributes to the increase of agricultural production, using the same areas previously available. The quality of products could be improved with reduced costs. Therefore, knowledge of the chemical characteristics of the correctives used is required to streamline the application and avoid excesses or deficiencies. The studied characteristics are generally limited to the essential nutrients for the nutrition of plants and animals, e.g.: Mn, Zn, P, K, Cu and those known toxic, such as: As, Cd, Hg and Pb. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a highly sensitive non destructive technique, for the determination of the elemental composition in samples. It has been particularly useful in the simultaneous determination of inorganic elements in complex samples of several kinds. Several analysis methods for activation are used, such as: comparative and absolute. Commercial fertilizers were analyzed applying the absolute and comparative methods. Using the absolute method, samples were submitted to neutron flux generated by an Irradiator with two AmBe sources. The obtained results were compared with those obtained by the comparative method using neutrons generated in the IEA-R1 Reactor. (author)

  4. Commercial technologies from the SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.; Fujita, T.; Mondt, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    For more than a decade, Jet Propulsion Labortory and Los Alamos have managed a multi-agency funded effort to develop a space reactor power system. This SP-100 Program has developed technologies required for space power systems that can be implemented in the industrial and commercial sectors to improve competitiveness in the global economy. Initial steps taken to transfer this technology from the laboratories to industrial and commercial entities within United States include: (1) identifying specific technologies having commercial potential; (2) distributing information describing the identified technologies and interacting with interested commercial and industrial entities to develop application-specific details and requirements; and (3) providing a technological data base that leads to transfer of technology or the forming of teaming arrangements to accomplish the transfer by tailoring the technology to meet application-specific requirements. SP-100 technologies having commercial potential encompass fabrication processes, devices, and components. Examples: a process for bonding refractory metals to graphite, a device to sense the position of an actuator and a component to enable rotating machines to operate without supplying lubrication (self-lubricating ball bearing). Shortly after the NASA Regional Technology Transfer Centers widely disseminated information covering SP-100 technologies, over one hundred expressions of interest were received, which indicate that there is a large potential benefit in transferring SP-100 technology. Interactions with industrial and commercial entities have identified a substantial need for creating teaming arrangements involving the interested entity and personnel from laboratories and their contractors, who have the knowledge and ability to tailor the technology to meet application-specific requirements. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  5. Early high-Tc commercial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The high temperature superconductors have already begun to generate the first stirrings of commercial activity. Companies that supply instruments and chemicals to researchers have enjoyed increased business. At least one company has begun to supply educational materials. Venture capital firms have invested about $15 million in startups to capitalize on developments in high-field applications, superconducting electronics, and magnetic shielding. Consulting firms are gathering and selling market research information. And the federal government is studying the question of how to cooperate with American companies to commercialize the research taking place in the national laboratories. This article discusses these issues

  6. Photovoltaic technologies for commercial power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Photovoltaic power generation is an attractive source of energy since it involves the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity with no moving parts and no pollution. Following the demonstration of the first solar cell 35 years ago at Bell Laboratories, a steady stream of scientific and commercial progress has led to a rapid increase in applications in recent years. The first commercial application of solar cells occurred more than 20 years ago when they were used to supply power for space satellites, and even today photovoltaic arrays are used to supply electricity for most satellites and space probes. This paper reviews the status of the various photovoltaic technologies as well as present applications. The prospects for both distributed and central station grid-connected systems are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the institutional and political factors that will affect the introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic power systems

  7. Commercial microwave space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siambis, J.; Gregorwich, W.; Walmsley, S.; Shockey, K.; Chang, K.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on central commercial space power, generating power via large scale solar arrays, and distributing power to satellites via docking, tethering or beamed power such as microwave or laser beams, that is being investigated as a potentially advantageous alternative to present day technology where each satellite carries its own power generating capability. The cost, size and weight for electrical power service, together with overall mission requirements and flexibility are the principal selection criteria, with the case of standard solar array panels based on the satellite, as the reference point. This paper presents and investigates a current technology design point for beamed microwave commercial space power. The design point requires that 25 kW be delivered to the user load with 30% overall system efficiency. The key elements of the design point are: An efficient rectenna at the user end; a high gain, low beam width, efficient antenna at the central space power station end, a reliable and efficient cw microwave tube. Design trades to optimize the proposed near term design point and to explore characteristics of future systems were performed. Future development for making the beamed microwave space power approach more competitive against docking and tethering are discussed

  8. Commercial Biomass Syngas Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of gas fermentation for the production of low carbon biofuels such as ethanol or butanol from lignocellulosic biomass is an area currently undergoing intensive research and development, with the first commercial units expected to commence operation in the near future. In this process, biomass is first converted into carbon monoxide (CO and hydrogen (H2-rich synthesis gas (syngas via gasification, and subsequently fermented to hydrocarbons by acetogenic bacteria. Several studies have been performed over the last few years to optimise both biomass gasification and syngas fermentation with significant progress being reported in both areas. While challenges associated with the scale-up and operation of this novel process remain, this strategy offers numerous advantages compared with established fermentation and purely thermochemical approaches to biofuel production in terms of feedstock flexibility and production cost. In recent times, metabolic engineering and synthetic biology techniques have been applied to gas fermenting organisms, paving the way for gases to be used as the feedstock for the commercial production of increasingly energy dense fuels and more valuable chemicals.

  9. Aerocapacitor commercialization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-12

    The purpose of the Power-One Aerocapacitor Commercialization Plan is to communicate to members of management and to all employees the overall objectives of the corporation. Power-One, Inc., has participated in a US Federal Government Technology Reinvestment Project (TRP), entitled {open_quotes}Advanced Power Conversion based on the Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}: the project is a group effort, with Lawrence Livermore National Labs, GenCorp/Aerojet, PolyStor Corp. (a start-up company), and Power-One forming the consortium. The expected resulting technology is the {open_quotes}Aerocapacitor{close_quotes}, which possesses much higher performance levels than the usual capacitors on the market today. Power-One hopes to incorporate the Aerocapacitor into some of its products, hence enhancing their performance, as well as market privately-labeled aerocapacitors through its distribution channels. This document describes the details of Power-One`s plan to bring to market and commercialize the Aerocapacitor and Aerocapacitor-based products. This plan was formulated while Power-One was part of the Oerocap project. It has since pulled out of this project. What is presented in this plan is the work which was developed prior to the business decision to terminate this work.

  10. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs

  11. MPRS (URBOT) commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccimaro, Donny; Baker, William; Hamilton, Ian; Heikkila, Leif; Renick, Joel

    2003-09-01

    The Man Portable Robotic System (MPRS) project objective was to build and deliver hardened robotic systems to the U.S. Army"s 10 Mountain Division in Fort Drum, New York. The system, specifically designed for tunnel and sewer reconnaissance, was equipped with visual and audio sensors that allowed the Army engineers to detect trip wires and booby traps before personnel entered a potentially hostile environment. The MPRS system has shown to be useful in government and military supported field exercises, but the system has yet to reach the hands of civilian users. Potential users in Law Enforcement and Border Patrol have shown a strong interest in the system, but robotic costs were thought to be prohibitive for law enforcement budgets. Through the Center for Commercialization of Advanced Technology (CCAT) program, an attempt will be made to commercialize the MPRS. This included a detailed market analysis performed to verify the market viability of the technologies. Hence, the first step in this phase is to fully define the marketability of proposed technologies in terms of actual market size, pricing and cost factors, competitive risks and/or advantages, and other key factors used to develop marketing and business plans.

  12. On the Ambiguity of Commercial Open Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available . Open source and commercial applications used to be two separate worlds. The former was the work of amateurs who had little interest in making a profit, while the latter was only profit oriented and was produced by big companies. Nowadays open source is a threat and an opportunity to serious businesses of all kinds, generating good profits while delivering low costs products to customers. The competition between commercial and open source software has impacted the industry and the society as a whole. But in the last years, the markets for commercial and open source software are converging rapidly and it is interesting to resume and discuss the implications of this new paradigm, taking into account arguments pro and against it.

  13. Thermal Environment evaluation in Commercial kitchens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    as commercial kitchens? There is therefore a need to study the indoor environment in commercial kitchens and to establish standardized methods and procedures for setting criteria that have to be met for the design and operation of kitchens. The present paper introduces a data collection protocol based......The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory and the working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence the thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., complicate further an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are expressed in international standards such as ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN7730. But are these standardised methods applicable for such environments...

  14. Commercialization of the polyethylene macroencapsulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Hellstrom, G.W.; Vance, J.K.

    1998-01-01

    With support from the US Department of Energy Office of Science and Technology (DOE OST) and assistance from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Envirocare of Utah, Inc. (Envirocare) is commercializing the polyethylene macroencapsulation process. Envirocare, currently the only commercially licensed mixed waste disposal facility in the US, will initially demonstrate the process by treating and disposing up to 227,000 kg (500,000 lbs) of radioactively contaminated lead. This waste, considered mixed due to both radioactive and hazardous constituents, is currently being stored at various sites throughout the DOE complex. Following this initial work for DOE, the process will be available for the treatment of other applicable wastes. Throughout commercialization of this process, BNL has provided Envirocare with technical support for engineering and permitting

  15. Commercial low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.A.

    1982-01-01

    The goals, objectives and activities of the Department of Energy's Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management program are reviewed. The goal of the overall Program is to support development of an acceptable, nationwide, near surface waste disposal system by 1986. The commercial LLW program has two major functions: (1) application of the technology improvements for waste handling, treatment and disposal, and (2) assistance to states as they carry out their responsibilities under the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980. The priorities for the commercial side of the Low-Level Waste Management Program have been established to meet one goal: to support development of an effective commercial management system by 1986. The first priority is being given to supporting state efforts in forming the institutional structures needed to manage the system. The second priority is the state and industry role in transferring and demonstrating treatment and disposal technologies

  16. The commercialization of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrera-mangahas, M A

    1989-01-01

    International migration is not new to the Philippines. In the recent outflow of contract workers to the Middle East, there is a shift from individual and family initiated migrations to the more organized, highly commercial variety. While profit-taking intermediaries have played some role in the past, the increase in the number and influence of these intermediaries has altered the story of migration decision-making. In 1975, the signing of the bilateral labor agreement between the governments of Iran and the Philippines signalled the rising demand for Filipino contract workers. From 1970 to 1975, the number of Asian migrant workers in the Gulf countries rose from about 120,000 to 370,000. These figures rose dramatically to 3.3 million in 1985. The growing share of organized and commercialized migration has altered migration decision making. Primarily, intermediaries are able to broaden access to foreign job and high wage opportunities. Commercialization effectively raises the transaction costs for contract migration. Studies on recruitment costs and fees show that self-solicited foreign employment costs less than employment obtained through recruitment agents and intermediaries. The difference in the 2 prices is due, not only to overhead costs of intermediation, but more importantly to the rent exacted by agents from having job information and placement rights. In the Philippines in October 1987 the average placement fee was P8000, greatly exceeding the mandated maximum fee level of P5000. This average is understated because the computation includes the 17% who do not pay any fees. The widespread and popular view of recruitment intermediaries is negative, dominated by images of abuses and victims. Private intermediaries and the government bureaucracy need each other. Intermediaries need government; their consistent demand for incentives and protection is indicative. On the other hand, government expands its supervision of control of overseas employment via the

  17. Private Astronaut Training Prepares Commercial Crews of Tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    A new company that includes a handful of former NASA personnel is already taking applications for the first comprehensive commercial astronaut training approved by the Federal Aviation Administration. Waypoint 2 Space, located at Johnson Space Center, hopes to draw space tourists and enthusiasts and future commercial crewmembers with first-hand NASA know-how, as well as agency training technology.

  18. Precision machining commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    To accelerate precision machining development so as to realize more of the potential savings within the next few years of known Department of Defense (DOD) part procurement, the Air Force Materials Laboratory (AFML) is sponsoring the Precision Machining Commercialization Project (PMC). PMC is part of the Tri-Service Precision Machine Tool Program of the DOD Manufacturing Technology Five-Year Plan. The technical resources supporting PMC are provided under sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of PMC is to minimize precision machining development time and cost risk for interested vendors. PMC will do this by making available the high precision machining technology as developed in two DOE contractor facilities, the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California and the Union Carbide Corporation, Nuclear Division, Y-12 Plant, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee

  19. Year 2000 commercial issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T. [Bennett Jones, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers` obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs.

  20. The commercialization of SIT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinlan, Megan M.; Enkerlin, Walther

    2003-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of sterile insects for sterile insect technique (SIT) programs have been supplied by government facilities, although the private sector often participates in the field programs and sometimes provides substantial funding. As the demand for SIT has grown, government production facilities have sold sterile insects to other governments to use in their own programs. However, most of the production facilities are not organized as commercial ventures and have not been accounting for capital or possibly other fixed costs on top of the direct (variable) costs such as diet and transport. The biological nature of the product influences the best methods for figuring operational costs. Furthermore, unlike other liabilities and losses, a business cannot recover quickly from the unlikely but serious event of a lost breeding colony through an insurance claim, even if such insurance could be obtained. (author)

  1. Year 2000 commercial issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratz, M.P.J.; Booth, R.T.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on commercial aspects of the Y2K including: (1) special communication issues, (2) outsourcing transactions, (3) joint ventures and the significance for the oil and gas industry, and (4) contingency planning. Communication issues involve interaction with suppliers and vendors of critical systems, liability for Y2K communications (misrepresentation, defamation, promissory estoppel, statutory liability), securities disclosure (Canadian and US SEC requirements), protected communications, protection for Year 2000 statements. Outsourcing problems highlighted include resistance of suppliers to assume responsibility for Y2K problem remediation, factors which support and negate supplier responsibility, scope of suppliers' obligation, and warranties in respect of third party software. Regarding joint ventures, questions concerning limitations on liability, supply warranties, stand-by arrangements, stockpiling inventory, indemnities, confidentiality, operator compensation versus operator risk, and insurance were raised and addressed. Among contingency planning issues the questions of Y2K legal audit, and disclosure aspects of contingency planning were the featured concerns. figs

  2. Commercialism - the growth prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.K.R.

    1990-01-01

    In an attempt to ensure good business proposals for the future British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) is making a number of international initiatives. Likely markets for expansion include the United States, Japan and Western Europe, to whom the company can offer activities such as oxide fuel reprocessing, uranium hexafluoride conversion, fabrication of oxide and mixed oxide fuels, uranium enrichment and the safe transport of nuclear materials. The creation of International Nuclear Fuels Limited will expand overseas business and ensure security of fuel supply for the international nuclear industry. Working jointly with AEA Technology, BNFL will seek to market their combined decommissioning experience on the international market. The author concludes the BNFL is in a strong position to supply an increasing world-wide need for nuclear waste management and increased commercial awareness within the company will ensure a good section of the market is secured. U.K

  3. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  4. Commercialization of DOE isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laflin, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the business structure and operations of MAC Isotopes (MACI) L.L.C., a newly created business resulting from the commercialization of a former U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). MACI began its commercial operations on October 1, 1996, and is the first U.S. commercial isotope production business to result from the commercialization of DOE facilities or programs. The commercialization was the culmination of an -2-yr competitive procurement process by the DOE and Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Company (LMITCO). MACI was selected from this competitive process as the commercial business of choice on the basis of providing the best value to the DOE/LMITCO and having the greatest potential for commercial success

  5. 2010 Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Global Commercialization & Development Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-11-01

    This report offers examples of real-world applications and technical progress of hydrogen and fuel cell technologies, including policies adopted by countries to increase technology development and commercialization.

  6. New materials for next-generation commercial transports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on New Materials for Advanced Civil Aircraft, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems, National Research Council

    ... civil aircraft throughout their service life. The committee investigated the new materials and structural concepts that are likely to be incorporated into next generation commercial aircraft and the factors influencing application decisions...

  7. Study on commercial FBR concepts by combining innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, M.; Inagaki, T.; Kuroha, M.; Hida, T.

    1992-01-01

    A study was conducted on future prospects of FBR commercialization. Targets of further improving safety and economy were set to make commercial power plants that would be superior to future LWRs. Promising innovative technologies studied domestically and overseas were extracted by evaluating prospects for commercialization, effect, and plant applicability. Several commercial plants were conceptualized by introducing such technology to large-scale and oxide-fuel reactors. Estimates of construction cost, etc., proved that the targets could be achieved. A concept of long-term technological development was synthesized. (author)

  8. 78 FR 773 - Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc., Commercial/Actuarial/Information Delivery Services (IDS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Services Group, Inc., Commercial/Actuarial/ Information Delivery Services (IDS)/Corporate & Financial... Assistance (TAA) applicable to workers and former workers of Hartford Financial Services Group, Inc., Commercial/ Actuarial/Information Delivery Services (IDS)/Corporate & Financial Reporting group, Hartford...

  9. Commercializing medical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Kevin J; Lieberman, Mark A

    2007-04-01

    As medicine moves into the 21st century, life saving therapies will move from inception into medical products faster if there is a better synergy between science and business. Medicine appears to have 50-year innovative cycles of education and scientific discoveries. In the 1880's, the chemical industry in Germany was faced with the dilemma of modernization to exploit the new scientific discoveries. The solution was the spawning of novel technical colleges for training in these new chemical industries. The impact of those new employees and their groundbreaking compounds had a profound influence on medicine and medical education in Germany between 1880 and 1930. Germany dominated international science during this period and was a training center for scientists worldwide. This model of synergy between education and business was envied and admired in Europe, Asia and America. British science soon after evolved to dominate the field of science during the prewar and post World War (1930's-1970's) because the German scientists fled Hitler's government. These expatriated scientists had a profound influence on the teaching and training of British scientists, which lead to advances in medicine such as antibiotics. After the Second World War, the US government wisely funded the development of the medical infrastructure that we see today. British and German scientists in medicine moved to America because of this bountiful funding for their research. These expatriated scientists helped drive these medical advances into commercialized products by the 1980's. America has been the center of medical education and advances of biotechnology but will it continue? International scientists trained in America have started to return to Europe and Asia. These American-trained scientists and their governments are very aware of the commercial potential of biotechnology. Those governments are now more prepared to play an active role this new science. Germany, Ireland, Britain, Singapore

  10. ETHICS AND COMMERCIAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu MEGHIŞAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern economic science was built around the concept of efficiency. In economy the notion of equality is strongly correlated with the notion of balance, such as the market balance when the demand equals the offer. In a broader view, the economy cannot contribute to a reflection on equity unless it re-became a moral and political science or even a philosophical economy. At present, when there is an effervescence of international transactions, we all adulate the need for morality. Everyday, all around the world, regular people are affected by the costs of ethical issues. The profit and social responsibility do not exclude reciprocally. The social value of a company is given by the well-being and the work-places generated, by the products and services offered to the consumers at a fair price in correlation with the quality. The sentimental value represents the value that a person is giving to a good, based on feelings and emotions and not on monetary values. In many cases the passions and the interests are more powerful than the moral value that animates us. A lot of commercials, if they are to say the truth, would recognize that, for them, not the clients are important but the profits.

  11. Advanced commercial tokamak study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, S.L.; Dabiri, A.E.; Keeton, D.C.; Brown, T.G.; Bussell, G.T.

    1985-12-01

    Advanced commercial tokamak studies were performed by the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) as a participant in the Tokamak Power Systems Studies (TPSS) project coordinated by the Office of Fusion Energy. The FEDC studies addressed the issues of tokamak reactor cost, size, and complexity. A scoping study model was developed to determine the effect of beta on tokamak economics, and it was found that a competitive cost of electricity could be achieved at a beta of 10 to 15%. The implications of operating at a beta of up to 25% were also addressed. It was found that the economics of fusion, like those of fission, improve as unit size increases. However, small units were found to be competitive as elements of a multiplex plant, provided that unit cost and maintenance time reductions are realized for the small units. The modular tokamak configuration combined several new approaches to develop a less complex and lower cost reactor. The modular design combines the toroidal field coil with the reactor structure, locates the primary vacuum boundary at the reactor cell wall, and uses a vertical assembly and maintenance approach. 12 refs., 19 figs

  12. Sustainable Commercial Interior Design

    OpenAIRE

    Keane, Órla

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation looks at the environmental benefits of 3 key areas in relation to interior design: Energy, Water and Air; energy efficient lighting, water efficient plumbing fixtures and the effects of interior materials and finishes on indoor air quality. Qualitative research methodology: Extensive literature review of texts available on these topics, and also of the relevant building codes and environmental legislation applicable to Irish interior designers and the built environment. ...

  13. Stroke in Commercial Flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Velasco, Rodrigo; Masjuan, Jaime; DeFelipe, Alicia; Corral, Iñigo; Estévez-Fraga, Carlos; Crespo, Leticia; Alonso-Cánovas, Araceli

    2016-04-01

    Stroke on board aircraft has been reported in retrospective case series, mainly focusing on economy class stroke syndrome. Data on the actual incidence, pathogenesis, and prognosis of stroke in commercial flights are lacking. A prospective registry was designed to include all consecutive patients referred from an international airport (40 million passengers a year) to our hospital with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack and onset of symptoms during a flight or immediately after landing. Forty-four patients (32 ischemic strokes and 12 transient ischemic attacks) were included over a 76-month period (January 2008 to April 2014). The estimated incidence of stroke was 1 stroke in 35 000 flights. Pathogeneses of stroke or transient ischemic attack were atherothrombotic in 16 (36%), economy class stroke syndrome in 8 (18%), cardioembolic in 7 (16%), arterial dissection in 4 (9%), lacunar stroke in 4 (9%), and undetermined in 5 (12%) patients. Carotid stenosis >70% was found in 12 (27%) of the patients. Overall prognosis was good, and thrombolysis was applied in 44% of the cases. The most common reason for not treating patients who had experienced stroke onset midflight was the delay in reaching the hospital. Only 1 patient with symptom onset during the flight prompted a flight diversion. We found a low incidence of stroke in the setting of air travel. Economy class stroke syndrome and arterial dissection were well represented in our sample. However, the main pathogenesis was atherothrombosis with a high proportion of patients with high carotid stenosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. 150 Passenger Commercial Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucovsky, Adrian; Romli, Fairuz I.; Rupp, Jessica

    2002-01-01

    It has been projected that the need for a short-range mid-sized, aircraft is increasing. The future strategy to decrease long-haul flights will increase the demand for short-haul flights. Since passengers prefer to meet their destinations quickly, airlines will increase the frequency of flights, which will reduce the passenger load on the aircraft. If a point-to-point flight is not possible, passengers will prefer only a one-stop short connecting flight to their final destination. A 150-passenger aircraft is an ideal vehicle for these situations. It is mid-sized aircraft and has a range of 3000 nautical miles. This type of aircraft would market U.S. domestic flights or inter-European flight routes. The objective of the design of the 150-passenger aircraft is to minimize fuel consumption. The configuration of the aircraft must be optimized. This aircraft must meet CO2 and NOx emissions standards with minimal acquisition price and operating costs. This report contains all the work that has been performed for the completion of the design of a 150 passenger commercial aircraft. The methodology used is the Technology Identification, Evaluation, and Selection (TIES) developed at Georgia Tech Aerospace Systems Design laboratory (ASDL). This is an eight-step conceptual design process to evaluate the probability of meeting the design constraints. This methodology also allows for the evaluation of new technologies to be implemented into the design. The TIES process begins with defining the problem with a need established and a market targeted. With the customer requirements set and the target values established, a baseline concept is created. Next, the design space is explored to determine the feasibility and viability of the baseline aircraft configuration. If the design is neither feasible nor viable, new technologies can be implemented to open up the feasible design space and allow for a plausible solution. After the new technologies are identified, they must be evaluated

  15. Commercially available video motion detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    A market survey of commercially available video motion detection systems was conducted by the Intrusion Detection Systems Technology Division of Sandia Laboratories. The information obtained from this survey is summarized in this report. The cutoff date for this information is May 1978. A list of commercially available video motion detection systems is appended

  16. Commercialization of sustainable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandra, P.; Kristle Nathan, Hippu Salk; Reddy, B. Sudhakara

    2010-01-01

    Commercialization efforts to diffuse sustainable energy technologies (SETs) have so far remained as the biggest challenge in the field of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Limited success of diffusion through government driven pathways urges the need for market based approaches. This paper reviews the existing state of commercialization of SETs in the backdrop of the basic theory of technology diffusion. The different SETs in India are positioned in the technology diffusion map to reflect their slow state of commercialization. The dynamics of SET market is analysed to identify the issues, barriers and stakeholders in the process of SET commercialization. By upgrading the 'potential adopters' to 'techno-entrepreneurs', the study presents the mechanisms for adopting a private sector driven 'business model' approach for successful diffusion of SETs. This is expected to integrate the processes of market transformation and entrepreneurship development with innovative regulatory, marketing, financing, incentive and delivery mechanisms leading to SET commercialization. (author)

  17. Succinic Acid: Technology Development and Commercialization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Succinic acid is a precursor of many important, large-volume industrial chemicals and consumer products. It was once common knowledge that many ruminant microorganisms accumulated succinic acid under anaerobic conditions. However, it was not until the discovery of Anaerobiospirillum succiniciproducens at the Michigan Biotechnology Institute (MBI, which was capable of producing succinic acid up to about 50 g/L under optimum conditions, that the commercial feasibility of producing the compound by biological processes was realized. Other microbial strains capable of producing succinic acid to high final concentrations subsequently were isolated and engineered, followed by development of fermentation processes for their uses. Processes for recovery and purification of succinic acid from fermentation broths were simultaneously established along with new applications of succinic acid, e.g., production of biodegradable deicing compounds and solvents. Several technologies for the fermentation-based production of succinic acid and the subsequent conversion to useful products are currently commercialized. This review gives a summary of the development of microbial strains, their fermentation, and the importance of the down-stream recovery and purification efforts to suit various applications in the context of their current commercialization status for biologically derived succinic acid.

  18. Commercial aircraft composite technology

    CERN Document Server

    Breuer, Ulf Paul

    2016-01-01

    This book is based on lectures held at the faculty of mechanical engineering at the Technical University of Kaiserslautern. The focus is on the central theme of societies overall aircraft requirements to specific material requirements and highlights the most important advantages and challenges of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) compared to conventional materials. As it is fundamental to decide on the right material at the right place early on the main activities and milestones of the development and certification process and the systematic of defining clear requirements are discussed. The process of material qualification - verifying material requirements is explained in detail. All state-of-the-art composite manufacturing technologies are described, including changes and complemented by examples, and their improvement potential for future applications is discussed. Tangible case studies of high lift and wing structures emphasize the specific advantages and challenges of composite technology. Finally,...

  19. Organophilization and characterization of commercial bentonite clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, B.B. da; Lima, J.C.C.; Alves, A.M.; Araujo, E.M.; Melo, T.J.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Bentonite clay is a plastic changes resulting from volcanic ash, consisting mostly of montmorillonite. The state of Paraiba is a major source of bentonite clay from Brazil, where the main oil fields are located in Boa Vista and represents the largest national production of raw and beneficiated bentonite. Aimed at the commercial value of this type of clay and its high applicability in the polls, this article aims to make a comparison between two kinds of clay, a national (Brasgel) and other imported (Cloisite) from organophilization of two commercial bentonite, ionic surfactant with Praepagem WB, and characterize them by XRD, FTIR and TG / DTG. We observe that despite getting inferior properties, the clay presents national values very similar to those presented by imported clay. (author)

  20. Upgraded airborne scanner for commercial remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sheng-Huei; Rubin, Tod D.

    1994-06-01

    Traditional commercial remote sensing has focused on the geologic market, with primary focus on mineral identification and mapping in the visible through short-wave infrared spectral regions (0.4 to 2.4 microns). Commercial remote sensing users now demand airborne scanning capabilities spanning the entire wavelength range from ultraviolet through thermal infrared (0.3 to 12 microns). This spectral range enables detection, identification, and mapping of objects and liquids on the earth's surface and gases in the air. Applications requiring this range of wavelengths include detection and mapping of oil spills, soil and water contamination, stressed vegetation, and renewable and non-renewable natural resources, and also change detection, natural hazard mitigation, emergency response, agricultural management, and urban planning. GER has designed and built a configurable scanner that acquires high resolution images in 63 selected wave bands in this broad wavelength range.

  1. Commercialization plan laser-based decoating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freiwald, J.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    F2 Associates Inc. (F2) is a small, high-technology firm focused on developing and commercializing environmentally friendly laser ablation systems for industrial-rate removal of surface coatings from metals, concrete, and delicate substrates such as composites. F2 has a contract with the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC) to develop and test a laser-based technology for removing contaminated paint and other contaminants from concrete and metal surfaces. Task 4.1 in Phase 2 of the Statement of Work for this DOE contract requires that F2 ''document its plans for commercializing and marketing the stationary laser ablation system. This document shall include a discussion of prospects for commercial customers and partners and may require periodic update to reflect changing strategy. This document shall be submitted to the DOE for review.'' This report is being prepared and submitted in fulfillment of that requirement. This report describes the laser-based technology for cleaning and coatings removal, the types of laser-based systems that have been developed by F2 based on this technology, and the various markets that are emerging for this technology. F2's commercialization and marketing plans are described, including how F2's organization is structured to meet the needs of technology commercialization, F2's strategy and marketing approach, and the necessary steps to receive certification for removing paint from aircraft and DOE certification for D and D applications. The future use of the equipment built for the DOE contract is also discussed

  2. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  3. Commercial considerations in tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansbridge, Jonathan

    2006-10-01

    Tissue engineering is a field with immense promise. Using the example of an early tissue-engineered skin implant, Dermagraft, factors involved in the successful commercial development of devices of this type are explored. Tissue engineering has to strike a balance between tissue culture, which is a resource-intensive activity, and business considerations that are concerned with minimizing cost and maximizing customer convenience. Bioreactor design takes place in a highly regulated environment, so factors to be incorporated into the concept include not only tissue culture considerations but also matters related to asepsis, scaleup, automation and ease of use by the final customer. Dermagraft is an allogeneic tissue. Stasis preservation, in this case cryopreservation, is essential in allogeneic tissue engineering, allowing sterility testing, inventory control and, in the case of Dermagraft, a cellular stress that may be important for hormesis following implantation. Although the use of allogeneic cells provides advantages in manufacturing under suitable conditions, it raises the spectre of immunological rejection. Such rejection has not been experienced with Dermagraft. Possible reasons for this and the vision of further application of allogeneic tissues are important considerations in future tissue-engineered cellular devices. This review illustrates approaches that indicate some of the criteria that may provide a basis for further developments. Marketing is a further requirement for success, which entails understanding of the mechanism of action of the procedure, and is illustrated for Dermagraft. The success of a tissue-engineered product is dependent on many interacting operations, some discussed here, each of which must be performed simultaneously and well.

  4. This is Commercial Titan Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensselaer, F. L.; Slovikoski, R. D.; Abels, T. C.

    Out of a quarter-century heritage of eminently successful expendable launch vehicle history with the U.S. government, a commercial launch services enterprise which challenges the corporation as well as the competition has been launched within the Martin Marietta Corporation. This paper is an inside look at the philosophy, structure, and success of the new subsidiary, Commercial Titan Inc., which is taking on its U.S. and foreign rocket-making competitors to win a share of the international communication satellite market as well as the U.S. government commercial launch services market.

  5. 46 CFR 105.05-1 - Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products... MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Application § 105.05-1 Commercial fishing vessels dispensing petroleum products. (a) The provisions of this part, with the exception of...

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Ovens

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 2.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Ovens that are effective as of...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Boilers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Boilers that are effective as of...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Griddles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.2 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Griddles that are effective as of May...

  10. Les entreprises commerciales (Commercial Enterprises).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Wallace

    1979-01-01

    Examines the legal concept of "corporate body" in French and English law, as well as that of the "company," the "corporation," and the "society"; and discusses the manifestations of a dual legal heritage in commercial enterprises in Quebec. (AM)

  11. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Fryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Commercial Fryers that are effective as of...

  12. Towards a commercially potential process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panpipat, Worawan; Xu, Xuebing; Guo, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    In order to examine the industrial potential to indirectly isolate phytosterols from deodoriser distillates (DODs), enzymatic transesterification of an industrial rapeseed and soybean oil DOD mixture with bioethanol was investigated using commercial lipases and a few newly immobilised preparations...

  13. Commercial formalin substitutes for histopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentø, P; Lyon, H

    1997-01-01

    We compared the performance of six commercial fixatives proposed to be formalin substitutes with the performance of buffered formalin, Clarke's ethanol-acetic acid, and ethanol, using rat liver, small intestine, and kidney. We investigated the rate of penetration, mode of fixation, extent of prot...... was obtained by combining formalin fixation with antigen retrieval. We conclude that none of the proposed commercial substitutes for buffered formalin are adequate for critical histology or histopathology....

  14. Rethinking "Commercial" Surrogacy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millbank, Jenni

    2015-09-01

    This article proposes reconsideration of laws prohibiting paid surrogacy in Australia in light of increasing transnational commercial surrogacy. The social science evidence base concerning domestic surrogacy in developed economies demonstrates that payment alone cannot be used to differentiate "good" surrogacy arrangements from "bad" ones. Compensated domestic surrogacy and the introduction of professional intermediaries and mechanisms such as advertising are proposed as a feasible harm-minimisation approach. I contend that Australia can learn from commercial surrogacy practices elsewhere, without replicating them.

  15. Computer Based Asset Management System For Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanze

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Computer-based Asset Management System is a web-based system. It allows commercial banks to keep track of their assets. The most advantages of this system are the effective management of asset by keeping records of the asset and retrieval of information. In this research I gather the information to define the requirements of the new application and look at factors how commercial banks managed their asset.

  16. Use of commercial grade item dedication to reduce procurement costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosch, F.

    1995-01-01

    In the mid-1980s, the Nuclear Regulatory Industry (NRC) began inspecting utility practices of procuring and dedicating commercial grade items intended for plant safety-related applications. As a result of the industry efforts to address NRC concerns, nuclear utilities have enhanced existing programs and procedures for dedication of commercial grade items. Though these programs were originally enhanced to meet NRC concerns, utilities have discovered that the dedication of commercial grade items can also reduce overall procurement costs. This paper will discuss the enhancement of utility dedication programs and demonstrates how utilities have utilized them to reduce procurement costs

  17. Economic costs and benefits of commercial food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, P. A; Freeman, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Decisions about commercialization of potential food irradiation applications usually involve pre-feasibility and feasibility studies to assess the expected return on investment. In this paper treatment costa/charges in theory and practice, investment philosophy, and the role of the multi-purpose plant in food irradiation are discussed. Other countries benefit commercially from the irradiation of a limited range of foods, including spices and frozen shrimps, exported from Southeast Asia. Some aspects of the feasibility of commercially irradiating these products, as well as mangoes and grains, in ASEAN countries and Australia are examined

  18. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  19. TechTracS: NASA's commercial technology management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquinero, Kevin; Cannon, Douglas

    1996-03-01

    The Commercial Technology Mission is a primary NASA mission, comparable in importance to those in aeronautics and space. This paper will discuss TechTracS, NASA Commercial Technology Management System that has been put into place in FY 1995 to implement this mission. This system is designed to identify and capture the NASA technologies which have commercial potential into an off-the-shelf database application, and then track the technologies' progress in realizing the commercial potential through collaborations with industry. The management system consists of four stages. The first is to develop an inventory database of the agency's entire technology portfolio and assess it for relevance to the commercial marketplace. Those technologies that are identified as having commercial potential will then be actively marketed to appropriate industries—this is the second stage. The third stage is when a NASA-industry partnership is entered into for the purposes of commercializing the technology. The final stage is to track the technology's success or failure in the marketplace. The collection of this information in TechTracS enables metrics evaluation and can accelerate the establishment on direct contacts between and NASA technologist and an industry technologist. This connection is the beginning of the technology commercialization process.

  20. Commercial integration and partnering at Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, J.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Babione, R.A.; Shikashio, L.A.; Wacaster, A.J.; Paterson, A.D. [SCIENTECH, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-06-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS), particularly the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) with the experience from the first successful Integrated Technology Demonstration, can provide an excellent foundation for meeting DOE-EM`s objectives with the new DOE-EM five focus area approach. With this in mind, SRTC established an activity to pursue full commercialization of environmental technologies. This report is an assessment of the status of commercialization at SRS and provides recommendations for enhancement as well as some tools critical to implementation. A review was made of the current situation at SRS with regards to taking technology development to commercial fruition. This was done from the perspective of comparing it to known commercialization models and processes. It was found that SRTC already works through many of the steps in these processes. With integration and action-oriented efforts of the inclusion of business and market factors, SRTC could become an aggressive, successful developer of commercialized technologies. Commercial success criteria tools were developed with regards to integrating them with SRTC selection criteria to ensure that all critical factors are covered in technology commercialization project evaluations. Private investors are very clear that their interest lies in funding commercial enterprises, not merely technologies. Mobilizing private capital is critical to real job growth and long-term economic development. Also, potential industry partners were identified that are willing to be involved with SRS` technology applications and regional development efforts. As another important component to success, regional support organizations were reviewed and evaluated.

  1. Characterization of commercial MOSFETS electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvajal, M. A.; Simancas, F.; Guirado, D.; Banqueri, J.; Vilches, M.; Lallena, A. M.; Palma, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years there have been commercial dosimetry devices based on transistors Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOSFET) having a number of advantages over traditional systems for dosimetry in medical applications. These include the portability of the sensor element and a reading process quick and relatively simple dose, linearity, and so on. The use of electron beams is important in modern radiotherapy include its use in intra-operative radiotherapy (RIO). This paper presents an initial characterization of different business models MOSFET, not specific for radiation detection, to demonstrate their potential as sensors for electron beam dosimetry. (Author)

  2. Commercialization of aquifer thermal energy storage technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.; Weijo, R.O.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Energy Storage and Distribution. The purpose of the study was to develop and screen a list of potential entry market applications for aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES). Several initial screening criteria were used to identify promising ATES applications. These include the existence of an energy availability/usage mismatch, the existence of many similar applications or commercial sites, the ability to utilize proven technology, the type of location, market characteristics, the size of and access to capital investment, and the number of decision makers involved. The in-depth analysis identified several additional screening criteria to consider in the selection of an entry market application. This analysis revealed that the best initial applications for ATES are those where reliability is acceptable, and relatively high temperatures are allowable. Although chill storage was the primary focus of this study, applications that are good candidates for heat ATES were also of special interest. 11 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Computer modeling of commercial refrigerated warehouse facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicoulin, C.V.; Jacobs, P.C.; Tory, S.

    1997-01-01

    The use of computer models to simulate the energy performance of large commercial refrigeration systems typically found in food processing facilities is an area of engineering practice that has seen little development to date. Current techniques employed in predicting energy consumption by such systems have focused on temperature bin methods of analysis. Existing simulation tools such as DOE2 are designed to model commercial buildings and grocery store refrigeration systems. The HVAC and Refrigeration system performance models in these simulations tools model equipment common to commercial buildings and groceries, and respond to energy-efficiency measures likely to be applied to these building types. The applicability of traditional building energy simulation tools to model refrigerated warehouse performance and analyze energy-saving options is limited. The paper will present the results of modeling work undertaken to evaluate energy savings resulting from incentives offered by a California utility to its Refrigerated Warehouse Program participants. The TRNSYS general-purpose transient simulation model was used to predict facility performance and estimate program savings. Custom TRNSYS components were developed to address modeling issues specific to refrigerated warehouse systems, including warehouse loading door infiltration calculations, an evaporator model, single-state and multi-stage compressor models, evaporative condenser models, and defrost energy requirements. The main focus of the paper will be on the modeling approach. The results from the computer simulations, along with overall program impact evaluation results, will also be presented

  4. 36 CFR 5.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 5.6... COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 5.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in... used in connection with any business. (b) The use of government roads within park areas by commercial...

  5. Constraints to commercialization of algal fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisti, Yusuf

    2013-09-10

    Production of algal crude oil has been achieved in various pilot scale facilities, but whether algal fuels can be produced in sufficient quantity to meaningfully displace petroleum fuels, has been largely overlooked. Limitations to commercialization of algal fuels need to be understood and addressed for any future commercialization. This review identifies the major constraints to commercialization of transport fuels from microalgae. Algae derived fuels are expensive compared to petroleum derived fuels, but this could change. Unfortunately, improved economics of production are not sufficient for an environmentally sustainable production, or its large scale feasibility. A low-cost point supply of concentrated carbon dioxide colocated with the other essential resources is necessary for producing algal fuels. An insufficiency of concentrated carbon dioxide is actually a major impediment to any substantial production of algal fuels. Sustainability of production requires the development of an ability to almost fully recycle the phosphorous and nitrogen nutrients that are necessary for algae culture. Development of a nitrogen biofixation ability to support production of algal fuels ought to be an important long term objective. At sufficiently large scale, a limited supply of freshwater will pose a significant limitation to production even if marine algae are used. Processes for recovering energy from the algal biomass left after the extraction of oil, are required for achieving a net positive energy balance in the algal fuel oil. The near term outlook for widespread use of algal fuels appears bleak, but fuels for niche applications such as in aviation may be likely in the medium term. Genetic and metabolic engineering of microalgae to boost production of fuel oil and ease its recovery, are essential for commercialization of algal fuels. Algae will need to be genetically modified for improved photosynthetic efficiency in the long term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  6. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Schulz

    2004-11-05

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M&O 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  7. Commercial SNF Accident Release Fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that could be potentially released from an accident at the repository involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions are used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the repository. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total commercial SNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. Radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses; this subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Accidents may involve waste forms characterized as: (1) bare unconfined intact fuel assemblies, (2) confined intact fuel assemblies, or (3) canistered failed commercial SNF. Confined intact commercial SNF assemblies at the repository are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or waste packages. Four categories of failed commercial SNF are identified: (1) mechanically and cladding-penetration damaged commercial SNF, (2) consolidated/reconstituted assemblies, (3) fuel rods, pieces, and debris, and (4) nonfuel components. It is assumed that failed commercial SNF is placed into waste packages with a mesh screen at each end (CRWMS M andO 1999). In contrast to bare unconfined fuel assemblies, the

  8. Fighting “zombie” health apps through K-Factor virality and other mobile gaming techniques – The application of commercial gaming techniques to create more effective mHealth solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorcha Moore

    2015-10-01

    By engaging certain commercial techniques of mobile apps, we can deliver more effective digital health programmes through the ability to identify our goals and methods of measurement. At present, the Knowsley app is still being developed, and using this approach and framework we are better able to identify goals, plan measurement of performance of the programme and continually improve via user feedback. With Health and Fitness apps representing just 2.9% of the Apple app store alone (sourced via Statista in September 2015 there is untapped potential to effect positive behaviour change for health at significant scale.

  9. Commercial Crew Development Program Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Commercial Crew Development Program is designed to stimulate efforts within the private sector that will aid in the development and demonstration of safe, reliable, and cost-effective space transportation capabilities. With the goal of delivery cargo and eventually crew to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) the program is designed to foster the development of new spacecraft and launch vehicles in the commercial sector. Through Space Act Agreements (SAAs) in 2011 NASA provided $50M of funding to four partners; Blue Origin, The Boeing Company, Sierra Nevada Corporation, and SpaceX. Additional, NASA has signed two unfunded SAAs with ATK and United Space Alliance. This paper will give a brief summary of these SAAs. Additionally, a brief overview will be provided of the released version of the Commercial Crew Development Program plans and requirements documents.

  10. New Phenomenon of Commercial Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Nowakowski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is about increase corruption in private sector as commercial corruption. This establishes a wide understanding of that phenomenon in social science and law. Corruption and bribery are types of fraud and are linked with the private sector too. Although certain types of corruption will decline as the private sector grows and consolidates, other new types involving private sector firms may increase. The commercial corruption can be described as relation inside of an organization and as relation between firms. Corruption in private sector in Poland is connected with social distrust and specific organizational culture, too. Commercial corruption is a familiar feature of their societies and has been the focus of law enforcement and institutional reform. Many others problems do not change the fact that such corruption is a new important problem and causes lost of competitiveness and creates a substitute for fair market and competition in Polish economy and abroad.

  11. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... are discussed and compared with results from an earlier study1 covering the recrystallization behavior of commercial aluminum of the same purity deformed at higher degrees of deformation (50 to 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling)....

  12. Enabling Sustainable Exploration through the Commercial Development of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The commercial development of space offers enabling benefits to space exploration. This paper examines how those benefits can be realized, and how the Space Product Development Office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is taking the first steps towards opening the space frontier through vital and sustainable industrial development. The Space Product Development Office manages 15 Commercial Space Centers that partner with US industry to develop opportunities for commerce in space. This partnership directly benefits NASA exploration in four primary ways. First, by actively involving traditional and non-traditional companies in commercial space activities, it seeks and encourages to the maximum extent possible the fullest commercial use of space, as directed by NASA's charter. Second, the commercial research and technologies pursued and developed in the program often have direct applicability to NASA priority mission areas. This dual use strategy for research and technology has the potential to greatly expand what the NASA scientific community can do. Third, the commercial experiment hardware developed by the Commercial Space Centers and their industrial partners is available for use by NASA researchers in support of priority NASA research. By utilizing low cost and existing commercial hardware, essential NASA research can be more readily accomplished. Fourth, by assisting industry in understanding the use of the environment of space and in helping industry enhance the tools and technologies for NASA and commercial space systems, the market for commercial space utilization and the capability for meeting the future growing market needs is being developed. These two activities taken together form the beginning of a new space economy that will enable sustainable NASA exploration of the universe.

  13. Genetic Algorithm Design And Testing of a Random Element 3-D 2.4 Ghz Phased Array Transmit Antenna Constructed of Commercial Rf Microchips

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esswein, Lance

    2003-01-01

    ..., development and evaluation of a test-bed array. The test-bed array was constructed of commercially available components, including a unique and innovative application of a quadrature modulator microchip used in commercial communications applications...

  14. Total dose hardness of a commercial SiGe BiCMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Vonno, N.; Lucas, R.; Thornberry, D.

    1999-01-01

    Over the past decade SiGe HBT technology has progress from the laboratory to actual commercial applications. When integrated into a BiMOS process, this technology has applications in low-cost space systems. In this paper, we report results of total dose testing of a SiGe/CMOS process accessible through a commercial foundry. (authors)

  15. Crystalline silicotitanates -- novel commercial cesium ion exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, R.; Dangieri, T.J.; Fennelly, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A new class of inorganic ion exchangers called crystalline silicotitanates (CST), invented by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories and Texas A ampersand M University, has been commercialized in a joint Sandia-UOP effort. The original developmental materials exhibited high selectivity for the ion exchange of cesium, strontium, and several other radionuclides from highly alkaline solutions containing molar concentrations of Na + . The materials also showed excellent chemical and radiation stability. These CST properties made them excellent candidates for treatment of solutions such as the Hanford tank supernates and other DOE radwastes. Sandia and UOP, under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA), developed CSTs in the powdered form and in an engineered form suitable for column ion exchange use. A continuous-flow, column ion exchange process is expected to be used to remove Cs and other radionuclides from the Hanford supernatant. The powder material invented by Sandia and Texas A ampersand M consists of submicron-size particles. It is not designed for column ion exchange but may be used in other applications such as batch waste processing. Data are also presented confirming the excellent stability of the commercial CSTs over a broad pH range and the high radiation stability of the exchangers. In addition, data are provided that demonstrate the high physical strength and attrition resistance of IONSIV reg-sign IE-911, critical properties for column ion exchange applications

  16. COMMERCIAL FUND, RECOGNITION AND ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOREL TRIF

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the immaterial investments within companies nowadays urges the specialists in accounting to find the ways to present more in the elements. In their studies researchers face the controversy reinvestments, as an asset in the balance sheet or an expense in the profit or loss account. The main goal of this paper is to analyze the difficulties in commercial fund. In the first part we will analyze various definitions of the problems concerning the commercial fund’s recognition and assessment. The paper also suggests that investments are really social and economic problems.

  17. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide an interim status report on the STARFIRE project for the period of May to September 1979. The basic objective of the STARFIRE project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor

  18. Commercial implementation of food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welt, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent positive developments in regulatory matters involving food irradiation appear to be opening the door to commercial implementation of the technology. Experience gained over five years in operating multi-purpose food irradiation facilities in the United States have demonstrated the technical and economic feasibility of the radiation preservation of food for a wide variety of purposes. Public education regarding food irradiation has been intensified especially with the growing favorable involvement of food trade associations, the USDA, and the American Medical Association. After 41 years of development effort, food irradiation will become a commercial reality in 1985. (author)

  19. Commercialization project of Ulchin vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hyun-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Woo; Hwang, Tae-Won

    2011-01-01

    The Ulchin Vitrification Facility (UVF), to be used for the vitirification of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste (LILW) generated by nuclear power plants (NPPs), is the world's first commercial facility using Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM) technology. The construction of the facility was begun in 2005 and was completed in 2007. From December 2007 to September 2009, all key performance tests, such as the system functional test, the cold test, the hot test, and the real waste test, were successfully carried out. The UVF commenced commercial operation in October 2009 for the vitrification of radioactive waste. (author)

  20. Commercial IEC portable neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sved, J.

    1997-01-01

    The inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion grade plasma devices are being developed as a commercial industrial product by Daimler-Benz Aerospace (DASA), Center Trauen, which has an exclusive license from the University of Illinois (UI) to manufacture the commercial implementation of the Miley et al. IEC inventions. DASA is funding the UI Fusion Studies Laboratory basic IEC research and the intellectual property protection process. The association of the DASA Space Infrastructure division with an apparently unrelated technology has arisen from the perception that IEC technology may benefit from certain aerospace technologies and eventually create a market for space infrastructure services. In addition, DASA Center Trauen has a number of environmental technology businesses

  1. 19 CFR 113.67 - Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS BONDS Customs Bond Conditions § 113.67 Commercial gauger and commercial laboratory bond conditions. Commercial Gauger Bond Conditions (a) Commercial gauger bond...

  2. Economic feasibility of copepod production for commercial use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw; Nielsen, Rasmus; Nielsen, Max

    2015-01-01

    of producing copepods for commercial application. This is the first empirical study to investigate the economic feasibility of copepod production for commercial use. To this end, a standard cost-benefit analysis based on a prototype production facility of Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs at Roskilde University...... condition, reduces mal-pigmentation and allows breeding of ‘new’ marine finfish species. However, copepods are not yet commercially produced and therefore not widely used in the aquaculture industry. One of the bottlenecks for large-scale production has been lack of economic knowledge on the feasibility......, Denmark, is employed. The result reveals that commercial production of copepods is economically feasible considering the existing market prices on both copepods and competing live feed items such as rotifers. The study provides valuable information for businesses who consider investing in live feed...

  3. Gas-cooled reactor commercialization study. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report of the gas-cooled reactor commercialization study completes the technical and cost evaluation portions of this study contract. A final report in December will update the status of the incentive analyses and the issues of commercialization. This study was designed to bring together potential industry participants (utilities and suppliers) to evaluate the commercial potential of the HTGR-SC and to build channels of communication among the participating organizations at the same time that technical, economic and institutional issues were being evaluated. RAMCO, Inc., in suggesting and using this study approach, believes its application extends to any commercialization problem involving multi-party involvement in high capital, intensive, high risk energy technologies

  4. The 14 Faces of Commercialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Ritter, Thomas

    The ultimate purpose of new product development is commercialization of the results. That is, creating returns for the investment. The authors investigate to what degree research published in Journal of Product Innovation Management has contributed to further our understanding of the concept...

  5. NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, James W.

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with "NASA's Commercial Communication Technology Program" are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Coordination/Integration of government program; 2) Achievement of seamless interoperable satellite and terrestrial networks; 3) Establishment of program to enhance Satcom professional and technical workforce; 4) Precompetitive technology development; and 5) Effective utilization of spectrum and orbit assets.

  6. What Is Commercial Social Marketing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Thomas Boysen; Stead, Martine

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of commercial social marketing (CSM) and discuss some major ethical aspects of CSM. In the first section, we introduce 6 social marketing benchmark criteria. Against this background, we demonstrate Dove’s ‘Campaign for Real Beauty’ to be an instance...

  7. The Battle over Commercialized Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Alex; Garcia, David

    2006-01-01

    For the last 15 years, the Education Policy Studies Laboratory has studied trends in schoolhouse commercialism and has found that this practice is increasingly pervasive and diverse. The manifestations of marketing in public schools include incentive programs, such as Pizza Hut's "Book It!" program; contracts that grant soft drink and junk food…

  8. Strategy development marketing commercial enterprise

    OpenAIRE

    Shatalov D. S.; Hamidova O. M.

    2016-01-01

    in the scientific article the necessity of development and implementation of marketing strategies in the activity of any commercial enterprise, we give a meaningful description of the concept of «marketing strategy» and develop requirements for the selection strategy of trade enterprise.

  9. Commercialization of technology in MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daud Mohamad; Razali Hamzah

    2005-01-01

    Full text:The Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), was officially established in 1972 (PUSPATI as it was known then) and has progressed leaps and bounds to become one of the country's leading research organization particularly in the field of nuclear science and technology. Primarily set up as a full fledge research and development entity with one of the initial aims was looking into the possibility of embarking in the generation of power via the use of nuclear technology as an alternative source of energy for the nation. MINTs role has somewhat changed in tandem with her stage of development and national priorities. In line with the Government's policy on sustainability and self-reliance and a drive to commercialize R and D findings, the R and D institutions are expected to be self sufficiency at 30% of institutional operating budget. MINT has embarked on the commercialization program since in 1987 even before the the policy was instituted. Unlike other corporate R and D institutions and universities which do have some liberty and flexibility in the management of the organizations, MINT as a full fledge government R and D institute faces a number of challenges in the commercialization exercise. The paper describes the technologies developed at MINT, our product and services, and challenges and limitations in commercializing our R and D endeavors. (Author)

  10. International agreements on commercial representation

    OpenAIRE

    Slanař, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to describe the possibilities for fixing the position of a company in the market through contracts for commercial representation with a focus to finding legal and economic impact on the company that contracted for exclusive representation.

  11. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessel Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the logbook data from U.S.A. Commercial Passenger Fishing Vessels (CPFV) fishing in the U.S.A. EEZ and in waters off of Baja California, from...

  12. International Commercial Arbitration in Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Ermakova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper author evaluates legal regulation of international commercial arbitration in Bolivia. Author cites statistics of arbitration centers in Bolivia activities. Arbitration Act and Conciliation number 1770 (Arbitration Act was enacted in 1997 and based on the UNCITRAL Model Law on International Commercial Arbitration 1985 (UNCITRAL Model Law. Arbitration Act contains a few differences from the UNCITRAL Model Law. The Arbitration Act provides that following disputes can not be subject to arbitration: 1 disputes on which a final judgment, except for matters related to the execution of the judgment, 2 disputes regarding civil entity, its legal capacity; 3 disputes in respect of the property or rights of disabled without prior judicial authorization, and 4 disputes regarding the state as a legal entity, and 5 labor disputes. Large commercial disputes are often resolved in two centers: 1 Arbitration and Conciliation Center of the National Chamber of Commerce of Bolivia (CNC; 2 Center for Reconciliation and Commercial Arbitration of the Chamber of Industry, Commerce and Tourism of Santa Cruz (CAINCO. Among other arbitration organizations may be called arbitration and Conciliation center of the Chamber of trade and Services Cochabamba (CADECO.

  13. Flaws in Commercial Reading Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Jerome

    Three flaws found in commercial reading materials, such as workbooks and kits, are discussed in this paper, and examples of the flaws are taken from specific materials. The first problem noted is that illustrations frequently provide the information that the learner is supposed to supply through phonetic or structural analysis; the illustrations…

  14. Commercial Art: Scope and Sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashville - Davidson County Metropolitan Public Schools, TN.

    This scope and sequence guide, developed for a commercial art vocational education program, represents an initial step in the development of a systemwide articulated curriculum sequence for all vocational programs within the Metropolitan Nashville Public School System. It was developed as a result of needs expressed by teachers, parents, and the…

  15. Characterization of commercial ceramic adsorbents and their application on naphthenic acids removal of petroleum distillates; Caracterizacao de adsorventes ceramicos comerciais e sua aplicacao na remocao de acidos naftenicos de destilados de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, J.P.; Senna, L.F. de; Lago, D.C.B. do; Silva Junior, P.F. da; Figueiredo, M.A.G. de; Dias, E.G. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: julia_psi@yahoo.com.br; Chiaro, S.S.X. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)

    2006-07-01

    One denominates 'naphthenic acids' to the mixture of carboxylic acids that is present in petroleum oil, and is directly responsible for its acidity and corrosiveness in liquid phase during the refine process. These acids are also presents in distilled fraction of petroleum, causing several problems in final products quality. A possible way to remove them from petroleum distilled fractions is the adsorption in porous materials. However, the published results indicate that ion exchange resins would be the best adsorbents for this process, which would probably increase its cost. In this work, two commercial adsorbents (clay and activated alumina) were characterized by a set of physical-chemistry techniques and evaluated concerning their capacity of removing naphthenic acids from a light petroleum fraction. It was also verified the influence of a previous thermal treatment to the adsorption in their physical-chemistry characteristics and its properties. (author)

  16. The application of gamma irradiation for the extended commercial storage of root crops (onions and garlic) and shipping trials of irradiated frozen shrimp. Final report for the period 1 December 1985 - 31 December 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouchpromool, K.

    1988-01-01

    The scope of the project was to demonstrate the efficiency of pilot scale radiation treatment of onions and garlic aiming toward the transfer of food irradiation technology to traders and to evaluate the quality of irradiated frozen shrimp shipped to Japan and australia after irradiation in Thailand. The tests demonstrated that the irradiation of onions (55-94 and 74-130 Gy) and garlic (50-90 Gy) to inhibit sprouting and reduce weight loss during commercial storage in cold room is technically feasible and economically justified. The bacteriological quality of frozen, peeled, cooked shrimps was improved by radiation treatment at doses of 1.2 to 3.3 kGy. 1 fig., 15 tabs

  17. 个人理财业务在商业银行中营销策略探析%The Research of the Strategy Application in the Personal Finance Business of Commercial Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许健

    2013-01-01

    个人理财业务的发展是我国商业银行提高其综合竞争力的重要途径。随着社会经济的快速发展和居民收入水平的不断提高,人们对于更高层次的个人理财业务需求大幅提升,个人理财业务营销的重要性和紧迫性日益突出。商业银行应当按照自身的经营特点,深刻分析个人理财业务营销的现状与存在的问题,以营销创新为突破口,从产品与品牌、价格机制、渠道体系和促销方式四个层面构造全新的营销策略。%The development of personal finance business is an important means to improve its comprehensive competitiveness of commercial banks in China. With the further development of social economy and the continuous improvement of residents' income level, the demand for higher level of personal finance business is increasing rapidly, so the marketing of personal finance business is becoming more and more important and urgent. Therefore, through making a profound analysis of personal financial services marketing situation and existing problems according to the nature of its business activities and characteristics, the commercial banks should construct new mar-keting strategy from the four aspects-product and brand, the price mechanism, the channel system, promotion methods by taking market-ing innovation as a breakthrough.

  18. Early patterns of commercial activity in graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapira, Philip; Youtie, Jan; Arora, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Graphene, a novel nanomaterial consisting of a single layer of carbon atoms, has attracted significant attention due to its distinctive properties, including great strength, electrical and thermal conductivity, lightness, and potential benefits for diverse applications. The commercialization of scientific discoveries such as graphene is inherently uncertain, with the lag time between the scientific development of a new technology and its adoption by corporate actors revealing the extent to which firms are able to absorb knowledge and engage in learning to implement applications based on the new technology. From this perspective, we test for the existence of three different corporate learning and activity patterns: (1) a linear process where patenting follows scientific discovery; (2) a double-boom phenomenon where corporate (patenting) activity is first concentrated in technological improvements and then followed by a period of technology productization; and (3) a concurrent model where scientific discovery in publications occurs in parallel with patenting. By analyzing corporate publication and patent activity across country and application lines, we find that, while graphene as a whole is experiencing concurrent scientific development and patenting growth, country- and application-specific trends offer some evidence of the linear and double-boom models.

  19. 36 CFR 1005.6 - Commercial vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial vehicles. 1005.6 Section 1005.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST COMMERCIAL AND PRIVATE OPERATIONS § 1005.6 Commercial vehicles. (a) The term “Commercial vehicle” as used in this section shall include, but...

  20. 50 CFR 404.10 - Commercial fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Commercial fishing. 404.10 Section 404.10... MARINE NATIONAL MONUMENT § 404.10 Commercial fishing. (a) Lobster fishing. Any commercial lobster fishing... species. (1) Notwithstanding the prohibitions in § 404.7(a) and (h), commercial fishing for bottomfish and...

  1. 36 CFR 272.4 - Commercial use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial use. 272.4 Section... OWLâ SYMBOL § 272.4 Commercial use. (a) General. The Chief may authorize the Commercial manufacture... charge, royalty charge, or payment in kind which is reasonably related to the commercial value has been...

  2. 36 CFR 271.4 - Commercial license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial license. 271.4... BEARâ SYMBOL § 271.4 Commercial license. (a) The Chief may authorize the commercial manufacture... a use or royalty charge which is reasonably related to the commercial enterprise has been...

  3. 27 CFR 10.21 - Commercial bribery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Commercial bribery. 10.21 Section 10.21 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Commercial Bribery § 10.21 Commercial bribery. It is...

  4. Fossil fuels. Commercializing clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Sprague, John W.; Kirk, Roy J.; Clark, Marcus R. Jr.; Greene, Richard M.; Buncher, Carole S.; Kleigleng, Robert G.; Imbrogno, Frank W.

    1989-03-01

    Coal, an abundant domestic energy source, provides 25 percent of the nation's energy needs, but its use contributes to various types of pollution, including acid rain. The Department of Energy (DOE) has a Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program whose goal is to expand the use of coal in an environmentally safe manner by contributing to the cost of projects demonstrating the commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. Concerned about the implementation of the CCT program, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Energy and Power, House Committee on Energy and Commerce, requested GAO to report on (1) DOE's process of negotiating cooperative agreements with project sponsors, (2) changes DOE has made to the program, (3) the status of funded projects, and (4) the interrelationship between acid rain control proposals and the potential commercialization of clean coal technologies. Under the CCT program, DOE funds up to 50 percent of the cost of financing projects that demonstrate commercial applications of emerging clean coal technologies. DOE has conducted two solicitations for demonstration project proposals and is planning a third solicitation by May 1989. The Congress has appropriated $400 million for the first solicitation, or round one of the program, $575 million for round two, and $575 million for round three, for a total of $1.55 billion. For the round-one solicitation, DOE received 51 proposals from project sponsors. As of December 31, 1988, DOE had funded nine projects and was in the process of negotiating cooperative financial assistance agreements with sponsors of four projects. In September 1988, DOE selected 16 round-two projects from 55 proposals submitted and began the process of negotiating cooperative agreements with the project sponsors. The Congress has debated the need to reduce acid rain-causing emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion. The 100th Congress considered but did not enact about 20 acid rain control bills. On February 9, 1989

  5. Analysis of concentrating PV-T systems for the commercial/industrial sector. Volume II. PV-T state-of-the-art survey and site/application pair selection and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwinkendorf, W.E.

    1984-09-01

    As part of a project to develop feasibility assessments, design procedures, and reference designs for total energy systems that could use actively cooled concentrating photovoltaic collectors, a survey was conducted to provide an overview of available photovoltaic-thermal (PV-T) technology. General issues associated with the design and installation of a PV-T system are identified. Electrical and thermal efficiencies for the line-focus Fresnel, the linear parabolic trough, and the point-focus Fresnel collectors are specified as a function of operating temperature, ambient temperature, and insolation. For current PV-T technologies, the line-focus Fresnel collector proved to have the highest thermal and electrical efficiencies, lowest array cost, and lowest land area requirement. But a separate feasibility analysis involving 11 site/application pairs showed that for most applications, the cost of the photovoltaic portion of a PV-T system is not recovered through the displacement of an electrical load, and use of a thermal-only system to displace the thermal load would be a more economical alternative. PV-T systems are not feasible for applications that have a small thermal load, a large steam requirement, or a high load return temperature. SAND82-7157/3 identifies the technical issues involved in designing a photovoltaic-thermal system and provides guidance for resolving such issues. Detailed PV-T system designs for three selected applications and the results of a trade-off study for these applications are presented in SAND82-7157/4. A summary of the major results of this entire study and conclusions concerning PV-T systems and applications is presented in SAND82-7157/1.

  6. Pressão de aplicação com pulverizador de barra e eficiência de bioinseticidas fúngicos comerciais Application pressure in boom sprayer and efficiency of commercial fungal bioinsecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar de Oliveira Guimarães

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioinseticidas fúngicos são aplicados com pulverizadores convencionais e algumas características destes equipamentos podem não ser adequadas e afetar a eficiência dos bioinseticidas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se pressões usuais, em aplicações com o pulverizador de barra, podem afetar a ação inseticida de conídios de Beauveria bassiana e Metarhizium anisopliae, componentes de produtos comerciais brasileiros. Para isso, suspensões aquosas de três bioinseticidas foram submetidas à passagem pelo equipamento em três pressões (20, 40 e 60 lbf pol-2 e avaliadas quanto ao rompimento, à viabilidade e à virulência dos conídios. Avaliou-se a viabilidade em lâminas de microscopia cobertas com meio de cultura, após incubação a 26±0,5ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas. A concentração foi determinada por meio de contagens em câmara de Neubauer e a virulência foi avaliada para lagartas de Diatraea saccharalis. Não foram encontradas, nos três produtos, influências significativas em nenhum dos parâmetros. Nas pressões avaliadas, a aplicação com o pulverizador de barra não reduz a viabilidade e nem a virulência dos conídios dos bioinseticidas testados, tampouco provoca destruição dos conídios.Fungal biopesticides are applied with conventional sprayers and this equipment may be inappropriate, and therefore affect field control efficacy of biopesticides. The objective of this research was to find out if the usual pressures used in the boom sprayers can affect the conidia pesticide activity of the Brazilian commercial entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Water fungi suspensions were passed through the equipment under three pressures (20, 40 and 60 psi and evaluated for viability, virulence and conidia disruption. The viability was evaluated in slides covered by culture media after incubation at 26±0.5ºC and 12 hours photophase. The concentration was determined through Neubauer

  7. SHORT ANALYSIS OF COMMERCIAL ADVERTISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.

  8. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 3rd Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009....

  9. Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lookofsky, Joseph; Hertz, Ketilbjørn

    Transnational Litigation and Commercial Arbitration is a case-oriented study of the key rules and procedures which regulate the resolution of commercial disputes arising in a transnational context. The study explains and compares European and American rules of private international and procedural...... law. Each case is introduced both by a paradigm model, emphasizing and simplifying the key operative facts, as well as by a doctrinal presentation of the main issues and sources of American, European, or international law concerned. The court decisions themselves are all extensively edited...... and annotated by the authors. This 4th Edition, which has been completely revised and updated, takes account of recent developments in American law, as well as the Rome I and II Regulations, effective within the European Union as of 2009, and the EU Brussels Regulation (recast), 2012....

  10. Commercial nuclear-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    This report is primarily concerned with nuclear waste generated by commercial power operations. It is clear, however, that the total generation of commercial nuclear waste does not tell the whole story, there are sizeable stockpiles of defense nuclear wastes which will impact areas such as total nuclide exposure to the biosphere and the overall economics of waste disposal. The effects of these other nuclear waste streams can be factored in as exogenous inputs. Their generation is essentially independent of nuclear power operations. The objective of this report is to assess the real-world problems associated with nuclear waste management and to design the analytical framework, as appropriate, for handling nuclear waste management issues in the International Nuclear Model. As such, some issues that are not inherently quantifiable, such as the development of environmental Impact Statements to satisfy the National Environmental Protection Act requirements, are only briefly mentioned, if at all

  11. Starfire: a commercial tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, C.C.; Abdou, M.A.; DeFreece, D.A.; Trachsel, C.A.; Graumann, D.; Kokoszenski, J.

    1979-01-01

    The basic objective of the STARFIRE Project is to develop a design concept for a commercial tokamak fusion electric power plant based on the deuterium/tritium/lithium fuel cycle. The key technical objective is to develop the best embodiment of the tokamak as a power reactor consistent with credible engineering solutions to design problems. Another key goal of the project is to give careful attention to the safety and environmental features of a commercial fusion reactor. The STARFIRE Project was initiated in May 1979, with the goal of completing the design study by October 1980. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the major parameters and design features that have been tentatively selected for STARFIRE

  12. Commercial green energy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalweit, B.

    1998-11-01

    Firms offering a Green electricity product have discovered that residential customers are willing to pay extra for the assurance that their electricity is generated through the use of non-polluting or renewable resources. This research investigated the market potential for Green energy at the next level of the energy consuming chain, commercial establishments at which small and medium sized businesses interface with customers. Green energy is proving to be an attractive proposition to some consumers in the residential marketplace. Is there a possibility that Green energy can also be sold to commercial enterprises? This research project sought to answer this question and to investigate the factors that might lead small business people to opt for Green. Answers to these questions will help energy companies target the businesses most likely to accept Green power with the right product set and product features

  13. Properties of Commercial PVC Films with Respect to Electron Dosimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Liqing, Xie

    The properties of three commercially available polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film supplies and one made without additives were tested with respect to their application as routine dose monitors at electron accelerators. Dose fractionation was found to increase the response and the post-irradiation heat...

  14. 75 FR 12981 - Eligibility for Commercial Flats Failing Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... applicable only to automation flats, for all commercial flat-size mail except saturation and high-density...[supreg] pricing. If automation prices are denied, pieces that are prepared to be part of full-service IMb... compliance, but at additional cost; and quarter-folding would not work well with any inserts. Also, there was...

  15. Protein Engineering: Case Studies of Commercialized Engineered Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Programs in biochemistry invariably encompass the principles of protein engineering. Students often display increased understanding and enthusiasm when theoretical concepts are underpinned by practical example. Herein are presented five case studies, each focusing upon a commercial protein product engineered to enhance its application-relevant…

  16. The doctrine of party autonomy in international commercial arbitration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The freedom of parties to consensually execute arbitration agreement is known as the principle of party autonomy. The principle provides a right for the parties to international commercial arbitration to choose applicable substantive law and these laws when chosen shall govern the contractual relationship of the parties.

  17. Cellulose Nanomaterials — A Path Towards Commercialization Workshop Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred Hansen; Victoria Brun; Emily Keller; World Nieh; Theodore Wegner; Michael Meador; Lisa Friedersdorf

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose nanomaterials are primarily isolated from trees and other organisms; are naturally occurring polymeric materials that have demonstrated great promise for commercial applications across an array of industrial sectors; are renewable and environmentally sustainable; and have the potential to be produced in large volumes (i.e., millions of tons per year). The...

  18. Competition and Commercial Media Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Blasco, Andrea; Sobbrio, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the empirical evidence on commercial media bias (i.e., advertisers influence over media accuracy) and then introduces a simple model to summarize the main elements of the theoretical literature. The analysis provides three main policy insights for media regulators: i) Media regulators should target their monitoring efforts towards news contents upon which advertisers are likely to share similar preferences; ii) In advertising industries characterized by high correlation in ...

  19. Recommender Systems in Commercial Use

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Commercial recommender systems are deployed by marketing teams to increase revenue and/or personalize user experience. Marketers evaluate recommender systems not on its algorithms but on how well the vendor‘s expertise and interfaces will support achieving business goals. Driven by a business model that pays based on recommendation success, vendors guide clients through continuous optimization of recommendations. While recommender technology is mature, the solutions and market are still young...

  20. A survey of commercial frameworks for the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Derhamy, Hasan; Eliasson, Jens; Delsing, Jerker; Priller, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 Ericsson and Cisco estimated 50 billion Internet connected devices by 2020, encouraged by this industry is developing application frameworks to scale the Internet of Things. This paper presents a survey of commercial frameworks and platforms designed for developing and running Internet of Things applications. The survey covers frameworks supported by big players in the software and electronics industries. The frameworks are evaluated against criteria such as architectural approach, in...