WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-methane organic gases

  1. Airborne Deployment of a High Resolution PTR-ToF-MS to Characterize Non-methane Organic Gases in Wildfire Smoke: A Pilot Study During WE-CAN Test Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permar, W.; Hu, L.; Fischer, E. V.

    2017-12-01

    Despite being the second largest primary source of tropospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs), biomass burning is poorly understood relative to other sources due in part to its large variability and the difficulty inherent to sampling smoke. In light of this, several field campaigns are planned to better characterize wildfire plume emissions and chemistry through airborne sampling of smoke plumes. As part of this effort, we will deploy a high-resolution proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToF-MS) on the NSF/NCAR C-130 research aircraft during the collaborative Western wildfire Experiment for Cloud chemistry, Aerosol absorption and Nitrogen (WE-CAN) mission. PTR-ToF-MS is well suited for airborne measurements of VOC in wildfire smoke plumes due to its ability to collect real time, high-resolution data for the full mass range of ionizable organic species, many of which remain uncharacterized or unidentified. In this work, we will report on our initial measurements from the WE-CAN test flights in September 2017. We will also discuss challenges associated with deploying the instrument for airborne missions targeting wildfire smoke and goals for further study in WE-CAN 2018.

  2. Assessing methods to estimate emissions of non-methane organic compounds from landfills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saquing, Jovita M.; Chanton, Jeffrey P.; Yazdani, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    The non-methane organic compound (NMOC) emission rate is used to assess compliance with landfill gas emission regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). A recent USEPA Report (EPA/600/R-11/033) employed a ratio method to estimate speciated NMOC emissions (i...... and speciated NMOC concentration and flux data from 2012/2013 field sampling of four landfills, an unpublished landfill study, and literature data from three landfills. The ratio method worked well for landfills with thin covers (...

  3. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using total non- methane organic compound vapor concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-02-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford high-level radioactive waste tanks is a safety issue because expanding gases could affect tank dome integrity. This report presents results of a screening test that was applied to 75 passively ventilated waste tanks at Hanford to determine those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. The screening test is based on a simple model of tank headspace, headspace organic vapor concentrations, and certain tank physical parameters. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Twelve tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Tank head space organic vapor concentrations and physical parameters required by the screening test have been compiled and are presented for each of the tanks studied. Estimates of the ventilation rates of the waste tanks were revised to reflect recent information obtained from hydrogen monitoring data. A simple analysis of the uncertainty in the test results suggests that the largest current uncertainty in the estimation of organic liquid surface area is that associated with knowledge of the tank ventilation rate. The uncertainty analysis is applied to determine 95% confidence limits for the estimated organic waste surface area in each tank

  4. Release of non-methane organic compounds during simulated landfilling of aerobically pretreated municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yue, Dongbei; Liu, Jianguo; Lu, Peng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Jing; Nie, Yongfeng

    2012-06-30

    Characteristics of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) emissions during the anaerobic decomposition of untreated (APD-0) and four aerobically pretreated (APD-20, APD-39, APD-49, and APD-63) samples of municipal solid waste (MSW) were investigated in laboratory. The cumulative mass of the NMOCs of APD-20, APD-39, APD-49, and APD-63 accounted for 15%, 9%, 16%, and 15% of that of APD-0, respectively. The intensities of the NMOC emissions calculated by dividing the cumulative NMOC emissions by the quantities of organic matter removed (Q(VS)) decreased from 4.1 mg/kg Q(VS) for APD-0 to 0.8-3.4 mg/kg Q(VS) for aerobically pretreated MSW. The lipid and starch contents might have significant impact on the intensity of the NMOC emissions. Alkanes dominated the NMOCs released from the aerobically pretreated MSW, while oxygenated compounds were the chief component of the NMOCs generated from untreated MSW. Aerobic pretreatment of MSW prior to landfilling reduces the organic content of the waste and the intensity of the NMOC emissions, and increases the odor threshold, thereby reducing the environmental impact of landfills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating the biogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds from the North Western Mediterranean vegetation of Catalonia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, R.; Gasso, S.; Baldasano, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    An estimation of the magnitude of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted by vegetation in Catalonia (NE of the Iberian Peninsula, Spain), in addition to their superficial and temporal distribution, is presented for policy and scientific (photochemical modelling) purposes. It was developed for the year 2000, for different time resolutions (hourly, daily, monthly and annual) and using a high-resolution land-use map (1-km 2 squared cells). Several meteorological surface stations provided air temperature and solar radiation data. An adjusted mathematical emission model taking account of Catalonia's conditions was built into a geographic information system (GIS) software. This estimation uses the latest information, mainly relating to: (1) emission factors; (2) better knowledge of the composition of Catalonia's forest cover; and (3) better knowledge of the particular emission behaviour of some Mediterranean vegetal species. Results depict an annual cycle with increasing values in the March-April period with the highest emissions in July-August, followed by a decrease in October-November. Annual biogenic NMVOCs emissions reach 46.9 kt, with monoterpenes the most abundant species (24.7 kt), followed by other biogenic volatile organic compounds (e.g. alcohols, aldehydes and acetone) (16.3 kt), and isoprene (5.9 kt). These compounds signify 52%, 35% and 13%, respectively, of total emission estimates. Peak hourly total emission for a winter day could be less than 10% of the corresponding value for a summer day

  6. Kinetics of biological methane oxidation in the presence of non-methane organic compounds in landfill bio-covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albanna, Muna; Warith, Mostafa; Fernandes, Leta

    2010-01-01

    In this experimental program, the effects of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) on the biological methane (CH 4 ) oxidation process were examined. The investigation was performed on compost experiments incubated with CH 4 and selected NMOCs under different environmental conditions. The selected NMOCs had different concentrations and their effects were tested as single compounds and mixtures of compounds. The results from all experimental sets showed a decrease in CH 4 oxidation capacity of the landfill bio-cover with the increase in NMOCs concentrations. For example, in the experiment using compost with 100% moisture content at 35 deg. C without any NMOCs the V max value was 35.0 μg CH 4 h -1 g wetwt -1 . This value was reduced to 19.1 μg CH 4 h -1 g wetwt -1 when mixed NMOCs were present in the batch reactors under the same environmental conditions. The experimental oxidation rates of CH 4 in the presence of single and mixed NMOCs were modeled using the uncompetitive inhibition model and kinetic parameters, including the dissociation constants, were obtained. Additionally, the degradation rates of the NMOCs and co-metabolic abilities of methanotrophic bacteria were estimated.

  7. Speciation of anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds: a global gridded data set for 1970–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs include a large number of chemical species which differ significantly in their chemical characteristics and thus in their impacts on ozone and secondary organic aerosol formation. It is important that chemical transport models (CTMs simulate the chemical transformation of the different NMVOC species in the troposphere consistently. In most emission inventories, however, only total NMVOC emissions are reported, which need to be decomposed into classes to fit the requirements of CTMs. For instance, the Emissions Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR provides spatially resolved global anthropogenic emissions of total NMVOCs. In this study the EDGAR NMVOC inventory was revised and extended in time and in sectors. Moreover the new version of NMVOC emission data in the EDGAR database were disaggregated on a detailed sector resolution to individual species or species groups, thus enhancing the usability of the NMVOC emission data by the modelling community. Region- and source-specific speciation profiles of NMVOC species or species groups are compiled and mapped to EDGAR processes (detailed resolution of sectors, with corresponding quality codes specifying the quality of the mapping. Individual NMVOC species in different profiles are aggregated to 25 species groups, in line with the common classification of the Global Emissions Initiative (GEIA. Global annual grid maps with a resolution of 0.1°  ×  0.1° for the period 1970–2012 are produced by sector and species. Furthermore, trends in NMVOC composition are analysed, taking road transport and residential sources in Germany and the United Kingdom (UK as examples.

  8. Responses of non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions to climate change in boreal and subarctic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faubert, P.

    2010-07-01

    Non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions (BVOCs) have important roles in the global atmospheric chemistry but their feedbacks to climate change are still unknown. This thesis reports one of the first estimates of BVOC emissions from boreal and subarctic ecosystems. Most importantly, this thesis assesses the BVOC emission responses to four effects of climate change in these ecosystems: (1) the direct effect of warming, and its indirect effects via (2) water table drawdown, (3) change in the vegetation composition, and (4) enhanced UV-B radiation. BVOC emissions were measured using a conventional chamber method in which the compounds were collected on adsorbent and later analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. On a subarctic heath, warming by only 1.9-2.5 degC doubled the monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions. Such a high increase of BVOC emissions under a conservative warming cannot be predicted by the current models, which underlines the importance of a focus on BVOC emissions from the Subarctic under climate change. On a subarctic peatland, enhanced UV-B did not affect the BVOC emissions but the water table level exerted the major effect. The water table drawdown experimentally applied on boreal peatland microcosms decreased the emissions of monoterpenes and other VOCs (BVOCs with a lifetime>1 d) for the hollows (wet microsites) and that of all BVOC groups for the lawns (moderately wet microsites). The warming treatment applied on the lawn microcosms decreased the isoprene emission. The removal of vascular plants in the hummock (dry microsites) microcosms decreased the emissions of monoterpenes while the emissions between the microcosms covered with Sphagnum moss and bare peat were not different. In conclusion, the results presented in this thesis indicate that climate change has complex effects on the BVOC emissions. These results make a significant contribution to improving the modeling of BVOC emissions for a better understanding of

  9. Non-methane organic gas emissions from biomass burning: identification, quantification, and emission factors from PTR-ToF during the FIREX 2016 laboratory experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Abigail R.; Sekimoto, Kanako; Gilman, Jessica B.; Selimovic, Vanessa; Coggon, Matthew M.; Zarzana, Kyle J.; Yuan, Bin; Lerner, Brian M.; Brown, Steven S.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Krechmer, Jordan; Roberts, James M.; Warneke, Carsten; Yokelson, Robert J.; de Gouw, Joost

    2018-03-01

    Volatile and intermediate-volatility non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) released from biomass burning were measured during laboratory-simulated wildfires by proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF). We identified NMOG contributors to more than 150 PTR ion masses using gas chromatography (GC) pre-separation with electron ionization, H3O+ chemical ionization, and NO+ chemical ionization, an extensive literature review, and time series correlation, providing higher certainty for ion identifications than has been previously available. Our interpretation of the PTR-ToF mass spectrum accounts for nearly 90 % of NMOG mass detected by PTR-ToF across all fuel types. The relative contributions of different NMOGs to individual exact ion masses are mostly similar across many fires and fuel types. The PTR-ToF measurements are compared to corresponding measurements from open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR), broadband cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (ACES), and iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I- CIMS) where possible. The majority of comparisons have slopes near 1 and values of the linear correlation coefficient, R2, of > 0.8, including compounds that are not frequently reported by PTR-MS such as ammonia, hydrogen cyanide (HCN), nitrous acid (HONO), and propene. The exceptions include methylglyoxal and compounds that are known to be difficult to measure with one or more of the deployed instruments. The fire-integrated emission ratios to CO and emission factors of NMOGs from 18 fuel types are provided. Finally, we provide an overview of the chemical characteristics of detected species. Non-aromatic oxygenated compounds are the most abundant. Furans and aromatics, while less abundant, comprise a large portion of the OH reactivity. The OH reactivity, its major contributors, and the volatility distribution of emissions can change considerably over the course of a fire.

  10. Non-methane organic gas emissions from biomass burning: identification, quantification, and emission factors from PTR-ToF during the FIREX 2016 laboratory experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koss

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Volatile and intermediate-volatility non-methane organic gases (NMOGs released from biomass burning were measured during laboratory-simulated wildfires by proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF. We identified NMOG contributors to more than 150 PTR ion masses using gas chromatography (GC pre-separation with electron ionization, H3O+ chemical ionization, and NO+ chemical ionization, an extensive literature review, and time series correlation, providing higher certainty for ion identifications than has been previously available. Our interpretation of the PTR-ToF mass spectrum accounts for nearly 90 % of NMOG mass detected by PTR-ToF across all fuel types. The relative contributions of different NMOGs to individual exact ion masses are mostly similar across many fires and fuel types. The PTR-ToF measurements are compared to corresponding measurements from open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR, broadband cavity-enhanced spectroscopy (ACES, and iodide ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry (I− CIMS where possible. The majority of comparisons have slopes near 1 and values of the linear correlation coefficient, R2, of  >  0.8, including compounds that are not frequently reported by PTR-MS such as ammonia, hydrogen cyanide (HCN, nitrous acid (HONO, and propene. The exceptions include methylglyoxal and compounds that are known to be difficult to measure with one or more of the deployed instruments. The fire-integrated emission ratios to CO and emission factors of NMOGs from 18 fuel types are provided. Finally, we provide an overview of the chemical characteristics of detected species. Non-aromatic oxygenated compounds are the most abundant. Furans and aromatics, while less abundant, comprise a large portion of the OH reactivity. The OH reactivity, its major contributors, and the volatility distribution of emissions can change considerably over the course of a fire.

  11. Evaluation of non-enteric sources of non-methane volatile organic compound (NMVOC) emissions from dairies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Myeong Y.; Beene, Matt; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Hasson, Alam S.

    2010-02-01

    Dairies are believed to be a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in Central California, but few studies have characterized VOC emissions from these facilities. In this work, samples were collected from six sources of VOCs (Silage, Total Mixed Rations, Lagoons, Flushing Lanes, Open Lots and Bedding) at six dairies in Central California during 2006-2007 using emission isolation flux chambers and polished stainless steel canisters. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection. Forty-eight VOCs were identified and quantified in the samples, including alcohols, carbonyls, alkanes and aromatics. Silage and Total Mixed Rations are the dominant sources of VOCs tested, with ethanol as the major VOC present. Emissions from the remaining sources are two to three orders of magnitude smaller, with carbonyls and aromatics as the main components. The data suggest that animal feed rather than animal waste are the main source of non-enteric VOC emissions from dairies.

  12. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds (NMVOCs) in a Middle Eastern country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salameh, Therese; Sauvage, Stéphane; Afif, Charbel; Borbon, Agnès; Locoge, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    NMVOCs, emitted from various sources, are of particular interest since they contribute to the formation of tropospheric ozone, PAN and secondary organic aerosols resulting in negative impacts on human health, climate and on the environment. To identify abatement measures, a profound knowledge of emission sources and their composition is a prerequisite. Air pollution in the Middle East region remains difficult to assess and understand because of a lack of ground-based measurements and the limited information on NMVOC chemical speciation and source apportionment. Based on a large database of NMVOC observations obtained in Beirut, the capital of Lebanon (a developing country in the Middle East region, located in Western Asia on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea), the overall objective of this work is to apportion the sources of NMVOCs encountered in Lebanon. First, source profiles were determined with field measurements close to the main potential emitters namely the road transport, gasoline vapour, power generation and solvent uses. The results obtained are compared to other studies held in other regions and are used to assess the emission inventory developed for Lebanon. Secondly, two intensive field campaigns were held in a receptor site in Beirut during summer 2011 and winter 2012 in order to obtain a large time resolved dataset. The PMF analysis of this dataset was applied to apportion anthropogenic sources in this area. In both seasons, combustion (road transport and power generation) and gasoline evaporation, especially in winter, were the main sources contributing to the NMVOCs in Beirut. The results will support model implementation especially by completing the emission inventory established for the year 2010 by Waked et al. 2012 according to the EEA/EMEP guidelines because of the lack of Lebanon-specific emission factor.

  13. Emission sources of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and their contribution to photochemical ozone (O3) formation at an urban atmosphere in western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R.; Sahu, L. K.; Tripathi, N.; Pal, D.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) were measured at a sampling site in Udaipur city of western India during 2015 to recognize their pollution levels, variation characteristics, sources and photochemical reactivity. The samples were analyzed for NMVOCs using a Gas Chromatograph equipped with Flame Ionization Detector (GC/FID) and Thermal Desorption (TD) system. The main focus on understand the sources responsible for NMVOC emissions, and evaluating the role of the identified sources towards ozone formation. Hourly variations of various NMVOC species indicate that VOCs mixing ratios were influenced by photochemical removal with OH radicals for reactive species, secondary formation for oxygenated VOCs. In general, higher mixing ratios were observed during winter/pre-monsoon and lower levels during the monsoon season due to the seasonal change in meteorological, transport path of air parcel and boundary layer conditions. The high levels of propane (C3H8) and butane (C4H10) show the dominance of LPG over the study location. The correlation coefficients of typical NMVOC pairs (ethylene/propylene, propylene/isoprene, and ethane/propane) depicted that vehicular emission and natural gas leakages were important sources for atmospheric hydrocarbons in Udaipur. Based on the annual data, PMF analysis suggest the source factors namely biomass burning/ bio-fuel, automobile exhaust, Industrial/ natural gas/power plant emissions, petrol/Diesel, gasoline evaporation, and use of liquid petroleum gas (LPG) contribute to NMVOCs loading. The propylene-equivalent and ozone formation potential of NMVOCs have also been calculated in order to find out their OH reactivity and contribution to the photochemical ozone formation.

  14. Improved provincial emission inventory and speciation profiles of anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds: a case study for Jiangsu, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs are the key precursors of ozone (O3 and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation. Accurate estimation of their emissions plays a crucial role in air quality simulation and policy making. We developed a high-resolution anthropogenic NMVOC emission inventory for Jiangsu in eastern China from 2005 to 2014, based on detailed information of individual local sources and field measurements of source profiles of the chemical industry. A total of 56 NMVOCs samples were collected in nine chemical plants and were then analyzed with a gas chromatography – mass spectrometry system (GC-MS. Source profiles of stack emissions from synthetic rubber, acetate fiber, polyether, vinyl acetate and ethylene production, and those of fugitive emissions from ethylene, butanol and octanol, propylene epoxide, polyethylene and glycol production were obtained. Various manufacturing technologies and raw materials led to discrepancies in source profiles between our domestic field tests and foreign results for synthetic rubber and ethylene production. The provincial NMVOC emissions were calculated to increase from 1774 Gg in 2005 to 2507 Gg in 2014, and relatively large emission densities were found in cities along the Yangtze River with developed economies and industries. The estimates were larger than those from most other available inventories, due mainly to the complete inclusion of emission sources and to the elevated activity levels from plant-by-plant investigation in this work. Industrial processes and solvent use were the largest contributing sectors, and their emissions were estimated to increase, respectively, from 461 to 958 and from 38 to 966 Gg. Alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs were the most important species, accounting for 25.9–29.9, 20.8–23.2 and 18.2–21.0 % to annual total emissions, respectively. Quantified with a Monte Carlo simulation, the uncertainties of annual NMVOC emissions

  15. Improved provincial emission inventory and speciation profiles of anthropogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds: a case study for Jiangsu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Mao, Pan; Zhou, Yaduan; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Shekou; Dong, Yanping; Xie, Fangjian; Yu, Yiyong; Li, Wenqing

    2017-06-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) are the key precursors of ozone (O3) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. Accurate estimation of their emissions plays a crucial role in air quality simulation and policy making. We developed a high-resolution anthropogenic NMVOC emission inventory for Jiangsu in eastern China from 2005 to 2014, based on detailed information of individual local sources and field measurements of source profiles of the chemical industry. A total of 56 NMVOCs samples were collected in nine chemical plants and were then analyzed with a gas chromatography - mass spectrometry system (GC-MS). Source profiles of stack emissions from synthetic rubber, acetate fiber, polyether, vinyl acetate and ethylene production, and those of fugitive emissions from ethylene, butanol and octanol, propylene epoxide, polyethylene and glycol production were obtained. Various manufacturing technologies and raw materials led to discrepancies in source profiles between our domestic field tests and foreign results for synthetic rubber and ethylene production. The provincial NMVOC emissions were calculated to increase from 1774 Gg in 2005 to 2507 Gg in 2014, and relatively large emission densities were found in cities along the Yangtze River with developed economies and industries. The estimates were larger than those from most other available inventories, due mainly to the complete inclusion of emission sources and to the elevated activity levels from plant-by-plant investigation in this work. Industrial processes and solvent use were the largest contributing sectors, and their emissions were estimated to increase, respectively, from 461 to 958 and from 38 to 966 Gg. Alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) were the most important species, accounting for 25.9-29.9, 20.8-23.2 and 18.2-21.0 % to annual total emissions, respectively. Quantified with a Monte Carlo simulation, the uncertainties of annual NMVOC emissions vary slightly through the years

  16. Estimating Biogenic Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Emissions for the Wasatch Front Through a High-Resolution. Gridded, Biogenic Vola Tile Organic Compound Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    1-hour and proposed 8-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Reactive biogenic (natural) volatile organic compounds emitted from plants have...uncertainty in predicting plant species composition and frequency. Isoprene emissions computed for the study area from the project’s high-resolution...Landcover Database (BELD 2), while monoterpene and other reactive volatile organic compound emission rates were almost 26% and 28% lower, respectively

  17. Effect of vegetation removal and water table drawdown on the non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in boreal peatland microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Rinnan, Åsmund; Räty, Sanna; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Holopainen, Toini; Rinnan, Riikka

    2010-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are important in the global atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks to global warming are uncertain. Global warming is expected to trigger vegetation changes and water table drawdown in boreal peatlands, such changes have only been investigated on isoprene emission but never on other BVOCs. We aimed at distinguishing the BVOCs released from vascular plants, mosses and peat in hummocks (dry microsites) and hollows (wet microsites) of boreal peatland microcosms maintained in growth chambers. We also assessed the effect of water table drawdown (-20 cm) on the BVOC emissions in hollow microcosms. BVOC emissions were measured from peat samples underneath the moss surface after the 7-week-long experiment to investigate whether the potential effects of vegetation and water table drawdown were shown. BVOCs were sampled using a conventional chamber method, collected on adsorbent and analyzed with GC-MS. In hummock microcosms, vascular plants increased the monoterpene emissions compared with the treatment where all above-ground vegetation was removed while no effect was detected on the sesquiterpenes, other reactive VOCs (ORVOCs) and other VOCs. Peat layer from underneath the surface with intact vegetation had the highest sesquiterpene emissions. In hollow microcosms, intact vegetation had the highest sesquiterpene emissions. Water table drawdown decreased monoterpene and other VOC emissions. Specific compounds could be closely associated to the natural/lowered water tables. Peat layer from underneath the surface of hollows with intact vegetation had the highest emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and ORVOCs whereas water table drawdown decreased those emissions. The results suggest that global warming would change the BVOC emission mixtures from boreal peatlands following changes in vegetation composition and water table drawdown.

  18. A refined method for the calculation of the Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compound emission estimate from Domestic Solvent Usage in Ireland from 1992 to 2014 - A case study for Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Stephen; O'Regan, Bernadette

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a new methodology to calculate Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds from Domestic Solvent Use including Fungicides over the period 1992-2014. Improved emissions data compiled at a much more refined level can help policy-makers develop more effective policy's to address environmental issues. However, a number of problems were found when member states attempt to use national statistics for Domestic Solvent Use including Fungicides. For instance, EMEP/EEA (2013) provides no guidance regarding which activity data should be used, resulting in emission estimates being potentially inconsistent and un-comparable. Also, previous methods and emission factors described in the EMEP/EEA (2013) guidebook do not exactly match data collected by state agencies. This makes using national statistics difficult. In addition, EMEP/EEA (2013) use broader categories than necessary (e.g. Cosmetics Aerosol/Non Aerosol) to estimate emissions while activity data is available at a more refined level scale (e.g. Personal Cleaning Products, Hair Products, Cosmetics, Deodorants and Perfumes). This can make identifying the drivers of emissions unclear. This study builds upon Tzanidakis et al. (2012) whereby it provides a method for collecting activity data from state statistics, developed country specific emission factors based on a survey of 177 Irish products and importantly, used a new method to account for the volatility of organic compounds found in commonly available domestic solvent containing products. This is the first study to account for volatility based on the characteristics of organic compounds and therefore is considered a more accurate method of accounting for emissions from this emission source. The results of this study can also be used to provide a simple method for other member parties to account for the volatility of organic compounds using sectorial adjustment factors described here. For comparison purposes, emission estimates were calculated using the

  19. Measurement of stable carbon isotope ratios of non-methane hydrocarbons and halocarbons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderweg, A.T.

    2012-01-01

    Within the realm of volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons and halocarbons form a sizable proportion of carbon input to the atmosphere. Within these compound categories, the light non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC, two to seven carbon atoms) and monocarbon halocarbons have a special place as these

  20. Measurement of Selected Organic Trace Gases During TRACE-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, Elliot

    2004-01-01

    Major goals of the TRACE-P mission were: 1) to investigate the chemical composition of radiatively important gases, aerosols, and their precursors in the Asian outflow over the western Pacific, and 2) to describe and understand the chemical evolution of the Asian outflow as it is transported and mixed into the global troposphere. The research performed as part of this proposal addressed these major goals with a study of the organic chemical composition of gases in the TRACE-P region. This work was a close collaboration with the Blake/Rowland research group at UC-Irvine, and they have provided a separate report for their funded effort.

  1. Holographic detection of hydrocarbon gases and other volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hurtado, J L; Davidson, C A B; Blyth, J; Lowe, C R

    2010-10-05

    There is a need to develop sensors for real-time monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and hydrocarbon gases in both external and indoor environments, since these compounds are of growing concern in human health and welfare. Current measurement technology for VOCs requires sophisticated equipment and lacks the prospect for rapid real-time monitoring. Holographic sensors can give a direct reading of the analyte concentration as a color change. We report a technique for recording holographic sensors by laser ablation of silver particles formed in situ by diffusion. This technique allows a readily available hydrophobic silicone elastomer to be transformed into an effective sensor for hydrocarbon gases and other volatile compounds. The intermolecular interactions present between the polymer and molecules are used to predict the sensor performance. The hydrophobicity of this material allows the sensor to operate without interference from water and other atmospheric gases and thus makes the sensor suitable for biomedical, industrial, or environmental analysis.

  2. Estimating the Biogenic Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Emissions over Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermioni Dimitropoulou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic emissions affect the urban air quality as they are ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA precursors and should be taken into account when applying photochemical pollution models. The present study presents an estimation of the magnitude of non-methane volatile organic compounds (BNMVOCs emitted by vegetation over Greece. The methodology is based on computation developed with the aid of a Geographic Information System (GIS and theoretical equations in order to produce an emission inventory on a 6 × 6 km2 spatial resolution, in a temporal resolution of 1 h covering one year (2016. For this purpose, a variety of input data was used: updated satellite land-use data, land-use specific emission potentials, foliar biomass densities, temperature, and solar radiation data. Hourly, daily, and annual isoprene, monoterpenes, and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs were estimated. In the area under study, the annual biogenic emissions were estimated up to 472 kt, consisting of 46.6% isoprene, 28% monoterpenes, and 25.4% OVOCs. Results delineate an annual cycle with increasing values from March to April, while maximum emissions were observed from May to September, followed by a decrease from October to January.

  3. Sorption of organic gases in a furnished room

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Revzan, Kenneth L.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Brown, Nancy J.

    2003-11-30

    We present experimental data and semi-empirical models describing the sorption of organic gases in a simulated indoor residential environment. Two replicate experiments were conducted with 20 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a 50-m{sup 3} room finished with painted wallboard, carpet and cushion, draperies and furnishings. The VOCs span a wide volatility range and include ten Hazardous Air Pollutants. VOCs were introduced to the static chamber as a pulse and their gas-phase concentrations were measured during a net adsorption period and a subsequent net desorption period. Three sorption models were fit to the measured concentrations for each compound to determine the simplest formulation needed to adequately describe the observed behavior. Sorption parameter values were determined by fitting the models to adsorption period data then checked by comparing measured and predicted behavior during desorption. The adequacy of each model was evaluated using a goodness of fit parameter calculated for each period. Results indicate that sorption usually does not greatly affect indoor concentrations of methyl-tert-butyl ether, 2-butanone, isoprene and benzene. In contrast, sorption appears to be a relevant indoor process for many of the VOCs studied, including C{sub 8}-C{sub 10} aromatic hydrocarbons (HC), terpenes, and pyridine. These compounds sorbed at rates close to typical residential air change rates and exhibited substantial sorptive partitioning at equilibrium. Polycyclic aromatic HCs, aromatic alcohols, ethenylpyridine and nicotine initially adsorbed to surfaces at rates of 1.5 to >6 h{sup -1} and partitioned 95 to >99% in the sorbed phase at equilibrium.

  4. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons in Asian summer monsoon outflow observed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Baker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between April and December 2008 the CARIBIC commercial aircraft conducted monthly measurement flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Chennai, India. These flights covered the period of the Asian summer monsoon (June–September, during which enhancements in a number of atmospheric species were observed in the upper troposphere over southwestern Asia. In addition to in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols, whole air samples were collected during the flights, and these were subsequently analyzed for a suite of trace gases that included a number of C2–C8 non-methane hydrocarbons. Non-methane hydrocarbons are relatively short-lived compounds and the large enhancements in their mixing ratios in the upper troposphere over southwestern Asia during the monsoon, sometimes more than double their spring and fall means, provides qualitative evidence for the influence of convectively uplifted boundary layer air. The particularly large enhancements of the combustion tracers benzene and ethyne, along with the similarity of their ratios with carbon monoxide and emission ratios from the burning of household biofuels, indicate a strong influence of biofuel burning to NMHC emissions in this region. Conversely, the ratios of ethane and propane to carbon monoxide, along with the ratio between i-butane and n-butane, indicate a significant source of these compounds from the use of fossil fuels, and comparison to previous campaigns suggests that this source could be increasing. Photochemical aging patterns of NMHCs showed that the CARIBIC samples were collected in two distinctly different regions of the monsoon circulation: a southern region where air masses had been recently influenced by low level contact and a northern region, where air parcels had spent substantial time in transit in the upper troposphere before being probed. Estimates of age using ratios of individual NMHCs have ranges of 3–6 days in the south and 9–12 days in

  5. Metal-organic frameworks for adsorption and separation of noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.; Staiger, Chad

    2017-05-30

    A method including exposing a gas mixture comprising a noble gas to a metal organic framework (MOF), including an organic electron donor and an adsorbent bed operable to adsorb a noble gas from a mixture of gases, the adsorbent bed including a metal organic framework (MOF) including an organic electron donor.

  6. Metal-organic materials (MOMs) for adsorption of polarizable gases and methods of using MOMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaworotko, Michael; Mohamed, Mona H.; Elsaidi, Sameh

    2017-06-14

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for multi-component metal-organic materials (MOMs), systems including the MOM, systems for separating components in a gas, methods of separating polarizable gases from a gas mixture, and the like.

  7. Sorption of organic gases in residential bedrooms andbathrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, B.C.; Hodgson, A.T.; Hotchi, T.; Ming, K.Y.; Sextro,R.G.; Wood, E.E.; Brown, N.J.

    2005-01-05

    Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential bedrooms (n=4), bathrooms (n=2), and a furnished test chamber. Rooms were studied ''as-is'' with material surfaces and furnishings unaltered. Surface materials were characterized and areas quantified. Experiments included rapid volatilization of a volatile organic compound (VOC) mixture with the room closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase, followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. The mixture included n-alkanes, aromatics, glycol ethers, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, dichlorobenzene, and organophosphorus compounds. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at one surface sink and one potential embedded sink. The 2-parameter sink model tracked measurements for most compounds, but improved fits were obtained for some VOCs with a 3-parameter sink-diffusion or a 4-parameter two-sink model. Sorptive partitioning and initial adsorption rates increased with decreasing vapor pressure within each chemical class.

  8. 40 CFR 60.33b - Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 60.33b Section 60.33b Protection of Environment... Constructed on or Before September 20, 1994 § 60.33b Emission guidelines for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals...

  9. 40 CFR 62.14103 - Emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. 62.14103 Section 62.14103 Protection of... combustor metals, acid gases, organics, and nitrogen oxides. (a) The emission limits for municipal waste combustor metals are specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3) of this section. (1) The owner or...

  10. Adsorption and Detection of Hazardous Trace Gases by Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woellner, Michelle; Hausdorf, Steffen; Klein, Nicole; Mueller, Philipp; Smith, Martin W; Kaskel, Stefan

    2018-06-19

    The quest for advanced designer adsorbents for air filtration and monitoring hazardous trace gases has recently been more and more driven by the need to ensure clean air in indoor, outdoor, and industrial environments. How to increase safety with regard to personal protection in the event of hazardous gas exposure is a critical question for an ever-growing population spending most of their lifetime indoors, but is also crucial for the chemical industry in order to protect future generations of employees from potential hazards. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are already quite advanced and promising in terms of capacity and specific affinity to overcome limitations of current adsorbent materials for trace and toxic gas adsorption. Due to their advantageous features (e.g., high specific surface area, catalytic activity, tailorable pore sizes, structural diversity, and range of chemical and physical properties), MOFs offer a high potential as adsorbents for air filtration and monitoring of hazardous trace gases. Three advanced topics are considered here, in applying MOFs for selective adsorption: (i) toxic gas adsorption toward filtration for respiratory protection as well as indoor and cabin air, (ii) enrichment of hazardous gases using MOFs, and (iii) MOFs as sensors for toxic trace gases and explosives. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Sensing and capture of toxic and hazardous gases and vapors by metal-organic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lustig, William P; Li, Jing

    2018-03-13

    Toxic and hazardous chemical species are ubiquitous, predominantly emitted by anthropogenic activities, and pose serious risks to human health and the environment. Thus, the sensing and subsequent capture of these chemicals, especially in the gas or vapor phase, are of extreme importance. To this end, metal-organic frameworks have attracted significant interest, as their high porosity and wide tunability make them ideal for both applications. These tailorable framework materials are particularly promising for the specific sensing and capture of targeted chemicals, as they can be designed to fit a diverse range of required conditions. This review will discuss the advantages of metal-organic frameworks in the sensing and capture of harmful gases and vapors, as well as principles and strategies guiding the design of these materials. Recent progress in the luminescent detection of aromatic and aliphatic volatile organic compounds, toxic gases, and chemical warfare agents will be summarized, and the adsorptive removal of fluorocarbons/chlorofluorocarbons, volatile radioactive species, toxic industrial gases and chemical warfare agents will be discussed.

  12. Observations of the release of non-methane hydrocarbons from fractured shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, Roberto; Blake, Robert S; Cuss, Robert J; Cordell, Rebecca L; Harrington, Jon F; White, Iain R; Monks, Paul S

    2014-01-01

    The organic content of shale has become of commercial interest as a source of hydrocarbons, owing to the development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"). While the main focus is on the extraction of methane, shale also contains significant amounts of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). We describe the first real-time observations of the release of NMHCs from a fractured shale. Samples from the Bowland-Hodder formation (England) were analyzed under different conditions using mass spectrometry, with the objective of understanding the dynamic process of gas release upon fracturing of the shale. A wide range of NMHCs (alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, and bicyclic hydrocarbons) are released at parts per million or parts per billion level with temperature- and humidity-dependent release rates, which can be rationalized in terms of the physicochemical characteristics of different hydrocarbon classes. Our results indicate that higher energy inputs (i.e., temperatures) significantly increase the amount of NMHCs released from shale, while humidity tends to suppress it; additionally, a large fraction of the gas is released within the first hour after the shale has been fractured. These findings suggest that other hydrocarbons of commercial interest may be extracted from shale and open the possibility to optimize the "fracking" process, improving gas yields and reducing environmental impacts.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials and organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodson, Boyd M.

    1999-01-01

    Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are fundamentally challenged by the insensitivity that stems from the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR sensitivity. This dissertation is primarily concerned with the principles and practice of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR). The enormous sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping noble gases can be exploited to permit a variety of novel NMR experiments across many disciplines. Many such experiments are reviewed, including the void-space imaging of organisms and materials, NMR and MRI of living tissues, probing structure and dynamics of molecules in solution and on surfaces, and zero-field NMR and MRI

  14. Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials and organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodson, Boyd McLean [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-12-01

    Conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are fundamentally challenged by the insensitivity that stems from the ordinarily low spin polarization achievable in even the strongest NMR magnets. However, by transferring angular momentum from laser light to electronic and nuclear spins, optical pumping methods can increase the nuclear spin polarization of noble gases by several orders of magnitude, thereby greatly enhancing their NMR sensitivity. This dissertation is primarily concerned with the principles and practice of optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OPNMR). The enormous sensitivity enhancement afforded by optical pumping noble gases can be exploited to permit a variety of novel NMR experiments across many disciplines. Many such experiments are reviewed, including the void-space imaging of organisms and materials, NMR and MRI of living tissues, probing structure and dynamics of molecules in solution and on surfaces, and zero-field NMR and MRI.

  15. Measurements of organic gases during aerosol formation events in the boreal forest atmosphere during QUEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sellegri

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic VOCs are important in the growth and possibly also in the early stages of formation of atmospheric aerosol particles. In this work, we present 10 min-time resolution measurements of organic trace gases at Hyytiälä, Finland during March 2002. The measurements were part of the project QUEST (Quantification of Aerosol Nucleation in the European Boundary Layer and took place during a two-week period when nucleation events occurred with various intensities nearly every day. Using a ground-based Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS instrument, the following trace gases were detected: acetone, TMA, DMA, mass 68amu (candidate=isoprene, monoterpenes, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK and methacrolein (MaCR and monoterpene oxidation products (MTOP. For all of them except for the amines, we present daily variations during different classes of nucleation events, and non-event days. BVOC oxidation products (MVK, MaCR and MTOP show a higher ratio to the CS on event days compared to non-event days, indicating that their abundance relative to the surface of aerosol available is higher on nucleation days. Moreover, BVOC oxidation products are found to show significant correlations with the condensational sink (CS on nucleation event days, which indicates that they are representative of less volatile organic compounds that contribute to the growth of the nucleated particles and generally secondary organic aerosol formation. Behaviors of BVOC on event and non event days are compared to the behavior of CO.

  16. Variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Beijing city in summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wang

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In conjunction with hosting the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the municipal government implemented a series of stringent air quality control measures. To assess the impacts on variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, the whole air was sampled by canisters at one urban site and two suburban sites in Beijing, and 55 NMHC species were quantified by gas chromatography equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector (GC/MSD/FID as parts of the field Campaign for the Beijing Olympic Games Air Quality program (CareBeijing. According to the control measures, the data were presented according to four periods: 18–30 June, 8–19 July, 15–24 August (during the Olympic Games, and 6–15 September (during the Paralympic Games. Compared with the levels in June, the mixing ratios of NMHCs obtained in the Olympic and Paralympic Games periods were reduced by 35% and 25%, respectively. Source contributions were calculated using a chemical mass balance model (CMB 8.2. After implementing the control measures, emissions from target sources were obviously reduced, and reductions in vehicle exhaust could explain 48–82% of the reductions of ambient NMHCs. Reductions in emissions from gasoline evaporation, paint and solvent use, and the chemical industry contributed 9–40%, 3–24%, and 1–5%, respectively, to reductions of ambient NMHCs. Sources of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG and biogenic emissions were not controlled, and contributions from these sources from July to September were stable or even higher than in June. Ozone formation potentials (OFPs were calculated for the measured NMHCs. The total OFPs during the Olympic and Paralympic Games were reduced by 48% and 32%, respectively, compared with values in June. Reductions in the OFPs of alkenes and aromatics explained 77–92% of total OFP reductions. The alkenes and aromatics were mainly from vehicle exhausts, and reductions of vehicle exhaust gases explained 67–87% of

  17. Variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Beijing city in summer 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Shao, M.; Lu, S. H.; Yuan, B.; Zhao, Y.; Wang, M.; Zhang, S. Q.; Wu, D.

    2010-07-01

    In conjunction with hosting the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the municipal government implemented a series of stringent air quality control measures. To assess the impacts on variation of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), the whole air was sampled by canisters at one urban site and two suburban sites in Beijing, and 55 NMHC species were quantified by gas chromatography equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector (GC/MSD/FID) as parts of the field Campaign for the Beijing Olympic Games Air Quality program (CareBeijing). According to the control measures, the data were presented according to four periods: 18-30 June, 8-19 July, 15-24 August (during the Olympic Games), and 6-15 September (during the Paralympic Games). Compared with the levels in June, the mixing ratios of NMHCs obtained in the Olympic and Paralympic Games periods were reduced by 35% and 25%, respectively. Source contributions were calculated using a chemical mass balance model (CMB 8.2). After implementing the control measures, emissions from target sources were obviously reduced, and reductions in vehicle exhaust could explain 48-82% of the reductions of ambient NMHCs. Reductions in emissions from gasoline evaporation, paint and solvent use, and the chemical industry contributed 9-40%, 3-24%, and 1-5%, respectively, to reductions of ambient NMHCs. Sources of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and biogenic emissions were not controlled, and contributions from these sources from July to September were stable or even higher than in June. Ozone formation potentials (OFPs) were calculated for the measured NMHCs. The total OFPs during the Olympic and Paralympic Games were reduced by 48% and 32%, respectively, compared with values in June. Reductions in the OFPs of alkenes and aromatics explained 77-92% of total OFP reductions. The alkenes and aromatics were mainly from vehicle exhausts, and reductions of vehicle exhaust gases explained 67-87% of reductions in alkenes and 38

  18. The response of quartz crystals coated with thin fatty acid film to organic gases

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, C N; Kim, K H; Kwon, Y S

    1999-01-01

    We tried to apply a quartz crystal as a sensor by using the resonant frequency and the resistance properties of quartz crystals. Four kinds of fatty acids that have the same head groups were coated on the surfaces of the quartz crystals, and the shift of the resonant frequency and the resistance were observed based on the lengths of the tail groups. Myristic acid (C sub 1 sub 4), palmitic acid (C sub 1 sub 6), stearic acid (C sub 1 sub 8), and arachidic acid (C sub 2 sub 0) were deposited on the surfaces of quartz crystals by using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method. As a result, the resonant frequency change was more sensitive to high molecular-weight fatty acids than to low molecular-weight ones. We also observed the effect of temperature on stearic acid LB films, and the response properties of quartz crystals coated with stearic-acid LB films to organic gases were investigated. As a result, the sensitivity of quartz crystals to organic gases was higher for higher molecular-weight gas, and we found that quar...

  19. MEMBRANE SYSTEM FOR RECOVERY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM REMEDIATION OFF-GASES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijmans, J.G.

    2003-01-01

    In situ vacuum extraction, air or steam sparging, and vitrification are widely used to remediate soil contaminated with volatile organic compounds (VOCs). All of these processes produce a VOC-laden air stream from which the VOC must be removed before the air can be discharged or recycled to the generating process. Treatment of these off-gases is often a major portion of the cost of the remediation project. Currently, carbon adsorption and catalytic incineration are the most common methods of treating these gas streams. Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) proposed an alternative treatment technology based on selective membranes that separate the organic components from the gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream. This technology can be applied to off-gases produced by various remediation activities and the systems can be skid-mounted and automated for easy transportation and unattended operation. The target performance for the membrane systems is to produce clean air (less than 10 ppmv VOC) for discharge or recycle, dischargeable water (less than 1 ppmw VOC), and a concentrated liquid VOC phase. This report contains the results obtained during Phase II of a two-phase project. In Phase I, laboratory experiments were carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach. In the subsequent Phase II project, a demonstration system was built and operated at the McClellan Air Force Base near Sacramento, California. The membrane system was fed with off-gas from a Soil Vacuum Extraction (SVE) system. The work performed in Phase II demonstrated that the membrane system can reduce the VOC concentration in remediation off-gas to 10 ppmv, while producing a concentrated VOC phase and dischargeable water containing less than 1 ppmw VOC. However, the tests showed that the presence of 1 to 3% carbon dioxide in the SVE off-gas reduced the treatment capacity of the system by a factor of three to four. In an economic analysis, treatment costs of the membrane

  20. Diversity of H2/CO2-utilizing acetogenic bacteria from feces of non-methane-producing humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernalier, A; Rochet, V; Leclerc, M; Doré, J; Pochart, P

    1996-08-01

    The purpose of this work was to study H2/CO2-utilizing acetogenic population in the colons of non-methane-producing individuals harboring low numbers of methanogenic archaea. Among the 50 H2-consuming acetogenic strains isolated from four fecal samples and an in vitro semi-continuous culture enrichment, with H2/CO2 as sole energy source, 20 were chosen for further studies. All isolates were Gram-positive strict anaerobes. Different morphological types were identified, providing evidence of generic diversity. All acetogenic strains characterized used H2/CO2 to form acetate as the sole metabolite, following the stoichiometric equation of reductive acetogenesis. These bacteria were also able to use a variety of organic compounds for growth. The major end product of glucose fermentation was acetate, except for strains of cocci that mainly produced lactate. Yeast extract was not necessary, but was stimulatory for growth and acetogenesis from H2/CO2.

  1. The cost-effective synthesis of furan- and thienyl-based microporous polyaminals for adsorption of gases and organic vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guiyang; Zhang, Biao; Yan, Jun; Wang, Zhonggang

    2016-01-21

    This work reveals that furfural and 2-thenaldehyde can readily react with melamine via "one-step" polycondensation to yield hyper-cross-linked sulfur-, nitrogen- and oxygen-rich microporous polyaminals with promising applications in adsorption of gases and toxic organic vapors.

  2. Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NO x , 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO 2 . Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO 2 accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N 2 O (16 %), CH 4 (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF 6 (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

  3. Biological elimination of volatile, organic compounds from waste gases in a biofilter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, G.; Chabot, J.C.; Caron, J.J.; Heitz, M. [Universite de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, PQ (Canada). Dept. de Genie Chimique

    1998-01-01

    A great deal of research has been directed towards the problem of reduction and control of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The aim of this research is to find a process that is both efficient and inexpensive in comparison with traditional air treatment technologies. The biofilter used, a one stage system, 2 m in height, is an aerobic system for waste gases containing VOC`s using the degradation properties of microbial flora (assorted cultures of Bacillus, Micrococcus, Acinetobacter and yeast). In this process, polluted gas diffuses across a filter bed into which a microbial culture has previously been introduced. Peat is the medium of choice for inoculation with microorganisms because of its adsorption and absorption properties, ability to retain moisture, and buffering capacity. Furthermore, the peat utilized is spherical in shape; thus, it is possible to avoid problems related to compacting. The objective of this study was to eliminate VOCs emitted from a rotogravure process. The team was able to achieve promising results from biofiltration of two types of VOCs (a mixed solvent containing isopropyl acetate and 1-nitropropane, and the solvent: 1-nitropropane). The results obtained indicate that the elimination of nitropropane and the mixed solvent in the biofilter are considered to follow zero-order kinetics with reaction rate limitation and diffusion rate limitation, respectively. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Methods for calculation of engineering parameters for gas separation. [vapor pressure and solubility of gases in organic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, D. D.

    1979-01-01

    A group additivity method is generated which allows estimation, from the structural formulas alone, of the energy of vaporization and the molar volume at 25 C of many nonpolar organic liquids. Using these two parameters and appropriate thermodynamic relations, the vapor pressure of the liquid phase and the solubility of various gases in nonpolar organic liquids are predicted. It is also possible to use the data to evaluate organic and some inorganic liquids for use in gas separation stages or liquids as heat exchange fluids in prospective thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production.

  5. OH reactivity and potential SOA yields from volatile organic compounds and other trace gases measured in controlled laboratory biomass burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. B. Gilman; C. Warneke; W. C. Kuster; P. D. Goldan; P. R. Veres; J. M. Roberts; J. A. de Gouw; I. R. Burling; R. J. Yokelson

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments were used to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other trace gases (e.g., CO, CH4, NO2, etc.) emitted from controlled burns of various fuel types common to the Southeastern and Southwestern United States. These laboratory-based measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Fire...

  6. NF ISO 14064-1 Greenhouse gases. Part 1: specifications and guidance at the organization level for quantification and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions and removals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document describes methodology for quantification, monitoring of greenhouse gas as well as for drafting of inventory report for organisms. Thus it suggests a method for inventory declarations for organism greenhouse gas and provides support for the monitoring and the management of their emission. It provides the terms and definitions, the principles, the greenhouse gases inventory design, development and components, the greenhouse inventory quality management, the reporting of greenhouse gases and the organization role in verification activities. (A.L.B.)

  7. Occupational exposure to gases, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and volatile organic compounds in biomass-fired power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumpponen, M; Rönkkömäki, H; Pasanen, P; Laitinen, J

    2013-01-01

    The combustion of fuels produces air pollutants in the form of gases, organic compounds, and particulate matter. However, although the environmental aspect of these agents has been examined, workers' exposure to them is still a neglected issue. The purpose of this study was to measure maintenance and ash removal workers' multiple exposures to gases, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during their work tasks in biomass-fired power plants. Our hygienic measurements revealed that carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, ammonia and sulfur dioxide were the most common gases that the workers were exposed to during their tasks. Their average concentrations were 0.45 ppm, 0.06 ppm, 0.11 ppm and 0.42 ppm, respectively. Phenanthrene and naphthalene were the most prominent PAHs. At the same sampling points, the most commonly found VOCs were aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons and turpentines. The calculated total PAH concentrations were less than 7% of benzo[a]pyrene's eight-hour occupational exposure limit, and the total VOC concentrations were below the Finnish reference value for the normal industrial level in all measured work tasks. The most evident health effect caused by multiple exposures to gases was upper respiratory track irritation, followed by the disruption of oxygen transport, and finally central nervous system disorders. We recommend powered air respirators with ABEK+P3 cartridges and carbon monoxide gas detectors as the minimum requirement for those working inside biomass-fired power plant boilers, and compressed air breathing apparatus as the best form of protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Review of the National Reduction Plan for NMVOM [Non-Methane Volatile Organic Materials]. Sectors industry, energy, TSG [trade, services and government] and building; Terugblik op het Nationaal Reductieplan NMVOS [Niet-Methaan Vluchtige Organische Stoffen]. Industrie, energie, HDO [handel, diensten en overheid] en bouw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locht, G.

    2012-09-15

    The title project aims to reduce emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from several sectors in the period 2000-2010. This report is a review of the project and is based on the definitive data over these years in the Dutch Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (PRTR). Compared to the start of the NRP-NMVOS, there are now less instruments for environmental policy. There are more general binding environmental rules and less environmental permits. Furthermore, several agreements between governments and branches have ended. May 2012 the Gothenburg protocol was revised. It shows a VOC emission reduction for the Netherlands of 8% in 2020 compared to 2005. It is expected this will be achieved by means of the current policy and legislation [Dutch] Het titel project is opgesteld om de VOS-emissies van deze sectoren tereduceren. Het NRP-NMVOS heeft betrekking op de jaren 2000 tot en met 2010. Dit rapport is een terugblik op het project en gaat uit van de medio 2012 beschikbare definitieve emissiegegevens over al deze jaren. In vergelijking met de start van het NRP-NMVOS zijn er minder milieubeleidsinstrumenten. Er zijn meer algemene milieuregels en minder vergunningen en diverse convenanten tussen overheden en bedrijfsleven zijn afgelopen. In het herziene Gothenburg protocol van mei 2012 is voor Nederland voor 2020 en verder een NMVOS reductie van 8% ten opzichte van het 2005 niveau afgesproken. Het ligt in de verwachting dat dit gehaald gaat worden bij voortzetting van het huidige beleid en instrumentatie.

  9. Localized injury to plant organs from hydrogen fluoride and other acid gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romell, L G

    1941-01-01

    The origin of localized lesions from acid gases in smoke is discussed. The idea of corrosion is refuted. The action of acid gases in solution is analyzed for HCl on a numerical bases. With respect to HCl a more than hundredfold numerical error, constantly copied in the past, is corrected in a discussion of safe limits. Severe damage to leaves is reported from evaporating 0.001 molar HF solution. The border effect seen in leaves injured by HCl, HNO/sub 3/ or fluoric smoke is explained as due to an uneven uptake of acid gas in a distorted diffusion field, whereby a critical threshold is sooner reached along protruding edges. This phenomenon was studied in experiments with leaf models cut from indicator papers. Experiments with a fruit model showed that it may also account for localized injury to fruits hanging in the foliage and generally for the protective action at a distance observed in plants injured by fluoric smoke. It is suggested that the border reaction of indicator papers might be used for estimating the content of certain acid gases in the air. A hematein lake paper easily prepared was found to give a sensitive and specific reaction for HF in air. 38 references, 2 figures.

  10. Cordierite-supported metal oxide for non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yonghai; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Shunzheng; Gao, Fengyu; Wang, Jiangen; Yang, Zhongyu

    2018-05-21

    Cooking emission is an important reason for the air quality deterioration in the metropolitan area in China. Transition metal oxide and different loading of manganese oxide supported on cordierite were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and were used for non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) oxidation in cooking oil fumes (COFs). The effects of different calcination temperature and different Mn content were also studied. The SEM photographs and CO 2 temperature-programmed desorption revealed 5 wt% Mn/cordierite had the best pore structure and the largest number of the weak and moderate basic sites so it showed the best performance for NMHC oxidation. XRD analysis exhibited 5 wt% Mn/cordierite had the best dispersion of active phase and the active phase was MnO 2 when the calcination temperature was 400℃ which were good for the catalytic oxidation of NMHC.

  11. ACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO GAW and EMEP observation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerger, C. C.; Claude, A.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Reimann, S.; Eckart, E.; Steinbrecher, R.; Aalto, J.; Arduini, J.; Bonnaire, N.; Cape, J. N.; Colomb, A.; Connolly, R.; Diskova, J.; Dumitrean, P.; Ehlers, C.; Gros, V.; Hakola, H.; Hill, M.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jäger, J.; Junek, R.; Kajos, M. K.; Klemp, D.; Leuchner, M.; Lewis, A. C.; Locoge, N.; Maione, M.; Martin, D.; Michl, K.; Nemitz, E.; O'Doherty, S.; Pérez Ballesta, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Sauvage, S.; Schmidbauer, N.; Spain, T. G.; Straube, E.; Vana, M.; Vollmer, M. K.; Wegener, R.; Wenger, A.

    2015-07-01

    The performance of 18 European institutions involved in long-term non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) measurements in ambient air within the framework of the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) and the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP) was assessed with respect to data quality objectives (DQOs) of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network) and GAW. Compared to previous intercomparison studies the DQOs define a novel approach to assess and ensure a high quality of the measurements. Having already been adopted by GAW, the ACTRIS DQOs are demanding with deviations to a reference value of less than 5 % and a repeatability of better than 2 % for NMHC mole fractions above 0.1 nmol mol-1. The participants of the intercomparison analysed two dry gas mixtures in pressurised cylinders, a 30-component NMHC mixture in nitrogen (NMHC_N2) at approximately 1 nmol mol-1 and a whole air sample (NMHC_air), following a standardised operation procedure including zero- and calibration gas measurements. Furthermore, participants had to report details on their instruments and assess their measurement uncertainties. The NMHCs were analysed either by gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) or by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). For the NMHC_N2 measurements, 62 % of the reported values were within the 5 % deviation class corresponding to the ACTRIS DQOs. For NMHC_air, generally more frequent and larger deviations to the assigned values were observed, with 50 % of the reported values within the 5 % deviation class. Important contributors to the poorer performance in NMHC_air compared to NMHC_N2 were a more complex matrix and a larger span of NMHC mole fractions (0.03-2.5 nmol mol-1). The performance of the participating laboratories were affected by the different measurement procedures such as the usage of a two-step vs. a one-step calibration, breakthroughs of C2-C3 hydrocarbons in the focussing trap, blank values in zero

  12. Evaluation of the correlation between concentration of volatile organic compounds and temperature of the exhaust gases in motor vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrętowicz, Maria; Wróbel, Radosław; Andrych-Zalewska, Monika

    2017-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are the group of organic compounds which are one of the most important air pollutants. One of the main sources of VOCs are combustion processes including fuel combustion is internal combustion engines. Volatile organic compounds are very dangerous pollution, because even in very low concentrations they have significant harmful effect on human health. A lot of that compounds are mutagenic and carcinogenic, in addition they could cause asthma, intoxication or allergy. The measurements of VOCs are quite problematic, because it is required using the specialist analytical apparatus, ex. chromatograph. However, not always it is need to measure the content of that compounds in engine exhaust with high precision and sometimes it is enough only to estimate the level of the concentration. Emission of the VOCs mainly depends on the combustion process in the engine and this determines the temperature of the exhaust gases. In this paper authors tried to determine if the correlation between temperature of exhaust gases and VOCs' concentration exist and is able to determine.

  13. Identification of the sources of organic compounds that decalcify cement concrete and generate alcohols and ammonia gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoto, Takashi [Technical Research Institute, Obayashi Road Corporation, 4-640 Shimokiyoto, Kiyose, Tokyo, 204-0011 (Japan); Moriyoshi, Akihiro [Material Science Laboratory, Hokkaido University, 2-1-9-10 Kiyota, Kiyota-ku, Sapporo, 004-0842 (Japan); Sakai, Kiyoshi [Department of Environmental Health, Nagoya City Public Health Research Institute, 1-11 Hagiyama-cho, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya, 467-8615 (Japan); Shibata, Eiji [Department of Health and Psychosocial Medicine, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute-cho, Aichi, 480-1195 (Japan); Kamijima, Michihiro [Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya, 466-8550 (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    This study identifies the emission sources of various types of airborne organic compounds, which deteriorate cement concrete by penetrating into the concrete together with moisture. The study used high-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatograph mass spectrometry. The results show that the types of organic compounds contained in decalcified cement concrete were very similar to those found in the total suspended compounds in the air, and that the source of the emissions was particles of exhaust from diesel vehicles and radial tires used in summer. Such organic compounds include substances suspected of having endocrine disrupting properties. Hydrolysis occurs when these substances penetrate into highly alkaline cement concrete, and leads to deterioration of the cement concrete and the release of alcohols and ammonia gases which pollute indoor air and may be a cause of the sick building syndrome. (author)

  14. Evaluation of organical fertilizers in relation to minimalization of air polution by greenhouse gases and amonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural production presents one of the biggest producers of greenhouse gases. Between the most significant belongs carbon dioxide (CO2, methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, ozon (O3 and hydrogen sulphide (H2S. The work deals with classification of quantity by liberate emissions in relation to different variants of fertilization by cultivation of horticultural crops (head cabbage. For the metering was exploited gas analyzer INNOVA 1312. The results demonstrate significant difference between experimental variants by quantity of liberate emission, but also in the height of production.

  15. ACTRIS non-methane hydrocarbon intercomparison experiment in Europe to support WMO GAW and EMEP observation networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoerger, C. C.; Claude, A.; Plass-Duelmer, C.; Reimann, S.; Eckart, E.; Steinbrecher, R.; Aalto, J.; Arduini, J.; Bonnaire, N.; Cape, J. N.; Colomb, A.; Connolly, R.; Diskova, J.; Dumitrean, P.; Ehlers, C.; Gros, V.; Hakola, H.; Hill, M.; Hopkins, J. R.; Jäger, J.; Junek, R.; Kajos, M. K.; Klemp, D.; Leuchner, M.; Lewis, A. C.; Locoge, N.; Maione, M.; Martin, D.; Michl, K.; Nemitz, E.; O´ Doherty, S.; Pérez Ballesta, P.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Sauvage, S.; Schmidbauer, N.; Spain, T. G.; Straube, E.; Váňa, Milan; Vollmer, M. K.; Wegener, R.; Wenger, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2015), s. 2715-2736 ISSN 1867-1381 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : carbon number concept * organic trace gases * experiment nomhice * ozone precursor * response factors * ambient air * atmosphere * emission Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 2.989, year: 2015

  16. Seasonal and Diurnal Variations of Atmospheric Non-Methane Hydrocarbons in Guangzhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longfeng Li

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, high ambient ozone concentrations have become one of the major regional air quality issues in the Pearl River Delta (PRD region. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs, as key precursors of ozone, were found to be the limiting factor in photochemical ozone formation for large areas in the PRD. For source apportioning of NMHCs as well as ozone pollution control strategies, it is necessary to obtain typical seasonal and diurnal patterns of NMHCs with a large pool of field data. To date, few studies have focused on seasonal and diurnal variations of NMHCs in urban areas of Guangzhou. This study explored the seasonal variations of most hydrocarbons concentrations with autumn maximum and spring minimum in Guangzhou. The diurnal variations of most anthropogenic NMHCs typically showed two-peak pattern with one at 8:00 in the morning and another at 20:00 in the evening, both corresponding to traffic rush hours in Guangzhou, whereas isoprene displayed a different bimodal diurnal curve. Propene, ethene, m, p-xylene and toluene were the four largest contributors to ozone formation in Guangzhou, based on the evaluation of individual NMHCs’ photochemical reactivity. Therefore, an effective strategy for controlling ozone pollution may be achieved by the reduction of vehicle emissions in Guangzhou.

  17. Emissions of greenhouse gases in Norway 1990 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    According to this article, the emissions of NOX from Norway in 1990 to 2000 were at a higher level than expected. Calculations show, however, that from 1999 to 2000 the emissions were reduced by seven percent. This is mainly due to reduced emission from shipping and road traffic. The SO 2 (sulphur dioxide) emissions have been halved since 1990 because of cleaner industrial emissions, replacement of fossil fuel with electricity, use of light oil and less sulphur in oil products and reducing agents. The emissions of NMVOCs (Non-methane volatile organic components) must be almost halved from 2000 to 2010 if Norway is to meet the requirements of the Gothenburg Protocol. The emissions of climate gases were reduced by one percent in 2000, despite the fact that the CO 2 emissions from the offshore petroleum activities increased by twelve percent. The emissions of methane and dioxins are going down. There is considerable uncertainty in the figures for dioxins. Calculations show that on the local community level the greatest emissions come from industry, road traffic, agriculture and land fills

  18. Effect of Organic Vapour on Porous Alumina Based Moisture Sensor in Dry Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saakshi DHANEKAR

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available A capacitive porous alumina based trace moisture sensor in the range of 50 to 500 ppm (V was fabricated by low cost sol-gel technique. The cross-sensitivities due to the presence of organic vapours like ethanol, methanol, acetone and benzene were studied. The change in response and recovery time with ppm for moisture sensing was also calculated. The experimental results conclude that moisture sensor is responsive to the polar organic vapours but has almost negligible response to the nonpolar molecules like benzene. Response of the sensor to the organic vapours as compared to the moisture sensitivity is very less. The effect of ambient temperature was found to be negligible.

  19. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Production of Hydrogen Use of Hydrogen Greenhouse Gases Basics | | Did you know? Without naturally occurring greenhouse gases, the earth would be too cold to support life as we know it. Without the greenhouse effect, ...

  20. A five year record of high-frequency in situ measurements of non-methane hydrocarbons at Mace Head, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grant

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Continuous high-frequency in situ measurements of a range of non-methane hydrocarbons have been made at Mace Head since January 2005. Mace Head is a background Northern Hemispheric site situated on the eastern edge of the Atlantic. Five year measurements (2005–2009 of six C2–C5 non-methane hydrocarbons have been separated into baseline Northern Hemispheric and European polluted air masses, among other sectors. Seasonal cycles in baseline Northern Hemispheric air masses and European polluted air masses arriving at Mace Head have been studied. Baseline air masses show a broad summer minima between June and September for shorter lived species, longer lived species show summer minima in July/August. All species displayed a winter maxima in February. European air masses showed baseline elevated mole fractions for all non-methane hydrocarbons. Largest elevations (of up to 360 ppt for ethane maxima from baseline data were observed in winter maxima, with smaller elevations observed during the summer. Analysis of temporal trends using the Mann-Kendall test showed small (<6 % yr−1 but statistically significant decreases in the butanes and i-pentane between 2005 and 2009 in European air. No significant trends were found for any species in baseline air.

  1. Non-methane hydrocarbons in a controlled ecological life support system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Kun; Yu, Qingni; Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Xinming

    2018-02-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) are vital to people's health and plants' growth, especially inside a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) built for long-term space explorations. In this study, we measured 54 kinds of NMHCs to study their changing trends in concentration levels during a 4-person-180-day integrated experiment inside a CELSS with four cabins for plants growing and other two cabins for human daily activities and resources management. During the experiment, the total mixing ratio of measured NMHCs was 423 ± 283 ppbv at the first day and it approached 2961 ± 323 ppbv ultimately. Ethane and propane were the most abundant alkanes and their mixing ratios kept growing from 27.5 ± 19.4 and 31.0 ± 33.6 ppbv to 2423 ± 449 ppbv and 290 ± 10 ppbv in the end. For alkenes, ethylene and isoprene presented continuously fluctuating states during the experimental period with average mixing ratios of 30.4 ± 19.3 ppbv, 7.4 ± 5.8 ppbv. For aromatic hydrocarbons, the total mixing ratios of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes declined from 48.0 ± 44 ppbv initially to 3.8 ± 1.1 ppbv ultimately. Biomass burning, sewage treatment, construction materials and plants all contributed to NMHCs inside CELSS. In conclusion, the results demonstrate the changing trends of NMHCs in a long-term closed ecological environment's atmosphere which provides valuable information for both the atmosphere management of CELSS and the exploration of interactions between humans and the total environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in Foshan City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jihua; Guo, Songjun; Ma, Yongliang; He, Kebin; Yang, Fumo; Yu, Yongchang; Wang, Jiewen

    2011-12-01

    Foshan is the most air-polluted city in Pearl River Delta. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were investigated for the first time in Foshan in winter 2008. Ethene, ethane, ethyne, propane, i-pentane, and toluene were the most abundant hydrocarbons and observed to be higher in Foshan than those in many other cities in China. Different from other cities, ethene and ethane were observed to be the two highest compounds in Foshan. Generally, the most abundant hydrocarbons showed high mixing ratios in the morning (0930-1030 hours), decreased to the lowest level in the afternoon (1430-1530 hours), and increased to higher value in the evening (1930-2030 hours). But i-pentane exhibited a different diurnal pattern with the highest level (13.4 ± 5.8 ppbv) in the afternoon, implying the acceleration of solvent evaporation resulting from higher temperature. Correlation coefficients (R(2) = 66% for n = 6 at 95% confidence level) of the individual hydrocarbons with ethyne and i-pentane indicated vehicular emissions were the main sources of ethene, propene, i-butene, isoprene, benzene and toluene, while gasoline evaporation was responsible for n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane. The good correlation of most of the hydrocarbons with ethyne, indicating vehicular emissions, were the main sources of NMHCs. B/T ratio was 0.36 ± 0.06, implying vehicular emissions acted as the major contributors as well as additional emissions of toluene emitted from solvent usage. According to investigation, it also suggested that LPG leakage was the main source of propane, while NG leakage was responsible for ethane in Foshan City.

  3. Characteristics of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons during haze episode in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Songjun; Tan, Jihua; Duan, Jingchun; Ma, Yongliang; Yang, Fumo; He, Kebin; Hao, Jimin

    2012-12-01

    This study firstly focused on non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) during three successive days with haze episode (16-18 August 2006) in Beijing. Concentrations of alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, and ethyne all peaked at traffic rush hour, implying vehicular emission; and alkanes also peaked at non-traffic rush hour in the daytime, implying additional source. Especially, alkanes and aromatics clearly showed higher levels in the nighttime than that in the daytime, implying their active photochemical reactions in the daytime. Correlation coefficients (R (2)) showed that propane, n-butane, i-butane, ethene, propene, and benzene correlated with ethyne (R (2) = 0.61-0.66), suggesting that their main source is vehicular emission; 2-methylpentane and n-hexane correlated with i-pentane (R (2) = 0.61-0.64), suggesting that gasoline evaporation is their main source; and ethylbezene, m-/p-xylene, and o-xylene correlated with toluene (R (2) = 0.60-0.79), suggesting that their main source is similar to that of toluene (e.g., solvent usage). The R (2) of ethyne, i-pentane, and toluene with total NMHCs were 0.58, 0.76, and 0.60, respectively, indicating that ambient hydrocarbons are associated with vehicular emission, gasoline evaporation, and solvent usage. The sources of other hydrocarbons (e.g., ethane) might be natural gas leakage, biogenic emission, or long-range transport of air pollutants. Measured higher mean B/T ratio (0.78 ± 0.27) was caused by the more intensive photochemical activity of toluene than benzene, still indicating the dominant emission from vehicles.

  4. Self-organization of high intensity laser pulses propagating in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, James

    2001-01-01

    In recent years the development of high intensity short pulse lasers has opened up wide fields of science which had previously been difficult to study. Recent experiments of short pulse lasers propagating in air have shown that these laser pulses can propagate over very long distances (up to 12 km) with little or no distortion of the pulse. Here we present a model of this propagation using a modified version of the self-organized criticality model developed for sandpiles by Bak, Tang, and Weisenfeld. The additions to the sandpile model include the formation of plasma which acts as a threshold diffusion term and self-focusing by the nonlinear index of refraction which acts as a continuous inverse diffusion. Results of this simple model indicate that a strongly self-focusing laser pulse shows self-organized critical behavior. (author)

  5. Organic compound destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) for plasma incinerator off-gases using an electrically heated secondary combustion chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitworth, C.G.; Babko-Malyi, S.; Battleson, D.M.; Olstad, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a series pilot-scale plasma incineration tests of simulated mixed wastes at the MSE Technology Applications, Inc. technology development test facility in Butte, MT. One of the objectives of the test series was to assess the ability of an electrically heated afterburner to destroy organic compounds that may be present in the off-gases resulting from plasma incineration of mixed wastes. The anticipated benefit of an electrically heated afterburner was to decrease total off-gas volume by 50% or more, relative to fossil fuel-fired afterburners. For the present test series, feeds of interest to the DOE Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) were processed in a plasma centrifugal furnace while metering selected organic compounds upstream of the electrically heated afterburner. The plasma furnace was equipped with a transferred-mode torch and was operated under oxidizing conditions. Feeds consisted of various mixtures of soil, plastics, portland cement, silicate fines, diesel fuel, and scrap metals. Benzene, chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were selected for injection as simulates of organics likely to be present in DOE mixed wastes, and because of their relative rankings on the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) thermal stability index. The organic compounds were injected into the off-gas system at a nominal concentration of 2,000 ppmv. The afterburner outlet gas stream was periodically sampled, and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the electrically heated afterburner, at operating temperatures of 1,800--1,980 F (982--1,082 C), organic compound destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) for benzene, chloroform, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane were found to be > 99.99%

  6. Method for removing radioactive iodine and radioactive organic iodides from effluent gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A method and composition for removing radioactive and organic iodides from an 131 I-containing off-gas stream is provided. The composition for removal by adsorption is a ceramic material with a surface area of from about 5 m 2 /g to about 250 m 2 /g impregnated with a metallic salt. The method for removing the iodine or iodide is accomplished by passing the off-gas stream over the ceramic material impregnated with the metallic salt. It finds special application in air filters for nuclear power plants

  7. Study of electrophysical processes during spontaneous combustion of gases and vapors of organic substances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fialkov, B.S.; Shebeko, Yu.N.; Muravlev, V.K.; Il' in, A.B.

    Combustion of organic substances is accompanied by non-equilibrium ionization, the greatest degree of ionization being in the high temperature zone of the flame, although notable concentrations of ions have been observed in the earlier, low temperature stages of combustion. Since this phenomenon has been studied for only a small number of compounds, a study was undertaken of the electrophysical phenomena taking place during spontaneous combustion of a large variety of compounds, viz., ethanol, acetone, benzene, diethylamine, pentane, diethyl ether, A-72 gasoline, dibromotetrafluoroethane, dichloromethane, and three mixtures of ethanol with 1,2-dibromotetrafluoroethane. Relationships of temperature to passive sonde potential and conductivity current during the induction period were determined. The effective activation energy for the conductivity current-temperature relationship was found to be 230 kilojoules per mole, which agrees with that determined for the induction period in the spontaneous combustion of acetylene-air mixtures in shock waves. 14 references, 3 figures.

  8. Non-methane hydrocarbon characteristics of motor vehicular emissions in the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wai Yan

    2007-12-01

    Air pollution problem in Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region has raised much concern from the public in recent years. The primary aim of this research is to use field measurement data to characterize non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) in emission from motor vehicles. Fuel vapor compositions for several commonly used vehicular fuels in Hong Kong, Macau, Guangzhou and Zhuhai were analyzed in 2003, and they are believed to be the first one reported for the PRD region. These profiles were used to study the impact of evaporative loss of the fuels on air quality. From the roadside and tunnel samples collected in the four cities mentioned above from 2000 to 2003, results showed that vehicular engine combustion was a main NMHC source, while gasoline evaporative losses also contributed much to the total NMHC emission, besides, LPG leakage was also found to be significant from the tunnel measurement data collected in Hong Kong. Characteristics of vehicular engine exhaust emissions were also studied. Measurements of diesel emission showed a large influence on the emission profile due to the change of diesel compositions. The E/E ratios implied that gasoline-powered vehicles in Hong Kong were equipped with well functioning catalysts, while those in Guangzhou and Zhuhai, especially the motorcycles, were found dirtier in NMHC emission. Although the E/E ratios showed that private cars in Hong Kong had high combustion efficiency, the existence of significant amounts of unburned gasoline in their exhaust stream pointed out that they still had low fuel economy. From the results of a simple model, it was found that the evaporative losses of gasoline and LPG contributed much to the total NMHC pollution from vehicle. The preliminary results from the dynamometer study conducted in Hong Kong showed large variations of exhaust characteristics for private cars and taxis during different driving speeds. The results can be used as scientific basis for regulatory parties in

  9. Electronegative gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    Recent knowledge on electronegative gases essential for the effective control of the number densities of free electrons in electrically stressed gases is highlighted. This knowledge aided the discovery of new gas dielectrics and the tailoring of gas dielectric mixtures. The role of electron attachment in the choice of unitary gas dielectrics or electronegative components in dielectric gas mixtures, and the role of electron scattering at low energies in the choice of buffer gases for such mixtures is outlined

  10. Study on decomposition and removal of organic pollutants in gases using electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, Teruyuki

    2006-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) used as solvents and de-oil reagents have been emitted to the atmosphere and oxidized subsequently into toxic photochemical oxidants in the atmosphere. Reduction of the emission of VOC has been required under law and regulations for factories/plants at which huge amounts of VOC are used. The electron beam (EB) treatment is suitable for purification of high flow-rate ventilation air containing dilute VOC emitted from such factories/plants. The purification processes of such ventilation air have been developed based on the decomposition reactions and property changes of VOC. The results for chloro-ethylenes and aromatic hydrocarbons, which have been emitted with abundant quantities, are introduced in the present paper. Chloroethylenes, except for monochloroethylene, were oxidized into water-soluble primary products through chain reactions in EB irradiated humid air. The chain oxidation reactions of such chloro-ethylenes were initiated exclusively by a reaction with OH radicals, but electron-attachment dissociation under EB irradiation. Gas-phase termination reactions involved the bimolecular reaction of alkylperoxyl radicals for tri- and di-chloroethylenes, and the reaction of alkylperoxyl radicals and alkyl radicals beside such a bimolecular reaction for tetrachloroethylene. The deposition of the alkyl-peroxyl radicals on an irradiation vessel wall also terminated the chain oxidation reactions. The solid-phase termination reaction was negligible to the gas-phase termination reactions under irradiation with high-dose rate so that the oxidation of chloro-ethylenes was achieved with lower doses under high-dose rate irradiation like EB irradiation. The hydrolysis of the primary products combined with EB irradiation is prospective to be applied to the purification of chloroethylenes/air mixtures with lower doses. Under irradiation of aromatic hydrocarbons/air mixtures, toxic and oxidation-resistant particles with mean diameters of a few

  11. Characterization of trace gases measured over Alberta oil sands mining operations: 76 speciated C2-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, I. J.; Blake, N. J.; Barletta, B.; Diskin, G. S.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Gorham, K.; Huey, L. G.; Meinardi, S.; Rowland, F. S.; Vay, S. A.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Yang, M.; Blake, D. R.

    2010-12-01

    Oil sands comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves and the crude oil reserves in Canada's oil sands deposits are second only to Saudi Arabia. The extraction and processing of oil sands is much more challenging than for light sweet crude oils because of the high viscosity of the bitumen contained within the oil sands and because the bitumen is mixed with sand and contains chemical impurities such as sulphur. Despite these challenges, the importance of oil sands is increasing in the energy market. To our best knowledge this is the first peer-reviewed study to characterize volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from Alberta's oil sands mining sites. We present high-precision gas chromatography measurements of 76 speciated C2-C10 VOCs (alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, cycloalkanes, aromatics, monoterpenes, oxygenated hydrocarbons, halocarbons and sulphur compounds) in 17 boundary layer air samples collected over surface mining operations in northeast Alberta on 10 July 2008, using the NASA DC-8 airborne laboratory as a research platform. In addition to the VOCs, we present simultaneous measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, O3 and SO2, which were measured in situ aboard the DC-8. Carbon dioxide, CH4, CO, NO, NO2, NOy, SO2 and 53 VOCs (e.g., non-methane hydrocarbons, halocarbons, sulphur species) showed clear statistical enhancements (1.1-397×) over the oil sands compared to local background values and, with the exception of CO, were greater over the oil sands than at any other time during the flight. Twenty halocarbons (e.g., CFCs, HFCs, halons, brominated species) either were not enhanced or were minimally enhanced (industry fell into two groups: (1) evaporative emissions from the oil sands and its products and/or from the diluent used to lower the viscosity of the extracted bitumen (i.e., C4-C9 alkanes, C5-C6 cycloalkanes, C6-C8 aromatics), together with CO; and (2) emissions associated with the mining effort, such as upgraders (i.e., CO2, CO, CH4, NO, NO2, NOy

  12. Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... also produced by human activities. Some, such as industrial gases, are exclusively human made. What are the types ... Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Industrial gases: Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 Nitrogen ...

  13. Off-design dynamic model of a real Organic Rankine Cycle system fuelled by exhaust gases from industrial processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzi, N.; Rech, S.; Lazzaretto, A.

    2015-01-01

    ORCs (Organic Rankine Cycles) represent an effective option to exploit low grade heat fluxes, the characteristics of which not only affect design, but also performance and stability during operation. This paper presents a detailed design and off-design dynamic model of a superheated regenerative ORC system using the exhaust gases of an industrial process. The point of view is that of a designer who has to predict the system behavior both at steady-state and transient operation to get a reliable and efficient operation. Real physical and operating characteristics of all components are considered, with particular attention to the geometries of shell-and-tube commercial heat exchangers to properly simulate mass and thermal inertias. A suitable control system is chosen to govern the off-design operation taking into account all real operating constraints. Results show a slight decrease in gross system efficiency (less than 1% point) either varying the oil mass flow rate (in the range 80–110%) at constant temperature of the cold sink or this temperature (of 10 °C) at constant oil mass flow rate. Simulation of the transient behavior demonstrates the effectiveness of the control system on ORC stability under variation of the hot source mass flow rate and cold sink temperature. - Highlights: • A detailed off-design dynamic model of a regenerative ORC system is presented. • The model includes real geometries of commercial shell-and-tube heat exchangers. • High efficiency of the ORC system is obtained at partial load in the range 80–110%. • Variations of the evaporator volume does not significantly affect system stability.

  14. Membrane System for the Recovery of Volatile Organic Compounds from Remediation Off-Gases. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Membrane Technology and Research, Inc.'s (MTR's) membrane-based off-gas treatment technology separates the organic components from the off-gas stream, producing a VOC-free air stream that can be discharged or recycled to the gas-generating process. The membrane system produces a constant, high-quality air discharge stream irrespective of the feed-air composition. The system also produces a concentrated liquid VOC stream for disposal. Any water vapor present in the off-gas is removed as condensed dischargeable water. Benefits: Applicable to a broad range of off-gas generating sources. Target streams are off-gas from soil remediation by in situ vacuum extraction or air and steam sparging, and soil vitrification Suitable for remote sites: systems require minimal site preparation, little operator attention once installed, electrical power but no other utilities, and no expendable chemicals Minimizes waste volume: dischargeable air and water are produced, and VOCs removed from the feed gas ar e concentrated into a condensed liquid. No other waste streams result Treats off-gases containing both flammable and nonflammable and chlorinated and nonchlorinated VOCs Cost competitive with other technologies in the VOC concentration range 100-1,000 ppm and offers significant cost reduction at higher VOC concentrations Systems are easily moved and transported to new sites with a minimum of refurbishing or modification Generates no air emissions, minimizing permitting issues and speeding up the start of a clean-up operation Technology: Removal of VOCs from air streams with membranes is a relatively new technology

  15. A fiber optic sensor with a metal organic framework as a sensing material for trace levels of water in industrial gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Miki, Yusuke; Matsuzaki, Toru; Nakamura, Nao; Sato, Yu-ki; Hirose, Yasuo; Toda, Kei

    2015-07-30

    Industrial gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, argon, and helium are easily contaminated with water during production, transfer and use, because there is a high volume fraction of water in the atmosphere (approximately 1.2% estimated with the average annual atmospheric temperature and relative humidity). Even trace water (industrial gases can cause quality problems in the process such as production of semiconductors. Therefore, it is important to monitor and to control trace water levels in industrial gases at each supplying step, and especially during their use. In the present study, a fiber optic gas sensor was investigated for monitoring trace water levels in industrial gases. The sensor consists of a film containing a metal organic framework (MOF). MOFs are made of metals coordinated to organic ligands, and have mesoscale pores that adsorb gas molecules. When the MOF, copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate (Cu-BTC), was used as a sensing material, we investigated the color of Cu-BTC with water adsorption changed both in depth and tone. Cu-BTC crystals appeared deep blue in dry gases, and then changed to light blue in wet gases. An optical gas sensor with the Cu-BTC film was developed using a light emitting diode as the light source and a photodiode as the light intensity detector. The sensor showed a reversible response to trace water, did not require heating to remove the adsorbed water molecules. The sample gas flow rate did not affect the sensitivity. The obtained limit of detection was 40 parts per billion by volume (ppbv). The response time for sample gas containing 2.5 ppmvH2O was 23 s. The standard deviation obtained for daily analysis of 1.0 ppmvH2O standard gas over 20 days was 9%. Furthermore, the type of industrial gas did not affect the sensitivity. These properties mean the sensor will be applicable to trace water detection in various industrial gases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Top-down constraints on methane and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions in the US Four Corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petron, G.; Miller, B. R.; Vaughn, B. H.; Kofler, J.; Mielke-Maday, I.; Sherwood, O.; Schwietzke, S.; Conley, S.; Sweeney, C.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; White, A. B.; Tans, P. P.; Schnell, R. C.

    2017-12-01

    A NASA and NOAA supported field campaign took place in the US Four Corners in April 2015 to further investigate a regional "methane hotspot" detected from space. The Four Corners region is home to the fossil fuel rich San Juan Basin, which extends between SE Colorado and NE New Mexico. The area has been extracting coal, oil and natural gas for decades. Degassing from the Fruitland coal outcrop on the Colorado side has also been reported. Instrumented aircraft, vans and ground based wind profilers were deployed for the campaign with the goal to quantify and attribute methane and non-methane hydrocarbon emissions in the region. A new comprehensive analysis of the campaign data sets will be presented and top-down emission estimates for methane and ozone precursors will be compared with available bottom-up estimates.

  17. Development of transition metal oxide catalysts for treatment of off-gases released during pyrolysis of organic ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathi Sasidharan, N.; Deshingkar, D.S.; Wattal, P.K.

    2005-08-01

    The spent IX resin wastes arising from nuclear power plants have high radiation level due to fission product 137 Cesium and activation product 60 Cobalt. The pyrolysis and oxidative pyrolysis processes have potential to minimize final waste form volumes of these wastes. The major difficulty in deploying these processes for treatment of spent IX resins is release of off-gases containing large quantities of aromatic hydrocarbons, amines, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, carbonyl sulphide etc. As an alternative to high temperature incineration of the pyrolysis off gases, feasibility of using catalytic combustion at moderate temperatures was investigated in the laboratory. Copper chromite, copper oxide-ceric oxide and vanadium pentaoxide catalysts supported on alumina were prepared and tested for oxidation of styrene monomer, toluene, ethyl benzene and trimethyl amine at 22500 hr -1 space velocity and temperature range of 300 to 500 degC. At temperatures over 475 degC, all three catatyst gave oxidation efficiency of over 97% for these compounds over concentration range of few tens of ppm to few thousands ppm. A composite catalyst bed of three catalysts comprising principally of copper chromite is proposed for treatment of IX resin pyrolysis off-gases. (author)

  18. Irritant gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbelt, J

    Acute inhalation injury can result from the use of household cleaning agents (e.g. chlorine, ammonia), industrial or combustion gases (e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) or bioterrorism. The severity of the injury is to a great extent determined by the circumstances of exposure. If exposure was

  19. Source apportionment vs. emission inventories of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC in an urban area of the Middle East: local and global perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salameh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We applied the positive matrix factorization model to two large data sets collected during two intensive measurement campaigns (summer 2011 and winter 2012 at a sub-urban site in Beirut, Lebanon, in order to identify NMHC (non-methane hydrocarbons sources and quantify their contribution to ambient levels. Six factors were identified in winter and five factors in summer. PMF-resolved source profiles were consistent with source profiles established by near-field measurements. The major sources were traffic-related emissions (combustion and gasoline evaporation in winter and in summer accounting for 51 and 74 wt %, respectively, in agreement with the national emission inventory. The gasoline evaporation related to traffic source had a significant contribution regardless of the season (22 wt % in winter and 30 wt % in summer. The NMHC emissions from road transport are estimated from observations and PMF results, and compared to local and global emission inventories. The PMF analysis finds reasonable differences on emission rates, of 20–39 % higher than the national road transport inventory. However, global inventories (ACCMIP, EDGAR, MACCity underestimate the emissions up to a factor of 10 for the transportation sector. When combining emission inventory to our results, there is strong evidence that control measures in Lebanon should be targeted on mitigating the NMHC emissions from the traffic-related sources. From a global perspective, an assessment of VOC (volatile organic compounds anthropogenic emission inventories for the Middle East region as a whole seems necessary as these emissions could be much higher than expected at least from the road transport sector.

  20. Biomass burning emissions and potential air quality impacts of volatile organic compounds and other trace gases from fuels common in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Warneke, C.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic gases, including methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 9 inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern US. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instrument provided extensive chemical detail of discrete air samples collected during a laboratory burn and was complemented by real-time measurements of organic and inorganic species via an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) instrument and three different chemical ionization-mass spectrometers. These measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the US Department of Agriculture's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana and were used as the basis for a number of emission factors reported by Yokelson et al. (2013). The relative magnitude and composition of the gases emitted varied by individual fuel type and, more broadly, by the three geographic fuel regions being simulated. Discrete emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were used to characterize the composition of gases emitted by mass; reactivity with the hydroxyl radical, OH; and potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors for the 3 different US fuel regions presented here. VOCs contributed less than 0.78 % ± 0.12 % of emissions by mole and less than 0.95 % × 0.07 % of emissions by mass (on average) due to the predominance of CO2, CO, CH4, and NOx emissions; however, VOCs contributed 70-90 (±16) % to OH reactivity and were the only measured gas-phase source of SOA precursors from combustion of biomass. Over 82 % of the VOC emissions by mole were unsaturated compounds including highly reactive alkenes and aromatics and photolabile oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) such as formaldehyde. OVOCs contributed 57-68 % of the VOC mass emitted, 41-54 % of VOC-OH reactivity, and aromatic-OVOCs such as benzenediols, phenols, and benzaldehyde

  1. Biomass burning emissions and potential air quality impacts of volatile organic compounds and other trace gases from temperate fuels common in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Kuster, W. C.; Goldan, P. D.; Warneke, C.; Veres, P. R.; Roberts, J. M.; de Gouw, J. A.; Burling, I. R.; Yokelson, R. J.

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive suite of instruments was used to quantify the emissions of over 200 organic gases, including methane and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and 9 inorganic gases from 56 laboratory burns of 18 different biomass fuel types common in the southeastern, southwestern, or northern United States. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) provided extensive chemical detail of discrete air samples collected during a laboratory burn and was complemented by real-time measurements of organic and inorganic species via an open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (OP-FTIR) and 3 different chemical ionization-mass spectrometers. These measurements were conducted in February 2009 at the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Fire Sciences Laboratory in Missoula, Montana. The relative magnitude and composition of the gases emitted varied by individual fuel type and, more broadly, by the 3 geographic fuel regions being simulated. Emission ratios relative to carbon monoxide (CO) were used to characterize the composition of gases emitted by mass; reactivity with the hydroxyl radical, OH; and potential secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors for the 3 different US fuel regions presented here. VOCs contributed less than 0.78 ± 0.12 % of emissions by mole and less than 0.95 ± 0.07 % of emissions by mass (on average) due to the predominance of CO2, CO, CH4, and NOx emissions; however, VOCs contributed 70-90 (±16) % to OH reactivity and were the only measured gas-phase source of SOA precursors from combustion of biomass. Over 82 % of the VOC emissions by mole were unsaturated compounds including highly reactive alkenes and aromatics and photolabile oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) such as formaldehyde. OVOCs contributed 57-68 % of the VOC mass emitted, 42-57 % of VOC-OH reactivity, and aromatic-OVOCs such as benzenediols, phenols, and benzaldehyde were the dominant potential SOA precursors. In addition, ambient air measurements of emissions from the Fourmile Canyon Fire

  2. Industrial gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, D.; Jackson, D.; Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    Industrial gas companies have fought hard to boost sales and hold margins in the tough economic climate, and investments are well down from their 1989-'91 peak. But 'our industry is still very strong long term' says Alain Joly, CEO of industry leader L'Air Liquide (AL). By 1994, if a European and Japanese recovery follows through on one in the U.S., 'we could see major [investment] commitments starting again,' he says. 'Noncryogenic production technology is lowering the cost of gas-making possible new applications, oxygen is getting plenty of attention in the environmental area, and hydrogen also fits into the environmental thrust,' says Bob Lovett, executive v.p./gases and equipment with Air Products ampersand Chemicals (AP). Through the 1990's, 'Industrial gases could grow even faster than in the past decade,' he says. Virtually a new generation of new gases applications should become reality by the mid-1990s, says John Campbell, of industry consultants J.R. Campbell ampersand Associates (Lexington, MA). Big new oxygen volumes will be required for powder coal injection in blast furnaces-boosting a steel mill's requirement as much as 40% and coal gasification/combined cycle (CGCC). Increased oil refinery hydroprocessing needs promise hydrogen requirements

  3. Noble Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podosek, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the

  4. Non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from boreal peatland microcosms under warming and water table drawdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faubert, P; Tiiva, P; Nakam, TA

    2011-01-01

    assessed the combined effect of warming and water table drawdown on the BVOC emissions from boreal peatland microcosms. We also assessed the treatment effects on the BVOC emissions from the peat soil after the 7-week long experiment. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, other reactive VOCs...

  5. Characteristics of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons during high PM 10 episodes and normal days in Foshan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Songjun; Tan, Jihua; Ma, Yongliang; Yang, Fumo; Yu, Yongchan; Wang, Jiewen

    2011-08-01

    Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were firstly studied during high PM 10 episodes and normal days in December 2008 in Foshan, China. Ethyne, ethene, i-pentane, toluene, ethane and propane are six abundant hydrocarbons, accounting for round 80% of total NMHCs. Both diurnal variations and concentration ratios of morning (evening)/afternoon implied vehicular emission for most hydrocarbons. Correlation coefficients (R 2) of ethene, propene, i-butene, benzene, toluene and i-/n-butanes with ethyne were 0.60-0.88 (they were 0.64-0.88 during high PM 10 episode and 0.60-0.85 in normal days) except for ethene and i-butene in normal days, indicating these hydrocarbons are mainly related to vehicular emission. It suggests liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas (NG) leakages are responsible for propane and ethane, respectively. The measured mean benzene/toluene (B/T) ratio (wt/wt) was 0.45 ± 0.29 during total sampling periods together with R 2 analysis, again indicating vehicular emission is main contributor to ambient hydrocarbons. And the lower B/T ratio (0.29 ± 0.11) during high PM 10 episodes than that (0.75 ± 0.29) in normal days is likely caused by air transport containing low B/T value (0.23) from Guangzhou as well as solvent application containing toluene in Foshan.

  6. Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Nature`s contribution to regional and global atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockow, D.; Hoffman, T. [Inst. of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Dortmund (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    Terrestrial vegetation provides an important source of volatile hydrocarbons, especially isoprene, monoterpenes and in addition possibly sesquiterpenes as well as oxygenated compounds. Although there exist considerable uncertainties in the estimation of the magnitude of these biogenic NMHC emissions, it is generally accepted that the majority of global NMHC release is from natural and not from anthropogenic sources. Taking into consideration the high reactivity of the mostly unsaturated biogenic emissions, their impact on tropospheric processes can be assumed to be of great importance. Together with anthropogenic NO{sub x} emissions, the highly reactive natural alkenes can act as precursors in photochemical oxidant formation and contribute to regional-scale air pollution. Their oxidation in the atmosphere and the subsequent gas-to-particle conversion of the products lead to the formation of organic aerosols. Because of the formation of phytotoxic compounds, the interaction of the biogenic hydrocarbons with ozone inside or outside the leaves and needles of plants has been suggested to play a role in forest decline. (author)

  7. Biogenic non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC). Nature`s contribution to regional and global atmospheric chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klockow, D; Hoffman, T [Inst. of Spectrochemistry and Applied Spectroscopy, Dortmund (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Terrestrial vegetation provides an important source of volatile hydrocarbons, especially isoprene, monoterpenes and in addition possibly sesquiterpenes as well as oxygenated compounds. Although there exist considerable uncertainties in the estimation of the magnitude of these biogenic NMHC emissions, it is generally accepted that the majority of global NMHC release is from natural and not from anthropogenic sources. Taking into consideration the high reactivity of the mostly unsaturated biogenic emissions, their impact on tropospheric processes can be assumed to be of great importance. Together with anthropogenic NO{sub x} emissions, the highly reactive natural alkenes can act as precursors in photochemical oxidant formation and contribute to regional-scale air pollution. Their oxidation in the atmosphere and the subsequent gas-to-particle conversion of the products lead to the formation of organic aerosols. Because of the formation of phytotoxic compounds, the interaction of the biogenic hydrocarbons with ozone inside or outside the leaves and needles of plants has been suggested to play a role in forest decline. (author)

  8. Landfill gases and some effects on vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin B. Flower; Ida A. Leone; Edward F. Gilman; John J. Arthur

    1977-01-01

    Gases moving from refuse landfills through soil were studied in New Jersey. The gases, products of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter in the refuse, caused injury and death of peach trees, ornamentals, and commercial farm crops, and create possible hazards to life and property because of the entrance of combustible gases into residences. Remedial measures are...

  9. Effect of ultraviolet illumination and ambient gases on the photoluminescence and electrical properties of nanoporous silicon layer for organic vapor sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiwongsangthong, Narin

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this research, the nanoporous silicon layer were fabricated and investigated the physical properties such as photoluminescence and the electrical properties in order to develop organic vapor sensor by using nanoporous silicon. The Changes in the photoluminescence intensity of nanoporous silicon samples are studied during ultraviolet illumination in various ambient gases such as nitrogen, oxigen and vacuum. In this paper, the nanoporous silicon layer was used as organic vapor adsorption and sensing element. The advantage of this device are simple process compatible in silicon technology and usable in room temperature. The structure of this device consists of nanoporous silicon layer which is formed by anodization of silicon wafer in hydrofluoric acid solution and aluminum electrode which deposited on the top of nanoporous silicon layer by evaporator. The nanoporous silicon sensors were placed in a gas chamber with various organic vapor such as ethanol, methanol and isopropyl alcohol. From studying on electrical characteristics of this device, it is found that the nanoporous silicon layer can detect the different organic vapor. Therefore, the nanoporous silicon is important material for organic vapor sensor and it can develop to other applications about gas sensors in the future.

  10. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition of indium tin oxide thin films in different gases and organic light emitting device applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong, T.Y.; Tou, T.Y.; Yow, H.K.; Safran, G.

    2008-01-01

    The microstructures, electrical and optical properties of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) films, deposited on glass substrates in different background gases by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, were characterized. The optimal pressure for obtaining the lowest resistivity in ITO thin film is inversely proportional to the molecular weight of the background gases, namely the argon (Ar), oxygen (O 2 ), nitrogen (N 2 ) and helium (He). While substrate heating to 250 deg. C decreased the ITO resistivity to -4 Ω cm, obtaining the optical transmittance of higher than 90% depended mainly on the background gas pressure for O 2 and Ar. Obtaining the lowest ITO resistivity, however, did not beget a high optical transmittance for ITO deposition in N 2 and He. Scanning electron microscope pictures show distinct differences in microstructures due to the background gas: nanostructures when using Ar and N 2 but polycrystalline for using O 2 and He. The ITO surface roughness varied with the deposition distance. The effects on the molecularly doped, single-layer organic light emitting device (OLED) operation and performance were also investigated. Only ITO thin films prepared in O 2 and Ar are suitable for the fabrication OLED with performance comparable to that fabricated on the commercially available, magnetron-sputtered ITO

  11. Low-level radioactive waste disposal operations worldwide, with special reference to organic compounds in leachates and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrook, P.E.; McGahan, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are defined and ground disposal practices worldwide are discussed. The organic content of low-level wastes is tabulated and the organic composition of leachates and gaseous emissions from low-level wastes in the U.K. and U.S.A. are discussed. The radionuclide content of these leachates is tabulated. (U.K.)

  12. Fuel gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives a brief presentation of the context, perspectives of production, specificities, and the conditions required for the development of NGV (Natural Gas for Vehicle) and LPG-f (Liquefied Petroleum Gas fuel) alternative fuels. After an historical presentation of 80 years of LPG evolution in vehicle fuels, a first part describes the economical and environmental advantages of gaseous alternative fuels (cleaner combustion, longer engines life, reduced noise pollution, greater natural gas reserves, lower political-economical petroleum dependence..). The second part gives a comparative cost and environmental evaluation between the available alternative fuels: bio-fuels, electric power and fuel gases, taking into account the processes and constraints involved in the production of these fuels. (J.S.)

  13. Influence of oil and gas emissions on ambient atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in residential areas of Northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Thompson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Northern Front Range (NFR region of Colorado has experienced rapid expansion of oil and gas extraction from shale and tight sands reservoirs in recent years due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology, with over 25,000 wells currently in operation. This region has also been designated as a federal ozone non-attainment area by the U.S. EPA. High ozone levels are a significant health concern, as are potential health impacts from chronic exposure to primary emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC for residents living near wells. From measurements of ambient atmospheric NMHC present in residential areas located in close proximity to wells in Erie, Colorado, we find that mean mole fractions of the C2–C5 alkanes are enhanced by a factor of 18–77 relative to the regional background, and present at higher levels than typically found in large urban centers. When combined with NMHC observations from downtown Denver and Platteville, it is apparent that these compounds are elevated across the NFR, with highest levels within the Greater Wattenberg Gas Field. This represents a large area source for ozone precursors in the NFR. The BTEX aromatic compounds in Erie were comparable to (e.g., benzene or lower than (e.g., toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene in large urban centers, however, benzene was significantly higher in Platteville, and within the range of chronic health-based exposure levels. An initial look at comparisons with data sets from previous years reveal that ambient levels for oil and gas-related NMHC in Erie, as well as further downwind in Boulder, have not decreased, but appear to have been increasing, despite tightening of emissions standards for the oil and gas industries in 2008.

  14. Non-methane hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Mexico City: Results of the 2012 ozone-season campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes-Palomera, Mónica; Retama, Armando; Elias-Castro, Gabriel; Neria-Hernández, Angélica; Rivera-Hernández, Olivia; Velasco, Erik

    2016-05-01

    With the aim to strengthen the verification capabilities of the local air quality management, the air quality monitoring network of Mexico City has started the monitoring of selected non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Previous information on the NMHC characterization had been obtained through individual studies and comprehensive intensive field campaigns, in both cases restricted to sampling periods of short duration. This new initiative will address the NMHC pollution problem during longer monitoring periods and provide robust information to evaluate the effectiveness of new control measures. The article introduces the design of the monitoring network and presents results from the first campaign carried out during the first six months of 2012 covering the ozone-season (Mar-May). Using as reference data collected in 2003, results show reductions during the morning rush hour (6-9 h) in the mixing ratios of light alkanes associated with the consumption and distribution of liquefied petroleum gas and aromatic compounds related with the evaporation of fossil fuels and solvents, in contrast to olefins from vehicular traffic. The increase in mixing ratios of reactive olefins is of relevance to understand the moderate success in the ozone and fine aerosols abatement in recent years in comparison to other criteria pollutants. In the case of isoprene, the typical afternoon peak triggered by biogenic emissions was clearly observed for the first time within the city. The diurnal profiles of the monitored compounds are analyzed in terms of the energy balance throughout the day as a surrogate of the boundary layer evolution. Particular features of the diurnal profiles and correlation between individual NMHCs and carbon monoxide are used to investigate the influence of specific emission sources. The results discussed here highlight the importance of monitoring NMHCs to better understand the drivers and impacts of air pollution in large cities like Mexico City.

  15. Multi-year levels and trends of non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations observed in ambient air in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waked, Antoine; Sauvage, Stéphane; Borbon, Agnès; Gauduin, Julie; Pallares, Cyril; Vagnot, Marie-Pierre; Léonardis, Thierry; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of 31 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at three urban (Paris, 2003-2014, Strasbourg, 2002-2014 and Lyon, 2007-2014) sites in France over the period of a decade. A trend analysis was applied by means of the Mann-Kendall non-parametric test to annual and seasonal mean concentrations in order to point out changes in specific emission sources and to assess the impact of emission controls and reduction strategies. The trends were compared to those from three rural sites (Peyrusse-Vieille, 2002-2013, Tardière, 2003-2013 and Donon, 1997-2007). The results obtained showed a significant yearly decrease in pollutant concentrations over the study period and for the majority of species in the range of -1 to -7% in accordance with the decrease of NMHC emissions in France (-5 to -9%). Concentrations of long-lived species such as ethane and propane which are recognized as tracers of distant sources and natural gas remained constant. Compounds associated with combustion processes such as acetylene, propene, ethylene and benzene showed a significant decline in the range of -2% to -5% yr-1. These trends are consistent with those recently described at urban and background sites in the northern mid-latitudes and with emission inventories. C7-C9 aromatics such as toluene and xylenes as well as C4-C5 alkanes such as isopentane and isobutane also showed a significant decrease in the range of -3% to -7% yr-1. The decreasing trends in terms of % yr-1 observed at these French urban sites were typically higher for acetylene, ethylene and benzene than those reported for French rural sites of the national observatory of Measurement and Evaluation in Rural areas of trans-boundary Air pollution (MERA). The study also highlighted the difficult choice of a long term sampling site representative of the general trends of pollutant concentrations.

  16. Volatile organic compounds and secondary organic aerosol in the Earth's atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbally, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Recent research, when considered as a whole, suggests that a substantial fraction of both gas-phase and aerosol atmospheric organics have not been, or have very rarely been, directly measured. A review of the global budget for organic gases shows that we cannot account for the loss of approximately half the non-methane organic carbon entering the atmosphere. We suggest that this unaccounted-for loss most likely occurs through formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), indicating that the source for these aerosols is an order of magnitude larger than current estimates. There is evidence that aged secondary organic aerosol can participate in both direct and indirect (cloud modifying) radiative forcing and that this influence may change with other global climate change. Even though our knowledge of the organic composition of the atmosphere is limited, these compounds clearly influence the reactive chemistry of the atmosphere and the formation, composition, and climate impact of aerosols A major challenge in the coming decade of atmospheric chemistry research will be to elucidate the sources, structure, chemistry, fate and influences of these clearly ubiquitous yet poorly constrained organic atmospheric constituents

  17. Impact of Convection and Long Range Transport on Short-Lived Trace Gases in the UT/LS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Navarro, M. A.; Lueb, R.; Hendershot, R.; Ueyama, R.

    2017-12-01

    Chemical composition of the air in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere is controlled by a balance of transport, photochemistry, and physical processes, such as interactions with clouds, ice, and aerosol. The chemistry of the air masses that reach the upper troposphere can potentially have profound impacts on the chemistry in the near tropopause region. For example, the transport of reactive organic halogens and their transformation to inorganic halogen species, e.g., Br, BrO, etc., can have a significant impact on ozone budgets in this region and even deeper the stratosphere. Trace gas measurements in the region near the tropopause can also indicate potential sources of surface emissions that are transported to high altitudes. Measurement of trace gases, including such compounds as non-methane hydrocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, halogenated solvents, methyl halides, etc., can be used to characterize source emissions from industrial, urban, biomass burning, or marine origins. Recent airborne research campaigns have been conducted to better characterize the chemical composition and variations in the UT/LS region. This presentation will discuss these measurements, with a special emphasis on the role of convection and transport in modifying the chemical composition of the UT/LS.

  18. Greenhouse effect gases inventory in France during the years 1990-1999; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au cours de la periode 1990-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990-1999, concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. The emissions of the six gases that directly contribute to the greenhouse effect are expressed in terms of Global Warming Potential (GWP) which decreased by 2.1 % in 1999 compared to 1990. The emissions of the four gases that indirectly contribute to the greenhouse effect are moving towards decrease: this is by 17% for NO{sub x}, 23% as regards NMVOCs, 33% for CO and by 44% regarding SO{sub 2}. Out of the six greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto Protocol, CO{sub 2} accounts for the largest share in total GWP emissions (70 %), followed by N{sub 2}O (16 %), CH{sub 4} (12 %), HFCs (0.99 %), SF{sub 6} (0.5 %), and PFCs (0.39 %). (author)

  19. The levels, variation characteristics, and sources of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds during wintertime in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs were measured at a sampling site in Beijing city from 15 December 2015 to 14 January 2016 to recognize their pollution levels, variation characteristics, and sources. We quantified 53 NMHCs, and the proportions of alkanes, alkenes, acetylene, and aromatics to the total NMHCs were 49.8–55.8, 21.5–24.7, 13.5–15.9, and 9.3–10.7 %, respectively. The variation trends in the NMHC concentrations were basically identical and exhibited remarkable fluctuation, which was mainly ascribed to the variation in meteorological conditions, especially wind speed. The diurnal variations in NMHCs on clear days exhibited two peaks during the morning and evening rush hours, whereas the rush hours' peaks diminished or even disappeared on the haze days, implying that the relative contribution of the vehicular emissions to atmospheric NMHCs depended on the pollution status. Two evident peaks of the propane ∕ propene ratios appeared in the early morning before sun rise and at noontime on clear days, whereas only one peak occurred in the afternoon during the haze days, which were attributed to the relatively fast reactions of propene with OH, NO3, and O3. Based on the chemical kinetic equations, the daytime OH concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 3. 47 × 105–1. 04 × 106 molecules cm−3 on clear days and 6. 42 × 105–2. 35 × 106 molecules cm−3 on haze days. The nighttime NO3 concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 2. 82 × 109–4. 86 × 109 molecules cm−3 on clear days. The correlation coefficients of typical hydrocarbon pairs (benzene ∕ toluene, o-xylene ∕ m,p-xylene, isopentane ∕ n-pentane, etc. revealed that vehicular emissions and coal combustion were important sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime. Five major emission sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during

  20. The levels, variation characteristics, and sources of atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds during wintertime in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengtang; Ma, Zhuobiao; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Chenglong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Hongxing

    2017-09-01

    Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbon compounds (NMHCs) were measured at a sampling site in Beijing city from 15 December 2015 to 14 January 2016 to recognize their pollution levels, variation characteristics, and sources. We quantified 53 NMHCs, and the proportions of alkanes, alkenes, acetylene, and aromatics to the total NMHCs were 49.8-55.8, 21.5-24.7, 13.5-15.9, and 9.3-10.7 %, respectively. The variation trends in the NMHC concentrations were basically identical and exhibited remarkable fluctuation, which was mainly ascribed to the variation in meteorological conditions, especially wind speed. The diurnal variations in NMHCs on clear days exhibited two peaks during the morning and evening rush hours, whereas the rush hours' peaks diminished or even disappeared on the haze days, implying that the relative contribution of the vehicular emissions to atmospheric NMHCs depended on the pollution status. Two evident peaks of the propane / propene ratios appeared in the early morning before sun rise and at noontime on clear days, whereas only one peak occurred in the afternoon during the haze days, which were attributed to the relatively fast reactions of propene with OH, NO3, and O3. Based on the chemical kinetic equations, the daytime OH concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 3. 47 × 105-1. 04 × 106 molecules cm-3 on clear days and 6. 42 × 105-2. 35 × 106 molecules cm-3 on haze days. The nighttime NO3 concentrations were calculated to be in the range of 2. 82 × 109-4. 86 × 109 molecules cm-3 on clear days. The correlation coefficients of typical hydrocarbon pairs (benzene / toluene, o-xylene / m,p-xylene, isopentane / n-pentane, etc.) revealed that vehicular emissions and coal combustion were important sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime. Five major emission sources for atmospheric NMHCs in Beijing during the wintertime were further identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF), including gasoline-related emissions

  1. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and their contribution to ozone formation potential in a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chenhui; Mao, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Tao; Liang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Yanan; Shen, Yanjie; Jiang, Wanyanhan; Wang, Huiqin; Bai, Zhilin; Ma, Minquan; Yu, Zhousuo; Ma, Jianmin; Gao, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Hourly air concentrations of fifty-three non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured at downtown and suburb of Lanzhou, a petrochemical industrialized city, Northwest China in 2013. The measured data were used to investigate the seasonal characteristics of NMHCs air pollution and their contributions to the ozone formation in Lanzhou. Annually averaged NMHCs concentration was 38.29 ppbv in downtown Lanzhou. Among 53 NMHCs, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics accounted for 57%, 23% and 20% of the total NMHCs air concentration, respectively. The atmospheric levels of toluene and propane with mean values of 4.62 and 4.56 ppbv were higher than other NMHCs, respectively. The ambient levels of NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou were compared with measured NMHCs data collected at a suburban site of Lanzhou, located near a large-scale petrochemical industry. Results show that the levels of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics in downtown Lanzhou were lower by factors of 3-11 than that in west suburb of the city. O3-isopleth plots show that ozone was formed in VOCs control area in downtown Lanzhou and NOx control area at the west suburban site during the summertime. Propylene-equivalent (Prop-Equiv) concentration and the maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) in downtown Lanzhou indicate that cis-2-butene, propylene, and m/p-xylene were the first three compounds contributing to ozone formation potentials whereas in the petrochemical industrialized west suburb, ethane, propene, and trans-2-Butene played more important role in the summertime ozone formation. Principal component analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were further applied to identify the dominant emission sources and examine their fractions in total NMHCs. Results suggest that vehicle emission, solvent usage, and industrial activities were major sources of NMHCs in the city, accounting for 58.34%, 22.19%, and 19.47% of the total monitored NMHCs in downtown Lanzhou, respectively. In the west suburb of the city

  2. Examining the concentrations of volatile organic compounds and pollutant gases in printing and copying centers in Khorramabad, Iran in 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajab Rashidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Given the large amount of gaseous and aerosol pollutants produced by the printing press industry, the indoor and outdoor air quality of such centers in Khorramabad, Iran was assessed. Methods and Materials: In a descriptive study, five gaseous pollutants from among criteria air pollutants (CO, NO, NO2, SO2, O3 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs were measured. Overall, 360 samples were taken from the indoor and outdoor air of printing press centers during the two seasons of summer and winter. In addition to the direct reading sampling method, environmental sampling was also conducted. In the direct reading method, the environmental analyzer device was used to measure criteria gaseous pollutants and the phocheck5000 device was used to measure the VOCs. In the sampling by environmental pumps, SKC activated carbon absorbent tubes were used randomly/continuously during the work hours and periodically for all centers. The samples were prepared using a carbon disulfide solution and were analyzed using a gas chromatograph device. Statistical t-tests were used to analyze the results. Results: The results of the study demonstrated that, the concentrations of the all of the criteria pollutants except for the CO gas and, among the VOCs, the concentrations of benzene and toluene in the air of the printing press centers was higher than the standards set by the EPA for indoor areas. Further, there was a significant difference between the concentrations of benzene and toluene during the summer and winder seasons (p<0.05. In all the measurements carried out in summer and winter, the amount of O3 was significantly higher inside the printing press centers than that of outdoor areas (p<0.05. Conclusion: Although printing press centers cannot be considered as serious hotspots for the emission of pollutants into public places in urban areas, the pollutants produced in these centers, especially O3 can jeopardize the health of the employees of these

  3. Inventory of greenhouse effect gases in France under the united nation framework convention on climatic change; Inventaire des emissions de gaz a effet de serre en France au titre de la convention cadre des nations unies sur le changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-12-01

    The present report supplies emission data, for France and for the period 1990 - 2000 concerning all the substances involved in the increase in the greenhouse effect and covered under the United Nations' Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The substances are the six direct greenhouse gases covered by the Kyoto protocol: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), the two species of halogenous substances - hydro-fluorocarbons (HFCs) and per-fluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}). Emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO), gases which indirectly make a significant contribution to the greenhouse effect, are reported under the Convention. For the period 1990 - 1999 as a whole, estimates provided in the previous inventories have been reviewed and corrected to take into account updated statistics, improved knowledge, possible changes in methodology and specifications contained in the guidelines (FCCC/CP/1999/7) defined by the UNFCCC on reporting for inventories of emissions, in particular the use of the Common Reporting Format (CRF). (author)

  4. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using organic vapor concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks has been identified as a safety issue because expanding gases could potentially affect tank dome integrity. Organic liquid waste has been found in some of the waste tanks, but most are thought to contain only trace amounts. Due to the inhomogeneity of the waste, direct sampling of the tank waste to locate organic liquids may not conclusively demonstrate that a given tank is free of risk. However, organic vapors present above the organic liquid waste can be detected with a high degree of confidence and can be used to identify problem tanks. This report presents the results of a screening test that has been applied to 82 passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site to identify those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. It includes seven tanks not addressed in the previous version of this report, Screening for Organic Solvents in Hanford Waste Tanks Using Total Non-Methane Organic Compound Vapor Concentrations. The screening test is based on a simple model of the tank headspace that estimates the effective surface area of semivolatile organic liquid waste in a tank. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Thirteen tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Most of the tanks identified as containing potentially significant quantities of organic liquid waste are in the 241-BY and 241-C tank farms, which agrees qualitatively with the fact that these tank farms received the majority of the PUREX process organic wash waste and waste organic liquids

  5. Insights into Surface Interactions between Metal Organic Frameworks and Gases during Transient Adsorption and Diffusion by In-Situ Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic F. Dumée

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The fabrication of molecular gas sieving materials with specific affinities for a single gas species and able to store large quantities of materials at a low or atmospheric pressure is desperately required to reduce the adverse effects of coal and oil usage in carbon capture. Fundamental understanding of the dynamic adsorption of gas, the diffusion mechanisms across thin film membranes, and the impact of interfaces play a vital role in developing these materials. In this work, single gas permeation tests across micro-porous membrane materials, based on metal organic framework crystals grown on the surface of carbon nanotubes (ZiF-8@CNT, were performed for the first time in-situ at the Australian Synchrotron on the small angle X-ray scattering beamline in order to reveal molecular sieving mechanisms and gas adsorption within the material. The results show that specific chemi-sorption of CO2 across the ZiF-8 crystal lattices affected the morphology and unit cell parameters, while the sieving of other noble or noble like gases across the ZiF-8@CNT membranes was found to largely follow Knudsen diffusion. This work demonstrates for the first time a novel and effective technique to assess molecular diffusion at the nano-scale across sub-nano-porous materials by probing molecular flexibility across crystal lattice and single cell units.

  6. Airborne measurements of reactive organic trace gases in the atmosphere - with a focus on PTR-MS measurements onboard NASA's flying laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Mikoviny, Tomas; Müller, Markus; Schiller, Sven Arne; Feil, Stefan; Hanel, Gernot; Jordan, Alfons; Mutschlechner, Paul; Crawford, James H.; Singh, Hanwant B.; Millet, Dylan

    2017-04-01

    Reactive organic gases (ROGs) play an important role in atmospheric chemistry as they affect the rates of ozone production, particle formation and growth, and oxidant consumption. Measurements of ROGs are analytically challenging because of their large variety and low concentrations in the Earth's atmosphere, and because they are easily affected by measurement artefacts. On aircraft, ROGs are typically measured by canister sampling followed by off-line analysis in the laboratory, fast online gas chromatography or online chemical ionization mass spectrometry. In this work, we will briefly sum up the state-of-the-art in this field before focusing on proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and its deployment onboard NASA's airborne science laboratories. We will show how airborne PTR-MS was successfully used in NASA missions for characterizing emissions of ROGs from point sources, for following the photochemical evolution of ROGs in a biomass burning plume, for determining biosphere-atmosphere fluxes of selected ROGs and for validating satellite data. We will also present the airborne PTR-MS instrument in its most recent evolution which includes a radiofrequency ion funnel and ion guide combined with a compact time-of-flight mass spectrometer and discuss its superior performance characteristics. The development of the airborne PTR-MS instrument was supported by the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (bmvit) through the Austrian Space Applications Programme (ASAP) of the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG) (grants #833451, #847967). This work was also partly supported by NASA under grant #NNX14AP89G.

  7. Agricultural Fires in the Southeastern U.S. During SEAC4RS: Emissions of Trace Gases and Particles and Evolution of Ozone, Reactive Nitrogen, and Organic Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Huey, L. G.; Yokelson, R. J.; Wang, Y.; Jimenez, J. L.; Campuzano-Jost, P.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Blake, D. R.; Choi, Y.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Emissions from 15 agricultural fires in the southeastern U.S. were measured from the NASA DC-8 research aircraft during the summer 2013 Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) campaign. This study reports a detailed set of emission factors (EFs) for 25 trace gases and 6 fine particle species. The chemical evolution of the primary emissions in seven plumes was examined in detail for 1.2 h. A Lagrangian plume cross-section model was used to simulate the evolution of ozone (O3), reactive nitrogen species, and organic aerosol (OA). Observed EFs are generally consistent with previous measurements of crop residue burning, but the fires studied here emitted high amounts of SO2 and fine particles, especially primary OA and chloride. Filter-based measurements of aerosol light absorption implied that brown carbon (BrC) was ubiquitous in the plumes. In aged plumes, rapid production of O3, peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), and nitrate was observed with (Delta)O3/(Delta)CO, (Delta)PAN/(Delta)NOy, and (Delta)nitrate/(Delta)NOy reaching approx. 0.1, approx. 0.3, and approx.0.3. For five selected cases, the model reasonably simulated O3 formation but underestimated PAN formation. No significant evolution of OA mass or BrC absorption was observed. However, a consistent increase in oxygen-to-carbon (O/C) ratios of OA indicated that OA oxidation in the agricultural fire plumes was much faster than in urban and forest fire plumes. Finally, total annual SO2, NOx, and CO emissions from agricultural fires in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Missouri were estimated (within a factor of approx. 2) to be equivalent to approx. 2% SO2 from coal combustion and approx. 1% NOx and approx. 9% CO from mobile sources.

  8. [Gases in vitreoretinal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janco, L; Vida, R; Bartos, M; Villémová, K; Izák, M

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the importance and benefits of using gases in vitreoretinal surgery. The gases represent a wide group of substances used in eye surgery for more than 100 years. The role of intraocular gases in vitreoretinal surgery is irreplaceable. Their use is still considered to be the "gold standard". An important step in eye surgery was the introduction of expanding gases--sulfur hexafluoride and perfluorocarbons into routine clinical practice. The most common indications for the use of intraocular gases are: retinal detachment, idiopathic macular hole, complications of vitreoretinal surgery and others. The introduction of intraocular gases into routine clinical practice, along with other modern surgical techniques resulted in significant improvement of postoperative outcomes in a wide range of eye diseases. Understanding the principles of intraocular gases use brings the benefits to the patient and physician as well. Due to their physical and chemical properties they pose far the best and most appropriate variant of intraocular tamponade. Gases also bring some disadvantages, such as difficulties in detailed fundus examination, visual acuity testing, ultrasonographic examination, difficulties in application of intravitreal drugs or reduced possibility of retina laser treatment. The gases significantly change optical system properties of the eye. The use of gases in vitreoretinal surgery has significantly increased success rate of retinal detachment surgery, complicated posterior segment cases, trauma, surgery of the macula and other diseases.

  9. Extraction with supercritical gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, G M; Wilke, G; Stahl, E

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this book derives from a symposium on the 5th and 6th of June 1978 in the ''Haus der Technik'' in Essen. Contributions were made to separation with supercritical gases, fluid extraction of hops, spices and tobacco, physicochemical principles of extraction, phase equilibria and critical curves of binary ammonia-hydrocarbon mixtures, a quick method for the microanalytical evaluation of the dissolving power of supercritical gases, chromatography with supercritical fluids, the separation of nonvolatile substances by means of compressed gases in countercurrent processes, large-scale industrial plant for extraction with supercritical gases, development and design of plant for high-pressure extraction of natural products.

  10. Handbook of purified gases

    CERN Document Server

    Schoen, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    Technical gases are used in almost every field of industry, science and medicine and also as a means of control by government authorities and institutions and are regarded as indispensable means of assistance. In this complete handbook of purified gases the physical foundations of purified gases and mixtures as well as their manufacturing, purification, analysis, storage, handling and transport are presented in a comprehensive way. This important reference work is accompanied with a large number of Data Sheets dedicated to the most important purified gases.  

  11. Gases in molten salts

    CERN Document Server

    Tomkins, RPT

    1991-01-01

    This volume contains tabulated collections and critical evaluations of original data for the solubility of gases in molten salts, gathered from chemical literature through to the end of 1989. Within the volume, material is arranged according to the individual gas. The gases include hydrogen halides, inert gases, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon dioxide, water vapor and halogens. The molten salts consist of single salts, binary mixtures and multicomponent systems. Included also, is a special section on the solubility of gases in molten silicate systems, focussing on slags and fluxes.

  12. Possible emissions from electricity and heat generation from geothermal energy by the use of F-gases in the energy conversion process by an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberle, Florian; Obermeier, Andreas; Brueggemann, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    In case of low temperature heat sources Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is next to Kalina Cycle one of the few thermodynamic cycles suitable for power generation. Optimization strategies provide a better glide matching of the temperature profiles of heat source or sink to the ORC compared to the standard cycle. This leads to an increase in efficiencies in the range of 15 % to 25 %. In this context, selection of suitable working fluids, two-stage expansion, supercritical cycles or the usage of zeotropic mixtures as working fluids has to be mentioned. Due to the use of fluorinated hydrocarbons, the number of potential fluids as well as the efficiency increase significantly. However, an increase in emissions due to leakages during operation, filling and disposal is associated with fluorinated fluids compared to natural hydrocarbons. Such emissions cannot be completely avoided and according to information of manufacturers and operators they are annually in the range of 1 % to 3 % of the capacity. Based on legal regulations recording of the use levels of fluorinated hydrocarbons in ORC systems according to UStatG and EU Regulation 842/2006 is obligatory. The recording obligation exists regarding the national emission inventory based on the framework convention on climate change. To evaluate potential greenhouse gas emissions by geothermal power plants, in this study different scenarios depending on rate of emission and number of power plants are calculated. If a development in geothermal power generation as predicted takes place, the emissions until the year 2030 are to be classified as low. In case of the technical-ecological potential with 2120 power plants and a rate of emission of 3 % the emissions are between 0.24 Million t/a and 3.02 Million t/a depending on the considered scenario. A comparison to the greenhouse gases by fluorinated hydrocarbons in the year 2009 with 15.6 Million t/a shows that the emissions for this number of power plants are definitely relevant

  13. Advanced Characterization of Semivolatile Organic Compounds Emitted from Biomass Burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, L. E.; Liu, Y.; Rivas-Ubach, A.; Shaw, J. B.; Lipton, M. S.; Barsanti, K. C.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) emits large amounts of non-methane organic gases (NMOGs) and primary (directly emitted) particulate matter (PM). NMOGs also react in plume to form secondary PM (i.e., SOA) and ozone. BB-PM has been difficult to represent accurately in models used for chemistry and climate predictions, including for air quality and fire management purposes. Much recent research supports that many previously unconsidered SOA precursors exist, including oxidation of semivolatile compounds (SVOCs). Although many recent studies have characterized relatively volatile BB-derived NMOGs and relatively non-volatile particle-phase organic species, comparatively few studies have performed detailed characterization of SVOCs emitted from BB. Here we present efforts to expand the volatility and compositional ranges of compounds measured in BB smoke. In this work, samples of SVOCs in gas and particle phases were collected from 18 fires representing a range of fuel types during the 2016 FIREX fire laboratory campaign; samples were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-TOFMS) and Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). Hundreds of compounds were detectable in both gas and particle phases by GCxGC-TOFMS whereas thousands of peaks were present in the FTICR mass spectra. Data from both approaches highlight that chemical fingerprints of smoke are fuel/burn-dependent. These efforts support our continued research in building the understanding and model representation of BB emissions and BB-derived SOA.

  14. Analysis of Non-Methane Hydrocarbon Data from 2004-2016 in a Subtropical Area close to the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappenglueck, B.

    2017-12-01

    Speciated C2-C11 non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) have been measured online on an hourly basis at Lake Jackson/TX close to the Gulf of Mexico. Altogether 48 NMHCs along with NO, NO2, NOx, O3 have been collected continuously from January 2004-December 2016 under the auspices of the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Data was screened for background conditions representing marine wind sectors. The data set represents a combination of marine air masses mixed with local biogenic emissions. The data analysis addresses photochemical processing of air masses as reflected in the relationship of ln(n-butane/ethane) vs. ln(propane/ethane) and ln(i-butane/ethane) vs. ln(n-butane/ethane). In addition, key NMHC relationships for radical chemistry, e.g. i-butane vs n-butane for OH and Cl chemistry and i-pentane vs. n-pentane for NO3 chemistry, are discussed. Seasonal analysis revealed a clear trend with maximum NMHC mixing ratios in winter time and lowest mixing ratios in summer reflecting the impact of photochemical processes in summer. Propene equivalents were highest during summertime, with significant contributions from alkenes, including isoprene. The relation of propane/ethane vs ethane indicates seasonal variation with lowest values (i.e. most aged air masses) in winter.

  15. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from oil and natural gas activities: compositional comparison of 13 major shale basins via NOAA airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Aikin, K. C.; De Gouw, J. A.; Koss, A.; Yuan, B.; Warneke, C.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Holloway, J. S.; Graus, M.; Tokarek, T. W.; Isaacman-VanWertz, G. A.; Sueper, D.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    The recent and unprecedented increase in natural gas production from shale formations is associated with a rise in the production of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including natural gas plant liquids (e.g., ethane, propane, and butanes) and liquid lease condensate (e.g., pentanes, hexanes, aromatics and cycloalkanes). Since 2010, the production of natural gas liquids and the amount of natural gas vented/flared has increased by factors of ~1.28 and 1.57, respectively (U.S. Energy and Information Administration), indicating an increasingly large potential source of hydrocarbons to the atmosphere. Emission of VOCs may affect local and regional air quality due to the potential to form tropospheric ozone and organic particles as well as from the release of toxic species such as benzene and toluene. The 2015 Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNex) campaign studied emissions from oil and natural gas activities across the central United States in order to better understand their potential air quality and climate impacts. Here we present VOC measurements from 19 research flights aboard the NOAA WP-3D over 11 shale basins across 8 states. Non-methane hydrocarbons were measured using an improved whole air sampler (iWAS) with post-flight analysis via a custom-built gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The whole air samples are complimented by higher-time resolution measurements of methane (Picarro spectrometer), ethane (Aerodyne spectrometer), and VOCs (H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer). Preliminary analysis show that the Permian Basin on the New Mexico/Texas border had the highest observed VOC mixing ratios for all basins studied. We will utilize VOC enhancement ratios to compare the composition of methane and VOC emissions for each basin and the associated reactivities of these gases with the hydroxyl radical, OH, as a proxy for potential ozone formation.

  16. Kinetic theory of gases

    CERN Document Server

    Kauzmann, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Monograph and text supplement for first-year students of physical chemistry focuses chiefly on the molecular basis of important thermodynamic properties of gases, including pressure, temperature, and thermal energy. 1966 edition.

  17. AC BREAKDOWN IN GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    electron- emission (multipactor) region, and (3) the low-frequency region. The breakdown mechanism in each of these regions is explained. An extensive bibliography on AC breakdown in gases is included.

  18. Reale Gase, tiefe Temperaturen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Wir werden uns in diesem Kapitel zunächst mit der van der Waals'schen Zustandsgleichung befassen. In dieser Gleichung wird versucht, die Abweichungen, die reale Gase vom Verhalten idealer Gase zeigen, durch physikalisch motivierte Korrekturterme zu berücksichtigen. Es zeigt sich, dass die van derWaals-Gleichung geeignet ist, nicht nur die Gasphase, sondern auch die Phänomene bei der Verflüssigung von Gasen und den kritischen Punkt zu beschreiben.

  19. Gases in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Pacer, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Interest continues to grow in the use of helium and radon detection as a uranium exploration tool because, in many instances, these radiogenic gases are the only indicators of deeply buried mineralization. The origin of these gases, their migration in the ground, the type of samples and measurement techniques are discussed. Case histories of comparative tests conducted on known uranium deposits at three geologically diverse sites in the United States of America are also presented. (author)

  20. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  1. Source apportionment of ambient non-methane hydrocarbons in Hong Kong: application of a principal component analysis/absolute principal component scores (PCA/APCS) receptor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H; Wang, T; Louie, P K K

    2004-06-01

    Receptor-oriented source apportionment models are often used to identify sources of ambient air pollutants and to estimate source contributions to air pollutant concentrations. In this study, a PCA/APCS model was applied to the data on non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) measured from January to December 2001 at two sampling sites: Tsuen Wan (TW) and Central & Western (CW) Toxic Air Pollutants Monitoring Stations in Hong Kong. This multivariate method enables the identification of major air pollution sources along with the quantitative apportionment of each source to pollutant species. The PCA analysis identified four major pollution sources at TW site and five major sources at CW site. The extracted pollution sources included vehicular internal engine combustion with unburned fuel emissions, use of solvent particularly paints, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or natural gas leakage, and industrial, commercial and domestic sources such as solvents, decoration, fuel combustion, chemical factories and power plants. The results of APCS receptor model indicated that 39% and 48% of the total NMHCs mass concentrations measured at CW and TW were originated from vehicle emissions, respectively. 32% and 36.4% of the total NMHCs were emitted from the use of solvent and 11% and 19.4% were apportioned to the LPG or natural gas leakage, respectively. 5.2% and 9% of the total NMHCs mass concentrations were attributed to other industrial, commercial and domestic sources, respectively. It was also found that vehicle emissions and LPG or natural gas leakage were the main sources of C(3)-C(5) alkanes and C(3)-C(5) alkenes while aromatics were predominantly released from paints. Comparison of source contributions to ambient NMHCs at the two sites indicated that the contribution of LPG or natural gas at CW site was almost twice that at TW site. High correlation coefficients (R(2) > 0.8) between the measured and predicted values suggested that the PCA/APCS model was applicable for estimation

  2. Noble gases in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon, M.; Burdine, J.A.

    1973-01-01

    Radioactive noble gases have made a significant contribution to diagnostic nuclear medicine. In the area of regional assessment of pulmonary function, 133 Xe has had its greatest clinical impact. Following a breath of 133 Xe gas, pulmonary ventilation can be measured using a scintillation camera or other appropriate radiation detector. If 133 Xe dissolved in saline is injected intravenously, both pulmonary capillary perfusion and ventilation can be measured since 90 percent of the highly insoluble xenon escapes into the alveoli during the first passage through the lungs. Radionuclide pulmonary function tests provide the first qualitative means of assessing lung ventilation and blood flow on a regional basis, and have recently been extended to include quantification of various parameters of lung function by means of a small computer interfaced to the scintillation camera. 133 Xe is also used in the measurement of organ blood flow following injection into a vessel leading into an organ such as the brain, heart kidneys, or muscles

  3. Curiosities of arithmetic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakas, I.; Bowick, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    Statistical mechanical systems with an exponential density of states are considered. The arithmetic analog of parafermions of arbitrary order is constructed and a formula for boson-parafermion equivalence is obtained using properties of the Riemann zeta function. Interactions (nontrivial mixing) among arithmetic gases using the concept of twisted convolutions are also introduced. Examples of exactly solvable models are discussed in detail

  4. Strongly interacting Fermi gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakr W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision measurements on the thermodynamics of a strongly interacting Fermi gas across the superfluid transition. The onset of superfluidity is directly observed in the compressibility, the chemical potential, the entropy, and the heat capacity. Our measurements provide benchmarks for current many-body theories on strongly interacting fermions. Secondly, we have studied the evolution of fermion pairing from three to two dimensions in these gases, relating to the physics of layered superconductors. In the presence of p-wave interactions, Fermi gases are predicted to display toplogical superfluidity carrying Majorana edge states. Two possible avenues in this direction are discussed, our creation and direct observation of spin-orbit coupling in Fermi gases and the creation of fermionic molecules of 23Na 40K that will feature strong dipolar interactions in their absolute ground state.

  5. Radiation effects in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Problems in the studies of radiation effects in gases are discussed. By means of ionization- excitation- and electron-capture yields various applications are characterized: ionization detectors, X-ray detectors, radionuclide battery, and radiation-induced chemical gas-phase reactions. Some new results of basic research in respect to the SO 2 oxidation are discussed. (author)

  6. The greenhouse effect gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  7. Noble gases as cardioprotectants - translatability and mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Kirsten F.; Weber, Nina C.; Hollmann, Markus W.; Preckel, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    Several noble gases, although classified as inert substances, exert a tissue-protective effect in different experimental models when applied before organ ischaemia as an early or late preconditioning stimulus, after ischaemia as a post-conditioning stimulus or when given in combination before,

  8. Assessing the impact on global climate from general anesthetic gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads P. Sulbæk; Nielsen, Ole John; Wallington, Timothy J.

    2012-01-01

    anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate, as measured relative to the start of the industrial era (approximately 1750). The family of anesthetic gases includes several halogenated organic compounds that are strong greenhouse gases. In this short report, we provide an overview of the state of knowledge...

  9. Purification technology for flue/off gases using electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji

    2004-01-01

    The present paper describes research and development on purification technology using electron beams for flue/off gases containing pollutants: removal of sulfate oxide and nitrogen oxide from flue gases of coal/oil combustion power plants, decomposition of dioxins in waste incineration flue gas, and decomposition/removal of toxic volatile organic compounds from off gas. (author)

  10. Amine Chemistry at Aqueous Interfaces: The Study of Organic Amines in Neutralizing Acidic Gases at an Air/Water Surface Using Vibrational Sum Frequency Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, L.; Wren, S. N.; Valley, N. A.; Richmond, G.

    2014-12-01

    Small organic bases have been measured in atmospheric samples, with their sources ranging from industrial processing to animal husbandry. These small organic amines are often highly soluble, being found in atmospheric condensed phases such as fogwater and rainwater. Additionally, they display acid-neutralization ability often greater than ammonia, yet little is known regarding their kinetic and thermodynamic properties. This presentation will describe the molecular level details of a model amine system at the vapor/liquid interface in the presence of acidic gas. We find that this amine system shows very unique properties in terms of its bonding, structure, and orientation at aqueous surfaces. The results of our studies using a combination of computation, vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy, and surface tension will report the properties inherent to these atmospherically relevant species at aqueous surfaces.

  11. Process of radioactive waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.; Schwarz, H.; Schroter, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described in which the radiation level of waste gases from nuclear power plants containing both activation and fission gases is controlled at or below limits permitted by applicable standards by passing such gases, prior to release to the atmosphere, through an adsorptive delay path including a body of activated carbon having the relation to the throughput and character of such gases. (U.S.)

  12. Fate of Gases generated from Nuclear Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasulu, M.; Francis, A. J. [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Francis, A. J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York (United States)

    2013-05-15

    The backfill materials such as cement, bentonite or crushed rock are used as engineered barriers against groundwater infiltration and radionuclide transport. Gas generation from radioactive wastes is attributed to radiolysis, corrosion of metals, and degradation of organic materials. Corrosion of steel drums and biodegradation of organic materials in L/ILW can generate gas which causes pressure build up and has the potential to compromise the integrity of waste containers and release the radionuclides and other contaminants into the environment. Performance assessment therefore requires a detailed understanding of the source and fate of gas generation and transport within the disposal system. Here we review the sources and fate of various type of gases generated from nuclear wastes and repositories. Studies on modeling of the fate and transport of repository gases primarily deal with hydrogen and CO{sub 2}. Although hydrogen and carbon dioxide are the major gases of concern, microbial transformations of these gases in the subterranean environments could be significant. Metabolism of hydrogen along with the carbon dioxide results in the formation of methane, low molecular weight organic compounds and cell biomass and thus could affect the total inventory in a repository environment. Modeling studies should take into consideration of both the gas generation and consumption processes over the long-term.

  13. Fuel gases in Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arachiche, B.; Elandaloussi, H.

    1996-01-01

    For a country like Algeria, fuel gases represent an important economical challenge. To answer the increasing energy demand in the transportation sector, the use of fuel gases allows to preserve the petroleum reserves and to create specific industrial structures devoted to LPG-f (liquefied petroleum gas-fuel) and NGV (natural gas for vehicles). This paper presents the energy policy of Algeria, its reserves, production, and exportations of hydrocarbons and the internal rational use of energy sources according to its economic and environmental policy and to its internal needs. The energy consumption of Algeria in the transportation sector represents 2/3 of the petroleum products consumed in the internal market and follows a rapid increase necessary to the socio-economic development of the country. The Algerian experience in fuel gases is analysed according to the results of two successive experimentation periods for the development of NGV before and after 1994, and the resulting transportation and distribution network is described. The development of LPG-f has followed also an experimental phase for the preparation of regulation texts and a first statement of the vehicles conversion to LPG-f is drawn with its perspectives of development according to future market and prices evolutions. (J.S.)

  14. The MOVPE growth mechanism of catalyst-free self-organized GaN columns in H2 and N2 carrier gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Jahn, Uwe; Ledig, Johannes; Wehmann, Hergo-H.; Mandl, Martin; Straßburg, Martin; Waag, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Columnar structures of III-V semiconductors recently attract considerable attention because of their potential applications in novel optoelectronic and electronic devices. In the present study, the mechanisms for the growth of catalyst-free self-organized GaN columns on sapphire substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy have been thoroughly investigated. The growth behaviours are strongly affected by the choice of carrier gas. If pure nitrogen is used, Ga droplets are able to accumulate on the top of columns during growth, and they are converted into a high quality GaN layer during the cool down phase due to nitridation. Hydrogen as the carrier gas can improve the optical quality of the overall GaN columns substantially, and in addition increase the vertical growth rate. In this case, no indication of Ga droplets could be detected. Furthermore, silane doping during the growth promotes the vertical growth in both cases either pure nitrogen or pure hydrogen as the carrier gas.

  15. The use of diffusive samplers for collecting organic gaseous constituents in waste gases. Diffusionssammler zur Probenahme von organischen gas- und dampffoermigen Substanzen in Abgasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canela, A.; Gruntz, U.; Muehleisen, H.; Tanner, S. (Sandoz AG, Basel (Switzerland). Umweltschutzlaboratorien)

    1990-01-01

    A relatively simple procedure for sample collection of multicomponent organic emissions is presented. A representative part of the waste gas is taken by means of a sampling probe and flows to the coupled sampling device. The gaseous constituents are collected in several diffusive samplers at the bottom of the device. Influencing parameters such as pressure, temperature, gas velocity etc., which may affect the collection rate and therefore the measured values, were investigated in the laboratory. Depending on the analytical detection limit, the sampling time and the diffusion parameters, the method can be applied for the determination of integrated emission concentrations between 0.1 mg/m{sup 3} and 1 g/m{sup 3}. (orig.).

  16. Real-time profiling of organic trace gases in the planetary boundary layer by PTR-MS using a tethered balloon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Schnitzhofer

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A method for real-time profiling of volatile organic compounds (VOCs was developed combining the advantages of a tethered balloon as a research platform and of proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS as an analytical technique for fast and highly sensitive VOC measurements. A 200 m Teflon tube was used to draw sampling air from a tethered aerodynamic balloon to the PTR-MS instrument. Positive and negative artefacts (i.e. formation and loss of VOCs in the tube were characterised in the laboratory and in the field by a set of 11 atmospherically relevant VOCs including both pure and oxygenated hydrocarbons. The only two compounds that increased or decreased when sampled through the tube were acetone (+7% and xylene (-6%. The method was successfully deployed during a winter field campaign to determine the small scale spatial and temporal patterns of air pollutants under winter inversion conditions.

  17. New global fire emission estimates and evaluation of volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Wiedinmyer; L. K. Emmons; S. K. Akagi; R. J. Yokelson; J. J. Orlando; J. A. Al-Saadi; A. J. Soja

    2010-01-01

    A daily, high-resolution, global fire emissions model has been built to estimate emissions from open burning for air quality modeling applications: The Fire INventory from NCAR (FINN version 1). The model framework uses daily fire detections from the MODIS instruments and updated emission factors, specifically for speciated non-methane organic compounds (NMOC). Global...

  18. Testing the accuracy of correlations for multicomponent mass transport of adsorbed gases in metal-organic frameworks: diffusion of H2/CH4 mixtures in CuBTC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Seda; Liu, Jinchen; Johnson, J Karl; Sholl, David S

    2008-08-05

    Mass transport of chemical mixtures in nanoporous materials is important in applications such as membrane separations, but measuring diffusion of mixtures experimentally is challenging. Methods that can predict multicomponent diffusion coefficients from single-component data can be extremely useful if these methods are known to be accurate. We present the first test of a method of this kind for molecules adsorbed in a metal-organic framework (MOF). Specifically, we examine the method proposed by Skoulidas, Sholl, and Krishna (SSK) ( Langmuir, 2003, 19, 7977) by comparing predictions made with this method to molecular simulations of mixture transport of H 2/CH 4 mixtures in CuBTC. These calculations provide the first direct information on mixture transport of any species in a MOF. The predictions of the SSK approach are in good agreement with our direct simulations of binary diffusion, suggesting that this approach may be a powerful one for examining multicomponent diffusion in MOFs. We also use our molecular simulation data to test the ideal adsorbed solution theory method for predicting binary adsorption isotherms and a method for predicting mixture self-diffusion coefficients.

  19. Cost and quality effectiveness of objective-based and statistically-based quality control for volatile organic compounds analyses of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.T.; Crowder, C.A.; Connolly, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Gas samples from drums of radioactive waste at the Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are being characterized for 29 volatile organic compounds to determine the feasibility of storing the waste in DOE's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. Quality requirements for the gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry chemical methods used to analyze the waste are specified in the Quality Assurance Program Plan for the WIPP Experimental Waste Characterization Program. Quality requirements consist of both objective criteria (data quality objectives, DQOs) and statistical criteria (process control). The DQOs apply to routine sample analyses, while the statistical criteria serve to determine and monitor precision and accuracy (P ampersand A) of the analysis methods and are also used to assign upper confidence limits to measurement results close to action levels. After over two years and more than 1000 sample analyses there are two general conclusions concerning the two approaches to quality control: (1) Objective criteria (e.g., ± 25% precision, ± 30% accuracy) based on customer needs and the usually prescribed criteria for similar EPA- approved methods are consistently attained during routine analyses. (2) Statistical criteria based on short term method performance are almost an order of magnitude more stringent than objective criteria and are difficult to satisfy following the same routine laboratory procedures which satisfy the objective criteria. A more cost effective and representative approach to establishing statistical method performances criteria would be either to utilize a moving average of P ampersand A from control samples over a several month time period or to determine within a sample variation by one-way analysis of variance of several months replicate sample analysis results or both. Confidence intervals for results near action levels could also be determined by replicate analysis of the sample in

  20. On Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Chusseau

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We show that the thermodynamics of ideal gases may be derived solely from the Democritean concept of corpuscles moving in vacuum plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the laws of motion, aside from the law of energy conservation. Only a single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath submitted to a z and t-invariant force is considered. Most of the end results are known but the method appears to be novel. The mathematics being elementary, the present paper should facilitate the understanding of the ideal gas law and of classical thermodynamics even though not-usually-taught concepts are being introduced.

  1. Os biocombustíveis no Brasil: panorama atual, emissões gasosas e os métodos analíticos de monitoramento da qualidade do ar referente a gases de natureza orgânica / Biofuels in Brazil: the current scene, gaseous emissions and analytical methods on air quality monitoring concerned to organic gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Nagel Schirmer

    2012-04-01

    organic gases (especially volatile organic compounds in air, since such compounds are among the major air pollutants. Similarly to what is observed internationally, it is expected that, also in Brazil, there is an increase in the control of pollutants from sources such as the adoption of more stringent emission standards (specific sources of different natures and the inclusion of a program of measurement and control / abatement of these pollutants.

  2. 40 CFR 86.1703-99 - Abbreviations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Voluntary National Low Emission Vehicle Program for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks § 86...—hybrid electric vehicle. LEV—low emission vehicle. NMOG—non-methane organic gases. NTR—Northeast Trading...

  3. Removing radioactive noble gases from nuclear process off-gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofredo, A.

    1977-01-01

    A system is claimed for separating, concentrating and storing radioactive krypton and xenon in the off-gases from a boiling water reactor, wherein adsorption and cryogenic distillation are both efficiently used for rapid and positive separation and removal of the radioactive noble gases, and for limiting such gases in circulation in the system to low inventory at all times, and wherein the system is self-regulating to eliminate operator options or attention

  4. Origins of geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Evans, William C.; Hunt, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Gas emissions at the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field (YPVF) reflect open-system mixing of gas species originating from diverse rock types, magmas, and crustal fluids, all combined in varying proportions at different thermal areas. Gases are not necessarily in chemical equilibrium with the waters through which they vent, especially in acid sulfate terrain where bubbles stream through stagnant acid water. Gases in adjacent thermal areas often can be differentiated by isotopic and gas ratios, and cannot be tied to one another solely by shallow processes such as boiling-induced fractionation of a parent liquid. Instead, they inherit unique gas ratios (e.g., CH4/He) from the dominant rock reservoirs where they originate, some of which underlie the Quaternary volcanic rocks. Steam/gas ratios (essentially H2O/CO2) of Yellowstone fumaroles correlate with Ar/He and N2/CO2, strongly suggesting that H2O/CO2 is controlled by addition of steam boiled from water rich in atmospheric gases. Moreover, H2O/CO2 varies systematically with geographic location, such that boiling is more enhanced in some areas than others. The δ13C and 3He/CO2 of gases reflect a dominant mantle origin for CO2 in Yellowstone gas. The mantle signature is most evident at Mud Volcano, which hosts gases with the lowest H2O/CO2, lowest CH4 concentrations and highest He isotope ratios (~16Ra), consistent with either a young subsurface intrusion or less input of crustal and meteoric gas than any other location at Yellowstone. Across the YPVF, He isotope ratios (3He/4He) inversely vary with He concentrations, and reflect varied amounts of long- stored, radiogenic He added to the magmatic endmember within the crust. Similarly, addition of CH4 from organic-rich sediments is common in the eastern thermal areas at Yellowstone. Overall, Yellowstone gases reflect addition of deep, high-temperature magmatic gas (CO2-rich), lower-temperatures crustal gases (4He- and CH4-bearing), and those gases (N2, Ne, Ar) added

  5. Analytical methods for toxic gases from thermal degradation of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, M.-T. S.

    1977-01-01

    Toxic gases evolved from the thermal oxidative degradation of synthetic or natural polymers in small laboratory chambers or in large scale fire tests are measured by several different analytical methods. Gas detector tubes are used for fast on-site detection of suspect toxic gases. The infrared spectroscopic method is an excellent qualitative and quantitative analysis for some toxic gases. Permanent gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ethylene, can be quantitatively determined by gas chromatography. Highly toxic and corrosive gases such as nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide, hydrogen fluoride, hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide should be passed into a scrubbing solution for subsequent analysis by either specific ion electrodes or spectrophotometric methods. Low-concentration toxic organic vapors can be concentrated in a cold trap and then analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The limitations of different methods are discussed.

  6. Selective noble gases monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecka, S.; Jancik, O.; Kapisovsky, V.; Kubik, I.; Sevecka, S.

    1995-01-01

    The monitoring of leak releases from ventilation stack of NPP requires a system by several orders more sensitive then currently used radiometer Kalina, designed to cover the range up to a design-based accident. To reach this goal a noble gases monitor with a germanium detector (MPVG) has been developed. It enables nuclide selective monitoring of current value of volume activity of particular nuclides in ventilation stack and daily releases of noble gases (balancing). MPVG can be viewed as a system build of three levels of subsystem: measuring level; control level; presentation level. Measuring level consists of gamma-spectroscopy system and operational parameters monitoring unit (flow rate, temperature, humidity). Control level provides communication between presentation and measuring level, acquisition of operational parameters and power supply. The presentation level of MPVG enables: 1) the measured data storage in predetermined time intervals; 2) the presentation of measured and evaluated values of radiation characteristics. The monitored radionuclides - default set: argon-41, krypton-85m, krypton-87, krypton-88, krypton-89, xenon-131m, xenon-133, xenon-133m, xenon-135, xenon-135m, xenon-137 and xenon-138. The values of volume activities observed at maximum releases have been approximately ten times higher. In that case in balancing some other nuclides exceed corresponding detection limits: 88 Kr(67; 22) Bq/m 3 ; 85m Kr(17; 7) Bq/m 3 ; 135m Xe(7.1; 0.5) Bq/m 3 ; 138 Xe(5.9; 0.9) Bq/m 3 . (J.K.)

  7. Selective noble gases monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janecka, S; Jancik, O; Kapisovsky, V; Kubik, I; Sevecka, S [Nuclear Power Plants Research Institute, a.s., Trnava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    The monitoring of leak releases from ventilation stack of NPP requires a system by several orders more sensitive then currently used radiometer Kalina, designed to cover the range up to a design-based accident. To reach this goal a noble gases monitor with a germanium detector (MPVG) has been developed. It enables nuclide selective monitoring of current value of volume activity of particular nuclides in ventilation stack and daily releases of noble gases (balancing). MPVG can be viewed as a system build of three levels of subsystem: measuring level; control level; presentation level. Measuring level consists of gamma-spectroscopy system and operational parameters monitoring unit (flow rate, temperature, humidity). Control level provides communication between presentation and measuring level, acquisition of operational parameters and power supply. The presentation level of MPVG enables: 1) the measured data storage in predetermined time intervals; 2) the presentation of measured and evaluated values of radiation characteristics. The monitored radionuclides - default set: argon-41, krypton-85m, krypton-87, krypton-88, krypton-89, xenon-131m, xenon-133, xenon-133m, xenon-135, xenon-135m, xenon-137 and xenon-138. The values of volume activities observed at maximum releases have been approximately ten times higher. In that case in balancing some other nuclides exceed corresponding detection limits: {sup 88}Kr(67; 22) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 85m}Kr(17; 7) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 135m}Xe(7.1; 0.5) Bq/m{sup 3}; {sup 138}Xe(5.9; 0.9) Bq/m{sup 3}. (J.K.).

  8. Primary emissions and chemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted from laboratory biomass burning sources during the 2016 FIREX FireLab campaign: measurements from a H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, M. M.; Warneke, C.; Koss, A.; Sekimoto, K.; Yuan, B.; Lim, C. Y.; Hagan, D. H.; Kroll, J. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Jimenez, J. L.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emitted by biomass burning constitute a large source of reactive carbon in the atmosphere. Once emitted, these compounds may undergo series of reactions with the OH radical and nitrogen oxides to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), ozone, or other health-impacting products. The complex emission profile and strong variability of biomass burning NMOG play an important, yet understudied, role in the variability of air quality outcomes such as SOA and ozone. In this study, we summarize measurements of biomass burning volatile organic compounds (VOCs) conducted using a H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+-CIMS) during the 2016 FIREX laboratory campaign in Missoula, MT. Specifically, we will present data demonstrating the chemical evolution of biomass burning VOCs artificially aged in a field-deployable photooxidation chamber and an oxidation flow reactor. More than 50 OH-oxidation experiments were conducted with biomass types representing a range of North American fuels. Across many fuel types, VOCs with high SOA and ozone formation potential, such as aromatics and furans, were observed to quickly react with the OH radical while oxidized species were generated. We compare the calculated OH reactivity of the primary emissions to the calculated OH reactivity used in many photochemical models and highlight areas requiring additional research in order to improve model/measurement comparisons.

  9. Canonical partition functions: ideal quantum gases, interacting classical gases, and interacting quantum gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2018-02-01

    In statistical mechanics, for a system with a fixed number of particles, e.g. a finite-size system, strictly speaking, the thermodynamic quantity needs to be calculated in the canonical ensemble. Nevertheless, the calculation of the canonical partition function is difficult. In this paper, based on the mathematical theory of the symmetric function, we suggest a method for the calculation of the canonical partition function of ideal quantum gases, including ideal Bose, Fermi, and Gentile gases. Moreover, we express the canonical partition functions of interacting classical and quantum gases given by the classical and quantum cluster expansion methods in terms of the Bell polynomial in mathematics. The virial coefficients of ideal Bose, Fermi, and Gentile gases are calculated from the exact canonical partition function. The virial coefficients of interacting classical and quantum gases are calculated from the canonical partition function by using the expansion of the Bell polynomial, rather than calculated from the grand canonical potential.

  10. Economic Hazardous Gases Management for SOX Removal from Flue Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaack, S.L.; Mohi, M.A.; Mohamed, S.T.

    1995-01-01

    Hazardous gases emerging from industries accumulate as pollutants in air and falls as acid rains resulting also in water and soil pollution. To minimize environmental pollution, the present process is suggested in order to desulfurize flue gases resulting from burning fuel oil in a 100/MWh steam power plant. The process makes use of the cheap Ca C O 3 powder as the alkaline material to sequistre the sulphur oxide gases. The resulting sulphur compounds, namely calcium sulphate and gypsum have a great market demand as reducing and sulphiting agents in paper industry and as an important building material. About 44000 ton of gypsum could be produced yearly when treating flue gases resulting from a 100 MWh unit burning fuel oil. Feasibility study shows that a great return on investment could be achieved when applying the process. 1 fig

  11. Avalanches in insulating gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaart, H.F.A.

    1982-01-01

    Avalanches of charged particles in gases are often studied with the ''electrical method'', the measurement of the waveform of the current in the external circuit. In this thesis a substantial improvement of the time resolution of the measuring setup, to be used for the electrical method, is reported. The avalanche is started by an N 2 -laser with a pulse duration of only 0.6 ns. With this laser it is possible to release a high number of primary electrons (some 10 8 ) which makes it possible to obtain sizeable signals, even at low E/p values. With the setup it is possible to analyze current waveforms with a time resolution down to 1.4 ns, determined by both the laser and the measuring system. Furthermore it is possible to distinguish between the current caused by the electrons and the current caused by the ions in the avalanche and to monitor these currents simultaneously. Avalanche currents are measured in N 2 , CO 2 , O 2 , H 2 O, air of varying humidity, SF 6 and SF 6 /N 2 mixtures. Depending on the nature of the gas and the experimental conditions, processes as diffusion, ionization, attachment, detachment, conversion and secondary emission are observed. Values of parameters with which these processes can be described, are derived from an analysis of the current waveforms. For this analysis already published theories and new theories described in this thesis are used. The drift velocity of both the electrons and the ions could be easily determined from measured avalanche currents. Special attention is paid to avalanches in air becasue of the practical importance of air insulation. (Auth.)

  12. Noble gases solubility in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, Roberto.

    1980-07-01

    The available experimental data of solubility of noble gases in water for temperatures smaller than 330 0 C have been critically surveyed. Due to the unique structure of the solvent, the solubility of noble gases in water decreases with temperature passing through a temperature of minimum solubility which is different for each gas, and then increases at higher temperatures. As aresult of the analysis of the experimental data and of the features of the solute-solvent interaction, a generalized equation is proposed which enables thecalculation of Henry's coefficient at different temperatures for all noble gases. (author) [es

  13. Boreal forest fire emissions in fresh Canadian smoke plumes: C1-C10 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), CO2, CO, NO2, NO, HCN and CH3CN

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. J. Simpson; S. K. Akagi; B. Barletta; N. J. Blake; Y. Choi; G. S. Diskin; A. Fried; H. E. Fuelberg; S. Meinardi; F. S. Rowland; S. A. Vay; A. J. Weinheimer; P. O. Wennberg; P. Wiebring; A. Wisthaler; M. Yang; R. J. Yokelson; D. R. Blake

    2011-01-01

    Boreal regions comprise about 17% of the global land area, and they both affect and are influenced by climate change. To better understand boreal forest fire emissions and plume evolution, 947 whole air samples were collected aboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft in summer 2008 as part of the ARCTAS-B field mission, and analyzed for 79 non-methane volatile organic...

  14. Quotation systems for greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trong, Maj Dang

    2000-01-01

    The article surveys recommendations from a Norwegian committee for implementing at a national level, the Kyoto protocol aims for reducing the total emissions of greenhouse gases from the industrial countries through quotation systems

  15. Greenhouse gases and global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    From previous articles we have learned about the complexities of our environment, its atmosphere and its climate system. we have also learned that climate change and, therefore global warm and cool periods are naturally occurring phenomena. Moreover, all scientific evidence suggests that global warming, are likely to occur again naturally in the future. However, we have not yet considered the role of the rates of climate change in affecting the biosphere. It appears that how quickly the climate changes may be more important than the change itself. In light of this concern, let us now consider the possibility that, is due to human activity. We may over the next century experience global warming at rates and magnitudes unparalleled in recent geologic history. The following questions are answered; What can we learn from past climates? What do we know about global climates over the past 100 years? What causes temperature change? What are the greenhouse gases? How much have concentration of greenhouse gases increased in recent years? Why are increases in concentrations of greenhouse of concern? What is the e nhanced greenhouse effect ? How can human activity impact the global climate? What are some reasons for increased concentrations of greenhouse gases? What are fossil fuel and how do they transform into greenhouse gases? Who are the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases? Why are canada per capita emissions of greenhouse gases relatively high? (Author)

  16. THE USE OF BIOFILTERS FOR DEODORISATION OF THE NOXIOUS GASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wierzbińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods of deodorization of noxious gases is biofiltration. This method consists of pollutants biodegradation by using micro-organisms, what leads to the formation of nontoxic and innoxious compounds. In comparison with conventional techniques, bio-filtration requires lower investments and exploitation costs, moreover it is nature friendly. This technique is still developing. Scientists have carried out research on the optimization of biofiltration process, biofilters and selecting parameters of purified gases or improving the method of efficiency. However, industrial application of biofilters is still difficult for many reasons. In this paper we present the mechanism of biofiltration process, the parameters and conditions which have to be fulfilled by purified gases, installation structure for gases biofiltration, application field of this method and specific example of exploited biofilters, including practical operational guidelines.

  17. Radioactive gases monitor system: tritium, radon, noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egey, J.Z.; Matatagui, E.

    2015-01-01

    A system for monitoring the radioactive gases tritium, radon and noble gases is described. We present the description of the sensor and the associated electronics that have been developed to monitor the presence of radioactive gases in air or other gaseous effluents. The system has a high sensitivity and a wide range of operation. The sensor is an ionization chamber, featuring the internal circulation of the gas to monitor and the associated electronics has a resolution better than 10 E-15A (fA). It allows the detection of the individual pulses that are produced during the alpha decay of radon and its daughter elements. The measurement system is made up of a commercial data acquisition system connected to a computer. The acquired data is presented on a graphical display and it is stored for later processing and analysis. We have a system that is of simple construction and versatile. Here we present the experimental results. (authors) [es

  18. Gases and carbon in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.

    1978-01-01

    This issue is part of a series of data on 'gases and carbon in metals'. The present survey includes results from papers dealing with gases and carbon in actinides and recommends critically selected data for each element. Firstly data od binary systems are presented, starting with hydrogen and followed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases. Within one metal-metalloid system the data are listed under topics such as solubility limit, dissociation pressure of compunds, vapour pressure of volatile oxides, thermodynamic data, diffusion, transport parameters (effective valence, heat of transport), permeation of gases through metals, gas adsorption and gas desorption kinetics, compound formation, precipitation kinetics, and property changes. Following the data on binary systems, the data of ternary systems are presented, beginning with systems which contain one metal and two gases or one gas and carbon and continuing with systems with two metals and one gas or carbon. Within a ternary system the topics are arranged in the same way as in binary systems. (HB) [de

  19. Desulphurization of exhaust gases in chemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1981-01-01

    The sulfur content of exhaust gases can be reduced by: desulphurization of fuels; modification of processes; or treatment of resultant gases. In this paper a few selected examples from the chemical industry in the German Democratic Republic are presented. Using modified processes and treating the resultant gases, the sulphuric content of exhaust gases is effectively reduced. Methods to reduce the sulfur content of exhaust gases are described in the field of production of: sulphuric acid; viscose; fertilizers; and paraffin.

  20. Process for separating radioactive gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Shigeru; Awada, Yoshihisa.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To efficiently and safely separate and recover raw gases such as krypton which requires radioactive attenuation by a long term storage. Structure: A mixture of krypton and xenon is separated by liquefaction from raw gases at a first distillation column, using latent heat of liquid nitrogen. The krypton and xenon mixture separated by liquefaction at the first distillation column is separated into krypton and xenon, by controlling operation pressure of a second distillation column at about 3 - 5 atm., using sensible heat of low temperature nitrogen gas discharged from a top of the first distillation column and a condenser. (Aizawa, K.)

  1. The ideal gases of tachyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrowczynski, St.

    1984-01-01

    The formalism of statistical mechanics of particles slower than light has been considered from the point of view of the application of this formalism for the description of tachyons. Properties of ideal gases of tachyons have been discussed in detail. After finding general formulae for quantum, Bose and Fermi gases the classical limit has been considered. It has been shown that Bose-Einstein condensation occurs. The tachyon gas of bosons violates the third principle of thermodynamics. Degenerated Fermi gas has been considered and in this case the entropy vanishes at zero temperature. Difficulties of formulating covariant statistical mechanics have been discussed

  2. A microscope for Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omran, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    This thesis reports on a novel quantum gas microscope to investigate many-body systems of fermionic atoms in optical lattices. Single-site resolved imaging of ultracold lattice gases has enabled powerful studies of bosonic quantum many-body systems. The extension of this capability to Fermi gases offers new prospects to studying complex phenomena of strongly correlated systems, for which numerical simulations are often out of reach. Using standard techniques of laser cooling, optical trapping, and evaporative cooling, ultracold Fermi gases of 6 Li are prepared and loaded into a large-scale 2D optical lattice of flexible geometry. The atomic distribution is frozen using a second, short-scaled lattice, where we perform Raman sideband cooling to induce fluorescence on each atom while maintaining its position. Together with high-resolution imaging, the fluorescence signals allow for reconstructing the initial atom distribution with single-site sensitivity and high fidelity. Magnetically driven evaporative cooling in the plane allows for producing degenerate Fermi gases with almost unity filling in the initial lattice, allowing for the first microscopic studies of ultracold gases with clear signatures of Fermi statistics. By preparing an ensemble of spin-polarised Fermi gases, we detect a flattening of the density profile towards the centre of the cloud, which is a characteristic of a band-insulating state. In one set of experiments, we demonstrate that losses of atom pairs on a single lattice site due to light-assisted collisions are circumvented. The oversampling of the second lattice allows for deterministic separation of the atom pairs into different sites. Compressing a high-density sample in a trap before loading into the lattice leads to many double occupancies of atoms populating different bands, which we can image with no evidence for pairwise losses. We therefore gain direct access to the true number statistics on each lattice site. Using this feature, we can

  3. Detecting and Identifying Industrial Gases by a Method Based on Olfactory Machine at Different Concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yunlong; Luo, Dehan; Li, Hui; Zhu, Chuchu; Xu, Ou; Gholam Hosseini, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    Gas sensors have been widely reported for industrial gas detection and monitoring. However, the rapid detection and identification of industrial gases are still a challenge. In this work, we measure four typical industrial gases including CO2, CH4, NH3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) based on electronic nose (EN) at different concentrations. To solve the problem of effective classification and identification of different industrial gases, we propose an algorithm based on the selective ...

  4. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, A.; Lee, T.; Kreidenweis, S.; Urbanski, S.; Reardon, J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured trace gas emission factors from seven prescribed fires in South Carolina (SC), US, using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analysis. A total of 97 trace gas species were quantified from both airborne and ground-based sampling platforms, making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements include the first emission factors for a suite of monoterpenes produced by heating vegetative fuels during field fires. The first quantitative FTIR observations of limonene in smoke are reported along with an expanded suite of monoterpenes measured by WAS including α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, camphene, 4-carene, and myrcene. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of 0.4-27.9% of non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) and ~ 21% of organic aerosol (mass basis) suggests that they impacted secondary formation of ozone (O3), aerosols, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes in the first few hours after emission. The variability in the initial terpene emissions in the SC fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the initially emitted gas-phase NMOCs was 13-195% different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~ 20 months earlier. It is likely that differences in stand structure and environmental conditions contributed to the high variability observed within and between these studies. Similar factors may explain much of the variability in initial emissions in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, was found to be fairly consistent with previous airborne fire measurements in other coniferous-dominated ecosystems, with the mean for these studies being 0.90 ± 0.06%, further confirming the value of HCN as a biomass burning tracer. The SC results also

  5. Reactions on carbonaceous materials with hydrogenating gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M; Simon, W; Kronig, W

    1933-02-08

    A process is given for the production of valuable hydrocarbons by treatment of distillable carbonaceous materials with added hydrogenating gases under pressure in contact with catalysts. The process comprises adding to the initial materials before or during the said treatment organic sulphonic acids together with metals of groups 4 to 8 of the periodic system or compounds thereof, or free organic carboxylic acids which when inorganic salts are simultaneously present do not combine therewith to form complex ansolvo acids, or acid salts of strong acids or acid salts of heavy metals, lithium, magnesium, and aluminum, with the exception of aluminum hydrosilicates, or inorganic oxygen containing acids of sulfur or nitrogen or the anhydrides of said inorganic oxygen-containing acids.

  6. Transport processes in ionized gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Based on kinetic theory of gases and on the combined of Chapman-Enskog and Grad, the laws of Ohm, Fourier and Navier-Stokes are derived for a non-relativistic fully ionized gas. Moreover, the combined method is applied to the BGK model of the relativistic Boltzmann equation and the Ohm's law is derived for a relativistic fully ionized gas. (author)

  7. Stratospheric aerosols and precursor gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the aerosol size, height and geographical distribution, their composition and optical properties, and their temporal variation with season and following large volcanic eruptions. Sulfur-bearing gases were measured in situ in the stratosphere, and studied of the chemical and physical processes which control gas-to-particle conversion were carried out in the laboratory.

  8. Permeability of cork to gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, David P; Fonseca, Ana L; Pereira, Helen; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

    2011-04-27

    The permeability of gases through uncompressed cork was investigated. More than 100 samples were assessed from different plank qualities to provide a picture of the permeability distribution. A novel technique based on a mass spectrometer leak detector was used to directly measure the helium flow through the central area of small disks 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick. The permeability for nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases was measured by the pressure rise technique. Boiled and nonboiled cork samples from different sections were evaluated. An asymmetric frequency distribution ranging 3 orders of magnitude (roughly from 1 to 1000 μmol/(cm·atm·day)) for selected samples without macroscopic defects was found, having a peak below 100 μmol/(cm·atm·day). Correlation was found between density and permeability: higher density samples tend to show lower permeability. However, boiled cork showed a mean lower permeability despite having a lower density. The transport mechanism of gases through cork was also examined. Calculations suggest that gases permeate uncompressed cork mainly through small channels between cells under a molecular flow regime. The diameter of such channels was estimated to be in the range of 100 nm, in agreement with the plasmodesmata size in the cork cell walls.

  9. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silseth, May Liss

    1998-01-01

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  10. Soliton Gases and Generalized Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyon, Benjamin; Yoshimura, Takato; Caux, Jean-Sébastien

    2018-01-01

    We show that the equations of generalized hydrodynamics (GHD), a hydrodynamic theory for integrable quantum systems at the Euler scale, emerge in full generality in a family of classical gases, which generalize the gas of hard rods. In this family, the particles, upon colliding, jump forward or backward by a distance that depends on their velocities, reminiscent of classical soliton scattering. This provides a "molecular dynamics" for GHD: a numerical solver which is efficient, flexible, and which applies to the presence of external force fields. GHD also describes the hydrodynamics of classical soliton gases. We identify the GHD of any quantum model with that of the gas of its solitonlike wave packets, thus providing a remarkable quantum-classical equivalence. The theory is directly applicable, for instance, to integrable quantum chains and to the Lieb-Liniger model realized in cold-atom experiments.

  11. Noble Gases in Lakes and Ground Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Kipfer, Rolf; Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner; Peeters, Frank; Stute, Marvin

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to most other fields of noble gas geochemistry that mostly regard atmospheric noble gases as 'contamination,' air-derived noble gases make up the far largest and hence most important contribution to the noble gas abundance in meteoric waters, such as lakes and ground waters. Atmospheric noble gases enter the meteoric water cycle by gas partitioning during air / water exchange with the atmosphere. In lakes and oceans noble gases are exchanged with the free atmosphere at the surface...

  12. Centrifugal separation of mixture gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, M.S.; Chen, W.N.; Yin, Y.T.

    2008-01-01

    An attempt for single centrifugal separation of mixtures with different molecular formula was presented in this paper. The mixtures of SF 6 and CCl 3 F, and SF 6 and CCl 4 were chosen as the processing gases, which were prepared in three mass ratios, 0.5, 0.8 and 0.2, respectively. The separating characteristics such as the overall separation factors and the variation of cuts were studied. (author)

  13. Development and Application of a Fast Chromatography Technique for Analysis of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in Plant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Yamazakii, S.; Kajii, Y. J.

    2011-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from vegetation constitute the largest fraction (>90 %) of total global non-methane VOC supplied to the atmosphere, yet the chemical complexity of these emissions means that achieving comprehensive measurements of BVOCs, and in particular the less volatile terpenes, is not straightforward. As such, there is still significant uncertainty associated with the contribution of BVOCs to the tropospheric oxidation budget, and to atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The rate of BVOC emission from vegetation is regulated by environmental conditions such as light intensity and temperature, and thus can be highly variable, necessitating high time-resolution BVOC measurements. In addition, the numerous monoterpene and sesquiterpene isomers, which are indistinguishable by some analytical techniques, have greatly varying lifetimes with respect to atmospheric oxidants, and as such quantification of each individual isomer is fundamental to achieving a comprehensive characterisation of the impact of BVOCs upon the atmospheric oxidation capacity. However, established measurement techniques for these trace gases typically offer a trade-off between sample frequency and the level of speciation; detailed information regarding chemical composition may be obtained, but with reduced time resolution, or vice versa. We have developed a Fast-GC-FID technique for quantification of a range of monoterpene, sesquiterpene and oxygenated C10 BVOC isomers, which retains the separation capability of conventional gas chromatography, yet offers considerably improved sample frequency. Development of this system is ongoing, but currently a 20 m x 0.18 mm i.d resistively heated metal column is employed to achieve chromatographic separation of thirteen C10-C15 BVOCs, within a total cycle time of ~15 minutes. We present the instrument specifications and analytical capability, together with the first application of this Fast-GC technique

  14. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  15. Atmosphere-Ocean Coupling through Trace Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeier, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Krüger, K.; Lennartz, S. T.; Marandino, C. A.; Patra, P. K.; Quack, B.; Schlundt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Halogen- and sulfur-containing trace gases, as well as other volatile organic compounds (VOCs, such as isoprene) from biogeochemical marine sources are important constituents of the ocean and the atmosphere. These compounds exert wide-ranging influence on atmospheric chemical processes and climate interactions, as well as on human health in coastal regions. In their reactive form, they can affect the oxidizing capacity of the air and lead to the formation of new particles or the growth of existing ones. In this contribution, marine derived halogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing compounds will be discussed. Their net flux into the atmosphere and their impact on atmospheric processes is analyzed based on observations and model simulations.

  16. History of chemically and radiatively important atmospheric gases from the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Prinn

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the organization, instrumentation, datasets, data interpretation, modeling, and accomplishments of the multinational global atmospheric measurement program AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment. AGAGE is distinguished by its capability to measure globally, at high frequency, and at multiple sites all the important species in the Montreal Protocol and all the important non-carbon-dioxide (non-CO2 gases assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (CO2 is also measured at several sites. The scientific objectives of AGAGE are important in furthering our understanding of global chemical and climatic phenomena. They are the following: (1 to accurately measure the temporal and spatial distributions of anthropogenic gases that contribute the majority of reactive halogen to the stratosphere and/or are strong infrared absorbers (chlorocarbons, chlorofluorocarbons – CFCs, bromocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons – HCFCs, hydrofluorocarbons – HFCs and polyfluorinated compounds (perfluorocarbons – PFCs, nitrogen trifluoride – NF3, sulfuryl fluoride – SO2F2, and sulfur hexafluoride – SF6 and use these measurements to determine the global rates of their emission and/or destruction (i.e., lifetimes; (2 to accurately measure the global distributions and temporal behaviors and determine the sources and sinks of non-CO2 biogenic–anthropogenic gases important to climate change and/or ozone depletion (methane – CH4, nitrous oxide – N2O, carbon monoxide – CO, molecular hydrogen – H2, methyl chloride – CH3Cl, and methyl bromide – CH3Br; (3 to identify new long-lived greenhouse and ozone-depleting gases (e.g., SO2F2, NF3, heavy PFCs (C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16, and C8F18 and hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs; e.g., CH2  =  CFCF3 have been identified in AGAGE, initiate the real-time monitoring of these new gases, and reconstruct their past histories from AGAGE, air archive, and firn air measurements; (4

  17. Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, J. (ed.) [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Young, B.A. (ed.) [The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343 (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Reports from interdisciplinary areas including microbiology, biochemistry, animal nutrition, agricultural engineering and economics are integrated in this proceedings. The major theme of this book is environmental preservation by controlling release of undesirable greenhouse gases to realize the sustainable development of animal agriculture. Technology exists for the effective collection of methane generated from anaerobic fermentation of animal effluent and its use as a biomass energy source. Fossil fuel consumption can be reduced and there can be increased use of locally available energy sources. In addition, promoting environmentally-conscious agriculture which does not rely on the chemical fertilizer can be realized by effective use of animal manure and compost products.

  18. Mechanics of liquids and gases

    CERN Document Server

    Loitsyanskii, L G; Jones, W P

    1966-01-01

    Mechanics of Liquids and Gases, Second Edition is a 10-chapter text that covers significant revisions concerning the dynamics of an ideal gas, a viscous liquid and a viscous gas.After an expanded introduction to the fundamental properties and methods of the mechanics of fluids, this edition goes on dealing with the kinetics and general questions of dynamics. The next chapters describe the one-dimensional pipe flow of a gas with friction, the elementary theory of the shock tube; Riemann's theory of the wave propagation of finite intensity, and the theory of plane subsonic and supersonic flows.

  19. Veracruz State Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh Rodriguez, C.; Rodriquez Viqueira, L.; Guzman Rojas, S.

    2007-05-01

    At recent years, the international organisms such as United Nations, has discussed that the temperature has increased slightly and the pattern of precipitations has changed in different parts of the world, which cause either extreme droughts or floods and that the extreme events have increased. These are some of the risks of global climate change because of the increase of gas concentration in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and methane - which increase the greenhouse effect. Facing the consequences that could emerge because of the global temperature grown, there is a genuine necessity in different sectors of reduction the greenhouse gases and reduced the adverse impacts of climate change. To solve that, many worldwide conventions have been realized (Rio de Janeiro, Kyoto, Montreal) where different countries have established political compromises to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases. The mitigation and adaptation policies merge as a response to the effects that the global climate change could have, on the humans as well as the environment. That is the reason to provide the analysis of the areas and geographic zones of the country that present major vulnerability to the climate change. The development of an inventory of emissions that identifies and quantifies the principal sources of greenhouse gases of a country, and also of a region is basic to any study about climate change, also to develop specific political programs that allow to preserve and even improve a quality of the atmospheric environment, and maybe to incorporate to international mechanisms such as the emissions market. To estimate emissions in a systematic and consistent way on a regional, national and international level is a requirement to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit of instrumented possible mitigation strategies and to adopt politics and technologies to reduce emissions. Mexico has two national inventories of emissions, 1990 and 1995, now it is

  20. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  2. Global anthropogenic emissions of carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds as input for the CH4-CO-OH-cycle; A contribution to IMAGE, the Integrated Model for the Assessment of the Greenhouse Effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart RJ

    1988-01-01

    Het rapport is het resultaat van een korte studie n.a.v. het RIVM-rapport nr. 758471002 m.b.t. een model voor de rol van methaan in het broeikasprobleem. De in dit laatste rapport gehanteerde evenredigheid tussen CO2-emissies en aan verbruik van fossiele brandstoffen gerelateerde CO- en

  3. Throat gases against the CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaut, C.

    2006-01-01

    The steel production needs carbon consumption and generates carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gases. It represents about 6 % of the greenhouse gases emissions in the world. That is why the steel industry began last year a research program, Ideogaz, to reduce its CO 2 releases. The first results on the throat gases recovery seems very promising: it uses 25 % less of carbon. The author presents the program and the main technical aspects of the method. (A.L.B.)

  4. Optical Lattice Gases of Interacting Fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-02

    interacting Fermi gases has topological properties similar to the conventional chiral p- wave state. These include a non-zero Chern number and the...interacting cold gases with broad impacts on the interfaces with condensed matter and particle physics . Applications and experiments of some of the physics ...AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0016 Optical Lattice Gases of Interacting Fermions Wensheng Vincent Liu UNIVERSITY OF PITTSBURGH Final Report 12/02/2015

  5. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  6. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamburg, A.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roos, I.

    1996-01-01

    Estonia's energy balance for 1990 - 1994 is characterized by the dramatic changes in the economy after regaining independence in 1991. In 1990 - 1993, primary energy supply decreased about 1.9 times. The reasons were a sharp decrease in exports of electric energy and industrial products, a steep increase in fuel prices and the transition from the planned to a market-oriented economy. Over the same period, the total amount of emitted greenhouse gases decreased about 45%. In 1993, the decrease in energy production and consumption stopped, and in 1994, a moderate increase occurred (about 6%), which is a proof stabilizing economy. Oil shale power engineering will remain the prevailing energy resource for the next 20 - 25 years. After stabilization, the use of oil shale will rise in Estonia's economy. Oil shale combustion in power plants will be the greatest source of greenhouse gases emissions in near future. The main problem is to decrease the share of CO 2 emissions from the decomposition of carbonate part of oil shale. This can be done by separating limestone particles from oil shale before its burning by use of circulating fluidized bed combustion technology. Higher efficiency of oil shale power plants facilitates the reduction of CO 2 emissions per generated MWh electricity considerably. The prognoses for the future development of power engineering depend essentially on the environmental requirements. Under the highly restricted development scenario, which includes strict limitations to emissions (CO 2 , SO 2 , thermal waste) and a severe penalty system, the competitiveness of nuclear power will increase. The conceptual steps taken by the Estonian energy management should be in compliance with those of neighboring countries, including the development programs of the other Baltic states

  7. Comparison of natural gases accumulated in Oligocene strata with hydrous pyrolysis gases from Menilite Shales of the Polish Outer Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, M.J.; Curtis, John B.; Lewan, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the molecular and isotopic compositions of gases generated from different kerogen types (i.e., Types I/II, II, IIS and III) in Menilite Shales by sequential hydrous pyrolysis experiments. The experiments were designed to simulate gas generation from source rocks at pre-oil-cracking thermal maturities. Initially, rock samples were heated in the presence of liquid water at 330 ??C for 72 h to simulate early gas generation dominated by the overall reaction of kerogen decomposition to bitumen. Generated gas and oil were quantitatively collected at the completion of the experiments and the reactor with its rock and water was resealed and heated at 355 ??C for 72 h. This condition simulates late petroleum generation in which the dominant overall reaction is bitumen decomposition to oil. This final heating equates to a cumulative thermal maturity of 1.6% Rr, which represents pre-oil-cracking conditions. In addition to the generated gases from these two experiments being characterized individually, they are also summed to characterize a cumulative gas product. These results are compared with natural gases produced from sandstone reservoirs within or directly overlying the Menilite Shales. The experimentally generated gases show no molecular compositions that are distinct for the different kerogen types, but on a total organic carbon (TOC) basis, oil prone kerogens (i.e., Types I/II, II and IIS) generate more hydrocarbon gas than gas prone Type III kerogen. Although the proportionality of methane to ethane in the experimental gases is lower than that observed in the natural gases, the proportionality of ethane to propane and i-butane to n-butane are similar to those observed for the natural gases. ??13C values of the experimentally generated methane, ethane and propane show distinctions among the kerogen types. This distinction is related to the ??13C of the original kerogen, with 13C enriched kerogen generating more 13C enriched hydrocarbon gases than

  8. Explorative analysis of microbes, colloids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    potential to transport radionuclides in groundwater. The aim of the study of colloids in the Forsmark 2.3 site investigation was to quantify and determine the composition of colloids in groundwater samples from the boreholes. There are both inorganic and organic colloids, and the site investigation measured both types. - Gases (Chapter 3): Dissolved gases in groundwater contribute to the mass of dissolved species. The distribution and composition of dissolved gases in deep groundwater are important to understand in the safety assessment of a deep geological nuclear waste repository: Micro bubbles of gas may potentially transport radionuclides from the repository to the surface. Oxygen, hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide are parts of fundamental redox couples that participate in several solid-aqueous phase transformations such as the precipitation of ferric iron oxides, iron sulphide and calcite. Methane and hydrogen, may serve as sources of energy to various microbiological processes

  9. Explorative analysis of microbes, colloids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten

    2008-08-01

    radionuclides in groundwater. The aim of the study of colloids in the Forsmark 2.3 site investigation was to quantify and determine the composition of colloids in groundwater samples from the boreholes. There are both inorganic and organic colloids, and the site investigation measured both types. - Gases (Chapter 3): Dissolved gases in groundwater contribute to the mass of dissolved species. The distribution and composition of dissolved gases in deep groundwater are important to understand in the safety assessment of a deep geological nuclear waste repository: Micro bubbles of gas may potentially transport radionuclides from the repository to the surface. Oxygen, hydrogen sulphide and carbon dioxide are parts of fundamental redox couples that participate in several solid-aqueous phase transformations such as the precipitation of ferric iron oxides, iron sulphide and calcite. Methane and hydrogen, may serve as sources of energy to various microbiological processes

  10. Measurements of reactive trace gases and variable O3 formation rates in some South Carolina biomass burning plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, S. K.; Yokelson, R. J.; Burling, I. R.; Meinardi, S.; Simpson, I.; Blake, D. R.; McMeeking, G. R.; Sullivan, A.; Lee, T.; Kreidenweis, S.; Urbanski, S.; Reardon, J.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Johnson, T. J.; Weise, D. R.

    2013-02-01

    In October-November 2011 we measured the trace gas emission factors from 7 prescribed fires in South Carolina, U.S. using two Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) systems and whole air sampling (WAS) into canisters followed by gas-chromatographic analyses. The fires were intended to emulate high-intensity burns as they were lit during the dry season and in most cases represented stands that had not been treated with prescribed burns in 10+ years, if at all. A total of 97 trace gas species are reported here from both airborne and ground-based platforms making this one of the most detailed field studies of fire emissions to date. The measurements included the first data for a suite of monoterpene compounds emitted via distillation of plant tissues during real fires. The known chemistry of the monoterpenes and their measured abundance of ~0.40% of CO (molar basis), ~3.9% of NMOC (molar basis), and ~21% of organic aerosol (mass basis), suggests that they impacted post-emission formation of ozone, aerosol, and small organic trace gases such as methanol and formaldehyde in the sampled plumes. The variability in the terpene emissions in South Carolina (SC) fire plumes was high and, in general, the speciation of the emitted gas-phase non-methane organic compounds was surprisingly different from that observed in a similar study in nominally similar pine forests in North Carolina ~20 months earlier. It is likely that the slightly different ecosystems, time of year and the precursor variability all contributed to the variability in plume chemistry observed in this study and in the literature. The ΔHCN/ΔCO emission ratio, however, is fairly consistent at 0.9 ± 0.06 % for airborne fire measurements in coniferous-dominated ecosystems further confirming the value of HCN as a good biomass burning indicator/tracer. The SC results also support an earlier finding that C3-C4 alkynes may be of use as biomass burning indicators on the time-scale of

  11. Greenhouse effect gases (GEI) by energy consumption; Gases efecto invernadero (GEI) por consumo de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz Ledo C, Ramon; Bazan N, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present the calculation methodology of greenhouse effect gases (GEI) emissions that are produced by the power sector in Mexico, as well as to discuss its possible impact in the subject of climatic change and the possible mitigating actions to lower the amount of emissions that can be taken and, therefore, the possible climate changes. In Mexico GEI inventories have been made since 1991, year in which the National Inventory of Gases with Greenhouse Effect was obtained for year 1988. The GEI include carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (NO) and volatile organic carbides that are not methane (NMVOC) and are secondary products and harmful that are obtained from the processes that turn fuels into energy (combustion). The main sources of GEI are: fixed sources (industries, residences, commerce, public services and energy transformation, such as power generation); movable sources (that include all type of transport that uses fuel). The fuels that, by their volume and efficiency, generate more emissions of GEI are crude oil, natural gas and solid biomass (firewood-cane bagasse). Any effort to reduce these emissions is very important and remarkable if it affects the consumption of these fuels. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar la metodologia de calculo de las emisiones de los gases con efecto invernadero (GEI) que son producidos por el sector energetico en Mexico, asi como discutir su posible impacto en las cuestiones de cambio climatico y las posibles acciones de mitigacion que se pueden realizar para abatir la cantidad de emisiones y, por ende, los posibles cambios de clima. En Mexico se han realizado inventarios de GEI desde 1991, ano en que se obtuvo el Inventario Nacional de Gases con Efecto Invernadero para el ano de 1988. Los GEI comprenden al dioxido de carbono (CO2), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx), metano (CH4), oxido nitroso (N2O) y

  12. Application of FIGAERO (Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsol) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer to field and chamber organic aerosol: Implications for carboxylic acid formation and gas-particle partitioning from monoterpene oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Mohr, C.; Ehn, M.; Rubach, F.; Mentel, T. F.; Kleist, E.; Wildt, J.; Thornton, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    We present measurements of a large suite of gas and particle phase carboxylic acid containing compounds made with a Filter Inlet for Gas and AEROsol (FIGAERO) coupled to a high resolution time of flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-CIMS) developed at the University of Washington. A prototype operated with acetate negative ion proton transfer chemistry was deployed on the Julich Plant Atmosphere Chamber to study a-pinene oxidation, and a modified version was deployed at the SMEAR II forest station in Hyytiälä, Finland and SOAS, in Brent Alabama. We focus here on results from JPAC and Hyytiälä, where we utilized the same ionization method most selective towards carboxylic acids. In all locations, 100's of organic acid compounds were observed in the gas and particles and many of the same composition acids detected in the gas-phase were detected in the particles upon temperature programmed thermal desorption. Particulate organics detected by FIGAERO are highly correlated with organic aerosol mass measured by an AMS, providing additional volatility and molecular level information about collected aerosol. The fraction of a given compound measured in the particle phase follows expected trends with elemental composition, but many compounds would not be well described by an absorptive partitioning model assuming unity activity coefficients. Moreover the detailed structure in the thermal desorption signals reveals a contribution from thermal decomposition of large molecular weight organics and or oligomers with implications for partitioning measurements and model validation

  13. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... determined to calibration gas tolerances by chromatographic analysis of total hydrocarbons plus impurities or.... (2) Mixtures of gases having the following chemical compositions shall be available: (i) C3H8 and... check gases shall contain propane with 350 ppmC ±75 ppmC hydrocarbon. The three oxygen interference...

  14. Greenhouse Gases Concentrations in the Atmosphere Along ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated effect of vehicular emission on greenhouse gases concentrations along selected roads of different traffic densities in Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Nine roads comprised highway, commercial and residential were selected. Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) were determined from both sides of the roads by ...

  15. Specific heats of degenerate ideal gases

    OpenAIRE

    Caruso, Francisco; Oguri, Vitor; Silveira, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    From arguments based on Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Pauli's exclusion principle, the molar specific heats of degenerate ideal gases at low temperatures are estimated, giving rise to values consistent with the Nerst-Planck Principle (third law of Thermodynamics). The Bose-Einstein condensation phenomenon based on the behavior of specific heat of massive and non-relativistic boson gases is also presented.

  16. Method for storing radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Atsushi; Nagao, Hiroyuki; Takiguchi, Yukio; Kanazawa, Toshio; Soya, Masataka.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To safely and securely store radioactive rare gases for a long period of time. Structure: The waste gases produced in nuclear power plant are cooled by a cooler and then introduced into a low temperature adsorbing device so that the gases are adsorbed by adsorbents, and then discharged into atmosphere through the purifying gas discharge line. When the radioactive rare gases reach a level of saturation in the amount of adsorption, they are heated and extracted by a suction pump and heated by a heater. The gases are then introduced into an oxygen-impurity removing device and the purified rare gases containing no oxygen and impurities are cooled by a cooler and fed into a gas holder. When the amount of radioactive rare gases stored within the gas holder reaches a given level, they are compressed and sealed by a compressure into a storing cylinder and residual gases in the piping are sucked and recovered into the gas holder, after which the cylinder is removed and stored in a fixed room. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Field measurements of trace gases and aerosols emitted by peat fires in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, during the 2015 El Niño

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Stockwell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Peat fires in Southeast Asia have become a major annual source of trace gases and particles to the regional–global atmosphere. The assessment of their influence on atmospheric chemistry, climate, air quality, and health has been uncertain partly due to a lack of field measurements of the smoke characteristics. During the strong 2015 El Niño event we deployed a mobile smoke sampling team in the Indonesian province of Central Kalimantan on the island of Borneo and made the first, or rare, field measurements of trace gases, aerosol optical properties, and aerosol mass emissions for authentic peat fires burning at various depths in different peat types. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, whole air sampling, photoacoustic extinctiometers (405 and 870 nm, and a small subset of the data from analyses of particulate filters. The trace gas measurements provide emission factors (EFs; grams of a compound per kilogram biomass burned for up to  ∼  90 gases, including CO2, CO, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, 15 oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, OCS, HCl, etc. The modified combustion efficiency (MCE of the smoke sources ranged from 0.693 to 0.835 with an average of 0.772 ± 0.053 (n  =  35, indicating essentially pure smoldering combustion, and the emissions were not initially strongly lofted. The major trace gas emissions by mass (EF as g kg−1 were carbon dioxide (1564 ± 77, carbon monoxide (291 ± 49, methane (9.51 ± 4.74, hydrogen cyanide (5.75 ± 1.60, acetic acid (3.89 ± 1.65, ammonia (2.86 ± 1.00, methanol (2.14 ± 1.22, ethane (1.52 ± 0.66, dihydrogen (1.22 ± 1.01, propylene (1.07 ± 0.53, propane (0.989 ± 0.644, ethylene (0.961 ± 0.528, benzene (0.954 ± 0.394, formaldehyde (0.867 ± 0.479, hydroxyacetone (0.860 ± 0.433, furan (0.772 ± 0.035, acetaldehyde

  18. Development of electrochemical sensor for the determination of toxic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring release of flue and toxic gases and vapours of volatile organic toxic substances into the atmosphere is one of the most important problems in environmental pollution control studies particularly in industrial installations in order to avoid poisoning and other health hazards. In industrial areas continuous monitoring of toxic gases and vapours is required for the safety of workers and for this purpose different types of sensors and available such as thermal sensors mass sensors, biosensors, optical sensors and electrochemical sensors. Among all of these sensors electrochemical sensors are most cost-effective, accurate and very good for continuous monitoring. They can be categorized into potentiometric, conductometric, amperometric and voltammetric sensors. Applications of different types of electrochemical sensors are briefly reviewed. Development of polymer membrane and conducting polymers are most important for fabrication of electrochemical sensors, which can analyse up to twenty two gases and vapours simultaneously. Some of the commercially used electrochemical sensors are described. For the determination of hydrogen sulfide an electrochemical sensor was developed. Teflon based conduction polymer membrane was treated with some electrolytes and then silver metal was deposited on one side of the membrane. Metal part side was exposed to gases and the other side was deposited on one side of the membrane metal part side was exposed to gasses and the other side was connected with two electrodes including reference and counter electrodes, whereas metal part acted as working electrode. This system can also me used for the analysis of their gases like SO/sub 2/ etc; because they react at different potentials with the metal to generate the signals. (author)

  19. Carbon isotopic composition of deep carbon gases in an ombrogenous peatland, northwestern Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravena, R.; Dinel, H.

    1993-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating and carbon isotope analyses of deep peat and gases in a small ombrogenous peatland in northwestern Ontario reveals the presence of old gases at depth that are 1000-2000 yr younger than the enclosing peat. The authors suggest that the most likely explanation to account for this age discrepancy is the downward movement by advection of younger dissolved organic carbon for use by fermentation and methanogens bacteria. This study identifies a potentially large supply of old carbon gases in peatlands that should be considered in global carbon models of the terrestrial biosphere

  20. Method of contacting solids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1942-08-06

    A continuous method is described for contacting solids and gases. The process involves passing a confined stream of gases through an extended path including a treating zone and imposing a pressure on the stream of gases at least sufficient to overcome the resistence of said path to the flow of said gases. A solid in finely divided form is then introduced into said stream of gases, maintaining a vertical column of finely divided solid in fluidized state of a height which will produce a pressure at the column bottom at least equal to the gas pressure at the point of entry of the solids into the stream. The solids then pass from the bottom of the column into the stream.

  1. Process of producing carbonaceous materials; reaction with hydrogen gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1933-01-13

    A process is described for the production of valuable hydrocarbons by treating distillable carbonaceous materials together with hydrogen gases, under pressure and in contact with catalysts, the process consisting in adding to the original materials, first or during treatment, organic sulfonic acids together with metals from the fourth or eighth groups of the periodic system or a combination of these, or organic carbosilicic acids or inorganic acids containing oxides of sulfur or nitrogen or the anhydrides of these inorganic acids or variation of these compounds.

  2. Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trizac, Emmanuel [Center of Theoretical Biological Physics, UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0374 (United States); Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques, Campus Universitaire, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2005-11-25

    Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors-who were among the pioneers in the domain- the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution {epsilon} -a central quantity governing the

  3. Kinetic Theory of Granular Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trizac, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Granular gases are composed of macroscopic bodies kept in motion by an external energy source such as a violent shaking. The behaviour of such systems is quantitatively different from that of ordinary molecular gases: due to the size of the constituents, external fields have a stronger effect on the dynamics and, more importantly, the kinetic energy of the gas is no longer a conserved quantity. The key role of the inelasticity of collisions has been correctly appreciated for about fifteen years, and the ensuing consequences in terms of phase behaviour or transport properties studied in an increasing and now vast body of literature. The purpose of this book is to help the newcomer to the field in acquiring the essential theoretical tools together with some numerical techniques. As emphasized by the authors-who were among the pioneers in the domain- the content could be covered in a one semester course for advanced undergraduates, or it could be incorporated in a more general course dealing with the statistical mechanics of dissipative systems. The book is self-contained, clear, and avoids mathematical complications. In order to elucidate the main physical ideas, heuristic points of views are sometimes preferred to a more rigorous route that would lead to a longer discussion. The 28 chapters are short; they offer exercises and worked examples, solved at the end of the book. Each part is supplemented with a relevant foreword and a useful summary including take-home messages. The editorial work is of good quality, with very few typographical errors. In spite of the title, kinetic theory stricto sensu is not the crux of the matter covered. The authors discuss the consequences of the molecular chaos assumption both at the individual particle level and in terms of collective behaviour. The first part of the book addresses the mechanics of grain collisions. It is emphasized that considering the coefficient of restitution ε -a central quantity governing the inelasticity of

  4. The storage of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, H.; Kaarstad, O.; Eliasson, B

    2000-01-01

    Since 1850, that is to say the beginning of the industrial era,the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen from 280 ppm to 370 ppm, this increase is mainly due to the combustion of fossil fuels. Today fossil fuels represent 85% of all the energy used in the world. Fearing progressive climatic changes, more and more governments become aware of the necessity of reducing the emission of greenhouse gases. A more efficient use of energy and the promoting of renewable energies and of the nuclear energy are the most evident solutions but they appear to be insufficient. A third solution is the storage of carbon dioxide in geological layers. This technique has been put into use since 1996 in Norway. An off-shore natural gas platform injects carbon dioxide in a geological reservoir situated 1000 meters below the ocean bed. The injection of CO 2 could be used in oil fields in order to facilitate the extraction of petroleum. Far more large and efficient reservoirs would be the oceans, they already hold up 40000 10 9 tons of dissolved CO 2 . Even if the double of the carbon dioxide accumulated in the atmosphere since 1850 were injected, the concentration of carbon in sea waters would rise by less than 2%. The safety of CO 2 storage and the impact on the environment of ocean injection sites are being studied. (A.C.)

  5. Greenhouse gases and emissions trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Dudek, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Global cooperation is essential in cutting greenhouse-gas emissions, say Alice LeBlanc and Daniel J. Dudek of the Environmental Defense in New York City. The first step, they continue, is agreement among nations on an overall global limit for all greenhouse gases, followed by an allocation of the global limit among nations. The agreements must contain effective reporting and monitoring systems and enforcement provisions, they add. The Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed by most nations of the world in Brazil in 1992, provides the foundation for such an agreement, LeBlanc and Dudek note. open-quotes International emissions trading is a way to lower costs and expand reduction options for the benefit of all,close quotes they contend. Under such an arrangement, an international agency would assign allowances, stated in tons of carbon dioxide. Countries would be free to buy and sell allowances, but no country could exceed, in a given year, the total allowances it holds. By emitting less than its allowed amount, a country would accumulate more allowances, which it could sell. The authors claim such a system would offer benefits to the world economy by saving billions of dollars in pollution-reduction costs while still achieving emission limits established in an international agreement

  6. Gases emissions of Green house Effect in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez B, Fabio

    1999-01-01

    Colombia when signing the agreement mark of the united nations for the global change in 1992 and to ratify it in 1996 committed, together with the other signatory countries, to elaborate and to publish national inventories of anthropogenic emissions of green house gases and plans for its reduction and control. In this reference mark a group of professionals inside the Colombian academy of exact, physical and natural sciences, began in July of 1995, the national inventory of greenhouse gases for Colombia, having the approval of the ministry of the environment, the financial support of the organization of German technical cooperation GTZ and the technical consultantship of the work group that it is carrying out the study in the case of Venezuela. This article presents a summary of the results of the project, making emphasis in the main anthropogenic activities responsible for these emissions, especially those related with the energetic sector

  7. Unexpected impact of RIE gases on lithographic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glodde, M.; Bruce, R. L.; Hopstaken, M. J. P.; Saccomanno, M. R.; Felix, N.; Petrillo, K. E.; Price, B.

    2017-03-01

    Successful pattern transfer from the photoresist into the substrate depends on robust layers of lithographic films. Typically, an alternating sequence of inorganic (most often Si containing) and organic hardmask (HM) materials is used. Pattern transfer occurs then by using reactive ion etch (RIE) chemistry that is selective to one particular layer (such as: flurorinated RIE for Si HM). The impact of these RIE gases onto the layers acting as hardmask for the layer to be etched is typically neglected, except for known sputtering effects. We found that components of the RIE gases can penetrate deep into the "inert" layers and significantly modify them. For example, nitrogen used as component to etch spin-on carbon layers was found to travel up to 70 nm deep into Si HM materials and create layers with different material properties within this film. The question is being raised and discussed to which extent this atom implantation may impact the pattern transfer of the ever shrinking features.

  8. The evolution of minor active and toxic gases in repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biddle, P.; Rees, J.H.; Davies, A.A.; McGahan, D.J.; Rushbrook, P.E.

    1988-09-01

    This study has considered a number of toxic and active gases which could potentially form in relatively small amounts in a deep repository for radioactive wastes. It has been concluded that many of these would react under repository conditions or be highly soluble in groundwater. The minor amounts of the inert and relatively insoluble gas krypton-85 would dissolve in a small volume of repository water. The wide range of organic gases and vapours that could form in trace amounts has been shortened to a list of 21 by consideration of their toxicity, volatibility and extent of formation at a landfill site for non-radioactive waste. The amounts of the inert and inactive gas helium formed from α-particles and the decay of tritium will have only a very minor effect on the overall rate of gas production. (author)

  9. Measurements of waste tank passive ventilation rates using tracer gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Sklarew, D.S.; Evans, J.C.; Remund, K.M.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents the results of ventilation rate studies of eight passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks using tracer gases. Head space ventilation rates were determined for Tanks A-101, AX-102, AX-103, BY-105, C-107, S-102, U-103, and U-105 using sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ) and/or helium (He) as tracer gases. Passive ventilation rates are needed for the resolution of several key safety issues. These safety issues are associated with the rates of flammable gas production and ventilation, the rates at which organic salt-nitrate salt mixtures dry out, and the estimation of organic solvent waste surface areas. This tracer gas study involves injecting a tracer gas into the tank headspace and measuring its concentration at different times to establish the rate at which the tracer is removed by ventilation. Tracer gas injection and sample collection were performed by SGN Eurisys Service Corporation and/or Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation, Characterization Project Operations. Headspace samples were analyzed for He and SF 6 by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The tracer gas method was first demonstrated on Tank S-102. Tests were conducted on Tank S-102 to verify that the tracer gas was uniformly distributed throughout the tank headspace before baseline samples were collected, and that mixing was sufficiently vigorous to maintain an approximately uniform distribution of tracer gas in the headspace during the course of the study. Headspace samples, collected from a location about 4 in away from the injection point and 15, 30, and 60 minutes after the injection of He and SF 6 , indicated that both tracer gases were rapidly mixed. The samples were found to have the same concentration of tracer gases after 1 hour as after 24 hours, suggesting that mixing of the tracer gas was essentially complete within 1 hour

  10. Influences of incubation temperature and various saccharides on the production of organic acids and gases by gut microbes of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a micro-scale batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, M; Sakata, T

    2001-08-01

    We studied the influence of incubation temperature and additional saccharides on the metabolism of hindgut microbes of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a 50 microl-scale batch culture system. Intestinal contents of rainbow trout reared at 15 degrees C were incubated with glucose, lactosucrose, sodium alginate or colloidal chitin (each 10 g/l) at 15 degrees C or 25 degrees C for 12 h. Levels of organic acids at 0 h and 12 h of incubation were quantified with HPLC. We also monitored gas release from these cultures during incubation. The main product was iso-butyric acid, except for the cultures with colloidal chitin where no net production of organic acids was observed. We detected higher levels of iso-butyric acid in cultures with lactosucrose than in the other cultures. Net production of this acid was less in cultures with colloidal chitin than in blank cultures. The volume of released gas was larger when incubated at 25 degrees C than at 15 degrees C. Cultures with colloidal chitin released more gas than blank cultures when they were incubated at 15 degrees C. Cultures with sodium alginate released less gas than blank cultures irrespective of incubation temperature. These results indicate that the hindgut microbes of this carnivorous fish mainly produce branched-chain fatty acids, very likely by microbial digestion of nitrogenous materials rather than saccharides. However, additional saccharides affected production of branched-chain fatty acids. The influence of incubation temperature in the present study also suggested that the environmental temperature of host fish should affect microbial digestion in the fish gut.

  11. The influence of organic and inorganic gases during New Particle Formation (NPF) events at the Mediterranean remote site of ERSA in Cape-Corsica during the summer of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waked, Antoine; Sauvage, Stephane; Michoud, Vincent; Sellegri, Karine; Berland, Kevin; Kukui, Alexandre; Hallemans, Elise; Zannoni, Nora; Kalogridis, Cerise; Gros, Valerie; Dusanter, Sebastien; Locoge, Nadine; Doussin, Jean-francois

    2017-04-01

    As part of the CHARMEX (Chemistry Aerosol Mediterranean Experiments) project, more than one hundred organic and inorganic gaseous compounds were measured in the summer of 2013 at the Mediterranean remote site of ERSA in Cape-Corsica. During this period, New Particle formation (NPF) events were identified from July 31th to august 2nd when air masses originated from the North-eastern sector (Southern Europe). The results were compared to a non-NPF event from July 21th to July 23rd for which the same wind sectors were identified. They showed that the particles number [10-20 nm] measured by SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) were more correlated with carbon monoxide (CO) during non-NPF events indicating an influence of more polluted and more aged air masses (residence time of CO of 60 days). Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sulfur dioxide do not show a significant influence in the formation of nucleation events. On the other hand, biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) such as isoprene, and mono-terpenes as well as their oxidation products (e.g. MACR+MVK, MTOP) showed good correlation during NPF-events in the range of (r from 0.45 to 0.59) higher than the ones reported during non-NPF events (0.11-0.34) highlighting the importance of these BVOCs on NPF days. The comparison of measured vs calculated reactivity (Zannoni et al, 2016) showed that during NPF-events, the missing part of OH reactivity was higher. It indicates that unmeasured species like sesquiterpenes, organo-nitrates, or oxygenated compounds may play a significant role in such events.

  12. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-01-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO 2 sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N 2 O by soil process, and CH 4 by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO 2 , CH 4 , CO, H 2 , N 2 O and SF 6 have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO 2 flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO 2 flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H 2 gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO 2 sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and 2005 wet seasons and 2004 dry season comparison it was

  13. Dipolar quantum gases of erbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frisch, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the preparation of the first Bose-Einstein condensate about two decades ago and the first degenerate Fermi gas following four years later a plethora of fascinating quantum phenomena have been explored. The vast majority of experiments focused on quantum degenerate atomic gases with short-range contact interaction between particles. Atomic species with large magnetic dipole moments, such as chromium, dysprosium, and erbium, offer unique possibilities to investigate phenomena arising from dipolar interaction. This kind of interaction is not only long-range but also anisotropic in character and imprints qualitatively novel features on the system. Prominent examples are the d-wave collapse of a dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate of chromium atoms realized by the group in Stuttgart, the spin magnetization and demagnetization dynamics observed by groups in Stuttgart, Paris, and Stanford, and the deformation of the Fermi surface observed by our group in Innsbruck. This thesis reports on the creation and study of the first Bose-Einstein condensate and degenerate Fermi gas of erbium atoms. Erbium belongs to the lanthanide group of elements and has a large magnetic moment of seven Bohr magneton. In particular, this thesis describes the experimental apparatus and the sequence for producing a dipolar quantum gas. There is an emphasis on the production of the narrow-line magneto-optical trap of erbium since this represents a very efficient and robust laser-cooling scheme that greatly simplifies the experimental procedure. After describing the experimental setup this thesis focuses on several fundamental questions related to the dipolar character of erbium and to its lanthanide nature. A first set of studies centers on the scattering properties of ultracold erbium atoms, including the elastic and the inelastic cross section and the spectrum of Feshbach resonances. Specifically, we observe that identical dipolar fermions do collide and rethermalize even at low temperatures

  14. Thermodynamics of ultracold Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimbene, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Complex Hamiltonians from condensed matter, such as the Fermi-Hubbard model, can be experimentally studied using ultracold gases. This thesis describes a new method for determining the equation of state of an ultracold gas, making the comparison with many-body theories straightforward. It is based on the measurement of the local pressure inside a trapped gas from the analysis of its in situ image. We first apply this method to the study of a Fermi gas with resonant interactions, a weakly-interacting 7 Li gas acting as a thermometer. Surprisingly, none of the existing many-body theories of the unitary gas accounts for the equation of state deduced from our study over its full range. The virial expansion extracted from the high-temperature data agrees with the resolution of the three-body problem. At low temperature, we observe, contrary to some previous studies, that the normal phase behaves as a Fermi liquid. Finally we obtain the critical temperature for superfluidity from a clear signature on the equation of state. We also measure the pressure of the ground state as a function of spin imbalance and interaction strength - measure directly relevant to describe the crust of neutron stars. Our data validate Monte-Carlo simulations and quantify the Lee-Huang-Yang corrections to mean-field interactions in low-density fermionic or bosonic superfluids. We show that, in most cases, the partially polarized normal phase can be described as a Fermi liquid of polarons. The polaron effective mass extracted from the equation of state is in agreement with a study of collective modes. (author)

  15. Rare gases in Samoan xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreda, R. J.; Farley, K. A.

    1992-09-01

    The rare gas isotopic compositions of residual harzburgite xenoliths from Savai'i (SAV locality) and an unnamed seamount south of the Samoan chain (PPT locality) provide important constraints on the rare gas evolution of the mantle and atmosphere. Despite heterogeneous trace element compositions, the rare gas characteristics of the xenoliths from each of the two localities are strikingly similar. SAV and PPT xenoliths have 3He/ 4He ratios of11.1 ± 0.5 R A and21.6 ± 1 R A, respectively; this range is comparable to the 3He/ 4He ratios in Samoan lavas and clearly demonstrates that they have trapped gases from a relatively undegassed reservoir. The neon results are not consistent with mixing between MORB and a plume source with an atmospheric signature. Rather, the neon isotopes reflect either a variably degassed mantle (with a relative order of degassing of Loihi Honda et al. that the 20Ne/ 22Ne ratio in the mantle more closely resembles the solar ratio than the atmospheric one. 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios in the least contaminated samples range from 4,000 to 12,000 with the highest values in the 22 RA PPT xenoliths. There is no evidence for atmospheric 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios in the mantle source of these samples, which indicates that the lower mantle may have 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios in excess of 5,000. Xenon isotopic anomalies in 129Xe and 136Xe are as high as 6%, or about half of the maximum MORB excess and are consistent with the less degassed nature of the Samoan mantle source. These results contradict previous suggestions that the high 3He/ 4He mantle has a near-atmospheric heavy rare gas isotopic composition.

  16. Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little consideration has been given to the environmental impact of anaesthetic gas .... our practice to select gases with a lower environmental impact is also ... is used as raw material for new anaesthetics. ... none in the pipeline.1. Conclusion.

  17. Granular Gases: Probing the Boundaries of Hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhirsch, I.

    1999-01-01

    The dissipative nature of the particle interactions in granular systems renders granular gases mesoscopic and bearing some similarities to regular gases in the ''continuum transition regime'' where shear rates and/or thermal gradients are very large). The following properties of granular gases support the above claim: (i). Mean free times are of the same order as macroscopic time scales (inverse shear rates); (ii). Mean free paths can be macroscopic and comparable to the system's dimensions; (iii). Typical flows are supersonic; (iv). Shear rates are typically ''large''; (v). Stress fields are scale (resolution) dependent; (vi). Burnett and super-Burnett corrections to both the constitutive relations and the boundary conditions are of importance; (vii). Single particle distribution functions can be far from Gaussian. It is concluded that while hydrodynamic descriptions of granular gases are relevant, they are probing the boundaries of applicability of hydrodynamics and perhaps slightly beyond

  18. Greenhouse gases - observed tendencies contra scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2006-01-01

    The article presents a study of the increase in greenhouse gases and concludes that it will be necessary to substantially reduce the CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere in order to avoid serious climatic changes

  19. Climate Change, Greenhouse Gases and Aerosols

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    their radiative properties are similar to the glass used in a green- house. Greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere absorb 90% of the radiation emitted .... and wind speed and direction in each box is calculated using the physical laws gov-.

  20. Roadside management strategies to reduce greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Californias Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006 (AB 32), Sustainable Communities and Climate Protection Act : (SB 375), and Executive Order S-14-08 direct Caltrans to develop actions to reduce greenhouse gases (GHGs). Air : pollution reduction is...

  1. Gases for an SSC muon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Datskos, P.G.; Carter, J.G.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1990-01-01

    Recent measurements of electron drift velocities as a function of the density-reduced electric field E/N are reported for a number of unitary gases and the mixtures CO 2 /CH 4 and NH 3 /CF 4 /Ar. Calculated values of the mean electron energy as a function of E/N are also reported for unitary gases and mixtures of CO 2 /CH 4 . 7 refs., 5 figs

  2. Flux Jacobian Matrices For Equilibrium Real Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Marcel

    1990-01-01

    Improved formulation includes generalized Roe average and extension to three dimensions. Flux Jacobian matrices derived for use in numerical solutions of conservation-law differential equations of inviscid flows of ideal gases extended to real gases. Real-gas formulation of these matrices retains simplifying assumptions of thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium, but adds effects of vibrational excitation, dissociation, and ionization of gas molecules via general equation of state.

  3. Pseudogap phenomena in ultracold atomic Fermi gases

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qijin; Wang, Jibiao

    2014-01-01

    The pairing and superfluid phenomena in a two-component ultracold atomic Fermi gas is an analogue of Cooper pairing and superconductivity in an electron system, in particular, the high $T_c$ superconductors. Owing to the various tunable parameters that have been made accessible experimentally in recent years, atomic Fermi gases can be explored as a prototype or quantum simulator of superconductors. It is hoped that, utilizing such an analogy, the study of atomic Fermi gases may shed light to ...

  4. Analysis of electron interactions in dielectric gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivet, Aurelio; Duque, Daniel; Vega, Lourdes F.

    2007-01-01

    We present and discuss results concerning electron interactions processes of dielectric gases and their relationship with the macroscopic behavior of these gases, in particular, with their dielectric strength. Such analysis is based on calculating energies of reactions for molecular ionization, dissociative ionization, parent negative ion formation, and dissociative electron attachment processes. We hypothesize that the estimation of the required energy for a reduced number of processes that take place in electrically stressed gases could be related to the gas' capability to manage the electron flow during an electrical discharge. All calculations were done with semiempirical quantum chemistry methods, including an initial optimization of molecular geometry and heat of formation of the dielectric gases and all of species that appear during electron interaction reactions. The performance of semiempirical methods Austin model 1 and Parametric model 3 (PM3) was compared for several compounds, PM3 being superior in most cases. Calculations performed for a sample of nine dielectric gases show that electron attachment and detachment processes occur in different energy bands that do not overlap for any value of the dielectric strength. We have also analyzed the relationship between dielectric strength and two physical properties: electron affinity and ionization energy. Calculations performed for 43 dielectric gases show no clear correlation between them, although certain guidelines for the qualitative estimation of dielectric strength can still be assessed

  5. Gases and carbon in metals. Pt. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehn, H.; Speck, H.; Hehn, W.; Fromm, E.; Hoerz, G.

    1981-01-01

    This issue is part of a series of data on 'Gases and Carbon in Metals' which supplements the data compilation in the book 'Gase und Kohlenstoff in Metallen' (Gases and Carbon in Metals), edited by E. Fromm and E. Gebhardt, Springer-Verlag, Berlin 1976. The present survey includes results from papers published after the copy deadline and recommends critically selected data. Furthermore, it comprises a bibliography of relevant literature. For each element, firstly data on binary systems are presented, starting with hydrogen and followed by carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases. Within one metal-metalloid system the data are listed under topics such as solubility, solubility limit, dissociation pressure of compounds, vapour pressure of volatile oxides, thermodynamic data, diffusion, transport parameters (effective valence, heat of transport), permeation of gases through metals, gas absorption and gas desorption kinetics, compound formation kinetics, precipitation kinetics, and property changes. Following the data on binary systems, the data of ternary systems are presented, beginning with systems which contain one metal and two gases or one gas and carbon and continuing with systems with two metals and one gas or carbon. (orig./GE)

  6. Center for Corporate Climate Leadership: Direct Fugitive Emissions from Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, Fire Suppression, and Industrial Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guidance document focuses on several fugitive emissions sources that are common for organizations in many sectors: refrigeration and air conditioningsystems, fire suppression systems, and the purchase and release of industrial gases.

  7. Experience with high-temperature filtration of incinerator flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, S.; de Tassigny, C.

    1990-01-01

    It is always preferable to filter incinerator flue gases as close as possible to their origin, i.e. in a high-temperature zone, and means must be provided to destroy the other organic parts of the flyash resulting from these gases by in-filter combustion. The filter also traps a mineral part of the flyash, which eventually causes clogging and requires replacement or regeneration. Such filtration systems are available and can be operated on an industrial scale. They include candles made of micro-expanded refractory alloys supporting filtering media, porous ceramic candles and other devices. Research and subsequent pilot facility testing have enabled development of alumina fiber filter cartridges that offer more advantages than other equipment employed to date. Specifically, these advantages are: ultralight weight, which enables construction of systems that are relatively unaffected by creep and high-temperature deformations; excellent refractory qualities, which permit a use above 1000 degrees C; insensitivity to thermal shocks and in-situ carbon fines combustion capability; anti-acid quality of the material, which enables high-temperature filtration of acidic flue gases (chlorine and hydrochloric acid, SO x , etc.); low initial pressure drop of the cartridges; dimensional stability of the cartridges, which can be machined to a given tolerance with specific contours after casting and drying. This paper reports the results obtained during the last filtration system test campaign. Details are given for operating conditions, grain sizes and real-time monitoring of various parameters

  8. Plasma processes including electron beam for off-gases purification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.; Witman, S.; Licki, J.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Non-thermal plasma technologies based on different methods of plasma generation are being applied for ozone generation for different applications, waste water and off-gases treatment. Plasmas create reactive species, in particular ions, radicals or other reactive compounds, which can decompose pollutant molecules, organic particulate matter or soot. Electron beam flue gas treatment is another plasma-based technology which has been successfully demonstrated on industrial scale coal fired power plants. High efficiency of SO 2 (> 95%) and NO x (> 70%) has been obtained and industrial plant applying this process has been built in Poland. The further investigations carried out all over the world have illustrated that the process can be applied for poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) destruction as well, and just recently research laboratories in the US and South Korea have reported in the feasibility of the process for mercury removal from the flue gas. The recent studies concern a new type of accelerators implementation in the industrial scale, application of the process in the high sulfur oil fired boilers and Diesel off - gases purification. The treatment of the flue gases with the high NOx concentration is a special challenge for the technology since the main energy consumption (and applied accelerators power) is related to this pollutant content in the processed off gases. The pulse beams and scavenger application can be a solution to reduce investment and operational costs. The further development of the technology is directly connected with high power accelerators development. Acknowledgement: The R and D activities are supported by the European Regional Development Found in the frame of the project PlasTEP 'Dissemination and fostering of plasma based technological innovation for environment protection in the Baltic Sea Region'.

  9. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility's compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement

  10. Non-Equilbrium Fermi Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-02

    understanding is the experimental verification of a new model of light-induced loss spectra, employing continuum-dressed basis states, which agrees in...and additional qualifiers separated by commas, e.g. Smith, Richard, J, Jr. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES). Self -explanatory... verification of a new model of light-induced loss spectra, employing continuum-dressed basis states, which agrees in shape and magnitude with all of our

  11. Drift and diffusion of electrons in gases: A compilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peisert, A.; Sauli, F.

    1984-01-01

    This report is organized in two sections. The first contains an elementary introduction to the theory of electron transport in gases under the action of electric and magnetic fields, and gives indications on the use of two programs to compute drift and diffusion properties of electrons in gas mixtures. The second section contains an extensive collection of experimental and computed data on electron drift velocity and diffusion, as a function of electric field; an index allows one to find the data referring to any given gas mixture. (orig.)

  12. Processes to remove acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.

    1994-09-20

    The present invention relates to a process for reducing the concentration of NO in a gas, which process comprises: (A) contacting a gas sample containing NO with a gaseous oxidizing agent to oxidize the NO to NO[sub 2]; (B) contacting the gas sample of step (A) comprising NO[sub 2] with an aqueous reagent of bisulfite/sulfite and a compound selected from urea, sulfamic acid, hydrazinium ion, hydrazoic acid, nitroaniline, sulfanilamide, sulfanilic acid, mercaptopropanoic acid, mercaptosuccinic acid, cysteine or combinations thereof at between about 0 and 100 C at a pH of between about 1 and 7 for between about 0.01 and 60 sec; and (C) optionally contacting the reaction product of step (A) with conventional chemical reagents to reduce the concentrations of the organic products of the reaction in step (B) to environmentally acceptable levels. Urea or sulfamic acid are preferred, especially sulfamic acid, and step (C) is not necessary or performed. 16 figs.

  13. Shale gases, a windfall for France?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonnac, Alain de; Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    After having recalled the definition and origin of shale gases, the different non conventional gases and their exploitation techniques (hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling) this report examines whether these gases are an opportunity for France. Some characteristics and data of the fossil and gas markets are presented and commented: world primary energy consumption, proved reserves of non conventional gases and their locations, European regions which may possess reserves of shale gases and coal-bed methane, origins of gas imports in France. The second part addresses shale gas deposits and their exploitation: discussion of the influence of the various rock parameters, evolution of production. The third part discusses the exploitation techniques and specific drilling tools. The issue of exploitation safety and security is addressed as well as the associated controversies: about the pollution of underground waters, about the fact that deep drillings result in pollution, about the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and injections of chemical products, about the hold on ground and site degradation, about water consumption, about pollution due to gas pipeline leakage, about seismic risk, about noise drawbacks, about risks for health, about exploration and production authorization and license, and about air pollution and climate. The last part addresses the French situation and its future: status of the energy bill, recommendations made by a previous government, cancellation of authorizations, etc. Other information are provided in appendix about non conventional hydrocarbons, about shale gas exploitation in the USA, and about the Lacq gas

  14. Emission of greenhouse gases from Danish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olesen, J.E.; Petersen, S.O.; Fenhann, J.V.; Andersen, J.M.; Jacobsen, B.H.

    2001-01-01

    The basis for inventories of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from Danish agriculture has been reviewed and re-evaluated. This has resulted in revised estimates for most of the sources. The revised estimates predict a decline in emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from Danish agriculture from 14.1 Mt CO 2 equivalents in 1990 to 10.6 Mt CO 2 equivalents in 2010. The new estimates give lower emission of methane (4% for 1990 and 15% for 2010), and almost unchanged emissions for nitrous oxide (1% smaller for 1990 and 3% higher for 2010) compared with previous estimates. Since nitrous oxide is a more potent greenhouse gas than methane, the revised estimates are almost identical to the old ones for 2010 when expressed as CO 2 equivalents. The old and the revised estimates give a decline in emissions in CO 2 equivalents from 1990 to 2010 of 23 and 24% respectively. For 1999 the estimated emissions of methane constituted 29% of the total emission of CO 2 equivalents in the form of methane and nitrous oxide. The contribution of nitrous oxide derived from nitrogen turnover in the field was almost 47% of the emission. All emission sources are estimated as the product of an activity and an emission factor. The estimates are associated with uncertainties in both the activities and the emission factors. The uncertainty in the activity data is rather small for most of the items, but probably somewhat larger for N fixation, grazing, and cultivation of organic soils and N leaching. The largest uncertainty is associated with the amount of crop residues, which also constitutes one of the largest contributions to the total greenhouse gas emissions. Emission factors for methane are relatively certain, whereas there are large uncertainties associated with the emission factors for nitrous oxide. This is partly due to the fact that the emission factors are based on emission data representing many different climatic conditions, soil types and crops. The large uncertainty in the

  15. Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglin, J. R.; Ketterle, W.

    2003-01-01

    The early experiments on Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic gases accomplished three longstanding goals. First, cooling of neutral atoms into their motional state, thus subjecting them to ultimate control, limited only by Heisenberg uncertainty relation. Second, creation of a coherent sample of atoms, in which all occupy the same quantum states, and the realization of atom lasers - devices that output coherent matter waves. And third, creation of gaseous quantum fluid, with properties that are different from the quantum liquids helium-3 and helium-4. The field of Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases has continued to progress rapidly, driven by the combination of new experimental techniques and theoretical advances. The family of quantum degenerate gases has grown, and now includes metastable and fermionic atoms. condensates have become an ultralow-temperature laboratory for atom optics, collisional physics and many-body physics, encompassing phonons, superfluidity, quantized vortices, Josephson junctions and quantum phase transitions. (author)

  16. Density Fluctuations in Uniform Quantum Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosse, J.; Pathak, K. N.; Singh, G. S.

    2011-01-01

    Analytical expressions are given for the static structure factor S(k) and the pair correlation function g(r) for uniform ideal Bose-Einstein and Fermi-Dirac gases for all temperatures. In the vicinity of Bose Einstein condensation (BEC) temperature, g(r) becomes long ranged and remains so in the condensed phase. In the dilute gas limit, g(r) of bosons and fermions do not coincide with Maxwell-Boltzmann gas but exhibit bunching and anti-bunching effect respectively. The width of these functions depends on the temperature and is scaled as √(inverse atomic mass). Our numerical results provide the precise quantitative values of suppression/increase (antibunching and bunching) of the density fluctuations at small distances in ideal quantum gases in qualitative agreement with the experimental observation for almost non-trapped dilute gases.

  17. Method of processing radioactive rare gase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagusagawa, Atsushi; Tuda, Kazuaki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain a safety processing method without using mechanical pumps or pressure-proof containers and, accordingly, with no risk for the leakage of radioactive rare gas. Method: A container filled with zeolige is inserted with a cover being opened into an autoclave. Meanwhile, krypton-containing gases are supplied to an adsorption tower filled with adsorbents, cooled, adsorbed and then heated to desorb adsorbed krypton. The krypton-containing gases are introduced due to the pressure difference to the autoclave thereby causing krypton to adsorb at ambient temperature to zeolite. Then, the inside of the autoclave is heated to desorb krypton and adsorbed moistures from zeolite and the pressure is elevated. After sending the gases under pressure to the adsorption tower, the zeolite-filled container is taken out from the autoclave, tightly closed and then transferred to a predetermined site. (Takahashi, M.)

  18. GREENHOUSE GASES AND MEANS OF PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušica Stojanović

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The greenhouse effect can be defined as the consequence of increased heating of the Earth's surface, as well as the lower atmosphere by carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other trace amounts gases. It is well-known that human industrial activities have released large amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, about 900 billion tons of carbon dioxide, and it is estimated that up to 450 billion are still in the atmosphere. In comparison to greenhouse gases water vapor is one of the greatest contributors to the greenhouse effect on Earth. Many projects, as does the PURGE project, have tendences to build on the already conducted research and to quantify the positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing of the population with greenhouse gas reduction strategies that are curently being implemented and should be increasingly applied in various sectors and urban areas, having offices in Europe, China and India.

  19. Dark lump excitations in superfluid Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan-Xia; Duan, Wen-Shan

    2012-11-01

    We study the linear and nonlinear properties of two-dimensional matter-wave pulses in disk-shaped superfluid Fermi gases. A Kadomtsev—Petviashvili I (KPI) solitary wave has been realized for superfluid Fermi gases in the limited cases of Bardeen—Cooper—Schrieffer (BCS) regime, Bose—Einstein condensate (BEC) regime, and unitarity regime. One-lump solution as well as one-line soliton solutions for the KPI equation are obtained, and two-line soliton solutions with the same amplitude are also studied in the limited cases. The dependence of the lump propagating velocity and the sound speed of two-dimensional superfluid Fermi gases on the interaction parameter are investigated for the limited cases of BEC and unitarity.

  20. Dark lump excitations in superfluid Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yan-Xia; Duan Wen-Shan

    2012-01-01

    We study the linear and nonlinear properties of two-dimensional matter-wave pulses in disk-shaped superfluid Fermi gases. A Kadomtsev—Petviashvili I (KPI) solitary wave has been realized for superfluid Fermi gases in the limited cases of Bardeen—Cooper—Schrieffer (BCS) regime, Bose—Einstein condensate (BEC) regime, and unitarity regime. One-lump solution as well as one-line soliton solutions for the KPI equation are obtained, and two-line soliton solutions with the same amplitude are also studied in the limited cases. The dependence of the lump propagating velocity and the sound speed of two-dimensional superfluid Fermi gases on the interaction parameter are investigated for the limited cases of BEC and unitarity

  1. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-10

    The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

  2. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ''greenhouse gases.'' Their warming capacity, called ''the greenhouse effect,'' is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth's absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available

  3. Gases and vacua handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, A H

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 1: Gases and Vacua presents three major topics, which are the fourth to sixth parts of this volume. These topics are the remarks on units of physical quantities; kinetic theory of gases and gaseous flow; and theory of vacuum diffusion pumps. The first topic aims to present concisely the significance of units of physical quantities, catering the need and interest of those who take measurements and make calculations in different fields of vacuum sciences. The technique and applications of this particular topic are also provided. The second main topic focuses sp

  4. Measuring Viscosities of Gases at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jag J.; Mall, Gerald H.; Hoshang, Chegini

    1987-01-01

    Variant of general capillary method for measuring viscosities of unknown gases based on use of thermal mass-flowmeter section for direct measurement of pressure drops. In technique, flowmeter serves dual role, providing data for determining volume flow rates and serving as well-characterized capillary-tube section for measurement of differential pressures across it. New method simple, sensitive, and adaptable for absolute or relative viscosity measurements of low-pressure gases. Suited for very complex hydrocarbon mixtures where limitations of classical theory and compositional errors make theoretical calculations less reliable.

  5. Itinerant Ferromagnetism in Ultracold Fermi Gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Itinerant ferromagnetism in cold Fermi gases with repulsive interactions is studied applying the Jastrow-Slater approximation generalized to finite polarization and temperature. For two components at zero temperature a second order transition is found at akF ≃ 0.90 compatible with QMC. Thermodyna......Itinerant ferromagnetism in cold Fermi gases with repulsive interactions is studied applying the Jastrow-Slater approximation generalized to finite polarization and temperature. For two components at zero temperature a second order transition is found at akF ≃ 0.90 compatible with QMC...

  6. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M. G. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-05-01

    This is a summary of the available limit of flammability, autoignition and burning-rate data for more than 200 combustible gases and vapors in air and other oxidants, as well as of empirical rules and graphs that can be used to predict similar data for thousands of other combustibles under a variety of environmental conditions. Spec$c data are presented on the paraffinic, unsaturated, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds, and an assortment of fuels, fuel blends, hydraulic fluids, engine oils, and miscellaneous combustible gases and vapors.

  7. Investigations into electrical discharges in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Klyarfel'D, B N

    2013-01-01

    Investigations into Electrical Discharges in Gases is a compilation of scientific articles that covers the advances in the investigation of the fundamental processes occurring in electrical discharges in gases and vapors. The book details the different aspects of the whole life cycle of an arc, which include the initiation of a discharge, its transition into an arc, the lateral spread of the arc column, and the recovery of electric strength after extinction of an arc. The text also discusses the methods for the dynamic measurement of vapor density in the vicinity of electrical discharges, alon

  8. Nanoclusters and Microparticles in Gases and Vapors

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, Boris M

    2012-01-01

    Research of processes involving Nanoclusters and Microparticleshas been developing fastin many fields of rescent research, in particular in materials science. To stay at the cutting edge of this development, a sound understanding of the processes is needed. In this work, several processes involving small particles are described, such as transport processes in gases, charging of small particles in gases, chemical processes, atom attachment and quenching of excited atomic particles on surfaces, nucleation, coagulation, coalescence and growth processes for particles and aggregates. This work pres

  9. Indoor air pollution caused by geothermal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the little-known but potentially serious indoor air quality problems that may occur where buildings are constructed on geothermal ground. The main problems are related to seepage of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, radon and other gases from soil cavities directly into indoor air through perforations in the structure. These gases present a health hazard, and hydrogen sulphide, which is particularly corrosive, may cause problems electrical and electronic systems. Counter-measures are not always effective, so developments in such areas should only be undertaken with a clear understanding of site-specific issues and their possible solutions. (author)

  10. Ultracold Dipolar Gases in Optical Lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Trefzger, C.; Menotti, C.; Capogrosso-Sansone, B.; Lewenstein, M.

    2011-01-01

    This tutorial is a theoretical work, in which we study the physics of ultra-cold dipolar bosonic gases in optical lattices. Such gases consist of bosonic atoms or molecules that interact via dipolar forces, and that are cooled below the quantum degeneracy temperature, typically in the nK range. When such a degenerate quantum gas is loaded into an optical lattice produced by standing waves of laser light, new kinds of physical phenomena occur. These systems realize then extended Hubbard-type m...

  11. Table of laser lines in gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, R; Englisch, W; Guers, K

    1980-01-01

    Numerous applications of lasers require use of specific wavelengths (gas analysis including remote sensing, Raman spectroscopy, optical pumping, laser chemistry and isotope separation). Scientists active in these fields have been compelled to search, in addition to the available, mostly obsolete, laser-line tables, the entire recent literature in order to find suitable laser transitions. Over 6100 laser transitions are presented. An additional list of the lines arranged in order of wavelength should greatly facilitate the search for a laser material that generates a specific wavelength. Further information has also been supplied by listing the pump transition for each of the FIR lines obtained with the optically pumped organic vapors. In addition to the laser lines, the operating conditions under which emission has been achieved are briefly specified at the top of the list for each active medium. The order in which the atomic laser media are listed is based on the periodic system, beginning with the noble gases, continuing with hydrogen and the alkalies to the halogens and the rare earths. The molecular laser media are arranged in order of chemical composition, beginning with the compounds of noble gases (the excimers), then other diatomic molecules, triatomic molecules, and ending with the more complex molecules of organic vapors. (WHK).

  12. Algal Biomass from Wastewater and Flue Gases as a Source of Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Lage

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Algae are without doubt the most productive photosynthetic organisms on Earth; they are highly efficient in converting CO2 and nutrients into biomass. These abilities can be exploited by culturing microalgae from wastewater and flue gases for effective wastewater reclamation. Algae are known to remove nitrogen and phosphorus as well as several organic contaminants including pharmaceuticals from wastewater. Biomass production can even be enhanced by the addition of CO2 originating from flue gases. The algal biomass can then be used as a raw material to produce bioenergy; depending on its composition, various types of biofuels such as biodiesel, biogas, bioethanol, biobutanol or biohydrogen can be obtained. However, algal biomass generated in wastewater and flue gases also contains contaminants which, if not degraded, will end up in the ashes. In this review, the current knowledge on algal biomass production in wastewater and flue gases is summarized; special focus is given to the algal capacity to remove contaminants from wastewater and flue gases, and the consequences when converting this biomass into different types of biofuels.

  13. Electron-Atom Collisions in Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2013-01-01

    Electron-atom collisions in gases are an aspect of atomic physics. Three experiments in this field employing a thyratron are described: (i) the Ramsauer-Townsend effect, (ii) the excitation and ionization potentials of xenon and (iii) the ion-electron recombination after interrupting the electric discharge.

  14. Acid dew point measurement in flue gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struschka, M.; Baumbach, G.

    1986-06-01

    The operation of modern boiler plants requires the continuous measurement of the acid dew point in flue gases. An existing measuring instrument was modified in such a way that it can determine acid dew points reliably, reproduceably and continuously. The authors present the mechanisms of the dew point formation, the dew point measuring principle, the modification and the operational results.

  15. Properties and Bibliography of GaSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Musaev, A. E. Bakhyshev, N. M. Gasanly and L. G. Musaeva . (1975). "Anisotropy of the optical constants of GaS and GaSe near the absorption edge." Sov...Phys. Semiconductors. 9 94-95 Russian ref.: Fiz. Tekh. Poluprovodn. 9 142-145 (January 1975). Akhundov, G. A., L. G. Musaeva and M. D. Khomutova

  16. Mitigation of greenhouse gases from agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Ellis, J. L.; de Klein, C. A. M.

    2013-01-01

    Models are widely used to simulate the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG). They help to identify knowledge gaps, estimate total emissions for inventories, develop mitigation options and policies, raise awareness and encourage adoption. These models vary in scale, scope and methodological approach...

  17. Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyether sulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Olcomendy, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A sample of polyether sulfone was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Animal response times were relatively short at pyrolysis temperatures of 600 to 800 C, with death occurring within 6 min. The principal toxicant appeared to be a compound other than carbon monoxide.

  18. Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaesthetic gases: environmental impact and alternatives. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... to be small when compared to gaseous emissions from industrial and agricultural sources, the actual percentage contribution to climate change is small. ... EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  19. Cold quantum gases with resonant interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, B.

    2008-01-01

    We study ultracold gases of alkali-metal atoms in the quantum degenerate regime. The interatomic interactions in these type of systems can be tuned using resonances induced by magnetic or electric fields. The tunability of the interactions, together with the possibility of confining the atoms with

  20. Teacher's Guide for Balloons and Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Joe H.; And Others

    This guide was developed to provide children with an opportunity to prepare and collect several common gases and to discover and work with some of their properties. The guide is divided into five major sections: (1) introduction, (2) materials, (3) activities, (4) balloons aloft, and (5) an appendix. The introduction provides information…

  1. Prediction of friction coefficients for gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M. F.

    1969-01-01

    Empirical relations are used for correlating laminar and turbulent friction coefficients for gases, with large variations in the physical properties, flowing through smooth tubes. These relations have been used to correlate friction coefficients for hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and air.

  2. Plant for removing radioactive rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Buzai; Kanazawa, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    The outline of the pilot plant to remove and recover radioactive rare gases generated from nuclear power plants, reprocessing installations for nuclear fuel, nuclear research installations, etc. is described below. Among the studies of various processes such as liquefaction and distillation, absorption into solvents, active carbon adsorption, diaphragm method, etc., the liquefaction and distillation process by rectification at low temperature has been positively developed. It is in the stage of practical application for removing rare gases in waste gases from reprocessing and nuclear power plants. This is the process with high safety and excellent rare gas removing capability. Further research and development have been also made for selective adsorption and desorption method at low temperature which is very efficient as there is no release of long life nuclides such as Krypton-85. Rare gases recovered by the above mentioned removal systems must be stored safely for a long time as their half lives are long and specific radioactivities are high. The study has been made continuously on the storage methods including adsorption in cylinders and remotely automatically sealing storing system. (Kobatake, H.)

  3. Biogenic, biomass and biofuel sources of trace gases in southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Otter, LB

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic processes in southern African savannas are estimated to produce 1.0 Tg NO yr(-1), 44.2-87.8 Tg C yr(-1) as non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and to consume 0.23 Tg CH4 yr(-1). Floodplains and wetlands in southern Africa are estimated...

  4. Water-immiscible solvents for the biological treatment of waste gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cesario, M.T.

    1997-01-01

    In conventional biological systems for the treatment of waste gases, contaminants are transferred directly to the aqueous phase and then converted by the micro-organisms. When poorly water-soluble pollutants are to be removed, biological degradation is often limited by the slow transport

  5. Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility's compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document

  6. Aerobic Food Waste Composting: Measurement of Green House Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J.

    2016-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are a major cause of global warming. While food waste composting can reduce the amount of waste being sent to traditional landfills, it also produces GHGs during the process. The objective of this research is to evaluate the GHGs emitted from an aerobic food composting machine, which is used in ISF. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy is a private independent school in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 students. Each academic year, the school produces 27 metric tons of food waste. In November 2013, the school installed a food waste composting system. Over the past 3 years, various improvements, such as installing a bio-filter to reduce the smell of the compost, have been made to the composting process. Meanwhile the compost is used by the primary students, as part of their experiential learning curriculum and organic farming projects. The composting process employs two machines: the Dehydra and A900 Rocket. The Dehydra reduces the mass of the food waste by separating the ground food waste and excessive water. The A900 Rocket, a composter made by Tidy Planet, processes food waste into compost in 14 days. This machine runs in an aerobic process, in which oxygen is used as an input gas and gases, such as carbon dioxide, are released. Carbon Dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research focuses on GHGs that are emitted from the A900 Rocket. The data is collected by the Gasmet DX 4015, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) multi gas analyser. This equipment measures the concentration (ppm) of different GHGs, including N2O, CO2, CH4, NH3 and CO.

  7. Seasonal variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the Paris megacity (France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baudic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of air quality studies at the megacity scale, highly time-resolved volatile organic compound (C2–C8 measurements were performed in downtown Paris (urban background sites from January to November 2010. This unique dataset included non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs and aromatic/oxygenated species (OVOCs measured by a GC-FID (gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector and a PTR-MS (proton transfer reaction – mass spectrometer, respectively. This study presents the seasonal variability of atmospheric VOCs being monitored in the French megacity and their various associated emission sources. Clear seasonal and diurnal patterns differed from one VOC to another as the result of their different origins and the influence of environmental parameters (solar radiation, temperature. Source apportionment (SA was comprehensively conducted using a multivariate mathematical receptor modeling. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization tool (US EPA, PMF was used to apportion and quantify ambient VOC concentrations into six different sources. The modeled source profiles were identified from near-field observations (measurements from three distinct emission sources: inside a highway tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue, hence with a specific focus on road traffic, wood-burning activities and natural gas emissions and hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The reconstructed VOC sources were cross validated using independent tracers such as inorganic gases (NO, NO2, CO, black carbon (BC and meteorological data (temperature. The largest contributors to the predicted VOC concentrations were traffic-related activities (including motor vehicle exhaust, 15 % of the total mass on the annual average, and evaporative sources, 10 %, with the remaining emissions from natural gas and background (23 %, solvent use (20 %, wood-burning (18 % and a biogenic source (15 %. An

  8. Purification of burned gases of domestic wastes; Moderna purificacion de gases quemados de las basuras domesticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, J.; Buttman, P.; Johansson, T.

    1997-09-01

    The author presents the technology to reduce the emission from the burned gases purification of domestic wastes combustion. The technology was demonstrated in Hobec, Denmark, and developed in Germany. (Author)

  9. Reversal of Long-Term Trends in Ethane Identified from the Global Atmosphere Watch Reactive Gases Measurement Network

    OpenAIRE

    Helmig, Detlev; Buchmann, Brigitte; Carpenter, Lucy; Claude, Anja; Emmons, Louisa; Flocke, Frank; Franco, Bruno; Galbally, Ian; Hannigan, James; Hueber, Jacques; Koide, Hiroshi; Lewis, Alastair; Masarie, Ken; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Montzka, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Reactive gases play an important role in climate and air pollution issues. They control the self-cleansing capability of the troposphere, contribute to air pollution and acid deposition, regulate the lifetimes and provide tracers for deciphering sources and sinks for greenhouse gases. Within GAW, the focus is placed on long-term, high-quality observations of ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), volatile organic compounds (VOC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). More than 100 stati...

  10. VolcanoGasML: a format to exchange geochemical volcanic gases data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Reiter

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analyses of volcanic gases consist of: location of sampling, date of sampling, identification of the sampling, etc. Nowadays, these data are generally represented in different formats. All of these formats are inflexible and machine dependent. XML has become the most important method of transferring data between computers. VolcanoGasML is a new format, based on XML, for the chemical analyses of volcanic gases. Its definition is divided into several layers: the first one describes the general information concerning the sample, the second, which is organized in several sublayers, contains the chemical data.

  11. Environmental Isotope Characteristics of Landfill Leachates and Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Keith C.; Liu, Chao-Li; Coleman, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    The isotopic characteristics of municipal landfill leachate and gases (carbon dioxide and methane) are unique relative to the aqueous and gaseous media in most other natural geologic environments. The ??13 C of the CO2 in landfills is significantly enriched in 13C, with values as high as +20??? reported. The ?? 13C and ??D values of the methane fall within a range of values representative of microbial methane produced primarily by the acetate-fermentation process. The ??D of landfill leachate is strongly enriched in deuterium, by approximately 30??? to nearly 60??? relative to local average precipitation values. This deuterium enrichment is undoubtedly due to the extensive production of microbial methane within the limited reservoir of a landfill. The concentration of the radiogenic isotopes, 14C and 3H, are significantly elevated in both landfill leachate and methane. The 14C values range between approximately 120 and 170 pMC and can be explained by the input of organic material that was affected by the increased 14C content of atmospheric CO2 caused by atmospheric testing of nuclear devices. The tritium measured in leachate, however, is often too high to be explained by previous atmospheric levels and must come from material buried within the landfill. The unique isotopic characteristics observed in landfill leachates and gases provide a very useful technique for confirming whether contamination is from a municipal landfill or some other local source.

  12. Quantum degenerate atomic gases in controlled optical lattice potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemelke, Nathan D.

    2007-12-01

    Since the achievement of Bose Einstein condensation in cold atomic gases, mean-field treatments of the condensed phase have provided an excellent description for the static and dynamic properties observed in experiments. Recent experimental efforts have focused on studying deviations from mean-field behavior. I will describe work on two experiments which introduce controlled single particle degeneracies with time-dependent optical potentials, aiming to induce correlated motion and nontrivial statistics in the gas. In the first experiment, an optical lattice with locally rotating site potentials is produced to investigate fractional quantum Hall effects (FQHE) in rotating Bose gases. Here, the necessary gauge potential is provided by the rotating reference frame of the gas, which, in direct analogy to the electronic system, organizes single particle states into degenerate Landau levels. At low temperatures the repulsive interaction provided by elastic scattering is expected to produce ground states with structure nearly identical to those in the FQHE. I will discuss how these effects are made experimentally feasible by working at small particle numbers in the tight trapping potentials of an optical lattice, and present first results on the use of photoassociation to probe correlation in this system. In the second experiment, a vibrated optical lattice potential alters the single-particle dispersion underlying a condensed Bose gas and offers tailored phase-matching for nonlinear atom optical processes. I will demonstrate how this leads to parametric instability in the condensed gas, and draw analogy to an optical parametric oscillator operating above threshold.

  13. EVALUATION OF SIGNIFICANT ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES OF RADIATIVELY IMPORTANT TRACE GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report is an initial evaluation of significant anthropogenic sources of radiatively important trace gases. missions of greenhouse gases from human activities--including fossil fuel combustion, industrial/agricultural activities, and transportation--contribute to the increasin...

  14. 75 FR 57669 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends the Final Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule to require reporters... Numbers GHG greenhouse gas GHGRP Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program HCFC hydrochlorofluorocarbon HFC...

  15. Geodesics in thermodynamic state spaces of quantum gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, H.; Obata, T.; Hara, H.

    2002-01-01

    The geodesics for ideal quantum gases are numerically studied. We show that 30 ideal quantum state is connected to an ideal classical state by geodesics and that the bundle of geodesics for Bose gases have a tendency of convergence

  16. Multidisciplinary strategy to reduce errors with the use of medical gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor-García, Miguel Ángel; Ibáñez-García, Sara; Díaz-Redondo, Alicia; Herranz Alonso, Ana; Sanjurjo Sáez, María

    2018-05-01

    Lack of awareness of the risks associated with the use of medical  gases amongst health professionals and health organizations is concerning. The  objective of this study is to redefine the use process of medical gases in a  hospital setting. A sentinel event took place in a clinical unit, the incorrect administration of a medical gas to an inpatient. A multidisciplinary  causeroot analysis of the sentinel event was carried out. Different improvement points were identified for each error detected and so we defined a  good strategy to ensure the safe use of these drugs. 9 errors were identified and the following improvement actions were  defined: storage (gases of clinical use were separated from those of industrial  use and proper identification signs were placed), prescription (6 protocols were  included in the hospital´s Computerized Physician Order Entry software),  validation (pharmacist validation of the prescription to ensure appropriate use of  these), dispensation (a new protocol for medical gases dispensation and  transportation was designed and implemented) and administration (information  on the pressure gauges used for each type of gas was collected and reviewed).  72 Signs with recommendations for medical gases identification and  administration were placed in all the clinical units. Specific training on the safe  use of medical gases and general safety training was imparted. The implementation of a process that integrates all phases of use  of medical gases and applies to all professionals involved is presented here as a  strategy to increase safety in the use of these medicines. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  17. Radiolytic generation of gases in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramshesh, V.; Venkateswarlu, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Water or heavy water is used in different circuits in a reactor. Their most common use is as a moderator and/or as a coolant. Light water is used at other places such as in end shield, calandria vault etc., In the process they are exposed to intense ionizing radiation and undergo radiolytic degradation. The molecular produts of radiolysis are hydrogen, hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. As is commonly known if hydrogen is formed beyond a certain level, in the presence of oxygen it may lead to combustion or even explosion. Thus one should comprehend the basic principles of radiolysis and see whether the concentration of these gases under various conditions can be worked out. This report attempts to analyse in depth the radiolytic generation of gases in reactor systems. (author). 3 tabs

  18. Simulation of diffusion in concentrated lattice gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehr, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recently the diffusion of particles in lattice gases was studied extensively by theoretical methods and numerical simulations. This paper reviews work on collective and, in particular, on tracer diffusion. The diffusion of tagged particles is characterized by a correlation factor whose behavior as a function of concentration is now well understood. Also the detailed kinetics of the tracer transitions was investigated. A special case is the one-dimensional lattice gas where the tracer diffusion coefficient vanishes. An interesting extension is the case of tagged atoms with a different transition rate. This model allows to study various physical situations, including impurity diffusion, percolation, and diffusion in partially blocked lattices. Finally some recent work on diffusion in lattice gases under the influence of a drift field will be reported. (author)

  19. Functional renormalization and ultracold quantum gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Modern techniques from quantum field theory are applied in this work to the description of ultracold quantum gases. This leads to a unified description of many phenomena including superfluidity for bosons and fermions, classical and quantum phase transitions, different dimensions, thermodynamic properties and few-body phenomena as bound state formation or the Efimov effect. The non-perturbative treatment with renormalization group flow equations can account for all known limiting cases by solving one single equation. It improves previous results quantitatively and brings qualitatively new insights. As an example, new quantum phase transitions are found for fermions with three spin states. Ultracold atomic gases can be seen as an interesting model for features of high energy physics and for condensed matter theory. The research reported in this thesis helps to solve the difficult complexity problem in modern theoretical physics. (orig.)

  20. Properties of quantum self-gravitating gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantseva, E.N.

    1981-01-01

    Ways of development of the quantum field theory in the general relativity theory are under consideration. A direction, where consideration of quantum fields in strong nonstatic gravitational fields leads to such effects as particle production, is found out. Authors managed to explain properties of quantum self-gravitating gases on the base of an expansion the fugacity in power series for bose- and fermi gases. Expressions for fluctuations in statistical models of the Fridmann universe are presented. The spectrum density of relict neutrinos in Fridmann models is calculated. A characteristic low boundary of the neutrino energy spectrum constitutes 1 MeV. A number of neutrinos with such energies practically is equal to zero. A great number of neutrinos has energies 0 . It is precisely these neurinos, which are responsible for the closed state of the universe according to the built up model

  1. Detecting Friedel oscillations in ultracold Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Keno; Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2017-09-01

    Investigating Friedel oscillations in ultracold gases would complement the studies performed on solid state samples with scanning-tunneling microscopes. In atomic quantum gases interactions and external potentials can be tuned freely and the inherently slower dynamics allow to access non-equilibrium dynamics following a potential or interaction quench. Here, we examine how Friedel oscillations can be observed in current ultracold gas experiments under realistic conditions. To this aim we numerically calculate the amplitude of the Friedel oscillations which are induced by a potential barrier in a 1D Fermi gas and compare it to the expected atomic and photonic shot noise in a density measurement. We find that to detect Friedel oscillations the signal from several thousand one-dimensional systems has to be averaged. However, as up to 100 parallel one-dimensional systems can be prepared in a single run with present experiments, averaging over about 100 images is sufficient.

  2. Two-Dimensional Homogeneous Fermi Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Klaus; Luick, Niclas; Sobirey, Lennart; Siegl, Jonas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2018-02-01

    We report on the experimental realization of homogeneous two-dimensional (2D) Fermi gases trapped in a box potential. In contrast to harmonically trapped gases, these homogeneous 2D systems are ideally suited to probe local as well as nonlocal properties of strongly interacting many-body systems. As a first benchmark experiment, we use a local probe to measure the density of a noninteracting 2D Fermi gas as a function of the chemical potential and find excellent agreement with the corresponding equation of state. We then perform matter wave focusing to extract the momentum distribution of the system and directly observe Pauli blocking in a near unity occupation of momentum states. Finally, we measure the momentum distribution of an interacting homogeneous 2D gas in the crossover between attractively interacting fermions and bosonic dimers.

  3. Comparing greenhouse gases for policy purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalensee, R.

    1993-01-01

    In order to derive optimal policies for greenhouse gas emissions control, the discounted marginal damages of emissions from different gases must be compared. The greenhouse warming potential (GWP) index, which is most often used to compare greenhouse gases, is not based on such a damage comparison. This essay presents assumptions under which ratios of gas-specific discounted marginal damages reduce to ratios of discounted marginal contributions to radiative forcing, where the discount rate is the difference between the discount rate relevant to climate-related damages and the rate of growth of marginal climate-related damages over time. If there are important gas-specific costs or benefits not tied to radiative forcing, however, such as direct effects of carbon dioxide on plant growth, there is in general no shortcut around explicit comparison of discounted net marginal damages. 16 refs

  4. Oxygen partial pressure sensor for gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, J.A.; Azcona, M.A.; Orce, A.

    1997-01-01

    Precise measurement of very low oxygen partial pressure is important in both laboratories and industries. Particularly in nuclear industry, it is relevant in the different steps of the nuclear fuel fabrication. It is presented an instrument which is handy and of easy construction, suitable for the measurement of oxygen partial pressure of gases, in the range of 10 -6 -1 atm. It is based on a solid electrolyte galvanic cell, using Yttria doped zirconia as a ceramic membrane. Through an indirect measurement and calibration, the instrument can be used to measure the content of free oxygen in liquids. It is a import feature in NPP instrumentation. The equipment was calibrated with mixtures of special nonreactive gases. (author). 5 refs

  5. Oxygen partial pressure sensor for gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, J.A.; Azcona, M.A.; Orce, A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche

    1997-10-01

    Precise measurement of very low oxygen partial pressure is important in both laboratories and industries. Particularly in nuclear industry, it is relevant in the different steps of the nuclear fuel fabrication. It is presented an instrument which is handy and of easy construction, suitable for the measurement of oxygen partial pressure of gases, in the range of 10{sup -6}-1 atm. It is based on a solid electrolyte galvanic cell, using Yttria doped zirconia as a ceramic membrane. Through an indirect measurement and calibration, the instrument can be used to measure the content of free oxygen in liquids. It is a import feature in NPP instrumentation. The equipment was calibrated with mixtures of special nonreactive gases. (author). 5 refs.

  6. Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turick, C.E.

    1997-06-10

    A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

  7. Role of buffer gases in optoacoustic spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas III, L.J.; Kelly, M.J.; Amer, N.M.

    1978-01-01

    The dependence of an acoustically resonant optoacoustic signal on the molecular weight and thermodynamic and transport properpties of the buffer gas is reported. Our results show that careful selection of such gases can significantly increase the sensitivity and flexibility of optoacoustic spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that such thermodynamic quantities as γ (equivalentC/sub p//C/sub v/) and sound velocity can now be measured readily and accurately. Other potential applications are suggested

  8. Splitting of inviscid fluxes for real gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Meng-Sing; Van Leer, Bram; Shuen, Jian-Shun

    1990-01-01

    Flux-vector and flux-difference splittings for the inviscid terms of the compressible flow equations are derived under the assumption of a general equation of state for a real gas in equilibrium. No necessary assumptions, approximations for auxiliary quantities are introduced. The formulas derived include several particular cases known for ideal gases and readily apply to curvilinear coordinates. Applications of the formulas in a TVD algorithm to one-dimensional shock-tube and nozzle problems show their quality and robustness.

  9. The Osher scheme for real gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Ambady; Liou, Meng-Sing

    1990-01-01

    An extension of Osher's approximate Riemann solver to include gases with an arbitrary equation of state is presented. By a judicious choice of thermodynamic variables, the Riemann invariats are reduced to quadratures which are then approximated numerically. The extension is rigorous and does not involve any further assumptions or approximations over the ideal gas case. Numerical results are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and accuracy of the proposed method.

  10. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-12-30

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  11. Paschen's law studies in cold gases

    OpenAIRE

    Massarczyk, R.; Chu, P.; Elliott, S. R.; Rielage, K.; Dugger, C.; Xu, W.

    2016-01-01

    The break-through voltage over small gaps has been investigated for differing gap distances, gas pressures, and gas temperatures in nitrogen, neon, argon and xenon gases. A deviation from Paschen's law at micro gap distances has been found. The breakthrough behavior of the fill gas in colder environments was tested as well. A significant shift of the curve relative to the results at room temperature was observed. The results can be explained by combining Paschen's law and the ideal gas law.

  12. Paschen's law studies in cold gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massarczyk, R.; Chu, P.; Dugger, C.; Elliott, S. R.; Rielage, K.; Xu, W.

    2017-06-01

    The break-through voltage behavior over small gaps has been investigated for differing gap distances, gas pressures, and gas temperatures in nitrogen, neon, argon and xenon gases. A deviation from Paschen's law at micro gap distances has been found. At lower temperatures, a significant shift of the curve relative to the results at room temperature was observed. This behavior can be explained by combining Paschen's law and the ideal gas law.

  13. Paschen's law studies in cold gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massarczyk, R.; Chu, P.; Elliott, S.R.; Rielage, K.; Xu, W.; Dugger, C.

    2017-01-01

    The break-through voltage behavior over small gaps has been investigated for differing gap distances, gas pressures, and gas temperatures in nitrogen, neon, argon and xenon gases. A deviation from Paschen's law at micro gap distances has been found. At lower temperatures, a significant shift of the curve relative to the results at room temperature was observed. This behavior can be explained by combining Paschen's law and the ideal gas law.

  14. The effects of spin in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laloee, F.; Freed, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Low-density gases, in which atoms are separated by large distances, have long provided an enjoyable playground for physicists. One might suppose the pleasure of the playground would by now have been exhausted by the very simplicity of low-density gases. Recent work by a number of investigators including the author shows that this is not the case low-density gases continue to serve up a rich variety of phenomena as well as counterintuitive surprises. In particular, the macroscopic properties of a gas composed of individual hydrogen or helium atoms can under special circumstances by changed dramatically by quantum-mechanical effects. According to quantum theory, the nucleus of an atom behaves in a way similar to a rotating top, which has angular momentum about its axis of rotation; that is, the nucleus has spin, known more precisely as spin angular momentum. If the atoms of a gas are spin-polarized, so that their nuclei all have their spins pointing in the same direction, the viscosity of the gas can be changed enormously and so can its ability to conduct heat. Quantum-mechanical correlations among the nuclei called spin waves, which up to now had been observed only in certain liquids and solids such as magnets, can also arise. The changes are large enough for one to say the quantum-mechanical effects have caused the gas to take on entirely new properties. In a certain sense it is amazing to think that polarizing the nuclear spins can have any effect on the macroscopic properties of the gas, since the nuclear spins are son weakly coupled to the outside world. Yet the observations are in full agreement with with theory. Moreover, because spin-polarized gases are still fairly simple systems, they can be understood in terms fundamental principles, something that is still not possible to do in the case of liquids and solids

  15. How to wrap up radioactive gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C

    1982-04-01

    Operating nuclear power stations produces not only solid waste. Not so well known - but they should by no means be ignored - are the radioactive gases released during fission which somehow have to be retained and 'packaged'. Gas cylinders, such as those used for oxygen or compressed air, are unsuitable for this purpose. Ingenious chemical tricks have been thought up to press the gas - especially crypton-85 - into plastic material in which it remains captured right down to its molecular structure.

  16. Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelby, James E.; Kenyon, Brian E.

    2001-05-15

    A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

  17. Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulstad, Johan Greger

    2001-01-01

    Agreements on emission of greenhouse gases is one of the instruments used by Norwegian authorities to meet their obligations with respect to the Climate Convention and the Kyoto Protocol. This book discusses the legal issues raised by these agreements. A main topic is how the industrial emissions conform to the Pollution Act. Does the Pollution Act apply to these emissions? What is the impact of the sanction rules in this act on the emissions? The book also deals with the following general questions that arise in connection with the application of public authority: (1) Can the administration grant concessions and permits in the form of agreements? (2) What commitments can be imposed on a private party by the administration by agreement? (3) Should the procedures set down in the Pollution Act and in the Public Administration Act be followed fully when the pollution authorities make agreements? Is the opportunity of the administration to reverse more restricted when they make agreements than when they make one-sided decisions? Although this discussion primarily deals with the emission of greenhouse gases, the reasoning and conclusions are relevant in many other types of agreements in which the public administration is one of the parties. The agreement that regulates the emissions of greenhouse gases from the Norwegian aluminium industry is described in a special section. The book also gives a brief account of how agreements are used in the Danish climate policy

  18. Diffusion coefficients gases, dissolved in fluid of NPPs circulation contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piontkovskij, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    In article is brought analysis of diverse gases diffusion coefficients computation methods, dissolved in liquid. On the basis of this analysis and treatment of being equalizations for concrete gases and certain parameters offers universal diffusion coefficients determination dependence for diverse gases in wide range of parameters, circulation contours typical for work NPP

  19. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322... quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of noxious or poisonous gases, other than carbon dioxide, shall... Governmental Industrial Hygienists in “Threshold Limit Values for Substance in Workroom Air” (1972). Detectors...

  20. 76 FR 73885 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 229 / Tuesday... 98 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0147; FRL-9493-9] RIN 2060-AQ85 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY... the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule to correct certain technical and editorial errors...

  1. 76 FR 47391 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 150 / Thursday...-HQ-OAR-2011-0147; FRL-9443-1] RIN 2060-AQ85 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY... provisions in the Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Rule to correct certain technical and editorial...

  2. Thermodynamics of Quantum Gases for the Entire Range of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Shyamal; Jana, Debnarayan

    2012-01-01

    We have analytically explored the thermodynamics of free Bose and Fermi gases for the entire range of temperature, and have extended the same for harmonically trapped cases. We have obtained approximate chemical potentials for the quantum gases in closed forms of temperature so that the thermodynamic properties of the quantum gases become…

  3. High accuracy Primary Reference gas Mixtures for high-impact greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenkamp, Gerard; Zalewska, Ewelina; Pearce-Hill, Ruth; Brewer, Paul; Resner, Kate; Mace, Tatiana; Tarhan, Tanil; Zellweger, Christophe; Mohn, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    Climate change, due to increased man-made emissions of greenhouse gases, poses one of the greatest risks to society worldwide. High-impact greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) and indirect drivers for global warming (e.g. CO) are measured by the global monitoring stations for greenhouse gases, operated and organized by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Reference gases for the calibration of analyzers have to meet very challenging low level of measurement uncertainty to comply with the Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) set by the WMO. Within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), a project to improve the metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases was granted (HIGHGAS, June 2014-May 2017). As a result of the HIGHGAS project, primary reference gas mixtures in cylinders for ambient levels of CO2, CH4, N2O and CO in air have been prepared with unprecedented low uncertainties, typically 3-10 times lower than usually previously achieved by the NMIs. To accomplish these low uncertainties in the reference standards, a number of preparation and analysis steps have been studied and improved. The purity analysis of the parent gases had to be performed with lower detection limits than previously achievable. E.g., to achieve an uncertainty of 2•10-9 mol/mol (absolute) on the amount fraction for N2O, the detection limit for the N2O analysis in the parent gases has to be in the sub nmol/mol domain. Results of an OPO-CRDS analyzer set-up in the 5µm wavelength domain, with a 200•10-12 mol/mol detection limit for N2O, will be presented. The adsorption effects of greenhouse gas components at cylinder surfaces are critical, and have been studied for different cylinder passivation techniques. Results of a two-year stability study will be presented. The fit-for-purpose of the reference materials was studied for possible variation on isotopic composition between the reference material and the sample. Measurement results for a suit of CO2 in air

  4. Biological processes for mitigation of greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, John R. [California Univ., Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Biological processes driven by photosynthesis cycle through the atmosphere well over an order of magnitude more CO{sub 2} than is currently emitted from the combustion of fossils fuels. Already human activities control and appropriate almost half the primary photosynthetic productivity of the planet. Better management of natural and man-made ecosystems affords many opportunities for mitigation of greenhouse gases, through sink enhancements, source reduction and substitution of fossil fuels with biofuels. Biofuels can be recovered from most organic wastes, from agricultural and forestry residues, and from biomass produced solely for energy use. However, the currently low costs of fossil fuels limits the market for biofuels. Accounting for the greenhouse mitigation value of biofuels would significantly increase their contribution to world fuel suppliers, estimated to be currently equivalent to about 15% of fossil fuel usage. Another limiting factor in expanding the use of biofuels is the relatively low solar energy conversion efficiencies of photosynthesis. Currently well below 1% of solar energy is converted into biomass energy even by intensive agricultural or forestry systems, with peak conversion efficiencies about 2 to 3% for sugar cane or microalgae cultures. One approach to increase photosynthetic efficiencies, being developed at the University of California Berkeley, is to reduce the amount of light-gathering chlorophyll in microalgae and higher plants. This would reduce mutual shading and also increase photosynthetic efficiencies under full sunlight intensities. Estimates of the potential of photosynthetic greenhouse mitigation processes vary widely. However, even conservative estimates for biofuels substituting for fossil fuels project the potential to reduce a large fraction of current increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels. Biofuels production will require integration with existing agronomic, forestry and animal husbandry systems, and improved

  5. The technology available for more efficient combustion of waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, J.

    1999-01-01

    Alternative combustion technologies for open flare systems are discussed, stressing their advantages and limitations while meeting the fundamental requirements of personnel and plant safety, high destruction efficiencies, environmental parameters and industrial reliability. The use of BACT (Best Available Control Technologies) is dependent on the destruction efficiency of waste gas defined by regulatory agencies or industrial leaders. Enclosed vapour combustors and high destruction efficiency thermal oxidation are two of the technologies which result in more efficient combustion of waste gases. There are several conditions that should be considered when choosing combustion equipment for the disposal of waste gas. These include volatile organic compounds content, lower heating value, the composition of the waste gas, the specified combustion efficiency, design flow rates, smokeless operation, operating conditions, ground level radiation, SO 2 dispersion, environmental and social expectations, and economic limitation. 10 figs

  6. Emission of Gases during Composting of Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Kučić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a biochemical process converting organic components into stable compost with release of heat, water, CO2 and NH3. The objective of this work was to determine the amount of CO2 and NH3 in the exhaust gases during composting of tobacco waste (TW and mixture of tobacco and grape waste (TGW. The cumulative evolved CO2 during 21 days of composting of TW and TGW, per mass of volatile matter, was 94.01 g kg−1 and 208.18 g kg−1, respectively, and cumulative evolved NH3 during composting of TW and TGW, per mass of volatile matter, was 504.81 mg kg−1 and 122.45 mg kg−1, respectively.

  7. Kinetic theory of nonideal gases and nonideal plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Klimontovich, Yu L

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic Theory of Nonideal Gases and Nonideal Plasmas presents the fundamental aspects of the kinetic theory of gases and plasmas. The book consists of three parts, which attempts to present some of the ideas, methods and applications in the study of the kinetic processes in nonideal gases and plasmas. The first part focuses on the classical kinetic theory of nonideal gases. The second part discusses the classical kinetic theory of fully ionized plasmas. The last part is devoted to the quantum kinetic theory of nonideal gases and plasmas. A concluding chapter is included, which presents a shor

  8. Evaluation of emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramasivam, S; Fortenberry, Gamola Z; Julius, Afolabi; Sajwan, Kenneth S; Alva, A K

    2008-02-01

    (FDA) and most probable number (MPN) procedure at the end of 25-d incubation demonstrated a clear relationship between microbial activity and the emission of gases. The results of this study emphasize the need to consider the emission of greenhouse gases from soils amended with organic soil amendments such as sewage sludge, especially at high rates, and their potential contribution to global warming.

  9. Irradiation technologies used for combustion gases and diluted sulfurous gases decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Z, Loreto

    1998-01-01

    A brief description of irradiation technology used for ambient decontamination is presented here. The system is adequate fort gas and liquid effluents and solid wastes. In particular, the characteristics and applications of the irradiation done with an electron beam to gas effluent is described, mainly to clean combustion gases and other industrial gases containing sulfur and nitrogen oxides, S O x and N O x , respectively. This technology permits the remove of these contaminants and the acquisition of a solid byproduct, an ammonia sulfate-nitrate, apt for fertilizer applications. (author)

  10. Diffusive retention of atmospheric gases in chert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettitt, E.; Cherniak, D. J.; Watson, E. B.; Schaller, M. F.

    2016-12-01

    Throughout Earth's history, the volatile contents (N2, CO2, Ar) of both deep and shallow terrestrial reservoirs has been dynamic. Volatiles are important chemical constituents because they play a significant role in regulating Earth's climate, mediating the evolution of complex life, and controlling the properties of minerals and rocks. Estimating levels of atmospheric volatiles in the deep geological past requires interrogation of materials that have acquired and retained a chemical memory from that time. Cherts have the potential to trap atmospheric components during formation and later release those gases for analysis in the laboratory. However, cherts have been underexploited in this regard, partly because their ability to retain a record of volatile components has not been adequately evaluated. Before cherts can be reliably used as indicators of past levels of major atmospheric gases, it is crucial that we understand the diffusive retentiveness of these cryptocrystalline silica phases. As the first step toward quantifying the diffusivity and solubility of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in chert, we have performed 1-atmosphere diffusive-uptake experiments at temperatures up to 450°C. Depth profiles of in-diffusing gases are measured by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) to help us understand the molecular-scale transport of volatiles and thus the validity of using chert-bound volatiles to record information about Earth history. Data collected to date suggest that at least some cherts are ideal storage containers and can retain volatiles for a geologically long time. In addition to these diffusion experiments, preliminary online-crush fast-scan measurements using a quadrupole mass spectrometer indicate that atmospheric volatiles are released upon crushing various chert samples. By coupling such volatile-release measurements made by mass spectrometry with diffusion experiments, we are uniquely able to address the storage and fidelity of volatiles bound in crustal

  11. Method for detecting trace impurities in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, S.M.; Maier, W.B. II; Holland, R.F.; Beattie, W.H.

    A technique for considerably improving the sensitivity and specificity of infrared spectrometry as applied to quantitative determination of trace impurities in various carrier or solvent gases is presented. A gas to be examined for impurities is liquefied and infrared absorption spectra of the liquid are obtained. Spectral simplification and number densities of impurities in the optical path are substantially higher than are obtainable in similar gas-phase analyses. Carbon dioxide impurity (approx. 2 ppM) present in commercial Xe and ppM levels of Freon 12 and vinyl chloride added to liquefied air are used to illustrate the method.

  12. Positron scattering from noble gases future prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, A C L; Caradonna, P; Makochekanwa, C; Slaughter, D S; Sullivan, J P; Buckman, S J [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia); Mitroy, J, E-mail: acj107@rsphysse.anu.edu.a [Faculty of Education Health and Science, Charles Darwin University, NT (Australia)

    2009-11-01

    Recent results for positron scattering from noble gases over an energy range from 0.5 to 60eV are presented. Measurements include the grand total ({sigma}{sub GT}), Ps formation ({sigma}{sub Ps}) and Grand total - Ps formation (({sigma}{sub GT}-P{sub s}) cross sections. Some preliminary DCS results will also be presented. Work on a formulation of modified effective range theory (MERT) is being undertaken to determine the value of the scattering length which may be useful for identifying a bound state. Plans for experiments on metal atoms will be outlined.

  13. Characteristic of combustion of Colombian gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil B, Edison; Maya, Ruben; Andres, Amel A.

    1996-01-01

    The variety of gas locations in the country, makes that the gas that will be distributed by the net of present gas pipeline a very different composition, what bears to that these they behave in a different way during its use. In this work the main characteristics of the combustion are calculated for the Colombian gases, basically the properties of the combustion and the characteristics of the smoke, as basic information for the design and operation of the gas teams and their certification. These properties were calculated with the special help software for combustion developed by the authors

  14. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Matsunaga

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  15. Gases and vacua handbook of vacuum physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, A H

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Vacuum Physics, Volume 1: Gases and Vacua provides information on the many aspects of vacuum technology, from material on the quantum theoretical aspects of the complex semi-conductors used for thermionic and photo-electric emission to data on the performance of commercially available pumps, gauges, and high-vacuum materials. The handbook satisfies the need of workers using vacuum apparatuses or works on the diverse applications of high-vacuum technology in research and industry. The book is a compilation of long articles prepared by experts in vacuum technology. Sufficient theoret

  16. Mean free path in soccer and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzuriaga, J, E-mail: luzuriag@cab.cnea.gov.a [Centro Atomico Bariloche - CNEA, Instituto Balseiro UNC (8400), Bariloche (Argentina)

    2010-09-15

    The trajectories of the molecules in an ideal gas and of the ball in a soccer game are compared. The great difference between these motions and some similarities are discussed. This example could be suitable for discussing many concepts in kinetic theory in a way that can be pictured by students for getting a more intuitive understanding. It could be suitable for an introductory course in vacuum techniques or undergraduate courses in kinetic theory of gases. Without going into the slightly harder quantitative results, the analysis presented might be used for introducing some ideas of kinetic theory qualitatively to high school students.

  17. Mean free path in soccer and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzuriaga, J

    2010-01-01

    The trajectories of the molecules in an ideal gas and of the ball in a soccer game are compared. The great difference between these motions and some similarities are discussed. This example could be suitable for discussing many concepts in kinetic theory in a way that can be pictured by students for getting a more intuitive understanding. It could be suitable for an introductory course in vacuum techniques or undergraduate courses in kinetic theory of gases. Without going into the slightly harder quantitative results, the analysis presented might be used for introducing some ideas of kinetic theory qualitatively to high school students.

  18. Surface dependency in thermodynamics of ideal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisman, Altug

    2004-01-01

    The Casimir-like size effect rises in ideal gases confined in a finite domain due to the wave character of atoms. By considering this effect, thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas confined in spherical and cylindrical geometries are derived and compared with those in rectangular geometry. It is seen that an ideal gas exhibits an unavoidable quantum surface free energy and surface over volume ratio becomes a control variable on thermodynamic state functions in microscale. Thermodynamics turns into non-extensive thermodynamics and geometry difference becomes a driving force since the surface over volume ratio depends on the geometry

  19. Pairing fluctuations in trapped Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viverit, Luciano; Bruun, Georg M.; Minguzzi, Anna; Fazio, Rosario

    2004-01-01

    We examine the contribution of pairing fluctuations to the superfluid order parameter for harmonically trapped atomic Fermi gases in the BCS regime. In the limit of small systems we consider, both analytically and numerically, their space and temperature dependence. We predict a parity effect, i.e., that pairing fluctuations show a maximum or a minimum at the center of the trap, depending on the value of the last occupied shell being even or odd. We propose to detect pairing fluctuations by measuring the density-density correlation function after a ballistic expansion of the gas

  20. Neutrino oscillations in dense neutrino gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, S.

    1993-01-01

    We consider oscillations of neutrinos under conditions in which the neutrino density is sufficiently large that neutrino-neutrino interactions cannot be neglected. A formalism is developed to treat this highly nonlinear system. Numerical analysis reveals a rich array of phenomena. In certain gases, a self-induced Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effect occurs in which electron neutrinos are resonantly converted into muon neutrinos. In another relatively low-density gas, an unexpected parametric resonant conversion takes place. Finally, neutrino-neutrino interactions maintain coherence in one system for which a priori one expected decoherence

  1. On the velocity distributions of granular gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polito, A.M.M.; Rocha Filho, T.M.; Figueiredo, A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approach to determine velocity distributions in granular gases to improve the Sonine polynomial expansion of the velocity distribution function, at higher inelasticities, for the homogeneous cooling regime of inelastic hard spheres. The perturbative consistency is recovered using a new set of dynamical variables based on the characteristic function and we illustrate our approach by computing the first four Sonine coefficients for moderate and high inelasticities. The analytical coefficients are compared with molecular dynamics simulations results and with a previous approach by Huthmann et al.

  2. In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

    2012-09-06

    The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

  3. Isotope reversals in hydrocarbon gases of natural shale systems and well head production data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berner, U.; Schloemer, S.; Stiller, E. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany); Marquardt, D. [Rijksuniversiteit Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    Relationships between gas geochemical signatures and the thermal maturity of source rocks containing aquatic organic matter are based on on pyrolysis experiments and have been successfully used in conventional hydrocarbon exploration since long. We demonstrate how these models can be applied to the evaluation of unconventional shale resources. For this purpose hydrocarbon gases have been extracted from low and high mature source rocks (type II kerogens) using laboratory desorption techniques. We determined the molecular composition of the gases as well as the carbon isotope ratios of methane to propane. In the extracted gases we observe an increase of {sup 13}C content in methane with increasing dry gas ratio (C1/{Sigma}C1-6). The carbon isotope ratios of ethane and propane initially increase with increasing dryness but start to become isotopically lighter above a dry gas ratio of 0.8. We show that oil-to-gas cracking explains the observed gas geochemical data, and that mixing between gases from different processes is a key factor to describe natural hydrocarbon systems of shales. However, data from published case studies using well head gases which show 'isotope roll-over' effects indicate that the isotopic reversal observed in well head samples deviate from those observed in natural shale systems in a fundamental way. We show that isotope reversals related to well head gases are best explained by an additional isotope fractionation effect induced through hydraulic fracturing and gas migration from the shale to the well head. Although, this induced isotope fractionation is an artifact which obscures isotopic information of natural systems to a large extend, we suggest a simple classification scheme which allows distinguishing between hot and cool spot areas using well head or mud line gas data. (orig.)

  4. Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    A method for sampling stack gases emanating from the purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion cascade system utilized to enrich uranium for determining the presence and extent of uranium in the stack gases in the form of gaseous uranium hexafluoride, is described comprising the steps of removing a side stream of gases from the stack gases, contacting the side stream of the stack gases with a stream of air sufficiently saturated with moisture for reacting with and converting any gaseous uranium hexafluroide contracted thereby in the side stream of stack gases to particulate uranyl fluoride. Thereafter contacting the side stream of stack gases containing the particulate uranyl fluoride with moving filter means for continuously intercepting and conveying the intercepted particulate uranyl fluoride away from the side stream of stack gases, and continually scanning the moving filter means with radiation monitoring means for sensing the presence and extent of particulate uranyl fluoride on the moving filter means which is indicative of the extent of particulate uranyl fluoride in the side stream of stack gases which in turn is indicative of the presence and extent of uranium hexafluoride in the stack gases

  5. Using biogenic sulfur gases as remotely detectable biosignatures on anoxic planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Meadows, Victoria S; Claire, Mark W; Kasting, James F

    2011-06-01

    We used one-dimensional photochemical and radiative transfer models to study the potential of organic sulfur compounds (CS(2), OCS, CH(3)SH, CH(3)SCH(3), and CH(3)S(2)CH(3)) to act as remotely detectable biosignatures in anoxic exoplanetary atmospheres. Concentrations of organic sulfur gases were predicted for various biogenic sulfur fluxes into anoxic atmospheres and were found to increase with decreasing UV fluxes. Dimethyl sulfide (CH(3)SCH(3), or DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (CH(3)S(2)CH(3), or DMDS) concentrations could increase to remotely detectable levels, but only in cases of extremely low UV fluxes, which may occur in the habitable zone of an inactive M dwarf. The most detectable feature of organic sulfur gases is an indirect one that results from an increase in ethane (C(2)H(6)) over that which would be predicted based on the planet's methane (CH(4)) concentration. Thus, a characterization mission could detect these organic sulfur gases-and therefore the life that produces them-if it could sufficiently quantify the ethane and methane in the exoplanet's atmosphere.

  6. Spectral Line Shapes in Plasmas and Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, E.; Dalimier, D.; Stamm, R.; Stehle, CH.; Gonzalez, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The subject of spectral line shapes (SLS), a.k.a. spectral line broadening, which embraces both shapes and shifts of spectral lines, is of both fundamental and practical importance. On the fundamental side, the study of the spectral line profiles reveals the underlying atomic and molecular interactions. On the practical side, the spectral line profiles are employed as powerful diagnostic tools for various media, such as neutral gases, technological gas discharges, magnetically confined plasmas for fusion, laser- and Z-pinch-produced plasmas (for fusion and other purposes), astrophysical plasmas (most importantly, solar plasmas), and planetary atmospheres. The research area covered by this special issue includes both the SLS dominated by various electric fields (including electron and ion micro fields in strongly ionized plasmas) and the SLS controlled by neutral particles. In the physical slang, the former is called plasma broadening while the latter is called neutral broadening (of course, the results of neutral broadening apply also to the spectral line broadening in neutral gases)

  7. Corrosion by cooling gases in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darras, R.

    1960-01-01

    This article begins with a review of the various materials which can be used and the cooling gases in which they may be heated, emphasis being placed on the importance of reaching temperatures as high as possible. This is followed by a few general remarks on the dry oxidation of metals and alloys, particularly with regard to diffusion phenomena and their various possible mechanisms, and also the methods of investigation employed. Finally, the behaviour of the chief nuclear materials heated in the various gases is studied successively. Materials used for fuel (metallic uranium, uranium oxide, carbides and silicides), canning materials (magnesium, aluminium, zirconium, beryllium, stainless and refractory steels), structural materials (ordinary or slightly alloyed steels), and finally moderators (graphite, beryllium oxide) are deal with in this way. This account is backed up both by the results obtained at the CEA and by work published outside or abroad up to the present day. In conclusion, every effort has been made to direct future research on the basis of the foregoing. Reprint of a paper published in Industries Atomiques - no. 9/10, 1959, p. 3-23 [fr

  8. Subcooled boiling effect on dissolved gases behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmitko, M.; Sinkule, J.; Linek, V.

    1999-01-01

    A model describing dissolved gasses (hydrogen, nitrogen) and ammonia behaviour in subcooled boiling conditions of WWERs was developed. Main objective of the study was to analyse conditions and mechanisms leading to formation of a zone with different concentration of dissolved gases, eg. a zone depleted in dissolved hydrogen in relation to the bulk of coolant. Both, an equilibrium and dynamic approaches were used to describe a depletion of the liquid surrounding a steam bubble in the gas components. The obtained results show that locally different water chemistry conditions can be met in the subcooled boiling conditions, especially, in the developed subcooled boiling regime. For example, a 70% hydrogen depletion in relation to the bulk of coolant takes about 1 ms and concerns a liquid layer of 1 μn surrounding the steam bubble. The locally different concentration of dissolved gases can influence physic-chemical and radiolytic processes in the reactor system, eg. Zr cladding corrosion, radioactivity transport and determination of the critical hydrogen concentration. (author)

  9. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE): emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Christian, Ted J.; Goetz, J. Douglas; Jayarathne, Thilina; Bhave, Prakash V.; Praveen, Puppala S.; Adhikari, Sagar; Maharjan, Rashmi; DeCarlo, Peter F.; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Saikawa, Eri; Blake, Donald R.; Simpson, Isobel J.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Panday, Arnico K.

    2016-09-01

    The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE) campaign took place in and around the Kathmandu Valley and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) of southern Nepal during April 2015. The source characterization phase targeted numerous important but undersampled (and often inefficient) combustion sources that are widespread in the developing world such as cooking with a variety of stoves and solid fuels, brick kilns, open burning of municipal solid waste (a.k.a. trash or garbage burning), crop residue burning, generators, irrigation pumps, and motorcycles. NAMaSTE produced the first, or rare, measurements of aerosol optical properties, aerosol mass, and detailed trace gas chemistry for the emissions from many of the sources. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, whole-air sampling (WAS), and photoacoustic extinctiometers (PAX; 405 and 870 nm) based on field work with a moveable lab sampling authentic sources. The primary aerosol optical properties reported include emission factors (EFs) for scattering and absorption coefficients (EF Bscat, EF Babs, in m2 kg-1 fuel burned), single scattering albedos (SSAs), and absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs). From these data we estimate black and brown carbon (BC, BrC) emission factors (g kg-1 fuel burned). The trace gas measurements provide EFs (g kg-1) for CO2, CO, CH4, selected non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, a large suite of oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, SO2, HCl, HF, etc. (up to ˜ 80 gases in all). The emissions varied significantly by source, and light absorption by both BrC and BC was important for many sources. The AAE for dung-fuel cooking fires (4.63 ± 0.68) was significantly higher than for wood-fuel cooking fires (3.01 ± 0.10). Dung-fuel cooking fires also emitted high levels of NH3 (3.00 ± 1.33 g kg-1), organic acids (7.66 ± 6.90 g kg-1), and HCN (2.01 ± 1.25 g kg-1), where the latter could

  10. Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE: emissions of trace gases and light-absorbing carbon from wood and dung cooking fires, garbage and crop residue burning, brick kilns, and other sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Stockwell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nepal Ambient Monitoring and Source Testing Experiment (NAMaSTE campaign took place in and around the Kathmandu Valley and in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP of southern Nepal during April 2015. The source characterization phase targeted numerous important but undersampled (and often inefficient combustion sources that are widespread in the developing world such as cooking with a variety of stoves and solid fuels, brick kilns, open burning of municipal solid waste (a.k.a. trash or garbage burning, crop residue burning, generators, irrigation pumps, and motorcycles. NAMaSTE produced the first, or rare, measurements of aerosol optical properties, aerosol mass, and detailed trace gas chemistry for the emissions from many of the sources. This paper reports the trace gas and aerosol measurements obtained by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, whole-air sampling (WAS, and photoacoustic extinctiometers (PAX; 405 and 870 nm based on field work with a moveable lab sampling authentic sources. The primary aerosol optical properties reported include emission factors (EFs for scattering and absorption coefficients (EF Bscat, EF Babs, in m2 kg−1 fuel burned, single scattering albedos (SSAs, and absorption Ångström exponents (AAEs. From these data we estimate black and brown carbon (BC, BrC emission factors (g kg−1 fuel burned. The trace gas measurements provide EFs (g kg−1 for CO2, CO, CH4, selected non-methane hydrocarbons up to C10, a large suite of oxygenated organic compounds, NH3, HCN, NOx, SO2, HCl, HF, etc. (up to ∼ 80 gases in all. The emissions varied significantly by source, and light absorption by both BrC and BC was important for many sources. The AAE for dung-fuel cooking fires (4.63 ± 0.68 was significantly higher than for wood-fuel cooking fires (3.01 ± 0.10. Dung-fuel cooking fires also emitted high levels of NH3 (3.00 ± 1.33 g kg−1, organic acids (7.66 ± 6.90 g kg−1, and HCN

  11. Reducing the Livestock related green house gases emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Indira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cattle rearing generate more global warming green house gases than driving cars. These green house gases leads to changes in the climate. This climate change affects the livestock, man and natural environment continuously. For this reason it is important for livestock farmers to find the ways which minimize these gases emission. In this article the causes of climate change and effects, measures to be taken by farmers and their efficiency in reducing green house gases emission were reviewed briefly to make the farmers and students aware of the reduction of global warming green house gases and measures to be taken for reducing these gases. [Vet. World 2012; 5(4.000: 244-247

  12. Relativistic quantum thermodynamics of ideal gases in two dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, H; Pimentel, B M; Tomazelli, J L

    1999-11-01

    In this work we study the behavior of relativistic ideal Bose and Fermi gases in two space dimensions. Making use of polylogarithm functions we derive a closed and unified expression for their densities. It is shown that both type of gases are essentially inequivalent, and only in the non-relativistic limit the spinless and equal mass Bose and Fermi gases are equivalent as known in the literature.

  13. Relativistic Quantum Thermodynamics of Ideal Gases in 2 Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Blas, H.; Pimentel, B. M.; Tomazelli, J. L.

    1999-01-01

    In this work we study the behavior of relativistic ideal Bose and Fermi gases in two space dimensions. Making use of polylogarithm functions we derive a closed and unified expression for their densities. It is shown that both type of gases are essentially inequivalent, and only in the non-relativistic limit the spinless and equal mass Bose and Fermi gases are equivalent as known in the literature.

  14. Experimental study of energy exchanges between two coupled granular gases

    OpenAIRE

    Chastaing , J.-Y; Géminard , J.-C; Naert , A

    2016-01-01

    International audience; We report on the energy exchanges between two granular gases of different densities coupled electrome-chanically by immersed blades attached to dc motors. Zeroing the energy flux between the two subsystems, we demonstrate that an immersed blade is a convenient way to assess the properties of the granular gases, provided that the dissipation in the motor is properly taken into account. In addition, when the two gases have different densities, the fluctuations of the ene...

  15. Utilization of Neurophysiological Protocols to Characterize Soldier Response to Irritant Gases. Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-15

    DAMM7-89-C-9136 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOO«£S$<£S) Northeast Reserach Institute, Inc Suite A-100 309 Farmington Avenue...is no widely accepted methodology or protocol lor the assessment of human toxicity induced by exposure to irritant gases. Most procedures used by the...employing the appropriate analytical methodologies necessary to more precisely characterize the complex mixture of low-boiling volatilcs, aerosols, and

  16. Properties of gases, liquids, and solutions principles and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Warren P

    2013-01-01

    Physical Acoustics: Principles and Methods, Volume ll-Part A: Properties of Gases, Liquids, and Solutions ponders on high frequency sound waves in gases, liquids, and solids that have been proven as effective tools in examining the molecular, domain wall, and other types of motions. The selection first offers information on the transmission of sound waves in gases at very low pressures and the phenomenological theory of the relaxation phenomena in gases. Topics include free molecule propagation, phenomenological thermodynamics of irreversible processes, and simultaneous multiple relaxation pro

  17. Deviation from the Knudsen law on quantum gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babac, Gulru

    2014-01-01

    Gas flow in micro/nano scale systems has been generally studied for the Maxwell gases. In the limits of very low temperature and very confined domains, the Maxwellian approximation can break down and the quantum character of the gases becomes important. In these cases, Knudsen law, which is one of the important equations to analyze rarefied gas flows is invalid and should be reanalyzed for quantum gases. In this work, the availability of quantum gas conditions in the high Knudsen number cases is discussed and Knudsen law is analyzed for quantum gases

  18. Generation and release of radioactive gases in LLW disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, M.S. [Harvard School Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Simonson, S.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The atmospheric release of radioactive gases from a generic engineered LLW disposal facility and its radiological impacts were examined. To quantify the generation of radioactive gases, detailed characterization of source inventory for carbon-14, tritium, iodine-129, krypton-85, and radon-222, was performed in terms of their activity concentrations; their distribution within different waste classes, waste forms and containers; and their subsequent availability for release in volatile or gaseous form. The generation of gases was investigated for the processes of microbial activity, radiolysis, and corrosion of waste containers and metallic components in wastes. The release of radionuclides within these gases to the atmosphere was analyzed under the influence of atmospheric pressure changes.

  19. Hydrogen Peroxide Enhances Removal of NOx from Flue Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Michelle M.

    2005-01-01

    Pilot scale experiments have demonstrated a method of reducing the amounts of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emitted by industrial boilers and powerplant combustors that involves (1) injection of H2O2 into flue gases and (2) treatment of the flue gases by caustic wet scrubbing like that commonly used to remove SO2 from combustion flue gases. Heretofore, the method most commonly used for removing NOx from flue gases has been selective catalytic reduction (SCR), in which the costs of both installation and operation are very high. After further development, the present method may prove to be an economically attractive alternative to SCR.

  20. Gender and Boyle's law of gases

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Gender and Boyle''s Law of GasesElizabeth PotterRe-examines the assumptions and experimental evidence behind Boyle''s Law.Boyle''s Law, which describes the relation between the pressure and volume of a gas, was worked out by Robert Boyle in the mid-1600s. His experiments are still considered examples of good scientific work and continue to be studied along with their historical and intellectual contexts by philosophers, historians, and sociologists. Now there is controversy over whether Boyle''s work was based only on experimental evidence or whether it was influenced by the politics and religious controversies of the time, including especially class and gender politics.Elizabeth Potter argues that even good science is sometimes influenced by such issues, and she shows that the work leading to the Gas Law, while certainly based on physical evidenc...

  1. Retention of nitrous gases in scrubber columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazone, A.K.; Costa, R.C.; Lobao, A.S.T.; Matsuda, H.T.; Araujo, B.F. de

    1988-01-01

    During the UO 2 dissolution in nitric acid, some different species of NO (sub)x are released. The off gas can either be refluxed to the dissolver or be released and retained on special colums. The final composition of the solution is the main parameter to take in account. A process for nitrous gases retention using scrubber colums containing H 2 O or diluted HNO 3 is presented. Chemiluminescence measurement was employed to NO x evaluation before and after scrubing. Gas flow, temperature, residence time are the main parameters considered in this paper. For the dissolution of 100g UO 2 in 8M nitric acid, a 6NL/h O 2 flow was the best condition for the NO/NO 2 oxidation with maximum absorption in the scrubber columns. (author) [pt

  2. Critical discharge of fluids and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seewald, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic relations during discharge of fluids and gases are complex and a closed solution does not seem to be available. For the modeling of leakage accidents in nuclear power plants basic considerations are suitable for statements on the maximum mass flow, and thus the leak rate. The maximum mass flow is reached when the critical velocity is reached in the smallest cross section. This allows the appropriate design of safety systems for one-phase and two-phase flows. For German NPP simulators the hydrodynamics simulation program RELAP5-3D is used. The simulator center operates a 1:10 scale gas model of a two-loop PWR type reactor. The observable phenomena have occurred in nuclear power plants. The characteristics for a visualization of two-phase flows are not available in the simulation software and have to be added by correlations with experimental results. The realization of expectations on digital visualization techniques is discussed.

  3. Electron beam processing of combustion flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    This report contains the papers presented at the consultants' meeting on electron beam processing of combustion flue gases. The meeting provided an excellent opportunity for exchanging information and reviewing the current status of technology development. Characteristics of the electron beam processing recognized by the meeting are: capability of simultaneous removals of SO 2 and NO x , safe technology and simplicity of control, dry process without waste water to be treated, cost benefit of electron beam processing compared with conventional technology and the conversion of SO 2 and NO x to a by-product that can be used as agricultural fertilizer. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 22 papers in this technical report

  4. Thermal Plasma decomposition of fluoriated greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Seok; Watanabe, Takayuki [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama (Japan); Park, Dong Wha [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Fluorinated compounds mainly used in the semiconductor industry are potent greenhouse gases. Recently, thermal plasma gas scrubbers have been gradually replacing conventional burn-wet type gas scrubbers which are based on the combustion of fossil fuels because high conversion efficiency and control of byproduct generation are achievable in chemically reactive high temperature thermal plasma. Chemical equilibrium composition at high temperature and numerical analysis on a complex thermal flow in the thermal plasma decomposition system are used to predict the process of thermal decomposition of fluorinated gas. In order to increase economic feasibility of the thermal plasma decomposition process, increase of thermal efficiency of the plasma torch and enhancement of gas mixing between the thermal plasma jet and waste gas are discussed. In addition, noble thermal plasma systems to be applied in the thermal plasma gas treatment are introduced in the present paper.

  5. Aerodynamic features of flames in premixed gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheim, A. K.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of experimentally established flame phenomena in premixed gases are interpreted by relating them to basic aerodynamic properties of the flow field. On this basis the essential mechanism of some well known characteristic features of flames stabilized in the wake of a bluff-body or propagating in ducts are revealed. Elementary components of the flame propagation process are shown to be: rotary motion, self-advancement, and expansion. Their consequences are analyzed under a most strict set of idealizations that permit the flow field to be treated as potential in character, while the flame is modelled as a Stefan-like interface capable of exerting a feed-back effect upon the flow field. The results provide an insight into the fundamental fluid-mechanical reasons for the experimentally observed distortions of the flame front, rationalizing in particular its ability to sustain relatively high flow velocities at amazingly low normal burning speeds.

  6. Inerting Aircraft Fuel Systems Using Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hehemann, David G.

    2002-01-01

    Our purpose in this proposal was to determine the feasibility of using carbon dioxide, possibly obtained from aircraft exhaust gases as a substance to inert the fuel contained in fuel tanks aboard aircraft. To do this, we decided to look at the effects carbon dioxide has upon commercial Jet-A aircraft fuel. In particular, we looked at the solubility of CO2 in Jet-A fuel, the pumpability of CO2-saturated Jet-A fuel, the flashpoint of Jet-A fuel under various mixtures of air and CO2, the static outgassing of CO2-Saturated Jet-A fuel and the dynamic outgassing of Jet-A fuel during pumping of Jet-A fuel.

  7. Report of Committee H. Liquefied gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Yoshiaki

    1997-01-01

    Committee H covers liquefied gases, both liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). In this triennium (1994-1997), Subcommittee H-1 and H-2 carried out a general survey of LNG and LPG respectively including supply and demand, world LNG trade, LPG production facilities, LNG liquefaction plants, LNG schemes existing or under construction and future projects. Additionally five working groups were set up to cover the following work items selected from among major topics that the liquefied gas industries are facing or concerned with. The topics for LNG are ''Operational aspects of liquefaction plants'', ''Cost reduction of LNG chains'', ''Evolution of major cryogenic equipment'' and those for LPG are ''New developments in future LPG utilization'' and ''LPG: An optimal fuel for developing countries''. It should be noted that, in addition to traditional surveys, Committee H also tried making a cost analysis of LNG chains for the first time, in ''Cost reduction of LNG chains''. (au)

  8. Method of extracting shale with hot gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervier, M

    1874-12-05

    The raw rock is treated in a furnace composed of a series of compartments arranged in a circle around a hearth and communicating with one another by means of a chimney. The chargers receiving the rock communicate at the top directly with little cells in which terminate the chimneys for the circulation. These chambers are accessible to the combustion gases from the central hearth by means of flues. A damper, operated from outside, closes the chimney or flue at will. A grill is installed at the lower part of each chamber and supports the bituminous rocks to be treated, the rock being charged in at the top of the chamber. Each chamber is set on a reservoir of cast iron, the reservoir being slightly inclined toward the outside and receiving the liquid products separated from the rock.

  9. A New Perspective on Classical Ideal Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice Philippe

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The ideal-gas barometric and pressure laws are derived from the Democritian concept of independent corpuscles moving in vacuum, plus a principle of simplicity, namely that these laws are independent of the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian. A single corpuscle in contact with a heat bath in a cylinder and submitted to a constant force (weight is considered. The paper importantly supplements a previously published paper: First, the stability of ideal gases is established. Second, we show that when walls separate the cylinder into parts and are later removed, the entropy is unaffected. We obtain full agreement with Landsberg’s and others’ (1994 classical thermodynamic result for the entropy of a column of gas submitted to gravity.

  10. Human activities affecting trace gases and climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braatz, B.; Ebert, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Earth's climate has been in a constant state of change throughout geologic time due to natural perturbations in the global geobiosphere. However, various human activities have the potential to cause future global warming over a relatively short amount of time. These activities, which affect the Earth's climate by altering the concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere, include energy consumption, particularly fossil-fuel consumption; industrial processes (production and use of chlorofluorocarbons, halons, and chlorocarbons, landfilling of wastes, and cement manufacture); changes in land use patterns, particularly deforestation and biomass burning; and agricultural practices (waste burning, fertilizer usage, rice production, and animal husbandry). Population growth is an important underlying factor affecting the level of growth in each activity. This paper describes how the human activities listed above contribute to atmospheric change, the current pattern of each activity, and how levels of each activity have changed since the early part of this century

  11. Dosimetry of the radioactive noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldat, J.K.; Bramson, P.E.; Parker, H.M.

    1973-01-01

    Methods are described that were used for estimations of the radiation dose rate to various human tissues from the radioactive gases of Ar, Kr, and Xe following inhalation or immersion in a semi-infinite cloud. Dose rates to the whole-body, lungs, adipose tissues, and testes were calculated following inhalation; and dose rates to the skin, whole-body, lungs, and testes from a semi-infinite cloud were calculated for 39 Ar, 41 Ar, 83 Kr, 85 Kr, 87 Kr, 88 Kr, 131 Xe, 133 Xe, 135 Xe, 137 Xe, 138 Xe, and also 88 Rb found in equilibrium with its parent 88 Kr and 138 Cs found in equilibrium with its parent 138 Xe. (U.S.)

  12. Detecting and Identifying Industrial Gases by a Method Based on Olfactory Machine at Different Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Sun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas sensors have been widely reported for industrial gas detection and monitoring. However, the rapid detection and identification of industrial gases are still a challenge. In this work, we measure four typical industrial gases including CO2, CH4, NH3, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs based on electronic nose (EN at different concentrations. To solve the problem of effective classification and identification of different industrial gases, we propose an algorithm based on the selective local linear embedding (SLLE to reduce the dimensionality and extract the features of high-dimensional data. Combining the Euclidean distance (ED formula with the proposed algorithm, we can achieve better classification and identification of four kinds of gases. We compared the classification and recognition results of classical principal component analysis (PCA, linear discriminate analysis (LDA, and PCA + LDA algorithms with the proposed SLLE algorithm after selecting the original data and performing feature extraction. The experimental results show that the recognition accuracy rate of the SLLE reaches 91.36%, which is better than the other three algorithms. In addition, the SLLE algorithm provides more efficient and accurate responses to high-dimensional industrial gas data. It can be used in real-time industrial gas detection and monitoring combined with gas sensor networks.

  13. Lessons from geothermal gases at Yellowstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Evans, W.; Hurwitz, S.

    2015-12-01

    The magma-hydrothermal system of the Yellowstone Plateau Volcanic Field encompasses over ten thousand individual springs, seeps, and fumaroles spread out over >9000 square kilometers, and produces a range of acid, neutral and alkaline waters. A prominent model (Fournier, 1989 and related papers) concludes that many neutral and alkaline fluids found in hot springs and geysers are derived from a uniform, high-enthalpy parent fluid through processes such as deep boiling and mixing with dilute meteoric groundwater. Acid waters are generally condensates of gas-bearing steam that boils off of subsurface geothermal waters. Our recent studies of gases at Yellowstone (Lowenstern et al., 2015 and references therein) are compatible with such a model, but also reveal that gases are largely decoupled from thermal waters due to open-system addition of abundant deep gas to (comparatively) shallow circulating thermal waters. Fumarole emissions at Yellowstone range from gas-rich (up to 15 mol%) composed of deeply derived CO2, He and CH4, to steam-rich emissions (16 RA) and low CH4 and He concentrations and 2) mantle-derived CO2 with much higher CH4 and/or He concentrations and abundant radiogenic He picked up from crustal degassing. Individual thermal areas have distinct CH4/He. It remains unclear whether some gas ratios mainly reflect subsurface geothermal temperatures. Instead, they may simply reflect signatures imparted by local rock types and mixing on timescales too fast for reequilibration. Overall, the gas chemistry reflects a broader view of mantle-crust dynamics than can be appreciated by studies of only dissolved solutes in the neutral and alkaline waters from Yellowstone geysers. Fournier (1989) Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci. v. 17, p. 13-53. Lowenstern et al. (2015) JVGR, v. 302, 87-101.

  14. Phase structure of strongly correlated Fermi gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roscher, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Strongly correlated fermionic many-body systems are ubiquitous in nature. Their theoretical description poses challenging problems which are further complicated when imbalances in, e.g., the particle numbers of the involved species or their masses are introduced. In this thesis, a number of different approaches is developed and applied in order to obtain predictions for physical observables of such systems that mutually support and confirm each other. In a first step, analytically well-founded mean-field analyses are carried through. One- and three-dimensional ultracold Fermi gases with spin and mass imbalance as well as Gross-Neveu and NJL-type relativistic models at finite baryon chemical potential are investigated with respect to their analytic properties in general and the occurrence of spontaneous breaking of translational invariance in particular. Based on these studies, further methods are devised or adapted allowing for investigations also beyond the mean-field approximation. Lattice Monte Carlo simulations with imaginary imbalance parameters are employed to surmount the infamous sign problem and compute the equation of state of the respective unitary Fermi gases. Moreover, in-medium two-body analyses are used to confirm and explain the characteristics of inhomogeneously ordered phases. Finally, functional RG methods are applied to the unitary Fermi gas with spin and mass imbalance. Besides quantitatively competitive predictions for critical temperatures for the superfluid state, strong hints on the stability of inhomogeneous phases with respect to order parameter fluctuations in the regime of large mass imbalance are obtained. Combining the findings from these different theoretical studies suggests the possibility to find such phases in experiments presently in preparation.

  15. From ultracold Fermi Gases to Neutron Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, Christophe

    2012-02-01

    Ultracold dilute atomic gases can be considered as model systems to address some pending problem in Many-Body physics that occur in condensed matter systems, nuclear physics, and astrophysics. We have developed a general method to probe with high precision the thermodynamics of locally homogeneous ultracold Bose and Fermi gases [1,2,3]. This method allows stringent tests of recent many-body theories. For attractive spin 1/2 fermions with tunable interaction (^6Li), we will show that the gas thermodynamic properties can continuously change from those of weakly interacting Cooper pairs described by Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory to those of strongly bound molecules undergoing Bose-Einstein condensation. First, we focus on the finite-temperature Equation of State (EoS) of the unpolarized unitary gas. Surprisingly, the low-temperature properties of the strongly interacting normal phase are well described by Fermi liquid theory [3] and we localize the superfluid phase transition. A detailed comparison with theories including recent Monte-Carlo calculations will be presented. Moving away from the unitary gas, the Lee-Huang-Yang and Lee-Yang beyond-mean-field corrections for low density bosonic and fermionic superfluids are quantitatively measured for the first time. Despite orders of magnitude difference in density and temperature, our equation of state can be used to describe low density neutron matter such as the outer shell of neutron stars. [4pt] [1] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, K. Jiang, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Nature 463, 1057 (2010) [0pt] [2] N. Navon, S. Nascimbène, F. Chevy, and C. Salomon, Science 328, 729 (2010) [0pt] [3] S. Nascimbène, N. Navon, S. Pilati, F. Chevy, S. Giorgini, A. Georges, and C. Salomon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 215303 (2011)

  16. Assessing Emissions of Volatile Organic Componds from Landfills Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahime Khademi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biogas is obtained by anaerobic decomposition of organic wastes buried materials used to produce electricity, heat and biofuels. Biogas is at the second place for power generation after hydropower and in 2000 about 6% of the world power generation was allocated to biogas. Biogas is composed of 40–45 vol% CO2, 55–65 vol% CH4, and about 1% non-methaneVOCs, and non-methane volatile organic compounds. Emission rates are used to evaluate the compliance with landfill gas emission regulations by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA. BTEX comounds affect the air quality and may be harmful to human health. Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers that are generally called BTEX compounds are the most abundant VOCs in biogas. Methods: Sampling of VOCs in biogas vents was operated passively or with Tedlar bags. 20 samples were collected from 40 wells of old and new biogas sites of Shiraz’ landfill. Immediately after sampling, the samples were transferred to the laboratory. Analysis of the samples was performed with GC-MS. Results: The results showed that in the collection of the old and new biogas sites, the highest concentration of VOCs was observed in toluene (0.85ppm followed by benzene (0.81ppm, ethylbenzene (0.13ppm and xylene (0.08ppm. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that in all samples, most available compounds in biogas vents were aromatic hydrocarbon compounds.These compounds’ constituents originate from household hazardous waste materials deposited in the landfill or from biological/chemical decomposition processes within the landfill.

  17. Absorption of Greenhouse Gases in Liquids : A Molecular Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balaji, S.P.

    2015-01-01

    The increase in concentrations of greenhouse gases is responsible for global warming over the past few years. A major portion of the emitted greenhouse gases contains carbon dioxide (CO2). The capture of carbon dioxide from the effluent sources, its transport, and storage has been identified as the

  18. 49 CFR 229.43 - Exhaust and battery gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust and battery gases. 229.43 Section 229.43... § 229.43 Exhaust and battery gases. (a) Products of combustion shall be released entirely outside the... conditions. (b) Battery containers shall be vented and batteries kept from gassing excessively. ...

  19. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  20. The challenges of the greenhouse gases emissions reduction in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, E.

    2005-09-01

    The building sector is responsible of 18% of the greenhouse gases emissions in France. This document aims to evaluate the greenhouse gases emissions of the sector and then defines technical and financial avenues worth exploring to reduce them. (A.L.B.)

  1. 75 FR 48743 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases...-AQ33 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION... Greenhouse Gas Reporting Rule Hotline at telephone number: (877) 444-1188; or e-mail: [email protected] . To...

  2. Remote control flare stack igniter for combustible gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Device has been designed and developed for igniting nonrecoverable combustible gases and sustaining combustion of gases evolving from various gas vent stacks. Igniter is superior to existing systems because of simplicity of operation, low cost fabrication, installation, operational and maintainability features, and excellent reliability in all phases of required operations.

  3. Carbon dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center: A for Atmospheric trace gases. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtis, M.D. [comp.] [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center; Cushman, R.M.; Boden, T.A.; Jones, S.B.; Nelson, T.R.; Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities and accomplishments made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center and World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases during the fiscal year 1994. Topics discussed in this report include; organization and staff, user services, systems, communications, Collaborative efforts with China, networking, ocean data and activities of the World Data Center-A.

  4. Solubility of gases in water at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovetto, Rosa; Fernandez Prini, R.J.; Japas, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    In the primary circuits of the PWR, it is usual to find apolar gases such as the noble gases like, nitrogen, hydrogen (deuterium) and oxygen. These gases enter into the circuit partly due to failures in the fuel elements, accidental entries of air into the system and corrosion processes and radiolisis in the coolant media. For the operation of several auxiliary systems in the primary circuit, it is important to know the solubility of these gases in the flux of the circuit and the evaluation of physicochemical processes that take place. A cell has been built that allows to carry out determinations of solubility in the range of 350 deg C and 100 Mega Pascal. Three alternative experimental techniques have been developed to determine the solubility of the gases which are compared to each other. Measures of solubility of argon in H2O and D2O have been made in a wide range of temperatures. (V.B.) [es

  5. Reduction of Climate Gases by Energy Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moe, N.

    1998-01-01

    Carbon dioxide cannot be depolluted in practice. However, there are two areas where measures can be taken to avoid CO 2 emissions: 1. Energy-efficiency. 2. Use of sustainable energy sources in energy production. It is characteristic that many measures which are good for the environment are also good from the point of view of cost efficiency, preparedness and employment. This is tru, for instance, of the greater use of biofuels instead of fossil fuels, collective heating systems as opposed to individual ones and economy measures - especially more efficient use of electricity. It is a question of thinking of the system as a whole. Methane is another factor which contributes to the greenhouse effect. Methane emissions can also be avoided, or reduced, by system-thinking. System-thinking is, for instance, not ro deposit combustible waste but to use it as an energy source. And why not produce electricity by using methane from existing landfill sites. Electrical energy is the most useful form of energy. Therefore, electricity should not, as a principal rule, be used for heating, or as process energy. The fact that energy-efficiency and emission of greenhouse gases are interrelated is shown in the following two examples. 1. Only about 25% of the energy content in extracted coal will reach the consumers as electricity when the production takes place in an ordinary, coal-fires condensing power station. 2. When district heating (room-heating and hot water) is produced in a modern heat-production plant by flue-gas condensation, about 90% of the energy is utilised for heating purposes. To obtain an overall picture of the amount of energy used for a purpose, e.g. heating or electricity, you must view the entire process from extraction to final use. Such a picture can show the energy efficiency and what losses arise. Efficiency measures can reduce the energy bill. They can also reduce pollution, greenhouse gases among other things. Examples will be given in this paper of energy

  6. Primordial Noble Gases from Earth's Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K.; Lu, X.; Brodholt, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Recent partitioning experiment suggests helium is more compatible in iron melt than in molten silicates at high pressures (> 10 GPa) (1), thus provide the possibility of the core as being the primordial noble gases warehouse that is responsible for the high primordial/radiogenic noble gas isotopic ratios observed in plume-related basalts. However, the possible transportation mechanism of the noble gases from the core to the overlying mantle is still ambiguous, understanding how this process would affect the noble gas isotopic characteristics of the mantle is critical to validate this core reservoir model. As diffusion is a dominant mass transport process that plays an important role in chemical exchange at the core-mantle boundary (CMB), we have determined the diffusion coefficients of helium, neon and argon in major lower mantle minerals, i.e. periclase (MgO), bridgemanite (MgSiO3-Pv) and post-perovskite (MgSiO3-PPv), by first-principles calculation based on density functional theory (DFT). As expected, the diffusion rate of helium is the fastest at the CMB, which is in the range of 3 × 10-10 to 1 × 10-8 m2/s. The neon diffusion is slightly slower, from 5 × 10-10 to 5 × 10-9 m2/s. Argon diffuses slowest at the rate from 1 × 10-10 to 2 × 10-10 m2/s. We have further simulated the evolution of noble gas isotopic ratios in the mantle near the CMB. Considering its close relationship with the mantle plumes and very likely to be the direct source of "hot-spot" basalts, we took a close investigation on the large low-shear-velocity provinces (LLSVPs). Under reasonable assumptions based on our diffusion parameters, the modelling results indicate that LLSVP is capable of generating all the noble gas isotope signals, e.g., 3He/4He = 55 Ra, 3He/22Ne = 3.1, 3He/36Ar = 0.82, 40Ar/36Ar = 9500, that are in good agreement with the observed values in "hot-spot" basalts (2). Therefore, this core-reservior hypothesis is a self-consistent model that can fits in multiple noble gas

  7. Which climate gases is it the most important to reduce?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godal, Odd; Fuglestvedt, Jan

    2002-01-01

    If the Kyoto Protocol had used another method for comparing the various climate gases, Norway might have had to implement more and more expensive measures. The selection of methods may be important for the making of new agreements after Kyoto. Calculations show the importance of the comparison methods for the various climate gases in negotiating new climate agreements. The Kyoto Protocol regulates the total emission of climate gases carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), laughing gas (N 2 O) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), and halo fluoro carbons and perfluoro carbon. It is up to each country to choose which of these gases to concentrate on, and a tool is therefore needed to compare the effects of the various gases. In the Kyoto agreement, this is done by means of the global warming potential (GWP) of each gas over a period of 100 years. But different climate gases have different atmospheric residence times and it is not evident how the gases must be compared. Reducing the emission of methane has a strong and short-term effect while reducing the emission of carbon dioxide has a weaker but more lasting effect. Researchers have suggested other ways of comparison than the one used in the Kyoto Protocol. Among other things one may calculate the global warming potential for another time horizon than 100 years. Researchers at Cicero have investigated the consequences of two other ways of weighing climate gases: GWP(20) with time horizon of 20 years gives more weight to short-lived gases like methane, while GWP(500) with a time horizon of 500 years is more favourable to the long-lived gases. To see how much the selection of comparing method means in practice, the consequences for Norway using GWP(20) or GWP(500), have been calculated

  8. Mobility as a territorial key factor in the emission of greenhouse gases; La movilidad como factor territorial dominante en la emision de gases de efecto invernadero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespo Garcia, L.; Montane Lopez, M. M.; Garcia Cortes, A.; Jimenez Arroyo, F.

    2011-07-01

    Transport and energy generation are the two dominant sectors in the overall balance of energy consumption, and thus of greenhouse gases emissions. Placement of energy generation plants responds to strategic reasons relate to energy supply in the Spanish territory, while transport is an economic activity tightly related to the productive structure and territorial characteristics: density of populations, geographic situation, efficient space organization, etc. The analysis of these factors enables to prioritize different strategies according the their energetic efficiency in order to pursue an economy less dependent of fossil fuels, focused in activities of higher added value and that keeps in mind limits and strengths of Spanish reality. (Author) 9 refs.

  9. New data on the Geochemistry of Gases in the Potash Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Chaykovskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the gas phase of salt rocks from a number of potash deposits located in Europe (Verkhnekamskoe, Starobinskoe and Asia (Tubegatanskoe, Zhylyanskoe Satimolinskoe was studied. It allowed dividing them into two groups. In Asian deposits, only authigenic dry gases were formed by diagenetic decomposition of organic matter. Structural exposure of these deposits led to the oxidation of methane and hydrogen and enrichment by carbon dioxide. European deposits were not structurally exposed to the oxidation process, but were exposed during salt rock formation. They experienced influx of heavy hydrocarbons from the underlying strata. The history of the formation of gas regime at the Verkhnekamskoe potash deposit could be divided into three stages. First stage may be characterized by a syngenetic capture of deep gases and authigenic organic matter converted during diagenesis to methane, which percentage gradually increases with an increase of the thickness of impermeable salt strata. Then the deep gases invaded the salt formation during sedimentation of the upper carnallite layers and top salt rock. Third stage was associated with folding processes accompanied by a mobilization of fluids scattered in the gas-fluid inclusions, and with probable influx of heavy hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide resulted in formation of the secondary salt zones. Replacement of carnallite layers leads to the release of isomorphous ammonium ion and formation of a hydrogen.

  10. Subnanosecond breakdown in high-pressure gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidis, George V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Lomaev, Mikhail I.

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed discharges in high-pressure gases are of considerable interest as sources of nonequilibrium plasma for various technological applications: pollution control, pumping of laser media, plasma-assisted combustion, etc. Recently, attention has been attracted to the use of subnanosecond voltage fronts, producing diffuse discharges with radii of several millimeters. Such plasma structures, similar to pulsed glow discharges, are of special interest for applications due to quasi-uniformity of plasma parameters in relatively large gas volumes. This review presents the results of experimental and computational study of subnanosecond diffuse discharge formation. A description of generators of short high-voltage pulses with subnanosecond fronts and of discharge setups is given. Diagnostic methods for the measurement of various discharge parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution are described. Obtained experimental data on plasma properties for a wide range of governing factors are discussed. A review of various theoretical approaches used for computational study of the dynamics and structure of fast ionization waves is given; the applicability of conventional fluid streamer models for simulation of subnanosecond ionization waves is discussed. Calculated spatial-temporal profiles of plasma parameters during streamer propagation are presented. The efficiency of subnanosecond discharges for the production of reactive species is evaluated. On the basis of the comparison of simulation results and experimental data the effects of various factors (voltage rise time, polarity, etc.) on discharge characteristics are revealed. The major physical phenomena governing the properties of subnanosecond breakdown are analyzed.

  11. Beneficial Effects of Environmental Gases: Health Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; IBrahim, M.S.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    Radioactive radon gas is widely considered to be a health hazard by environmental agencies in the United States and in Europe. Yet despite the warnings of these agencies, thousands of people annually expose themselves to radon for therapeutic purposes, in facilities ranging from rustic old mines, to upscale spas and clinics. The inert natural radioactive gas radon has been used since the beginning of the century in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. In many places in the world, radon is used for therapeutic purposes for various diseases. Radon inhalation is applied in a thermal gallery with atmospheric radon concentrations up to 100 kBq/m3, elevated temperature up to 41 EC , and humidity close to 100%, or in the form of radon baths where Rn is emanated from water with high natural Rn activity. Frequently, a combination of both treatment procedures is applied. Evidence from empirical experience and from clinical observational studies suggests that radon has analgesic, anti inflammatory and immune-stimulating effects. Ozone is one of nature's most powerful oxidants. It increases the effectiveness of the antioxidant enzyme system, which scavenge excess free radicals in the body. It is used in water purification and sewage treatment and is now being applied medically to treat many diseases from wounds and colitis to cancer, stroke and AIDS. According to the dosage and concentration range, medical ozone is a pharmaceutical agent that exerts specific properties and a well-defined range of efficacy. This paper describes the medical application of environmental gases: radon and ozone

  12. Collision Statistics of Driven Polydisperse Granular Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhiyuan; Zhang Duanming; Yang Fengxia; Guo Xinping; Li Zhongming

    2008-01-01

    We present a dynamical model of two-dimensional polydisperse granular gases with fractal size distribution, in which the disks are subject to inelastic mutual collisions and driven by standard white noise. The inhomogeneity of the disk size distribution can be measured by a fractal dimension d f . By Monte Carlo simulations, we have mainly investigated the effect of the inhomogeneity on the statistical properties of the system in the same inelasticity case. Some novel results are found that the average energy of the system decays exponentially with a tendency to achieve a stable asymptotic value, and the system finally reaches a nonequilibrium steady state after a long evolution time. Furthermore, the inhomogeneity has great influence on the steady-state statistical properties. With the increase of the fractal dimension d f , the distributions of path lengths and free times between collisions deviate more obviously from expected theoretical forms for elastic spheres and have an overpopulation of short distances and time bins. The collision rate increases with d f , but it is independent of time. Meanwhile, the velocity distribution deviates more strongly from the Gaussian one, but does not demonstrate any apparent universal behavior

  13. Landau damping in trapped Bose condensed gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, B; Zaremba, E [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    We study Landau damping in dilute Bose-Einstein condensed gases in both spherical and prolate ellipsoidal harmonic traps. We solve the Bogoliubov equations for the mode spectrum in both of these cases, and calculate the damping by summing over transitions between excited quasiparticle states. The results for the spherical case are compared to those obtained in the Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation, where the excitations take on a single-particle character, and excellent agreement between the two approaches is found. We have also taken the semiclassical limit of the HF approximation and obtain a novel expression for the Landau damping rate involving the time-dependent self-diffusion function of the thermal cloud. As a final approach, we study the decay of a condensate mode by making use of dynamical simulations in which both the condensate and thermal cloud are evolved explicitly as a function of time. A detailed comparison of all these methods over a wide range of sample sizes and trap geometries is presented.

  14. Nozzle flow calculation for real gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bier, K.; Ehrler, F.; Hartz, U.; Kissau, G.

    1977-01-01

    The flow of CHF 2 Cl vapor (refrigerant R 22) through a Laval nozzle of annular geometry has been investigated in the region near the saturation line with stagnation pressures up to 85 per cent of the critical pressure. Static pressure profiles measured along the nozzle axis were found in good agreement with profiles calculated for one-dimensional isentropic flow of the real gas the thermal properties of which were derived from an equation of state proposed previously by Rombusch. Minor deviations between measured and calculated static pressure curves occur in the supersonic part of the mozzle, especially when supersaturated states of the vapour are passed. These deviations can be attributed to uncertainties in the calculation of the enthalpy and to a small influence of the static pressure probe. An additional investigation was concerned with an approximate calculation of the nozzle flow of real gases. In this approximation the well known relations of ideal gas dynamics are applied, the ratio of specific heats for the ideal gas being replaced, however, by a suitably adapted isentropic exponent, which can be determined e.g. from measured values of the Laval pressure or of the mass flow. For pressure ratios p/po between 1 and approximately 0.1, corresponding to Mach numbers up to approximately 2.2, all the interesting properties of the investigated flow of CHF 2 Cl vapour are approximated within a few per cent. (orig.) [de

  15. Thermodesorption of gases from various vacuum materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beavis, L.C.

    1979-06-01

    A number of materials are commonly used as vacuum system walls. The desorption of gases from these materials may contribute significantly to the internal pressure of an unpumped device or to the gas load which a pump must handle in a dynamic system. This report describes the thermodesorption measurements made on a number of metals (molybdenum, nickel, Kovar alloy, copper, copper-2% beryllium alloy) and two insulators (molybdenum sealing glass ceramic and high alumina ceramic). All of the materials after typical cleaning and air exposure contain considerable gas. With a long 400 0 to 500 0 vacuum bake, however, all can be cleaned sufficiently so that they will not contribute appreciable gas to their surrounding when vacuum stored at room temperature for many years. Most materials display desorption kinetics which are first order (a single bond or trap energy must be overcome for desorption). It appears that the desorption of CO from Kovar is rate limited by carbon diffusion (D 0 approx. = .4 cm 2 /s and E/sub d/ approx. = 27,000 cal/mol). The desorption of hydrogen from glass ceramic also appears to be diffusion rate limited (D 0 approx. = 1 x 10 -3 cm 2 /s and E/sub d/ approx. = 11,000 cal/mol). Carbon monoxide is the major gas desorbed from metals, except copper for which hydrogen is the major desorbing species. The insulators desorb hydrogen primarily

  16. Hydropower may produce more greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolshus, Hans H.; Folkestad, Tonje

    2002-01-01

    According to this article, dam projects in hydropower development may lead to increased emission of greenhouse gases and may create great inconveniences for the local community. Hence it is not without problems to sponsor such projects through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the Kyoto Protocol. In many countries the great era of hydroelectric development is over and the potential is now in the developing countries. The aim of the CDM is two-fold: sustainable development in the developing countries, and cheap reduction of greenhouse gas emission from developed nations. It has been agreed upon in the climate negotiations that it is the developing country receiving the investments that shall document that the projects conform to the goal of sustainable development of that country. The concept of sustain ability is a vague one, and it is a great challenge to make it more precise so that requirements may be posed on CDM projects. This is important as projects that are suitable from a climate point of view may have undesirable environmental or social effects, which may be in conflict with the goal of sustainable development. This also pertains to hydropower. It also appears that water reservoirs are not always as clean as has been assumed

  17. Coal pyrolysis under hydrogen-rich gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, H.; Sun, C.; Li, B.; Liu, Z. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Laboratory of Coal Conversion, Institute of Coal Chemistry

    1998-04-01

    To improve the economy of the pyrolysis process by reducing the hydrogen cost, it is suggested to use cheaper hydrogen-rich gases such as coke-oven gas (COG) or synthesis gas (SG) instead of pure hydrogen. The pyrolysis of Chinese Xianfeng lignite which was carried out with real COG and SG at 3-5 MPa, a final temperature of 650{degree}C and a heating rate of 5{degree}C/min in a 10g fixed-bed reactor is compared with coal pyrolysis with pure hydrogen and nitrogen under the same conditions. The results indicate that compared with hydropyrolysis at the same total pressure, the total conversion and tar yields from coal pyrolysis with COG and SG decreases while the unwanted water increases. However, at the same H{sub 2} partial pressure, the tar yields and yields of BBTX, PCX and naphthalene from the pyrolysis of coal with COG and SG are all significantly higher than those of hydropyrolysis. Therefore, it is possible to use COG and SG instead of pure hydrogen. 8 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  18. Brane gases in the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, S.; Brandenberger, R.; Easson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Over the past decade it has become clear that fundamental strings are not the only fundamental degrees of freedom in string theory. D-branes are also part of the spectrum of fundamental states. In this paper we explore some possible effects of D-branes on early Universe string cosmology, starting with two key assumptions: firstly that the initial state of the Universe corresponded to a dense, hot gas in which all degrees of freedom were in thermal equilibrium, and secondly that the topology of the background space admits one-cycles. We argue by t duality that in this context the cosmological singularities are not present. We derive the equation of state of the brane gases and apply the results to suggest that, in an expanding background, the winding modes of fundamental strings will play the most important role at late times. In particular, we argue that the string winding modes will only allow four space-time dimensions to become large. The presence of brane winding modes with p>1 may lead to a hierarchy in the sizes of the extra dimensions

  19. Unspeciated organic emissions from combustion sources and their influence on the secondary organic aerosol budget in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed from the atmospheric oxidation of nonmethane organic gases (NMOG) is a major contributor to atmospheric aerosol mass. Emissions and smog chamber experiments were performed to investigate SOA formation from gasoline vehicles, diesel vehicles,...

  20. EB technology for the purification of flue gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Takuji

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides in flue gas from coal-combustion boilers in power plants, dioxins in flue gas from municipal waste incineration facilities and toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in off-gas from painting or cleaning factories are among air pollutants for which emission is regulated by a law in Japan. Electron beam is the effective and easy controllable radiation source for treatment of these flue gases. This report describes outline of the results so far obtained at JAERI on electron beam treatment of flue gas. The removal performance higher than 90% at 10 kGy for flue gas containing 800 ppm SOx and 225 ppm NOx were achieved and being applied to real-scale power plants in Poland and China with expectation of cost reduction of 20% compared to conventional plants. Decomposition of dioxins in flue gas from solid waste incinerators is another project. Using an accelerator of 300 keV and 40 mA for treatment of real incineration gas at 200degC, we obtain 90% decomposition of dioxins at 15 kGy irradiation. Expansion of these flue gas purification technologies combined with low-energy electron accelerators is expected. (S. Ohno)

  1. Calorimetric measurements on slightly soluble gases in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olofsson, G.; Oshodj, A.A.; Qvarnstroem, E.; Wadsoe, I.

    1984-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements have been made of enthalpies of solution Δsub(sol)Hsub(m)sup(infinity) in water of helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon, methane, ethane, propane, n-butane, and oxygen at 288.15, 298.15, and 308.15 K. Values of the heat-capacity changes Δsub(sol)Csub(p,m)sup(infinity) have been derived. The found values for both the enthalpy and heat-capacity changes for the rare gases and for oxygen fully confirm the values derived by Benson and Krause, Jr. (1976), and Benson, Krause, Jr., and Peterson (1979) from the results of their very careful gas-solubility measurements. The partial molar heat capacities Csub(p,2)sup(infinity) of the hydrocarbons studied were derived. The group-additivity schemes that have been used successfully for the estimation of values for Csub(p,2)sup(infinity) for various non-ionic organic compounds do not correctly predict values of Csub(p,2)sup(infinity) for the hydrocarbons in the present study. (author)

  2. Method of distilling organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, E G.T.

    1921-11-11

    In the distillation of organic materials, by means of coursing heated gases through the distillation chamber, that can be heated by other means also, a method is given by which the hot gases coming from the distillation chamber are cooled in one or more heat-absorbent devices (for example, in spray coolers, condensers and/or water). The greater part of the products or constituents condensable at ordinary temperature are separated from the vapors and gases, and thereafter the gases should be passed through the distillation chamber after the necessary additional heating in special heaters, as one or more heat producers, suitably of the same construction as the heat absorbers, for heating and saturation with steam by means of warm condensate and/or water obtained fully or partly from the heat absorbers, possibly after separation of tar or oil from them. The patent has 11 other claims.

  3. Thermally and Chemically responsive nanoporous materials for efficient capture of fission product gases.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroeve, Pieter; Faller, Roland

    2018-04-24

    The objective of this project was to develop robust, high-efficiency materials for capture of fission product gases such as He, Xe and Kr in scenarios relevant for both reactor fuels and reprocessing operations. The relevant environments are extremely harsh, encompassing temperatures up to 1500 °C, high levels of radiation, as well as potential exposures to highly-reactive chemicals such as nitric acid and organic solvents such as kerosene. The requirement for nanostructured capture materials is driven in part by the very short (few micron) diffusion distances for product gases in nuclear fuel.1-2 We achieved synthesis, characterization and detailed modeling of the materials. Although not all materials reviewed in this report will be feasible for the ultimate goal of integration in nuclear fuel, nevertheless each material studied has particular properties which will enable an optimized material to be efficiently developed and characterized.

  4. Evaluation of Near-Surface Gases in Marine Sediments to Assess Subsurface Petroleum Gas Generation and Entrapment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Abrams

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Gases contained within near-surface marine sediments can be derived from multiple sources: shallow microbial activity, thermal cracking of organic matter and inorganic materials, or magmatic-mantle degassing. Each origin will display a distinctive hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon composition as well as compound-specific isotope signature and thus the interpretation of origin should be relatively straightforward. Unfortunately, this is not always the case due to in situ microbial alteration, non-equilibrium phase partitioning, mixing, and fractionation related to the gas extraction method. Sediment gases can reside in the interstitial spaces, bound to mineral or organic surfaces and/or entrapped in carbonate inclusions. The interstitial sediment gases are contained within the sediment pore space, either dissolved in the pore waters (solute or as free (vapour gas. The bound gases are believed to be attached to organic and/or mineral surfaces, entrapped in structured water or entrapped in authigenic carbonate inclusions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the gas types found within shallow marine sediments and examine issues related to gas sampling and extraction. In addition, the paper will discuss how to recognise mixing, alteration and fractionation issues to best interpret the seabed geochemical results and determine gas origin to assess subsurface petroleum gas generation and entrapment.

  5. Removal of ethylene oxide from waste gases by absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana Lj.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide (EtO is an organic compound, which is used as starting material in the production of polymers and as sterilizing agent for thermolabile materials. Although ethylene oxide is not common as an organic pollutant, its removal from numerous emission sources (e.g. ethylene oxide production plants or food and pharmaceutical sterilizing units is of the crucial importance because of its mutagenic, teratogenic and cancerogenic effect on human health. The objective of this paper is the experimental investigation of ethylene oxide (EtO absorption in diluted aqueous solution of sulfuric acid in order to evaluate the applicability of this procedure as well as to obtain project parameters for industrial plant realization. It was found that absorption is suitable as the fist step in the purification treatment of high EtO concentrations in the emission gases. According to the literature data, the basic parameter that defines the scrubber efficiency is the contact time, i.e. the ratio of packing height in scrubber and velocity of gas mixture. To investigate the characteristics of wet treatment in a broad range of contact time, part of experimental studies were conducted in the system with two and with three scrubbers in series. The obtained experimental results show that the high degree of EtO removal can be achieved (>98% when the contact time is sufficiently long (about 25 s. The process is effective until the concentration of formed glycol in the solution reaches value of about 20%. The process is safe and there is no danger of ignition and explosion of air and EtO mixture, although at the entrance to the scrubber EtO concentrations are significantly above the lower explosive limit.

  6. Temporal dynamics of Bose-condensed gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo Martinez, Mauricio

    2014-03-19

    We perform a detailed quantum dynamical study of non-equilibrium trapped, interacting Bose-condensed gases. We investigate Josephson oscillations between interacting Bose-Einstein condensates confined in a finite size double-well trap and the non-trivial time evolution of a coherent state placed at the center of a two dimensional optical lattice. For the Josephson oscillations three time scales appear. We find that Josephson junction can sustain multiple undamped oscillations up to a characteristic time scale τ{sub c} without exciting atoms out of the condensates. Beyond the characteristic time scale τ{sub c} the dynamics of the junction are governed by fast, non-condensed particles assisted Josephson tunnelling as well as the collisions between non-condensed particles. In the non-condensed particles dominated regime we observe strong damping of the oscillations due to inelastic collisions, equilibrating the system leading to an effective loss of details of the initial conditions. In addition, we predict that an initially self-trapped BEC state will be destroyed by these fast dynamics. The time evolution of a coherent state released at the center of a two dimensional optical lattice shows a ballistic expansion with a decreasing expansion velocity for increasing two-body interactions strength and particle number. Additionally, we predict that if the two-body interactions strength exceeds a certain value, a forerunner splits up from the expanding coherent state. We also observe that this system, which is prepared far from equilibrium, can evolve to a quasistationary non-equilibrium state.

  7. High order harmonic generation in rare gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budil, Kimberly Susan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    The process of high order harmonic generation in atomic gases has shown great promise as a method of generating extremely short wavelength radiation, extending far into the extreme ultraviolet (XUV). The process is conceptually simple. A very intense laser pulse (I ~1013-1014 W/cm2) is focused into a dense (~1017 particles/cm3) atomic medium, causing the atoms to become polarized. These atomic dipoles are then coherently driven by the laser field and begin to radiate at odd harmonics of the laser field. This dissertation is a study of both the physical mechanism of harmonic generation as well as its development as a source of coherent XUV radiation. Recently, a semiclassical theory has been proposed which provides a simple, intuitive description of harmonic generation. In this picture the process is treated in two steps. The atom ionizes via tunneling after which its classical motion in the laser field is studied. Electron trajectories which return to the vicinity of the nucleus may recombine and emit a harmonic photon, while those which do not return will ionize. An experiment was performed to test the validity of this model wherein the trajectory of the electron as it orbits the nucleus or ion core is perturbed by driving the process with elliptically, rather than linearly, polarized laser radiation. The semiclassical theory predicts a rapid turn-off of harmonic production as the ellipticity of the driving field is increased. This decrease in harmonic production is observed experimentally and a simple quantum mechanical theory is used to model the data. The second major focus of this work was on development of the harmonic "source". A series of experiments were performed examining the spatial profiles of the harmonics. The quality of the spatial profile is crucial if the harmonics are to be used as the source for experiments, particularly if they must be refocused.

  8. Concept of Heat Recovery from Exhaust Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowska, Maria; Nowak, Krzysztof; Proszak-Miąsik, Danuta; Rabczak, Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    The theme of the article is to determine the possibility of waste heat recovery and use it to prepare hot water. The scope includes a description of the existing sample of coal-fired boiler plant, the analysis of working condition and heat recovery proposals. For this purpose, a series of calculations necessary to identify the energy effect of exhaust temperature decreasing and transferring recovery heat to hot water processing. Heat recover solutions from the exhaust gases channel between boiler and chimney section were proposed. Estimation for the cost-effectiveness of such a solution was made. All calculations and analysis were performed for typical Polish conditions, for coal-fired boiler plant. Typicality of this solution is manifested by the volatility of the load during the year, due to distribution of heat for heating and hot water, determining the load variation during the day. Analysed system of three boilers in case of load variation allows to operational flexibility and adaptation of the boilers load to the current heat demand. This adaptation requires changes in the operating conditions of boilers and in particular assurance of properly conditions for the combustion of fuel. These conditions have an impact on the existing thermal loss and the overall efficiency of the boiler plant. On the boiler plant efficiency affects particularly exhaust gas temperature and the excess air factor. Increasing the efficiency of boilers plant is possible to reach by following actions: limiting the excess air factor in coal combustion process in boilers and using an additional heat exchanger in the exhaust gas channel outside of boilers (economizer) intended to preheat the hot water.

  9. Preparing for the regulation of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezekiel, R.; Wilson, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Earth is warming, and this belief is shared by the leading scientists that sit on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, where it is expected that the average surface temperature of the Earth will rise 2.5 to 10.4 degrees Fahrenheit between 1990 and 2100. It is felt that the main culprit is greenhouse gas emissions such as carbon dioxide. The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in 1992 with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to specified targets below 1990 levels by 2012. For Canada, this commitment is a reduction to 6 per cent below 1990 levels. To avoid penalizing a country that adopts greenhouse gas regulations where the neighbouring country does not follow, negotiations are being held at the international level in an attempt to keep everyone on a level playing field. The United States recently decided not to pursue a cap on greenhouse gas emissions, which could seriously jeopardize the effectiveness of the Kyoto Protocol. The authors examined what the future looks like, in terms of policy options and market-based instruments. In the next section, they discussed the preparations for the regulation of greenhouse gases. The topics reviewed were carbon taxes, command and control regulation, emissions trading, contracts and baseline protection. Canada's baseline protection initiative (BPI) process was closely examined, and identified what reductions are eligible and touched upon ownership issues. The authors concluded that it might be prudent for emitters in Canada to prepare for a variety of regulatory scenarios, as there are a number of uncertainties remaining. Emissions trading must be carefully documented

  10. Radioactive rare gases emission at underground nuclear explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubasov, Yu.V.

    2016-01-01

    The examples of radioactive rare gases emission at underground nuclear explosions conducted in the USSR on the Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk test sites are considered. It is pointed out that in the case of evasive explosion in vertical wells without apparent radioactive gases emission the samples of subsurface gas must contain the traces of radioactive rare gases. Under the inspection of evasive explosion in horizontal workings of rock massif, one should guided by the analysis of atmospheric air samples in the inspected area [ru

  11. Effective collision frequency of electrons in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baille, P.; Chang, J.-S.; Claude, A.; Yau, A.W.; Hobson, R.M.; Ogram, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    The electron-neutral collision frequency in the noble gases has been calculated using recent numerical results for momentum transfer cross sections by assuming a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities. In all these gases, except for argon, good agreement is obtained with most previously published experimental and theoretical data. Mean free path, mobilities and diffusion coefficients are also calculated from the resulting effective collision frequencies. The empirical formulae are presented for an electron temperature dependence of the electron-neutral collision frequency for all noble gases up to Tsub(e) < approximately 25.000 K. (author)

  12. Time-dependent behavior of positrons in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadehra, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Both equilibrium and nonequilibrium behaviors of positrons in several noble gases are reviewed. Our novel procedure for obtaining the time-dependent behavior of various swarm parameters -- such as the positron drift velocity, average positron energy, positron annihilation rate (or equivalently Z eff ) etc. -- for positrons in pure ambient gases subjected to external electrostatic fields is described. Summaries of time-dependent as well as electric field-dependent results for positron swarms in various noble gases are presented. New time-dependent results for positron swarms in neon are also described in detail. 36 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Teledetección de Gases mediante Sensores Infrarrojo (IR)

    OpenAIRE

    López Martínez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    El LIR- UC3M, Laboratorio de Sensores IR de la Universidad Carlos III, ha desarrollado técnicas de análisis multi e hiperespectral IR para la teledetección de gases. Ofrece el diseño de sensores específicos para determinar la presencia de gases y su concentración. La práctica totalidad de los gases (CO2, CO, NO2, O3, HC o NH, etc.) implicados en la seguridad industrial, ambiental o militar pueden ser detectados. Se busca empresas o centros interesados en el uso de sensores de aplicación e...

  14. Process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, I.

    1981-01-01

    A process for scavenging hydrogen sulfide from hydrocarbon gases utilizes iron oxide particles of unique chemical and physical properties. These particles have large surface area, and are comprised substantially of amorphous Fe 2 O 3 containing a crystalline phase of Fe 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 and combinations thereof. In scavenging hydrogen sulfide, the iron oxide particles are suspended in a liquid which enters into intimate mixing contact with hydrocarbon gases; the hydrogen sulfide is reacted at an exceptional rate and only acid-stable reaction products are formed. Thereafter, the sweetened hydrocarbon gases are collected

  15. Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

    1980-05-02

    A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

  16. 75 FR 74773 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ...-mechanical systems (MEMS) manufacturing facilities. Fluorinated Gas Production....... 325120 Industrial gases... of Industrial Greenhouse Gases. Electrical Equipment Use General Stationary Fuel Combustion. Imports and Exports of Fluorinated Suppliers of Industrial Greenhouse GHGs Inside Pre-charged Equipment Gases...

  17. Organic positive ions in aircraft gas-turbine engine exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Andrey; Arnold, Frank

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) represent a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol. However the role of organic species emitted by aircraft (as a consequence of the incomplete combustion of fuel in the engine) in nucleation of new volatile particles still remains rather speculative and requires a much more detailed analysis of the underlying mechanisms. Measurements in aircraft exhaust plumes have shown the presence of both different non-methane VOCs (e.g. PartEmis project) and numerous organic cluster ions (MPIK-Heidelberg). However the link between detected organic gas-phase species and measured mass spectrum of cluster ions is uncertain. Unfortunately, up to now there are no models describing the thermodynamics of the formation of primary organic cluster ions in the exhaust of aircraft engines. The aim of this work is to present first results of such a model development. The model includes the block of thermodynamic data based on proton affinities and gas basicities of organic molecules and the block of non-equilibrium kinetics of the cluster ions evolution in the exhaust. The model predicts important features of the measured spectrum of positive ions in the exhaust behind aircraft. It is shown that positive ions emitted by aircraft engines into the atmosphere mostly consist of protonated and hydrated organic cluster ions. The developed model may be explored also in aerosol investigations of the background atmosphere as well as in the analysis of the emission of fine aerosol particles by automobiles.

  18. Desulfurization of chemical waste gases and flue gases with economic utilization of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, K.; Wischnewski, W.

    1983-09-01

    The technological state of recovery of sulfur dioxide from waste and flue gases in the GDR is discussed. Two examples of plants are presented: a pyrosulfuric acid plant in Coswig, recovering sulfur dioxide from gases by absorption with sodium hydroxide, followed by catalytic oxidation to sulfur trioxide, and a plant for waste sulfuric acid recovery from paraffin refining, where the diluted waste acid is sprayed into a furnace and recovered by an ammonium-sulfite-bisulfite solution from the combustion gas (with 4 to 10% sulfur dioxide content). Investment and operation costs as well as profits of both plants are given. Methods employed for power plant flue gas desulfurization in major industrial countries are further assessed: about 90% of these methods uses wet flue gas scrubbing with lime. In the USA flue gas from 25,000 MW of power plant capacity is desulfurized. In the USSR, a 35,000 m/sup 3//h trial plant at Severo-Donetzk is operating using lime, alkali and magnesite. At the 150 MW Dorogobush power plant in the USSR a desulfurization plant using a cyclic ammonia process is under construction.

  19. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  20. Using Biogenic Sulfur Gases as Remotely Detectable Biosignatures on Anoxic Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria S.; Claire, Mark W.; Kasting, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We used one-dimensional photochemical and radiative transfer models to study the potential of organic sulfur compounds (CS2, OCS, CH3SH, CH3SCH3, and CH3S2CH3) to act as remotely detectable biosignatures in anoxic exoplanetary atmospheres. Concentrations of organic sulfur gases were predicted for various biogenic sulfur fluxes into anoxic atmospheres and were found to increase with decreasing UV fluxes. Dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3, or DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (CH3S2CH3, or DMDS) concentrations could increase to remotely detectable levels, but only in cases of extremely low UV fluxes, which may occur in the habitable zone of an inactive M dwarf. The most detectable feature of organic sulfur gases is an indirect one that results from an increase in ethane (C2H6) over that which would be predicted based on the planet's methane (CH4) concentration. Thus, a characterization mission could detect these organic sulfur gases—and therefore the life that produces them—if it could sufficiently quantify the ethane and methane in the exoplanet's atmosphere. Key Words: Exoplanets—Biosignatures—Anoxic atmospheres—Planetary atmospheres—Remote life detection—Photochemistry. Astrobiology 11, 419–441. PMID:21663401

  1. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    1988-01-01

    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  2. The application of isotope techniques to the analysis of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.W.; Grosse, H.J.; Popp, P.; Thuemmel, H.W.

    1978-01-01

    The development of devices for the detection of nuclear radiation has also led to systems permitting concentrations of gaseous components in gases or mixtures of gases to be determined with the aid of ionizing radiation. Such systems, which use either the ionization of gases in connection with recombination processes or the multiplication of charged particles, or the excitation of gases by means of α,β,γ or X-rays, are described. The most frequently used ionization detectors (electron capture detectors, aerosol ionization analysers, cross-section detectors, noble gas detectors and electron mobility detectors) are characterized with reference to their properties and main fields of application. It is shown that as a result of the development of sensitive energy-resolving detectors the possibilities for the utilization of excitation processes for gas analysis are increasing. The prospects for ionization detectors and systems based on the excitation of characteristic X-rays are discussed. (author)

  3. Quantum gases finite temperature and non-equilibrium dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Szymanska, Marzena; Davis, Matthew; Gardiner, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The 1995 observation of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton-polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of ed...

  4. Laser-aided diagnostics of plasmas and gases

    CERN Document Server

    Muraoka, K

    2000-01-01

    Updated and expanded from the original Japanese edition, Laser-Aided Diagnostics of Gases and Plasmas takes a unique approach in treating laser-aided diagnostics. The book unifies the subject by joining applications instead of describing each application as a totally separate system. In taking this approach, it highlights the relative strengths of each method and shows how they can complement each other in the study of gases and plasmas.The first part of the book presents a general introduction to the laser-aided study of gases and plasmas, including the various principles and hardware needed for each method, while the second part describes the applications of each general system in detail.Beneficial to a wide spectrum of academic and industrial researchers, this book provides a solid examination of the various options and methods available when involved in the analysis and diagnostics of gases and plasmas.

  5. World Gas Conference 1997. Working committee H. Liquefied gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This volume of the proceedings contains the report of the International Gas Union's Working Committee H, Liquefied gases, and oral and poster papers presented at the conference. The committee report and each paper have been abstracted separately. (LN)

  6. Molecular model for solubility of gases in flexible polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Jesper; Hassager, Ole; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    We propose a model for a priori prediction of the solubility of gases in flexible polymers. The model is based on the concept of ideal solubility of gases in liquids. According to this concept, the mole fraction of gases in liquids is given by Raoult's law with the total pressure and the vapor...... pressure of the gas, where the latter may have to be extrapolated. However, instead of considering each polymer molecule as a rigid structure, we estimate the effective number of degrees of freedom from an equivalent freely jointed bead-rod model for the flexible polymer. In this model, we associate...... the length of the rods with the molecular weight corresponding to a Kuhn step. The model provides a tool for crude estimation of the gas solubility on the basis of only the monomer unit of the polymer and properties of the gas. A comparison with the solubility data for several gases in poly...

  7. Photoacoustic absorption spectra of atmospheric gases near 7603 cm-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, S.A.; Bragg, S.L.

    1984-01-01

    Absorption spectra of carbon monoxide, water vapor, memane, and ammonia are presented as part of an effort to determine absolute absorption cross sections for some atmospheric gases at the iodine laser wavelength

  8. Conference report for nuclear fusion phenomena in ionized gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.

    1975-10-01

    A summary of the Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, held in Eindhoven, The Netherlands, is given. In particular, the format of the conference and the content of the review papers are summarized

  9. Device for removing radioactive solids in wet gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Katsuyuki; Miyo, Hiroaki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable removal and decontamination of radioactive solids in wet gases simply, easily and securely by removing radioactive solids in gases by filteration and applying microwaves to filters to evaporate condensed moistures. Constitution: Objects to be heated such as solutions, sludges and solids containing radioactive substances are placed in an evaporation vessel and a microwave generator is operated. Microwaves are applied to the objects in the evaporation vessel through a shielding plate and filters. The objects are evaporated and exhausted gases are passed through the filters and sent to an exhaust gas processing system by way of an exhaust gas pipe. Condensed moistures deposited on the filters which would otherwise cause cloggings are evaporated being heated by the microwaves to prevent cloggings. The number of stages for the filters may optionally be adjusted depending on the extent of the contamination in the exhaust gases. (Kawakami, Y.)

  10. Hot gas flow cell for optical measurements on reactive gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosch, Helge; Fateev, Alexander; Nielsen, Karsten Lindorff

    2013-01-01

    A new design is presented for a gas flow cell for reactive gases at high temperatures. The design features three heated sections that are separated by flow windows. This design avoids the contact of reactive gases with the material of the exchangeable optical windows. A gas cell with this design ......-resolution measurements are presented for the absorption cross-section of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the UV range up to 773 K (500 degrees C)...

  11. ACTRIS Aerosol, Clouds and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Pappalardo Gelsomina

    2018-01-01

    The Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research Infrastructure (ACTRIS) is a distributed infrastructure dedicated to high-quality observation of aerosols, clouds, trace gases and exploration of their interactions. It will deliver precision data, services and procedures regarding the 4D variability of clouds, short-lived atmospheric species and the physical, optical and chemical properties of aerosols to improve the current capacity to analyse, understand and predict past, current and future evo...

  12. ACTRIS Aerosol, Clouds and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pappalardo Gelsomina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research Infrastructure (ACTRIS is a distributed infrastructure dedicated to high-quality observation of aerosols, clouds, trace gases and exploration of their interactions. It will deliver precision data, services and procedures regarding the 4D variability of clouds, short-lived atmospheric species and the physical, optical and chemical properties of aerosols to improve the current capacity to analyse, understand and predict past, current and future evolution of the atmospheric environment.

  13. ACTRIS Aerosol, Clouds and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2018-04-01

    The Aerosols, Clouds and Trace gases Research Infrastructure (ACTRIS) is a distributed infrastructure dedicated to high-quality observation of aerosols, clouds, trace gases and exploration of their interactions. It will deliver precision data, services and procedures regarding the 4D variability of clouds, short-lived atmospheric species and the physical, optical and chemical properties of aerosols to improve the current capacity to analyse, understand and predict past, current and future evolution of the atmospheric environment.

  14. Long-Term Changes of Tropospheric Trace Gases over Pakistan Derived From Multiple Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeb, Naila; Fahim Khokhar, Muhammad; Murtaza, Rabbia; Noreen, Asma; Khalid, Tameem

    2016-07-01

    Air pollution is the expected key environmental issue of Pakistan in coming years due to its ongoing rapid economic growth and this trend suggests only worst air quality over time. In 2014, World bank reported the Pakistan's urban air quality among the most severe in the world and intimated the government to make improvement in air quality as a priority policy agenda. In addition it is recommended to strengthen the institutional and technical capacity of organizations responsible for air quality management. Therefore, the study is designed to put efforts in highlighting air quality issues. The study will provide first database for tropospheric trace gases over Pakistan. The study aims to analyse tropospheric concentrations of CO, TOC, NO2 and HCHO over Pakistan using multisensory data from January 2005 to January 2014. Spatio-temporal and seasonal variability of tropospheric trace gases is observed over the decade to explore long term trend. Hotspots are identified to see variation of species with latitude and to highlight possible sources of trace gases over the Pakistan. High concentrations of trace gases are mainly observed over the Punjab region, which may be attributed to its metropolitan importance. It is the major agricultural, industrialized and urbanized (nearly 60% of the Pakistan's population) sector of the country. Overall significant decreasing trend of CO is identified by MOPITT with relative change of 12.4%. Tropospheric ozone column (TOC) showed insignificant increasing trend with temporal increase of 10.4% whereas NO2 exhibited a significant temporal increase of about 28%. For formaldehyde (HCHO), an increase of about 3.8% is calculated for SCIAMACHY data. Well defined seasonal cycles for these trace gases are observed over the whole study period. CO concentrations showed peak in winter months (November/December/January/February) and dip in the months of Summer/Monsoon (June/July/August). In spite of CO, TCO increases gradually in March and peaks

  15. Electron beam treatment of simulated marine diesel exhaust gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Licki Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The exhaust gases from marine diesel engines contain high SO2 and NOx concentration. The applicability of the electron beam flue gas treatment technology for purification of marine diesel exhaust gases containing high SO2 and NOx concentration gases was the main goal of this paper. The study was performed in the laboratory plant with NOx concentration up to 1700 ppmv and SO2 concentration up to 1000 ppmv. Such high NOx and SO2 concentrations were observed in the exhaust gases from marine high-power diesel engines fuelled with different heavy fuel oils. In the first part of study the simulated exhaust gases were irradiated by the electron beam from accelerator. The simultaneous removal of SO2 and NOx were obtained and their removal efficiencies strongly depend on irradiation dose and inlet NOx concentration. For NOx concentrations above 800 ppmv low removal efficiencies were obtained even if applied high doses. In the second part of study the irradiated gases were directed to the seawater scrubber for further purification. The scrubbing process enhances removal efficiencies of both pollutants. The SO2 removal efficiencies above 98.5% were obtained with irradiation dose greater than 5.3 kGy. For inlet NOx concentrations of 1700 ppmv the NOx removal efficiency about 51% was obtained with dose greater than 8.8 kGy. Methods for further increase of NOx removal efficiency are presented in the paper.

  16. Warming Early Mars by Impact Degassing of Reduced Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, R. M.; Zahnle, K.; Barlow, N. G.

    2018-01-01

    Reducing greenhouse gases are once again the latest trend in finding solutions to the early Mars climate dilemma. In its current form collision induced absorptions (CIA) involving H2 and/or CH4 provide enough extra greenhouse power in a predominately CO2 atmosphere to raise global mean surface temperatures to the melting point of water provided the atmosphere is thick enough and the reduced gases are abundant enough. Surface pressures must be at least 500 mb and H2 and/or CH4 concentrations must be at or above the several percent level for CIA to be effective. Atmospheres with 1-2 bars of CO2 and 2- 10% H2 can sustain surface environments favorable for liquid water. Smaller concentrations of H2 are sufficient if CH4 is also present. If thick CO2 atmospheres with percent level concentrations of reduced gases are the solution to the faint young Sun paradox for Mars, then plausible mechanisms must be found to generate and sustain the gases. Possible sources of reducing gases include volcanic outgassing, serpentinization, and impact delivery; sinks include photolyis, oxidation, and escape to space. The viability of the reduced greenhouse hypothesis depends, therefore, on the strength of these sources and sinks. In this paper we focus on impact delivered reduced gases.

  17. μ+ charge exchange and muonium formation in low pressure gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.G.; Mikula, R.J.; Garner, D.M.

    1982-04-01

    Using the basic muon spin rotation technique, the fractions of energetic positive muons thermalizing in diamagnetic environments (fsub(μ)) or as the paramagnetic muonium atom (fsub(Mu)) have been measured in low pressure pure gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, H 2 , N 2 , NH 3 , and CH 4 ) as well as in several gas mixtures (Ne/Xe, Ne/Ar, Ne/NH 3 , Ne/CH 4 ). In the pure gases, the muonium fractions fsub(Mu) are generally found to be smaller than expected from analogous proton charge exchange studies, particularly in the molecular gases. This is probably due to hot atom reactions of muonium following the charge exchange regime. Comparisons with monium formation in condensed matter as well as positronium formation in gases are also presented. In the gas mixtures, the addition of only a few hundred ppm of a dopant gas, which is exothermic for muonium formation (e.g. Xe), gives rise to an fsub(Mu) characteristic of the pure dopant gas itself, demonstrating the importance of the neutralization process right down to thermal energies. In all cases, the experimental signal amplitudes are found to be strongly pressure dependent, which is interpreted in terms of the time spent by the muon as neutral muonium in the charge exchange regime: tsub(n) < 0.2 ns. This time is generally shorter in the case of molecular gases than in rare gases

  18. Use of gases in dairy manufacturing: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhaskar Mani; Truong, Tuyen; Bansal, Nidhi; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2017-06-13

    Use of gases (air, carbon dioxide and nitrogen) has been practiced in the manufacture of dairy products (i.e., ice cream, whipped cream and butter) to improve their texture, mouthfeel and shelf-life extension. Many attempts have also been made to incorporate other gases such as hydrogen, nitrous oxide, argon, xenon, and helium into the dairy systems for various product functionalities such as whipping, foaming, texture, aroma enhancement, and therapeutic properties. The gases can be dissolved in aqueous and fat phases or remain in the form of bubbles stabilized by protein or fat particles. The gas addition or infusion processes are typically simple and have been used commercially. This review focuses on the use of various gases in relation to their individually physical properties along with their specific roles in manufacturing and controlling quality of dairy products. It also recaps on how gases are included in the dairy systems. The information is important in understanding of addition of specific gas(es) into food systems, particularly dairy products, that potentially provide intervention opportunities for modifying and/or creating innovative food structures and functionalities.

  19. Electron thermalization in rare gases and their mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronic, I.K.; Kimura, M.

    1996-01-01

    The time evolution and temperature dependence of electron energy distribution functions (EDFs) are studied in pure rare gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) as well as in their mixtures by using solutions of the Boltzmann equation. A clear difference between the gases having the Ramsauer endash Townsend (RT) minimum in the momentum-transfer cross section, (RT gases: Ar, Kr, and Xe), and those without the RT minimum (non-RT gases: He and Ne) is pointed out. The influence of the position and the depth of the RT minimum on the EDF and time evolution is studied for three different initial electron energies. A formula proposed for describing thermalization time in a mixture is tested on (i) a non-RT endash non-RT gas mixture, (ii) a RT endash non-RT mixture and (iii) a RT endash RT gas mixture. The linear combination of the reciprocal thermalization times in gas mixture with the component concentrations as weighting factors is found to be valid for gases with a similar energy dependence of the momentum-transfer cross section, σ m , and also for all rare-gas binary mixtures if the initial electron energy is sufficiently below the RT minimum. Conspicuous deviations from the linear relationship are observed in mixtures of gases whose energy dependence of σ m (or the stopping cross section) are different, and theoretical rationales for these findings are provided. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  20. A Survey of Phenomena in Ionized Gases. Invited Papers. A Collection of Invited Papers Presented at the Eighth International Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1968-01-01

    Invited review papers from the Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Phenomena in Ionized Gases, which was organized by the Technische Hochschule Wien and the Österreichische Studiengesellschaft für Atomenergie, and held in Vienna, 27 August - 2 September 1967. The IAEA and the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics supported the organizers. Contents: Introductory papers (3 papers); Collision processes (4 papers); Waves and beams in plasmas (6 papers); Surface phenomena (3 papers); Lasers (3 papers); Low pressure discharges (1 paper); Selected topics in plasma physics (2 papers); High pressure discharges (3 papers); Probe techniques and theory (4 papers); Basic data and fundamental plasma processes (4 papers); Summary (1 paper). Each paper is in its original language (20 English, 3 French, 9 Russian and 2 German) and is preceded by an abstract in English, with a second one in the original language if this is not English. (author)

  1. Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Diane L.

    1994-01-01

    Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

  2. Valorisation of CO2-rich off-gases to biopolymers through biotechnological process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Linsey; De Wever, Heleen

    2017-11-01

    As one of the key enabling technologies, industrial biotechnology has a high potential to tackle harmful CO2 emissions and to turn CO2 into a valuable commodity. So far, experimental work mainly focused on the bioconversion of pure CO2 to chemicals and plastics and little is known about the tolerance of the bioprocesses to the presence of impurities. This work is the first to investigate the impact of real CO2-rich off-gases on autotrophic production of polyhydroxybutyrate. To this end, two-phase heterotrophic-autotrophic fermentation experiments were set up, consisting of heterothrophic cell mass growth using glucose as substrate followed by autotrophic biopolymer production using either pure synthetic CO2 or industrial off-gases sampled at two point sources. The use of real off-gases did not affect the bacterial performance. High biopolymer content (up to 73%) and productivities (up to 0.227 g/lh) were obtained. Characterisation of the polymers showed that all biopolymers had similar properties, independent of the CO2 source. Moreover, the CO2-derived biopolymers' properties were comparable to commercial ones and biopolymers reported in literature, which are all produced from organic carbon sources. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Geochemistry of coal-measure source rocks and natural gases in deep formations in Songliao Basin, NE China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Jingkui; Zhang, Shuichang; Hu, Guoyi; He, Kun [State Key Laboratory for Enhanced Oil Recovery, Beijing (China); Petroleum Geology Research and Laboratory Center, Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina (China); Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry, China National Petroleum Corp. (China)

    2010-12-01

    The natural gases developed in deep volcanic rock reservoirs of the Songliao Basin, NE China are characterized by enriched {delta}{sup 13}C value for methane and frequently reversal carbon isotopic distribution pattern. Although many researchers consider such gas type as an abiogenic origin, we believe the natural gases have a biogenic origin mainly except little inorganic gases and the reversal carbon isotopic distribution pattern of gases is caused by mixing of different origin gases. Methane carbon isotopic values for majority samples fall in the range from - 24 permille to - 32 permille, which is heavier than typical coal-type gases in other Chinese basins. There are several reasons caused heavy carbon isotope of methane: (1) Carbon isotopic values of source kerogen are 3-5 permille heavier than these from other basins; (2) Source rocks are at extremely high maturity stage with vitrinite reflectance mostly above 3.0%; (3) Portion of gas is derived from basement mudrock or slate with higher maturity. The observation on the organic from deep formation reveals that there is a relatively high content for liptinite, which reaches approximately 8 to 10%. The macerals component of source rock shows that the source rocks have some ability to generate oil. Small portion of oil was generated from high hydrogen content macerals in coals and shales as proof by oil found in microcrack and in micropore of coal and oil-bearing fluid inclusions grown in volcanic reservoir. The occurrence of pyrobitumen in volcanic reservoir indicates preexisted oil had been cracked into wet gas, and this kind of gas had also been found in gas pools. Heavy isotopic methane is derived from coal at extremely high maturity stage. There may be little inorganic alkane gases in deep layers for their geochemistry and special geological setting of Songliao Basin. Artificial mixing experiments of different origins gases confirm that inorganic gas such as gas from well FS1 mixed with other end members

  4. Operational experience of electron beam flue gases treatment pilot installation at the Maritsa East 2 Thermal Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutskinov, N. [NEK-EAD (Bulgaria)

    2011-07-01

    The electron beam flue gases treatment process is very versatile and effective technology for simultaneous removal of acidic pollutants i.e. sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) from the flue gas produced in the combustion of fossil fuel. The technology allows decomposition of VOC (volatile organic compound) such as polycyclic aromatic compound (PAC) and persistent organic pollutants (POP). The electron beam flue gases treatment technology for combustion flue gases purification was applied in Maritsa-East 2 Thermal Power Plant. The decision for construction of Electron Beam Pilot Plant at Maritsa-East 2 TPP was taken at the technical meeting in IAEA Vienna, November 1998. The flue gases of 10 000 nm³/h are irradiated by three high energy electron accelerators of 800 keV and 35 kW beam power each. The plant has been operated since November 2003. The removal efficiency 90-99% for SO{sub x} and 85-90% for NO{sub x} was observed. The quality of coals are characterised with high ash content up to 45%, high moisture up to 57%, low calorific value from 1196 kcal/kg up to 1603 kcal/kg and high concentration of sulphur. The Bulgarian lignite coals are unique in their usage as fuel for the thermal power plants in Maritsa East region. (author)

  5. Safety characteristics. Vol. 1. Combustible liquids and gases; Sicherheitstechnische Kenngroessen. Bd. 1. Brennbare Fluessigkeiten und Gase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, E.; Moeller, W. [Laboratorium ' Sicherheitstechnische Kenngroessen' , Braunschweig (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    This reference manual is based on the 2002 version of the CHEMSAFE database, which is produced since 1989 by the PTB (Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt), the BAM (Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung) and the DECHEMA (Gesellschaft fuer Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e.V.). About 1,900 combustible gases and vapours are listed, along with explosion protection characteristics like flame point, ignition temperature, explosion limits, minimum ignition energy, normal gap width, maximum explosion pressure, and maximum pressure increase over time. Important thermophysical data are presented as well, e.g. boiling temperature, vapour pressure as a function of temperature, melting temperature, and density. Definitions of the characteristics are presented. There are several indexis to facilitate acces (CAS number, sum formula, synonyms). [German] Anwender in Industrie, Handel, Handwerk und Behoerden benoetigen verlaessliche Daten, von Fachleuten bewertete Kenngroessen des Brand- und Explosionsschutzes, um Brand- und Explosionsgefahren beim Verarbeiten, Abfuellen, Lagern, Befoerdern und Entsorgen brennbarer Stoffe beurteilen und angemessene Schutzmassnahmen ergreifen zu koennen. Die 1989 gemeinsam mit der Bundesanstalt fuer Materialfoschung und -pruefung (BAM) und der Gesellschaft fuer Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e.v (DECHEMA) erstellte Datenbank CHEMSAFE diente als Grundlage dieses Nachschlagewerkes. Die hier bei Drucklegung wiedergegebenen Kenngroessen entsprechen dem Update 2002 der Datenbank CHEMSAFE. Etwa 1.900 brennbare Gase und Daempfe, Kenngroessen des Explosionsschutzes wie Flammpunkt, Zuendtemperatur, Explosionsgrenzen, Mindestzuendenergie, Normspaltweite, maximaler Explosionsdruck und maximaler zeitlicher Druckanstieg sind ebenso aufgelistet wie auch einige wichtige thermophysikalische Groessen wie Siedetemperatur, Dampfdruck als Funktion der Temperatur, Schmelztemperatur und Dichte. Die Angaben werden eingeleitet durch Definitionen

  6. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  7. Monitoring of air pollutants and greenhouse gases. Monitoring Krypton-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitchkov, V.

    1996-01-01

    Krypton-85 is an anthropogenic radioactive noble gas, a gaseous fission product which builds up in the atmosphere. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) integrates many monitoring and research activities involving the measurements of atmospheric composition. Kr-85 represents one of the gases recommended by the WMO for monitoring. The collaborative program of the Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (MEPI) and the US Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) NOAA activities is aimed at determining the possible future consequences of Krypton-85 content (trend) increasing in the earth's atmosphere. The research is conducted at the MEPI to study the character of KR-85 release into the atmosphere and its distribution in the atmosphere, to determine Kr-85 possible sources. If only the question of the direct impact of Kr-85 on climate would be considered, only the order of magnitude of the atmospheric concentration would be of interest. In this case almost any available detection method and a precision as low as some 10% would be acceptable. If however, Kr-85 is to be applied as a tracer for the improvement of our present knowledge of local, regional and global transport and mixing processes and the validation of global-scale transport and mixing models, a much higher precision is required (order of +1%). This high standard cannot be met without a permanent quality assurance programmer. It is within the framework of the WMO that MEPI and the Air Resources Laboratory NOAA USA proposes collaboration of Kr-85 scientific findings. The project MEPI open-quotes Monitoring Krypton-85close quotes is being financed through the International Science and Technology Center

  8. Methods of detecting tritium in gases and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petr, I

    1977-07-01

    Tritium mainly occurs in gases in two chemical forms, i.e., as water vapour (HTO) or elemental hydrogen (HT). Two methods for tritium gas measuring are described. The first consists in the use of an ionization chamber or a proportional counter with the sample sucked in through a filter to the detector working volume. The second consists in the separation of tritium (in the form of HTO) from the gas sample by sorption on silica gel or on molecular sieves and its detection using a liquid or a plastic scintillation detector. Tritium in the form of HT and gaseous organic tritium compounds are determined using the same measuring method after oxidation of the gaseous samples to HTO by burning. A description is given of detectors and measuring methods. Tritium in liquids mainly occurs in the form of tritiated water (HTO). The most commonly used method of tritium detection in liquids is the application of liquid scintillation detectors in which the sample is dissolved or suspended and measured with two photomultipliers in time-coincidence connection. The main advantage of liquid scintillators is the possibility to achieve the 4..pi.. measurement geometry. The methods of calibration and of checking the stability of a measuring system with liquid scintillators are described as are the applications of plastic scintillators in measuring tritium in liquids. Plastic scintillators are less costly in operation and show a more rapid response but their sensitivity is lower. The threshold values of activity are shown in dependence on the detector applied, the chemical form of tritium and the sampling method.

  9. Snowpack Chemistry of Reactive Gases at Station Concordia, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmig, Detlev; Mass, Alex; Hueber, Jacques; Fain, Xavier; Dommergue, Aurelien; Barbero, Albane; Savarino, Joel

    2013-04-01

    During December 2012 a new experiment for the study of snow photochemical processes and surface gas exchange was installed at Dome Concordia, Antarctica. The experiment consists of two sampling manifolds ('snow tower') which facilitate the withdrawal of interstitial firn air from four depths in the snowpack and from above the surface. One of these snow towers can be shaded for investigation of the dependency of snow chemistry on solar radiation. A nearby 12 m meteorological tower facilitates above surface turbulence and trace gas gradient measurements. Temperature profiles and UV and IR light penetration are monitored in the snowpack. Air samples are directed through sampling lines to a nearby underground laboratory that houses the experiment control system and gas monitors. The system is fully automated, sampling gases from the array of inlet ports sequentially, and is intended to be operated continuously for a full annual cycle. The computerized control system can be accessed remotely for data retrieval and quality control and for configuring experimental details. Continuous gas measurements include ozone, nitrogen oxides, methane, carbon monoxide, and gaseous elemental mercury. Whole air samples were sampled on four occasions for volatile organic compound analysis. The objective of this research is the study of the year-round snowpack gas chemistry and its dependency on snowpack and above surface physical and environmental conditions. A particular emphasis will be the investigation of the effects of increased UV radiation during the occurrence of the stratospheric ozone hole. We will present the conceptual design of the experiment and data examples from the first three months of the experiment.

  10. Shale oil. II. Gases from oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, R H; Manning, P D.V.

    1927-01-01

    Oil shale (from Colorado) was pyrolyzed, and the gaseous products obtained were studied. The organic material present in oil shale contains carboxyl groups that lose carbon dioxide during pyrolysis before the formation of soluble bitumen. Nitrogen was evolved as ammonia in two stages and was not continuous. The first evolution was from loosely combined nitrogen structures, whereas the second was from more stable forms. No hydrocarbons were present as such in the kerogen. The gaseous products from oil-shale pyrolysis were similar to those obtained by distillation of colophony, amber, coal, and wood. This places the kerogen of the oil shale in the same series of carbonaceous substances as those from which coals are formed. Kerogen appeared to be decomposed in three steps; namely, to insoluble bitumen, to soluble bitumen, and to oil (gas evolution accompanied each step). Its low solubility and the character of its pyrolytic gas indicated that kerogen is largely a resinous residue from vegetation of the past era and may have been formed by the tranportation of coal-forming organic debris to inland salty lakes or carried to the sea by clay-laden waters. The salt water and the natural settling action precipitated the clay and organic matter in an almost homogeneous deposit. Oil shales have existed to the present time because they have not been subjected to high pressures or elevated temperatures that would have changed them to petroleum.

  11. Apparatus for eliminating radioactive iodine from off-gases in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Yoshikazu; Kurihara, Koichi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the eliminating efficiency of an iodine eliminating apparatus using a dry process. Constitution: A hydrogen iodide conversion device and an organic iodine decomposing device are disposed prior to and subsequent to an adsorption tower using adsorbents for the removal of the iodine in a processing gas line through which radioactive iodine containing gases are passed. Elementary iodine and organic iodine can be eliminated by such simple devices. In the case of the dry processing by using the adsorbents, those adsorbents incorporated with inexpensive metal such as lead and copper can be used for the removal of the organic iodine and the radioactive iodine-adsorbing material can be processed as wastes, whereby iodine can effectively be eliminated at a reduced cost. (Moriyama, K.)

  12. Noble gases recycled into the mantle through cold subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smye, Andrew J.; Jackson, Colin R. M.; Konrad-Schmolke, Matthias; Hesse, Marc A.; Parman, Steve W.; Shuster, David L.; Ballentine, Chris J.

    2017-08-01

    Subduction of hydrous and carbonated oceanic lithosphere replenishes the mantle volatile inventory. Substantial uncertainties exist on the magnitudes of the recycled volatile fluxes and it is unclear whether Earth surface reservoirs are undergoing net-loss or net-gain of H2O and CO2. Here, we use noble gases as tracers for deep volatile cycling. Specifically, we construct and apply a kinetic model to estimate the effect of subduction zone metamorphism on the elemental composition of noble gases in amphibole - a common constituent of altered oceanic crust. We show that progressive dehydration of the slab leads to the extraction of noble gases, linking noble gas recycling to H2O. Noble gases are strongly fractionated within hot subduction zones, whereas minimal fractionation occurs along colder subduction geotherms. In the context of our modelling, this implies that the mantle heavy noble gas inventory is dominated by the injection of noble gases through cold subduction zones. For cold subduction zones, we estimate a present-day bulk recycling efficiency, past the depth of amphibole breakdown, of 5-35% and 60-80% for 36Ar and H2O bound within oceanic crust, respectively. Given that hotter subduction dominates over geologic history, this result highlights the importance of cooler subduction zones in regassing the mantle and in affecting the modern volatile budget of Earth's interior.

  13. Interaction of Se and GaSe with Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Shuang; Schroeder, B. R.; Olmstead, Marjorie A.

    2000-01-01

    Deposition of Se and GaSe on Si(111)7x7 surfaces was studied with low-energy electron diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray photoelectron diffraction to probe initial nucleation and interface structure for GaSe/Si(111) heteroepitaxy. Room-temperature deposition of Se on Si(111)7x7 results in an amorphous film. Subsequent annealing leads to Se evaporation without ordering or interdiffusion. Se deposition at 450 degree sign C saturates at submonolayer coverage with no diffusion of Se into the substrate. There is no clear evidence of ordered sites for the Se. Growth of GaSe on Si(111)7x7 above 500 degree sign C results in a pseudomorphic bilayer, with Si-Ga-Se bonding. Additional GaSe does not stick to the bilayer above 525 degree sign C. The resulting Se lone pair at the surface leads to an ideally passivated surface similar to As/Si(111). This stable surface is similar to the layer termination in bulk GaSe. The single domain bilayer is oriented with the Ga-Se bond parallel to the substrate Si-Si bond. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  14. [Prospects for Application of Gases and Gas Hydrates to Cryopreservation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishova, N V; Fesenko, E E

    2015-01-01

    In the present review, we tried to evaluate the known properties of gas hydrates and gases participating in the formation of gas hydrates from the point of view of the mechanisms of cryoinjury and cryoprotection, to consider the papers on freezing biological materials in the presence of inert gases, and to analyze the perspectives for the development of this direction. For the purpose, we searched for the information on the physical properties of gases and gas hydrates, compared processes occured during the formation of gas hydrates and water ice, analyzed the influence of the formation and growth of gas hydrates on the structure of biological objects. We prepared a short review on the biological effects of xenon, krypton, argon, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon monoxide especially on hypothermal conditions and probable application of these properties in cryopreservation technologies. The description of the existing experiments on cryopreservation of biological objects with the use of gases was analyzed. On the basis of the information we found, the most perspective directions of work in the field of cryopreservation of biological objects with the use of gases were outlined. An attempt was made to forecast the potential problems in this field.

  15. Assessment of the greenhouse gases in Mexico: Importance of the electric sector; Inventario de gases de invernadero en Mexico: Importancia del sector electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper are presented the principal results of the various studies on energy end uses developed by the Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM Group of Energy and Environment) for years 1987 and 1993, emphasizing on the emissions originated by the generation of electricity and for the following greenhouse effect gases: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and methane (CH{sub 4}). Also, a comparison is presented among Mexico and other Latin America countries based on statistics of OLADE (Latin American Organization of Energy) [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados de estudios diversos sobre usos finales de energia desarrollados por el Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) para los anos 1987 y 1993, poniendo enfasis en las emisiones debidas a la generacion de electricidad y para los siguientes gases de efecto invernadero: bioxido de carbono (CO{sub 2}), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx) y metano (HC{sub 4}). Asi mismo se presenta una comparacion entre Mexico y otros paises de Latinoamerica basado en estadisticas de la Organizacion Latinoamericana de Energia

  16. Assessment of the greenhouse gases in Mexico: Importance of the electric sector; Inventario de gases de invernadero en Mexico: Importancia del sector electrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheinbaum Pardo, Claudia [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper are presented the principal results of the various studies on energy end uses developed by the Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM Group of Energy and Environment) for years 1987 and 1993, emphasizing on the emissions originated by the generation of electricity and for the following greenhouse effect gases: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and methane (CH{sub 4}). Also, a comparison is presented among Mexico and other Latin America countries based on statistics of OLADE (Latin American Organization of Energy) [Espanol] En este trabajo se presentan los principales resultados de estudios diversos sobre usos finales de energia desarrollados por el Grupo de Energia y Ambiente del Instituto de Ingenieria de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM) para los anos 1987 y 1993, poniendo enfasis en las emisiones debidas a la generacion de electricidad y para los siguientes gases de efecto invernadero: bioxido de carbono (CO{sub 2}), monoxido de carbono (CO), oxidos de nitrogeno (NOx) y metano (HC{sub 4}). Asi mismo se presenta una comparacion entre Mexico y otros paises de Latinoamerica basado en estadisticas de la Organizacion Latinoamericana de Energia

  17. Spectroscopy and optical diagnostics for gases

    CERN Document Server

    Hanson, Ronald K; Goldenstein, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    This text provides an introduction to the science that governs the interaction of light and matter (in the gas phase). It provides readers with the basic knowledge to exploit the light-matter interaction to develop quantitative tools for gas analysis (i.e. optical diagnostics) and understand and interpret the results of spectroscopic measurements. The authors pair the basics of gas‐phase spectroscopy with coverage of key optical diagnostic techniques utilized by practicing engineers and scientists to measure fundamental flow‐field properties. The text is organized to cover three sub‐topics of gas‐phase spectroscopy: (1) spectral line positions, (2) spectral line strengths, and (3) spectral lineshapes by way of absorption, emission, and scattering interactions. The latter part of the book describes optical measurement techniques and equipment. Key subspecialties include laser induced fluorescence, tunable laser absorption spectroscopy, and wavelength modulation spectroscopy. It is ideal for students an...

  18. Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

  19. Thermodynamic properties of rotating trapped ideal Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yushan; Gu, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Ultracold atomic gases can be spined up either by confining them in rotating frame, or by introducing “synthetic” magnetic field. In this paper, thermodynamics of rotating ideal Bose gases are investigated within truncated-summation approach which keeps to take into account the discrete nature of energy levels, rather than to approximate the summation over single-particle energy levels by an integral as it does in semi-classical approximation. Our results show that Bose gases in rotating frame exhibit much stronger dependence on rotation frequency than those in “synthetic” magnetic field. Consequently, BEC can be more easily suppressed in rotating frame than in “synthetic” magnetic field.

  20. Hydrodynamics of Normal Atomic Gases with Spin-orbit Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yan-Hua; Yu, Zhenhua

    2015-10-20

    Successful realization of spin-orbit coupling in atomic gases by the NIST scheme opens the prospect of studying the effects of spin-orbit coupling on many-body physics in an unprecedentedly controllable way. Here we derive the linearized hydrodynamic equations for the normal atomic gases of the spin-orbit coupling by the NIST scheme with zero detuning. We show that the hydrodynamics of the system crucially depends on the momentum susceptibilities which can be modified by the spin-orbit coupling. We reveal the effects of the spin-orbit coupling on the sound velocities and the dipole mode frequency of the gases by applying our formalism to the ideal Fermi gas. We also discuss the generalization of our results to other situations.

  1. Emissions of exhaust gases and health of the person

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanova, Tatiana; Kernozhitskaya, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The auto-road complex brings the considerable contribution to pollution and adverse change of environment. Influence of exhaust gases of cars is at the bottom of occurrence and developments of various forms of diseases. Every townsman feels the negative influence rendered by motor transport on himself. The modern city dweller is so accustomed to the smell of exhaust gases that he does not even notice it at all, continues to breathe a poisonous mixture, while neither the car nor the road can be isolated from the habitats of people. The higher the population density, the higher the need for motor transport. The health effects of emissions of exhaust gases and vapors, including regulated and unregulated pollutants, are discussed in this article.

  2. A cluster dynamics study of fission gases in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorek, Richard

    2013-01-01

    During in-pile irradiation of nuclear fuels a lot of rare gases are produced, mainly xenon and krypton. The behaviour of these highly insoluble fission gases may lead to an additional load of the cladding, which may have detrimental safety consequences. For these reasons, fission gas behaviour (diffusion and clustering) has been extensively studied for years.In this work, we present an application of Cluster Dynamics to address the behaviour of fission gases in UO_2 which simultaneously describes changes in rare gas atom and point defect concentrations in addition to the bubble size distribution. This technique, applied to Kr implanted and annealed samples, yields a precise interpretation of the release curves and helps justifying the estimation of the Kr diffusion coefficient, which is a data very difficult to obtain due to the insolubility of the gas. (author) [fr

  3. Experimental Studies of CO2 Capturing from the Flue Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Rahmandoost

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available CO2 emissions from combustion flue gases have turned into a major factor in global warming. Post-combustion carbon capture (PCC from industrial utility flue gases by reactive absorption can substantially reduce the emissions of the greenhouse gas CO2. To test a new solvent (AIT600 for this purpose, a small pilot plant was used. This paper presents the results of studies on chemical methods of absorbing CO2 from flue gases with the new solvent, and evaluates the effects of operating conditions on CO2 absorption efficiency. CO2 removal rate of the AIT600 solvent was higher in comparison to the conventional monoethanolamine (MEA solvent. The optimized temperature of the absorber column was 60 °C for CO2 absorption in this pilot plant. The overall absorption rate (Φ and the volumetric overall mass transfer coefficient (KGaV were also investigated.

  4. High-resolution spectroscopy of gases for industrial applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fateev, Alexander; Clausen, Sønnik

    High-resolution spectroscopy of gases is a powerful technique which has various fundamental and practical applications: in situ simultaneous measurements of gas temperature and gas composition, radiative transfer modeling, validation of existing and developing of new databases and etc. Existing...... databases (e.g. HITRAN, HITEMP or CDSD) can normally be used for absorption spectra calculations at limited temperature/pressure ranges. Therefore experimental measurements of absorption/transmission spectra gases (e.g. CO2, H2O or SO2) at high-resolution and elevated temperatures are essential both...... for analysis of complex experimental data and further development of the databases. High-temperature gas cell facilities available at DTU Chemical Engineering are presented and described. The gas cells and high-resolution spectrometers allow us to perform high-quality reference measurements of gases relevant...

  5. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determining air distribution during outbursts of gases and rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminski, A; Sikora, M; Urbanski, J [Politechnika Wroclawska (Poland). Instytut Gornictwa

    1989-01-01

    Discusses use of the KPW-1 iterative and autocorrelation method developed by A. Struminski for forecasting effects of rock bursts on ventilation systems of underground coal mines with increased content of methane or carbon dioxide in coal seams and adjacent rock strata. The method is used for prediction of air flow changes caused by a rock burst accompanied by violent outburst of gases. Directions of air flow, flow rate and concentration of gases emitted from surrounding strata to mine workings are predicted. On the basis of this prediction concentration of gases from a coal outburst is determined for any point in a ventilation network. The prediction method is used for assessing hazards for coal mines during and after a rock burst. Use of the method is explained on the example of the Thorez and Walbrzych coal mines. Computer programs developed for ODRA and IBM/XT computers are discussed. 6 refs.

  7. μ+ thermalization and muonium formation in noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.G.; Mikula, R.J.; Garner, D.M.; British Columbia Univ., Vancouver

    1981-01-01

    One energy loss mechanism in μ + thermalization (in gases) is that due to charge exchange, in which muonium is repeatedly formed and lost in a series of charge-exchange cycles μ + +e - reversible Mu, a process which depends on the ionization potential of the moderator gas but one in which no depolarization of the μ + is expected at approx. 1 atm. pressure. However, if the time between collisions in a given energy regime can be made sufficiently long then additional depolarization may occur, which can provide further information on the charge-exchange process itself. Extensive data showing this effect has been found in gases; results for the noble gases are presented. (orig.)

  8. Multisensor system for toxic gases detection generated on indoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, C. M.; Monsalve, P. A. G.; Mosquera, C. J.

    2016-11-01

    This work describes a wireless multisensory system for different toxic gases detection generated on indoor environments (i.e., Underground coal mines, etc.). The artificial multisensory system proposed in this study was developed through a set of six chemical gas sensors (MQ) of low cost with overlapping sensitivities to detect hazardous gases in the air. A statistical parameter was implemented to the data set and two pattern recognition methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) were used for feature selection. The toxic gases categories were classified with a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) in order to validate the results previously obtained. The tests were carried out to verify feasibility of the application through a wireless communication model which allowed to monitor and store the information of the sensor signals for the appropriate analysis. The success rate in the measures discrimination was 100%, using an artificial neural network where leave-one-out was used as cross validation method.

  9. Sampling and analysis methods for geothermal fluids and gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, J.C.

    1978-07-01

    The sampling procedures for geothermal fluids and gases include: sampling hot springs, fumaroles, etc.; sampling condensed brine and entrained gases; sampling steam-lines; low pressure separator systems; high pressure separator systems; two-phase sampling; downhole samplers; and miscellaneous methods. The recommended analytical methods compiled here cover physical properties, dissolved solids, and dissolved and entrained gases. The sequences of methods listed for each parameter are: wet chemical, gravimetric, colorimetric, electrode, atomic absorption, flame emission, x-ray fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, ion exchange chromatography, spark source mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis, and emission spectrometry. Material on correction of brine component concentrations for steam loss during flashing is presented. (MHR)

  10. Opportunity to reduce the exhaust gases with engine adjust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrovski, Mile; Mucevski, Kiril

    2002-01-01

    According to statistics in the Republic of Macedonia, the number of old vehicles is about 90%. These are vehicles produced between 1975 and 1990 with classical systems for forming and burning the fuel mixture. The most of them do not have system for processing exhaust gases (catalytic converter) and are serious air pollutants of carbon monoxide (CO). In this article we try to make an attempt to reduce exhaust gases in some kinds of these vehicles with adjusting to the system for burning fuel mixture and with adjusting to the system for forming fuel mixture (carburetor). At the same time the changes on the rotate bending moment and engine power are followed. It is noticed that with a proper adjustment the emission of exhaust gases can be reduced without a serious depreciation of the rotate bending moment and the engine power. (Author)

  11. A route to ultrathin quantum gases at polar perovskite heterointerfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar

    2012-09-07

    Oxide interfaces are attracting interest in recent years due to special functionalities of two-dimensional quantum gases. However, with typical thicknesses of at least 10-12 Å the gases still extend considerably in the third dimension, which compromises the size of quantum effects. To overcome this limitation, we propose incorporation of highly electronegative cations, such as Ag. By ab initio calculations, we demonstrate the formation of a mobile two-dimensional hole gas in AgNbO 3/SrTiO 3 that is confined to an ultrathin slab of only 5.6 Å thickness. Electronegative cations therefore are a promising way to enhance the quantum nature of hole gases. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Adsorption of Dissolved Gases (CH4, CO2, H2, Noble Gases) by Water-Saturated Smectite Clay Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourg, I. C.; Gadikota, G.; Dazas, B.

    2016-12-01

    Adsorption of dissolved gases by water-saturated clay minerals plays important roles in a range of fields. For example, gas adsorption in on clay minerals may significantly impact the formation of CH4 hydrates in fine-grained sediments, the behavior of CH4 in shale, CO2 leakage across caprocks of geologic CO2 sequestration sites, H2 leakage across engineered clay barriers of high-level radioactive waste repositories, and noble gas geochemistry reconstructions of hydrocarbon migration in the subsurface. Despite its importance, the adsorption of gases on clay minerals remains poorly understood. For example, some studies have suggested that clay surfaces promote the formation of CH4 hydrates, whereas others indicate that clay surfaces inhibit the formation of CH4 hydrates. Here, we present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the adsorption of a range of gases (CH4, CO2, H2, noble gases) on clay mineral surfaces. Our results indicate that the affinity of dissolved gases for clay mineral surfaces has a non-monotone dependence on the hydrated radius of the gas molecules. This non-monotone dependence arises from a combination of two effects: the polar nature of certain gas molecules (in particular, CO2) and the templating of interfacial water structure by the clay basal surface, which results in the presence of interfacial water "cages" of optimal size for intermediate-size gas molecules (such as Ne or Ar).

  13. Radiolytic and thermal generation of gases from Hanford grout samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meisel, D.; Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.; Matheson, M.S.; Mulac, W.A.

    1993-10-01

    Gamma irradiation of WHC-supplied samples of grouted Tank 102-AP simulated nonradioactive waste has been carried out at three dose rates, 0.25, 0.63, and 130 krad/hr. The low dose rate corresponds to that in the actual grout vaults; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to more than 40 years in the grout vault were achieved. An average G(H{sub 2}) = 0.047 molecules/100 eV was found, independent of dose rate. The rate of H2 production decreases above 80 Mrad. For other gases, G(N{sub 2}) = 0.12, G(O{sub 2}) = 0.026, G(N{sub 2}O) = 0.011 and G(CO) = 0.0042 at 130 krad/hr were determined. At lower dose rates, N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} could not be measured because of interference by trapped air. The value of G(H{sub 2}) is higher than expected, suggesting segregation of water from nitrate and nitrite salts in the grout. The total pressure generated by the radiolysis at 130 krad/h has been independently measured, and total amounts of gases generated were calculated from this measurement. Good agreement between this measurement and the sum of all the gases that were independently determined was obtained. Therefore, the individual gas measurements account for most of the major components that are generated by the radiolysis. At 90 {degree}C, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were generated at a rate that could be described by exponential formation of each of the gases. Gases measured at the lower temperatures were probably residual trapped gases. An as yet unknown product interfered with oxygen determinations at temperatures above ambient. The thermal results do not affect the radiolytic findings.

  14. Unmanned Aerial Systems for Monitoring Trace Tropospheric Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J. Schuyler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs has changed the composition of the atmosphere during the Anthropocene. Accurately documenting the sources and magnitude of GHGs emission is an important undertaking for discriminating the contributions of different processes to radiative forcing. Currently there is no mobile platform that is able to quantify trace gases at altitudes <100 m above ground level that can achieve spatiotemporal resolution on the order of meters and seconds. Unmanned aerial systems (UASs can be deployed on-site in minutes and can support the payloads necessary to quantify trace gases. Therefore, current efforts combine the use of UASs available on the civilian market with inexpensively designed analytical systems for monitoring atmospheric trace gases. In this context, this perspective introduces the most relevant classes of UASs available and evaluates their suitability to operate three kinds of detectors for atmospheric trace gases. The three subsets of UASs discussed are: (1 micro aerial vehicles (MAVs; (2 vertical take-off and landing (VTOL; and, (3 low-altitude short endurance (LASE systems. The trace gas detectors evaluated are first the vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL, which is an infrared laser-absorption technique; second two types of metal-oxide semiconductor sensors; and, third a modified catalytic type sensor. UASs with wingspans under 3 m that can carry up to 5 kg a few hundred meters high for at least 30 min provide the best cost and convenience compromise for sensors deployment. Future efforts should be focused on the calibration and validation of lightweight analytical systems mounted on UASs for quantifying trace atmospheric gases. In conclusion, UASs offer new and exciting opportunities to study atmospheric composition and its effect on weather patterns and climate change.

  15. Optimización del control de la capacidad de adsorción de gases contaminantes en lechos secos

    OpenAIRE

    Michelangeli Ortiz, Gustavo Adolfo

    2016-01-01

    In the process of storage, transportation and distribution of fruits, vegetables and flowers large amounts of gases such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and one in particular that is the ethylene produced, a plant hormone that is associated with ripening fruits climacteric and senescence of plants, why the elimination and control of this is needed to extend the life of fruit and horticultural products as avoid senescence. Currently there are several methods for preventing or removing eth...

  16. GAZVIL - Gases and gas mixtures for welding in protective medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avram, I.; Constantin, N.; Cristescu, I.; Stefan, L.; Zamfirache, M.

    1996-01-01

    Gases and gas mixtures are used in machine building industry as protective environment in the welding by the procedures: MIG, MAG, TIG, plasma and micro-plasma. Also they are used in jet plasma production as well as controlled environment in materials heat treatments, passivation or protective procedures of equipment of chemical and petrochemical industries. Gases and gas mixtures are obtained in particular quality conditions while their purity is certified by specific methods making use of performing technology in laboratories to be qualified in the frame of the RELAR system

  17. Universal relaxation times for electron and nucleon gases

    OpenAIRE

    Pelc, M.; Marciak-Kozlowska, J.; Kozlowski, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the universal relaxation times for electron and nucleon fermionic gases. We argue that the universal relaxation time tau(i) is equal tau(i)=h/m square v(i) where v(i)=alpha(i)c and alpha(1)=0.15 for nucleon gas and alpha(2)=1/137 for electron gas, c=light velocity. With the universal relaxation time we formulate the thermal Proca equation for fermionic gases. Key words: universal relaxation time, thermal universal Proca equation.

  18. Damping of multispan heat exchanger tubes. Pt. 1: in gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettigrew, M.J.; Goyder, H.G.D.; Qiao, Z.L.; Axisa, F.

    1986-07-01

    Flow-induced vibration analyses of heat exchanger tubes require the knowledge of damping. This paper treats the question of damping on multispan heat exchanger tubes in air and gases. The different energy dissipation mechanisms that contribute to tube damping are discussed. The available experimental data are reviewed and analysed. We find that the main damping mechanism in gases is friction between tube and tube-supports. Damping is strongly related to tube-support thickness. Damping values are recommended for design purposes. This study is interesting in the nuclear industry for it often uses heat exchangers

  19. Greenhouse effect of trace gases, 1970-1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacis, A.; Hansen, J.; Lee, P.; Lebedeff, S.; Mitchell, T.

    1981-01-01

    Increased abundances were measured for several trace atmospheric gases in the decade 1970-1980. The equilibrium greenhouse warming for the measured increments of CH4, chlorofluorocarbons and N2O is between 50% and 100% of the equilibrium warming for the measured increase of atmospheric CO2 during the same 10 years. The combined warming of CO2 and trace gases should exceed natural global temperature variability in the 1980's and cause the global mean temperature to rise above the maximum of the late 1930's.

  20. On the relativistic partition function of ideal gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinyukov, Yu.M.

    1983-01-01

    The covariant partition function method for ideal Boltzmann and Bose gases is developed within quantum field theory. This method is a basis to describe the statistical and thermodynamical properties of the gases in canonical, grand canonical and pressure ensembles in an arbitrary inertial system. It is shown that when statistical systems are described relativistically it is very important to take into account the boundary conditions. This is due to the fact that an equilibrium system is not closed mechanically. The results may find application in hadron physics. (orig.)

  1. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1986-01-01

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  2. Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, J.I.

    1985-02-08

    Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

  3. Device for adsorbing exhaled radioactive gases and process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasser, H.; Panetta, P.F.

    1976-01-01

    Sorption means are provided for sorbing radioactive gases, as in the exhalations of a living subject, especially for nuclear diagnostic test studies, comprising means for adsorbing the radioactive gas onto activated carbon, the carbon being contained in a plurality of independent, series-connected, chambers. The sorption means are especially adapted for the adsorption of radioactive inert gases such as xenon-133 ( 133 Xe). There can also be provided indicator means for indicating the flow-through of xenon comprising an indicator which changes color upon contact with xenon, such as dioxygenylhexafluoroantimoniate. 14 claims, 7 drawing figures

  4. Change in the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GARREC, Jean-Pierre

    2000-01-01

    With the constant increase in industrial and agricultural activities since the beginning of the 20. Century, human societies have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere both in their immediate vicinity and further afar. The most preoccupying problem today is the increase in the so-called greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O, CFC, O 3 ). Indeed, these pollutant gases generally have long life cycles and consequently have for the first time produced a change in the composition of the atmosphere on a global scale inducing deferred effects such as a likely change in the earth's climate. (author)

  5. Detection of gases and gas mixtures by correlation spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Dakin, J.P.; Gunning, M.J.; Chambers, P.

    2002-01-01

    The reliable detection and monitoring of gases and gas mixtures is known to play a crucial role in many real-world environmental and industrial applications. It is of considerable importance to utilise techniques that are not susceptible to poisoning, are specific to a target gas in a mixture, are unaffected by contaminants, and can be adapted for in-process monitoring. Ever-more stringent requirements in this field dictate a need for ongoing research in this area. As many common gases exhibi...

  6. Capacitors on the basis of intercalate GaSe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalyuk Z. D.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The compound GaSe is obtained by the technique of intercalation of a GaSe single crystal in a melt of the ferroelectric salt KNO3. The x-ray analysis of its crystal structure has been carried out and dielectric frequency characteristics of samples has been measured. It is estab-lished, that accumulation of electric charges occurs in the examined examples in frequency area 100—1000 Hz. A sample of filter capacitor has been created on the basis of the re-ceived compounds.

  7. Cost-effectiveness in the mitigation of green house gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, Francisco Carlos

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cost-effectiveness in the mitigation of green house gases from solar, eolic and nuclear energy sources, concluding that nuclear is, not doubt, the mos efficient. On the other hand, nuclear is the unique source that can be installed without limit in magnitude and in the proximity of the demand, and is for all these reasons that several environmental referents in the world have changed their perception on this source and defend it as the unique actual alternative to fight against the emission of green house gases. (author) [es

  8. Studies on the Gases Emission under High Temperature Condition from Moulding Sands Bonded by Modified Starch CMS-Na

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarska K.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Emission of gases under high temperature after pouring molten metal into moulds, which contain the organic binder or other additives (solvents or curing agent, may be an important factor influencing both on the quality of the produced castings, and on the state of environment. Therefore, a comprehensive study of the emitted gases would allow to determine restrictions on the use of the moulding sands in foundry technologies, eg. the probability of occurrence of casting defects, and identify the gaseous pollutants emitted to the environment. The aim of the research presented in this paper was to determine the amount of gases that are released at high temperatures from moulding sands bonded by biopolymer binder and the quantitative assessment of the emitted pollutants with particular emphasis on chemical compounds: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX. The water-soluble modified potato starch as a sodium carboxymethyl starch with low (CMS-NaL or high (CMS-NaH degree of substitution was a binder in the tested moulding sands. A tests of gases emission level were conducted per the procedure developed at the Faculty of Foundry Engineering (AGH University of Science and Technology involving gas chromatography method (GC. The obtained results of the determination of amount of BTEX compounds generated during the decomposition process of starch binders showed lower emission of aromatic hydrocarbons in comparison with binder based on resin Kaltharz U404 with the acidic curing agent commonly used in the foundries.

  9. Efficient fully controlled up-to-date equipment for catalytic treatment of waste gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvorak, Radek; Stulir, Roman; Cagas, Pavel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes research and development of a new unit for catalytic destruction of waste gases polluted mainly by volatile organic compounds (VOC), halogenated organic compounds (HOC) or carbon monoxide. Novel equipment has considerable advantages compared with commonly used arrangement (combustion chamber (catalytic reactor)-pipeline-heat exchanger). It is very compact and light and has the combustion chamber, catalytic reactor and heat exchanger integrated into one unit. Maximum utilizing heat losses in the combustion chamber and catalytic reactor is achieved. During the development of this unit experience from tests of previously developed equipment used for thermal treatment of waste gases was used, as well as from experimental studies of catalytic disposal of various VOC carried out in the newly built experimental unit. During the development calculation methods were created allowing design modifications of this unit for real industrial applications. The newly developed unit can be used in various branches of industry such as paint shops, refining plants, sewage treatment plants, food processing industry, pharmaceutical industry, but also in companies processing and transporting crude-oil or natural gas, etc

  10. Thermodynamics, Gibbs Method and Statistical Physics of Electron Gases Gibbs Method and Statistical Physics of Electron Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Askerov, Bahram M

    2010-01-01

    This book deals with theoretical thermodynamics and the statistical physics of electron and particle gases. While treating the laws of thermodynamics from both classical and quantum theoretical viewpoints, it posits that the basis of the statistical theory of macroscopic properties of a system is the microcanonical distribution of isolated systems, from which all canonical distributions stem. To calculate the free energy, the Gibbs method is applied to ideal and non-ideal gases, and also to a crystalline solid. Considerable attention is paid to the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein quantum statistics and its application to different quantum gases, and electron gas in both metals and semiconductors is considered in a nonequilibrium state. A separate chapter treats the statistical theory of thermodynamic properties of an electron gas in a quantizing magnetic field.

  11. Impact of Emissions of Marine Diesel Engines to Air Pollution on the Example of the Yugoslav River Shipping

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Ljevaja

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this paper is the impact which marine diesel engines have on air pollution. The combustion of fossil fuels for marine diesel engines produces emission of various greenhouse gases; including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), and sulphur dioxide (SO2). Gas emission calculation is shown on the example of the Yugoslav river shipping with two methods for calculati...

  12. Analyzers Measure Greenhouse Gases, Airborne Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In complete darkness, a NASA observatory waits. When an eruption of boiling water billows from a nearby crack in the ground, the observatory s sensors seek particles in the fluid, measure shifts in carbon isotopes, and analyze samples for biological signatures. NASA has landed the observatory in this remote location, far removed from air and sunlight, to find life unlike any that scientists have ever seen. It might sound like a scene from a distant planet, but this NASA mission is actually exploring an ocean floor right here on Earth. NASA established a formal exobiology program in 1960, which expanded into the present-day Astrobiology Program. The program, which celebrated its 50th anniversary in 2010, not only explores the possibility of life elsewhere in the universe, but also examines how life begins and evolves, and what the future may hold for life on Earth and other planets. Answers to these questions may be found not only by launching rockets skyward, but by sending probes in the opposite direction. Research here on Earth can revise prevailing concepts of life and biochemistry and point to the possibilities for life on other planets, as was demonstrated in December 2010, when NASA researchers discovered microbes in Mono Lake in California that subsist and reproduce using arsenic, a toxic chemical. The Mono Lake discovery may be the first of many that could reveal possible models for extraterrestrial life. One primary area of interest for NASA astrobiologists lies with the hydrothermal vents on the ocean floor. These vents expel jets of water heated and enriched with chemicals from off-gassing magma below the Earth s crust. Also potentially within the vents: microbes that, like the Mono Lake microorganisms, defy the common characteristics of life on Earth. Basically all organisms on our planet generate energy through the Krebs Cycle, explains Mike Flynn, research scientist at NASA s Ames Research Center. This metabolic process breaks down sugars for energy

  13. Contamination control methods for gases used in the microlithography process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabellino, Larry; Applegarth, Chuck; Vergani, Giorgio

    2002-07-01

    Sensitivity to contamination continues to increase as the technology shrinks from 365 nm I-line lamp illumination to 13.4 nm Extreme Ultraviolet laser activated plasma. Gas borne impurities can be readily distributed within the system, remaining both suspended in the gas and attached to critical surfaces. Effects from a variety of contamination, some well characterized and others not, remain a continuing obstacle for stepper manufacturers and users. Impurities like oxygen, moisture and hydrocarbons in parts per billion levels can absorb light, reducing the light intensity and subsequently reducing the consistence of the process. Moisture, sulfur compounds, ammonia, acid compounds and organic compounds such as hydrocarbons can deposit on lens or mirror surfaces affecting image quality. Regular lens replacement or removal for cleaning is a costly option and in-situ cleaning processes must be carefully managed to avoid recontamination of the system. The contamination can come from outside the controlled environment (local gas supply, piping system, & leaks), or from the materials moving into the controlled environment; or contamination may be generated inside the controlled environment as a result of the process itself. The release of amines can occur as a result of the degassing of the photo-resists. For the manufacturer and user of stepper equipment, the challenge is not in predictable contamination, but the variable or unpredictable contamination in the process. One type of unpredictable contamination may be variation in the environmental conditions when producing the nitrogen gas and Clean Dry Air (CDA). Variation in the CDA, nitrogen and xenon may range from parts per billion to parts per million. The risk due to uncontrolled or unmonitored variation in gas quality can be directly related to product defects. Global location can significantly affect the gas quality, due to the ambient air quality (for nitrogen and CDA), production methods, gas handling equipment

  14. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that

  15. Greenhouse gases study in Amazonia; Estudo de gases de efeito estufa na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amelio, Monica Tais Siqueira

    2006-07-01

    The Amazon plays an important role on the global carbon cycle, as changing as carbon storage, since Amazon Basin is the biggest area of tropical forest, around 50% of global. Natural's process, deforestation, and use land are CO{sub 2} sources. The Amazon forest is a significant source of N{sub 2}O by soil process, and CH{sub 4} by anaerobic process like flooded areas, rice cultures, and others sources. This project is part of the LBA project (Large-Scale Biosphere Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia), and this project is 'Vertical profiles of carbon dioxide and other trace gas species over the Amazon basin using small aircraft'. Since December 2000 vertical profiles of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and SF{sub 6} have been measured above central Amazonia. The local sampling was over Tapajos National Forest, a primary forest in Para State, where had a CO{sub 2} flux tower and an east impact area with sources like animals, rice cultivation, biomass burning, etc, to compare the influence of an impact area and a preserved area in the profiles. The Reserva Biologica de Cuieiras, at Amazon State, is the other studied place, where there already exists a CO{sub 2} flux tower, and an east preserved area at this State, to compare with the Cuieiras. The sampling has been carried out on vertical profile from 1000 ft up to 12000 ft using a semi-automated sampling package developed at GMD/NOAA and a small aircraft. The analysis uses the MAGICC system (Multiple Analysis of Gases Influence Climate Change) which is installed at the Atmospheric Chemistry Laboratory (LQA) in IPEN (Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares). The results showed that all gases studied, except H{sub 2} gas, has been following the global trend. At the Para State, for the studied years, the Amazonian Forest performed as small CO{sub 2} sink. To compare Wet and Dry Seasons, subtracted the Ascension concentration values in the period to remove the global influence. So that, in the 2004 and

  16. Emission and Sink of Greenhouse Gases in Soils of Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozharova, N. V.; Kulachkova, S. A.; Lebed'-Sharlevich, Ya. I.

    2018-03-01

    The first inventory and zoning of the emission and sink of methane and carbon dioxide in the urban structure of greenhouse gases from soils and surface technogenic formations (STFs) (Technosols) on technogenic, recrementogenic, and natural sediments have been performed with consideration for the global warming potential under conditions of different formation rate of these gases, underflooding, and sealing. From gas geochemical criteria and anthropogenic pedogenesis features, the main sources of greenhouse gases, their intensity, and mass emission were revealed. The mass fractions of emissions from the sectors of waste and land use in the inventories of greenhouse gas emissions have been determined. New sources of gas emission have been revealed in the first sector, the emissions from which add tens of percent to the literature and state reports. In the second sector, emissions exceed the available data in 70 times. Estimation criteria based on the degree of manifestation and chemical composition of soil-geochemical anomalies and barrier capacities have been proposed. The sink of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere and the internal (latent) sink of methane in soils and STFs have been determined. Ecological functions of soils and STFs have been shown, and the share of latent methane sink has been calculated. The bacterial oxidation of methane in soils and STFs exceeds its emission to the atmosphere in almost hundred times.

  17. EOSN: A TOUGH2 module for noble gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Chao; Pruess, Karsten

    2003-01-01

    We developed a new fluid property module for TOUGH2, called EOSN, to simulate transport of noble gases in the subsurface. Currently, users may select any of five different noble gases as well as CO2, two at a time. For the three gas components (air and two user-specified noble gases) in EOSN, the Henry's coefficients and the diffusivities in the gas phase are no longer assumed constants, but are temperature dependent. We used the Crovetto et al. (1982) model to estimate Henry's coefficients, and the Reid et al. (1987) correlations to calculate gas phase diffusivities. The new module requires users to provide names of the selected noble gases, which properties are provided internally. There are options for users to specify any (non-zero) molecular weights and half-lives for the gas components. We provide two examples to show applications of TOUGH2IEOSN. While temperature effects are relatively insignificant for one example problem where advection is dominant, they cause almost an order of magnitude difference for the other case where diffusion becomes a dominant process and temperature variations are relatively large. It appears that thermodynamic effects on gas diffusivities and Henry's coefficients can be important for low-permeability porous media and zones with large temperature variations

  18. Spectrum of spin waves in cold polarized gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, T. L., E-mail: phdocandreeva@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The spin dynamics of cold polarized gases are investigated using the Boltzmann equation. The dispersion relation for spin waves (transverse component of the magnetic moment) and the spin diffusion coefficient of the longitudinal component of the magnetic moment are calculated without using fitting parameters. The spin wave frequency and the diffusion coefficient for rubidium atoms are estimated numerically.

  19. A route to ultrathin quantum gases at polar perovskite heterointerfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Nazir, Safdar; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    that is confined to an ultrathin slab of only 5.6 Å thickness. Electronegative cations therefore are a promising way to enhance the quantum nature of hole gases. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Interaction effects on dynamic correlations in noncondensed Bose gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezett, A.; Van Driel, H. J.; Mink, M. P.; Stoof, H. T C; Duine, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider dynamic, i.e., frequency-dependent, correlations in noncondensed ultracold atomic Bose gases. In particular, we consider the single-particle correlation function and its power spectrum. We compute this power spectrum for a one-component Bose gas, and we show how it depends on the

  1. Atomtronics: Material and Device Physics of Quantum Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    matter physics to electrical engineering. Our projects title Atomtronics: Material and device physics of quantum gases illustrates the chasm we bridged...starting from therich and fundamental physics already revealed with cold atoms systems, then leading to an understanding of the functional materials

  2. The greenhouse effect gases; Les gaz a effet de serre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the greenhouse effect gases. It presents the greenhouses effect as a key component of the climate system, the impacts of the human activity, the foreseeable consequences of global warming, the Kyoto protocol and Total commitment in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  3. EOSN: A TOUGH2 module for noble gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, Chao; Pruess, Karsten

    2003-03-07

    We developed a new fluid property module for TOUGH2, called EOSN, to simulate transport of noble gases in the subsurface. Currently, users may select any of five different noble gases as well as CO2, two at a time. For the three gas components (air and two user-specified noble gases) in EOSN, the Henry's coefficients and the diffusivities in the gas phase are no longer assumed constants, but are temperature dependent. We used the Crovetto et al. (1982) model to estimate Henry's coefficients, and the Reid et al. (1987) correlations to calculate gas phase diffusivities. The new module requires users to provide names of the selected noble gases, which properties are provided internally. There are options for users to specify any (non-zero) molecular weights and half-lives for the gas components. We provide two examples to show applications of TOUGH2IEOSN. While temperature effects are relatively insignificant for one example problem where advection is dominant, they cause almost an order of magnitude difference for the other case where diffusion becomes a dominant process and temperature variations are relatively large. It appears that thermodynamic effects on gas diffusivities and Henry's coefficients can be important for low-permeability porous media and zones with large temperature variations.

  4. Inventory of greenhouse gases emissions from gasoline and diesel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emissions from fossil fuel combustion are of global concern due to their negative effects on public health and environment. This paper is an inventory of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) released into the environment through consumption of fuels (gasoline and diesel) in Nigeria from 1980 to 2014. The fuel consumption data ...

  5. Quantum statistics of ideal gases in confined space

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of boundary and connectivity on ideal gases in two-dimensional confined space and three-dimensional tubes are discussed in detail based on the analytical result. The implication of such effects on the mesoscopic system is also revealed.

  6. Kinetic Theory Derivation of the Adiabatic Law for Ideal Gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Michael I.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses how the adiabatic law for ideal gases can be derived from the assumption of a Maxwell-Boltzmann (or any other) distribution of velocities--in contrast to the usual derivations from thermodynamics alone, and the higher-order effect that leads to one-body viscosity. An elementary derivation of the adiabatic law is given. (Author/DS)

  7. Quantum information entropies of ultracold atomic gases in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The position and momentum space information entropies of weakly interacting trapped atomic Bose–Einstein condensates and spin-polarized trapped atomic Fermi gases at absolute zero temperature are evaluated. We find that sum of the position and momentum space information entropies of these quantum systems ...

  8. Quantum statistics of ideal gases in confined space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Wusheng; Xie Mi

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, the effects of boundary and connectivity on ideal gases in two-dimensional confined space and three-dimensional tubes are discussed in detail based on the analytical result. The implication of such effects on the mesoscopic system is also revealed

  9. Quantum information entropies of ultracold atomic gases in a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    bosonic systems and a ≃ 1.982 and b = 1 for ideal fermionic systems. These results obey the entropic uncertainty relation given by Beckner, Bialynicki-Birula and Myceilski. Keywords. Ultracold atomic gases; information entropy; foundations of quantum mechanics. PACS Nos 67.85.−d; 89.70.Cf; 03.65.Ta. 1. Introduction.

  10. Rare gases adsorption and separation on silver doped adsorbent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deliere, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) implements means for detecting nuclear tests in an International Monitoring System (IMS). The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA) has developed in the mid-90's, the SPALAX system (Systeme de Prelevement d'Air en Ligne avec l'Analyse des radioXenons). Xenon analysis, including radioactive isotopes from the fission reaction during the explosion, requires the development of highly efficient process for xenon concentration. In this work, the adsorption and diffusion phenomena of noble gases are studied in silver exchanged ZSM-5 zeolite. The 'experience/Monte Carlo simulation' coupling is used to determine the essential thermodynamic data on the adsorption of noble gases and to characterize the adsorption sites. The presence of a strong adsorption site, identified as silver nanoparticles and intervening at low concentration of noble gases (including xenon and radon) in some silver exchanged zeolites, achieves adsorption and selectivity performance to date unrivaled. These results allow considering their use in many critical applications in the field of capture and separation of rare gases: rare gas industrial production, reprocessing of spent fuel from gas, radon in air pollution control. (author) [fr

  11. Caldera de recuperación de gases perdidos

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Thielepape, Daniel José

    2011-01-01

    El objeto de este proyecto es describir las instalaciones de la caldera de recuperación de gases perdidos. Más concretamente, las instalaciones de una nueva Planta de Reciclado de Aceite Lubricante en el Campo de Gibraltar, ubicada en el Polígono Industrial del término municipal de San Roque (Cádiz).

  12. Device for determining heat capacity of gases and gas mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachev, N

    1980-01-01

    This article describes the use of a capillary-flow colorimeter to determine the heat capacity of gases and gaseous mixtures. The research and tests confirm the possibility and advisability of making these measurements. The calorimeters are graduated to allow for the influence of the pressure and temperature of the investigated gas and exchange with the environment.

  13. 75 FR 66433 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 86 and 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse...; FRL-9213-5] RIN 2060-A079 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting rule to correct certain technical and editorial errors that have been...

  14. 75 FR 33949 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Part III Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Parts 86 and 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse...; FRL-9158-6] RIN 2060-A079 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Final Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting rule (2009 Final MRR) to correct certain technical and...

  15. 75 FR 18455 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule amendment. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to amend the Mandatory Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Reporting Rule, to require.... The Mandatory GHG Reporting Rule requires greenhouse gas emitting facilities and suppliers of fuels...

  16. Desulfurization of waste gases of the incinerator after petroleum refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samesova, D.; Ladomersky, J.

    2001-01-01

    Desulfurization of waste gases of the incinerator after petroleum refining was developed. Mixing of wastes with lime (10% of additive of total volume of waste) was proved before introduction into incinerator. Concentrations of CO, CO 2 , O 2 , NO 2 , SO 2 and temperature of combustion products were measured by automatic analyser

  17. Muonium formation in noble gases and noble gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stambaugh, R.D.; Casperson, D.E.; Crane, T.W.; Hughes, V.W.; Kaspar, H.F.; Souder, P.; Thompson, P.A.; Orth, H.; zu Putlitz, G.; Denison, A.B.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment is reported to study the behavior of positive muons stopped in He, Ne, and Xe in order to provide a more complete understanding of muonium formation in the noble gases. Free muon and muonium precession are plotted. (U.S.)

  18. Optical monitoring of gases with cholesteric liquid crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.; Pacheco Morillo, K.B.; Bastiaansen, C.W.M.; Broer, D.J.; Sijbesma, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to optical monitors for gases is introduced using cholesteric liquid crystals doped with reactive chiral compounds. The approach is based on cholesteric pitch length changes caused by a change in helical twisting power (HTP) of the chiral dopants upon reaction with the analyte. The

  19. Development of proportional counters using photosensitive gases and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1984-10-01

    An introduction to the history and to the principle of operation of wire chambers using photosensitive gases and liquids is presented. Their use as light sensors coupled to Gas Scintillation Proportional Counters and BaF 2 , as well as their use in Cherenkov Ring imaging, is discussed in some detail. 42 references, 21 figures

  20. Noble Gases in the Hamlet Meteorite (LL4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amari, S.; Sabe, Y.; Shiraishi, T.; Matsuda, J.

    2014-09-01

    We analyzed noble gases in a bulk sample and an HF-HCl residue of Hamlet (LL4). The Xe composition of the residue shows that no diamond is contained in the residue. The 20Ne/22Ne ratio of Hamlet Ne-Q has been determined to be 11.0 ± 0.5.